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Testicular Antifertility Action of Cassia angustifolia in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study describes the reproductive effect of leaves aqueous extract of Cassia angustifolia on male albino rats. The adult male rat received 1 ml of C. angustifolia extract at a dose level 50 mg/rat /day and 100 mg /rat/day for 45 days orally. The result showed that the body weight of all days exhibit did not any significance loss but in treatment I and II, the weights of reproductive organ like testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased significantly when compared to control. Sperm motility and sperm count were reduced significantly abnormalities of sperm were observed and resulted in reduction of male fertility. Germ cells populations were noticed. ie, spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, round spermatid and spermatid, Surface areas of sertoli cells nuclear area were decreased. There were various degrees of damage of the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion C.angustifolia leaves extract administration arrests the spermatogenesis in male rats.

Dhanapal. R

2013-01-01

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PROTECTION ROLE OF CALCIUM THERAPY IN IRRADIATED MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Free oxygen radicals and insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of radiation syndrome. The trace elements are functioning as co-factors in antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant system and trace elements have been investigated in many different studies including tissue repair processes but this study deal with radiation injury in male albino rats.The study was carried out to investigate the beneficial role of the used metallo element as radio-protector due to its ability for chelating free radicals produced by ionizing radiation. The efficacy of daily oral treatment of rats with calcium glubionate (daily 6 mg/kg body wt) for 6 successive days to control many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation when these rats subjected to 6 Gy whole body gamma ray were studied. The activity of catalase (CAT) and levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were determined. In addition, CAT activity and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and MDA in liver, kidney and spleen tissues of control, calcium treated, irradiated and protected rat groups were evaluated. Samples were collected from animals 24 hours after end of the Ca- glubionate treatment or exposure to gamma radiation. The data obtained revealed that, radiation exposure caused significant alterations in all tissues and serum biochemistry. On the contrary, neutralization was occurred in these biochemical aspects in protected animal grbiochemical aspects in protected animal groups due to Ca-glubionate treatment. In conclusion, Ca-glubionate could protect rats against biochemical alterations associated with gamma ray oxidative stress. These effects were explained in the light of the presumed different mechanisms of Ca-glubionate

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Acute Oral Administration of Cytosine Arabinoside Triacetate to Male Albino Rats and Male and Female Rhesus Monkeys.  

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The acute toxicity of cytosine arabinoside triacetate was evaluated following single oral administration in male albino rats and in male and female rhesus monkeys. Methyl cellulose suspensions of the compound were prepared at concentrations ranging from 4...

H. Feinman, T. W. Tusing, E. R. Homan, D. P. Rall

1966-01-01

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STUDIES ON INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)  

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Levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. The present investigation refers to biochemical and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic powder toward CCl4-induced toxicity in adult male albino rats. CCl4 intoxication was attempted using a dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight.Pre-treatment with levanox (one capsule/ kg of rat body weight, each capsule contains 100 mg catechu, 7.5 mg dandelion, 75 mg termiric 2% curcumin, 17.5 mg silymarin, 100 mg lecithin) was more effective than garlic powder (100mg/kg of rat body weight) in reducing CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by its higher potency in reducing elevation of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in serum. Serum of control rats and those treated with levanox or garlic or CCl4 produced 13 types of proteins, differing in the molecular weight (MW) and densities, while those of levanox + garlic or garlic +CCl4 produced 14 bands differing in the MW and densities. The similarity index at the epigenetic level was also studied using the primers under study. The control sample produced one amplified DNA fragment with Rf of 0.73 and a molecular size (MS) of 67 base pair (bp) . Using the same primers, no amplified DNA fragment with the same MS was produced in the sample taken from levanox + garlic treated group.OPA-2 primer of sequence 5?- AGA TGC AGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band with MS of 292 bp and Rf of 0.46 . However, the same primer produced one amplified DNA characteristic band with a molecular size of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.In the control sample, OPA-4 primer of sequence 5? - ACG CAC AAC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band of MS of 299 bp and Rf of 0.43. The same primer produced one amplified characteristic DNA band with MS of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.Dual treatment with levanox and garlic powder resulted in a characteristic protein differing from that of control as revealed through SDS-PAGE and confirmed by RAPD-PCR

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Effects Of Orally Fed Diazinon On Some Biochemical Parameters Of Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Background:The current investigation was carried out to study the effect of orally administration of diazinon insecticide on some biochemical blood indices on male albino rats. Material and methods: The organophosphorus insecticide , diazinon was orally administrated at a dose (100mg/kg body weight=1/3LD50 , daily for 10 days (short ­term and 20 days (long ­term to adult male albino rats . Results: The results revealed the following: 1- Diazinon led to an increase in rat blood serum glucose& T3 (short and long ­term; AST,ALT, and T4 (long-term. 2- Diazinon reduced the serum content of total cholesterol and protein in short­term treated rats. 3- Treatment of rats with diazinon did not alter activity of AST, ALT and T4 level at short ­term period .In addition ; ALP serum levels were not altered in both short and long ­term treated rats

Mohammed Salah Ab.Ab.AL-Shinnawy

2008-12-01

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Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats  

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Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame). Male rats were administe...

Abdallah, Inas Z. A.

2002-01-01

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Citrus aurantifolia impairs fertility facilitators and indices in male albino wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645

Uduak Akpan Okon

2014-06-01

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CHANGES IN WBC DIFFERENTIAL COUNT PATTERN IN MALE ALBINO RATS TREATED WITH GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) EXTRACT  

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The prophylactic efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) (Alliaceae) extract was studied on changes in WBC differential count pattern in male albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight as low, medium and high dose respectively and given orally for the period of 7, 14, 21 or 28 days daily to the rats of group B, C and D as stated above. The res...

Pathak, Sashank Srivastava And P. H.

2012-01-01

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Evaluation of contraceptive activity of methanol extract of Dendrophthoe falcata stem in male albino rats.  

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The present study was undertaken to evaluate the contraceptive efficacy of methanol extract of Dendrophthoe falcata Ettingsh (family-Loranthaceae), stem in male albino rats as reported in folk remedies. Adult proven fertile male rats were gavaged methanol extract of D. falcata stem at 50, 100 and 200mg/rat/day for 60 days. The activity was compared with standard drug, i.e. Lonidamine. On day 61 the animals were autopsied and the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were dissected out and weighed. Sperm motility and density and serum testosterone level were assessed. The sperm motility and density were significantly reduced. The histoarchitecture of testes revealed degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules, arrest of spermatogenesis at the stage of round spermatid. Serum testosterone levels were decreased significantly in all treatment groups. It is concluded that D. falcata methanol stem extract showed a significant effect on fertility in male rats as reported in folk remedies. PMID:17446020

Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S

2007-05-30

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Effect of amlodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, on gonadal steroid of male wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available FC Onwuka1, KC Patrick-I wuanyanwu1, CK Nnodu1, O Erhabor21Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Haematology, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, NigeriaAbstract: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of prolonged intake of calcium-channel blocker amlodipine, an antihypertensive drug on gonadal steroid hormone (testosterone of male albino rats. Three different concentrations of amlodipine (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to three different groups (B, C, and D of experimental male wistar albino rats (n = 8 for six weeks. Group A rats were fed normal diet without amlodipine (n = 8 served as the control. The administration of amlodipine significantly reduced testosterone level in the following order, group A (0.22 ± 0.01 > B (0.18 ± 0.01 > C (0.14 ± 0.01 > D (0.10 ± 0.01. The reduction in testosterone levels corresponded with an increase in the concentration of amlodipine administered to male wistar albino rats. The observation in this study reveals that long-term treatment of male Wistar rats with calcium-channel blocker and antihypertensive (amlodipine produces a significant reduction in the level of testosterone a hormone associated with decreased ability of men to enjoy sex and to develop good quality erections. There is the need for a large scale study to investigate the potential effect of long-term antihypertensive therapy with amlodipine on sexual dysfunction in men.Keywords: calcium-channel blocker, amlodipine, antireproductive, antihypertensive drugs, gonadal steroid, and low libido

FC Onwuka

2010-03-01

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Effect Of Some Aflatoxins On A Lymphatic Organ (Spleen Of Male Albino Rats (Histopathological Study  

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Full Text Available Background:The present study was planned to compare between two kinds of aflatoxins ( AFB2 and AF Mix on spleen of male albino rats. Fifty young male albino rats ,each weighing 50g, were fed on diets containing aflatoxins at concentration of 1.0 ppm either of AFB2 or AF mix. for 2, 4, 6 weeks followed by a withdrawal period of 2 weeks. Material and Methods:- Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the 1st group of 10 rats was fed on the standard diet. The 2nd and the 3rd groups of 20 rats each were maintained on the standard diet plus either AFB2 or AF mix. respectively. Ten animals from the latter 2 groups as withdrawal period. Pieces of spleen were subjected to histological procedures and the obtained sections (6 µm thick were stained with the haematoxylin and eosin, also, mercuric bromophenol blue stain for total protein were used in this study. Results:- Marked histopathological alterations were observed in the studied sections under the influence of AFB2 and AF mix. It was found that AFB2 induced more alterations. The most common changes were lymphocytic degeneration, fatty changes with numerous hemorrhagic areas.The two weeks withdrawal period showed a partial recovery of the developed changes. Conclusion:- This study indicated that AFB2 has a toxic effect on spleen than the equivalent level of AF mix. .Great caution must be followed to prevent the possible contamination of our food with such mycotoxins.

Nahed Ahmed Omar

2012-07-01

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Lead Intoxication On Protein Fractions, Testicular Tissues And Ameliorative Effect Of ANTOX On Male Albino Rats  

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Lead (heavy metal) was given as lead acetate for two groups of adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus) in drinking water at dose level of 100 mg/litre for 3 and 6 weeks to evaluate its toxic effects on protein and its fractions by using electrophoresis technique, serum testosterone using radioimmunoassay and histological investigation of the testis of male rats.Administration of 100 mg/L lead acetate in drinking water for 3 and 6 weeks induced fluctuated changes in serum total proteins, protein fractions and significant decrease in serum testosterone hormone.Histopathological examination showed cellular changes and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules after 3 and 6 weeks of administration of lead acetate.The treatment of rats with antox (10 mg/kg) during the experimental period caused improvement in protein fraction and testosterone level, and the testes sections appeared more or less normal.

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Effect of methanolic extract of Dendrophthoe falcata stem on reproductive function of male albino rats.  

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In spite of the considerable development in contraceptive technology, search for male antifertility agents in plants continues to be a potential area of investigation. Many plants have been known to possess antifertility activity, but limited attempts have been made to scientifically evaluate these claims. Hence the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifertility and reproductive toxicity potential of Dendrophthoe falcata (Loranthaceae) in male Wistar rats. An oral 70% methanolic extract of stem of D. falcata at a dose level of 100 mg/kg wt/day fed to male albino rats for 60 days did not decrease body weight, while the testes and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the seminal vesicles and ventral prostate also showed a significant reduction (P falcata brought about the inhibition of spermatogenesis. PMID:18285304

Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S; Sharma, A

2007-01-01

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Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats  

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The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no ecount, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

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Role of antioxidant supplements in adult male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl  

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The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate and determine the protective effect of intraperitoneal administration of trace mineral selenium (Se) and antioxidant vitamins E and pantothenic acid (PA) to male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl pesticide. Four groups of rats were used in this study. The data obtained revealed that methomyl caused disturbances in liver functions, which were elucidated through ALT and AST levels, and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin. Also, the levels of serum total protein, albumin, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and acethylcholinesterase activity were significantly changed from those found in control rats for different periods. Treatment of rats with the antioxidant supplements ameliorated to some extent most of the disturbances in the mentioned biochemical parameter levels. The data concluded that such antioxidants could provide some protection against pesticide-induced toxicity

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Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile and also prevented a decrease in body weight. Histological observation demonstrated significant fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates in pancreas of diabetic rats. But, supplementation with Catharanthus roseus to diabetic rats significantly reduced the fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates.

A. Natarajan

2012-04-01

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INFLUENCE OF DIETARY FAT ON LEPTIN AND INSULIN IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

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Sixty male albino rats were arranged into 5 equal groups which were used in this study to investigate the relation between leptin and insulin hormones under high fat intake and to assess the role of fresh vegetable intake on minimizing dyslipidemia.The results denoted that dietary fat caused significant increase in the levels of blood glucose and leptin hormone with significant decrease in insulin concentration and with prolonged high fat intake, insulin level was increased. However, the increased leptin and glucose indicated that prolonged fatty diet may cause insulin resistance. Addition of green vegetables to the diet normalized to a great extent the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, glucose and insulin

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Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats  

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High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

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Traffic Noise: A Silent Killer of Male Gamate of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to one control group and two experimental groups. Both the experimental groups were exposed to traffic noise having intensity 80 dB to 90 dB at the rate of 5 hr daily and control group was not exposed. First experimental group was exposed to traffic noise for 30 days and second group for 60 days. Testicular weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular protein level and testicular cholesterol level were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired ‘t’ test. Result: Contribution of testis to body weight, testicular protein level and sperm count were low but testicular cholesterol level was more in traffic noise exposed rats than unexposed counterpart. Traffic noise exposure also increased percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm. Conclusion: Traffic noise adversely affect male gamete and such effect may be due to noise-induced suppression of testosterone synthesis.

Purushottam Pramanik , Snehangshu Biswas

2012-01-01

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Antioxidant activity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) in male albino rats exposed to gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential benefits of dietary supplementation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) as antioxidant against ?- rays-induced biochemical changes in male albino rats by estimating some of the components of antioxidant defense in the; liver glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), serum aspartate amino transferase,(AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into four groups as Control group, group 2 received diet supplemented with 10% of eggplant (Solanum melongnea) fruit for 21 successive days , group 3: irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), group 4 received eggplant for 21 successive days then exposed to 6.5 Gy. All animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Rats exposed to ?-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT activities, and lipid abnormalities .Noticeable drop in liver GSH content and SOD activity associated with increase of MDA was recorded. Treatment with dietary eggplant for 21 days before irradiation significantly abolished radiation induced elevations in MDA and significantly elevates hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. The levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT ias the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated and noticeable improvement in the lipid profile levels

 
 
 
 
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Antispermatogenic Activity of the Benzothiazoline Ligand and Corresponding Organoantimony(V Derivative in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Triphenylantimony(V derivative, Ph3Sb(OPri[SC6H4N:C(CH3CH2C(OCH3], 1b, and the corresponding benzothiazoline ligand [1, 2], HNC6H4SC︹(CH3CH2C(OCH3, 1a, have been tested for their effects on the reproductive system of male albino rats. The oral administration of both 1a and 1b at the dose level of 10 mg/rat/day produced significant reduction in the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostate. Significant decrease in sperm motility as well as in sperm density resulted in 100% sterility. Significant (P<.01 alterations were also found in biochemical parameters of reproductive organs in treated male rats as compared to the control group. Production of preleptotene, pachytene, and secondary spermatocytes was decreased by 42%, 43%, 39%, and by 44%, 49%, 55% in the ligand, 1a, and organoantimony(V derivative, 1b, treated rats, respectively. These results indicate that both compounds 1a and 1b are antispermatogenic in nature and on oral administration in male rats, and finally caused sterility. A comparison indicates that the organoantimony(V derivative 1b is more effective pertaining to its antispermatogenic activity than the corresponding ligand 1a.

Y. P. Singh

2006-04-01

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Stable Cesium Toxicity and Effect of Prussian Blue in Growing Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was carried out to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride (CsCl) on growing male albino rats and to evaluate the therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) administration for modification of the chemical toxicity. The experiments were performed on 32 growing male albino rats, (Rattus Rattus), divided into control group and three groups administered a daily dose of CsCl or PB or both. The results revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride caused a significant decrease in the Hb concentration, Ht %, serum folic acid, vitamin B12, potassium levels and body weight gain, with significant increase in WBC's count, serum urea and creatinine. No effect was observed on the other studied parameters including: RBCs count, liver functions, blood glucose, phosphokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase. On the other hand, PB caused a significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that it can be one of the therapeutic agents that might provide a protection against toxicological effects

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Possible Outcome of Fenugreek Seeds Powder Administration on the Fertility of Female and Male Albino Rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sectionhological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval

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THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE AND FENUGREEK SEED POWDER ON ENHANCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVELS IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats

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Phytochemical evaluation and antispermatogenic activity of Thevetia peruviana methanol extract in male albino rats.  

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This study was conducted to evaluate the antifertility potential of Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae) in male albino rats with their phytochemical evaluations. Phytochemical examination showed that plant is rich in active constituents, i.e. ?-amyrin acetate, lupeol acetate, ?-amyrin, ?-amyrin, lupeol and thevetigenin. T. peruviana stem bark methanol extract (TPMtE) administered orally to male rats at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day did not cause any significant reduction in body weight, while the weight of reproductive organs reduced significantly. A significant fall in the total protein and sialic acid content of the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate, as well as in the glycogen content of testes was also observed; however, cholesterol was increased significantly. TPMtE also caused a decline in spermatogenic elements, i.e. preleptotene and pachytene spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, round spermatids and mature Leydig cells. At this dose level Leydig cell nuclear diameter, seminiferous tubular diameter and Sertoli area were significantly reduced (p?rats, indicating the possibility of developing a herbal male contraceptive. PMID:21466267

Gupta, Rajnish; Kachhawa, Jai B S; Gupta, R S; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Sharma, M C; Dobhal, M P

2011-03-01

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ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MELATONIN AGAINST GAMMA OR ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION HAZARDS IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation has been widely reported to damage organisms by attacking proteins, nucleic acids and lipids in cells. However, low dose irradiation has become the focus of research in radiobiology in recent years. This study was undertaken to analyze changes in blood levels of immunoreactive aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), total antioxidant capacity, protein and albumin levels in male albino rats exposed to ultraviolet-type C (UV-C) or low dose of gamma radiation. The role of melatonin, as an antioxidant agent, in restoring the serum levels of the selected biochemical parameters after irradiation was studied in male rats exposed to the two types of radiation. Gamma irradiation as a single dose of 2 Gy resulted in significant decreases in serum total protein, albumin, total antioxidant capacity and serum PIIINP level in male rats as compared to control. One hour ultraviolet irradiation/day for 3 weeks resulted in significant increase in serum total protein and significant decreases in PIIINP and total antioxidant capacity as compared to control.Statistical analysis revealed that intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg melatonin/kg body weight after UV or gamma irradiation restored the levels of the selected serum biochemical parameters as compared to control rats

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Haematological And Biochemical Changes Induced By Amaranth Impact On Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present investigation was performed to study the effect of daily administration (interperitoneal injection of synthetic coloring agent amaranth at dose 50 mg /kg b.w. /day for two periods (7 and 21 days, using male albino rats. The effects of amaranth on growth, haematological and some biochemical parameters were examined throughout the study. The results revealed that amaranth treatment cause a marked change in treated groups when compared with control. They showed a significant decrease in percentage of body weight change, RBCs count, Hb concentration and HCT value, while, they recorded a significant increase in WBCs, serum activity of AST and ALP, in addition to serum urea and creatinine levels in treated rats. But ALT and bilirubin showed insignificant changes throughout the experiment.

Shadia Ali Radwan; Ahmed Riad El-Sayed; Mohammed Salah Al-Shinnawy

2010-09-01

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Effect of continuous irradiation with terahertz electromagnetic waves of the NO frequency range on behavioral reactions of male albino rats under stress conditions.  

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We studied the effect of terahertz waves (NO frequency range, 150.176-150.664 GHz) on stress-induced variations in behavioral reactions of male albino rats during hypokinetic stress. THz irradiation was followed by partial or complete normalization of behavioral reactions of male albino rats after hypokinetic stress. The most significant effect was observed after continuous irradiation for 30 min. PMID:24952484

Kirichuk, V F; Antipova, O N; Krylova, Ya A

2014-06-01

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ANTI-FERTILITY ACTIVITY OF WHOLE PLANT EXTRACT OF SARCOSTEMMA SECAMONE (L) BENNET ON MALE ALBINO RATS  

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Anti-fertility effect of ethanol extract of whole plant extract of Sarcostemma secamone was observed in male albino rats. The relative weight of the testes and epididymis were decreased. The epididymal sperm count, motility and sperm abnormality were reduced significantly in treated rats. There was an increase in serum protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine and the activity of liver marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and ALP) levels of control and treated rats. The activities of serum antioxida...

Thanga Krishna Kumari S; Sakthidevi G; Muthukumaraswamy S; Vr, Mohan

2012-01-01

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Effect Of Boswellia Carterii Birdw On Carbohydrate Metabolism In Diabetic Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period then were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. It was noticed that B.C.B treatment led to a significant improve in the decreased body weight, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, decreased liver glycogen caused by alloxan. And this improvement was also seen after the recovery period. B.C.B treatment led also to marked improvement in the histopathological degenerative changes in the cells of islets of Langerhans caused by alloxan after both the treated and recovery periods.

Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf M. Mostafa**, Fawzy A. Ashour

2005-09-01

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Acute Oral and Parenteral Toxicity of 1,3-Bis(2-Chloroethyl)-1-Nitrosourea (Bcnu), Administered to Male Albino Rats.  

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The acute toxicity of 1-3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, mol. wt. 214.07) was evaluated following single intravenous, intraperitoneal, and oral administration to male albino rats. The compound was prepared in sterile saline, at a concentration of...

H. Feinman, T. W. Tusing

1966-01-01

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Antifertility investigations on the crude chloroform extract of Carica papaya Linn. seeds in male albino rats.  

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Crude chloroform extract of C. papaya seeds (5 mg/animal/day, po, for 20, 40 and 60 days) was investigated for contraceptive efficacy and related side effects in male albino rats. The crude extract reduced fertility to zero per cent by 40 to 60 days of treatment. Suppression of cauda epididymal sperm motility was the most pronounced effect of the drug administration. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed treatment induced abnormalities in sperms. Cauda epididymal and testicular sperm counts decreased following treatment. Clinical parameters did not show any alterations. Results suggest that the contraceptive effects of chloroform extract of papaya seeds are mainly post-testicular in nature without influencing toxicological profile and libido of the animals. PMID:1293029

Lohiya, N K; Goyal, R B

1992-11-01

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Zinc sulphate and vitamin E alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium sulphate in male albino rats.  

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This study was designed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of aluminium sulphate and the therapeutic effects of administration of zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination against the toxic effect caused by aluminium (Al) in male albino rats. The animals were divided into five groups: group 1 received distilled water and served as control; group 2 received only aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)); group 3 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) plus zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.); group 4 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (15 mg/kg b.w.); group 5 received aluminium sulphate plus a combination of zinc sulphate and vitamin E in similar doses as above. Doses were administered orally once daily for 45 consecutive days. The results revealed that aluminium sulphate induced significant decrease in body weight gain and testis weight and significant increase in Al level in both serum and testes of male rats. Biochemical analysis showed significant decrease in serum total protein and phospholipids levels, while serum total lipid was significantly elevated post Al treatment. In addition, significant decrease in total protein, phospholipids and cholesterol levels in the testes of Al-treated rats was recorded. The data also showed significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone, leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone and significant increase in the level of serum prolactin in Al-intoxicated rats. Moreover, histological examination showed that aluminium sulphate caused apparent alterations in the testicular structure of the treated animals. Treatment with zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination ameliorated the harmful effects of Al, which was proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the testicular tissues. We can conclude that the tested dose of aluminium sulphate induced toxic effect on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the treatment with zinc sulphate and/or vitamin E alleviated these toxic effects. In some cases, vitamin E exerted a more potent effect, while in other cases, the more potent effect is related to zinc sulphate and the combination of both at most of the recorded data. PMID:23282999

Rawy, Sayed M; Seif Al Nassr, Fatma M

2013-01-01

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Effect of granulosis virus (virotecto) as bioinsecticide on some biochemical changes in male albino rats  

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The objective of this study to determine the biochemical response of granulosis virus in male albino rats fed with potato treated with granulosis virus (0.15 g/Kg) against potato tuber moth in stores .It was carried out by evaluating the effect of daily feeding on treated potato for 5 weeks followed by withdrawal period for 10 days fed with normal diet on some biochemical and histological changes in kidney of male rats. A trail consists of 3 groups each one contain 18 rats, the first group fed on normal basal diet and served as control, the second group fed with 50% normal potato and 50% basal diet (potato group) and the third group fed with 50% basal diet and 50% potato treated with granulosis virus (virus group) through the experimental period. The obtained data revealed a significant reduction in final body weight and organs weight in both normal and treated potato groups. Sera collected at 2 and 5 weeks post feeding and at the end of withdrawal period, recorded significant disorders in some tested parameters. In addition, histological examination of kidney tissue showed different disorders in normal and treated groups.

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Hypoglycemic And Hyperinsulinemic Effects Of Ferula Assafoetida On Diabetic Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available In the current study, thirty adult male albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Ferula assafoetida on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic Ferula assafoetida treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period then were sacrificed. Body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin and liver glycogen content levels were determined for each rat at the end of each period. It was noticed that Ferula assafoetida treatment led to a significant improve in hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, decreased liver glycogen and increased percentage of body weight change caused by alloxan. And this improvement was also seen after the recovery period. Ferula assafoetida treatment led also to marked improvement in the histopathological degenerative changes in the cells of islets of Langerhans caused by alloxan after both the treated and recovery periods.

Eman G. E. Helal, Ashraf M. Mostafa*, Amany F. MhMood

2005-12-01

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Some Biochemical Parameters Of Young Male Albino Rats Treated With Ponceau 4 R And Vitamin E  

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Full Text Available The current study aimed to clarify hazardous effect of ponceau 4R as food colour on rats and the effect of vitamin E as an antioxidant to prevent its toxic effect. Fourty premature growing male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first served as control group, the second supplemented with vitamin E (150 mg/kg,the third treated with ponceau 4R(0.19 mg/kg and fourth treated with ponceau 4R(0.19 mg/kg and vitamin E (150 mg/kg. Half of each group was treated for 3 m, the other half was treated for 6 months. Rats treated with ponceau 4R showed highly significant decrease (P<0.01 in serum total lipids, proteins, albumin levels and cholinesterase activity throughout the experimental period, while recorded a significant decrease (P<0.05 in glucose level till the end of the experiment and in globulin level and A/G ratio after 3 months of treatment only. On the other hand, significant increase was detected in total cholesterol level (P < .01 and AST activity (P < .05 after both periods of treatment, while ALT activity showed insignificant change. It seams from the presents study that vitamin E has protective effect against the side effect of ponceau 4R on rats.

Eman G. E. Helal*, Mahmoud A. El-Kassas*,Samer A. M. Zaahkouk*, Amany

2006-03-01

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4. Effect of intraperitoneal administration of Ghrelin hormone in testis of immature and mature male albino rats to study histoarchitecture  

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Full Text Available The aim of our present study is to assess the histophysiological changes in the testis of immature and mature wistar strain male albino rats in response to the intraperitoneal injection of Ghrelin hormone. Eighteen immature male albino rats (45-55 days old and eighteen mature male albino rats (3-4 months old were randomly divided into control and experimental groups (two doses as lower dose - 10µg/kg and optimum dose - 20µg/kg of body weight of Ghrelin. The experimental animals were injected with Ghrelin for 15 days .On 16th day the animals were sacrificed. The body weight and weight of testes were measured .The testes were fixed in10% buffered formalin and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The histo-architecture of testis was studied. Results: Administration of Ghrelin significantly affected the terminal stages of spermatogenesis in a dose dependent manner. Well defined changes like interstitial edema, reduction in number of Sertoli cells were seen in the testis of animals of optimum dose when compared with other two groups. In immature and mature group there was significant increase in body weight of treated animals. In mature group significant increase in testis weight of optimum dose was seen when compared with other two groups Conclusion: From the present study it may be concluded that Ghrelin produced degenerative changes in the testis of albino rats and thus it may have a negative influence on reproductive function and fertility.

P. Anand

2012-06-01

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Antifertility Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Feronia elephantum Correa Leaf and Bark on Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effective concentration of ethanol extract of Feronia elephantum leaf and bark on male reproductive system of albino rats. The study was divided into four groups of five animals each. The first group (I received distilled water for a period of 14 days, served as control. The groups II, III and IV of animals were administered the ethanol leaf extract daily at 400mg/kg body weight, bark extract daily at 400 mg/kg body weight and 1:1 ratio of leaf (200mg/kg b.wt and bark (200mg/kg b.wt extract of Feronia elephantum respectively for a period of 14days. Significant decreases in the weight of testis (p<0.05, epididymis (p<0.01 and seminal vesicle (p<0.05 were observed. The results of the hormonal assay showed that, increased serum levels of FSH and estrogen but decreases in the serum levels of LH and testosterone compared to control. The results showed that, Feronia elephantum has effects on male rat reproduction, affecting the sexual behavior and epididymal sperm concentration.

Muthulakshmi A

2013-01-01

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Prophylactic Effect Of Rosemary Extract On Hormonal Disturbances In Male Albino Rats  

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The aim of this study is to evaluate the prophylactic role of pre-intake of ethanolic extract of rosemary (150 mg/kg/day) against some hormonal disturbances and testis histopathological changes induced by acrylamide (50 mg/kg/day) in adult male albino rats.The animals were divided into four equal groups; the control group, the rosemary group, the acrylamide group and the rosemary + acrylamide group. At the end of the experiment (28 days), the rats were decapitated then blood sera were collected and kept frozen at -20oC until the evaluation of thyroxine (T-4), triiodothyronine (T3), total testosterone, free testosterone and estradiol. The testes tissues were also stained and examined.The results denoted that the mortality rate of acrylamide group was about 47% and toxicological symptoms with significant reduction in T3,T4 , total and free testosterone and pathological changes in testicular tissue were observed. Addition of rosemary prior and during acrylamide intake reduced the mortality rate (20%), decreased the toxicological symptoms induced by acrylamide, increased the thyroid hormones and testosterone and avoid the pathological changes in the testes tissues.It could be concluded that the ethanolic extract of rosemary when introduced prior and during acrylamide intake succeed to a great extent in ameliorating the undesirable effects on testis and male sex hormones and to a moderate extent on thyroid hormones. a moderate extent on thyroid hormones.

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CHANGES IN WBC DIFFERENTIAL COUNT PATTERN IN MALE ALBINO RATS TREATED WITH GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM EXTRACT  

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Full Text Available The prophylactic efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae extract was studied on changes in WBC differential count pattern in male albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight as low, medium and high dose respectively and given orally for the period of 7, 14, 21 or 28 days daily to the rats of group B, C and D as stated above. The results clearly indicate that a significant increase (P<0.01 in lymphocyte and eosinophil percent and a significant decrease (P<0.01 in neutrophil and monocyte percent at low and medium dose but at higher dose their percentage increases within the normal values. This investigation indicates not only the benefits and drawback of raw garlic but also its uses in regulation of certain parameters for well-being of individuals.

Sashank Srivastava and P. H. Pathak*

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

Effect of the Overcrowding Stress on Fundus of Stomach in Adult Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Overcrowding as a chronic source of stress constituted a major threat to psychological well-being. Dense populations were characterized by considerably increased aggressive behavior . The present study aimed to examine the effect of overcrowding stress on the histology of fundus and fundic glands of male albino rats .Ten animals were used in this study divided into two groups: control group (group A was formed of 5 animals and experimental group (group B was formed of 5 animals that were subjected to overcrowding. The rats were kept in the overcrowded condition continuously for 4 h/day, for a period of 7 days. at the end of the experiment stomach specimens were obtained, processed and subjected to different histological techniques. All the layers of stomach were affected in rats exposed to overcrowding stress conditions. Overcrowding stress led to desquamation, necrosis and ulceration of gastric epithelium. Mononuclear cellular infiltrate and congested blood vessels were also noted in lamina propria. Necrosis in mucosa was the prominent histological change when the effect reached the maximum. It could be concluded that overcrowding stress lead to gastric mucosal damage represented by necrosis and ulceration. Moreover, the other layers of fundus were affected such as muscularis.

Maisa Mohammad Amin Al-Qudah

2012-07-01

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A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats.  

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The roots of Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, and rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides are popular for their aphrodisiac and immunostimulatory properties. The herbs have been traditionally used as Vajikaran Rasayana herbs because of their putative positive influence on sexual performance in humans. Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from the roots of A. racemosus, C. borivilianum, and rhizomes of C. orchioides were studied for sexual behavior effects in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Seven measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extracts had pronounced anabolic effect in treated animals as evidenced by weight gains in the body and reproductive organs. There was a significant variation in the sexual behavior of animals as reflected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency, and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the extracts. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection. The present results, therefore, support the folklore claim for the usefulness of these herbs and provide a scientific basis for their purported traditional usage. PMID:19139984

Thakur, Mayank; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Bhargava, Shilpi; Dixit, Vinod K

2009-12-01

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Enhancement of the Role of Mixed Hypo lipotropic Agents in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty adult male albino rats were used in the present study to assess the effect of using tryptophan or/and hawthorn extract with coenzyme Q 10 in ameliorating the effect of high fat diet (HFD) intake on hyperlipidaemia, hormonal imbalance and body weight. Six animals were served as a control group while the other twenty four rats were supplemented with 20 g butter/100 g standard laboratory diet (HFD) for 8 weeks prior to the experiment. These HFD rats were divided randomly into four equal groups; hyperlipidaemic group, tryptophan and hawthorn groups where animals of the latter two groups were supplemented with 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan and 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract respectively, and mixed group that was daily administrated with a mixture of 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan, 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract and 50 mg/kg B.W. coenzyme Q10. Body weight was recorded twice/week, after 30 days animals were decapitated and sera were collected for determination of total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), testosterone and corticosterone hormones. The data revealed that tryptophan, hawthorn extract alone or mixed with CoQ10 improved the dreadful effects induced by HFD, but the most profit was achieved by mixing these three antioxidants on hyperlipidaemia, tested hormones and body weight.

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Protective Role Of Fresh Pomegranate Against Oxidative Damage In Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty four male albino rats, body weight 100-130 g, were used to evaluate the protective role of fresh pomegranate fruit intake for 30 days on the damage induced by single dose of 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group (1): control, group (2): irradiated with 6 Gy, group (3): pomegranate for 30 days and group (4): pomegranate for 30 days followed by 6 Gy whole body irradiation. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed after 12 hours fasting then sera were separated for the determination of sugar, total antioxidant, lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. Results showed that gamma radiation caused significant decline (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant, total protein, albumin, HDL-C and blood glucose with significant elevation (P<0.05) in other hepato-renal markers in addition to serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. These changes were significantly attenuated in irradiated animals pre-treated with whole fresh pomegranate fruit leading to the conclusion that pre-intake of pomegranate fruit had a radio- protective effect. This protection of this whole fruit may be due to the increased total antioxidant level leading to free radical scavenging

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Biochemical evaluation of low dose methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate fungicide on male albino rats  

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Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate (carbendazim is one of the synthetic fungicides that controlled organisms that caused plant diseases of different types. It is widely used as a preservative in leather, paint, textile, fruits and papermaking industry. It is also used as an anticancer drug in chemical medicine. In the present study low concentrations of carbendazim was administered at 5, 10, 25 and 50mM doses intradermally to male albino rats. At the end of 6 hr, 12hr and 24hr duration, blood samples were collected from the animal for the analysis of biochemical and haematological parameters. Carbendazim caused an increase of cholesterol, uric acid, glucose and creatinine while serum phosphorous content was decreased. However, mean hemoglobin, WBC, E, and platelet counts increased and total RBC, N and L counts decreased. These results indicated that low dose level carbendazim contributed to toxicological effects in the rat tissues.

Keywords: Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate; Fungicide; Rat tissues

V. Muthuviveganandavel

2011-04-01

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Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats.  

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This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 210-220g. The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. The control group was fed on normal rat chow ( Pfizer Company, Nigeria ) and water while the test group was fed on rat feed, water and honey ( 1 ml of honey to every 10 ml initial drinking water daily) for twenty two (22) weeks after which the rats were starved over night before the experiment and sacrificed by stunning. Laparatomy was immediately performed, proximal and distal portions of the intestine identified, cut and put in aerated tyrode solution. Cut sections of the ileum (2-3cm) were mounted on organ bath instrument for motility experiment with varying concentrations of acetylcholine and carbachol. Contractions were recorded as well as the intestinal transit in each group and lengths of intestine with total mean values calculated. Results obtained showed that honey significantly decreased (p<0.01 ) intestinal transit in the test group (21.15±0.75 ) compared with the control group ( 35.96±1.15); decreased intestinal motility in the test group compared with the control and caused significant percentage reduction of intestinal motility with varied concentrations of acetylcholine and carbachol in the test group ( Ach-75.00±0.75%; Carbachol-79.00±0.28%) compared with the control group (Ach-62.00±0.39%; Carbachol-51.00±0.39%). In conclusion, unprocessed Nigerian honey decreased intestinal transit, caused intestinal smooth muscle inhibition and motility and reduced sensitivity of gastrointestinal tract to cholinergic agents. PMID:24937393

Alagwu, E A; Egwurugwu, J N; Nneli, R O; Oguike, F; Osim, E E

2013-01-01

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In Vivo Internal Decontamination of 134Cs and 60Co from Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Present work aimed to evaluate the therapeutic role of prussian blue (PB), vermiculite and calcium trisodium salt of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as internal de contaminants of radio-active cesium and/ or cobalt in adult male albino rats. Radionuclides were given as a single doses; 60Co was introduced orally, subcutaneously or intraperitoneally (ip) while 134Cs was taken orally or in combination with ip injection of 60Co. The de contaminants were supplied daily for three weeks immediately after 60Co or 134Cs intake; oral dose of PB + vermiculite treated the oral 134Cs group, oral and subcutaneous 60Co groups and combined 60Co and 134Cs groups. Rats receiving ip dose of 60Co were treated with daily ip dose of DTPA while the three de contaminants were added to the combined 60Co and 134Cs groups.Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrite percentage (Ht), red blood cells count (RBC's), as well as liver function tests (total bilirubine, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/ G ratio, alanine transaminase (ALT), spartic transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)) were analyzed in all groups. The data obtained revealed that internal contamination by radioactive materials causes a significant decrease in the RBC's counts, Hb concentration, haematocrit value, serum total proteins and albumin. On the other hand, the therapeutic agents caused a significant amelioration in the changes produced by internal contamination with variable degree. Thus, it could be concluded that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against internal contamination hazards

48

Difference in Leptin Hormone Response to Nutritional Status in Normal Adult Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of 14 days diet, enriched in butter, vitamin E (vit. E and green tea, on the major regulators of energy expenditure. Leptin is the product OB gene. This 16 KDa protein is produced by mature adipocytes and is secreted in plasma. Its plasma levels are strongly correlated with adipose mass in rodents as well as in humans. Leptin inhibit food intake, reduces body weight and stimulates energy expenditure. In order to evaluate the effect of diet enriched in butter, vit. E and green tea on body weight, adipose tissue weight and organs weight, serum lipids, lipoproteins content and serum leptin levels in male albino rats supplemented for 14 days on the previous diet. This study showed that high fat diet significantly increased body weight and adipose tissue weight, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered body weight and adipose tissue weight, kidney and spleen weights didn’t show significant changes in all the experimental groups. While liver weight decreased in diet supplemented with high fat diet. Also, the results showed that high fat diet and vit. E supplemented diet induced significant increase in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with significant decrease in HDLc. level as compared to normal control rats. Finally green tea supplemented diet induced significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with insignificant increase in HDLc. level in control rats. On the other hand, high fat supplemented diet significantly increased serum leptin levels in rats compared to control group, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered serum leptin levels at the end of experimental period. In conclusion, improving the biological activity of leptin by diet modification may exist as a practical strategy for the treatment of obesity and related disorders and a diet rich in green tea to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD obesity and also protect the liver against free radicals.

Noorah S. AL-Sowyan

2009-01-01

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Effects of Carbaryl and Deltamethrin Pesticides on Some Pituitary Hormones of Male Albino Rats  

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This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 10''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 10th day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52%imental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis

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The Histological Effect of Hunger Stress on the Stomach in Male Albino Rats: A Study of Light Microscope  

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Emotional changes can influence feeding behavior. Feed intake is the cornerstone of animal productivity. The consequences of inadequate intake include inhibited growth, delayed puberty, infertility, reduced milk production and lowered resistance to parasites and disease. In this study, the histological changes observed in male albino rats’ stomach mucosa which was exposed to hunger were examined. Pieces from stomach were taken in the 1st-5th days following last feeding. These tissue specime...

Al-qudah, Maisa M.

2011-01-01

51

Differential effects of alprazolam and clonazepam on the immune system and blood vessels of non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats  

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Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative cont...

Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A. G.; Atta, Amal H.

2011-01-01

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Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.  

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The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

2010-03-01

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Short term toxicity of strawberry flavor and carmoisine color in male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with oral administrations of the strawberry flavor and carmoisine color. The tested materials were given to the animals in their drinking water. Biochemical parameters were determined in liver, kidney and brain DNA and RNA contents.Sera was used for liver and kidney functions, lipid profile and thyroid hormones estimation. Histopathological, histochemical and cytophotometric studies were performed in liver and kidney tissues. Equal weights of flavoring and coloring agents were mixed at 0.1% w/v with drinking water. Forty adult male albino rats were assigned to four equal groups, two groups were served as controls and the remaining two groups received standard diet and water containing the tested materials for three and six week. There were no deaths and all the studied parameters were affected in a time dependent manner. Liver DNA contents were significantly decreased, kidney DNA contents tended to increase and brain DNA contents were significantly increased only after 6 weeks of treatment. RNA contents were significantly decreased in liver and brain

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Effect of Green and Black Teas on Immobilization Induced Stress in Male Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of green and black teas to modulate restraint stress-induced oxidative changes in male Wistar albino rats. Repeated immobilization for 4 h daily for five consecutive days per week (for 2 and 4 weeks was used as a test model. Repeated immobilization stress significantly decreased glutathione (GSH, RNA and total protein levels, while malondialdehyde (MDA levels were elevated in brain and liver tissues. Daily drinking of green or black tea only attenuated the RNA decrease and the MDA increase in stressed groups in liver tissues. Green tea group attenuated the decrease in GSH and RNA and the increase in MDA induced by immobilization stress in brain tissues. However, black tea only attenuated the increase in brain MDA in stressed animals. The effect of green tea on restraint stress was higher in brain than liver. In conclusion, the present results revealed that the antioxidative effect of green tea during immobilization stress was higher, possibly attributed to the presence of relatively higher concentrations of flavonoids than in black tea.

Salim S. Al-Rejaie

2009-01-01

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Protective Role of Mint oil (MO) Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats  

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The whole body exposure to high doses of gamma radiation resulted in alterations in the biological functions of vital organs in the body. This study is divided in two main parts: Part I - A preliminary study designed to determine the optimal dose of mint oil (MO) which delayed the onset of mortality and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the irradiated group. Male albino rats were assorted into two main groups. 1-Animals of this group were exposed to whole body (8 Gy) gamma irradiation. 2-Animals of this group were subdivided into 4 subgroups that received four different concentrations of mint essential oil (100, 150, 200, 250 ?1/animal/ day) for three consecutive days before irradiation. All animals were observed during 30 days for signs of radiation sickness, body weight change and mortality. The results revealed that pretreatment of rats with different doses of the MO prior to exposure to 8 Gy of gamma radiation resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in the survival time up to 200 ?1/kg b. wt., where the highest number of survival (80%) was observed 30 days post irradiation, when compared with the 8 Gy irradiated control (33.5%). The optimum protection against irradiation was observed at a dose 200 ?1/kg b. wt. and was used for the further investigations. The 2nd part intended to investigate the radio-protective effects of MO on some biochemical and haematological parameters. For this purpose, Swiss albino rats were selected and assorted into 4 groups. Animals in Group I control: animals without any treatment. Group II mint oil (MO): rats were administered orally MO once daily at a dose of 200 ?1for 3 consecutive days. Group III, Irradiated (IRR): animals were exposed to a single dose of 6 Gy gamma radiations. Group IV Rats were treated with MO (as in Group-II), and exposed to 6 Gy after half an hour of the last administration of MO. Animals of each group were sacrificed 1, 7 and 28 days post-irradiation for biochemical estimation in blood , liver, kidney and testis. Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in haemoglobin, hematocrite values, and erythrocytes and leucocytes counts. Significant decreases in serum EPO level, GSH content and ALP was observed in all specimens. Meanwhile, the values of MDA, serum acid phosphatase were significantly higher in irradiated rats as compared to control group. In MO pretreated irradiated animals, a significant increase was observed in blood constituents, EPO (erythropoietin) level, GSH content and ALP level in testes, liver and blood accompanied with remarkable decrease in the values of MDA, serum acid phosphatase. The results show that MO could exert a radioprotective effect by antioxidant activity, and might stimulate cellular regeneration, that may be attributed to the synergistic effects of its constituents.

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Acute Effect of Sidr Leaves Extract on some Neurotransmitter Contents in Different Brain Areas of Male Albino Rats  

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The acute i.p. injection of Sidr ( Zizyphus spina-christi) leaves extract ( 100 mg / kg body wt ) caused a significant increase in epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxiindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and a significant decrease in gamm-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in different brain areas (cerebellum , pons plus medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rats. The increase in E, NE, DA, 5-HT, and 5-HIAA content in the different CNS areas of albino rat may be due to the inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin binding which plays an important role in the release of these neurotransmitters, at the same time GABA inhibits the release of these neurotransmitters by increasing the permeability to Cl ions and such effect may be due to the presence of peptide and cyclopeptide alkaloids in the extract. Zizyphus spina-christi leaves may potentially be safe for use as a sedative drug. (author)

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PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF N-ACETYLCYSTIENE AGAINST TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES MODULATED IMMUNE RESPONSES IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The protective effects of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC against orally administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 for 3 months on male albino rats were examined. Adult male albino rats were given saline as a control group, TiO2 (1200 mg kg-1 BW, NAC (100 mg kg-1 BW and co-treatment of NAC and TiO2 as a protective group for 3 months. Blood was assayed for serum changes in GPT, GOT, lipid profiles, cytokines and immunoglobulins profiles. Moreover, spleen was examined for alterations in cytokines expression and histopathology. Administration of TiO2 significantly increased serum levels of GPT, GOT and increased lipid profiles. Administration of NAC to TiO2 rats improved significant changes induced by TiO2 alone. There were an increase in IL-1β and IL-6 secretion in TiO2 administered rats which is normalized by NAC administration. TiO2 administration down regulated IL-8 and IL-10 secretion, while co-administration of rats by NAC together with TiO2 normalized that down regulation. Moreover, TiO2 induced toxicity in spleen that accompanied by a decrease in IgA, IgG and IgM that are normalized by NAC administration. Finally, TiO2 up-regulated IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-β expression in spleen and NAC administration together with TiO2 normalized cytokines expression. In conclusion, present findings confirmed the protective effect of NAC on TiO2 induced alteration in immune responses in male albino rats.

Mohamed Mohamed Soliman

2013-01-01

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Role of Vitamin C As A Potent Antioxidant in Acute Radiation Induced Liver Disease (RILD) Among Male Albino Rats  

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Recent studies demonstrated the role of vitamin C as antioxidant in alleviating organ damage caused by gamma irradiation. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of vitamin C on liver biochemical functions such as serum ALT, AST, albumin and bilirubin after experimental liver damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats irradiated with gamma radiation were used as a model of liver injury terminating with necro inflammatory activity and acute hepatitis. Forty male albino rats were classified into 6 groups (G0-G5). G0 included 8 male albino rats that were divided to 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). Both subgroups were exposed to gamma irradiation with 6 Gy as a single dose. The first subgroup was left for 3 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected while in the second subgroup, 2 rats were died and the remaining 2 rats were left for 6 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected. G1 was the negative control while in the rest groups, the whole body of rats was exposed to gamma irradiation of dose 8 Gy divided to 2 doses (4 Gy/one dose) at one week interval in between. G2 included 12 albino rats divided into 3 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). The whole body of albino rats of G2 was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one day, two days and four days after last dose of irradiation. G3 also included 8 rats that were divided into 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exps (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that were divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one week for one subgroup and 2 weeks for other subgroup after last dose of irradiation. The rest 2 groups (4 rats/group) were exposed to 8Gy gamma irradiation divided as before, but the rats in one group were orally supplemented with low dose of vitamin C. G4 and the others were supplemented with high dose of vitamin C for 2 weeks starting after last dose of irradiation (G5) then serum and liver samples were collected. Liver biochemical functions and histopathological examinations were done. The data of the current study showed mild non-significant alteration in the levels of liver biochemical parameters towards the level of baseline particularly when albino rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation as a single dose and left for 3 or 6 weeks for recovery. Exposure to accumulative dose of 8 Gy gamma irradiation caused worse alteration in both biochemical markers associated with obvious damage in hepatocytes causing acute liver injury in histopathological examination especially after 4 days of gamma radiation exposure but when albino rats were orally supplemented with vitamin C, there were significant amelioration and marked regression towards normal position in both biochemical parameters and histopathological pictures, so, the present data revealed that oral dose of vitamin C has trends to support the liver during the acute phase post-gamma irradiation and enhance its spontaneous recovery

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Nigella sativa oil for the control of irradiation induced disorders in serum protein components of male albino rats  

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The effect of whole body gamma irradiation at the dose level 7 Gy delivered as shot dose or cumulative doses, on the electrophoretic pattern of serum protein components, was studied in male albino rats subjected to Nigella sativa treatment. Sodium dodecyl sulphate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of serum proteins of irradiated rats showed significant increases in percentages of some fractions of high molecular weights. Administration of nigella sativa oil before radiation exposure resulted in detectable radioprotective effect. Radiation protection effect exerted by nigella sativa oil prior to cumulative doses was more pronounced than that in case of one shot dose

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The role of melatonin in radiation induced biochemical disturbances in brain and thyroid gland in adult male albino rats  

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Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T3) thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body ?-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels were recorded after ?-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of ?-irradiation on serum T3 and T4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by ?-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21

 
 
 
 
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Impact of ?-tocopherol on Metronidazole and Tetracycline-induced Alterations in Reproductive Activities of Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Antimicrobial drugs have been reported to have adverse effects on male fertility. The present study reports the role of ?- tocopherol on metronidazole and tetracycline induced reproductive alterations in albino rats. Male albino rats (5/group were treated with 20 mg kg-1 bw day-1 metronidazole or 60 mg kg-1 day-1 tetracycline with or without 15 mg kg-1 bw ?-tocopherol for 8 weeks. The reversibility of effects after 4 weeks recovery period was determined in separate groups of 5 rats. The control groups received distilled water (vehicle and 15 mg kg-1 day-1 ?- tocopherol for 8 weeks. Metronidazole and tetracycline significantly (p<0.05 reduced the weight of the epididymis, sperm count, motility and serum testosterone levels and increased the activity of endogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD in the testis. Alpha-tocopherol significantly (p<0.05 decreased the weight of the testis, epididymis, sperm motility and serum testosterone levels. Co-administration of metronidazole or tetracycline with ?-tocopherol caused significant restoration in sperm indices and SOD activity while it produced no effect on testosterone secretion. The results suggest that the effects of metronidazole and tetracycline on male reproductive functions, which are partially reversible, could be mediated via a reduction in serum testosterone level and probably also via the free radical generating mechanism.

Y. Raji

2007-01-01

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Effectiveness of Fresh and Shade-Dried Mucuna pruriens Leaf Extract in Controlling Anaemia in Adult Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated effectiveness of fresh and shade-dried Mucuna pruriens leaf extract in managing anaemia in adult male albino rats. Fresh leaves of Mucuna pruriens were harvested from Enugu-Ezike, Enugu state, Nigeria. The leaves were used to prepare fresh and shade-dried leaf extracts which were subjected to chemical analysis using standard analytical methods. Fifteen adult male albino rats weighing 180-250g, grouped into three groups (A, B and C of five rats each were used for the study. All groups received rat chow and water ad-libitum. Group B and C received in addition, the fresh and shade-dried Mucuna pruriens leaf extracts respectively after anaemia induction. Blood samples were collected from the rats for determination of haemoglobin, PCV, RBC and WBC after a 5-day acclimatization, after anaemia induction and at the end of the study. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for windows version 18 was used to analyze the data obtained. pMucuna pruriens leaf extracts contained iron (9.00±0.28 and 3.50±0.00 mg/100 mL, vitamin C (18.45±2.19 and 31.35±0.35 mg/100 mL and pro-vitamin A (100.21±0.28 and 170.21±0.28 mg/100 mL. Haemoglobin, packed cell volume and white blood cell of rats fed fresh Mucuna pruriens leaf extract significantly (pMucuna pruriens leaf extract significantly (pMucuna pruriens leaf extracts was significantly (p0.05 increase in the eosinophils of the anaemic rats.

E.U. Madukwe

2014-01-01

63

PRUSSIAN BLUE, VERMICULITE AND DTPA EFFECTS ON 134Cs AND 60Co DECONTAMINATION OF MALE ALBINO RATS  

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This study was carried out to evaluate the therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB), vermiculite (verm.) and calcium Trisodium salt of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) on internal decontamination of radio-active cesium and/ or cobalt from albino rats and to investigate the side effects of these compounds as well as radiation hazards of these radioactive materials.Adult male albino rats were divided into 15 groups (each of 6 rats);group 1: control, groups (2) - (4) were given PB + vermiculite oral and/or intraperitoneal DTPA. Another five groups of rats were given only a single dose of Co60 and/or Cs134 for three weeks. Groups (10) - (15) were given a single dose of Co60 and/or Cs134 with daily dose of therapeutic agents.Biochemical parameters included blood glucose, renal function (serum urea concentrations and creatinine), creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and some minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous) were investigated. The data obtained revealed that internal contamination by radioactive materials causes a significant increase in serum urea, creatinine concentration, glucose, CPK and LDH activities. In addition, a significant decreased in serum inorganic phosphorous was recorded and non-significant changes were recorded sodium, potassium and calcium levels. The treatment by different therapeutic agents had non-significant effects on the same parameters.On the other hand, the therapeutic agents caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by internal contamination with variable degrees

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Impact of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra and Ethanol Interaction on Antioxidant Defense System in the Adult Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The interactive effects of Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA and Ethanol Consumption on the antioxidant defense system in testis tissue of rats were studied in the present research work. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each. Control rats were administered normal saline orally. While experimental animals were fed Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA (1 ?g gm-1 and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 Body weight and sacrificed. A significant depletion of GSH content in testis was observed. This combination was found to be decreased Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD activity in testis. Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive Substrate (TBARS and Catalase (CAT Activity were observed to be increased in testis. In contrast, Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx activity was decreased in testis. The results are discussed in detail.

T.G. Sivasankaran

2007-01-01

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Improving Hematological and Biochemical Disorders Induced by Administration of Repeated Used Frying Oil in Male Albino Rats  

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The present study was performed on 100 male albino rats arranged into 5 equal groups to evaluate the effect of adding Lettuce and/for cabbage to rat diet on some hematological and biochemical disorders induced by administration of repeated used frying oil in the diet of rats for one and two months. The results indicated that used frying oil caused significant decrease in hemoglobin (Hb), Haematocrit (Hct), Red blood corpuscles (RBCs), Vitamin (B12) and Folic acid with significant increase in total leukocitic count, (WBCs) Platelets body weight, Aspartate amino transferase (AST) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT). The disturbances in the tested parameters were almost improved by vegetables intake denoting the beneficial effect of adding fresh green vegetables to fried food on blood picture and intestinal absorption

66

ANTI-FERTILITY ACTIVITY OF WHOLE PLANT EXTRACT OF SARCOSTEMMA SECAMONE (L BENNET ON MALE ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Anti-fertility effect of ethanol extract of whole plant extract of Sarcostemma secamone was observed in male albino rats. The relative weight of the testes and epididymis were decreased. The epididymal sperm count, motility and sperm abnormality were reduced significantly in treated rats. There was an increase in serum protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine and the activity of liver marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and ALP levels of control and treated rats. The activities of serum antioxidants (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST and GRD in plant extract treated rats were decreased. The results of the hormonal assay showed that increased serum levels of FSH and estrogen but decreased in the serum levels of LH and testosterone compared to control. The results of fertility test indicated that the treated adult male rats reduced the number of female’s impregnation. In addition, the number of implantations and the number of viable featuses were also decreased. The results of the present study concluded that, ethanol extract of whole plant of Sarcostemma secamone inhibited sperm concentration, motility and testosterone which might result in a male fertility.

Thanga Krishna Kumari S

2012-11-01

67

Protective effect of L-methionine on blood reduced glutathione, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and some haematological parameters in gamma-irradiated albino male rats  

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Gamma-irradiation of the whole body of male albino rats at single dose levels (100, 300 and 600 rad) significantly decreased blood reduced, glutathione (GSH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-P D H). activity, glutathione stability, red blood cell (R B C s) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and packed cell volume % (P C V %). The reduction in the above cited criteria was dose and time dependent. Intravenous injection of l methionine at a single dose of 50 mg/kg body weight prior to irradiation of male albino rats significantly bypassed the radiation affect

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Modulatory effect of whey proteins in some cytokines involved in wound healing in male diabetic albino rats.  

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The anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and tumor necroses factor-alpha (TNF-?)) have important functions in wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with whey protein could enhance normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats. In this study, male albino rats were divided into a wounded control group, a wounded diabetic group, and a wounded diabetic group supplemented with whey protein orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Tested rats showed increasing wound closure in rats treated with whey protein. In addition, after 4 days of wound, modulation in IL-4, IL-10, IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? levels were detected. Statistical analysis of data showed significant difference between the whey-protein-treated group and either control or diabetic groups (P?whey protein enhances the normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats by modulating the levels of some anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24760706

Abdel-Salam, Bahaa Kenawy Abuel-Hussien

2014-10-01

69

Effect of Tecoma stans Leaves on the Reproductive System of Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Effects of 50% ethanolic extract of Tecoma stans leaves were investigated in adult Wistar male rats. Changes in weight of the liver, kidneys and adrenal of the rats were statistically insignificant (p<0.05. The relative weight of testes, epididymis, vas deferens, ventral prostate and seminal vesicle were decreased significantly (p<0.001. Tecoma stans treatment showed significant high cholesterol, glycogen and low tissue sialic acid and total protein in testes and epididymis and low fructose level in seminal vesicle of treated rats. Hormonal assay showed decrease in testosterone level. The epididymal sperm count, motility and fertility test (% reduced significantly in treated rats. Histopathological study of the testes depicted marked degenerative changes in testes. The seminiferous tubules appear reduced in size. Vacuolization was observed in the sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Leydig cells were atrophied. Germ cell proliferation beyond the level of the spermatocyte was affected. The lumen contained sloughed debris and few germ cells.

Nidhi Mathur

2010-01-01

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Effect of dietary Garcinia kola seed on selected serum electrolytes and trace metals in male Albino rats.  

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The effects of various doses of dietary intake of Garcinia kola seed powder [incorporated in animal feed at levels of 5% w/w, 10% w/w and 20% w/w and fed daily for six weeks] on serum levels of selected electrolytes [K+, Na+, CI-, HCO3-, Mg2+ and Ca2+] and trace metals [Cu2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+] were studied in male Albino rats [100-150 g body wt]. The pair-fed controls received basal feed diet daily for six weeks. Results showed a significant [PGarcinia kola seed. It is also conjectured that the documented antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, antidiabetic and antifertility effects of Garcinia kola seed may have underlying involvement of alterations in body levels of trace metals and electrolytes. PMID:19826464

Agada, P O; Braide, V B

2009-06-01

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The Use of Statin Substitutes to Improve the Lipid Profile in Liver Dysfunctional Male Albino Rats  

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More attention has been drawn to different strategies for prevention of cardiovascular associated with liver dysfunction. The aim of the present study is to compare between statin and free fat- milk supplemented with multivitamins in hyperlipidaemic male rats with or without liver dysfunction induced by CCl4. The animals were allocated to 7 equal experimental groups (16 rats each): control group, hypercholesterolemic group, hypercholestero-lemic-statin group, hypercholesterolemic-free fat milk-multivitamins group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4 group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4-statin group, and hypercholesterolemic-CCl4- fat-free milk-multivita-mins group. After one month half of the rats of each group were decapitated and the rest of the animals were decapitated after two months. Lipid profile, relative liver weight, liver function, CPK and LDH were determined. The effectiveness of statin drug in the management of blood lipids was confirmed without improving or worsening liver functions. Meanwhile, this effectiveness worsened in hypercholesterolemic rats treated with CCl4 as compared to hypercholesterolemic group. Administration of fat-free milk with multivitamins, as an alternative remedy for statin drug, has improved lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats and it revealed no changes in liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemic rats with liver dysfunction indicating the favorable use of them as hypolipotropic agent without affecting liver metabolismng liver metabolism

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Effect of deltamethrin on transmission of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and thyroid hormones in adult male albino rats  

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The oral administration of 1/5 LD50 of deltamethrin for 15 days produced an increase in GABA content and a decrease in Cl- ions concentration in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of adult male albino rats, almost at most time intervals. Deltamethrin also resulted in a significant decrease in serum TSH and increase in T3 and T4 levels in the treated rats. From the present results, it was found that deltamethrin decreased the passage of Cl- ions in the cells which might be, in part, due to a decrease of the transmission of GABA and an increase of the circulating thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine and thyroxine). Accordingly, deltamethrin may act as GABA antagonist and may act on the hypothalamus pituitary thyroid axis. In conclusion the elevation of thyroid hormones as well as the decrease in both CL- ions and GABA transmission which could be all together responsible for the impairment of motor activity, hyper excitability and seizure that occurred in rats treated with the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin

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Some toxic manifestations in male albino rats following an acute intraperitoneal injection of the mycotoxins ochratoxim A  

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This study deals with the preparation and microbiology of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OA) that was extracted from Aspergillus niger and injected intraperitoneally to male albino rats at a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (1/5 LD50). Its effect was followed after 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 hours and 7 days. Body weight gain, organs body weights ratio and some hematological and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results revealed significant decrease in body weight gain of treated rats in addition to an alteration in the relative weights of some selected organs. The data revealed dramatic decrease in RBCs count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit value and platelets number, where WBCs count was significantly increased. Moreover, significant increases of serum ALT, AST, ALP and total and direct bilirubin were observed indicating changes in liver function. Total protein and albumin were significantly decreased. Kidney function of treated rats, as determined by alterations in creatinine and blood urea levels, was affected. Also, profound decline in serum testosterone level was observed as performed by radioimmunoassay technique

74

physiological,molecular and radiometric studies on treatment of induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats  

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levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. the present investigation included physiological, radiometric and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic tablets toward CCl4 - induced toxicity in adult male albion rats ( Rattus norvegicus).CCl4 intoxication, at oral dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight, led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP, CK and LDH. CCl4 caused an elevation of serum triglycerides with no effect on serum total cholesterol. it also increased serum creatinine and urea levels . these biochemical results were in coincidence with the liver and kidneys histopathological alterations . using radioimmunoassay, it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased while that of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) was significantly increased due to CCl4 treatment

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The Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Gentamicin-Induced Renal Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Generation of free radicals in the renal cortex plays an important role in the pathogenesis of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Curcumin, the yellow curry pigment isolated from turmeric, has been confirmed to have a strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging actions. In the present study, we investigated the possible protective effect of curcumin against gentamicin-induced nephropathy in male albino rats. Methods: Thirty two male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Gr.: (Gr.I control, injected i.p with 1cc isotonic saline solution/day for 8 wks; (Gr.II received 200 mg/kg/day curcumin (Cur. orally, suspended in normal saline, for 8 wks ; (Gr.III injected I.p by 100 mg/kg/day gentamicin (Gen. for 8 days followed by 1cc saline I.p thereafter; (Gr.IV (Cur./Gen. received 200 mg/kg/day Cur. for one week before starting Gen injection (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days during which Cur. was received concurrently with Gen then Cur administration was continued thereafter throughout the rest of the study (6 wks. Body weight was recorded weekly. Renal function was evaluated by measuring the 24 h. urine output, the concentrations of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine clearance. Also, kidney weight and the parameters of oxidative stress: reduced glutathione (GSH, thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX were measured in kidney tissue. Results: The Kidney weight, plasma creatinine, BUN and 24 h urine output were significantly increased while the body weight and creatinine clearance were significantly decreased (P < 0.0005, in rats treated with Gen. as compared to control. While Cur. could significantly normalize the previous parameters. In addition Gen. caused oxidative stress in kidney as seen by significant increase in TBARS level, and significant decrease of catalase, GSH, SOD and GPX activities (P < 0.0005, However, Cur. could normalize all the above parameters as compared to control. Conclusion: Our data indicate that Cur. could suppress renal toxicity by blocking oxidative injury in the kidney and restore the antioxidant enzymatic profile. The renoprotective effect of Cur. is also evident by a remarkable improvement of renal function in Gen. injected rats. So Cur. can be used as a potent protective agent against renal oxidative damage mediated by Gen.

Bushra H. El-Zawahry and Effat M. Abu El Kheir

2007-12-01

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Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas Modulates Radiation-induced Oxidative damage in Liver and kidney of Male Albino Rats  

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Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas, one of the major vegetable crops consumed worldwide, is rich in phytochemicals, which displayed antioxidant activities. This work aims at assessing the radio-protective properties of sweet potato tubers on liver and kidney tissues. Male albino rats were whole body exposed to 0.5 Gy day after day for a period of 20 days. Animal received orally prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers (100 mg kg/body weight), one week before irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure. The results demonstrated that irradiation of rats induced a significant increase in lipid peroxides level measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concomitant with a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in liver and kidney tissues. Administration of a freshly prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers to rats, one week pre-irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure has significantly of ameliorated the oxidative stress in both tissues. The significant amelioration in oxidative stress was substantiated by improvement of liver and kidney enzymes Treatment of rats with sweet potato has significantly reduced the increase in serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, serum creatinine and urea levels. Furthermore, hyperglycemia and alteration in lipid profile manifested by a significann lipid profile manifested by a significant increase in triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), were improved in sweet potato-treated irradiated rats compared to those only irradiated. According to the results obtained in the present study, it could be concluded that sweet potato through its antioxidant activities could protect cellular membrane from radiation induced oxidative damage in animals and preserve the integrity of tissue functions.

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The Protective Efficacy Of Extract Of Hibiscus Sabdariffa (Karkade) Calyces Against Alcohol Toxicity In Male Albino Rats  

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Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS), Malvacea family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its benefit effect on some physiological parameters as blood picture, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, liver and kidney functions, electrolytes and antioxidant capacity is mentioned in several recent studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in protecting from alcohol toxicity in rats. Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: group 1 received water orally for 30 days, group 2 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) for 30 days, both group 3 and group 4 received Hibiscus sabdariffa (100 mg/kg/day) orally for 30 days and then group 4 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) orally for another 30 days. Serum hepatic markers (aspartate and alanine minotransferases; AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were increased significantly by alcohol abuse with no observed improvement in treatment with HS. Significant reduction in total protein and albumin was observed in alcohol abuse which improved with HS treatment and showed significant increase as compared with both control and alcohol treated groups. Serum kidney markers (urea, creatinine and uric acid) were increased in alcohol abuse and only creatinine and uric acid nearly returned to normal levels with HS treatment while urea level remains high. Serum glucose was increased significantly in alcohol abuse and significantly decreased in group 3 (HS treated) and group 4 (HS + ethanol). Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherogenic index were increased significantly while HDL-C was significantly reduced in alcohol abuse. HS treatment resulted in significant increase in HDL-C and therefore decreased atherogenic index in both group 3 and group 4 which indicated protective effect of HS for coronary heart diseases. These results lead to the conclusion that the use of HS against alcohol toxicity in male albino rats caused partial protection for different body systems.

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Hepatic and Gonadal Dysfunction Induced by Chloropyrifos in Protein Malnourished Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malnutrition seems to be a common problem in most of the developing communities especially among the labour level,specifically child labour. In spite of the great awareness of the dangerous use of insecticides, yet several hundred types of these chemicals are still widely used. The present study was conducted to investigate the harmful effect of malnutrition and /or exposure to organophosphorus insecticide (chloropyrifos) with different doses (low dose; 30 mg/kg body weight/day and high dose; 60 mg/kg body weight/day) on liver and testis function in male rats. The results showed significant decrease in body weight, haemoglobin, serum total protein, albumin and testosterone level. On the other hand, liver enzyme activities (ALT and AST) and ferritin concentration recorded significant elevation after treatment with chloropyrifos

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Effects of lithium chloride on testicular steroidogenic and gametogenic functions in mature male albino rats  

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The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of lithium, on steroidogenic and gametogenic functions of testis in the rat. Adult male rats of Wistar strain were injected with lithium chloride at the dose of 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, and 0.4 mg/100 g body weight/day for 21 days. All the treated animals along with the vehicle treated controls were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injections. Testicular steroidogenic activity was evaluated by measuring the activities of two steroidogenic key enzymes, {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta} hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase ({Delta}{sup 5} -3{beta}-HSD) and 17{beta} hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17{beta} -HSD). Gametogenic capacity was determined by counting the number of germ cells at stage VII of seminiferous cycle. Plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Administration of lithium chloride at a dose of 0.1 mg/100g body wt. for 21 days led to insignificant changes of plasma FSH, LH, PRL and T along with unaltered activities of testicular {Delta}5 -3{beta}-HSD, 17 {beta}-HSD activities and gametogenesis.

Ghosh, D.; Chaudhuri, A.; Biswas, N.M.; Ghosh, P.K. (Calcutta Univ. (India))

1990-01-01

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Role of carnitine in ameliorating the lead and / or irradiation induced toxicity in male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work: aimed to investigate the protective effect of carnitine (3-hydroxy-4-N-trimethyl amino butyric acid) on the contents of total protein, albumin, glucose and lipid peroxides as malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum, in addition to liver glycogen and lipid peroxides content 1, 2, 4 weeks after exposure of rats to a collective dose of 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation and / or lead treatment. Adult male rats received lead (50 mg/kg body weight) and / or exposed to fractionated dose (4 Gy) of gamma irradiation delivered as 0.5 Gy twice weekly for four weeks. Results of the present study revealed that fractionated whole body gamma irradiation and / or lead administration induced cellular damage manifested by a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin, and a significant increase in serum glucose and MDA content as well as significant increase in liver glycogen and MDA. Administration of carnitine (200 mg/kg b.wt.) before lead and / or gamma irradiation, has significantly ameliorated the observed changes, indicating the prophylactic action of carnitine on lead and / or irradiation toxicity

 
 
 
 
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protective effect of certain vitamins against radiation-induced biochemical and histological changes in kidney of male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation is a potent mutagenic and carcinogenic agent due to the liberation of free radicals. It is, therefore, essential to search for radioprotective measures. Some antioxidant cocktails are considered as free radical scavengers, which ameliorate the effects of ionizing radiation. The antioxidant action of some vitamins including vitamins E, A and C beside selenium (selenium vit) can designate them as radio-protective agents. Fifty five male Swiss albino rats were divided into 4 groups, the first one served as control. Rats of the second group were exposed to 7 Gy of whole body gamma irradiation. Rats of the third group were subjected to daily oral administration of selenium vit (0.45 g/kg body weight) for 15 days. The fourth group of animals received the same dose of selenium vit followed by radiation exposure.The protective effect of selenium vit was monitored by studying the serum levels of sodium (Na), potassium (K), urea and creatinine.The results showed that whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 7 Gy (single dose) induced significant elevations in the levels of K, urea and creatinine after 3 and 10 days post-irradiation exposure. Conversely, the level of serum Na showed significant depletion. The histopathological results showed different distortion in the renal corpuscles and renal convoluted tubular epithelial cells. These distortions varied from swelling, vacillation to necrosis and complete degeneration of the epithelial cells of the proximal and distal tubules. The kidney glomeruli were shrunken and obvious lesions in the fine structure of the renal tissue were detected such as swelling and cristalysis of the mitochondria. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) exhibited various degrees of damage dilatation, fragmentation, degranulation and destruction. Lysosomes were abundant and destruction of the brush border was evident. The nuclei showed irregular nuclear membrane besides clumped marginal chromatin

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Physiological and Biochemical Alterations Induced by Subchronic Administration of Deltamethrin can be Possibly Corrected by Zinc Supplementation in Male Albino Rat  

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The present study was conducted aiming to evaluate the possible effect of zinc supplementation as potent antioxidant in counteracting some of the physiological and biochemical alterations induced by subchronic administration of deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid. Deltamethrin (DM) was injected in two doses in male albino rats in presence or absence of zinc. Many physiological and biochemical alteration have been induced by deltamethrin intoxication. Zinc supplementation proved a considerabl...

Emad El-Zayat; Manal El-Halwagy; Mohamed Farid

2005-01-01

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Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum N) attenuates hepatic and cardiac tissues injury induced by gamma radiation in male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective role of cinnamon; a spice rich in eugenol, cinnamic acid and cinnamic aldehyde, against tissue injuries induced by gamma irradiation. Moreover, the effect of time of cinnamon aqueous extact (aq.extr).administration was evaluated. Cinnamon aq.extr. (200 mg/Kg body weight) was administered to male albino rats via gavages during 15 successive days or 40 successive days before whole body exposure to gamma rays (3Gy). The animals were sacrificed the 3rd day post-irradiation. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cinnamon aq.extr. during 15 successive days or 40 successive days before irradiation has significantly attenuated hepatic and cardiac tissue injuries. Necrosis, apoptosis, cell death and rupture of cell membrane in both tissues were less severe. However, the protection was better when cinnamon aq.extr.was administered for 40 successive days before irradiation. It could be concluded that taking adequate amount of cinnamon aq.extr. for a long time would protect hepatic and cardiac tissues from radiation-induced damage

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Serotonin exerting protection of serum lipid pattern in male albino rat subjected to shot or intermittent whole body gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Certain cancer patients are subjected to varying levels of intermittent radiation delivered in certain cases as whole body exposure. Effective control of many haematological complications built up during radiation treatment would necessarily contribute to up-grading of cancer radiotherapy. In the present study, the effect of either shot or intermittent whole body gamma irradiation at cumulative dose levels up to 6 and 10 Gy, have been evaluated on the levels of total lipids and lipid fractions in blood serum of male albino rats. The pharmacological role of serotonin and its potential radioprotective capacity have been assessed on the serum lipid pattern. The results indicated generally significant increases in the levels of blood lipid fractions especially HDL-cholesterol. On the other hand, the level of LDL-cholesterol recorded a significant decrease on the third day post either shot or cumulative dose levels at 6 or 10 Gy and also post 4 successive doses of serotonin administration. The only exceptions were recorded in the case of LDL-cholesterol post administration of single dose of serotonin and serotonin prior to shot dose levels of 6 or 10 Gy. 2 tabs

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The Histological Effect of Hunger Stress on the Stomach in Male Albino Rats: A Study of Light Microscope  

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Full Text Available Emotional changes can influence feeding behavior. Feed intake is the cornerstone of animal productivity. The consequences of inadequate intake include inhibited growth, delayed puberty, infertility, reduced milk production and lowered resistance to parasites and disease. In this study, the histological changes observed in male albino rats’ stomach mucosa which was exposed to hunger were examined. Pieces from stomach were taken in the 1st-5th days following last feeding. These tissue specimens were fixed by using 10% neutral formalin which was compressed. After routine tissue checks, the tissue pieces were sunk into paraffin wax and some blocks were prepared. With the aim to examine histological structures of the pieces taken, they were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E. An increase in the number of blood cells taken part in stomach tissue was observed in the first 24 h. At the end of the 3rd day of hunger, necrosis of fundic glands, especially the base of fundus and mild congestion of mucosal blood vessels were observed. A widening in glandular epithelium lumen was seen after 2 days. A tendency to slim was observed in mucosa layer of the surface and glandular lumen during hunger. In the stomach mucosa, structural changes were caused by hunger. It was found that these changes were in direct proportion with hunger duration.

Maisa M. Al-Qudah

2011-01-01

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Inhibition of Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage by Carvedilol in Male Wistar Albino Rats: Possible Biochemical Changes  

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Full Text Available The effect of acute carvedilol (a third-generation nonselective ?-blocker pretreatment on gastric mucosal injury induced by 80% ethanol was investigated in male Wistar albino rats. The effects caused by pylorous ligation, accumulated gastric acid secretions and ethanol-induced changes in gastric mucus secretions, levels of proteins, nucleic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA and non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH in the stomach wall were investigated. The gastric ulcers were induced by administration of 1 mL of 80% ethanol, as a necrotizing agent into the stomach. Carvedilol pretreatment at two oral doses of 30 and 60 mg kg-1 body weight were found to protect against the ulcerogenic effects of ethanol. Same dose regimen of carvedilol offered significant protection against ethanol-induced damage on the parameters evaluated for histopathology. Furthermore, the pretreatment afforded a significant inhibition of pylorous ligated accumulation of gastric acid secretions and ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus, nucleic acids, proteins and NP-SH contents. Only higher dose of carvedilol provided inhibition of ethanol-induced increase in MDA concentration. The protective effects of carvedilol against gastric secretion or damage to the gastric-wall mucosa may be mediated through its effects on mucus production and NP-SH concentrations, possible free-radical scavenging ability and/or cytoprotective properties.

Salim S. Al-Rejaie

2009-01-01

87

The ameliorative effect of grape seed extract(GSE) on sodium borate-inducing kidney injury of male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Borax (sod-borate) is a toxic compound that is implicated daily to environmental pollutant, so occupational exposure leading to adverse effects on functions of some organs causing their damage as nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and testicular atrophy . In particularly, kidney is the most organ that is affected by borax exposure due to continuous exposure with slow rate of excretion leading to accumulation in the renal tissue. Supplementation with high potent antioxidant grape seed extract may alleviate the worse damage effects induced in the kidney as a result of continual exposure of borax in our daily life. The current study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract on renal injury of male albino rats intoxicated with sod-borate. Twenty eight male albino rats were classified to 4 groups(GI and II and III and IV).GI served as a control, group GII was a group intoxicated with sod-borate for 45 days, where as rats in GIII supplemented with GSE beside sod-borate for 45 days , GIV was a group supplemented with GSE only. Serum and kidney samples were collected for biochemical, histopathological and DNA examinations. Significant elevation in the levels of blood urea and creatinine in GII were observed when compared to control group(GI). Significant decline were prominent in biochemical kidney functions when intoxicated group supplemented with GSE(GIII) , where as non significant changes were observed between control group and group supplemented with GSE only (GIV). Significant increase in both cytokines TNF-? and IL-6 was observed in group intoxicated with sod-borate(GII) when compared to control rats(GI). Oral supplementation with high potent antioxidant GSE (GIII) caused alleviation in the kidney injury leading to the reduction of both pro-inflammatory mediator cytokines TNF-? and IL-6. DNA% fragment migration showed that worse significant migration of DNA fragements were observed in toxicated group(GII) followed by increase in tail length that was evaluated by a fluorescence microscope, but supplementation with GSE(GIII) caused significant improvement with reduction in the percentage of DNA fragements migration contributing to renal tissue recovery. Corticosteroid levels were elevated in intoxicated group(GII) when compared to control group(GI), whereas significant reduction in the level of corticosteroid were observed when intoxicated rats were supplemented with GSE(GIII). Histopathological examination showed that orally administration with sod-borate induced worse alteration with sever damage in renal tissue when compared to control. Supplementation with GSE to intoxicated group resulted in improvement in the damaged renal tissue with mild congestion when compared to intoxicated group . No histological structure alteration were observed between control group and supplemented group with GSE only. The present work concluded that GSE may act as a natural therapeutic agent to alleviate and neutralize the nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by Sod-borate

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Grape Seed Extract (Vitisvinifera Alleviate Neurotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity Induced by Lead Acetate in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Grape seed extracts (GSE are very potent antioxidant and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities, including an antioxidant property, and has been suggested to be of use in treatment of several diseases. The present study has been undertaken to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of GSE against lead-induced neuro and hepatotoxicity in rat. Male albino rats were divided into six groups: the 1st group, rats were injected daily with saline vehicle and served as negative control, the 2nd group (positive control group, the rats were injected (i.p. with subacute dose (100 mg/kg b·w/day of lead acetate (LA. The 3rd group (protective group, the rats were injected (i.p. with LA (100 mg/kg b·w/day for 7 days after treatment with GSE (100 mg/kg b·w/day for 3 weeks. The 4th, 5th and 6th groups (therapeutics groups, rats were injected (i.p. with subacut dose (100 mg/kg b·w/day of lead acetate for 7 days, then treated with GSE (100 mg/kg b·w/day for one, two and three weeks, respectively. The level of norepinephrine (NE, dopamine (DA, serotonin (5-HT and 5-hydroxyindol acetic acid (5-HIAA were evaluated in brain regions (cerebellum, brainstem, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus. The result indicated that the administration of subacute dose of LA (100 mg/kg/day, i.p. induce a significant decrease in NE, DA, 5-HT and 5-HIAA content in all tested brain regions. Also the obtained data showed significant increase in liver enzymes: serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level in group 2 (positive control. There is an improvement in neurotransmitters content. Also the obtained data showed significant in- crease in liver enzymes of protective (G3 and therapeutics groups (G4, G5 and G6 which received GSE compared with animal group that received lead acetate (G2. This is may be the presence of proanthocyanidins and procyanidins which have antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The result suggests that grape seed extract may prevent lead-induced neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity.

Abeer M. Waggas

2012-05-01

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Effect of Bifendate (DDB On Normal and Diseased Liver of Adult Male Albino Rats: An Experimental Study.  

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Full Text Available Background: Fructus Schizandrae Sinensis bail, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to lower the elevated serum level of liver enzymes of patients suffering from chronic active hepatitis. A synthetic derivative compound of Schisandrian, Dimethyl Diphenyl Bicarboxylate (DDB is now used widely in clinical fields as a hepatoprotective drug. Thus it is important to know whether DDB has a beneficial effect on damaged liver or not. Objective: To evaluate the protective effect of DDB on induced liver tissue injury in rats. Design: Experimental study. Setting: National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute. The study was conducted from October (2004 to February (2005. Materials and methods: 120 male albino rats aged 6-8 weeks, weight 150-200g were grouped in six groups, 20 rats per group. Group 1 received food and water only, group 2 received food, water and DDB intragastric 6mg/kg daily for 12 weeks, group 3 received 20% ethanol instead of water, group 4 received 20% ethanol instead of water plus DDB, group 5 received thioacetamide (TAA in a dose of 200mg/kg body weight intraperitoneal injection, group 6 received thioacetamide plus DDB at the same dose of the above group. At the end of the trial, blood samples were taken from all groups for biochemical analysis. Liver tissue excised from each rat was fixed in 10% neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin, and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, as well as Masson's trichome stain, for evaluation of hepatic injury and/or fibrosis. Results: Statistical elevation of serum hepatic enzymes was noticed in rats received alcohol, Thioacetamide and alcohol + DDB (groups III, V and IV respectively compared to the corresponding control (P= 0.000. On the other hand, administration of DDB to TAA treated group (group VI induced significant improvement of liver function tests compared to other groups (P= 0.000. Histopathologically, the control livers showed normal lobular architecture without any pathological changes. Liver sections of animals administered alcohol, TAA respectively showed chronic inflammatory reaction, fat accumulation, hepatic parenchymal necrosis and/or hepatic fibrosis. Administration of DDB resulted in improvement of the pathological changes induced by TAA (group VI, but not that induced by alcohol (group IV. Conclusion: Our results revealed that DDB has antitoxic effect against TAA and ameliorates the dangerous effect on the liver parenchyma, while it has no beneficial effect on alcoholic liver disease.

Ehsan H.Hassan *, Nabil Abdel Mageed ** Nagwa AbdelWahaab

2005-06-01

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Amelioration of some biochemical parameters in irradiated male albino rats by garlic  

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Garlic extract has various medical effects on the treatment of many diseases as hypertension, atherosclerosis, inflammation and diabetes. The alteration of the biochemical parameters in blood serum of irradiated rats may play an important role in determining the pathogenesis of radiation exposure. Many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by reactive free radicals. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of garlic against gamma irradiation (5Gy) induced biochemical disorders in rats. Samples were collected at 1, 7 and 14 days post-irradiation. Lipid peroxide content (malondialdehyde), cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, fatty acids, glucose, insulin, glycogen, haemoglobin, ferritin andiron were estimated.Garlic was orally administered to rats (100 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days before exposure to single dose of gamma irradiation at dose level 5 Gy. The data revealed significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxide, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fatty acids, insulin, glucose and iron accompanied with significant decrease in the levels of HDL-cholesterol, glycogen, haemoglobin and ferritin due to radiation exposure. Administration of garlic alone to the rats caused nonsignificant changes in the estimated parameters indicating its safe use, but the treatment with garlic to rats before radiation exposure ameliorated the changes induced by gamma irradiation and tended to normalize their levels.It could be concluded that garlic administratiould be concluded that garlic administration may has a beneficial role in restoring the biochemical disorders induced by 5 Gy gamma irradiation

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The disposition and metabolism of 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane in male Wistar albino rats  

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The present study was designed to investigate 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane (TOX) distribution, excretion and metabolism. The experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats after a single administration of TOX at doses of 40 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The exhaled air proved to be the main route of 14C elimination, mainly as 14CO2. During the first 12 h following the administration of 40 mg/kg of TOX the exhalation of 14CO2 was monophasic, with a half-life of 3.5 h. After the administration of 400 mg/kg, TOX was eliminated mainly as 14CO2 with the exhaled air (77%) and unchanged TOX (8%). About 3% of 14C was excreted in the urine as unchanged 1,3,5-trioxane. With regards to TOX elimination from blood plasma for the lower dose, a biphasic process was observed, with half-lives of 4.5 and 72 h. The amount of 14C bound by the erythrocytes was minute compared with the amount in blood plasma. When the higher dose of TOX was administered the efficiency of 14C binding to the erythrocytes was found to be 10 times higher than the respective value for blood plasma. Among the examined tissues the highest concentration of TOX-derived radioactivity was detected in the liver while the lowest was in fat tissue and brain. A subsequent decay of radioactivity occurred in the tissues. The results of the present study indicate that TOX belongs to the group of compounds, which are rapidly eliminated from the organism; hence TOX should not be expected to accumulate within the tissues. The data obtained confirm the assumed pattern of metabolic transformation, according to which 1,3,5-trioxane undergoes enzymatic transformation to formaldehyde, with carbon dioxide and water being the final products. (orig.)

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Myelo-Enhancement by Astragalus Membranaceus in Male Albino Rats with Chemotherapy Myelo-Suppression. Histological and Immunohistochemical Study  

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Background and Objectives: Myelosuppression is the most common toxicity encountered in the oncology clinic today. This study was planned to investigate the possible protective and therapeutic role of the traditional Chinese Medicinal Herb; Astragalus Membranaceus (AM), on chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression. Methods and Results: This study was carried out on thirty six adult male albino rats. They were divided into: Group I Control Group (n=6) received a vehicle of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. Group II (n=12) were injected I.P. with cyclophosphamide (CY) for 3 days (gIIa n =6) and continued for one more week to receive AM orally (gIIb n=6). Group III (n=6) received CY I.P. together with AM orally for 3 days. Group IV (n=12) received AM orally for one week (gIVa n=6) and continued for extra three days receiving CY I.P. with AM orally (gIVb n=6). Blood samples were analysed for Total Leucocytic Count and Lymphocytic Count. Counting of CD34 +ve cells in bone marrow was performed by flowcytometry. Bone marrow sections were subjected to H&E stain as well as immunohistochemical staining for anti- CD20 antibody. The mean area % of cellular bone marrow regions occupied by developing haemopoietic cells, mean area of fat cells and mean number of CD20 immunopositive B lymphocytes in the bone marrow were measured by histomorphometric studies and statistically compared. AM proved to have a myelo-protective and myelo-therapeutic capacity, evidenced at both laboratory and morphological levels. Conclusions: The greatest myelo-potentiating effect of AM was achieved when supplied before and together with CY therapy. PMID:24921023

Ismail, Zeinab Mohamed Kamel; Amin, Noha Mohamed Afifi; Yacoub, Mira Farouk Youssef; Mohamed, Amira Mohamed Osman

2014-01-01

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Efficacy trial on the purified compounds of the seeds of Carica papaya for male contraception in albino rat.  

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The contraceptive efficacy and toxicological screening of the two principal compounds, MCP I and ECP I, isolated from the seeds of Carica papaya, in male albino rats at the standardized dose regimen, at 50 mg/kg b.w./day, for a period of 360 days and up to 90 days of treatment withdrawal have been reported. The body and organ weights, cauda epididymal sperm characteristics, androgen sensitive tissue biochemistry, reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidant defense system in the cauda epididymal microenvironment, histology and ultrastructure of testis and cauda epididymis, histology of seminal vesicle and prostate, toxicological investigations through routine hematology and serum clinical chemistry, sexual behaviour and fertility index have been studied. The results revealed that oral administration of MCP I and ECP I were equally effective, exhibiting complete inhibition of sperm motility following 90 days of treatment that coincided with a gradual and significant decline in cauda epididymal sperm density, percent viable spermatozoa and significant increase in sperm anomalies. Histology of testis of treated animals revealed degenerated germinal epithelium, vacuolization in Sertoli cells and proliferating germ cells and disturbances in spermatid differentiation. Spermatogonial stem cell reserves and Leydig cells appeared normal. Ultrastructure of the testis revealed vacuolization in the Sertoli cells and germ cells, loss of cytoplasmic characteristics in the Sertoli cells, nuclear degeneration and mitochondrial vacuolization in spermatocytes and spermatids. Leydig cells exhibited steroidogenic features. Cauda epididymis showed normal epithelial cell function. Absence of spermatozoa or disruption of spermatozoa clusters in the lumen were evident. Ultrastructure of cauda epididymis revealed normal secretory activity. Morphology of seminal vesicle and prostate of the treated animals were comparable to control animals. Serum testosterone, tissue biochemical and toxicological parameters remained unaffected. Fertility test revealed 100% efficacy. All the altered parameters showed sign of recovery following 90 days of treatment withdrawal. It is concluded that both MCP I and ECP I are equally effective in terms of contraceptive efficacy which is likely reversible and without adverse side effects. PMID:15808797

Lohiya, Nirmal K; Mishra, Pradyumna K; Pathak, N; Manivannan, B; Bhande, Satish S; Panneerdoss, S; Sriram, S

2005-01-01

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Effect of Carbonated Beverage Intake on Blood Gases and Some Biochemical Parameters in Male Albino Rats  

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The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of carbonated beverage (colourless or black coloured drinks) on arterial blood gases, kidney function, bone mineral density (BMD), glucose and insulin. The rats were divided into three groups; ten rats per each group. Group (I) used as control, group (II) rats supplemented with colourless carbonated beverage (10 ml /100 ml water) and group (III) rats supplemented with black coloured carbonated beverage (10 ml /100 ml water) for three months. The arterial blood gases were evaluated by measuring ph PO2, , PCO2, , H+ a nd HCO3-. Rats receiving the coloured drinks showed high significant increase in ph while PO2 showed very high significant decrease in both groups. PCO2 showed high significant decrease in groups (II) and (III) while H+ showed high significant decrease in group (III) only. HCO3- showed high significant increase in group III. All these changes were related to carbonic acid dissolved in water and the increased ph lead to alkalinity of the blood and it is inversely proportional to the number of hydrogen ions (H+). Non-significant changes were observed in sodium ions while potassium ions showed significant increase in group (II) and high significant increase in group (III). The level of urea showed high and very high significant increase in groups (II) and (III), respectively. Creatinine level showed non-signiftively. Creatinine level showed non-significant increase in group (III). The histopathology changes were observed in kidney tissues in rats of groups (II) and (III). From these results, it appears that black coloured beverage can increase the risk of kidney problems more than colourless beverages. Ca+ and inorganic phosphorous levels showed non- significant change except Ca ions showed a significant decrease in rats of group (III). The acidity of carbonated beverage leads to weak bones by promoting the loss of calcium. The decrease of bone mineral density was more pronounced in some parts of femur of rats receiving black colour carbonated beverage than rats receiving colourless carbonated beverage. The black colour beverages have caffeine which may be the reason for decreasing bone mineral density. Very high significant increase was recorded in glucose level in groups (II) and (III) while insulin was decreased significantly in group (II), and very high significant decrease in group (III) was observed which lead to diabetes mellitus. It could be concluded that carbonic acid found in carbonated beverages may lead to the alkalinity of the blood which reflect metabolic problem. Cola beverages can increase the risk of kidney problems more than non-cola sodas. Cola beverages consumption may have adverse effects on bone mineral density and furthermore, cola beverages consumption is a significant risk factor for devolving of metabolic syndrome such as insulin resistance that might result in diabetes

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Protective effects of selenium against potassium dichromate-induced hematotoxicity in female and male Wistar albino rats Effets protecteurs du sélénium contre l’hématotoxicité induite par le dichromate de potassium chez les rats femelles et mâles albinos Wistar  

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Full Text Available Objective: Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 is a potent pollutant for human and animal health. The purpose of the current work is to compare the effect of K2Cr2O7 using variations in the dose, route of administration and duration of exposure in male and female Wistar albino rats and to research the interaction of chromium and selenium with a special focus on hematopoiesis. Materials and methods: K2Cr2O7 was subcutaneously administered alone (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight or K2Cr2O7 (10 mg/kg in association with selenium (0.3 mg/kg was administered to female Wistar albino rats. Male rats received in their drinking water K2Cr2O7 (30 mg/L/day alone or in association with Se (0.3 mg/L/day for 20 consecutive days. The hematological parameters were evaluated on days 3, 6 and 21 after subcutaneous (sc. treatment in female rats and on days 10 and 20 after oral administration in male rats. Results: K2Cr2O7? induced during the first three days a significant (p  Objectif : Le dichromate de potassium (K2Cr2O7 est un polluant potentiellement néfaste pour la santé humaine et animale. Cette étude a été entreprise afin de rechercher une éventuelle interaction entre le K2Cr2O7 et le sélénium (Se sur l’hématopoïèse chez les rats albinos Wistar mâles et femelles. Matériel et Méthodes : Le K2Cr2O7 est administré seul (10, 50 et 100 mg/kg par voie sous-cutanée (sc ou en association (10 mg/kg avec le sélénium (0,3 mg/kg. Les rats mâles reçoivent dans l’eau de boisson le K2Cr2O7 (30 mg/L/jour seul ou en association avec le sélénium (0,3 mg/L/jour pendant 20 jours consécutifs. Les variations des paramètres hématologiques sont évaluées au 3e, 6e et 21e jour chez les rattes et au 10e et 20e jour chez les mâles. Résultats : Les résultats montrent que le chrome engendre dès le 3e jour après son administration par voie sc chez la femelle une diminution notable et dose-dépendante (p < 0,05 du nombre d’érythrocytes, du taux d’hématocrite, du nombre de plaquettes sanguines, de leucocytes, de lymphocytes et une augmentation dose-dépendante du nombre de granulocytes et de monocytes. Le chrome administré par voie orale diminue le nombre de leucocytes et de lymphocytes dès le 10e jour du traitement et augmente celui des monocytes et des granulocytes 20 jours plus tard. La présence du sélénium par voie sous-cutanée contrebalance les effets hématotoxiques du chrome chez la ratte. Conclusion : Ces résultats suggèrent que le sélénium a un rôle protecteur contre l’hématotoxicité induite par le chrome administré par voie sc chez la ratte Wistar.

Adjroud Ounassa

2010-12-01

96

Chronic effect of olive oil on some neurotransmitter contents in different brain regions and physiological, histological structure of liver and kidney of male albino rats  

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Full Text Available Olive oil is an important source of mono-unsaturated fat and a prime component of the Mediterranean diet. The beneficial health effects of olive oil are due to both its high content of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and its high content of anti-oxidative substances. The objective of this study was to investigate the basis for the epidemiological information relating to the health benefits associated with the consumption of ex-tra-virgin olive oil (EVOO. The effect of olive oil on norepinephrine (NE, dopamine (DA, serotonin (5-HT and gamm-aminobutyric acid (GABA con-tents in different brain regions and histological structure of liver and kindey of male albino rats was studied. The chronic administration of olive oil (7.5 mg/kg body wt. caused a significant increase in norepinephrine (NE, dopamine (DA , serotonin (5-HT and gamm-aminobutyric acid (GABA con-tent in different brain regions (Cerebellum, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, brain steam and hip-pocampus of male albino rats. The increase in NE, DA, 5-HT, and GABA content in the different CNS areas of male albino rat may be due to the inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin binding which plays an important role in the release of these neurotransmitters. The results, also, revealed that urea and creatinne con-centrations in rats with oral administration with olive oil were decreased. Meanwhile, the activities of the enzymes AsT, AlT and ALP were elevated. The pre-sent results indicated that there is no change in tis-sues of kidney after treated with virgin olive oil. Olive oil may potentially be safe for use as a sedative drug. improvement also led to the reductions in risk of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

A. E. Bawazir

2011-11-01

97

Daily Dose effect of Valerian root extract on some Neurotransmitter contents in different Brain areas of male Albino Rats  

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5-HIAA contents, at the same time the decrease in GABA content in the different brain areas of albino rats may be due to the presence of both valepotriates and valerenic acid in the extract which mediated the GABA ergic mechanisms including the inhibition of GABA metabolism and the increase in GABA synthesis and release , although agonized the GABAA receptors which led to the inhibit of the neurotransmitter release. Valerian root extract may be useful as a herbal medicine having sedative effect and it is safe. (author)

98

Effect of deltamethrin on the release of catecholamines and its related effect on some sex hormones in adult male albino rats  

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The oral administration of 1/5 LD50 of deltamethrin for 15 days resulted in an increase in Na+ and Ca++ ions concentrations, whereas it resulted in significant decreases in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamin (DA) contents in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pans + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of adult male albino rats at most time intervals. Deltamethrin also resulted in significant decreases of serum leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels in adult male albino rats. It could be concluded from the present results that deltamethrin resulted in significant increases in Na+ and Ca++ ions concentration. This observation might be due, in part, to an increase of the intracellular Na+ flow through its binding to Na+ ions channels and prolonging the opening time. Also, deltamethrin may stimulate the activity of protein kinase C/phosphoinositide that results in an increase of the intracellular concentrations ofinositol I, 4, 5-triphosphate (IPS) and free Ca++ ions. The increment in intracellular Ca+ ions led to an increase in the release of neurotransmitters by exocytosis, thai eventually decreased the contents of NE and DA in pre-synaptic cells. It is also clear that deltamethrin may act on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. The decrement in DA content in hypothalamus led to decrease in the release of leutinizing ho decrease in the release of leutinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) which resulted in decreasing in LH and testosterone levels in serum of the treated rats

99

Effect of maternal exposure to octylphenol (4-tert-octylphenol on the growth of the adrenal gland in male albino rats  

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Full Text Available 4-tert-octylphenol (OP is environmental pollutants that have been shown widespread impact estrogenic and toxic to the cells of mammals in culture. The effects of OP on the reproductive system of adult male vertebrates especially humans are virtually unknown. Thus, in the present investigation, pregnant females of albino rats were orally treated during pregnancy and until 21 days after birth (the period of lactation with octylphenol (OP at doses 0 (vehicle: corn oil, 40 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg on the epididymis of male rats at puberty (12 weeks of age. The present result showed that there is non-significant in the number; the size of newborn rats and there increased in mortality rate of newborn rats of the pregnant female treatment with dose low-and high-octylphenol compared to the control group. there is increased in the average body weight and percentage of gain in body weight of male rats from mothers of small treatment (G2, G3 and the control group (G1 for 12 weeks of age. Also, histological results showed that the adrenal gland in the group which was given high dose of octylphenol (G3 show that Severe histological changes in the cortex. When examining medulla and found large areas of necrosis and cell degradation, necrosis and cell death sharply.

Nafisa Mohamed Batarfi

2012-02-01

100

Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on The Toxicity and Distribution of 14C-Carbon Tetrachloride in Adult Male Albino Rats  

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The present study was conducted to investigate the possibility of whether the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) has a protective and therapeutic effect on the toxicity and distribution of 14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (cerebellum, striatum, cerebral cortex) of adult male albino rats for determination of distribution of 14C-CCl4 and monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5- HT)) and also estimation of serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of 14C-CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of counted 14C in all tested brain areas all over the experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 1'4C-CCl4 injection resulted in a significant reduction (P14C in tested areas. The maximum reduction was observed in cerebral cortex on 1st day (-40.91%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4 . The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period. This may be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. Data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4 .

 
 
 
 
101

Effect of aflatoxin ingestion on total body water (T OH3 - space), total body solids A KD on some physiological and reproductive characteristics of male albino rats  

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This investigation aimed to study the effects of aflatoxins B1+G1 mixture mainly on total body water (TBW) and on total body solids (TBS) of male albino rats. Some blood components and some reproductive characteristic were also taken into consideration. Two groups, each of 8 male rats were fed the same ration. Rats of one group had been individually ingested daily with a dose of 22 ?g B1 plus 22 ?g G1 for 15 successive weeks. The obtained results showed that aflatoxin administration caused: 1- A decrease in final body weight (FBW), TBW (P<0.01) and TBS (P<0.05). 2- A decrease in serum total proteins (P<0.01), albumin (P<0.05), globulin (P<0.05), glucose (P<0.05) and increase in serum cholesterol, GOT and GPT (P<0.05) activities. 3- A decrease in each of the number of effective matings of males and delivery percentages of females mated with treated males.1 tab

102

Establishment of an albino sand rat (Psammomys obesus colony and comparison with the natural coloured animal.  

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The lifespan and fertility of albino sand rats were found to be severely reduced in comparison with a laboratory colony of brown sand rats. The albinos were also much more susceptible to diabetes, as judged by their glucose tolerance. In fact, untreated albinos had a higher incidence of diabetic response than coloured sand rats fed a diabetogenic diet. The albino sand rats reproduced poorly because of a reduction in male fertility. Circulating testosterone levels and seminal vesicle weights were reduced in the albinos. It is speculated that the reduction in reproductive capacity is related to diabetes. PMID:564421

Shaham, Y; Lelyveld, J; Marder, U; Mendelssohn, H; Paz, G; Kraicer, P F

1978-01-01

103

Histopathological and biochemical effects of green tea and/or licorice aqueous extracts on thyroid functions in male albino rats intoxicated with dimethylnitrosamine  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate histopathological and biochemical effects of green tea and/or licorice aqueous extracts in thyroid functions in male albino rats intoxicated with Dimethylnitrosamine. Methods 40 Male albino rats were divided into two main groups, 20 normal rats and 20 DMN intoxicated rats. Normal rats were subgrouped into 4 equal groups, group A without treatment (controls, group B treated with green tea, group C treated with licorice, group D treated with green tea and licorice. DMN intoxicated rats were subgrouped into 4 equal groups, group E treated with DMN, group F treated with DMN and green tea, group G treated with DMN and licorice, group H treated with DMN, green tea and licorice. The rats were permitted for free access to solubilized extracts of green tea and or licorice for 4 weeks. All rats in groups E, F, G, H were treated by intraperitoneal DMN (4 mg dissolved in 2.5 ml distilled water/kg body weight seven times every 2 days in the first two weeks. Plasma total triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine were determined by radioimmunoassay. Thyroxine 5-monodeiodinase activity of liver was determined by spectrophotometeric method. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone was determined by chemiluminometric technique. Histopathological examination was conducted. Results Histopathologically thyroid gland of DMN intoxicated rats showed degeneration (DGand desquamation (DS of the lining epithelium and atrophy of many acini with hyperemia (H in the stromal capillaries and In comparison with control, the administration of DMN alone induced decrease in plasma levels of T3 and T4 while it induced increase in plasma levels of TSH and hepatic activity of Thyroxine 5-monodeiodinase. Coadminstration of DMN and green tea attenuated the lowering effect of DMN on plasma levels of T3 and T4 and induced increase in these levels but values are still below normal ones while Co administration of DMN with licorice or mixture did not affect these levels. Co administration of green tea and/or licorice with DMN attenuated the rising effect of DMN on hepatic activity of Thyroxine 5--DI while augmented the rising effect of DMN on plasma level of TSH. Conclusion Aqueous extract of green tea may be effective in amelioration of biochemical effects and histopathological lesions induced by DMN.

Mohamed U

2009-01-01

104

Effect of caricapryl-99 seed alkaloid extract on the serum levels of sex hormones and pituitary gonadotrophins in male albino rats.  

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Activity of alkaloid extract of caricapryl-99 seeds [Carica papaya Linn seeds] on the serum levels of steroid hormones was studied in adult male albino rats. Three tolerated doses obtained from the graph of percentage toxicity [10, 50 and 150 mg/kg] were separately administered orally, daily for three days to three groups of male rats [n=5] while group four of 5 rats received the vehicle [corn oil] as control. The results showed that 10 mg/kg/d caused increase serum levels of FSH and estrogen but decrease in the serum levels of LH and testosterone compared to control; 50 mg/kg/d elevated the serum levels of FSH, estrogen but inhibited testosterone; while 150 mg/kg/d pretreatments caused a significant decrease [p<0.01] in the serum levels of FSH, LH and testosterone. The results suggest that caricapryl-99 treatment inhibited the serum level of the androgen, testosterone which might result in a male infertility. PMID:19826459

Udoh, P B; Udoh, F V; Umoren, E B; James, U W; Okeke, C P; Agwu, B

2009-06-01

105

Physiological and Biochemical Alterations Induced by Subchronic Administration of Deltamethrin can be Possibly Corrected by Zinc Supplementation in Male Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted aiming to evaluate the possible effect of zinc supplementation as potent antioxidant in counteracting some of the physiological and biochemical alterations induced by subchronic administration of deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid. Deltamethrin (DM was injected in two doses in male albino rats in presence or absence of zinc. Many physiological and biochemical alteration have been induced by deltamethrin intoxication. Zinc supplementation proved a considerable ability to overcome some but not all of these alterations. The present investigation has also proved the possibility of using the isozyme electrophoretic patterns in testing for xenobiotic intoxication. The rate of gene expression of ALP2 and ALP3 isozymes, but not of ALP1 are stimulated by DM intoxication. In case of ALP3 the rate of gene expression seemed to be dose-dependent.

Emad El-Zayat

2005-01-01

106

Effect of gavage treatment with pulverised Garcinia kola seeds on erythrocyte membrane integrity and selected haematological indices in male albino Wistar rats.  

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This study examines the effect of the whole seed of Garcinia kola [GKS] on various blood parameters, in adult male albino rats. Five groups, of 6 animals per group, were treated by gavage with suspensions of graded concentrations of GKS daily for 5 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed and blood was obtained for estimation of the data herein presented. Packed red cell volume [PCV], hemoglobin concentration [Hb], and red blood cell count [RBC] showed significantly [P<0.05], increased response to treatment with GKS; while the platelet and white blood cell [WBC] counts showed no corresponding increase with increasing GKS dosage. The mean red blood cell volume [MCV] and mean cell hemoglobin [MCH] levels decreased with increasing GKS dosage. Prothrombin time [PT] and activated partial thromboplastin time [APPT] were both prolonged with increased GKS dosage; while the serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) decreased significantly [P<0.05] with increased GKS dosage. PMID:19826463

Ahumibe, A A; Braide, V B

2009-06-01

107

Carbamate Toxicity and Protective effect of vit. A and vit. E on some biochemicalaspects of male albino rats  

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The effect of daily oral administration of carbamate (1/10 L.D50) on rats for 30 successive days were studied. The male rats were divided into five groups (control, control + oil, carbamate, carbamate + vit. A and carbamate + vit. E). Each group (except control and control + oil) was daily administrated carbamate (0.012 mg/kg B.wt.). Two groups of carbamate ­ intoxicated animals provided with vit. A (700 mg/kg.B.wt) or vit. E (10 mg/kg.B.wt). Poisoning symptoms were recorded, e.g. unbalanse,...

Samir, A. M. Zaahkouk Eman

2000-01-01

108

The effect of sodium valproate on the biochemical parameters of reproductive function in male albino Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on intratesticular testosterone and lactic dehydrogenase level in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 weeks old were treated with sodium valproate and sacrificed at the end of the 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week, after the last exposure to sodium valproate. The testes were removed, weighed and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P< 0.001 reduced in 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg treated rats. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level was significantly (P< 0.001 increased by valproate in a time dependent manner. Conclusion: Valproate causes reversible change in intratesticular testosterone and LDH level.

Vijay P

2008-01-01

109

Aqueous Extract of Thymus Vulgaris-induced Prevention of Kidney Damage in Hypertensive Adult Male Albino Rat: Biochemical and Ultrastructural Study  

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Full Text Available Different metabolic disorders including hypertension cause renal damage. The aim of this study was to study the effect of Thymus Vulgaris (TV on kidneys of induced hypertensive rats through biochemical and ultrastructure examination. Thirty three adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups 11 animals each (control, untreated and treated. The first (control group was fed and followed up for 8 weeks by measuring the systolic BP. In the second group, hypertension was induced by ligation of left renal artery to have systolic BP >150 mmHg and was followed up till the end of study. The third group in which hypertension was induced were given TV as 100 mg/kg body weight daily. The surviving 11 rats per each group were weighed again and killed with an overdose of phenobarbital and blood was collected to measure the blood chemistry. Following laparotomy, right kidney was dissected and excised from each rat and divided into 2 parts: one part was immersed in 10% formal saline and prepared for light microscopic examination. The other parts was immersed into 2.5 % glutaraldehyde and prepared for electron microscopic examination using transmission microscopy in faculty of medicine Zagazig university Egypt. A Significant increased was noticed in creatinine and cholesterol in untreated in contrast to control and treated hypertensive rats. There was significant reduction of Blood Pressure (BP on using TV in contrast to untreated group. In untreated hypertensive group some cortical fields showed scars surrounding obsolete shrinkage glomeruli with inflammatory infiltrates with reciprocal dilatation of their Bowman's capsules. Ultrastructure examination showed thick glomerular endothelium with obliterated endothelial fenestrations. In treated hypertensive group the rat kidneys showed preserved cortical appearance and normal trilaminar structure but with focal thickening. Induced hypertension in rats affected renal tissues with biochemical alterations which all can be improved and/or prevented by using Thymus vulgaris herbal extract.

Eslam A. Header

2012-01-01

110

Comparative study of the hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of praziquantel distocide & the natural myrrh extract Mirazid on adult male albino rats.  

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Praziquantel (PZQ) is widely and effectively used in the control of bilharziasis which constitutes a major endemic health problem in Egypt. However, recent studies recommended that the drug must be re-evaluated because of its potential carcinogenicity and genotoxicity. Mirazid is a new natural anti-schistosomal drug formed of myrrh extract and considered to be a safe drug. This work was conducted to evaluate and compare hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of PZQ and Mirazid on adult male albino rats by assessment of serum levels of ALT, AST and bilirubin, histopathological study of the liver and cytogenetic study of bone marrow cells. 100 adult male albino rats were equally divided into 4 groups: (I): negative control, (II): control rats received distilled water, (III): received weekly single oral dose of PZQ (1500 mg/kg) for 6 weeks, (IV): received daily oral dose of Mirazid (500 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. At the end of the study 10 rats of each group were investigated by assessment of the levels of AST, ALT, & Bilirubin. After scarification, liver sections were examined by light microscopy. Another 10 rats of each group were submitted to cytogenetic examination. It was found that praziquantel induced a significant increase in the mean values of AST, ALT and bilirubin with areas of hyaline degeneration, fatty changes, dysplasia and necrosis in the liver sections. It also induced a significant increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations as polyploidy, fragment, deletion and ring chromosome as compared with control group. Mirazid induced a non significant increase in the mean values of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a normal hepatic tissue, and a non significant increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations, as compared with the control group. On comparing both drugs, praziquantel induced a significant hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. It was concluded that, Praziquantel is considered to be a hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic drug. On the other hand, Mirazid seemed to be a safe and promising antiparasitic drug, free from hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. PMID:15881015

Omar, Ahmed; Elmesallamy, Ghada El-Said; Eassa, Shereen

2005-04-01

111

The immunological and histopathological changes of Tramadol, Tramadol/Acetaminophen and Acetaminophen in male Albino rats "Comparative study"  

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Full Text Available Tramadol is a synthetic opioid analgesic. It is commonly prescribed for moderate to severe pain, becoming abused more popular among teens in most countries. Paracetamol as anti-inflammatory drugs (acetaminophen (APAP is widely used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. Meanwhile, tramadol/acetaminophen (tramacet is effective in acute or chronic moderate-to-moderately severe pain. In comparative study, the current investigation threw the light on the effect of over doses of tramadol and/or APAP on the immune function and hepatocytes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Material and methods: Treated rats received oral doses of each drug for 15 consecutive days and after last treatment, they kept three days later for withdrawal studies. The rats were divided into four treatment groups, in the first group, rats received saline and used as control. The second, third and fourth groups treated with tramadol (45 mg/kg, tramadol/APAP (45/450 mg/kg, APAP (450 mg/kg respectively, once a-day at the first week and ending with 90, 90/900, 900 mg/kg at the second week. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the first, second weeks and three days of last treatment. Results: Daily doses of tramadol and /or APAP exposure in rats decreased the cellularity of spleen. Moreover, phagocytic and killing of S. aureus by PMN and macrophage cells caused a highly significant decrease in treated groups. IFN- was reduced in a statistically different treated group of rats. Serum IL-10 was unaffected by any of the treatment regimens but increased only in tramadol/APAP treated rats. Spleen histology exhibited mild pathological alteration with different injures between treated groups. Splenic white pulp accompanied by ill deformed which reflected the reduction of white pulp zones, thickened vasculature in the splenic net work, fibrous trabeculae become prominent feature, where splenic red pulp occupied large areas of the splenic network with predominant edema and megakaryocytes. On the other hand, the effect of tramadol and/or APAP induced DNA alterations of hepatocytes in dose dependent pattern as elucidated by dendrogramatic analysis. Liver histopathological changes of treated groups included vacuolated hepatocytes, dilated sinusoid with proliferated Kupffer cells; atrophied hepatocytes with nuclei reduced in size and darkly stained. Many areas of hepatocytes showed loss of architecture, congested central vein, expanded portal area with edema and inflammatory reaction. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the effect of tramadol/APAP induced anti-inflammatory cytokines than tramadol and APAP alone. Tramadol and/or APAP may display severe pathological consequences of hepatocytes. These hepatic lesions may be caused impairment of the liver function.

Hanan Mostafa Rabei

2011-10-01

112

Bioefficacy of hydromethanolic extract of tuber of Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed Musli) for the management of male infertility in cyproterone acetate-treated albino rats.  

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Increase in male sexual dysfunction, and its treatment with conventional aphrodisiac drugs with side effects lead to investigate the spermatogenesis and androgenesis augmentative efficacy of hydromethanolic (40 : 60) extract of root of Chlorophytum borivilianum (family - Liliaceae) against cyproterone acetate-induced subfertility in Wistar strain male albino rat. For this purpose, experimental rats were divided into three treatment groups: vehicle (received distilled water), cyproterone acetate (gastric intubation at 250 mg kg(-1) twice daily for 35 days) and cyproterone acetate plus root extract of C. borivilianum (gastric intubation at 250 mg kg(-1) plus 400 mg kg(-1) with an interval of 20 min twice daily for 35 days). After 35-day treatment, all rats were euthanised. Reproductive deviations towards negative side were investigated by screening the spermatogenic and steroidogenic biosensors. Oxidative stress profile in reproductive organs and sperm pellet was evaluated by biochemical assessment of antioxidative enzyme activities and level of end products of the lipid peroxidation. Apoptosis profile was evaluated by Western blot study, TUNEL assay and DNA fragmentation study of testicular tissues. Evaluation of toxicity profile was included for experimental investigation. After cyproterone acetate treatment, the pituitary-testicular axis was deviated towards the negative side and its tuning system was affected by oxidative stress and apoptosis-mediated process, which reduced the quality of semen and finally led to subfertility. Co-administration of C. borivilianum root extract enhanced male reproductive potentiality and prevented the negative deviations after the treatment with cyproterone acetate by means of increasing oxidative defence and maintaining homeostasis in testicular apoptosis process. PMID:23957231

Ray, S; Chatterjee, K; De, D; Ghosh, D

2014-08-01

113

Nano gold conjugation, anti-arthritic potential and toxicity studies of snake Naja kaouthia (Lesson, 1831) venom protein toxin NKCT1 in male albino rats and mice.  

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Nanoscience and Nanotechnology have found their way in the fields of pharmacology and medicine. The conjugation of drug to nanoparticles combines the properties of both. In this study, gold nanoparticle (GNP) was conjugated with NKCT1, a cytotoxic protein toxin from Indian cobra venom for evaluation of anti-arthritic activity and toxicity in experimental animal models. GNP conjugated NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) synthesized by NaBH4 reduction method was stable at room temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C), pH 7.2. Hydrodynamic size of GNP-NKCT1 was 68-122 nm. Arthritis was developed by Freund's complete adjuvant induction in male albino rats and treatment was done with NKCT1/GNP-NKCT1/standard drug. The paw/ankle swelling, urinary markers, serum markers and cytokines were changed significantly in arthritic control rats which were restored after GNP-NKCT1 treatment. Acute toxicity study revealed that GNP conjugation increased the minimum lethal dose value of NKCT1 and partially reduced the NKCT1 induced increase of the serum biochemical tissue injury markers. Histopathological study showed partial restoration of toxic effect in kidney tissue after GNP conjugation. Normal lymphocyte count in culture was in the order of GNP-NKCT1 > NKCT1 > Indomethacine treatment. The present study confirmed that GNP conjugation increased the antiarthritic activity and decreased toxicity profile of NKCT1. PMID:25141538

Saha, Partha Pratim; Bhowmik, Tanmoy; Dasgupta, Anjan Kumar; Gomes, Antony

2014-08-01

114

Protective Effect of Phoenix dactylifera-L Extracts against Radiation-Induced Cardio-Toxicity and Some Biochemical Changes in Male Albino Rats  

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The Antioxidant properties of the date palm fruit; Phoenix dactylifera-L in mitigation of cellular injury following free radicals release by ionizing radiation has been investigated. Forty-eight male albino rats divided equally into 6 groups were used in this study. Group 1 (G.1) acted as control, G.2 received date extract orally (4 ml/ kg/ day) for 21 days, G.3 was exposed to a single dose of gamma irradiation (6 Gy), G.4 received date extract orally at an identical dose and duration to G.2 and irradiation to G.3, G.5 received the daily date extract for 7 days post irradiation and G.6 received the daily date extract for 21 days before and for 7 days after irradiation. Heart tissue was examined histologically and biochemical testing for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was performed for each rat group. Data from the investigation showed that gamma irradiation caused histopathological damage to the heart tissue and disturbances in most parameters related to cardiac function. Administration of date extracts pre-irradiation provided evidence of a potential protective effect against irradiation hazard

115

Role of Omega 3 fatty acids on radiation-induced oxidative and structural damage in different tissues of male albino rats  

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Omega-3 fatty acids play a critical role in the development and function of the reproductive and central nervous systems. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels associated with histopathologic changes induced by gamma irradiation in the testis and brain of male albino rats. Rats were whole body exposed to radiation at a single dose of 3 Gy. Omega-3 fatty acids (0.4 gm/kg b wt/day) were given to rats, by gavages, for 15 consecutive days before irradiation and for 15 days after irradiation. Rats were sacrificed one and 15 days post irradiation .Biochemical analysis of testis and cerebral cortex samples showed that irradiation induced a significant increase in xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) and a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT).Histological examination of testis and cerebral cortex tissues showed spermatogonia degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis in the testis and neurons cell bodies with ill defined and even ruptured cell membrane and damaged blood capillaries in the cerebral cortex. Omega-3 administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the levels of MDA, and XO, and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with amelioration of the histological injury markers in both testis and cerebral cortex. It could be postulated that omega-3 fatty acids as a multi-functional dietary supplement could exert a modulatory role in radiation- induced testis and cerebral cortex biochemical and histological changes through its antioxidant properties.

116

Effects of Aging and Anti-Aging Hormones on The Kidney, The Thyroid Functions and The Histology of The Testis of Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aging and anti-aging hormones on the kidney, the thyroid and the testis of aged male albino rats from the physiological and histological points of view. Material & Methods Thirty five male rats were used in the present study. They were allocated into five groups. The first group (5months old served as control group and the other remaining groups are (18 months old. The second group 1 ml/kg b.w. corn oil intramuscular injection through a period of two weeks .The third group received 2mg/kg b.w. of melatonin hormone orally daily for two weeks. The fourth group received 0.57 mg/kg b.w. of testosterone hormone via intramuscular injection through two weeks. The fifth group received the same dose of both hormones (Melatonin & Testosterone for two weeks. Some biochemical parameters of the kidney, the thyroid and histological structure of the testis were examined. Results The untreated aged group showed insignificant change in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones levels. The melatonin treated group showed significant decrease in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones. The testosterone treated group showed highly significant increase in urea, T3 and T4 hormones and highly significant decrease in creatinine level. Whereas, fifth group showed significant decrease in urea accompanied with a highly significant decrease in creatinine and highly significant increase in T3 with a significant increase in T4. The histological changes induced by aging and anti-aging hormones included intertubular haemorrhage, odematous areas present between the seminiferous tubules. The interstitial tissue was degenerated. The degenerated seminiferous tubules revealed maturation arrest in late-stage spermatides. Conclusion In conclusion, aging and anti-aging hormones administration into adult male rats exerts a clear effect on the kidney and the thyroid functions and on the testicular structure. On the other hand, amelioration in T3 &T4 serum level was found in anti-aging treated rats compared with untreated aged rats.

Shadia Ali Radwan; Samia Mohamed Sakr; Mohamed Salah Al-Shinnawy and Enas Saleh Abdel-Bakey

2011-10-01

117

Carbamate Toxicity and Protective effect of vit. A and vit. E on some biochemicalaspects of male albino rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of daily oral administration of carbamate (1/10 L.D50 on rats for 30 successive days were studied. The male rats were divided into five groups (control, control + oil, carbamate, carbamate + vit. A and carbamate + vit. E. Each group (except control and control + oil was daily administrated carbamate (0.012 mg/kg B.wt.. Two groups of carbamate ­ intoxicated animals provided with vit. A (700 mg/kg.B.wt or vit. E (10 mg/kg.B.wt. Poisoning symptoms were recorded, e.g. unbalanse, diarrhea, have poor health and posterior limbs rigidity. Haematological parameters showed a significant decrease in red blood corpuscles (R.B.Cs, white blood corpuscles (W.B.Cs count, Haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit value in groups treated with carbamate, and an improvement in these values was observed in groups treated with the anti-oxidants (vit. A and vit. E. Total lipids cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, glucose, LDH, AST, ALT, adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured in serum. Total proteins, total lipids, of tissues (liver, heart, muscle and kidney were investigated. The present study declare that, carbamate induced a significant elevetion in serum LDH, glucose. total lipids,cholesterol, AST, ALT, adrenaline and noradrenaline. On the other hand, causes a significant reduction in total proteins and albumin. The total lipids and total proteins of the tissue were recorded highly significant decrease in the group treated with carbamate only. From another point of view, antioxidant ameliorated the effect of carbamate on tissues. So, it is clear that administration of vit. E or vit. A. reduced the effect of carbamate on biochemical alteration to various extent. The antioxidant property of vitamin A and vitamin E seem to be responsible for the observed protection against carbamate intoxication.

Samir, A.M. Zaahkouk* ; Eman, G.E. Helal

2000-12-01

118

An experimental study on effect of antioxidant vitamin E in stress and alcohol induced changes in male fertility in albino rats.  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Physical and Psychological stresses are believed to reduce sexual functions, resulting fromneurotransmission changes in various erectile response pathways and reduced blood flow in genital organs.Intake of alcohol depends on numerous genetic and environmental factors. Stress has long been thought to influence the alcohol drinking in humans. Forced swimming in laboratory animals has been widely used as a model of stress to study the physiological changes and the capacity of the organism in response to stress. Aim: 1. To assess the effect of forced swimming stress on seminal fluid profile, Serum testosterone level, Testicular lipid peroxidation levels. 2. To assess the effect of Vitamin E on stress induced changes. Method: Adult male albino rats weighing 200 – 220 g, aged 12-15 weeks were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into four groups of 6 animals each. Group1 (control received distilled water, Group 2 (Forced Swimming Stress received distilled water Group 3: subjected to Forced Swimming stress with 20% alcohol intake p.o. Group 4: Swimming stress with 20% alcohol treated with Vitamin E(200mg/kg/day orally. The following parameters were studied in all groups 1. Body weight. 2. Sperm count Motility and Life /death Ratio (SLDR. 3. Serum Testosterone 4. Testicular Malondialdehyde level (MDA. Results: Forced swimming stress caused loss in body wt, reduction in sperm count, motility and SLDR in sperm analysis, reduction in serum testosterone and increase testicular MDA levels compared to control. All the changes were statistically significant. When alcohol was added along with forced swimming it caused further loss in body wt, sperm count, motility and SLDR, serum testosterone level and slightly further increase in MDA levels. These observations were also statistically significant. In case of group IV in which Vitamin E was administered long with stress with alcohol it showed a trend of reversal phenomenon of stress and alcohol induced change (Group III exhibited by gain in body wt, increase sperm count, motility and SLDR, serum testosterone and decrease in MDA level. All the results were statically significant except serum testosterone. Conclusion: Force swimming indicates that swimming is an effective model for producing stress in albino rats. The stress induced changes were further accentuated by addition of ethyl alcohol. However Vit E treatment reverses the effect of stress and alcohol.

Sanghishetti Vijay Prasad, Nayak BB, Ghongane BB, Raul AR, Vijay Kumar AN, Mutalik MM, Kapure NL.

2012-09-01

119

Role Of Ginkgo BILOBA Extract In Ameliorating The Toxicity And Distribution Of 14C-Carbon Tetrachloride In Some Brain Areas Of Adult Male Albino Rats  

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The present study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) on distribution of14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (hippocampus, brain stem and hypothalamus) and its toxicity using the determination of monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT)) as well as estimation of serum nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of14C-CCl4 (1 ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of 14C amount in all tested brain areas during experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 14C-CCl4 treatment resulted in a significant reduction (P14C amount in areas under investigation. The maximum reduction was recorded in hypothalamus on 3rd day (-49.28%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4. The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period, which might be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. The data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4.

120

Acute IP Administration of Sodium Fluoroacetate to Male Albino Rats; Protection by Monacetin Against Lethality of Sodium Fluoroacetate and 3-Cyclohexyl-1-(2-Fluoroethyl)-1-Nitrosourea (Cfnu) to Male Albino Rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several experiments, using rats, were designed to tet the hypothesis that the toxicity of 3-cyclohexyl-1-(2-fluoroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (CFNU) may be attributed, in part, to the metabolic release of free fluoroacetate radical and its subsequent toxicity. M...

W. R. Teeters, T. W. Tusing, E. R. Homan, D. P. Rall

1967-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Synergistic Effects of Squalene and Omega-3 on Lipid Peroxidation and some Antioxidants in Gamma-Irradiated Male Albino Rats  

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liorates plasma lipid profile. The results indicated that the combination of aqualene and omega-3 has a protective role, antioxidant effect and antilipidemic effect against gamma radiation in exposed rats

122

EFFECTS OF AMLODIPINE ON THE TESTICULAR PARAMETERS OF ALBINO RAT  

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Full Text Available To determine the effect of exposure of calcium channel blocker Amlodipine for different periods on the reproductive parameters of adult male Wistar albino rats Amlodipine in a dose equivalent to the normal clinical dose was administered orally to albino rats in their reproductive age for different periods ranging from two weeks to eighteen weeks and the reproductive parameters such as sperm count, motility and gonado-somatic index were verified. Reproductive parameters such as sperm count and sperm motility were found to be adversely affected in a significant (p<0.05 and duration dependent manner from 28th day onward of once daily administration of Amlodipine while gonado-somatic index was decreased significantly (p<0.05 from 42nd day of continuous administration Potential risk of the calcium channel blocker Amlodipine on male fertility, especially on long term use must be considered while prescribing this drug to young adults.

Shini Dominic

2013-08-01

123

Squalene Modulates Radiation-Induced Structural, Ultrastructural And Biochemical Changes In Cardiac Muscles Of Male Albino Rats  

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recorded.Treatment of rats with squalene has significantly attenuated the radiation-induced oxidative damage and histopathological changes in cardiac muscle which was substantiated by a significant amelioration in the activity of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Furthermore, administration of squalene to rats has adjusted the radiation-induced increase in plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Based on these results, it could be concluded that squalene through its antioxidant properties might be capable of attenuating radiation-induced damage to cardiac muscles.

124

THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF ONION OIL (ALLIUM CEPA LINN) AGAINST RADIATION-INDUCED HAZARDS IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

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Radiation poses a major currently irresolvable risk for human. Onion is a major source of dietary flavonoids. The present investigation was carried out to study the protective effects of treating rats with onion oil (150 mg/kg body weight) for consecutive 3 weeks against damages induced by whole body gamma irradiation (7 Gy). Exposure of rats to gamma irradiation caused a significant increase in levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides as well as activities of AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, uric acid and lipid peroxides. Exposure to gamma rays resulted in an increase in the mentioned parameters accompanied by a decrease in urea, total protein, albumin, glutathione content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. It could be concluded that onion oil capable of reducing the biological hazards induced by gamma irradiation

125

Possible protective and curative role of thiamine pyrophosphate against radiation induced biochemical and histological changes in male albino rats  

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The present study has been performed to investigate the possible curative and protective role of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) in minimizing the radiation-induced changes in certain biochemical and histological parameters in the liver and kidney of rats. The activity of liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and g-glutamyl transferase (g-GT) as well as kidney creatinine and urea concentrations were measured. In addition, histological changes in the liver and kidney tissues were examined.The results obtained revealed that whole body g-irradiation of rats at 5 Gy (single dose) induced significant increase in the activity of liver g-GT, ALT and AST and also significant increase in the concentration of creatinine and urea in the kidney at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks post-irradiation. Exposure to radiation induced also distortion in the architecture pattern of the liver as well as degenerative changes of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney.The intraperitoneal administration of TPP at a concentration of 2mg/Kg body weight to unirradiated rats for 5 consecutive days did not induce any significant changes in biochemical and histological parameters studied at all the experimental periods. TPP given to rats for 5 consecutive days either before or after irradiation ameliorated the intensity of changes induced due to radiation exposure. Accordingly, it was concluded that TPP could exert a beneficial protective and curative role against some radiactive and curative role against some radiation-induced biochemical and histological disorders in liver and kidney. Extrapolation of the results obtained in the present study to patients who need such treatments and undergoing radiotherapy requires further investigations

126

The Possible Protective Role of Genistein against Some Biochemical Alterations Induced by ?-Irradiation in Male Albino Rats  

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Genistein is one of the main isoflavones, as an active compound of dietary antioxidants, has shown considerable promise as an effective agent against oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the radio-protective effect of genistein administration to rats at a non-toxic dose (200 mg/kg b.wt.) against Gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative stress. Gamma-irradiation (2.5 Gy x 3 delivered every other day) resulted in a significant decrease in hepatic glutathione contents (GSH), superoxides dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, insulin level as well as the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Moreover, a remarkable increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, the activity of some liver enzymes, the level of glucose and the concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol was observed in ?-irradiated rats. In contrast, genistein administration prior to ?-irradiation of rats ameliorated ?-irradiation-induced oxidative stress by elevating the activity of antioxidant enzymes, enhancing liver function in addition to improving the lipid metabolism. From the results of this study it possible to conclude that genistein is a natural antioxidant and seems to be beneficial for correcting the biochemical alterations and preventing ?-irradiation complications

127

The Interaction Between Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (Captopril and Heat Stress in The Male Albino rats. 2-Tissue Analysis  

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Full Text Available Daily exposure to heat stress causes sustained elevation of blood pressure in rats. It is known that the renin-angiotensin system is activated during episodes of behavioral stress, and the purpose of this work was to assess the action of captopril in the development of stress induced hypertension in rats. Animals were divided into four groups. The first group served as a control, while the other groups were subjected to heat stress of 40C and high hamidity of 80% for 10 successive days. The second group was served as heat stress, while the third and the fourth groups were received low and high doses of captopril (0.7 & 1.4 mg/kg. b.wt., respectively. After 10 days of treatment, half of animals from each group were decapitated and brain, liver, muscle, heart and kidney were separated and analysed. The other half of animals were left for another 10 days without any additional treatment for recovery.The results revealed a significant decrease in total protein of liver, heart, kidney, total lipids of heart, muscle and brain and total cholesterol of liver. On the other hand, insignificant change was noticed in muscle and brain total protein. Similarly, AST and ALT activities were also within the normal values for all the organs examined.Results exhibited that renin-angiotensin system may be important in the development of stress-induced hypertension in rats.

Talaat E.I. Abd-Rabo

2000-12-01

128

Evaluation of silymarin and / or ginger effect on induced hepatotoxicity by carbon tetrachloride in male albino rats  

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Full Text Available Liver disease appears to be increase. Part of this increase may be due to our frequent contact with chemicals and other environmental pollutants. The amount of medicne consumed has increased greatly which could be danger to the liver. The hepatoprotective flavonoid, silymarin (7.56 mg/Kg b. wt. and ginger (Zingiber officinale (1% of diet for 4 weeks were used to ameliorate the liver injury in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCL4 , single acute dose 4 ml/ Kg b. wt. of 50% v/v CCL4 in olive oil, subcutaneous. The obtained results showed that CCL4 decreased serum and liver total protein and albumin. Also reduced glutathione content. The antioxidant enzymes; glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity decreased in the liver of CCL4 toxicity group. On the other hand, CCL4 toxicity increased serum and liver bilirubin, total lipid and total cholestertol levels. In addition, liver function (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver lipid peroxidation content showed significant increase in the CCL4 treated group. Previous parameters turned back to normal values in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats after treating with silymarin and/ or ginger for one month. Meanwhile, the most interesting effect was induced by a combination of silymarin and ginger. Hence, the present findings will provide a potential scope for future use of ginger for the treatment of liver disorders.

Hassan H. A.* and EL-Gendy A. M

2003-09-01

129

Extract Against Toxic Sodium The Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Nitrites and Gamma Irradiation Induced Histological Changes in Intestine and Urinary Bladder of Male Albino Rats  

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Proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract) possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation exposure and toxic sodium nitrites induced oxidative stress on the intestine and urinary bladder histologically and also to evaluate the possible protective role of proanthocyanidins. Seventy adult male albino rats, each weighing 95-105 g were used and divided into 7 groups as follows: The first group represents the control group. The second experimental group were exposed to 7 Gy gamma-rays as a single dose and sacrificed on the 7th day. The third experimental group received by a stomach tube daily 50 mg/kg b.wt of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The fourth experimental group received proanthocyanidins, Grape seed extracts (antioxidant) (100 mg/kg) body wt.) daily for seven days before irradiation and the continued for 14 days post irradiation. The fifth group of animals received grape seed extract after being exposed to gamma radiation for two weeks, while the sixth experimental group received the same antioxidant for seven days before and after received sodium nitrite (50 mg/kg) daily for 4 weeks. Finally, the seventh experimental groups was treated with the same antioxidant in same dose and time after received sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed on the end of each experimental duration. The results revealed that both gamma-radiation and sodium nitrite induced different histolog sodium nitrite induced different histological changes in the intestine and urinary bladder of irradiated and sodium nitrite received animals. The effect of gamma radiation exposure showed marked degeneration of intestinal villi, vaculation in the lining epithelium cells and karyolytic nuclei. In addition, using sodium nitrite lead to necrosis of intestinal glandular cells. The effect of gamma radiation on urinary bladder was presented by, hyperplasia and vaculation of mucosal epithelium, congestion of blood capillaries. Rats from nitrite group revealed activation of glandular epithelium. The animals were treated with proanthocyanidins, the tissues revealed histological structure almost similar to the control group. This histological observations were performed to evaluate the efficiency of proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract), through its antioxidant properties which might attenuate radiation or nitrite toxicity.

130

Effect of acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) and Prostaglandins on thyroid tissue and carbohydrate metabolism in liver of male albino rats  

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Aspirin, both in chronic and acute doses, led to a considerable decrease in percentage uptake of labelled iodine (Na131I) and serum protein-bound iodine by the thyroid gland whereas prostaglandins (PGs) did not exhibit any significant effect on both the parameters. Simultaneous administration of aspirin and PGs caused a significant decrease in the two parameters, and on withdrawal of aspirin from the diet the two parameters were restored to normal levels, thus suggesting that the effect of aspirin on thyroid is direct and reversible. Aspirin, both in acute and chronic doses, effected decrease in glycogen levels, in vivo and in vitro incorporation of [U-14C] glucose into glycogen, and glycogen synthetase activity in the liver of both fed, and fasting, rat. Prostaglandins, on the other hand, resulted in a significant increase in the three parameters, thus enhancing the rate of liver glycogenesis. Normal levels were restored when both aspirin and PGs were given together. Withdrawal of aspirin also restored normal hepatic glycogenesis. Significant reduction in the activities of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes, viz. glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase, phosphopyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase was observed due to chronic and acute administration of aspirin and PGs were devoid of any significant effect on gluconeogenic enzymes, thus ruling out the mediation of PGs. (auth.)

131

Histopathological effects of cisplatin, doxorubicin and 5-flurouracil (5-FU on the liver of male albino rats  

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Full Text Available Cisplatin, doxorubicin and fluorouracil (5-FU, drugs belonging to different chemical classes, have been extensively used for chemotherapy of various cancers. Despite extensive investigations into their hepatotoxicity, there is very limited information on their effects on the structure and ultra-structure of liver cells in vivo. Here, we demonstrate for the first time, the effects of these three anticancer drugs on rat liver toxicity using both light and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed that higher doses of cisplatin and doxorubicin caused massive hepatotoxicity compared to 5-FU treatment, including dissolution of hepatic cords, focal inflammation and necrotic tissues. Interestingly, low doses also exhibited abnormal changes, including periportal fibrosis, degeneration of hepatic cords and increased apoptosis. These changes were confirmed at ultrastructural level, including vesiculated rough endoplasmic reticulum and atrophied mitochondria with ill-differentiated cisternae, dense collection of macrophages and lymphocytes as well as fibrocytes with collagenous fibrils manifesting early sign of fibrosis, especially in response to cisplatin and doxorubicin -treatment. Our results provide in vivo evidence, at ultrastructural level, of direct hepatotoxicity caused by cisplatin, doxorubicin and 5-FU at both light and electron microscopi. These results can guide the design of appropriate treatment regimen to reduce the hepatotoxic effects of these anticancer drugs.

Hassan I El-Sayyad, Mohamed F Ismail, F M Shalaby, RF Abou-El-Magd, Rajiv L Gaur, Augusta Fernando, Madhwa HG Raj, Allal Ouhtit

2009-01-01

132

The disposition and metabolism of 1,3,5-[U-{sup 14}C]trioxane in male Wistar albino rats  

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The present study was designed to investigate 1,3,5-[U-{sup 14}C]trioxane (TOX) distribution, excretion and metabolism. The experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats after a single administration of TOX at doses of 40 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The exhaled air proved to be the main route of {sup 14}C elimination, mainly as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. During the first 12 h following the administration of 40 mg/kg of TOX the exhalation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was monophasic, with a half-life of 3.5 h. After the administration of 400 mg/kg, TOX was eliminated mainly as {sup 14}CO{sub 2} with the exhaled air (77%) and unchanged TOX (8%). About 3% of {sup 14}C was excreted in the urine as unchanged 1,3,5-trioxane. With regards to TOX elimination from blood plasma for the lower dose, a biphasic process was observed, with half-lives of 4.5 and 72 h. The amount of {sup 14}C bound by the erythrocytes was minute compared with the amount in blood plasma. When the higher dose of TOX was administered the efficiency of {sup 14}C binding to the erythrocytes was found to be 10 times higher than the respective value for blood plasma. Among the examined tissues the highest concentration of TOX-derived radioactivity was detected in the liver while the lowest was in fat tissue and brain. A subsequent decay of radioactivity occurred in the tissues. The results of the present study indicate that TOX belongs to the group of compounds, which are rapidly eliminated from the organism; hence TOX should not be expected to accumulate within the tissues. The data obtained confirm the assumed pattern of metabolic transformation, according to which 1,3,5-trioxane undergoes enzymatic transformation to formaldehyde, with carbon dioxide and water being the final products. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

Ligocka, D.; Sapota, A.; Jakubowski, M. [Toxicokinetics Laboratory, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

1998-04-01

133

Bile secretion in albino rat following chronic honey intake.  

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This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of honey intake on bile secretion, bile electrolytes, bilirubin and cholesterol levels including plasma cholesterol in albino rats. 20 male albino rats (200-210 g) were used in the study. The rats were assigned randomly into 2 groups (control and honey-fed groups), each group containing 10 rats. The control was fed on normal rat feed and water while the test group was fed on normal rat feed with honey added to its drinking water (1 ml of honey to every initial 10 ml of water) for 22 weeks. After 22 weeks the animals were starved for 12 hrs before the experiment, weighed and anaesthetized with sodium thiopentone (6 mg/100 mg body weight) intraperitoneally. The common bile duct was cannulated and bile collected for 3 hrs. The rate of bile flow was noted, the concentrations of bile electrolytes and bilirubin, bile and plasma cholesterol levels were determined in the control and test groups. The results obtained showed a significant [P<0.05] decrease in the rate of bile flow in the test (0.30+/-0.03 ml/hr) compared with the control groups (0.45+/-0.04 ml/hr). There were no significant differences in the concentration of bile electrolytes and bilirubin in the two groups. However, there was a significant [P<0.05] increase in the bile cholesterol and decrease in plasma cholesterol levels in the test rats compared with the control. It is therefore concluded that chronic consumption of unprocessed Nigerian honey resulted in decrease bile flow, increase bile cholesterol and decrease plasma cholesterol in albino rats. PMID:20234764

Alagwu, E A; Nneli, R O; Okwari, O O; Osim, E E

2009-12-01

134

The antioxidative effects of some medicinal plants as hypoglycemic agents on chromosomal aberration and abnormal nucleic acids metabolism produced by diabetes stress in male adult albino rats  

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Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to evaluate the chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells of alloxanized diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of Cleome droserifolia (Sammo, Anastatica hierochuntica (Kafta, Juniperus phoencea (Araar and Hyphaene thebaica (Doum as well as their effects on blood glucose, liver and testes total soluble protein, DNA and RNA contents and also nucleases (RNAase and DNAase activity. The material and Methods: The study was performed in six groups. The first group was the normal healthy control; the second group was rats injected with alloxan (diabetic control. Every one of the other four groups (diabetic rats was ingested with each of the methanolic extracts of Kafta, Doum, Sammo and Araar (individually. The results: The results of chromosomal analysis showed that, diabetic rats had a highly significant increase of chromosomal aberrations compared to that of normal healthy control. Animals which treated with the four plants methanolic extracts showed significant improvements in the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations. In case of biochemical analysis, blood glucose level was significantly increased but immunoglobulins levels were decreased in diabetic albino rats. Diabetes increased serum total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL but serum HDL was decreased. RNA and DNA as well as inhibited the nucleases (RNAase and DNAase activity of both organs (liver and testes tissue. The conclusions: It is concluded that diabetes is much harmful in the animal body, whilst the induction of flavonoids extract (by methanol of Kafta, Somma, Araar and Doum reduced these harmful of diabetes.

Sherifa H. Salah

2011-02-01

135

Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total of 24 adult male albino rats were randomly assigned as treated and untreated control groups. Treated group supplemented with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for 5 and 9 weeks. The results revealed that rats supplemented with water hyacinth (as a source of heavy metals) for 5 weeks induced significantly increase in RBCs, WBCs counts, hemoglobin content, Heinz bodies percentage and cell number/size ratio. At the same time liver cell size had a significant decrease under the same treatment. The ninth weeks of the experimental period showed a significant rise of Heinz bodies, globulin level, ALT level, liver cellular aspects (DNA, cell number and cell number/size ratio). A significant decrease of WBCs counts, A/G ratio and cell size were illustrated.The histological examination of treated rats liver showed chronic venous congestion with infiltration of the portal tract by chronic inflammatory cells and necrosis of hepatocyte cells consequently after 5 and 9 weeks of treatment

136

Correlation of body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus Norvegicus  

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Full Text Available Relationship between body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus was investigated. Morphometric data such as body weight (BDYWT, tail length (TL, body length from nose to anus (BLNA, body length from nose to tail tip (BLNT, tail circumference (TC, tail diameter (TD, and ear length (EL were collected from fifty live Albino rats involving 28 females and 22 males. The collected data were evaluated using regression analysis, correlation and independent-sample t-test. There was high significant (P r2 values ranging from 0.264 to 0.81. Regression analysis with high r2 value could be exploited in predicting many morphometric traits with great accuracy with the body weight serving as the explanatory or predictor variable. This research also suggested that male and female Albino rats have very similar morphometric characters as the results of independent-samples t-test showed.

Bruno Ikenna Aguh

2013-03-01

137

The Albino Rat Following Oral Administration Of A-Chlorohydrin  

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Full Text Available The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatment of female rats with a chlorohydrin caused reversible uterine and ovarian changes. Uterine changes took longer time to recover compared with that of ovarian changes. These results support the possibility that this drug could be a functional female sterilant as it was known as a male sterilant.

Fouad A.F.Ali*, Ali A.Abdel Rahman* and Ashraf M.Moustafa

2001-09-01

138

An Electron Microscopic Study of the Antifertility Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in Male Albino Rats / Estudio de Microscopía Electrónica del Potencial Antifertilidad del Romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) en Ratas Macho Albinas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar el potencial anti-fertilidad de la hierba de uso común, el romero, en ratas albinas macho utilizando microscopía electrónica como método de investigación. El extracto etanólico del romero se preparó y administró por vía oral a los animales en dos dosis diferent [...] es durante un período de tres meses. Los animales experimentales se sacrificaron y se retiraron sus testículos. Se prepararon secciones para microscopía electrónica y se observaron los cambios. Los resultados mostraron cambios microscópicos evidentes en los testículos de los animales que recibieron una dosis mayor del medicamento. La mayoría de los túbulos seminíferos se observaron comprimidos, con una membrana basal irregular y carente de células espermatogénicas. El presente trabajo revela una clara evidencia morfológica de una posible anti-fertilidad dependiente de la dosis del romero administrada en las ratas albinas macho. Abstract in english The present work was aimed at studying the antifertility potential of the commonly used herb, rosemary in the male albino rats using electron microscopy as the method of investigation. Ethanolic extract of the rosmary prepared and administered orally in two different doses for a period of three mont [...] hs to the animals. At the end of the experiment animals were sacrificed and testes removed. Sections for the electrone microscopy prepared and changes were observed. The present results showed evident microscopic changes in the testis of the animals received higher dose of the drug. Most of the seminiferous tubules were compressed, having irregular basement membrane and devoid of any spermatogenic cells. The present work revealed a clear morphological evidence of the dose dependent antifertility potential of the rosemary in the male albino rats.

Rania A. Salah, El-Din; Abd El-Rahman, El-Shahat; Rasha Ahmed, Elmansy.

139

An Electron Microscopic Study of the Antifertility Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in Male Albino Rats / Estudio de Microscopía Electrónica del Potencial Antifertilidad del Romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) en Ratas Macho Albinas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar el potencial anti-fertilidad de la hierba de uso común, el romero, en ratas albinas macho utilizando microscopía electrónica como método de investigación. El extracto etanólico del romero se preparó y administró por vía oral a los animales en dos dosis diferent [...] es durante un período de tres meses. Los animales experimentales se sacrificaron y se retiraron sus testículos. Se prepararon secciones para microscopía electrónica y se observaron los cambios. Los resultados mostraron cambios microscópicos evidentes en los testículos de los animales que recibieron una dosis mayor del medicamento. La mayoría de los túbulos seminíferos se observaron comprimidos, con una membrana basal irregular y carente de células espermatogénicas. El presente trabajo revela una clara evidencia morfológica de una posible anti-fertilidad dependiente de la dosis del romero administrada en las ratas albinas macho. Abstract in english The present work was aimed at studying the antifertility potential of the commonly used herb, rosemary in the male albino rats using electron microscopy as the method of investigation. Ethanolic extract of the rosmary prepared and administered orally in two different doses for a period of three mont [...] hs to the animals. At the end of the experiment animals were sacrificed and testes removed. Sections for the electrone microscopy prepared and changes were observed. The present results showed evident microscopic changes in the testis of the animals received higher dose of the drug. Most of the seminiferous tubules were compressed, having irregular basement membrane and devoid of any spermatogenic cells. The present work revealed a clear morphological evidence of the dose dependent antifertility potential of the rosemary in the male albino rats.

Rania A. Salah, El-Din; Abd El-Rahman, El-Shahat; Rasha Ahmed, Elmansy.

2012-06-01

140

An Electron Microscopic Study of the Antifertility Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. in Male Albino Rats Estudio de Microscopía Electrónica del Potencial Antifertilidad del Romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L. en Ratas Macho Albinas  

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Full Text Available The present work was aimed at studying the antifertility potential of the commonly used herb, rosemary in the male albino rats using electron microscopy as the method of investigation. Ethanolic extract of the rosmary prepared and administered orally in two different doses for a period of three months to the animals. At the end of the experiment animals were sacrificed and testes removed. Sections for the electrone microscopy prepared and changes were observed. The present results showed evident microscopic changes in the testis of the animals received higher dose of the drug. Most of the seminiferous tubules were compressed, having irregular basement membrane and devoid of any spermatogenic cells. The present work revealed a clear morphological evidence of the dose dependent antifertility potential of the rosemary in the male albino rats.El trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar el potencial anti-fertilidad de la hierba de uso común, el romero, en ratas albinas macho utilizando microscopía electrónica como método de investigación. El extracto etanólico del romero se preparó y administró por vía oral a los animales en dos dosis diferentes durante un período de tres meses. Los animales experimentales se sacrificaron y se retiraron sus testículos. Se prepararon secciones para microscopía electrónica y se observaron los cambios. Los resultados mostraron cambios microscópicos evidentes en los testículos de los animales que recibieron una dosis mayor del medicamento. La mayoría de los túbulos seminíferos se observaron comprimidos, con una membrana basal irregular y carente de células espermatogénicas. El presente trabajo revela una clara evidencia morfológica de una posible anti-fertilidad dependiente de la dosis del romero administrada en las ratas albinas macho.

Rania A. Salah El-Din

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Hepatotoxicity of ingested uranium in albino wistar rats  

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Uranium exhibits both radiotoxic and chemotoxic properties. Common route of contamination is ingestion through drinking water. Uranium is mainly nephrotoxic and is also hepatotoxic to mammals including humans. The dose range at which it affects organs still remains in predicament. To study the effect of ingested uranium on enzymatic and histopathological changes of liver in albino wistar rats. Uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UN) solutions were prepared at different concentrations in distilled water for administration. Healthy male and female albino wistar rats weighing 120±20 g were randomly divided into six groups, each group with five animals. Group 1 was the control. All the five treatment groups (group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5 and group 6) were orally administered with 0.156, 0.625, 2.5, 10 and 40 mg/kg/day of UN for 28 days duration. Blood samples collected on 29th day were analyzed for ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). In addition, histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed. Significant reduction by 61 and 46 % in GGT levels in female rats of groups 4 and 5 respectively while in male rats, increase of 55, 52 and 40 % in groups 3, 4 and 5 respectively were observed compared to control. In females, ALP levels were decreased by 38 % in group 2 and 29 % in group 4 while no changes were observed in males of control and test groups. ed in males of control and test groups. SGPT level was decreased by 22 % in group 6 in females but increased by 29 and 35 % in groups 2 and 6 respectively in males, compared to control. In females, 25 % increase in SGOT levels in group 4 was observed, but decreased in group 5 and 6 by 26 and 22 % respectively. A 27 % increase in SGOT level in males was recorded in group 2 compared to control. No histopathological changes were observed in liver tissues of test groups or the control. Uranium causes dose-independent changes in key marker enzymes of liver function indicating hepatic damage. Conversely, no histopathological alterations were observed in liver tissues. (author)

142

Corrective role of Eugenia jambolana on testicular impairment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat: An approach through genomic and proteomic study.  

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The present study was conducted to explore the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of hydro-methanolic (40 : 60) extract of seed of Eugenia jambolana on testicular impairment in diabetic rats. In this respect, biomarkers of oxidative stress, genomics and proteomics in testicular tissue were assessed. Side by side, glycated haemoglobin, serum testosterone, activities of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in serum, epididymal sperm count including reproductive organosomatic indices were evaluated. Results indicate that a significant recovery (P oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase significantly towards the control (P < 0.05). Finally, it may be concluded that ethyl acetate fraction of seed of E. jambolana has a promiseable remedial effect on diabetes-induced testicular dysfunctions in male rat without inducing any metabolic toxicity. PMID:23521341

Ghosh, A; Jana, K; Ali, K M; De, D; Chatterjee, K; Ghosh, D

2014-04-01

143

Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Functional and Structural Disorders in Urogenital System of Male Albino Rats Induced by Whole Body Gamma Irradiation  

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Pumpkin seeds have long been used for health benefits and the seed oil has been shown to contain active beneficial components that may protect from oxidative stress. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the modulator role of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) supplementation on gamma radiation induced changes in certain biochemical and histological abnormalities in both kidney and testes tissues. Male rats received 5Gy whole body gamma-irradiation delivered as 1 Gy day after day to result in a cumulative dose of 5 Gy. PSO was orally administered to rats (20mg/Kg body weight) for 20 consecutive days before irradiation and during the period of irradiation. On days seven and twenty one after the last irradiation dose, rats were sacrificed. Biochemical analysis in the serum revealed that PSO supplementation diminished the radiation-induced increase in the level of urea, creatinine , follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Significant amelioration of the radiation-induced decreases in calcium (Ca+2), potassium (K+) and testosterone levels were also recorded. PSO administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the level of lipid peroxides measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and the content of glutathione (GSH). Histological observations of photomicrographs of kidney sections of irradiated rats showed amorphoid glomeruli, renal sclerosis and high content of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, hemorrhage in glomeruli, ruptured proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Examination of testis tissues showed disappearance of seminiferous tubules, ruptured tunica albuginea, and degeneration of interstitial cells. PSO supplementation has obviously improved the radiation-induced histopathological changes in both tissues. It could be concluded that PSO can be used as a useful adjunct for maintaining the integrity of biochemical functions and restoring the original histological architecture of kidneys and testes after irradiation

144

Hepatic acid hydrolases of albino rats, Mastomys natalensis and albino mice during Plasmodium berghei infection.  

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Changes in liver acid hydrolase activities during the infection of albino rats, Mastomys or mice with Plasmodium berghei are described. B-Glucosidase, B-galactosidase and N-acetyl-B-D-glucosaminidase exhibited widely different responses with acid phosphatase and cathepsin-B the least responsive and are likely to be causally related to immunity of animals. PMID:3921400

Saxena, J K; Khare, S; Srivastava, A K; Sen, A B; Ghatak, S

1985-04-15

145

Gastric cytoprotection and honey intake in albino rats.  

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Beneficial effect of honey has been widely reported particularly on wound healings, gastrointestinal disorders and as antibacterial agent. However, there is paucity of report on its cytoprotective effect on the gastric mucosa despite its common usage worldwide including Nigeria. This study was therefore carried out to evaluate the effect of this widely consumed substance on gastric mucosa using animal model and also to explore possible mechanism of its action on the gastric mucosa .Twenty male adult albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing between 210-220g were used in the experiment. They were randomly assigned into two groups, the control group and the honey-fed (test) group, each containing ten rats. The Control group was fed on normal rat feed and water while the test group was fed on normal rat feed with honey added to its drinking water (1ml of honey for every initial 10ml of water for each rat daily) for twenty two weeks. After twenty two weeks the rats were weighed after being starved overnight. They were anaesthetized with urethane (0.6ml/100g body weight). Gastric ulceration was induced using 1.5ml acid-alcohol prepared from equivolume of 0.1NHCl and 70% methanol introduced into the stomach via a portex cannula tied and left in place following an incision made on the antral-pyloric junction of the stomach. The acid-alcohol was allowed to stay for 1hr. After 1hr, laparatomy was performed and the stomach isolated, cut open along the greater curvature, rinsed with normal saline and fastened in place with pins on a dissecting board for ulcer examination and scores. The result obtained showed mean ulcer scores of 14.5+/-0.70 for the control group and 1.6+/-0.11 for the test group. The result showed that honey significantly reduced ulcer scores as well as caused scanty haemorrhage in the test group compared with increased ulcer scores and multiple haemorrhage in the control group. It is therefore concluded that honey intake offered cytoprotection on the gastric mucosa of albino rats. PMID:22314985

Alagwu, E A; Nneli, R O; Egwurugwu, J N; Osim, E E

2011-06-01

146

Toxicological investigations on the methanol sub-fraction of the seeds of Carica papaya as a male contraceptive in albino rats.  

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Pre-clinical acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of the methanol sub-fraction (MSF) of the seeds of Carica papaya, a putative male contraceptive, have been investigated in rats to evaluate safety of the test substance. A single oral dose of MSF at 2000 mg/kg body weight was studied over 14 days for acute toxicity, and daily oral doses of 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight were studied for 28- and 90-day periods for sub-chronic toxicity. Body weight, food and water intake and phenotypical toxicological symptoms were recorded daily. Sperm analysis, hematology, serum clinical biochemistry, libido and pathological examination of vital organs were recorded at the termination of the experimental periods. We observed no overt general toxicity in exposed animals. Food and water intake showed daily fluctuations within control limits. Sperm density showed a significant decrease in all 28- and 90-day repeated dose treated animals whereas total sperm motility inhibition was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg dose levels at the 28-day time interval but in all dose groups at the 90-day interval. The preliminary results suggest the test substance may be a safe approach to male anti-fertility. PMID:16515854

Lohiya, Nirmal K; Manivannan, Boomi; Garg, Shipra

2006-10-01

147

Effect of a Long Term Consumption of a Diet Supplemented with Leaves of Gongronema latifolium Benth. on Some Biochemical and Histological Parameters in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of long term consumption of Gongronema latifolium on some biochemical and histological parameters in male rats. Biochemical parameters evaluated included serum protein, haemoglobin, cholesterol, lipid peroxidation, white blood cells, glutathione-s-transferase, superoxide dismutase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The histological changes of the liver, intestines and testes were examined. The long term feeding of a Gongronema latifolium -supplemented diet caused significant increases (p<0.05 in cholesterol, haemoglobin and white blood cells. The diet exhibited antioxidant properties by reducing lipid peroxidation and increasing superoxide dismutase activity. There was a significant increase (p<0.05 in glutathione-s-transferase and decrease in the liver enzymes namely Alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase suggesting a role of Gongronema latifolium in detoxification and hepatoprotection. However, Gongronema latifolium -supplemented diet did not cause any significant changes in weight and serum protein. The histology of the hepatic plate appeared irregular while the portal tracts showed a lifted basement membrane and few inflammatory cells. The intestinal mucosa showed an elongated and broadened villi. There were no histological changes on the testes.

E.J. Iweala Emeka

2009-01-01

148

QUANTITATIVE AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE ADRENAL MEDULLA IN POST NATAL PERIOD OF ALBINO RAT  

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Full Text Available Background: The present work was based on the evaluation of histological, histochemical, and quantitative study on the adrenal medulla of the white albino rat in the different post natal age period. Material and methods:Sixty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were classified to 4 main groups as follows: - Group one : One week old albino rats. - Group two: One month old albino rats. - Group three: Three months old albino rats. - Group four: Senile rats. Three main parameters were performed in this study, the first was the study of the morphological changes in the adrenal medulla in the different postnatal age groups. The second was concerned with the histochemical studies while the last parameter was the quantitative studies on the gland volume as well as its cellular count. These three parameters were performed by using different staining techniques. Results: The results showed that medullary cells in the early age groups were arranged in non-differentiated groups and become more differentiated in the older age groups. Both reticular and elastic fibers in the older age groups showed a definite increase especially at the region of corticomedullary zone. The different types of chromaffin cells were more observed at the old age groups. The concentration of ascorbic acid granules was more marked in the senile group. The quantitative changes were in the form of increased medullary volume especially in the old age. The number of chromaffin cells as well as the concentration of ascorbic acid contents was more noticed in the old age group. Conclusions: The differentiation of both divisions of the adrenal gland was not noticed in the early age groups. Cellular and fibrous differentiations were more seen in older age groups which may reflects an idea about the degree of gland maturation

Wagieh k.Baiomy; Abdel-mawgood Anas; Mamdooh Ghaly; Ashraf M. Moustafa

2009-09-01

149

CURATIVE POTENTIAL OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SCENT LEAF (OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM) ON CISPLATIN INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS  

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Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used for a wide variety of tumors, but is reported to be hepatotoxic. In the current study, the dose dependent and time course curative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (O.G.) on cisplatin induced hepatotoxic rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches was evaluated. Male albino wistar rats weighing between 150-200g were randomly separated into four different groups of eighteen (18) rats per group. Rats in gro...

Arhoghro, E. M.; Ikeh, C.; Uwakwe, A. A.; Ekpo, K. E.; Anosike, E. O.

2012-01-01

150

Brain cholesterol and phospholipid levels in cyproheptadine treated albino rats.  

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Effect of different doses (2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg and 40 mg/kg), s.c., for 2 weeks, of cyproheptadine (CYP) on brain cholesterol and phospholipid of albino rats was investigated. Cyp. 2.5 mg/kg, showed increase in brain cholesterol and phospholipid contents whereas other doses caused a decrease in phospholipid level. PMID:8225552

Kabi, B C; Rao, Y N; Parsi, B; Chakrabarty, A S

1993-04-01

151

Pattern of neurobehaviour in albino rats in the open field following oral artesunate administration.  

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The neurobehavioural patterns in the open field following oral artesunate administration was studied using 40 albino rats randomly assigned to three Groups, namely A, B and C. Prior to the test, all the animals were acclimatized for 5 minutes in the open field maze. Group A (8 males and 8 females) received therapeutic doses of artesunate (1.42 mg/kg per oral (p.o.)--using oro-gastric tubes while Group B (8 males and 8 females) received pharmacological doses of 4.26 mg/kg (p.o.). Group C served as the control and were administered only distilled water (p.o.). Gross behavioural changes were noted following the therapeutic and pharmacological administration of artesunate for five days. Rats in Groups A and B showed marked decrease in loco motor activity (line crossing) and exploratory (rearing and walling) activities in comparison with the control (P0.05). However, the frequency of grooming was significantly lower in Groups A and B rats than in the control (P<0.01). The frequency and duration of freezing were significantly higher in Groups A and B rats than in the control rats (P<0.01). There were no significant differences between the values for the male and female rats. There was also no dose dependent effect of artesunate on the activities studied. Oral administration of artesunate significantly decreases loco motor and exploratory behaviours in the albino rat. PMID:19205573

Odo, M O; Bisong, S A; Akpa, O A; Udokang, A; Obidua, C I; Ekanem, T B; Osim, E E

2007-06-01

152

Effect of vitamin D on atorvastatin induced blood sugar changes in Wistar albino rats  

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Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that chronic use of atorvastatin 2 and 4 mg may lead to fasting hyperglycemia and it could be prevented by co-administration of 200 IU of vitamin D, in male Wistar albino rats. Randomized control studies in humans are further required to recommend routine use of vitamin D in patients receiving atorvastatin. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 359-364

R. Arunkumar

2014-04-01

153

HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ACETONE EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA ROXB. BARK ON TYPE-2 DIABETIC ALBINO RATS  

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In the present study, hypoglycemic effects of Terminalia arjuna bark extract were seen in high fructose (21%)followed by streptozotocin (40mg/kg BW) induced type-2 diabetic male albino rats. In vivo study showedprotective effect of T. arjuna bark acetone extract of towards blood glucose, serum urea, serum createnine, SGOT,SGPT, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT), urine sugar and urine ketone bodies in diabetic rats. Feeding 500 mg/kgBW arjuna bark extract to rats showed better effect for blood and...

SHAMSHUN NEHAR; RAJ KUMAR; CHANDAN KUMAR

2013-01-01

154

Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure on Histology and DNA Content of the Brain Cortex and Hypothalamus of Young and Adult Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concerns have been raised regarding the potential adverse effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) arising from mobile phone. The present study investigates the effect of the daily exposure of adult and young rats to EMR for 1 hour (at a frequency of 900 MHz, a power density of 0.02 mW/cm2 and an average specific absorption rate of 1.165 W/kg) on the DNA content and tissue architecture of the cortex and hypothalamus of the rat brain. Both young and adult rats were sacrificed at two intervals, after 4 months of daily EMR exposure and after 1 month of stopping the exposure. The present results showed a significant increase in the DNA intensity of young and adult rats in both areas after 4 months of daily EMR exposure. However, decreased DNA content around the normal level was observed after one month of stopping the exposure. Light microscopic examination of irradiated rats revealed edema, vacuolation, necrosis and proliferated glial cells. Stopping EMR exposure showed mild amelioration in the structural damage of the cerebral cortex of young animals, however, most drastic changes still persisted in the other animals. In conclusion, these data may confirm the neurotoxic risks arising from the extensive use of mobile phones that may alter the brain histology and impair its function

155

Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial Activity of Propolis Ethanolic Extract and Its Improving Role of Biochemical Changes Induced by Carbon tetrachloride in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Propolis (bee glue) is a sticky substance that is collected from plants by honeybees. Due to biological and pharmacological activities, it has been extensively used in folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition, the antimicrobial activity and possible protective effects of ethanolic extract of propolis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced biological damages in rats. The studied rats were allotted to four equal groups (6 rats each) : Group 1 served as control and was given the vehicle (Tween 80 dissolved in distilled water, 1:100 ) orally for 21 consecutive days after which they were sacrificed , group 2 treated orally with ethanolic extract of popolis (100?g/rat) for 21 successive days, group 3 ( CCl4 - treated group) administered orally with a single dose (0.5 ml/kg body weight) of carbon tetrachloride (mixed with an equal volume of olive oil) and group 4 (protected group) was treated with propolis extract (100?g/rat) for 21 successive days, after one hour of the last dose of the treatment, a single dose of CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) was given. Then all animals were sacrificed, 24 hr post experimental design period for each group. Our results revealed that, fourteen compounds were identified by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC- MS analysis). Propolis ethanolic extract inhibited the growth of six from the tested microorganisms including bacteria and fungi at 5 mg/ml against E bacteria and fungi at 5 mg/ml against E. coli and B. subtilis and 20 mg/ml against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Penicillium italicum and Candida albicans, while it has no effect on A. fumigatus and Syncephalstrum racemasum. In experimental animals, Leucocytic counts and platelets, in addition, AST, ALT, CK and LDH were significantly increased, meanwhile, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) level was decreased in CCl4 treated rats (group 3) compared to the control (group 1). Protection with ethanolic extract of propolis to rats received CCl4 (group 4) ameliorated the altered levels of studied parameters as compared to control group. In conclusion, these results suggest that propolis has antimicrobial activity and a protective effect on biological damages induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. More researches are required to isolate and purify the active principle involve in biological activity of propolis to used as a curative agent

156

Histological and Histochemical Studies on the Effects of Methotrexate on the Liver of Adult Male Albino Rat / Estudios Histológico e Histoquímico del Efecto del Metotrexato en el Hígado de Rata Macho Albina Adulta  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El metotrexato es ampliamente usado en la terapia de varias enfermedades malignas. El presente trabajo fue diseñado para investigar los cambios histológicos e histoquímicos del hígado de rata albina, después de administrar dicho fármaco. Se usaron 15 ratas albinas, machos, adultas, que fueron dividi [...] das en 3 grupos: El grupo I no tuvo tratamiento correspondiendo al control. A los grupos II y III se les administró, por vía intraperitoneal, una solución salina normal y metotrexato, respectivamente, con una dosificación de 0,5 mg por Kg de peso, dos veces por semana, con una duración total de 3, 6 y 9 semanas. Las ratas fueron sacrificadas y los hígados extraídos y procesados para los estudios histológico e histoquímico. El examen de los hígados del grupo III mostró infiltración celular mononuclear y un incremento en la cantidad de fibras colágenas en la vía portal. Hubo áreas focales de necrosis de células hepáticas con distorsión de la arquitectura hepática normal. Además, hubo un gradual y progresivo decrecimiento del contenido de glicógeno en los hepatocitos. La actividad de deshidrogenasa succínica y fosfatas alcalinas también disminuyó, pero sí hubo un aumento de la actividad de las fosfatasas ácidas en las áreas degeneradas y pérdida de actividades en áreas de necrosis celular masiva. En conclusión, inyecciones repetidas de metotrexato causan daño hepático de maginitud definida. Esta hepatotoxicidad progresó a medida que las dosis se fueron acumulando. El presente estudio muestra evidencias claras de la potencia citotóxica de este medicamento. Abstract in english Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used in the therapy of various types of malignancy. The present work was designed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes in the liver of albino rat following methotrexate administration. Fifteen adult male albino rats were used in the present work. The [...] y were divided into three main groups: Group I was kept without treatment and served as control. Groups II and III were given intraperitoneal injections of normal saline and MTX, respectively, at a dosage of (0.5 mg/Kg) twice weekly for total durations of 3, 6 and 9 weeks. The rats were sacrificed and the livers were excised and processed for histological and histochemical study. Examination of sections of the livers of group III showed mononuclear cell infiltration and an increase in the amount of collagen fibers in the portal tracts. There were focal areas of liver cell necrosis with distortion of the normal hepatic architecture. Moreover, there was a gradual and progressive decrease of glycogen content in the hepatocytes. Furthermore, succinic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity were also decreased. In addition there was an increase in acid phosphatase activities in the degenerated areas and loss of activities in areas of massive cellular necrosis. It was concluded that repeated injections of MTX causes hepatic damage of a definite magnitude. This hepatotoxicity progressed with increasing cumulative doses of methotrexate. The present study provided further evidence to the cytotoxic potency of this antifolate

Mohamed Akram, Al-Motabagani.

157

Histological and Histochemical Studies on the Effects of Methotrexate on the Liver of Adult Male Albino Rat / Estudios Histológico e Histoquímico del Efecto del Metotrexato en el Hígado de Rata Macho Albina Adulta  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El metotrexato es ampliamente usado en la terapia de varias enfermedades malignas. El presente trabajo fue diseñado para investigar los cambios histológicos e histoquímicos del hígado de rata albina, después de administrar dicho fármaco. Se usaron 15 ratas albinas, machos, adultas, que fueron dividi [...] das en 3 grupos: El grupo I no tuvo tratamiento correspondiendo al control. A los grupos II y III se les administró, por vía intraperitoneal, una solución salina normal y metotrexato, respectivamente, con una dosificación de 0,5 mg por Kg de peso, dos veces por semana, con una duración total de 3, 6 y 9 semanas. Las ratas fueron sacrificadas y los hígados extraídos y procesados para los estudios histológico e histoquímico. El examen de los hígados del grupo III mostró infiltración celular mononuclear y un incremento en la cantidad de fibras colágenas en la vía portal. Hubo áreas focales de necrosis de células hepáticas con distorsión de la arquitectura hepática normal. Además, hubo un gradual y progresivo decrecimiento del contenido de glicógeno en los hepatocitos. La actividad de deshidrogenasa succínica y fosfatas alcalinas también disminuyó, pero sí hubo un aumento de la actividad de las fosfatasas ácidas en las áreas degeneradas y pérdida de actividades en áreas de necrosis celular masiva. En conclusión, inyecciones repetidas de metotrexato causan daño hepático de maginitud definida. Esta hepatotoxicidad progresó a medida que las dosis se fueron acumulando. El presente estudio muestra evidencias claras de la potencia citotóxica de este medicamento. Abstract in english Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used in the therapy of various types of malignancy. The present work was designed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes in the liver of albino rat following methotrexate administration. Fifteen adult male albino rats were used in the present work. The [...] y were divided into three main groups: Group I was kept without treatment and served as control. Groups II and III were given intraperitoneal injections of normal saline and MTX, respectively, at a dosage of (0.5 mg/Kg) twice weekly for total durations of 3, 6 and 9 weeks. The rats were sacrificed and the livers were excised and processed for histological and histochemical study. Examination of sections of the livers of group III showed mononuclear cell infiltration and an increase in the amount of collagen fibers in the portal tracts. There were focal areas of liver cell necrosis with distortion of the normal hepatic architecture. Moreover, there was a gradual and progressive decrease of glycogen content in the hepatocytes. Furthermore, succinic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity were also decreased. In addition there was an increase in acid phosphatase activities in the degenerated areas and loss of activities in areas of massive cellular necrosis. It was concluded that repeated injections of MTX causes hepatic damage of a definite magnitude. This hepatotoxicity progressed with increasing cumulative doses of methotrexate. The present study provided further evidence to the cytotoxic potency of this antifolate

Mohamed Akram, Al-Motabagani.

2006-09-01

158

Disposition of (2,3-/sup 14/C)-methyl and (2,3-/sup 14/C)-2-ethylhexyl acrylate in male wistar albino rats  

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The disposition of methyl (2,3-/sup 14/C)-acrylate (MA) and 2-ethylhexyl (2,3-/sup 14/C)-acrylate (EHA) following intraperitoneal and oral administration to rats has been studied. The /sup 14/C found in the tissues was mainly associated with liver, kidneys and lungs. Loss of /sup 14/C from these tissues occurred fairly rapidly, excluding the rats given EHA intraperitoneally. Most of the administered acrylated underwent rapid metabolism and excretion with expired air (more than 50% of the dose and urine (10-50% of the dose). Significant differences in the rates of /sup 14/C loss from tissues and excretion occurred after intrapritoneal administration of MA and EHA. A possible cumulation of EHA in the organism was suggested.

Sapota, A.

1988-09-01

159

The disposition of [2,3-14C]-methyl and [2,3-14C]-2-ethylhexyl acrylate in male wistar albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The disposition of methyl [2,3-14C]-acrylate (MA) and 2-ethylhexyl [2,3-14C]-acrylate (EHA) following intraperitoneal and oral administration to rats has been studied. The 14C found in the tissues was mainly associated with liver, kidneys and lungs. Loss of 14C from these tissues occurred fairly rapidly, excluding the rats given EHA intraperitoneally. Most of the administered acrylated underwent rapid metabolism and excretion with expired air (more than 50% of the dose and urine (10-50% of the dose). Significant differences in the rates of 14C loss from tissues and excretion occurred after intrapritoneal administration of MA and EHA. A possible cumulation of EHA in the organism was suggested. (orig.)

160

Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Heavy Metal (Nickel II and ChromiumVI) Induced Alteration of Serum Lipid Profile in Male Albino Rats  

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We have studied the effect of simultaneous oral treatment of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum) on heavy metal (nickel II and chromium VI) induced changes in serum lipid profile. Nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) level as well as decrease in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Simultaneous garl...

Das, Kusal K.; Dhundasi, Salim A.; Das, Swastika N.; Amrita Das Gupta

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Radiological and physiological studies on the role of some therapeutic agents used for internal decontamination of radionuclides from male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the earths increasing nuclear arsenal and the growing use of nuclear energy, the possibility of radiological accidents involving release of radioactive materials, internal contamination may consequently occurs via inhalation, ingestion or absorption of radioisotopes.Therefore, the present work was oriented to deal with four topics related to the internal decontamination of two of the most widely used isotopes, namely 134Cs and 60Co from contaminated rats:-In vitro study aimed to select agents that can strongly bind the two metal ions and elucidate the best conditions and the factors affecting this binding. The tested agents were bentonite, vermiculite and Prussian blue (PB). The sorption capacity of PB and vermiculite for both metal ions was high and equivalent to more than 1011 Bq 137Cs or 60Co per gram sorbent. As bentonite has lower capacity to both isotopes, further in vivo experiments were performed with PB and vermiculite.-In vivo studies, via 5 groups of rats, devoted to investigate the kinetics of excretion of 134Cs and/or 60Co from contaminated rats. The biological half lives of excretion, excretion stages for both isotopes and the effect of route of entry on the excretion were estimated.-In vivo studies aimed to investigate the effectiveness of PB + vermiculite and CaDTPA as therapeutic agents for accelerating the elimination of 134Cs and/or 60Co from contaminated rats. The study was performed via 6 groups of rats given different regimes of therapy. The results showed the high efficiency of PB + vermiculite for accelerating elimination of 134Cs and orally administrated 60Co while CaDTPA succeeded in accelerating intraperitoneally administrated 60Co. The study proved that oral administration of PB + vermiculite and injection with CaDTPA at the same time is very effective in accelerating elimination of both contaminants simultaneously.-The physiological studies aimed to evaluate the hazardous effects of 134Cs and/or 60Co incorporation and any side effect of therapeutic agents on hematological and biochemical parameters. The data obtained revealed that internal contamination causes a significant decrease in the RBC's counts, Hb concentration, haematocrit value, serum total proteins, albumin, serum inorganic phosphorous, in addition to a significant increase in serum urea, creatinine concentration, glucose, CPK and LDH activities. However, no significant changes were recorded in globulin, A/G ratio, total bilirubin, ALT, AST enzymatic activities, sodium, potassium and calcium levels. The treatment by the tested therapeutic agents has no significant effect on the same parameters and causes significant amelioration in the changes produced by internal contamination with variable degrees.

162

Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats  

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C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

163

Ultrastructural Identification of the Basal-Granulated Cells in the Duodenum of Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available The fine structure of the crypt epithelium of the duodenal mucosa in albino rats was studied to represent the types and distribution of the basal-granulated or endocrine cells. Twenty male animals were used. Perfusion-fixation was made and samples of duodenal mucosa were taken and processed to prepare epon-embedded specimens for examination by a transmission electron microscope. Cells containing membrane-bound granules were seen in the crypt epithelium. They were identified to be basal-granulated cells. Six different types of such cells were demonstrated. All of the cells were of the closed type. The possible functional significance of these closed cell types was discussed. Correlation among the distributions of such cells in the intestine of albino rat might enable the physiologists, internists and other research workers to study several biologically active peptides with well-established functions other than those which have long been investigated.

Ali Hassan A. Ali

2014-07-01

164

EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SWEET CORN SILK ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERTHYROIDISM IN SWISS ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Plant materials have been used as medicine for a wide variety of human ailments due to increase in cost of treatment, side effects of several allopathic drugs and development of resistance to currently used drugs for infectious diseases. In the present study, hyperthyroidism was induced to male Swiss albino rats orally using thyroxine for 14 days. The impact of methanolic extract of sweet corn silk in different concentrations (200, 300 & 400mg/kg for 21 days was assessed in these animals. The serum was analyzed for thyroid hormone level and lipid profile before and during the experiment. Results showed that 400mg/kg concentration of methanolic extract has the highest effectiveness which is equal to that of standard drug to revert the hyperthyroid condition in Swiss albino rats and were confirmed with the histopathological study of the thyroid gland.

Thoudam Bhaigyabati

2012-03-01

165

HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ACETONE EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA ROXB. BARK ON TYPE-2 DIABETIC ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available In the present study, hypoglycemic effects of Terminalia arjuna bark extract were seen in high fructose (21%followed by streptozotocin (40mg/kg BW induced type-2 diabetic male albino rats. In vivo study showedprotective effect of T. arjuna bark acetone extract of towards blood glucose, serum urea, serum createnine, SGOT,SGPT, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT, urine sugar and urine ketone bodies in diabetic rats. Feeding 500 mg/kgBW arjuna bark extract to rats showed better effect for blood and urine parameters as compared to rats fed with250 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract. The effect of feeding 500 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract was found to bealmost equal to that of with glimepiride fed diabetic rats. The result indicated that Terminalia arjuna bark acetoneextract of have antidiabetogenic and possess hypoglycemic effects in type-2 diabetic rats.

SHAMSHUN NEHAR

2013-01-01

166

TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FICUS VIRENS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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The present study was conducted to investigate the toxic effect of oral administration of methanolic leaf extract of Ficus virens in Wistar albino rats.The phytochemical analysis of the F.virens extract was carried out using high performance thin layer chromatography revealed for the presence of flavonoids, bitter principles, coumarins and absence of alkaloids, anthracene derivatives. Acute oral toxicity study (OECD 423) showed no clinical signs of toxicity and mortality even at dose of 2000-...

Pattar Jayashree; Shridhar, N. B.; Matham Vijaykumar; Suhasini, K.; Jayakumar; Satyanarayana, M. L.

2012-01-01

167

Combined Effect of heat stress and radiation exposure on levels of testosterone lactate dehydrogenase, total lipids and cholesterol in blood plasma and testicular tissue of male albino rats  

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Hyperthermia and radiotherapy are used as relatively successful modalities in the treatment of some diseases. This work aims to gain a better understanding about the testicular physiological changes caused by a combined stress of heat and gamma radiation. Rats were divided into four groups : 1.Control, 2.Irradiated at a dose level 6 Gy, 3.Exposed to heat tress for one, 3, 5 and 7 days and group 4 exposed to heat tress as group 3 followed by irradiation directly at the end of heat treatment. Plasma levels of testosterone, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total lipids and total cholesterol, as well as, testicular content of total lipids and total cholesterol were detected. Results showed that irradiation (6 Gy) induced significant decreases (P<0.001) in plasma testosterone level, whereas, it elevated significantly the plasma levels of LDH activity and total cholesterol. The heat stress caused significant declines in plasma testosterone , LDH (after 1, 3 and 5 days) and total lipids, but not testicular content of total lipids. Conversely, it increased the rectal temperature and both, plasma and testicular tissue content of total cholesterol levels. The whole-body gamma irradiation direcrly post heat stress intervals boosted the heat stress effect on all the examined parameters. Hence it could be concluded that exposure to whole-body gamma irradiation in high ambient temperatures diminished the testicular function by decreasing the sexual hormone testosterone although its precursor cholesterol increased in both plasma and testicular tissue. This combined treatment seemed to block the mechanism of testosterone formation in testicular tissue, and in turn, decresed its levels in plasma. Further investigations are needed to study such combined effect of heat stress andirradiation on the testicular potency and the testicular function

168

Genetic Protective Role of D-Glucan against Oxidative Stress Induced by Mitomycin and Gamma-Radiation Exposure in Male Albino Rats  

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D-glucan is a polysaccharide with multi-branching molecules derived from the cell wall of baker's yeast. It was reported to modulated innate immunity via interaction with membrane receptors on macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells and posses potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging capabilities. The aim of the present study was to investigate chemo-protective and radio-protective effect of D-glucan. Rats were orally (gavages) injected with D-glucan at dose of (20 mg/kg body wt) daily for three weeks. Mitomycin c (MMC) was administered three equal doses (1.5 mg/ kg) day after day for one week (2nd week) before radiation exposure at 3 fractionated doses (2 Gy) day after day in the 2nd week. The investigation were carried out on the days 3 and 10 post radiation-exposure and MMC administration for the determination of bone marrow micronucleus (Mn) frequency and DNA fragmentation in blood lymphocytes. The results showed that the exposure of animals to MMC and/ or irradiation led to clearly defined DNA fragmentation. D-glucan administration resulted in a significant improvement in lymphocytes DNA fragmentation and amelioration of Mn frequencies at day 3 and more pronounced at day 10 post irradiation. This study indicates that D-glucan has radio and chemo-protective effects against oxidative stress as a result of ?-radiation and/ or MMC exposure. So, D-glucan may be used to reduce the genotoxicity effects of different anticancer drugs and to reduce their unwanted side effects.

169

Attenuating Role of Vitamin C on Sperm Toxicity Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The toxicity of monosodium glutamate has been on the increase due to increased patronage of fast foods; with its attendant effects. There have also been attempts to attenuate these effects. Hence, the attenuating role of vitamin C on sperm toxicity induced by monosodium glutamate was accessed on the weight of testes and epididymes, epididymal count, motility, viability, semen pH and sperm head abnormality in albino rat as a model. The male rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. The rats were administered with MSG and vitamin C treatments for 65 days. Vitamin C attenuated the MSG induced toxicity on weight of testes and epididymes, sperm motility, count and sperm head abnormality. Vitamin C can actually attenuate the effect of MSG induced toxicity in rats as a model.

O.S. Amaechina

2013-01-01

170

Gonadal Responses to Antipsychotic Drugs: Chlorpromazine and Thioridazine Reversibly Suppress Testicular Functions in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This work was undertaken to investigate the individual effects and probable mechanism of action of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (largactil and thioridazine hydrochloride (melleril on male reproductive functions, in albino rats. A total of 45 adult male albino Wistar-strain rats were used. Five rats served as the control while the remaining forty rats were divided into four groups, of 10 rats each. Rats in group I were treated with 2.3 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group II received 5.7 mg kg-1 BW of chlorpromazine. Rats in group III, were treated with 1.7 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group IV received 2.3 mg kg-1 BW of thioridazine. Control rats received vehicle of the drugs (i.e. distilled water. Drugs and vehicle were administered orally on a daily basis. Five rats, in each of the four drug-treated groups served as the recovery rats. Sperm characteristics evaluation, serum levels of testosterone and histopathological alterations in the testis were assessed both after four weeks of continuous drug administrations and four weeks of drug withdrawal. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine significantly caused a reduction in the absolute weights of the testis, epididymis and seminal vesicles (p<0.01 at high and low doses. Weight of the prostate gland was also reduced significantly (p<0.05 at the high dose. The epididymal sperm motility, viability (life/death ratio and counts were significantly reduced (p<0.01 at high dose of chlorpromazine and thioridazine. Moreover, sperm morphological abnormalities were significantly increased (p<0.01 at both doses of the drugs. Reduction in serum levels of testosterone for both drugs was statistically significant (p<0.01. The histopathological alterations observed in the testis includes moderate to severe degeneration of seminiferous tubular epithelium. Fertility and other associated changes were restored within four weeks of cessation of treatment. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine appear to have reversible antifertility actions in male albino rats. These actions were probably mediated within the testis and epididymis.

Y. Raji

2005-01-01

171

Comparative study on the effect of energy drinks on haematopoietic system in Wistar albino rats.  

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Energy drinks have become popularized and the market value for these drinks is continually growing. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three popular kinds of energy drinks (Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red) on certain hematological parameters and on the ultrastructure of blood cells in male Wistar albino rats. Animals were treated orally with Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red respectively for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken after two and four weeks for determination of haematological indices. Ultrastructure examination of blood cells was carried only after 4 weeks of treatment. The results indicated significant reduction (P rats administered with Code Red. On the other hand, ultrastructural alterations, including both nucleus and cytoplasm of peripheral blood cells, were recorded in all treated animals but they were more pronounced in animals received Red Bull and Power Horse. It is concluded that energy drinks have serious detrimental impacts on haematopoietic system of male rats. PMID:25204063

Khayyat, Latifa I; Essawy, Amina E; Al Rawy, Maisaa M; Sorour, Jehan M

2014-09-01

172

Biochemical Effects of Energy Drinks Alone or in Combination with Alcohol in Normal Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the biochemical effects of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol in normal albino rats. Methods: Twenty male albino rats weighing 160-180g were assigned into groups A-E of four rats per group. Group A and B rats were given low and high doses of ED, respectively, groups C and D were administered low and high doses of EDmA, respectively while group E rats were given distilled water and served as control. The treatment lasted for 30 days after which the animals were killed and their blood collected for laboratory analyses using standard methods. Results: There were no significant differences in body weight, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration with either administration of ED or EDmA in comparison to the control. Energy drink alone or EDmA has significant effects on total white blood cell count, plasma potassium, calcium, renal functions, liver enzymes and plasma triglycerides, with EDmA having more effects than ED alone, except for body weight where the energy drink alone has higher effect. Conclusion: Consumption of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol is associated with significant alterations in some biochemical parameters. Caution should be exercised while consuming either of them. Public health education is urgently needed to correct the wrong impression already formed by the unsuspecting consumers, especially the youths.

Emmanuel Ike Ugwuja

2013-12-01

173

Displaced retinal ganglion cells in albino and pigmented rats  

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We have studied in parallel the population of displaced retinal ganglion cells (dRGCs) and normally placed (orthotopic RGCs, oRGCs) in albino and pigmented rats. Using retrograde tracing from the optic nerve, from both superior colliculi (SC) or from the ipsilateral SC in conjunction with Brn3 and melanopsin immunodetection, we report for the first time their total number and topography as well as the number and distribution of those dRGCs and oRGCs that project ipsi- or contralaterally and/or that express any of the three Brn3 isoforms or melanopsin. The total number of RGCs (oRGCs+dRGCs) is 84,706 ± 1249 in albino and 90,440 ± 2236 in pigmented, out of which 2383 and 2428 are melanopsin positive (m-RGCs), respectively. Regarding dRGCs: i/ albino rats have a significantly lower number of dRGCs than pigmented animals (0.5% of the total number of RGCs vs. 2.5%, respectively), ii/ dRGCs project massively to the contralateral SC, iii/ the percentage of ipsilaterality is higher for dRGCs than for oRGCs, iv/ a higher proportion of ipsilateral dRGCs is observed in albino than pigmented animals, v/ dRGC topography is very specific, they predominate in the equatorial temporal retina, being densest where the oRGCs are densest, vi/ Brn3a detects all dRGCs except half of the ipsilateral ones and those that express melanopsin, vii/ the proportion of dRGCs that express Brn3b or Brn3c is slightly lower than in the oRGC population, viii/ a higher percentage of dRGCs (13% albino, 9% pigmented) than oRGCs (2.6%) express melanopsin, ix/ few m-RGCs (displaced and orthotopic) project to the ipsilateral SC, x/ the topography of m-dRGCs does not resemble the general distribution of dRGCs, xi/ The soma size in m-oRGCs ranges from 10 to 21 ?m and in m-dRGCs from 8 to 15 ?m, xii/ oRGCs and dRGCs have the same susceptibility to axonal injury and ocular hypertension. Although the role of mammalian dRGCs remains to be determined, our data suggest that they are not misplaced by an ontogenic mistake. PMID:25339868

Nadal-Nicolas, Francisco M.; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Jimenez-Lopez, Manuel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Villegas-Perez, Maria P.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

2014-01-01

174

The Albino Rat Following Oral Administration Of A-Chlorohydrin  

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The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw) of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatmen...

Fouad A F Ali, Ali A. Abdel Rahman And Ashraf M. Moustafa

2001-01-01

175

Effect of Aloe vera extract on some physiological parameters in diabetic albino rats  

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The present study aimed to clarify antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract from Aloe vera on thirty adult male albino rats were divided into three groups, the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg / kg B.wt. ) and served as diabetic group and the third was injected with alloxan and treated with Aloe vera water extract ( 0.5 ml / 100 g B.wt. ). After thirty days of treatment half of each group were scarified and the other one were left for 15 days withou...

Mustafa, Eman G. E. Helal Mohamad H. A. Hasan Ashraf M.

2003-01-01

176

TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FICUS VIRENS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the toxic effect of oral administration of methanolic leaf extract of Ficus virens in Wistar albino rats.The phytochemical analysis of the F.virens extract was carried out using high performance thin layer chromatography revealed for the presence of flavonoids, bitter principles, coumarins and absence of alkaloids, anthracene derivatives. Acute oral toxicity study (OECD 423 showed no clinical signs of toxicity and mortality even at dose of 2000-5000 mg/kg in 24 h and 14 day observation period. For repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407 extract was given at dose of 50, 200, and 800 mg/kg and limit dose of 1000mg/kg for 28 days and compared with the control group given with the distilled water. The result showed no significant increase (P>0.05 in biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine and haematological parameters. No significant decrease in feed consumption and body weight gain, also there were no treatment related gross and histopathological changes. In conclusion, methanolic leaf extract of F. virens did not revealed any clinical signs of toxicity and mortality in both acute and repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study at given dose and duration in Wistar albino rats. LD50 value may be more than 2000 mg/kg, can be classified as category 5 and indicating non-toxic nature of the methanolic leaf extract of Ficus virens.

Pattar Jayashree

2012-12-01

177

Impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome in albino rats  

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Full Text Available Accumulative reports documented that oxidative stress is implicated in many human and animal diseases. However, the reports concerning the effect of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome are limited and scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome and to assess the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and E on oxidative stress parameters in blood and placental tissue samples in experimental pregnant animals model exposed to oxidative stress. Wister Albino rats were used in this work to investigate the effects of oxidative stress exposure (addition of H2O2 to the drinking water on pregnancy outcome. Rats were divided into 5 groups, as follows: Group I (included 7 normal pregnant rats which served as control group. Group II (exposed to 1 % H2O2 included 7 pregnant rats, the rats were allowed to become pregnant and received (1% H2O2 in drinking water from day 7th till the day 19th of pregnancy. Group III (exposed to 3% H2O2 included 8 pregnant rats. Same as group 2, but the rats were exposed to a higher concentration of H2O2 (3% in drinking water. Group IV (included 8 pregnant rats. Pregnant rats received vitamins C and E without induction of oxidative stress. Group V (included 8 pregnant rats.induction of oxidative stress by 1% H2O2 with vitamins supplementation in the pregnant rats. Serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC, serum and placental tissue oxidative stress biomarker; 8-iso prostaglandin F2? (8-Isoprostane were measured using specific ELISA kits. Also placental tissues of pregnant rats were isolated and put directly in 10% formalin prepared for histopathological examination. Results revealed a significant decrease in the median values of the body weight and total serum antioxidants capacity (TAC in groups II and III of rats compared with the control group. A significant higher median value of TAC obtained in the groups IV and V when compared with the control group. Significant higher levels of serum and tissue Isoprostane observed in both groups II and III compared with control group. Histopathological, oxidative stress induced macroscopically degenerative with microscopical appearance of vasculitis and hemorrhage within decidua. Data of the present study demonstrated that imbalance oxidative stress status in pregnant rats occurred due to exposure to oxidant, which played an important role in the pathogenesis of abnormal pregnancy outcome. In addition antioxidants supplementation (vitamins E and C were valuable in reducing this stress.

R.S. Al-Naemi

2012-01-01

178

Effect of Some Antioxidants on the Physical Fitness of Albino Rats  

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In recent years, more attention has been paid for searching of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in either medicinal practice or as food raw materials. The aim of the present research is to assess the effect of several well-known products used as antioxidants, on body weight, haemopoesis, endocrine system and lipid profile in normal albino rats. Thirty male adult albino rats were equally arranged into 5 groups, the first group was served as control and the others received special treatments where taurine (2% in drinking water), tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w. orally), hawthorn extract (50 mg/100 g b.w. orally) and coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg b.w. orally) were given for two months. Body weight was regularly recorded twice a week and at the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) content, reticulocytic count, white blood cell count (WBCs) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were estimated in blood, while, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), Testosterone, and corticosterone hormones besides lipid profile were estimated in the serum. The results denoted that although there is a slight improvement in the parameters tested, it does not deserve the coast of the regular use of these antioxidants and further investigations still needed

179

EFFECT OF FOOD ADDITIVES (MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE AND SODIUM NITRITE ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Food additives are substances used in food industry in order to improve the food’s taste and appearance by preserving its flavor and preventing it from souring. We study the adverse effect of some food additives on the biochemical parameters in adult  male albino rats by daily oral exposure of (15mg/kg body weight,(5mg/kg body weight of Monosodium glutamate and Sodium nitrite respectively, for 4 weeks and show the alteration of the results of these biochemical parameters  in serum of adult male albino rats associated with liver and kidney functions, lipid profile, cardiac enzymes and  the effect of these additives on the biomarkers of the oxidative stress  and antioxidant enzyme activities in tissue homogenates of liver and kidney. In comparison with the normal rats we found that body weight increased in rats treated with MSG while decreased in rats consumed NaNO2; In the liver functions parameters there is an increase in GPT, GOT, ALP, total protein, Albumin, Globulin and billirubin of MSG while, in NaNO2 there is an increase in GPT, GOT, ALP and billirubin activity while, there is a decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin. In our view of lipid profile there is an increased level in total cholesterol and TG concentration in MSG and decreased level of total cholesterol and TG in NaNO2 while, there is a decrease in HDL concentration in both MSG and NaNO2. In cardiac enzymes there is an increase in LDH enzyme in both additives and there is a decrease in CK enzyme activity in MSG while, increased in serum of NaNO2. Our investigations showed an increase in kidney functions in both types of additives. In the oxidative stress observation there is an increase in LPO while, there is a decrease in CAT, GSH, and SOD activity in MSG and NaNO2.

Eman Salah Abdel-Reheim*, Hanan Abdel-Hameid Abdel-Hafeez, Basant Mohamed Mahmoud and Eman Nazeem Abd-Allah

2014-07-01

180

Effect of Some Food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products) of Young Albino RatsI- Liver and Kidney Functions  

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Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll) and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow), food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect m...

Zaahkouk, Eman G. E. Helal Samir A. M.

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Effect of cow urine on wound healing property in Wister Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The wound healing activity of cow urine was studied in Wistar albino rats. The efficacy of wound healing property was evaluated by excision wound model. The parameter studied was the rate of wound contraction. The studies on excision wound healing revealed that all the groups showed decreased wound area from day to day. On day 4th, the external application of urine showed significant increase in wound healing in male and female rats compared to all other groups. However, on 14th post wounding day, Group I and VIII animals showed 0 % and 0.40.4 % of healing was left, which may be due to normal immunity of the animals. Where as nitrofurazone treated animals showed 0 % and 0.50.3 % healing .The study revealed that the cow urine on external application to the wound, hastened the wound healing process. [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000: 317-321

V.P. Tikare.,Paniraj K.L and Swetha R

182

Protective role of desferrioxamine against gamma-irradiation induced histopathological damage in albino rats' liver  

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Possible role of desferrioxamine (Dfx) against histopathological damages induced by ?-rays is evaluated.Male albino rats were divided into 4 groups. 1st group control animals, 2nd group: animals were exposed to whole body ?-irradiation (6 Gy), 3rd group: animals received intra peritoneal (I.P.) injections of Dfx for one week (250 mg/kg body wt) and 4th group: animals received Dfx one week before irradiation. The animals were investigated after 1, 7 and 21 days from irradiation.The results obtained revealed that exposure to ionizing-radiation caused histopathological disorders in liver tissues manifested as degeneration and vaculation of hepatocytes, pyknosis of nuclei, hepatocytes and congestion and dilation of blood sinusoids after 1, 7 and 21 days of irradiation.On the other hand, Dfx protected rats showed reduction in the histopathological changes produced by ?-irradiation.Thus, it could be concluded that Dfx might provide protection against radiation that induced histopathological damage in liver.

183

Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits  

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Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both grou...

Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

2010-01-01

184

DIURESIS: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE OF POLYHERBALS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Numerous medicinal plants and their formulations are used for various disorders in ethno medical practices as well in the traditional system of medicine in India. The Vrukkadoshantake vati (VV and Nephrovin (NEP are ayurvedic polyherbal formulations and are used in alternative system of medicine for treatment of urinary disorder. No data is available for its efficacious use in urinary disorders. The Lipschits method was used for collection of supportive data for diuretic action of the Vrukkadoshantake vati and Nephrovin. Wistar albino rats were fasted for 18 h prior to experiment and aqueous suspensions of the formulations were administered at the graded doses of 200, & 400mg/kg body weight. After the treatment, urine was collected for 24h and diuretic activity was assessed by evaluation of the total volume of urine, Na+, K+, Cl- concentration and also the Diuretic index, Nariuretic effect, & saluretic effect were calculated. The total urine volume of the rats treated with the aqueous suspensions of the formulations (400 mg/kg were found to be nearly two fold (p<0.05 when compared with the control (saline treated group. Excretion of cations (sodium and potassium ions and anions (chloride ions was also found to be increased significantly (p<0.01 with respect to the control group. The diuretic effect was comparable with that of the standard drug Furosemide.

Naikwade Nilofar S

2011-06-01

185

Effects of Junk Foods on Brain Neurotransmitters (Dopamine and Serotonin) and some Biochemical Parameters in Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nutritional Habits have changed significantly and junk foods have become widely popular, in recent years. The present study aimed to shed the light on the effect of potato chips and / or ketchup consumption on some biochemical parameters. Sixty four male and female albino rats were used in the study. Animals were maintained on 0.25 g potato chips/ rat and / or 0.125 g ketchup / rat, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Potato chips showed the lowest body wt gain in the male rats after 4 weeks but, ketchup modulated this negative effect of the potato chips in the group of male animals fed on potato chips plus ketchup. Potato chips significantly decreased brain serotonin, liver glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in both sexes; brain dopamine, serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, ?2- and ?1-globulins in the females and serum thyroxine (T4) in the male rats. Ketchup apparently affected serum T4 and A / G ratio in both sexes, brain dopamine and liver GSH in the males in addition to brain serotonin, serum total globulins and ?1-globulin in the female rats. Potato chips plus ketchup significantly changed T4, dopamine, GSH, CAT, ?1 and ?2-globulins in both sexes; serotonin and ?1-globulin in the male rats, total proteins and albumin in the females. It could be concluded that potato chips consumption might induce numerous adverse effects in various body organs

186

Effect of Soybean Oil Supplemented Diet on Fatty Acid Level and Lipid Profile of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of soybean oil supplemented diet on the fatty acid level and lipid profile of male albino rats. Forty healthy male albino rats weighing between 96-110 g and aged 6 weeks were used. The rats were placed randomly into four groups of ten animals each. Group 1 served as control and had no soybean oil in their feed. Group 2-4 was placed on soybean oil supplemented diet 10, 20 and 30% respectively. The experiment lasted for 14 days. The results showed that the animals had significant (p&ang 0.05 increase in body weight compared with the control. Triacylglycerol, phospholipid and total cholesterol level were also significantly (p<&ang 0.05 decreased, 80.46±3.76 to 78.46±3.22; 15.36±0.34 to 10.12±0.75; and 116.65±6.38 to 110.95±6.36 mg/dL respectively. Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL were also significantly decreased, 15.56±2.56 to 13.45±2.76; 68.88±2.54 to 56.59±2.14 mg/dL respectively. However High Density Lipoprotein (HDL showed significant (p&ang 0.05 increase 60.37±1.36 to 65.75±1.89 mg/dL. Cholesterol, triacylglycerol and fatty acids are significant and independent risk factors of adverse cardiovascular events. The clinical and nutritional implication of these results is discussed.

Friday O. Uhegbu

2013-08-01

187

A Comparative Study Of Nicotine Effect On The Liver Of Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available We have studied the effect of cigarette smoke inhalation versus subcutanous nicotine injction on the liver of 40 adult male albino rats . Animals were divided into; cigarrete inhalation group and subcutaneous nicotine injection group. Inhalation group was subdivided into 5 subgroups ;three groups inhaled the smoke of two cigarettes three times a day in a closed chamber for 1,2&3 weeks respectively; a group of recovery after inhalation and a control group.The nicotine injection group was also subdivided into 5 subgroups;three groups were injected subcutaneously with 0.1ml of 1% nicotine every two days for 1,2&3 weeks respectively; a group of recovery after injection and a control group.Rats were sacrificed at the determined durations and the liver was subjected for preparation of 6 microns paraffin sections. Microscopic examination of paraffin sections stained with H&E; Masson trichrome and PASwas done and interpreted with the image analyzer. Several histological findings such as degenerative changes in hepatocytes, cellular infiltration, periportal fibrosis, and congestion of both central and portal veins have been noticed. Also, histochemical P.A.S. reaction has showed marked decrease in both groups. The mean optical density (O D of P A S in hepatocytes of cigarette group was (0.31±0.02, and that of nicotine group was (0.26±0.03, which were significantly lower than that in the control group with mean O.D. (0.54±0.5 and (0.51±0.03 respectively. In conclusion; the inhalation of nicotine in the form of cigarette smoke resulted in deteriorative changes in the liver of the male adult albino rat more than nicotine injected subcutaneously, and these changes was partialy reversed shortly after withdrawal.

Mamdouh A. Ghaly; El Sayed G. Khedr And Ahmed Abdel Aleem

2003-03-01

188

Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn fruits against cadmium chloride toxicity in albino rats.  

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The present work is aimed to investigate the toxicity of 1/20 LD50 of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on male albino rats by oral ingestion and to determine the hepatoprotective effect of Solanum nigrum Linn (SN) dried fruits and their ethanolic extract against CdCl2 toxicity using biochemical parameters. Rats were divided into six groups; the first group is control, second group is CdCl2-intoxicated rats, third group is fed with a semi-modified diet with S. nigrum fruits, fourth group rats ingested with dried extract, and intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) were treated with fruits and ethanolic extract of S. nigrum, respectively. The results showed that rats exposed to CdCl2 induced remarkable decrease in body weight gain, feed efficiency, and Hb, Hct, RBC, and WBC count and MCHC, but increase in MCV and MCH values. In the case of plasma enzymes, there were significant stimulations observed in ALT and AST, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and LDH activities of CdCl2-intoxicated rats (group 2) compared to control (group 1). Plasma protein profile showed decreases in total soluble protein and albumin; also globulin content was decreased by CdCl2 ingestion. Under the same condition, plasma total bilirubin and glucose levels were increased in group 2. In addition, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system (GSH, catalase, and SOD) of liver were harmed by CdCl2 ingestion. Whereas, normal rats treated with SN showed insignificant changes in groups 3 and 4 as compared to control (group 1). The treatment with dried fruits and their ethanolic extract in CdCl2-intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) ameliorated and improved these harmful effects in all above parameters either for blood or liver. The results of this study suggest the protective effect of S. nigrum against liver injury happened by CdCl2 which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity and thereby. PMID:25022247

Abdel-Rahim, Emam A; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E; Ali, Rhaam F; Mahmoud, Hend A

2014-09-01

189

Premature Ejaculation – Dose and Duration Dependent Effect of Fluoxetine: A Histological Study on Seminal Vesicle of Albino Rats  

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Introduction: Fluoxetine is a prototype drug of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Its active demethylated metabolite has a half life of 7-10 d. Fluoxetine is used to treat depression and is also prescribed in premature ejaculation. Aim: In the present study dose and duration dependent effects of Fluoxetine on histology of seminal vesicle of the albino rats were observed. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 36 adult male albino rats. Fluoxetine was administered intraperitoneally for 2 wk, 4 wk and 12 wk with mild (10mg/kg/day), moderate (20mg/kg/day) and severe doses (40mg/kg/day). Histological slides of Seminal vesicle were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Results: On examination through the light microscope, the proliferation of primary, secondary and tertiary villi, increased crypt/alveoli, increased thickness of lamina propria, decreased epithelial cell height, metaplasia, changes in the amount of luminal eosinophilic secretory material in the form of scanty secretion in lumen of seminal vesicle. Conclusion: Low doses for long duration and high doses for short duration of Fluoxetine produce histological changes in seminal vesicle of albino rats. PMID:25386416

Jethani, SL; Rohatagi, RK; Kalra, Juhi

2014-01-01

190

Ascorbic Acid Ameliorates Toxic Effects of Chlopyrifos on Testicular Functions of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Chlorpirifos (CPF is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for both agricultural and domestic purposes with attendant human exposures. Many authors have documented the toxic effects of CPF on the central nervous system. This study was designed to study the effect of CPF and the influence of coadministration of ascorbic acid (AA on the testicular functions of albino rats. Twenty five 2 months old male albino wistar rats were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each (Group A-E. A (control received vegetable oil, B received 16.3 mg/kg CPF, C received 32.6 mg/kg CPF, D received 16.3 mg/kg CPF + AA 100 mg/kg and E received 32.6 mg/kg CPF + AA 100 mg/kg. Treatment was orally for a duration of 21 days. Thereafter, body weight, serum testosterone, testicular, epididymal and seminal vesicle weight, epididymal sperm concentration, sperm motility and histopathology of the testis, epidydimis and seminal vesicles were determined using standard methods. CPF caused a statistically significant change (p<0.05 in body weight, testicular weight, epididymal weight, sperm concentration, sperm motility and serum testosterone concentration. Seminal vesicle weight was not affected. Histopathological studies revealed reduced sperm reserve, fibrosis and fatty infiltration in the epididymis, seminiferous tubules and seminal vesicles respectively. Co-administration of AA significantly caused improvement in all the parameters measured. It is concluded that CPF caused testicular toxicity by possible oxidative stress which was reversed with co-administration of AA.

Kolawole Victor Olorunshola

2011-11-01

191

Toxicological Evaluation of Thermoascus aurantiacus Sl16W in Albino Rats: Subchronic Toxicity Study  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicology of crude xylanase enzymes prepared from T. aurantiacus SL16W in male Albino rats. Sixty rats aged 6 weeks old were randomly distributed into 4 groups of 15 rats. The 1st group was the untreated control while the 2nd (400 U, 3rd (2000 U and 4th (4000 U groups received the crude xylanase enzyme at dose levels of 400, 2000 and 4000 unit/kg body weight/day, respectively. After treatmemt body weight, organ weight, hematology and plasma chemistry were examined. The results indicated that oral force-feeding of the crude xylanase enzyme did not affect the body and organ weight of the rats. Hemoglobin values in the 2000 U group and hematocrit values in the 2000 U group were slightly decreased compared to the control group. The levels of Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, aspartate Aminotransferase (AST and alanine Aminotransferase (ALP were not significantly different between the groups except that the ALT of the 200 U was significantly lower than the control group.

Saisamorn Lumyong

2012-01-01

192

Retinal projections to the subcortical visual system in congenic albino and pigmented rats.  

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The primary visual pathway in albino mammals is characterized by an increased decussation of retinal ganglion cell axons at the optic chiasm and an enhanced contralateral projection to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. In contrast to the primary visual pathway, little is known about the organization of retinal input to most nuclei of the subcortical visual system in albino mammals. The subcortical visual system is a large group of retinorecipient nuclei in the diencephalon and mesencephalon. These areas mediate a range of behaviors that include both circadian and acute responses to light. We used a congenic strain of albino and pigmented rats with a mutation at the c locus for albinism (Fischer 344-c/+; LaVail MM, Lawson NR (1986) Development of a congenic strain of pigmented and albino rats for light damage studies. Exp Eye Res 43:867-869) to quantitatively assess the effects of albinism on retinal projections to a number of subcortical visual nuclei including the ventral lateral hypothalamus (VLH), ventral lateral preoptic area (VLPO), olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN), posterior limitans (PLi), commissural pretectal area (CPA), intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN) and superior colliculus (SC). Following eye injections of the neuroanatomical tracer cholera toxin-beta, the distribution of anterogradely transported label was measured. The retinal projection to the contralateral VLH, PLi, CPA and IGL was enhanced in albino rats. No significant differences were found between albino and pigmented rats in retinal input to the VLPO, OPN and vLGN. These findings raise the possibility that enhanced retinofugal projections to subcortical visual nuclei in albinos may underlie some light-mediated behaviors that differ between albino and pigmented mammals. PMID:16996223

Fleming, M D; Benca, R M; Behan, M

2006-12-01

193

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREÑADA  

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Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy) the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled a...

Marisa Pascale Quintino; Manuel de Jesus Simões; Mary Uchiyama Nakamura; Ricardo Martins de Oliveira-Filho; Silvia Espiridião; Luiz Kulay Júnior

2003-01-01

194

Antihyperglycaemic effect of tetracarpidium conophorum nuts in alloxan induced diabetic female albino rats.  

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The antihyperglycaemic activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut (walnut) was investigated in albino rats. A total of 20 albino rats were used for the study. The rats were divided into five groups (A-E) of four rats each. Diabetes were induced in the rats except four which served as the positive control group A. Groups B (negative control), C, D, and E contain diabetic rats each with blood sugar level ?17.00?mmol/L. Groups A and B were fed on 85.2?g of top feed grower over the test period. Test groups C, D, and E were fed on 21.3?g, 42.6?g, and 85.2?g of walnuts, respectively, and their fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels were checked on daily basis. Fasting blood glucose levels of the test groups were significantly lower than negative control P rats. PMID:24944826

Onwuli, Donatus Onukwufor; Brown, Holy; Ozoani, Harrison Anaezichukwuolu

2014-01-01

195

Effect of Soursop (Annona muricata L. Fruit Extract on Sperm Toxicity Induced by Caffeine in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Extracts of Annona spp. have been used for several medicinal purposes such as the management of diabetes and its complications, also as antioxidant and antimutagenic agents. There have been attempts to attenuate toxic effects using medicinal plants. Hence, the mitigating effect of soursop (A. muricata fruit extract on sperm toxicity induced by caffeine was accessed on the weight of testes and epididymes, epididymal sperm count, motility, viability, semen pH and sperm head abnormality in albino rats as a model. The male rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. The rats were administered with treatments of caffeine and Soursop Fruit Extract (SFE for 65 days. In conclusion, SFE mitigated the caffeine-induced toxicity on weight of testes and epididymes, sperm motility, sperm count and sperm head abnormality in the mammalian model.

U.B. Ekaluo

2013-01-01

196

The effect of anticonvulsant drugs on the development of male rats and their fertility.  

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Albino male rats were injected with diphenylhydantoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid or clonazepam for three months immediately after weaning. Following the treatment the fertility of the rats was tested by caging them with proestrus females and recording impregnations. The males were decapitated and their sex organs weighed. Epididymal sperm content and motility rate were recorded. A decrease in the prostate weight was found in the valproic acid and the carbamazepine treated rats. Epididymal ...

Cohn, D. F.; Homonnai, Z. T.; Paz, G. F.

1982-01-01

197

Hepatoprotective Activity on Vitex negundo Linn. (Verbenaceae by using Wistar Albino Rats in Ibuprofen Induced Model  

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Full Text Available The present study was intended to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity on ethanolic extract of leaves of Vitex negundo was determined by using Wistar Albino rats in male sex. The V. negundo Linn. is a natural plant product, in it’s the leaves are used with the added advantage to revert Ibuprofen induced hepatotoxicity. Oral administration of ethanol extract of V. negundo (100 and 300 mg produced a significant and dose dependent inhibition to the acute hepatotoxic induced rats and various parameters were analyzed, when compared with negative control V. negundo showed that the significant activity in 300 mg/kg/b.wt. They exhibited a significant inhibition of hepatic toxicity by using various marker enzymes and the histopathological analysis. The inhibitory effect of the V. negundo on hepatotoxicity was compared to that of positive control group. The various parameters such glucose, protein, triglycerides, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, ALP, ACP, SGPT, SGOT and histopathological parameters was measured by dissection the rats. A significant index and values were observed in the acute assays; an effective significant alteration in all biochemical and histopathological sections was observed. From these results, concluded that the V. negundo having the potential effectiveness at the dose of 300 mg/kg/b.wt., (pV. negundo having the hepatoprotective activity, which support the hepatic cells protection.

V. Balasubramanian

2010-01-01

198

Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Kalanchoe Pinnata On Serum Creatine Kinase In Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata on the level of cretatine kinase was investigated using albino rats. The extract with ethanol yielded 7.80%. The albino rats were treated with doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight of the extract for seven days. Results showed that there was a slight decrease in physical activities and body weight of all the animals treated with the ethanolic extract compared to the control. There was a significant (P > 0.05 increase in serum creatine kinase activity in albino rats treated with the ethanolic extract than the control. Within the groups treated with the ethanolic extract, Group A (400mg/kg body weight was significantly (P > 0.05 higher than Group B (200mg/kg body weight. This increase value of creatine kinase activity could encourage the supply of energy needed for muscular contraction.

Chibueze Nwose

2013-01-01

199

Effectiveness of grape seed extract on gamma radiation-induced hazards in albino rats  

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The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential dietary supplement to minimize the side effects of radiotherapy

200

Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis  

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Full Text Available A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with seaweed diet evidenced theiractive participation on the metabolism of the experimental subject. These findings w ere well correlated w ithhistological observation in the liver and intestine shows the hepatocyte appearance and deposited fat and fociat necrosis is also seen in photomicrographs.

T. Anbalagan

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

Histological and Physiological Alterations Induced by Thermal Neutron Fluxes in Male Swiss Albino Mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was performed to investigate the biological effects of different thermal neutron fluxes (0.27x108, 0.52X108, 1.089X108, 2.16X108 and 4.32X108) on liver and kidney of male mice using neutron irradiation cell with Ra-Be(?,n) 3 mCi neutron source Leybold (55930). Exposed to various fluxes of thermal neutron induced a dramatic alterations in hepatic and renal functions as indicated by biochemical estimation of several parameters (bilirubin, SGT, and alkaline phosphate .Urea , total protein, and albumin) and confirmed by histological examinations Thermal neutron exposure induces marked increase in the serum activities of total bilirubin, alanine amino transaminase (ALT or GPT), and alkaline phosphate, whereas, urea, total protein and albumin showed marked decline as compared to control group. The physiological changes induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. Histopathological results revealed mild to severe type of necrosis, and degenerative changes in liver and kidney of male mice exposed to thermal neutron fluxes. Also it was found that the histopathological alterations induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. It was found that exposed to thermal neutron fluxes irradiation plays prominent role in the development of the physiological alterations in male Swiss albino mice. The Former up normalities as a result of the sequence events followed interaction of radiation with the former biological mater (liver and kidney) of male Swiss albino mice, which are, physical, physicochemical, chemical, and biological stages.

202

Weight and vaginal opening in the albino rat.  

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The body weight of rats at spontaneous vaginal opening (Wvo) was related to the weight at weaning (Ww) and the time elapsed between the two events (tvo) by the following equation: Wvo = aj + bWw + ctvo + residual where aj is the litter effect present when both the male and female young are reared together. When only female young are raised, aj may be replaced by a, so that in this instance there is no litter effect. Further model differences were noted for young raised under different conditions. PMID:3968647

Edwards, D F; Kay, R

1985-01-01

203

Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress  

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The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress.

Mel' nik, E.I.; Lupandin, A.V.; Timoshin, S.S.

1985-05-01

204

Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress  

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The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress

205

Twenty-eight days repeated oral dose toxicity study of gemifloxacin in Wistar albino rats.  

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential toxicity of gemifloxacin by 28-day repeated oral dose in Wistar albino rats. The test article, was administered daily by gavage to male and female rats at dose levels of 0, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg/day. At the end of treatment period, 12 rats/sex/group was sacrificed, while six extra rats/sex in the vehicle control and highest dose groups sacrificed after 14 days recovery period. During the treatment and recovery periods, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food and water consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, phototoxicity, hematology, serum biochemistry, synovial fluid biochemistry, electrocardiogram (ECG), gross findings, organ weights, microscopic examination of synovial fluid, and histopathology were examined. Hematological and serum biochemical investigations revealed a dose-dependent increase in the total white blood cell (WBC), total bilirubin (T-BIL), glucose (GLU), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and significant decreases in total protein (TP) were observed in both sexes at the same dose, at the end of treatment period, but the levels returned toward normal during the recovery period. Histopathology of talar joint showed that erosion of the articular surface of that joint in both sexes at the end of treatment period at the dose level of 200 mg/kg/day. Degenerative changes in tendinocytes were observed in Achilles tendon of both sexes at the high dose level at the end of treatment period. In histopathological study shows partial effacement of liver architecture and focal ulceration in gastric mucosa at the high dose level at the end of treatment period. Based on these results, it was concluded that 28 days repeated oral dose of gemifloxacin caused increases in the liver weight, WBC count, T-BIL, glucose level, ALT, decreasing the TP, cause chronic hepatitis and acute gastritis, erosion of the articular surface of joint and histopathologic changes in Achilles tendon in rats at the dose level of 200 mg/kg/day. PMID:20580917

Roy, Bikash; Sarkar, Amlan Kanti; Sengupta, Pinaki; Dey, Goutam; Das, Anjan; Pal, Tapan Kumar

2010-11-01

206

Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

2012-05-01

207

COMBINED EFFECT OF WATER CONTAMINATION WITH COBALT AND NICKEL ON METABOLISM OF ALBINO (WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available The contamination of water by metal compounds is a worldwide environmental problem. Concentration of metals is widely related to biochemical values, which are used in diseases diagnosis due to environmental toxicity. The sub-chronic combined effects of nickel and cobalt on body weight gain and biochemical parameters were determined and compared with those of Ni (2+ or Co (2+ alone in 6 weeks male albino (Wistar rats. Animals were given drinking solutions of NiSO4 6H2O [Ni (II cation, LD50/2] or CoSO4 6H2O [Co (II cation, LD50/2]. For the combined treatment (Ni + Co, the rats received both Ni (II cation (LD 50/2 and CO (II cation (LD50/2. Nickel and cobalt treatment decreased body weight gain. The nickel sulphate increased also the glucose level. The two heavy elements produced hepatic and renal damage, characterized by increased activity of alanine and aspartate transaminases (GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase. However lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH was decreased. In addition, serum urea, serum creatinine, serum total protein and serum bilurebin concentrations were significantly elevated. In general the combined effect of Ni-Co was slightly less toxic than nickel or cobalt alone, suggesting antagonism between these toxicants.

Z. Kechrid, F. Dahdouh, R. M. Djabar, N. Bouzerna

2006-01-01

208

Modulation of antioxidant and phosphatase enzymes by beta-carotene against gamma radiation induced testicular disorders in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beta-carotene is a group of plant compounds called carotenoids. It is a precursor for vitamin A and an important antioxidant. This study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of ?-carotene against gamma radiation induced disorders in the testis of male albino rats, it included 4 groups: control group, treated group; animals of this group received a daily oral dose of ?-carotene (30 mg/kg body wt) for 1 week, irradiated group; animals of this group were subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy, and treated-irradiated group; animals received a daily oral dose of ?-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) for 1 week before exposure to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy. 6 animals of each group were autopsied at 1, 3 and 5 days after ?-carotene treatment and/ or irradiation. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase in testis homogenate. In irradiated animals there was a highly significant decrease in testis alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity. On the other hand, significant increase in acid phosphatase activity was observed. Treatment with ?-carotene before irradiation causes significant increase in alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity and significant decrease in acid phosphatase activity compared to the irradiated group. The results of the present study indicated that ?-carotene ameliorated oxidative stress and the loss of cellular antioxidants and suggest that ?-carotene may reduce the radiation damage in testis of male albino rats

209

Cytotoxic Effect of Aspartame (Diet Sweet) on the Histological and Genetic Structures of Female Albino Rats and Their Offspring  

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The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and ...

Ghaly, Inas S.; Abd Elfatah, Azza A. M.; Hanafy, Safaa M.

2012-01-01

210

Gonadotoxicity Evaluation of Oral Artemisinin Derivative in Male Rats  

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Full Text Available Male Wister albino rats were exposed to artemether by gavage at dosages of 25, 50 and 75 mg kg 1 day 1 for 1, 2 and 3 days. The control groups received sterile water (control 1 and 5% ethanol (vehicle for artemether, control 2. The maximum volume injected in all groups was 0.5 mL. Rats administered the highest dose for three days were mated with female rats to determine the fertilizing capacity of their epididymal sperms and fertility status. Artemether significantly reduced (p<0.05 the progressive sperm motility, viability, sperm count and serum testosterone levels in dose and duration dependent manners, factors that may impair fertility. None of the untreated cohabited female rats got pregnant throughout the period of the study. These changes were restored in recovery experiments. The results suggest that artemether could induce reversible infertility in rats.

Y. Raji

2005-01-01

211

EFFICACY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED NEPHROLITHIASIS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Nephrolithiasis is the third most common disorder of the urinary system with high recurrence rate. Clinical treatment of lithiasis is costly and can cause harmful side effects and hence nowadays phytotherapy have higher clinical significance in kidney stone management. Aim of the study is to investigate the antilithiatic property of the methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (MEAP) in experimentally induced nephrolithiatic rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar albino rats by admini...

Prathibhakumari P.V.; Prasad, G.

2013-01-01

212

Diuretic activity of Linaria ramosissima (wall.) Janch. leaves in albino rats  

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Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration ...

Pandya, Preeti N.; Aghera, Hetal B.; Ashok, B. K.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2012-01-01

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Sub-Acute Toxicity Profile of Fixed Dose Combination of Pirotum (Cefpirome-Sulbactam) in Swiss Albino Mice and Wistar Rat  

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The objective of current study was to evaluate deleterious effects of a potential combination of cefpirome, a member of the latest class of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, in combination of ?-lactamase inhibitor, sulbactum. To assess the toxicity profile of fixed dose regimen Pirotum (Cefpirome+Sulbactum in 2:1 ratio), a repeated dose subacute toxicity study was conducted on Swiss albino mice and Wistar rat (male and female). Three different dose levels (30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1) of ...

Tamta, A.; Chaudhary, M.; Sehgal, R.

2010-01-01

214

Effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression in male albino Rattus norvegicus  

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Full Text Available Objective : The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 g. The effect of O. sanctum and C. sinensis was evaluated for anxiety and depression using elevated plus maze (EPM test, open field test (OFT, forced swim test (FST, and tail suspension test (TST. Result : Restraint stress (3 h/day for six consecutive days induced a significant reduction in both the percentage number of entries and time spent in open arms in EPM, and these changes were reversed with post-treatment of aqueous extract of O. sanctum and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg for 6 days. Restraint stress-induced (a increased latency and (b decreased ambulation and rearing were also reversed by O. sanctum and C. sinensis in OFT. A significant increase in immobility period was observed in FST and TST after restraint stress. O. sanctum and C. sinensis significantly reduced the immobility times of rats in FST and TST. Conclusion : O. sanctum and C. sinensis possess anxiolytic and antidepressant activities.

Tabassum Imrana

2010-01-01

215

Alteraciones en las características morfométricas del riñón de ratas albinas machos provocadas por la ingestión crónica de etanol desde la adolescencia / Alterations in the morphometric features of kidney of male albino rats provoked by chronic ingestion of ethanol from the adolescence  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se pretendió determinar las variaciones que sobre las características morfométricas del riñón provoca la ingestión crónica de etanol en ratas adolescentes, para lo cual se utilizaron 42 ratas albinas machos de 30 días de nacidas con las cuales se conformaron dos grupos de 21 a [...] nimales cada uno y con tiempos de tratamiento de tres y cinco meses y con estos, dos subgrupos: experimental y control. A las ratas experimentales se les suministró etanol a dosis de 5 g/kg de peso corporal mediante cánula intraesofágica. A las controles se les administró agua en lugar de etanol, en iguales condiciones. Se emplearon cortes histológicos coloreados con técnica PAS y se estudiaron las porciones contorneadas de los túbulos proximales y distales. Se calculó el área de sección transversal tubular y se midieron los volúmenes nucleares de las células de ambos túbulos. Se comprobó que las ratas experimentales mostraron volúmenes nucleares menores que las controles. El grupo experimental mostró valores de áreas de sección transversal de los túbulos renales mayores que los controles, siendo estos valores superiores en los túbulos proximales en las ratas de cinco meses, y los distales en las ratas de tres meses. Se concluyó que en la muestra estudiada el alcoholismo crónico iniciado en la adolescencia provocó variaciones morfométricas en los túbulos proximales y distales del riñón. Abstract in english Present paper allowed us to determine the variations exerted by the chronic ingestion of ethanol from the adolescence on the kidney morphometric features in 42 male albino rats of 30 days born divided into two groups of 21 animal each and with the treatment times of three and five months and with th [...] ese 42 animals into two subgroups: one of experimental type and other as control. The experimental rats received ethanol at 5 g/kg doses according to the body weight using an intraesophageal cannula. The control ones received water instead of ethanol in similar conditions. We used histological sections stained with PAS technique to study the outlined portions of the proximal and distal tubules. The tubular transversal section area was estimated measuring the nuclear volumes of cells in both tubules. It was demonstrated that the experimental rats showed higher values of the transversal section of renal tubules higher than the control ones, where these values were superior in proximal tubules in the five months old rats and the distal ones in the three months old. We conclude that in study sample the chronic alcoholism started during adolescence provoked morphometric variations in proximal and distal tubules of kidney.

Aleida, Herrera Batista; Giselle, Puldón Seguí; Héctor, Ruiz Candina.

216

Impact of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra with Ethanol Modulates on Lipid and Lipoprotein in Testis of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Sildenafil citrate (Viagra is the pharmacological agent used to treat erectile dysfunction in men, a common problem that in the United State affects between 10 and 30 million men. Because this drug has a vasodilatory effect. Sildenafil citrate and ethanol consumption are used in societies world wide and have been identified as injurious to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Sildenafil citrate and Ethanol consumption on lipid and lipoprotein levels in testis tissue and serum of Albino rats. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each and maximum treated for 45 days as follows, control rats were administered with normal saline orally. Sildenafil citrate (1 ?g gm-1 and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 body weight was given orally at a single doses (short-term after 1, 2½, 4 and 24 h were sacrificed and 15, 30 and 45 days daily continuous doses (long-term of drug and ethanol with a single dosage were given and to be sacrificed after 4 h of the last dosage. Further, the average total body weight gain was significantly higher in 30 days treatment, but 45 days no significant change in the body weight of the rats were observed due to the productive role of Sildenafil citrate and ethanol. This combination was found to be increased serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL levels, whereas the levels of serum HDL was found to be decreased as compared with the control rats. Simultaneously tissue cholesterol and triglycerides significantly (p<0.05 inhibited were found to be the rise in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. Whereas, It is suggested that prolonged exposure to Sildenafil citrate and ethanol administration to rat is found to be increased in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations significantly in an animals.

T.G. Sivasankaran

2007-01-01

217

Acute Effect of Fansidar and Antioxidant Vitamin C Co- administration on Serum Lipid profile of Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of the lipid profile of fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C co-administration in albino wistar rats.Methodology: Thirty (30 Wistar albino rats ranging from 175-200g were randomly assigned into six (6 study groups of five (5 rats each Viz: I, II, III, IV, V and VI of ten rats per group. Group I served as male control group. Group II served as female control group. Group III served as male fansidar alone treated group. Group IV served as female fansidar alone treated group. Group V served as male fansidar and Vitamin C treated group while group VI served as female fansidar and vitamin C treated group. Each rat was housed in a wooden cage. The animal room was ventilated and kept at room temperature and relative humidity of 29°c and 40-70% respectively with 12 hours natural light-dark cycle and were allowed free access to food and water ad libitum. Good hygiene was maintained by constant cleaning and removal of faeces and spilled from cages daily. Rats in all groups were weighed daily and sacrificed 24hours after the experimental periods of 14 days of oral administration and the serum were collected for lipid profile determination. Results: The body weight parameters of both male and female albino rats, showed significant increase (P<0.05 in both the control groups and fansidar + Vitamin C treated group when compared with their initial weights while the group treated with fansidar alone, showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in weight when compared with the initial weight for both genders. Likewise, the fansidar treated groups showed a significant increase (P<0.05 in serum cholesterol when compared with the control while the fansidar + Vitamin C treated group showed no significant difference in total serum cholesterol when compared with the control. The group treated with fansidar alone showed a significant decrease in serum HDL when compared with the control while the group treated with fansidar + Vitamin C showed a significant increase when compared with the control. The treated groups also produced a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum LDL, VLDL and TG when compared with the control. Also, in female albino rats, both treated groups produced a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum total cholesterol when compared with the control. Though the group treated with fansidar alone produce a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum HDL, a significant increase (P<0.05 was observed in groups treated with fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C. The group treated with fansidar alone produce a significant (P<0.05 reduction in serum LDL while groups treated with fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C produced a significant (P<0.05 increase when compared with the control .Likewise, both treated groups produced a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum VLDL when compared with the control. The serum triglyceride in fansidar treated group was significantly(P<0.05 decreased in fansidar+ Vit.C treated group when compared with the control. Conclusion:The biochemical alterations and responses above from this study are indications that fansidar and Vitamin C exhibits a synergistic reaction which might aid hypocholesterolaemic effect or cholesterol clearing or lowering ability which can reduce the risk of predisposition to atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular related disorders.

Dasofunjo Kayode

2014-10-01

218

Immunolocalization of laminin during postnatal development of the testis, epididymis and vas deferens of albino rat  

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Full Text Available Background: Disorders of testicular function may have their origins in fetal or early life as a result of abnormal development. Laminin-1 is emerging as the key molecule in early embryonic basement membrane assembly. Accumulating evidence supported the idea that extracellular matrix (ECM molecules and mesenchymal cells might influence Sertoli and spermatogenic cell functions. Aim of the work: detecting the changes in the distribution and prevalence of laminin-1 assembly during postnatal development of the testis, epididymis and vas deferens in albino rats. Materials and methods: Thirty male albino rats were used and divided into six groups (n= 5 each according to the age (postnatal day. These were one day, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks postnatal. Specimens were fixed and processed, sectioned and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical stain for laminin-1. The area percent of positive laminin immunostaining was measured and results were statistically analyzed. Results: at day one postnatal, the testis was formed of solid un-canalized cords of seminiferous tubules with abundant laminin expression in the cells of the cords. With advancement of development the cords were luminized and the laminin expression declined to involve the basement membrane and the apical portions of the Sertoli cells at the 8th week postnatal. The epididymis at postnatal day one had a small diameter and narrow lumen and laminin expression involved the cytoplasm of the epithelial lining. As development proceeded the expression became confined to the apical portion, the site of stereocilia together with its presence in the basement membranes. The same pattern of changes in laminin expression together with morphological appearance was detected in the vas deferens. Conclusion: The present study was able to demonstrate a change in the distribution as well as the prevalence of laminin-1 immunoreactivity within the testis, epididymis and vas. During the period of postnatal development starting at postnatal day one up to 8 weeks postnatal. This would reflect an essential role for laminin in early postnatal period of development

Dina Helmy Abdel-Kader and Safinaz Salah Eldin Sayed

2013-01-01

219

Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestockin Wistar Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102

A.H. Ahmad

2009-06-01

220

Effect of Aloe vera extract on some physiological parameters in diabetic albino rats  

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Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract from Aloe vera on thirty adult male albino rats were divided into three groups, the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg / kg B.wt. and served as diabetic group and the third was injected with alloxan and treated with Aloe vera water extract ( 0.5 ml / 100 g B.wt. . After thirty days of treatment half of each group were scarified and the other one were left for 15 days without any additional treatment as a recovery period . The results revealed highly significant decrease ( p> 0.01 in blood glucose, and highly significant increase in both liver glycogen content and serum insulin level in the diabetic group treated with aqueos extract of A. vera when compared with the diabetic untreated group. It seems, therefore that water extract of A. vera results in a definite hypoglycemic, hyperinsulinemic effect. On the other hand, a significant increase of body weight gain and liver glycogen content was achieved. The results of this study clarify the role of Aloe vera active as antidiabetic plant and suggest a relationship between drenching. A. vera extract and insulin production which needs further investigation

Eman G.E. Helal; **Mohamad H.A. Hasan;***Ashraf M. Mustafa

2003-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Effect of Trans Fatty Acids Consumption on Some Haematological Indices in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of trans fatty acids on haematological indices. This was done by supplementing the diets fed to the albino Wistar rats with different concentrations of thermally oxidized palm oil and margarine as sources of trans fatty acids. Fifty albino Wistar rats were used for this study and were randomly selected into five groups of ten rats. Group 1 rats serving as the control received only the stock diet. Group 2 received 85% rat pellet supplemented with 15% margarine. Group 3 was fed with 75% rat pellet and 25% margarine. The fourth group was fed with 85% rat pellet supplemented with 15% thermally oxidized palm oil. Group 4 was fed with 75% rat pellet supplemented with 25% thermally oxidized palm oil. The feeding experiment lasted for six weeks at the end of which rats were sacrificed for determination of haematological indices. Results showed significant (p<0.05 decrease in Red Blood Cell (RBC count, White Blood Cell (WBC and platelet counts, Haemoglobin (Hb concentration and Packed Cell Volume (PCV in all test groups. This probably suggests that trans fatty acids may adversely affect the health of an individual and should be reduced in diet.

G.E. Egbung

2009-01-01

222

Studies On The Effect of Selenium And Vitamin (E) on Irradiated Male rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the present work is to investigate the protective role of intraperitoneally administered selenium and/or vitamin E on ?- radiation induced injury in adult male albino rats. Male albino rats(120-140 gm), were divided into the following groups:1- Control group: consisted of 10 rats. 2- Irradiated group: consisted of 10 rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 (Gy). 3- Injected -irradiated group: consisted of 90 rats intraperitoneally administered with selenium (Na2SeO3) at a dose level of 0.2 mg/Kg body weight or with vitamin E (di-?tocopheryl acetate) at a dose level of 10 mg/kg body weight or with combined dose of selenium and vitamin E (0.2 mg/Kg body weight + 10 mg/Kg body weight)

223

2. Effect of ghrelin hormone on ovary histology in female wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our present study is to assess the histophysiological changes in the ovary of immature and mature wistar strain female albino rats in response to the intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin hormone. Methods: Eighteen immature female albino rats (65 - 70 g and eighteen mature female albino rats (130 to 140 g were randomly allocated into control and treatment groups (two doses as low dose - 10µg/kg and optimum dose - 20µg/kg of body weight of ghrelin.Treatment groups were injected with ghrelin for 15 days .On 16th day the animals were sacrificed. The body weight and weight of the ovaries were measured. The ovaries were fixed in10 % buffered formalin and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The histo-architecture of ovary was studied. Results: Administration of ghrelin indicates well defined changes like reduced number of graffian follicles, some of which show mild degenerative changes like disorganized cells. Reduction in number of corpus luteal cells, prominent Stromal tissues, congestion of blood vessels were also seen in the ovaries of animals in mature female rats of optimum dose. There was no significant change in histoarchitecture of immature ovary of treated groups. In immature and mature group there was significant increase in body weight but decreased ovarian weight in treated animals when compared with control. Conclusion: From the present study it may be concluded that ghrelin produced degenerative changes in the ovaries of mature albino rats and thus it may have a negative influence on reproductive function and affects fertility.

S. Antony Selvi

2012-08-01

224

CARDIOMETABOLIC PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS IN DIABETIC ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Background and aim of the study: DM represents an important independent risk factor for the development of and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD, increasing the risk by 2 to 4 times. According to WHO data, more than 75% of patients with DM die due to vascular accidents. This study investigated the effects of some plants used in Saudi Arabia and some other Arab countries as antidiabetic agents and explores its metabolic effects. Material and Methods: One hundred fifty adult male Albino Rats were divided into six experimental groups each consist of twenty five rats. The first group was considered as a control group. The rest of groups were affected by induction of experimental diabetes by subcutaneous injection of Alloxan. The second group consisted of diabetic rats without any treatment. The third group was treated by the aqueous extract of mixture contains Foenugreek, Nigella sativa and Termis seeds. The fourth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds (100 mg / kg of body weight, while the fifth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Foenugreek seeds (100 mg / kg of body weight. The sixth one was treated with the aqueous extract of Termis seeds (100 mg/kg body weight. After four weeks of treatment, different biochemical parameters were performed including estimation of blood sugar level and serum insulin level. Pancreatic and liver samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both Heamatoxylin and Eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of the Langerhans. Results: The usage of the mixture or each plant alone corrected the glucose level and insulin level. Microscopically there was definite decrease in the number and diameter of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of medicinal plants in the different groups of this study greatly improved such cellular changes and the level of blood sugar level was corrected. Also, improve dyslipidemia present in diabetic rats. The results showed that the activity of the mixture was better when compared with Nigella, Foenugreek or Termis seeds alone. Conclusions: The water extract of the mixture is the most powerful in amelioration hyperglycemia and most of all damage effects of Alloxan on hematological parameters and lipid profile. Also, it can control most of the metabolic risk factors of CAD in diabetic rats. So it is advised to use the plant mixture as an antidiabetic agent rather than the use of each plant separately. Repeating such study with the use of variable doses may be helpful in better evaluation for the required dose.

Waleed S. Mohamed, 1 Ashraf M. Mostafa, 2 Abdel Hamid A. Serwah, 3

2013-04-01

225

Effect of some medicinal plants on liver and kidney functions in diabetic albino rats  

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Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the effect of aqueous extracts of five plants (Nigella sativa , Aloe vera, Ferula assafoetida, Boswellia carterii Birdw and Commiphora myrrha and their mixture on liver and kidney functions and protein profiles. Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into eight groups, the first served as control group, other groups were injected with alloxan(120mg/kg b.wt. The second group served as diabetic rats, the third were treated with a mixture (0.1g/100g b.wt, the fourth was treated with Nigella sativa (0.1g/100g b.wt, the fifth was treated with Aloe vera (0.05 g/100g b.wt , the sixth was treated with Ferula assafoetida (0.1g/100g b.wt, the seventh was treated with Boswellia carterri Birdw (0.1g/100g b.wt and the eighth group was treated with Commiphora myrrha (0.05 g/100g b.wt . After thirty days of treatment half of each group was decapitated and the other one was left for 15 days without any additional treatment as recovery period to followup their hazards if present. The results revealed highly significant increase (p<0.01 in serum transaminases (aspartate ( AST and alanine (ALT, alkaline phosphates (ALP, total bilirubin, urea and creatinine and recorded highly significant decrease (p<0.01 in serum total protein , albumin and globulin concentrations in the diabetic group when compared with normal rates. Otherwise, all plants extracts treated groups showed insignificant changes in the previous parameters when compared with control one . It seams, therefore that the water extracts of these plants and their mixture have protective effect against the side effects of alloxan on liver and kidney.

Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud

2005-06-01

226

Effect of Soybean (Glycine max L.) on the Hormonal Milieu of Male Rats  

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Effect of soybean (Glycine max) on serum level of some sex hormones: testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone/interstitial cell stimulating hormone (LH/ICSH), estradiol and prolactin in male rats was investigated. Twenty male albino rats of 12 weeks old with similar body weights were assigned to four groups of 5 rats each and treatment with soybean meal at 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively daily for 8 weeks. Blood samples collect...

Udensi, O.; Ikpeme, E. V.; Udoh, P. B.; Ekaluo, U. B.

2011-01-01

227

Effect Of Some Slimming Drugs On Haematological And Some Vital Signs Of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Some of slimming drugs had been withdrawn from markets so, the present study was conducted to follow the effect of three different anorexic drugs; on the haematological and physical parameters of adults albino rats. The used drugs differ in their nature, where the first one i.e., apple-lite is a fully natural substance, the 2nd one i.e., mirapront-N. is a chemical substance and the 3rd one i.e., tenuate is a synthetic foamy filler substance. Fourty adult male albino rats (130 20g were randomly divided into four groups, ten on each treated group and ten for the first group which conserved as control group. The 2nd group was treated daily with apple-lite (3.5mg/ 100g.b.wt, the 3rd group was treated daily with mirapro-N (0.14mg/100g.b.wt and the 4th group was treated daily with tenuate (0.1 mg/100g.b.wt. Haematological parameters (RBCs, WBCs count, haemoglobin content (Hb, hematocrit value (Hct%, mean cell volume (MCV, mean cell heamoglobin (MCH and mean cell heamoglobin concentration (MCHC were detected after 30 days of treatment and also after 15 days of the last treatment as a recovery period. Also, body weight, percent of organs weight/body weight, skin-fold thickness and some vital measurements i.e. heart beats, respiratory rate and rectal temperature were recorded after the same periods of treatment and recovery. Haematological studies revealed that RBCs count, total WBCs count, Hb and Hct values were significantly decreased in the three groups treated daily with anorexic drugs for 30 days. These changes aere also recorded after the recovery period except in apple-lite treated group which showed insignificant change in RBCs and Hb after the recovery period. The calculated mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC recorded significant increase in apple-lite after treated and recovery periods, while non significant changes in MCHC were observed after mirapro-N and tenuate groups after treatment 30 daysfor 30 days but significant increase of MCHC was recorded after the recovery period of tenuate treated group. Skin-fold thickness of the three regions tested (gluteal, back and belly revealed significant decrease in all the treated groups except the belly region in apple-lite treated group which showed insignificant decrease after treatment for 30 days. Significant decrease of skin-fold thickness of different regions still present after the recovery period of 15 days in the three treated groups except the back region of mirapro-N and the belly region of apple-lite- treated rats which showed insignificant decrease. Percent of organs weight/body weight were affected according the type of tested drug, while apple-lite- caused non significant changes, mirapro-N caused significant increase in hepatosomatic ratio and cardiosomatic ratio, and significant decrease in gonadosomatic ratio. On the other hand, tenuate resulted in a significant increase in percentage weight of kidneys and hepatosomatic ratio and significant decrease of gonadosomatic ratio after treatment for 30 days. After the recovery period, apple-lite revealed significant decrease in brain/b.wt. ratio, while mirapro-N still affected kidneys, gonadosomatic ratio and brain and tenuate still affected gonadosomatic ratio and brain; they recorded significant decrease. The physical measurement of vital signs, i.e. heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature recorded insignificant change after treatment with apple-lite, mirapro-N and tenuate for 30 days, but significant increase of rectal temperature was recorded in the tenuate group of the treated rats. After recovery period insignificant changes in heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature of the treated rats were observed in the three treated groups.

Eman G.E. Helal* and Shadia, A. Radwan**

2007-03-01

228

Effect of polytrin and gamma-Rays on nucleic acids in placenta of albino-Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this experiment 4 groups of pregnant female albino albino rats were used. The first group served as a control. The second group was irradiated with gamma rays (2 Gy) on day 12 of gestation. The third group was treated orally with polytrin on day 7 of gestation (1/100 LD 50). The last group was treated with polytrin as third group, then irradiated with (2 Gy) on day 12 of gestation. In group 2, severe degeneration in maternal and foetal rat placenta and marked loss of DNA in different layers were observed. The placenta of group 3 showed decrease in the content of RNA without loss in DNA content, in group 4 vacillation in different layers accompanied by decrease in DNA and RNA contents was noticed. 4 figs

229

Aging-related changes of optic nerve of Wistar albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aging is a biological phenomenon that involves an increase of oxidative stress associated with gradual degradation of the structure and function of the optic nerve. Gender differences and subsequent deterioration of optic nerve are an interesting topic, especially because there is little published work concerning it. One hundred male and female Wistar albino rats' with ages 1, 6, 18, 24, and 30 months (n?=?20 equal for male and female) were used. At the time interval, optic nerve was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), assessments of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismustase, and glutathione-S-transferase), caspase 3 and 7, malondialdhyde, flow cytometry of DNA, annexin v, and CD8, immunochemistry of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD31, and CD45, and single-strand DNA fragmentation. Light and TEM observations of the older specimens (24 and 30 months) revealed apparent deterioration of optic nerve axons, abundant oligodendrocytes with pyknotic nuclei, swollen astrocytes, angiogenesis, vacuolar degeneration, and mitochondrial damage. Females were highly susceptible to aging processes. Concomitantly, there was a marked reduction of antioxidant's enzymes and an increase of lipid peroxidation and apoptotic markers. Old age exhibited a marked increase of G1 apoptosis, UR and LR of annexin V and CD8 as well as increased immuno-positive reaction with VEGR, CD31 and CD45. We conclude that aging contributed to an increase of oxidative stress resulting from damage of mitochondria in axons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Age-related loss of optic nerve axons is associated with multifactorial agents including reduction in antioxidant enzymes, disruption of vasculature, astrocyte, and oligodendrocyte, demyelination, and damage of mitochondria, which enhance the liberation of reactive oxygen species as assessed by an increase of apoptotic markers malondialdhyde and caspase 3 and 7. PMID:23996059

El-Sayyad, Hassan I H; Khalifa, Soad A; El-Sayyad, Fawkia I; Al-Gebaly, Asma S; El-Mansy, Ahmed A; Mohammed, Ezaldin A M

2014-04-01

230

Triazophos induced oxidative stress and histomorphological changes in liver and kidney of female albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organophosphate (OP) pesticides toxic manifestations have been associated with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which culminates into oxidative stress (OS). Triazophos (TZ), a broad spectrum OP, was used in the present study to investigate toxic effects on liver and kidney of female albino rats at three sub-chronic dose levels of 1/10th, 1/20th and 1/40th of LD50 for 30 days. Activity levels of different OS parameters viz: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were differentially altered in liver and kidney of TZ treated rats as compared to control rats. Histomorphological studies further revealed number of abnormalities as infiltration, vacuolization, enlarged sinusoids and necrosis in liver of TZ treated rats, while renal histoarchitecture of 1/10th and 1/20th of LD50 TZ treated rats showed high degeneration of glomeruli. Enhanced apoptosis was also observed in hepatocytes at dose levels of 1/10th and 1/20th of LD50 TZ treated female rats. The results infer that exposure of female albino rats to TZ leads to number of pathophysiological conditions in the liver and kidney at dose dependent manner. PMID:24759054

Sharma, Dharmender; Sangha, Gurinder Kaur

2014-03-01

231

Antidiabetogenic Effects of Separate and Composite Extract of Seed of Jamun (Eugenia jambolana and Root of Kadali (Musa paradisiaca in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Comparative Study  

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Full Text Available The present study investigates separate as well as composite methanolic extracts of seed of Jamun (Eugenia jambolana and root of Kadali (Musa paradisiaca for the management of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rat. As oxidative stress is one of the consequences of diabetes so the present study have measured the activities of some important carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and oxidative stress condition in important visceral organs. After treatment of methanolic extract of above plant parts in separate or in composite manner in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat resulted a significant recovery in the activities of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in liver along with correction in fasting blood glucose as well as liver and skeletal muscle glycogen level and plasma insulin level in respect to diabetic group. Activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase along with the quantity of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and conjugated dienes in liver and skeletal muscle were also corrected by these plant extracts in respect to diabetic state. The composite extract shows a significant recovery in parameters mentioned earlier than the separate extract. None of the extract has any metabolic toxicity induction in general. From this experiment it may be concluded that the composite extracts of above plants parts have some potential antidiabetogenic activities.

Chhanda Mallick

2006-01-01

232

Effect of spironolactone on acid and alkaline phosphatase in the testes of albino rat  

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The biological activity of the mineralocorticoid antagonist, spironolactone depend upon its metabolism. In this study the effect of diuretic drug compound spironolactone on the acid and alkaline phosphatase in the testes of albino rat. The drug spironolactone was administered orally daily for 7th, 14th and 21st days at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Among them, the side effects of drug are that the degradation of alkaline phosphatase in the testes; while acid phosphatase increased signifi...

Singh, P. K.; Singh, D. P.

2005-01-01

233

Effect of synthetic dermorphin analogues on tissue homeostasis in the myocardium of newborn albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA synthesis and state of the nucleolar apparatus in myocardial cells of newborn albino rats receiving intraperitoneal injection of sedatin, a synthetic dermorphin analogue, were studied by means of autoradiography and silver impregnation. Labeling intensity significantly increased, while the number of nucleoli in nuclei decreased. Chemiluminescence study showed that the concentration of reactive oxygen metabolites significantly decreased in the myocardium of treated animals after sedatin administration. Non-arginine analogue of sedatin had little effect on tissue homeostasis in the myocardium. PMID:18642706

Kriganovskaya, S Yu; Lebed'ko, O A; Sazonova, E N; Timoshin, S S; Molokanova, L E

2007-10-01

234

[Effect of an anticoagulant rodenticide on the female albino rat with offspring].  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactating female albino rats have been treated with coumatetralyl rodenticide, having anticoagulant activity. The letal effect on mothers was of 40% (using a maximum concentration of toxic substance) while it was of 54% in offsprings. Among the probable causes of death in offsprings, the authors suggest the hypothesis that an interference in the relationship mother-offsprings is due to the influence of coumatetralyl on parental behavior. PMID:553281

Marchini, S; Turillazzi, P G

1978-12-01

235

Effect of Ageratum Conyzoides Leaf Extract On Histological Structure of Mammary Gland of Wistar Albino Rat.  

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Abstract:             There are many causes of non-lactation after delivery in some dairy mammals and human female. In present investigation study was carried out to find out effect of Ageratum conyzoides leaf extract on histological structure of non lactating mammary gland of wistra white albino rat female. Ageratum conyzoides is supposed to induce lactation in non-lactating mammalian female including woman1. The effect of extract on non-lacta...

anil kashinath mali

2012-01-01

236

Chronic toxicity study of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze seeds in albino rats  

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In the present study, toxic effects of powder of seeds of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze were evaluated for a period of 3 months in albino rats. Control group received distilled water. The powder suspension was orally given to the treated group at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Parameters like body weight, weight of important organs, biochemical, hematological parameters, bone marrow cytology and histopathology of vital organs were studied. Test drug administration did not affect the b...

Donga, Shilpa; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Ashok, B. K.; Mishtry, I. U.

2011-01-01

237

Prolactin effect on the insulin content of albino rats in different physiological states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolic action of prolactin on insulin levels in plasma and pancreas has been studied. Prolactin was injected in a single dose or single daily doses on 4 successive days into albino rats in six different physiological states. Insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay using 125I insulin. From the results it is concluded that prolactin injected i.p. influences the output of insulin and stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin into the plasma. (author)

238

PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS – A PRELIMINARY STUDY  

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Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

Vadivelan, R.; Elango, K.; Suresh, B.; Ramesh, B. R.

2006-01-01

239

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Passiflora edulis on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats  

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Passiflora edulis is traditionally used in folk lore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of P. edulis in Wistar albino rats. Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In subacute stud...

Devaki, K.; Beulah, U.; Akila, G.; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.

2012-01-01

240

Effect of cassava based diet on some heamatological parameters in albino rats fed petroleum contaminated diet  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain the effect of a cassava based diet (gari on crude oil heamato-toxicity in albino rats by feeding diet contaminated with various concentrations of crude oil mixed with 20% gari to determine the protective effect of gari. The haematological parameters haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count (WBC(Total and differential were monitored in the animals. Gari feeding at 20% caused insignificant dose dependent decrease in Hb and PCV but significant dose dependent white blood cell count in gari fed albino rats compared with Petroleum fed albino rats (PIndustrial relevanceCassava is a staple food in human diets in over 80 countries (Gomez, et al 1988. Gari a starchy food prepared from cassava (Manihot utilisima tubers is one of the most popular staple foods of the people of the rain forest belt of West Africa. Gari contains mainly starch-20% amylase and 70% amylopectin having lost the soluble carbohydrates. Crude petroleum is capable of eliciting haemolytic toxicity of the blood cells in conditions of long- exposure causing decrease haemoglobin, white cell count and PCV levels. The study was carried out to see the effect of gari, a staple food on haemolytic toxicity caused by crude petroleum.Keywords: Cassava; Gari; Petroleum; haemato-toxicity

S A Braid

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

Histopathological and Biochemical Toxic Effect of Amiodarone on Thyroid Gland in Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available Backgrounds: Amiodarone AMD (Cordarone was a benzofuran derivative, used in management of angina and refractory ventricular arrhythmia. Its effect on the thyroid gland structure and function was investigated in this study. Material and Methods: Fifty adult male albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The first group was consisted of 10 rats which served as control, received distilled water orally (1ml. The second group was consisted of 20 rats used as therapeutic dose treated group, received 40 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone while the third group was consisted of 20 rats used as a toxic dose treated group which received 60 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone orally daily for three months. Body weight of animals was determined. Serum concentration of tri-iodothyonine (T3, thyroxine (T4, thyrotrophin (TSH, interleukin 6 (IL6, tumour marker P53 and tissue residue for amiodarone in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart was determined. Results: Specimens from thyroid gland were taken and prepared for light and electron microscope examination. Highly significant decrease in body weight (P<0.001 were observed in both therapeutic and toxic doses treated groups in comparison to the control one. A very highly significant increase (P<0.001 of serum (T4 & T3 with Concomitant suppression of (TSH (P<0.001. Serum levels of IL6 and P53 showed also a very highly significant increase (P<0.001. Amiodarone concentration in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart showed significant increase in therapeutic dose treated group and highly significant increase in toxic dose treated group. Histopathological examination of thyroid gland of therapeutic dose treated group by light microscope showed marked evidence of thyotoxicosis in the form of microcystic follicular changes and peripheral scalloping, cellular degeneration with scanty cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei appeared. These changes became more severe in toxic dose treated group in the form of epithelial hyperplasia with atypical nuclear features. Thyroid tissue damage with haemorrhage and necrosis. Electron microscopic examination showed a remarkable cellular changes in the form of dilated rouph endoplasmic reticulum, inclusion lysosomes, dilated Golgi bodies, mitochondrial distension and nuclear degeneration. In both treated groups these changes were dose related.

Ola A. El Sayed*, Safaa E. Gawish

2007-12-01

242

Role Of Thymus Vulgaris And/Or Origanum Majorana L. Extract In Ameliorating The Toxicity Induced By 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenyl imidazo (4,5-b)Pyridine (PHIP) In Adult Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of the watery extract of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum majorana L. (marjoram) or their mixture on the toxicity induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl imidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) which is one of the most abundant toxic heterocyclic amines (HCA) in cooked meat. Oral administration of PhIP (75 ml/kg) twice a week for four weeks resulted in a significant increase in liver function (AST, ALT and ALP) with a percentage change recording 33.79% , 70.96% and 127.64%, respectively, accompanied with decrease in total protein content. Significant increase (P<0.05) was observed in both creatinine (45.33%) and blood urea (109.17%), whereas serum T3 and T4 recorded significant decrease with a percentage change of -57.32% and -42.44%, respectively. A marked significant reduction (P<0.05) in monoamine contents (DA and NE) in total brain was observed after the ingestion of PhIP recording -13.23% and -13.47%, respectively, as percentage change from control. The daily oral administration of thyme, marjoram and their mixture (W/W) in dose of 500 mg/kg alone, before or after PhIP administration caused a decrease in ALT, AST and ALP levels and increase in total protein in serum and also cause decrease in serum creatinine and urea. Non-significant changes in T3 and T4 levels were observed in rats received the herbal extract. On the other hand, the herbal extract improved T3 and T4 levels before and after PhIP treatment bringing the hormonal levels near to that of control. Moreover, rats that received pre and post treatment with thyme, marjoram and their mixture (W/W) after being treated with PhIP showed high significant reduction in the elevated levels of DA and NE produced by PhIP treatment. From the current investigation, it could be concluded that the watery extract polyphenol flavonoids of thyme and marjoram has the protective and therapeutic effect on the toxicity produced by heterocyclic amine (PhIP) which may be due to their antioxidant property and free radical scavengers activity

243

Harmful effect of protein difficiency on lipids, glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in female albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was undertaken to investigate the harmful effect of protein deficient diet on some biochemical activities in serum of female rats. Protein malnutrition is a well known socioeconomic problem in different parts of the world. Many studies were investigated on the biological parameters following protein malnutrition in human and experimental animals. Forty albino female rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group (10 rats) fed 18% protein diet and served as normal control and the other two groups, each contains 15 rats, fed 5% protein for 21 and 45 days, respectively, and served as malnourished groups. The results showed significant decrease in total body weight, serum glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in the third group as well as decrease in the total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations that compared to normal control rats

244

HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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The traditional medicinal plant P.edulis was tested for its hypoglycemic effect in Wistar albino rats. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in overnight fasted normal as well as in alloxan induced diabetic rats (150 mg/kg, of alloxan, i.p.) with the administration of 100,200,300,400 mg/kg of b.wt of P.edulis. The blood sample withdrawn at 0, 60, 120, 180 min of glucose administration from the retro orbital sinus by capillary puncture indicated the hypoglycemic nature of the P.edulis...

Kanakasabapathi Devaki; Uthamaraj Beulah; Govindraj Akila; Martin Sunitha; Velliyur Kanniappan Gopalakrishnan

2011-01-01

245

Propolis Protection from Toxicity Caused by Aluminium Chloride in Male Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Propolis is a resinous natural hive product derived from plant exudate collected by honey bees and has been extensively used in folk medicine. The present study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of propolis in alleviating the toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl3)on some hematological and biochemical parameters of male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were arranged into 4 equal groups; control group, aluminium group (34 mg AlCl3/kg/day), propolis group (100?g propolis/rat)and aluminium plus propolis group. Rats were orally administered their respective doses daily for 30 days. AlCl3 caused significant decrease in hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrit (Ht), total and differential leucocyte count (TLC) when compared to control. On the other hand, aluminium administration caused a significant increase in urea, uric acid, creatinin, bilirubin, the content of phosphorous, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and asparate aminotransferase (AST) and significant decrease in total protein, albumin, globulin and calcium when compared to control. The administration of propolis alleviated the toxic effect of AlCl3 in experimental rats. It could be concluded thal propolis my afford protection from toxicity caused by aluminium chloride in male albino rats

246

Efficacy of oat bran (Avena sativa L. in comparison with atorvastatin in treatment of hypercholesterolemia in albino rat liver  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The present study deals with the effect of oat bran (Avena sativa L. in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in comparison with a hypocholesterolemic drug, atorvastatin, on hypercholesterolemic liver in male albino rats. Material and Methods: For this purpose four groups of rats (each containing 6 rats were used. The first group was used as a control, the second was cholesterol-fed group with cholesterol (0.5% w/w for 6 weeks. The third group was oats-fed hypercholesterolemic rats on oat supplemented diet (20% w/w for 4 weeks and the forth group was atorvastatin-treated hypercholesterolemic rats orally at a dose of 0.18 mg/Kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Results: The biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum LDL-C and a significant decrease in HDL-C level. In addition the activity of AST was increased in cholesterol-fed rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with oat soluble fiber or atorvastatin drug improved the above mentioned parameters. The histopathological examination of liver sections of cholesterol-fed group showed accumulation of lipid. Hepatocytes showed ballooning degeneration and manifested clear necrotic signs. Inflammatory cellular infiltration was found around the blood vessels, mild fibrosis near the portal blood vessels. However, liver impairment was reduced markedly in the liver of oat soluble fiber fed rats rather than atorvastatin drug treated rats. Conclusion: The present study, however, confirms that the cereal grain oat may have potent beneficial health effects in reducing LDL cholesterol and should be included in the prudent diet of individuals with hyperlipidemia.

Maisaa M. AL-Rawi

2007-12-01

247

Extra-Bone Marrow Sites of Haemopoeisis: Dihydroartemisinin Effects in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Iron is present in ferritin, the storage form of iron in the tissues; in the respiratory cytochrome enzymes; in hemoglobin of the blood and in the myoglobin of muscle Dihydroartemisinin (DHA has been shown to interact with heme groups in vivo and in vitro. This study investigated the effects of 5 day and 7day oral dihydroartemisinin treatments on the blood and tissues of the lungs, the heart, the liver, the intestines, the spleen and the kidney of Wistar albino rats. The dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin employed in the study were: A single dosage regimen of 1 mg kg-1; a repeated dosage regimen of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1. Approach: The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin interacted with the hemoglobin of the blood and the myoglobin of muscle to stimulate new haemopoesis in a concentration, repetition and time dependent manner in the tissues of the lungs, liver, spleen, intestine, heart and kidney of Wistar albino rats which was absent in the control rats. Results: Statistically significant increases were observed in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: These haemopoetic effects of DHA were greater and of longer duration in 5 day DHA-treatment rats than in those of the 7 day DHA-treatment rats.

Nedosa U. Anastasia

2012-01-01

248

Hypoglycemic and Antidiabetic Profile of the Aqueous Root Extracts of Leptadenia hastata in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic profile and the hypoglycaemic activity of aqueous root extracts of L. hastata in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats model. Eighty five albino rats were used for this study out of this thirty five were used subjected to experimental diabetes by the use of alloxan at a dose of 160 mg kg-1 body weight. Seven experimental groups of five rats per group (A-G were used for this study. A standard antidiabetic drug (insulin group (B and normal saline group (G serves as positive control. The blood glucose lowering activity of the extract, insulin and normal saline groups were monitored at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h post extract administration. On the other hand the remaining fifty albino rats were used to determine the acute toxicity and the hypoglycemic activity of the extract. The blood glucose levels of the rats were monitored at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post extract administration. Oral administration of aqueous root extract at 600 and 800 mg kg-1 b.wt have significantly (p-1 b.wt have significantly (pL. hastata aqueous root extracts and underscore its potentials in the management of diabetes mellitus especially following prolonged use in days.

I.A. Mairiga

2013-01-01

249

Hepatoprotective Effect of Enicostemma littorale blume and Eclipta alba During Ethanol Induced Oxidative Stress in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The leaves of Enicostemma littorale blume (Ens and Eclipta alba (Ecl have been used for skin infection, antiviral and antibacterial activity in traditional medicine. The present study is aimed at to evaluate the hepato-protective effect of the aqueous leaf extracts of the above two plants during ethanol induced oxidative stress in albino rats. The aqueous leaf extracts of Enicostemma littorale and Eclipta alba combine (1:1 at dose level of 250 mg kg-1 b.wt. were tested for hepato-protective and antioxidant effects during ethanol induced oxidative stress in liver tissue of wistar male albino rats. The degree of hepatoprotection was assessed by measuring the activity levels of the marker enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Free radicals generated lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS and the activity levels of the tissue antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD. The ethanol supplemented rats recorded elevated activity levels of serum AST, ALT and ALP revealing ethanol induced hepatotoxicity. The increased levels of TBARS in liver and decreased activity levels of SOD and CAT in ethanol fed animal’s revealed oxidative stress. The aqueous leaf extracts supplementation of Ens+Ecl in 1:1 produced significant hepatoprotection and antioxidative effect during ethanol induced hepatotoxicity. The study can be concluded that the therapeutic effect of aqueous leaf extracts of Ens+Ecl in 1:1 is not only hepatoprotective but also possess significant antioxidant property.

P. Baranisrinivasan

2009-01-01

250

The potential effect of berberine in mercury-induced hepatorenal toxicity in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury (Hg) is the third most dangerous heavy metal after arsenic and lead. Mercury's toxicity brings serious risks to health through negative pathological and biochemical effects. The study was designed to investigate the possible protective role of berberine (BN) in mercuric chloride (HgCl2) induced oxidative stress in hepatic and renal tissues. Adult male albino Wistar rats were exposed to mercuric chloride (HgCl2; 0.4 mg/kg bwt) for 7 days. Treatment with HgCl2 induced oxidative stress by increasing lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production along with a concomitant decrease in glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. HgCl2 intoxication increased the activities of liver enzymes and the bilirubin level, in addition to the levels of urea and creatinine in serum. BN (100mg/kg bwt) treatment inhibited lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production, whereas it increased glutathione content. Activities of antioxidants enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, were also restored concomitantly when compared to control after BN administration. BN also inhibited the apoptotic effect of HgCl2 by increasing the expression of Bcl-2 protein in liver and kidney. Histopathological examination of the liver and kidney tissues proved the protective effect of BN against HgCl2 toxicity. These results demonstrated that BN augments antioxidant defense against HgCl2-induced toxicity and provides evidence that it has therapeutic potential as hepato- and reno-protective agent. PMID:24751971

Othman, Mohamed S; Safwat, Gehan; Aboulkhair, Menna; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

2014-07-01

251

EFFECTS OF SOME ANTIDIABETIC MEDICINAL PLANTS ON PANCREAS AND LIVER OF DIABETIC ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Background and aim of the study- Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. More than 400 traditional medicinal plants have been recorded for helping in controlling such disease. This study investigated effects of some plants used in Saudi Arabia and some other Arab countries as antidiabetic agents. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty adult male Albino rats were divided into six experimental groups each consist of twenty five rats. The first group was considered as a control group. The rest of groups were affected by induction of experimental diabetes by subcutaneous injection of Alloxan. The second group consisted of diabetic rats without any treatment. The third group was treated by the aqueous extract of mixture contains Foenugreek, Nigella and Termis seeds. The fourth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds, while the fifth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Foenugreek seeds.The sixth one was treated with the aqueous extract of Termis seeds with the administered dose of the plant extracts (100 mg/kg body weight.After four weeks of treatment, different biochemical parameters were performed including estimation of blood sugar level and serum insulin level. Pancreatic and liver samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both heamatoxylin and eosin as well as a special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of Langerhans. Results: The usage of the mixture or each plant alone corrected the glucose level and insulin level. Microscopically there was definite decrease in the number and diameter of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of medicinal plants in the different groups of this study greatly improved such cellular changes and the level of blood sugar level was corrected. The present results showed that the activity of the mixture was the best when compared with Nigella, Foenugreek and Termis seeds. Conclusions: The water extract of the mixture is the most powerful in amelioration hyperglycemia and most of all damage effects of Alloxan on the liver and texture, hematological parameters, and lipid profile. So it is advised to use the plant mixture as an antidiabetic agent rather than the use of each plant separately. Repeating such study with the use of variable doses may be helpful in better evaluation for the required doses.

Ashraf M. Mostafa, 1 Abdel Hamid A. Serwah, 2 Waleed S. Mohamed, 3

2013-01-01

252

4. Cisplatin and carboplatin induced changes in oxidative enzyme activity levels in albino rat’s liver  

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Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the possible interference of cisplatin or carboplatin on oxidative enzymes in liver of albino rats. Rats were divided into three groups each consisting of eight animals. Group 1 (Control received 0.9% of normal saline. Group 2 (Treatment received cisplatin of 3 mg/kg body weight and Group 3 (Treatment received carboplatin of 10 mg/kg body weight. Injections were given intra-peritoneally to rats on 1st, 3rd and 5th day of experimentation. On 45th day of experiment, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Succinate dehydrogenases (SDH, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH activities in the cytosol fraction were assayed in liver of albino rats. Cisplatin or carboplatin treatment caused significant changes in activity levels of SDH, LDH & G-6-PDH in liver of experimental rats, when compared to control rats. From the study it may be concluded that, hepatic tissue is meeting its energy requirements through alternative pathways. In other words this can be viewed as functional or physiological adaptation of the liver in treated rats, may be due to stress caused by platinum-based anticancer drugs.

Y.V. Kishore Reddy

2010-08-01

253

Effect of Xylooligosaccharide Enriched Yogurt on Serum Profile in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of Xylooligosaccharide (XO enriched yogurt in addition to basal diet on serum biochemical profile of albino rats assigned to 5 dietary treatments for a period of 21 days were studied. In all groups of rats (n = 5 serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were observed. The weight gain in rats receiving yogurt was higher than those in control group. XO enriched yogurt showed significant improvement in minerals absorption. There was no significant change in serum cholesterol level of rats fed on yogurt with or without XO enrichment but a fair reduction in serum glucose content was noted. XO as a functional ingredient can be incorporated in formulating dairy products with improved health benefits like lowering glucose levels.

Semee Mumtaz

2009-01-01

254

Camel's Milk Protects against Aluminum Chloride-Induced Toxicity in the Liver and Kidney of White Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3 is commonly used in daily life but it can be potentially toxic. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of camel' milk against aluminum-induced biochemical alterations and oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of white albino rats. Approach: White albino male rats (230-250 g were divided into three groups of 10 rats: a control group treated with normal saline, the AlCl3-treated group and the camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group. The AlCl3 treated group received 0.5 mg kg-1 of AlCl3 orally. The camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group was fed 1 mL of fresh camel's milk 10 minutes prior to the administration of oral AlCl3. All rats were treated every day for 30 days. Liver and kidney biochemical serum parameters were analyzed. Lipid peroxidation, as determined by the tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and hydrogen peroxide (HP, and the oxidative stress status, as measured by glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity, were evaluated in the kidney and liver of treated rats. Results: Data showed that the oral administration of AlCl3 resulted in statistically significant increases in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, cholesterol and triglycerides; the total amount of protein and albumin were also significantly decreased. However, these parameters were within normal levels in the rats given camel's milk prior to AlCl3. Additionally, oral administration of AlCl3 induced lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney, which was indicated by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation biomarkers (TBARS and HP and a significant decrease in the activities of GSH, SOD and CAT. In all rats treated with camel's milk before being given AlCl3, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress parameters were within normal levels. Conclusion: Treatment with camel's milk prior to AlCl3 exposure alleviates AlCl3-associated hazards and protects the kidney and liver from AlCl3 toxicity.

Fahaid Al-Hashem

2009-01-01

255

Evalution of Antiurolithic Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Roots of Cissampelos Pareira in Albino Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: In ayurvedic system of medicine a vast number of medicinal plants are reported to possess with antiurolithic activity. Aim: To study the antiurolithic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira (AERCP) in chemicals induced urolithiasis in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Nine Groups of albino rats (n=6) were used to evaluate the antiurolithic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of C.Pareira. Group I received with rat chow diet, Group II with 2% Ammonium chloride (AC) and 0.75% Ethylene glycol (EG) Group III with EG plus AC and cystone (5 ml/kg), Groups IV, V, VI with low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of root extract, Groups VII, VIII, IX with EG plus AC and low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of root extract respectively for 10 days. Urolithiasis was induced by supplying drinking water mixed with 2% Ammonium chloride and 0.75% Ethylene glycol for 10 days. On 11th day three rats from each Group were kept in one metabolic cage and urine (pooled) collected for 24h was subjected for estimation of biochemical parameters like urinary calcium, uric acid and magnesium. Blood was collected on the same day and analysed for various parameters. Kidneys were observed for the histopathological changes. Results: The rats treated with alcoholic extract of roots of C. pareira at 03 different doses significantly (p? 0.05) reduced urinary calcium, uric acid and increased urinary magnesium levels, reduced serum calcium, creatinine and increased serum magnesium. Rats treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg doses revealed less tissue damage and the cytology of the nephrotic tissue was almost similar to normal control Group I rats. Conclusion: Results showed that alcoholic extract of roots of C. pareira has exhibited a significant antiurolithic effect against urolithiasis in experimental rats.

Khanwelkar, Chitra C; Nimmagadda, Venkat Rao; Chavan, Vasant R; BH, Ramesh; S, Naveen Kumar

2014-01-01

256

Características ultraestruturais do segmento abdominal da aorta de rato albino = Mural features of the abdominal aortic segment of albino rat  

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Full Text Available O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar as peculiaridades ultraestruturais da parede da aorta de rato. Foram utilizados sete ratos albinos, adultos jovens, dos quais foram coletados fragmentos da aorta abdominal infra-renal. Após a coleta, os segmentosvasculares foram fixados e encaminhados para a rotina de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e varredura. As lamelas elásticas aparecem interpostas às fibras musculares lisas, sendo essa disposição principalmente notada na túnica média da parede vascular. Entre asfibras musculares lisas e as lamelas elásticas, observa-se um inter-relacionamento aparentemente estreito, feito por conexão e ancoramento entre ambos os elementos murais por meio de lamelas de colágeno. A túnica íntima da aorta abdominal do rato mostraalgumas peculiaridades ultraestruturais marcantes, tais como a interrupção, em certos locais da parede, de continuidade da lâmina elástica interna, interrupção acompanhada por poros endoteliais, de certa extensão, suprajacentes à falha na estrutura elástica intimal. Este padrão de constituição mural, com destaque aos ancoramentos elástico-musculares, via o colágeno, parece garantir propriedades fundamentais da parede vascular, concernentes à hemodinâmica, tal como o cisalhamento, normalmente notado entre os estratos superpostosda parede vascular, bem como a contratilidade e a visco-elasticidade da parede arterial.The objective of the present research was to investigate the ultrastructural peculiarities of the aortic wall of the rat. Seven young adult rats were used, from which fragments of theinfrarenal abdominal aorta were collected. After collection, the vascular segments were fixed and sent for analysis by scanning electron microscope. The elastic lamellae appear interposed with smooth muscular fibers; this pattern was verified mainly at the medial layer structure. Among the mural elements a well defined interrelationship was established through connective lamellae of the arterial wall. The collagen lamellae mainly provided anchoring among the elastic and smooth muscular constituents. The intimal layer showedspecial ultrastructural features, such as a non-continuous inner elastic lamina presented in certain sites of the vascular wall, followed by endothelial pores. This mural pattern of the abdominal aorta provided support to vascular functions such as shrinkage among the laminar composition of the arterial layers, also acting in mechanical properties of the vascular wall, such as viscoelasticity and contractility – essential actions to blood vessel hemodynamics.

2007-10-01

257

NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL FOOD COLOUR AND SWEETENER IN ADULT MALE ALBINO MICE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aims to investigate the effect of aspartame (artificial sweetener) and sunset yellow (artificial colour) on monoamines content in different brain areas of the adult male albino mice (cerebellum, brain stem, striatum, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex), and also on testosterone level in serum.The present study showed that the daily intraperitoneal injection of aspartame with dose of 200 mg/kg caused significant increase in monoamines content and testosterone level at most experimental periods. The elevation of monoamines content may be due to increase in phenylalanine concentration which leading to increase the synthesis of monoamines. The elevation of testosterone level may be due to the increment of DA content in hypothalamus which led to increase the release of LHRH. On the other hand, the daily intraperitoneal injection of sunset yellow with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg caused significant decrease in monoamines content and non-significant change in serum testosterone level at most experimental periods. The decrement in monoamines content may be due to the decrease in its uptake by the neurotransmitters or decrease in its synthesis

258

Physiological, biochemical and histological alterations induced by administration of imidacloprid in female albino rats.  

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Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid the newest class of major insecticide has outstanding potency and systemic action for crop protection against piercing and sucking insects pests and also highly effective for control of flea on cats and dogs. The effect of oral administration of two doses of imidacloprid 10 and 20mg/kg/day for 60 days on biochemical parameters, histopathology and protein profile of female albino rat was assessed. Average feed intake was significantly reduced (Prats treated with higher dose of imidacloprid showed marked dilation and congestion of central vein and degeneration of hepatocytes. The exposure to imidacloprid produced histopathological changes that could be correlated with changes in the biochemical profile of female albino rats. The blood plasma proteins were examined by SDS PAGE. There was no diagnostic difference in the pattern of plasma protein profile of control and treated rats. Based on the present physiological, biochemical and histological studies it is evident that imidacloprid did not produce any significant effects at 10mg/kg/day dose but induced toxicological effects at 20mg/kg/day to female rats. PMID:24759051

Vohra, Prerna; Khera, Kuldeep Singh; Sangha, Gurinder Kaur

2014-03-01

259

Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days. After the treatment period of 45 th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC, LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg produced significant reduction (P < 0.05 in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC, LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days. However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients.

Maruthappan V

2010-01-01

260

Effect of Gamma Radiation on the Albino Rat's Liver and the Possible Protective Role of ?-carotene on the Histological and Ultra Structural Changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Present investigation reports the possible protective effect of ?-carotene against hepatic lesions induced in male albino rats due to gamma-irradiation 48 male albino rats were divided into three main groups; the first served as control (12 animals). Rats of the second group (18 animals) were exposed to a sub-lethal dose of whole body gamma-irradiation and then divided into three equal subgroups. The rats of the third main group (18 animals) received 5 mg/kg body wt of ?-carotene at a daily oral dose for 2 weeks, and were then subjected to whole body gamma-irradiation at sub-lethal single dose level of 6 Gy. This group was then divided into three equal subgroups. The animals were autopsied at three intervals; one week, two weeks and four weeks post irradiation. The obtained data revealed that gamma-irradiation induced different histological changes in the liver of irradiated animals. These changes varied from haemorrhage, congestion in blood vessels, pyknosis and necrosis as well as complete degenerated area in the liver. Electron micrographs recorded swollen mitochondria, fragmented endoplasmic reticulum, distorted nuclei and cell membrane and lipid infiltration in the hepatocytes of irradiated animals. The treatment with ? carotene (5 mg/ kg body wt for two weeks) pre-exposure to radiation attenuated most of these changes. Therefore, the present study has included for the potential use of ?-carotene as a radio protector

 
 
 
 
261

Effects of curcumin on the gastric emptying of albino rats.  

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Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol, is an active principle of the perennial herb Curcuma longa commonly known as turmeric. Turmeric (CURCUMA LONGA L.) is a medicinal plant extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha medicine as a home remedy for various diseases including biliary diseases, cough, hepatic diseases, wound healing. However studies on the effect of curcumin on the gastric emptying are nearly nonexistent. It is hypothesized that curcumin may have an effect on gastric emptying. For this reason the present study was aimed to study the effect of curcumin on gastric emptying. Rats were divided into 5 groups (Group I - Group V), based on the time interval between administration of curcumin/vehicular fluid to administration of barium sulphate (Group I - 1 hr, Group II - 8 hrs, Group III - 16 hrs, Group IV - 24 hrs, Group V - 48 hrs). Each group was further divided into two subgroups, Group A (control) and Group B (experimental), containing 6 rats each. Rats in experimental group were administered curcumin intragastrically, in the dose of 1 gm/kg body weight, suspended in normal saline (0.9% NaCl). The controls were given vehicular fluid intragastrically, in volume equal to the experimental animals. It was observed that there was a decrease in the gastric emptying in all the experimental groups. PMID:23387246

Purwar, Brijesh; Shrivastava, Abha; Arora, Neetu; Kumar, Anil; Saxena, Yogesh

2012-01-01

262

Modulation Of Acrylamide-Induced Biochemical Alterations In Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acrylamide (ACR) is an industrial neurotoxic chemical that has been recently found in carbohydrate rich foods cooked at high temperature. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the protective effects of rosemary extract against ACR-induced toxicity in rats. The experimental rats were divided into four groups included a control group, a group treated orally with rosemary extract by supercritical fluid extractor (150 mg/kg/day) for 14 days, a group treated orally with ACR (50 mg/kg/day) for 14 days and a group treated orally with rosemary extract + acrylamide for 14 days. The results indicated that treatment with ACR alone resulted in a significant decrease in the haematological parameters, triglycerides, insulin, creatine kinase and choline esterase while the concentrations of urea, creatinine, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were increased. Treatment with rosemary extract during ACR treatment reduced the effects induced by ACR. It could be concluded that rosemary extract exhibited a protective action against ACR-induced biochemical alterations in rats. For this reason, rosemary is recommended to be used in cooked food due to its palatable taste and prophylactic effect.

263

Effect of Fractionated Low Doses of Gamma Radiation on Some Haematological and Immunological Parameters in Albino Rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed on 30 mature male albino rats to evaluate the direct effect of fractionated low doses (0.5 Gy twice weekly) gamma radiation and delayed effect (one month post-irradiation) on some haematological and immunological parameters. The rats were divided into three equal groups, Control and two whole body gamma-irradiated groups the irradiated groups were subjected to total doses of 4 and 8 Grays over a period of one and two months, respectively. The blood samples and peritoneal macrophages were taken twice from each irradiated rats at the end of their irradiation period and after one month post irradiation. Activated peritoneal macrophages in all groups showed significant decrease as compared to control group denoting that irradiation may cause receptor alteration and/or decrease in the phagocytic power of macrophages lasting for a longer time. Throughout the whole experiment there was wide variation in platelet count with no significant or minimal changes in other blood elements. Moreover, in the post irradiation group after two months irradiation, all the haematological parameters tested, except the Hct, were increased as compared to the control group. These results pointed to that the bone marrow and lymphoid organs of the animals can tolerate fractionated low dose irradiation through rapid recovery and/or compensatory stimulation. The presence of many target cells in the post irradiated group increases the red blood cell fragility

264

STUDY OF HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES INDUCED BY ENDOSULFAN IN KIDNEY OF ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Endosulfan, a neurotoxic organochlorine insecticide and cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial, and agricultural situations. An effective dose (1/3rd , 1/6th of 0.28 ppm/kg-1 LD50 of endosulfan was injected to 4, 5 and 6 week of albino rats and its exposure was studied on histopathology of kidney after 15, 30 and 45 days of exposure. The histopathological changes in renal tissue of rats exposed to endosulfan by interdermal injection showed pronounced changes in the structure of renal corpuscles and caused renal necrosis. The examination revealed nephrotoxic effects on endosulfan treated rats. The effect of this pesticide on oxidative stress and its biodegradation were also explained. This review will be useful for the researchers working in the field of pesticides and will create an awareness regarding its hazardous effect.

Sabiha Khan

2014-05-01

265

Effect of Ageratum Conyzoides Leaf Extract On Histological Structure of Mammary Gland of Wistar Albino Rat.  

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Full Text Available Abstract:             There are many causes of non-lactation after delivery in some dairy mammals and human female. In present investigation study was carried out to find out effect of Ageratum conyzoides leaf extract on histological structure of non lactating mammary gland of wistra white albino rat female. Ageratum conyzoides is supposed to induce lactation in non-lactating mammalian female including woman1. The effect of extract on non-lactating mammary gland after seven and fourteen days was observed on non – lactating mammary gland showed small size mammary gland with no secretion. After 7 days the epithelial lining showed growth and increasing size of secretary glands. Ducts were also seen increasing a proliferation. After 14 days secretory gland showed more tortures structure and secretion was accumulated in to lumen and gland. The 14 days treated female rat mammary gland showed more secretary activity indicating lactation was induced in lactating gland of mammary gland1. Key Words: albino rat, Phytochemical, Gangotry species, Ageratum conyzoides

anil kashinath mali

2012-07-01

266

Effect of Neem oil on the structure and function of the mature female albino rat ovaries  

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Full Text Available Objective: The study was undertaken to observe the effect of Neem oil treatment on the fertility, microscopic structure of ovary and the associated changes in the serum levels of female reproductive hormones in mature female albino rats. Methods:   The animals were divided in different groups as A1 = treated females at low dose (0.6 ml of Neem oil/animal, A2 = treated females at high dose (1.2 ml of Neem oil/animal, A3 = controls for group A1 (corresponding dose of peanut oil and A4 = controls for A2 (corresponding dose of peanut oil. Animals were kept under observation for a period of six weeks. At the end of this period animals were anesthetized, blood was removed by cardiac puncture and sacrificed. Ovaries were removed and fixed in 10% formol saline for microscopy and methanol for high-performance liquid chromatography purpose. Rresults: Microscopic sections of the ovaries have revealed decrease in the number of mature ovarian follicles. Significant changes in the levels of associated reproductive hormones and presence of higher concentrations of active Neem components in the gonads amongst the treated female rats have also been shown in this study. Cconclusions: From these findings it can be concluded that Neem oil has a dose depended anti-fertility potential in the female albino rats.

Masood Ahmed Shaikh

2009-03-01

267

Hepatoprotective Activity of Cinnamon Zeylanicum Leaves against Alcohol Induced Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Plants play an important role in the life of human, as the major source of food, as well as for the maintenance and improvement of health and for the elimination of the enemies since ages. Plants are the basic source of knowledge of modern medicine. The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of aqueos extract of aerial parts of Cinnamon zeylanicum are evaluated in alcohol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Silymarin (100mg/kg was given as reference standard. The aqueos extract of aerial parts of Cinnamon zeylanicum have shown very significant hepatoprotection against alcohol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats in reducing SGOT, SGPT, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and GGT and levels of total bilirubin and total protein were investigated and showed an increase in alcohol induced rats when compared to control. The extracts of the test plant exhibited significant (p < 0.05 hepatoprotective activity against the alcohol induced liver models by improving liver function which was indicated by reduction in the levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, total bilirubin and total protein.

K.Arun

2014-08-01

268

Antioxidative Properties of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Globimetula braunii in Normal Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Globimetula braunii used in Nigerian traditional medicine for managing various diseases was investigated for its antioxidant properties in adult Swiss albino rats. The pulverized plant material was extracted in 80% methanol using Soxhlet apparatus and fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. The crude and ethyl acetate fractions were evaluated for their effects on activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, gluthathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, lipid peroxidation and triacylglycerol levels in rats treated orally with a daily dose of 200 mg kg-1 for 14 days. Results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction caused a significant increase (p<0.05 in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and malonyldialdehyde (MDA levels, while the level of triacylglycerol decreased (p<0.05 compared to control. HPLC analysis showed that the crude and ethyl acetate fractions showed phenolic compounds, apigenin and naringin but only naringin was present in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is likely that endogenous Naringin may be acting in vivo both as an antioxidant and a pro-oxidant in normal albino rats.

J. Okpuzor

2009-01-01

269

Evaluation of Anticonvulsant Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Vitex nigundo in Swiss Albino Rats  

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Vitex-negundo Linn (Verbenaceae), a large aromatic shrub with typical five foliolate leaves pattern has been claimed to possess anticonsulvant activity apart from many medicinal properties. Maximal electroshock seizures (MES) in albino rats were used to study anticonvulsant activity of Vitex-negundo leaf extract. The ethanol leaf extract of Vitex-negundo was administered orally in graded doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg and 2000mg/kg p.o ) in the experimental model and the effects were compared with...

Pv, Dr Kishan; Dr, Kavitha R.; Miss Arpitha.T; Dr.Jayasree.T

2012-01-01

270

Effect of Neem oil on the structure and function of the mature female albino rat ovaries  

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Objective: The study was undertaken to observe the effect of Neem oil treatment on the fertility, microscopic structure of ovary and the associated changes in the serum levels of female reproductive hormones in mature female albino rats. Methods:   The animals were divided in different groups as A1 = treated females at low dose (0.6 ml of Neem oil/animal), A2 = treated females at high dose (1.2 ml of Neem oil/animal), A3 = controls for group A1 (corresponding dose of peanut oil) and A4 = con...

Masood Ahmed Shaikh; Syed Naeemulhassan Naqvi; Zahid Ali Kaim Khani

2009-01-01

271

Effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of bone collagen in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of collagen in bone was studied in young female albino rats after a single injection of 3H-proline. Both specific and total radioactivities of hydroxyproline in the total collagen of the bone were found to decrease in the protein-deficient animals, indicating decreased rate of collagen synthesis. In the urine the amount of hydroxyproline excreted and total radioactivity of 3H-hydroxyproline were greatly decreased. The results of the present investigation therefore clearly indicate decreased synthesis and catabolism of collagen in bones of protein deficient animals compared to controls. (auth.)

272

Toxicological, biochemical and histopathological evaluation of Tridham in Wistar albino rats.  

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Full Text Available Tridham (TD, a polyherbal formulation is assessed for its acute (72 hr and subacute toxicity (28 days and also its significance on histological, hematological and biochemical variations in albino wistar rats. Body weight and general behavior of animal was observed throughout the experimental period and at the end of the study period organ weight, haematological and biochemical parameters of blood and urine, as well as kidney and liver histology were evaluated. Results of the studies performed indicated no toxic clinical symptoms or histopathological lesions in both acute and subacute toxicity, which clearly shows that TD extract has high margin of safety.

Ravindran Jaganathan

2012-08-01

273

Two-line hybrid rice male sterile line 'NHR111S' with a marker of green-revertible albino leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NHR111S is a new two-line male sterile line with a marker of green-revertible albino leave that was bred from in vitro mutagens is of the thermo/photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line 'Guangzhan63S' by 60Co ?-rays. It has the same desired agronomic traits, fertility characteristics and combining ability as characteristics of the parent. It is convenient to develop leaf color marker-aided elimination strategy in the multiplication and production of hybrid rice seeds. (authors)

274

Effect of honey intake on serum cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein levels in albino rats and potential benefits on risks of coronary heart disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The beneficial effect of honey has been widely reported particularly in the treatment of wounds and gastrointestinal tract disorders. However there is paucity of reports on its effect on the plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) including cholesterol levels despite common consumption of honey worldwide including, Nigeria. The effect of the widely consumed unrefined Nigeria honey on plasma HDL, VLDL, LDL, TG, cholesterol and cardiovascular risk predictive index (CVPI) was studied using 20 adult male albino rats to ascertain its scientific and clinical relevance. The rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups, the control and honey-fed (test) groups, ten in each group. The rats weighed between 190-200gm at the start of the study. The control group was fed on normal rat (Pfizer-Nigeria) while the test group was fed on normal rat feed and honey (1ml of honey was added to 10ml of drinking water given once every day) for 22 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized with thiopentone sodium and blood collected by cardiac puncture. Serum TG, HDL, VLDL, LDL and total cholesterol in the control and the test groups were determined. The results showed significant increase in the level of plasma TG, HDL, and VLDL in the test group when compared with the control group. In contrast, there were significant decreases in the levels of plasma LDL and total cholesterol in the test when compared with the control group. Computed values of CVPI showed significant increase in the test values compared to that of the control. It is concluded that consumption of unrefined Nigeria honey significantly improved lipid profile and computed cardiovascular disease predictive index in male albino rats. PMID:22547185

Alagwu, E A; Okwara, J E; Nneli, R O; Osim, E E

2011-12-01

275

Ulcerogenic and intestinal motility/transit stimulating actions of nevirapine in albino Wistar rats.  

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The antiretroviral is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of nevirapine (NVP) administration on gastric acid secretion, pepsin secretion, mucosal secretion, intestinal motility, and transit using apparently healthy albino Wistar rats. Eighty albino Wistar rats (50-125 g body weight) from the start of the experiment were used for the study. Rats in the control group were fed normal rodent chow, while the NVP group was fed by gavage NVP (0.4 mg/kg body weight) two times daily (07:00 and 18:00 hours) in addition to normal rodent chow for 12 weeks. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water. Mean basal gastric output and peak acid output following histamine administration in the NVP-treated group were significantly higher (p < 0.001, respectively) compared to the control. Following cimetidine administration, there was significant decrease (p < 0.001) in peak acid output in the NVP-treated group compared to the control. The concentration of gastric pepsin, adherent mucus secretion, and mean value for ulcer score were significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to their control group, respectively. There were significant increases (p < 0.05, respectively) in intestinal motility and basal contraction (p < 0.05) and increase in intestinal transit of the ileum of NVP-treated rats compared to their control, respectively. Results of the study suggest that NVP administration might provoke gastric ulceration in rats which may be caused by high pepsin, high basal acid output, and increased intestinal motility and transit. PMID:23536414

Umoren, Elizabeth Bassey; Obembe, Agona Odeh; Osim, Eme Effiom

2013-09-01

276

Daily oscillations of the CNS radioresistance in male and female rats after cranio-caudal gamma-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In experiments with albino mongrel male and female rats subjected to cranio-caudal gamma-irradiation (60Co, 62.5 Gy), daily oscillations of the CNS radioresistance were revealed by the criterion of occurrence of early transient neurological disorders (ETND). The time factor was significant, as estimated by the frequency and severity of opisthotonus and convulsions in males. ETND were more frequent and severe in females than in males

277

Effect of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on male rat reproductive system in a simulated scenario.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports of declining male fertility have renewed interest in assessing the role of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Testicular function is particularly susceptible to the radiation emitted by EMFs. Significant decrease in sperm count, increase in the lipid peroxidation damage in sperm cells, reduction in seminiferous tubules and testicular weight and DNA damage were observed following exposure to EMF in male albino rats. The results suggest that mobile phone exposure adversely affects male fertility. PMID:25241589

Kumar, Sanjay; Nirala, Jay Prakash; Behari, J; Paulraj, R

2014-09-01

278

EVALUATION THE EFFECT OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE (SC OR VIAGRA ON SENILE ALBINO RAT TESTIS (HISTOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDY  

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Full Text Available Sildenafil citrate (SC or Viagra is an oral medication widely used to treat erectile dysfunction and maintains a sufficient erection for satisfactory sexual performance. The side effects of sildenafil citrate have been reported.Aim of the work: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of sildenafil citrate in the therapeutic dose in different regimes. Materials and methods: This study included forty senile male albino rats divided into four equal groups. Group (A was used as a control group (did not receive any treatment. Group (B receive the therapeutic dose of Viagra (1.5 mg suspended in 1.5 ml distilled water orally using a gastric gavage as daily dose for one week. Group (C received the therapeutic dose of Viagra 3 times / week for two weeks. Group (D received the therapeutic dose of Viagra each week for 4 weeks. Half of the treated rats of the different groups were sacrificed, other half were sacrificed after two weeks from the last dose as recovery groups (RB, RC and RD. The testes were dissected and blocked in paraffin. Hematoxylin and Eosin (HX&E and Periodic acid Schiff stain (PAS were applied and serum testosterone levels in the different groups were evaluated.Results: The present study showed that the therapeutic dose of sildenafil caused several histological findings in the germinal epithelial of the rat testes including degeneration , detachment of the spermatogenic cells especially the primary spermatocytes with addition thickening of the basement membranes of the seminiferous tubules and increased interstitial Leydig cells. The serum testosterone of the treated rats showed increased level of testosterone especially in group D. The recovery rats showed relative improvement of parameter toward normal.Conclusion: Sildenafil produce morphological and histological alterations in the testes.

Ezz-Eldin E-Abdalla*, Zienab M. Gebaly**, Abd-Elghany A.Moustafa*, Ibrahim M. Amr

2012-10-01

279

CURATIVE POTENTIAL OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SCENT LEAF (OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM ON CISPLATIN INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used for a wide variety of tumors, but is reported to be hepatotoxic. In the current study, the dose dependent and time course curative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (O.G. on cisplatin induced hepatotoxic rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches was evaluated. Male albino wistar rats weighing between 150-200g were randomly separated into four different groups of eighteen (18 rats per group. Rats in group 1 received no cisplatin. Normal saline was administered intraperitoneally (i.p. The rats in group 2 were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight i.p. Tissue damage was also induced in rats in groups 3 and 4 by a single intraperitoneal-administration of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight. After three days, 2ml/kg body weight of 5% and 10% aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum were administered to rats in groups 3 and 4 respectively, through the oral route using the gavage once daily for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Rats in group 2 were given sterile water in place of the extracts while rats in group 1 were the untreated controls. They were all allowed unlimited access to tap water and growers’ mash. Results showed the extract to cause significant (P? 0.05 dose and time related attenuation in the elevation of serum liver enzyme markers of acute hepatocellular injury (ALT, AST and ALP and increase in serum protein. Cisplatin treatment caused significant increase (P? 0.05 in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT from 43.03 ± 1.29 to 127.90 ± 0.89 U/L and a decrease (P? 0.05 in serum protein concentration from 93.70 ± 0.61 to 50.43 ± 1.53 g/l. There were considerable decreases (P? 0.05 in body weight and liver weight to body weight ratio in the test animals. However, most of these observed changes were alleviated by prophylactic treatment with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum which was also found to be dose and time dependent (P ? 0.05. The ameliorating effect was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations of liver tissues in the groups treated with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum (5% and 10%. The results from this study indicate that aqueous leaf extracts of O. gratissimum has anti-hepatotoxic action against cisplatin induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Hence the extracts have the potential to be used for the management of hepatopathies and as a therapeutic adjuvant in cisplatin toxicity.

E. M. Arhoghro

2012-08-01

280

Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus).  

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The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6) in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1) treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) throughout treatment and withdrawal periods. One hundred and twenty white male albino rats were grouped into four groups. Group 1, was injected with 300 mug kg(-1) body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and left uninjected for another 15 days to study the withdrawal effect. Group 2, was injected with 300 mug kg(-1) body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and treated simultaneously with IP6 daily for another 15 days. Group 3, was treated daily with IP6 (40 mg kg(-1) body wt) for 15 days and with no treatment for other 15 days. Group 4, injected with equivalent volume of sterile phosphate buffer saline solution as a control group. Sera were taken at the experimental intervals and assayed for testosterone hormone, follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to determine the toxicological impact of AFB1 and the possibility of amelioration by phytic acid on the reproductive performance of the studied animal. The effects of AFB1 treatment on the absolute and relative weight of testis as well as its histopathologic effect on the testis and the possibility of amelioration by IP6 treatment were evaluated. The activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants, in addition to lipid peroxidation were measured in the testis' homogenate of AFB1-treated rats. A decrease in sex hormone levels, an increase in testicular lipid peroxidation product levels and a significant decrease in testicular glutathione content, catalase and total peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were recorded. The histopathologic alterations revealed a degeneration and highly mitotic division within the spermatogenic nuclei, in addition to some karyomegaly and nuclear pyknosis. It is concluded that the reduction in the toxicity of free radicals by phytic acid might be responsible for the protective influence observed. PMID:18955247

Abu El-Saad, Abdelaziz S; Mahmoud, Hamada M

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

INFLUENCE OF HIGH PHYTOESTROGEN DIET ON RAT MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM  

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Full Text Available Aims and Objective: To evaluate the effects of phytoestrogen diet alone and high phytoestrogen diet with rutin and naringin on male reproductive system.Experimental Protocol: A total of 48 adult male wistar albino rats were divided in to 8 groups, each contains 6 rats. Low phytoestrogen diet (LPD and high phytoestrogen diet (HPD were administered to the two different groups of rats for 35 days. Rutin and naringin, antioxidants were also given in different doses (5mg/kg, 10/kg for a period of 35 days along with high phytoestrogen diet in different groups of rats. A sham control group animals fed on commercial pellet diet and vehicle control group animals with 0.1% sod CMC were also maintained until completion of 35 days. On 36th day bilateral orchiectomies were performed for all the animals. The testicular tissue was evaluated for various sperm parameters, biochemical estimations and histological changes.Results: Animals fed on low and high phytoestrogen diets has shown fall in sperm parameters and lipid peroxidation and increase in testicular antioxidant enzymes. Rutin and naringin have not shownany significant effect on sperm parameters. But decrease in lipid peroxidation and increase in antioxidant enzymes was observed. No histological changes were observed.Conclusions: High phytoestrogen diet has reduced all the sperm parameters drastically. Antioxidants have not shown any effect on sperm parameters but amplified the antioxidant enzymes and reducedMDA levels.

Raju B Akondi*

2009-11-01

282

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF ORIGIN (MOOLASTHANA OF RAKTAVAHA STROTAS IN ALBINO RAT  

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Full Text Available Ayurveda, the science of life, believes in the existence of the things, which are beyond the perception of most intellectual human approach. Strotas [fine network/meshwork of large or small channels (excluding blood vessels and nerves with micro or macroscopic spaces meant for various types of secretion and excretion of useful and waste product] and its origin is such part of sharir (i.e. body which is beyond the capacity of human being to prove it practically. They are found in cell-tissue-organ-system and thus occupy the whole body. Origin of Strotas is difficult to show in human being hence, Albino Rat, is selected to prove its existence. Out of 14 strotas (as described by carak, an attempt is made to verify and determine the Origin of Raktavaha Strotas only in Albino Rat. Raktavaha strotas are those micro-macro hollow channels where Rakta Dhatu i.e. blood and its content, are formed, conducted, metabolized and are transformed in to newer substances to meet the need of life.

Vaikos Chandrashekhar Dattatraya

2011-04-01

283

HAIR GROWTH POTENTIAL OF EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN. PLANT EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae is traditionally used for its hair growth promoting activity in rural community of Indian sub-continent. Studies were therefore carried out to evaluate petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous base and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats for thirty days. The time required for hair growth initiation and completion was significantly (P < 0.01 reduced. Minoxidil 2% solution applied topically served as positive control. The treatment was successful in bringing 73% of hair follicles in anagenic phase by application of 5% methanolic extract as comparable to standard. Bioactivity guided fractionation was carried out of methanolic extract and was fractionated as aqueous and non-aqueous extract and screened pharmacologically. Water insoluble methanolic extract was found to be more potent and reduced the hair growth initiation and completion time significantly (P < 0.01 as comparable to standard. It holds the promise of potent alternative for minoxidil.Keywords:

Bhaiji Amrita

2012-05-01

284

Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats  

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Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

285

A novel immunohistochemical marker of normal and neoplastic melanocytes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of albino rats.  

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In albino rats, spontaneous occurrence of melanocytic tumors is rare, with diagnosis difficult. This study evaluated immunoreactivity for PNL2 in normal and neoplastic melanocytes in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues of albino rats. The samples consisted of 11 (1.57%) amelanotic melanomas in 700 rats (2 studies), 23 non-melanocytic tumors, and a wide variety of normal tissues. In normal albino rats, PNL2 stained the melanocytes in the iris and choroid of the eyeball and the hair bulb and basal cell layers of the epidermis of the whole body. In amelanotic melanoma, the tumor cells consisted of spindle cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm without melanin granules. PNL2 consistently stained cytoplasm in all amelanotic melanoma cells. In contrast, the nonmelanocytic tumor cells were not labeled. Electron microscopically, neoplastic, and normal melanocytes showed numerous cytoplasmic premelanosomes (stage II melanosome). In conclusion, PNL2 is direct against a fixative- and decalcific-resistant melanocyte-associated antigen, and has high specificity against normal and neoplastic melanocytes of albino rats. PMID:18487499

Kurotaki, T; Tomonari, Y; Kanno, T; Wako, Y; Tsuchitani, M

2008-05-01

286

The Side Effects Of The Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID Ketoprofen On Histological And Ultrastructural Aspects Of The Kidneys Of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present work deals with the effect of the therapeutic dose of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ketoprofen on the microscopic structure of the kidney of the albino rat. The present study also sheds light on the risk of using over-dosage either by mistake or in an unwise attempt at quick relieving the body pain. The intramuscular therapeutic dose of ketoprofen to albino rat was calculated and was found to equal 13.5 mg /kg body weight. Fifty adult male albino rats, Rattus norvegicus were used in the present study. The rats were equally allocated to five groups, each of 10 rats. Rats of the first group were kept as control. Rats of the second & third groups were injected daily with the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen for four and eight successive weeks respectively. Rats of the fourth & fifth groups were injected daily with double the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen for four and eight successive weeks respectively. In rats given the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen daily for four weeks and sacrificed 24 hours after the last dose, light microscope examination showed that Malpighian corpuscles and the kidney tubules revealed signs of degeneration. In rats given the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen daily for eight weeks the histological changes were in progression. A few numbers of glomeruli were increasingly congested and shrunken into dense masses of unrecognized structural details. The luminal borders of the cells lining the proximal convoluted tubules together with their microvilli were damaged. The electron micrographs of ultrathin sections of kidneys of rats given the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen daily for eight weeks showed that the glomerular capillaries were disorganized and occasionally their lining endothelium showed degeneration. The podocytes showed deteriorated and rarefied cytoplasm; and their primary processes were fragmented. Also, the foot processes appeared occasionally broad. In some cells of proximal convoluted tubules the microvilli completely disappeared. Occasionally, these cells gave broad blebs into the tubule lumen which became almost obliterated. The cytoplasm of few cells lining the distal convoluted tubules became moderately rarefied and vacuolated. In animals given double the therapeutic dose for four weeks many kidney glomeruli were fragmented and showed marked congestion and increased mesangium. The parietal walls of Bowman's capsules were damaged. The kidney tubules showed generalized hyalinization. A few numbers of t he tubule lining cells displayed pyknotic nuclei; some nuclei were karyolysed and even vanished. In animals given daily double the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen for eight successive weeks, the glomeruli were sclerotic and necrotic and the kidney tubules showed generalized hyalinization.

Amina M. Farag Allah

2001-06-01

287

Study on the diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis Buch.-Ham. in albino rats.  

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The present study was undertaken to evaluate diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis root powder in Wistar strain albino rats. Randomly selected animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. The root powder was suspended in distilled water and administered orally at a dose of 90 mg/kg therapeutically equivalent dose (TED) and 180 mg/kg (TED × 02) to overnight fasted rats. The diuretic activity was evaluated by determination of urine volume and urinary electrolyte concentrations. Test drug showed significant increase in urine volume and urinary electrolyte excretion in a dose-dependant manner. Thus, from this study, it can be concluded that roots of E. fusiformis possess diuretic activity. PMID:22529656

Ashok, B K; Bhat, Savitha D; Shukla, V J; Ravishankar, B

2011-07-01

288

Diuretic activity of Linaria ramosissima (wall.) Janch. leaves in albino rats.  

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Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration of the test drug increased the urine volume in a non-significant manner, while it enhanced the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, and potassium significantly, in comparison to the control group. From the present study it can be concluded that the leaves of L. ramosissima have a significant diuretic activity. PMID:23723679

Pandya, Preeti N; Aghera, Hetal B; Ashok, B K; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2012-10-01

289

Exploring Hepatotoxicity of Benomyl: Histological and Histochemical Study on Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Benomyl, a fungicide of the benzimidazole group applied against a wide range of fungal diseases of crops and vegetables. The effects of benomyl on the hepatic tissue of albino rats were investigated. Treating rats with benomyl at a dose level of 1/10 LD50 three times/week for three weeks induced various histopathological changes in the liver, such as hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, leucocytic infiltrations, congestion of blood vessels and fatty degeneration. Histochemical investigations revealed reduction in total carbohydrates, total proteins and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA in the hepatic cells. These alterations were time-dependent and were obvious in animals treated with benomyl for 3 weeks. It is speculated that one or more metabolites of benomyl may be responsible for the hepatotoxicity recorded in the present work.

Saber A. Sakr

2004-01-01

290

Anti-inflammatory Activity of the Plant Cannabis sativa (L Petrolium Ether Extract in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available In this study the plant Cannabis sativa seeds petroleum oil extract was investigatedfor anti- inflammatory activity on albino rats. The inflammation was firstly obtained byusing carrageenan suspension 0.1 ml of 10% saline injected at the sub – plantar region ofthe left limb for inducing a local acute oedema. A decreased in oedema size was reportedafter 24 hours for the rats pretreated with carrageenan30 minutes before injection withsuspension( 4.56, 0.59 and 0.93 for control, 1ml/kg per day and 0.5ml/kg per day groupsgiven C. sativa seed extracts respectively., compared to Indomethacin standard antiinflammatorydrug which reported a decrease in oedema size diameter to 0.55mm, which

Musa E.M

2011-10-01

291

HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The traditional medicinal plant P.edulis was tested for its hypoglycemic effect in Wistar albino rats. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in overnight fasted normal as well as in alloxan induced diabetic rats (150 mg/kg, of alloxan, i.p. with the administration of 100,200,300,400 mg/kg of b.wt of P.edulis. The blood sample withdrawn at 0, 60, 120, 180 min of glucose administration from the retro orbital sinus by capillary puncture indicated the hypoglycemic nature of the P.edulis leaf extract and identified the most effective dose as 200mg/kg b.wt.

Kanakasabapathi Devaki

2011-09-01

292

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB IN PARACETAMOL INTOXICATED ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats was observed. In the present study the effect of ethanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb on blood and liver glutathione, Na+ K+- ATPase activity, serum marker enzymes, serum bilirubin, glycogen and thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances against paracetamol induced damage in rats have been studied to find out the possible mechanism of hepatoprotection. It was observed that extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb has reversal effects on the levels of above-mentioned parameters in paracetamol hepatotoxicity. The extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb functions as a hepatoprotective agent and this hepatoprotective activity of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb may be due normalization of impaired membrane function activity.

Jha Urmilesh

2011-04-01

293

Effect of Taurine on Cisplatin -Induced Nephrotoxicity and Hepatoxicity in Male Rat  

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Background and Objectives: Cisplatin, Platinum co-ordinate complex is a widely used antineaplastic agent for treatment of metastatic tumors. Taurine is an organic acid and an endogenous antioxidant. In this study we investigated the protective effect of taurine as an endogenous antioxidant against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotexicity.Methods: 24 male albino rats (180-220 grams) were divided into 4 groups (n=6): (1): saline-treated group (2): cisplatin-treated group (10mg/kg, ip...

Noruzi M.; Zareh S.; Farrokhi F.; Ghaderi Pakdel F.

2010-01-01

294

Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are hig [...] hly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae) which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

Hasan, Zora; Zumrut F. Biber, Muftuler; Ilknur, Demir; Ayfer Yurt, Kilcar; Cigdem, Ichedef; Perihan, Unak.

2012-04-01

295

Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are hig [...] hly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae) which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

Hasan, Zora; Zumrut F. Biber, Muftuler; Ilknur, Demir; Ayfer Yurt, Kilcar; Cigdem, Ichedef; Perihan, Unak.

296

Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are highly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

Hasan Zora

2012-04-01

297

Antiovulatory Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Chromatographic Fractions of Citrus medica Seeds in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available In India the control of fertility is based on the folk use of numerous traditional antifertility plants that has been practiced for many years. The petroleum ether extract of Citrus medica seeds which showed promising antiovulatory activity in female albino rats was examined for the isolation of its active fractions. Two fractions were obtained using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC of the extract. Both fractions were subjected for testing their anti-ovulatory activity and estrous cycle in rats. After preliminary trials, the fraction II showed maximum antiovulatory activity when administered orally to the rats for 30 days. At autopsy on day 31st, chromatographic fractions treated rats showed increased ovarian weight and histological changes of the ovary indicate increases in the number of atretic follicles but decreases in the number of healthy developing follicles, Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. The total cholesterol, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase content of the ovary were increased, whereas, protein, glycogen and alkaline protease content were decreased. The estrous cycle of these rats was irregular with prolonged proestrus and estrous, reduced metestrus and diestrus phase during the experimental period. These results suggest that a chromatographic fraction II of petroleum ether extract of Citrus medica might be used as a contraceptive in the females.

Saraswati B. Patil

2013-01-01

298

Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats  

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Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746

R. Narmadha

2013-12-01

299

Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L. Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar  

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Full Text Available Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage, mercuric chloride (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of virgin olive oil and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 2 weeks of experimental period. Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of virgin olive oil resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by virgin olive oil supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of virgin olive oil. The results clearly demonstrate that virgin olive oil treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

Youcef Necib

2014-03-01

300

Effects of Aqueous Extract of Mangifera indica L. (Mango Stem Bark on Haematological Parameters of Normal Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effects of crude aqueous extract of Mangifera indica (Mango stem bark on body weight and haematological parameters in normal albino rats were investigated. Albino rats of both sexes weighing between 75 g and 125 g were used. At least 14 mL of the test aqueous extract of the plant was administered to each rat in the group for a period of 14 days. Observations showed that the extract of the medicinal plant have some effects on the haematopoietic system manifested by a positive increase in the levels of PCV (haematocrit, erythrocyte, leukocyte, platelet counts and lymphocytes, while the haemoglobin (Hb and neutrophil levels were decreased. The test plant also caused an increase in the weights of the rats. Therefore, it is not possible that its use can advance any adverse effects on haematological parameters.

Nwinuka, Nwibani M.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet  

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Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and to compare it with a standard hypolipidaemic drug simvastatin. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (100-200 g were randomized into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The groups were treated as follows: Group A: normal diet (ND; Group B: HFD (vanaspati ghee + coconut oil mixture in ratio of 3:2 at 10 ml/kg/day; Group C: HFD+ AEBSL (100 mg/kg/day; Group D: HFD + AEBSL (200 mg/kg/day; Group E: HFD + simvastatin (1.8 mg/kg/day. Lipid profile was estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. AEBSL showed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL levels and significant (p<0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in hypercholesteromic rats (Group C and Group D. AEBSL 200 mg/kg/day found to be more effective than AEBSL 100 mg/kg/day. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01 and increases the percentage of protection AEBSL treated animals. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves have excellent lipid lowering potentiality.

H. Saikia

2011-04-01

302

The effect of Sitagliptin (Januvia on the liver of adult Albino rats in cases of experimental diabetes mellitus(Microscopic and laboratory studies  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Sitagliptin (Januvia on the liver of experimentally induced diabetes in albino rats.Material and Methods: Fifteen adult male albino rats were used and divided into three equal groups. The first group was considered as a control group. In the second group experimental induction of diabetes was performed by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan and left as a diabetic control for three weeks. The third group was consisted of rats of experimentally induced diabetes and treated by a daily dose of Sitagliptin (Januvia as oral anti diabetic therapy for three weeks.Two main parameters were performed; the first was microscopic and histochemical studies on the liver tissue while the second was laboratory evaluation of some liver functions.Results: The hepatic tissue was affected by the experimental induction of diabetes in the form of cellular infiltration, hepatic cell cords disarrangement and vascular congestion after three weeks of induction.The fibrous elements as well as mucopolysaccharides contents were greatly reduced. Histochemical changes in the liver enzymes showed mild decrease. Liver function tests showed mild changes.Diabetic changes were gradually returned back to its normal state after the use of daily oral dose of Sitagliptin.Conclusions: The antidiabetic drug (Sitagliptin could be considered a good therapy in limiting the risk of diabetes Mellitus on liver tissue

Moustafa I. Hassan 1 Gamal S.El-Gharabawy 1 and Abdel-Ghany A. Moustafa

2012-04-01

303

EVALUATION OF GASTRIC ANTIULCEROGENIC ACTION OF PLANTAIN BANANA ( MUSA SAPIENTUM VAR. PARADISIACA) IN ASPIRIN PLUS PYLORUS LIGATED ALBINO RATS  

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Objectives: To assess the effect of unripe dried banana powder in experimentally induced gastric ulcers and effect on gastric acid secretion. To evaluate the antiulcerogenic effect of plantain banana of Gujarat as a part of evaluation of impact of biological variables on this activity. Materials and methods: Total of 24 albino rats of either sex weighing between 150-250 gm were randomly divided into 4 groups. Each group has 6 no. of rats. The first group received placebo (distilled water), th...

Shah, K. R. Tandel And B. K.

2012-01-01

304

Gross hepatic changes in developing albino rats exposed to valproic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Valproid Acid (VPA) is a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug. Its use during pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies and hepatotoxicity. This study was designed to assess the effects of VPA on the gross structure of liver in developing albino rats exposed to the drug during various trimesters of pregnancy. Methods: In this experimental study 40 pregnant rats were divided into 4 equal groups A, B, C and D. Group A received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day intraperitonealy (I/P) on days 3, 4 and 5 of gestation. Group B received the drug in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 8, 9 and 10 of gestation. Group C received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 16, 17 and 18 of gestation. Group D received no treatment and was kept as a control group. On day 21, the rats were euthanised by cervical dislocation. The liver of the foetuses were dissected out for the assessment of their gross structure. Results: Foetal liver of the experimental groups showed significant decrease in weight as well as relative tissue weight index (RTWI) as compared to the control group, although the gross appearance of the foetal liver was normal in all the groups. Conclusion: The use of VPA during various trimesters of pregnancy produces hepatotoxicity in the developing rats. So, the use of this drug during pregnancy should be carefully decided. (author)

305

Effect of Calotropis procera latex on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in albino rats.  

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The alcoholic extract of the latex obtained from Calotropis procera (Asclepidaceae) was evaluated for protection against isoproterenol (20 mg/100 g body wt., s.c.)-induced myocardial infarction in albino rats. The heart damage induced by isoproterenol was indicated by elevated levels of the marker enzymes such as Creatine Kinase-isoenzyme (CK-MB), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) in serum with increased lipid peroxide and reduced glutathione content in heart homogenates. Microscopical examination (histopathology) was also performed on the myocardial tissue. Pretreatment with an ethanolic latex extract of Calotropis procera at a dose of 300 mg/kg body wt., administered orally thrice a day for 30 days, reduced significantly (p < 0.01) the elevated marker enzyme levels in serum and heart homogenates in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Histopathological observation revealed a marked protection by the extract in myocardial necrotic damage. PMID:15185846

Ahmed, K K Mueen; Rana, A C; Dixit, V K

2004-01-01

306

Abortifacient activity of Plumeria rubra (Linn) pod extract in female albino rats.  

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To evaluate the potential abortifacient activity of the aqueous, alcohol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of P. rubra pod in female albino rats 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight doses of each extract were administered from day 11 to 15 of pregnancy and animals were allowed to go full-term. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, simple phenolics, steroids, tannins and saponins. Clinical toxicity symptoms such as respiratory distress, salivation, weight loss, dull eyes, diarrhea, and change in the appearance of fur as well as mortality were not observed in the animals at any period of the experiment. All the four extracts of P. rubra pods exhibited abortifacient activity (8-100%). The extracts significantly reduced the number of live fetuses, whereas the resorption index and post implantation losses increased significantly. The % of abortion was found to be highest (100%) with 200 mg/kg dose of alcoholic extract of P. rubra pods. PMID:23214263

Dabhadkar, Dinesh; Zade, Varsha

2012-10-01

307

Correction of glutathione metabolism in the liver of albino rats affected by low radiation doses  

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The levels of total glutathione GSH, GSSG and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were studied in the liver of adult albino rats subjected to 3-fold external ?-irradiation throughout 2 weeks at the overall dose of 0.75 Gy after 15 h, 2 and 5 days from the last irradiation. Some animals were injected intraperitoneally with the pantothenate containing complex > 3 times on days 1-3 before the irradiation. The radiation related decrease of GSH, GSH/GSSG and the total glutathione level was prevented by the prophylactic administration of the complex and probably at the expense of the activation of the G-SH biosynthesis and/or transport in the liver by the CoA biosynthetic precursor. (author)

308

Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats.  

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Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decreased paw licking response at both time intervals. In tail flick model, the administration of the test drug increased pain threshold response in a dose dependent manner. In therapeutically equivalent dose level, analgesic activity was observed only after 180 min while in TED ×2 treated group analgesia was observed at 30 min and lasted even up to 240 min. The results suggested that N.canescens root possess moderate analgesic activity. PMID:24250136

Mohaddesi, Behzad; Dwivedi, Ravindra; Ashok, B K; Aghera, Hetal; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V J

2013-04-01

309

Effects of lithium carbonate on the microanatomy of thyroid gland of albino rats  

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Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284

Nasseer Ahmad Shah

2014-02-01

310

Protective Effect of Gingo biloba Extract on Carbendazim-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Carbendazim is a broad spectrum carbamate fungicide used in the control of various fungal pathogens. The present work studied the effect of carbendazim on the liver of albino rats and the possible protective role of Ginko biloba extract (EGB. Liver of carbendazim-treated animals showed histopathological and histochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, and congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Histochemical results showed reduction of carbohydrates and total proteins in hepatic tissues. Moreover, liver function enzymes (ALT, AST were elevated in sera of carbendazim-treated animals. Coadministration of EGB with Carbendazim improved the hisological and histochemical changes observed in animals treated with carbendazim. In addition, EGB treatment leads to a significant decrease in ALT and AST. According to the present results, it is concluded that EGB can improve the hepatotoxicity of carbendazim and this effect may be attributed to antioxidant properties of Ginko biloba extract.

Hawazen A. Lamfon

2013-07-01

311

Protective role of ginkgo Biloba extract against gamma radiation and alcohol induced liver damage in albino rats  

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Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves that promotes vasodilatation and improves blood flow through arteries, veins and capillaries and has antioxidant properties as a tree radical scavenger. This study was designed to evaluate the protective efficacy of EGb 761 against gamma radiation and/ or alcohol induced disorders in the liver of male albino rats. EGb 761 was given orally at a dose level of 100 mg/ kg body wt for 4 days, absolute alcohol was administered orally at a dose level of 1ml/ rat for 4 days and the dose of gamma radiation was 6.5 Gy. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA). reduced glutathion (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in the liver tissue. In irradiated and/ or alcoholic animal groups, there was a highly significant decrease in liver NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD. On the other hand, significant increase in MDA content was observed. Treatment with EGb 761 before irradiation and/or alcohol causes significant increase in NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD and significant decrease in MDA content compared to the irradiated and/ or alcoholic groups. Based on these observations, one could conclude that pre-treatment of rats with EGb 761 could partly protect liver from gamma rays and/ or absolute alcohol injurious and this protection may be induced, at least partly, throtion may be induced, at least partly, through antioxidant mechanisms

312

Comparative gastroprotective effects of natural honey, nigella sativa and cimetidine against acetylsalicylic acid Induced gastric ulcer in albino rats  

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Natural honey (NH) and Nigella sativa (NS) seeds have been in use as a natural remedy for over thousands of years in various parts of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of NS (Nigella sativa) and NH (natural honey) on acetylsalicylic acid induced gastric ulcer in an experimental model with comparison to Cimetidine (CD). The study was conducted on 100 male albino rats, divided into 5 groups, with 20 animals in each group. Group A was used as a control and treated with Gum Tragacanth (GT). Eighty animals of the other groups were given acetylsalicylic acid (0.2 gm/kg body weight for 3 days) to produce ulcers by gavage. Two animals from each group were sacrificed for the detection of gastric ulcers. The remaining 72 animals were equally divided in four groups (B, C, D and E). The rats in group B, C and D were given NS, NH, and CD respectively while those in E were kept as such. No gastric lesions were seen in control group A while all the animals in group E revealed gastric ulcers. The animals of group B, C and D showed healing effects in 15/18 (83%), 14/18 (78%) and 17/18 (94%) animals grossly; 13/18 (72%), 14/18 (78%) and 16/18 (89%) rats showed recovery on microscopic examination respectively. The healing effects were almost the same in all three groups therefore, the statistical difference was not significant among them (p =0.40 and 0.65) while significant from group E (p=0.0000075, 0.0000016 and 0.0000012 respectively). NS and NH ar and 0.0000012 respectively). NS and NH are equally effective in healing of gastric ulcer similar to cimetidine. Further broad spectrum studies as well as clinical trials should be conducted before the use of these products as routine medicines. (author)

313

Antidiabetic Activity of Some Herbal Plants in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Aqueous extract of leaves of 3 herbs (Murraya koenigii, MK; Psidium guajava, PG and Catharanthus roseus, CR were used to test their antidiabetic activity in Streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic albino rats. MK, PG and CR are given to the STZ induced diabetic rats at the concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight in different groups of 6 diabetic rats each orally once a day for 15 days. Glibenclamide (GBC is also given to another group to support the results at the concentration of 3 mg/kg body weight orally once a day for 15 days. Diabetic control received vehicle. Body weight showed significant increase (MK and PG: p<0.05, CR and GBC: p<0.001 after 15 days of treatment with herbal extract when compared with the control. Blood glucose level on 15th day of treatment become significantly low (p<0.001. At the termination of the experiment (on 15th day the urine glucose and ketone were absent in herbal treated group which was present in the diabetic control. Histological study of the pancreas also assesses the results of body weight and blood glucose level. Islets of diabetic control group were damaged, shrunken in size and infiltration of lymphocytes was observed. While islets of herbal extracts treated rats were comparable to normal rats. Many rounds and elongated islets were evenly distributed through out the cytoplasm. No significant histological alteration was found in glomeruli or any other segment of kidney tubule in STZ induced diabetic rats. In herbal extract treated group no difference was found in kidney tubules when compare with their respective diabetic control. Findings of the present study suggest that the aqueous extract of leaves of MK, PG and CR at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight brings about significant beneficial effects in various physiological/ histological parameters altered during diabetic manifestations and these effects are quite comparable with glibenclamide (a standard drug used to treat diabetes mellitus.

S.K. Prasad

2009-01-01

314

Study on the diuretic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seed extract in albino rats.  

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Methanol extract of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds (SPSE) was evaluated for its diuretic activity in Wistar albino rats. The SPSE was administered at the graded doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight. The parameters which were taken into account during the experimental on each rat were: total urine volume (corrected for water intake during the test period), body weight before and after the experiment, and the concentration of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions in urine. The total urine volumes of the SPSE (600 mg/kg)-treated rats were evaluated nearly two and half fold then compared with the control (saline treated) group. Excretion of cations (sodium and potassium ions) and anions (chloride ions) also increased significantly with respect to the control group. The diuretic effect was comparable with that of the standard drug Furosemide. The increase of cations in the urine on treatment with Strychnospotatorum seed extract (SPSE) was dose-dependent. This effect supports the use of the Strychnos potatorum seeds as a diuretic in folk remedies. PMID:11824523

Biswas, S; Murugesan, T; Maiti, K; Ghosh, L; Pal, M; Saha, B P

2001-11-01

315

WOUND HEALING POTENTIAL OF ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA BARK EXTRACT ON ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The wound healing activity of topically applied extract of bark of Ziziphus jujuba was evaluated in albino rat by excision wound model for a period of 24 days. In this study, the rats were divided into four groups, each groups continued healing process with 5 and 10% w/w methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba mg/cm2. Test duration was 24 days, wound diameter measurement using digital image analysis on days 0, 8th, 16th , 21st and 24th with biopsy of two rats from each group were taken. The results revealed that treatment with low-dose group of methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba (5% less shrinkage of wound area and also from the perspective of Histopathological change. In the second and third week, tissue had better organization than most other groups (p<0.01, but the group treated with high doses of methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba (10% had most wound shrinkage and organization.

Ch. Sampath kumar

2012-12-01

316

Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of Plumbago rosea leaves in female albino rats  

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Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the effect of petroleum ether (60-80, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Plumbago rosea leaves on the estrous cycle and to identify the estrogenic activity of active acetone and ethanol extracts in female albino rats. Methods : Plant extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at two dose levels: 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The effective acetone and ethanol extracts were further studied on estrogenic activity in rats. Histological studies of the uterus were carried out to confirm their estrogenic activity. Results : The acetone and ethanol extracts were most effective in interrupting the normal estrous cycle of the rats (P< 0.05, < 0.01, < 0.001. These later exhibited prolonged diestrous stage of the estrous cycle with consequent temporary inhibition of ovulation. The antiovulatory activity was reversible on discontinuation of treatment. Both the extracts showed significant estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Conclusion : The acetone and ethanolic extracts of P. rosea leaves have an antifertility activity.

Sheeja E

2009-01-01

317

The protective and/or curative effect of serotonin on sex hormones in gamma irradiated albino rats  

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Studies were carried out to investigate the efficacy of serotonin as a potential radioprotector and/or therapeutic agent. Irradiation of male albino rats was applied in single doses at 6.5 and 10 Gy levels. The effect was traced on FSH, LH, PrL and testosterone in blood and testicular tissue. The data obtained revealed marked and significant protection both serum and testicular tissue for the lower dose level of 6.5 Gy. Serotonin proved to exert nonsignificant control of hormonal changes due to the higher dose level of 10 Gy. Serotonin administered after radiation exposure, showed partial curative role for changes in LH, whereas it failed to exert any significant therapeutic role on changes in FSH, PrL and tester one induced by either of the two applied dose levels. It could be concluded that serotonin played only a good role as radioprotector on all investigated hormones in serum and testis at the radiation dose level 6.5 Gy. 8 figs., 8 tabs

318

Effect of aspirin and prostaglandins on the carbohydrate metabolism in albino rats.: glucose oxidation through different pathways and glycolytic enzymes  

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The effect of chronic and acute doses of aspirin and prostaglandins F2? and E2 individually on the oxidation of glucose through Embden Meyerhof-TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathways and some key glycolytic enzymes of liver were studied in male albino rats. Studies were extended to find the combined effect of PGF2? and E2 with an acute dose of aspirin. There was increased utilisation of both 1-14C glucose and 6-14C glucose on aspirin treatment. However, the metabolism through the EM-TCA pathway was more pronounced as shown by a reduced ratio of 14CO2 from 1-14C and 6-14C glucose. Two hepatic key glycolytic enzymes viz. hexokinase and pyruvate kinase were increased due to aspirin treatment. Withdrawal of aspirin corrected the above impaired carbohydrate metabolism in liver. Prostaglandin F2? also caused a reduction in the utilisation of 1-14C glucose, while PGE2 recorded an increase in the utilisation of both 1-14C and 6-14C glucose when compared to controls, indicating that different members of prostaglandins could affect metabolisms and differently. Administration of the PGs and aspirin together showed an increase in the utilisation of 6-14C glucose. (auth.)

319

Influence Of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) Supplementation Against GAMMA Rays Induced Immunosuppression In Male Rats  

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The influence of ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression in male albino rats was investigated in the present study. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four equal groups; control group (receiving no treatment), ginger group where the rats received ginger orally at a dose of 15 g/rat/day for 120 consecutive days, gamma radiation group which subjected to a single 6 Gy whole body gamma radiation and gamma radiation plus ginger group where each rat after taking daily 15 g of ginger for 120 consecutive days was subjected to 6 Gy whole body irradiation. Complete blood pictures and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) were estimated and spleen tissue was also examined histologically. The data obtained revealed that exposure to 6 Gy of gamma radiation caused significant decrease in the body weight, spleen weight, IgG, IgM, erythroide and leucoid elements and produced histological damage in spleen tissue. On the other hand, ginger as a protective agent, caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by irradiation especially immunoglobulins leading to the conclusion that ginger supplementation for 120 days caused modulation of the humoral immune response in irradiated rats. In conclusion, these findings indicated that ginger has the regulatory effect against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression.

320

MORPHOLOGY OF THE SPLEEN IN ADULT ALBINO RATS AFTER WHOLE-BODY EXPOSURE TO LOW-LEVEL OF TOLUENE  

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Full Text Available Background: Spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ that is highly sensitive to different chemicals. Toluene is an aromatic hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent and can be considered as a potential immunotoxin. Aims and Objects: We aimed to investigate the organometry and histology of spleen from rats exposed to toluene. Materials and Methods: The toxicity of toluene was evaluated in male albino rats (6/group via whole-body exposure. The animals were exposed to target concentrations of 0 (air control and 133 parts per million (ppm of toluene in air for 5 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 2 month. The animals were weighted and decapitated at different time points (one, seven, sixteen, thirty one and sixty one day post-exposure. The weight, length, width and thickness of the spleen were measured. It was studied absolute and relative weight of the spleen. Histological examination of the spleen was made by light microscope. Results: Statistically significant difference between the mean of body weight from the control and experimental animals was observed seven days after last exposure to toluene. Thus, the body weight of animals exposed to toluene was 254.17 g, that was 7.18% (p = 0.048 below control data. The histological findings showed increased area of the white pulp of spleen from rats exposed to toluene had increases compared to that from the control. The numbers of siderophages were higher in the spleen from rats exposed to toluene. The relative area of germinal centre in the structure of the splenic lymph follicles of rats exposed to toluene increased. We found that in the first and second experimental groups of animals the indication was at the level 10.86% and 10.26% respectively. These are 24.11% (p = 0.002 and 26.04% (p <0.001 above control data, respectively. Inhalation exposures to toluene vapor at 133 ppm produces hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue of the rat spleen. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that whole-body exposures to low-level of toluene led to hypertrophy of white pulp of the spleen.

Vladimir N. Voloshin

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Structural And Histochemical Changes Of Albino Rat Kidney Under The Effect Of Injectable Contraceptive  

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Full Text Available The choice of safe and effective method for fertility control still under continuous search. So, discovery of structures having long duration of action which made administration by injection was an attractive alternative to oral contraceptives. Medroxyprogesterone acetate emerged from this early work as promising injectable long ­ acting contraceptive with minimal risk. This work was planned to evaluate the structural and histochemical changes induced by injectable contraceptive Depo-provera (MPA, on the kidney of adult female Albino rats as well as testing the degree of reversibility of changes that may develop after the arrest of its use. Thirty adult female Albino rats were used in this work and divided into three equal groups. Group I was used as a control, group II was intramuscularly injected with MPA 4 times (2.7 mg / rat every 3 oestrus cycles and sacrificed one day after arrest of the injection, while , group III the animals were injected with MPA by the same dose and sacrificed 30 days after arrest of the injection. The abdominal aorta was exposed and Indian ink injection was injected to study the renal vascular changes. The animals were sacrificed, the kidney was dissected and paraffin sections were prepared and stained by haematoxylin and eosin and PAS technique to study the microscopic structure and the distribution of PAS+ve materials respectively. Frozen sections were prepared and stained by both Gomori and Nachla's techniques to study the activity of acid phosphatase enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme respectively. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using Student's t.test. The injected groups showed atrophy of tubular epithelium, dilatation of tubular lumina. All recovery groups were nearly similar to normal state except PAS+ve material of renal tubules which were nearly similar to injected groups. The treated groups showed significant increase in vascular distribution and PAS+ve materials. While, non significant changes were noticed in the activity of acid phosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes. It was concluded that there are reversible structural and histochemical changes in the rat kidney under the effect of MPA. So, the use of MPA could be considered as a safe contraceptive method.

Mamdouh A. Ghali

2006-03-01

322

Effect of Soybean (Glycine max L. on the Hormonal Milieu of Male Rats  

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Full Text Available Effect of soybean (Glycine max on serum level of some sex hormones: testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone/interstitial cell stimulating hormone (LH/ICSH, estradiol and prolactin in male rats was investigated. Twenty male albino rats of 12 weeks old with similar body weights were assigned to four groups of 5 rats each and treatment with soybean meal at 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively daily for 8 weeks. Blood samples collected through cardiac puncture were assayed for levels of hormones. There were dose-dependent effects of the soybean meal on the serum concentration of the hormones. The treatment significantly reduced the levels of testosterone and FSH in the serum while it significantly increased the levels of estradiol, LH/ICSH and prolactin. The results show that soybean (Glycine max had strong capability to disrupt hormonal functions. Hence, its indiscriminate use could increase the risk of infertility in males.

O. Udensi

2011-01-01

323

High Fiber Diet Effect On Haemopoietic And Endocrine System In Irradiated Male Rats  

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Wheat bran was mixed with standard rat diet in order to assess the role of high fiber diet on the damage induced by 4 Gy gamma irradiation in male rats. Immediately after exposure to irradiation, the male albino rats were fed on diet containing 10% wheat bran ad libitum. After 15 days, the rats were decapitated then blood picture, levels of calcium, glucose, folic acid, vitamin B12 , triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), testosterone and insulin hormones were determined. The results denoted that wheat bran had an improvement effect on the radiation damage on blood picture, calcium level, vitamin B12 , folic acid and testosterone hormone, which most probably due to the effect of the high antioxidant action of wheat bran that might improve the gastro intestinal metabolism.

324

GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) EXTRACT AFFECTS THE FREE AMINO ACID LEVEL IN THE GONADS OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS  

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Effect of Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae) (Raw Garlic Extract (RGE)) was studied on free amino acids (FAA) level in female albino rats. The garlic extract was tested in three different doses 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight daily as low, medium and high dose respectively for a period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The significant (P<0.01) increase in Free amino acid (FAA) level was observed when rats were fed with low and medium dose but when rats were fed with 4ml/kg body weight of garlic extrac...

Srivastava S.; Pathak P. H.

2012-01-01

325

Effects of ciprofloxacin and zinc chloride in adult albino rat and pre-natal conceptus  

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Background: Administration of quinolone therapy is controversial during growing age as stated by earlier authors. The flouroquinolones are currently not indicated for young children because of arthropathy and adverse effect as new born shown by studies. However the effects of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ on prenatal conceptus have remained undocumented. The present study was designed to compare the effects on conceptus after maternal ingestion of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ using Wastar albino rats. Methods: Ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ was administrated to pregnant female albino rats. Ciprofloxacin with a dose of 20 mg/Kg bodyweight and ZnCl/sub 2/ 120 micro g/100 gm bodyweight two times therapeutic dose for 10 days (from day 8-18 of pregnancy). Each animal was weighted on day 1, day 8 and day 18 of pregnancy. Abortion resulted on day 18th of pregnancy. Each group of pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation by over dose of either anaesthesia, abdomen opened, uterus and both cornua containing conceptus identified, removed, there weight recorded, crown rump length was measured and was compared with similar value of control animals. The results were statistically analysed to find out the significance. Results: The ciprofloxacin induces a mordanting effect as obviated by increased basophilia. Our study reveals that ciprofloxacin administered in maternal, decreased maternal body weight to 38.4+-0.9 gm. However simultaneous ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained the bodimultaneous ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained the body weight to 41.4+-0.7 gm, while ZnCl/sub 2/ increased the body weight to 46.5+-2.25 gm. The body weight and Crown Rump length (CR Length) in conceptus decreased by 4.52+-0.10 gm and 3.06+-0.09 Cm respectively. That ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ administration maintained the body weight and CR length by 5.46+-0.09 gm and 3.79+-0.13 Cm respectively. That ZnCl/sub 2/ administration increased the body weight and CR length by 6.71+-0.05 gm and 4.15+-0.08 Cm respectively. Conclusion: Prenatal administration of Ciprofloxacin caused reduction in growth rate and CR length, and ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained body weight and CR length and growth of the rat conceptus. (author)

326

Biotoxic and Haemotoxic Effects of Air Pollutants at a Benzene Station on Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This study was directed to explore the hazardous effect of occupational exposure to air pollutants arised from benzene station. A total of 48 albino rats were calssified into three groups each of sixteen rats. Groups one and two were kept at a benzene station for 60 and 120 days, respectively and the third group was kept as a control under laboratory conditions. After termination of the experiment, animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical investigations. Sera were separated and used to check the effects of air pollutants arising at a benzene station on the liver and kidney functions as well as on the immune status of the body. Results indicated a pronounced time-dependent reductions in RBCs, Hb, PCV, total and differential (neutrophil and lymphocyte leucocytic counts. Total protein, albumin, globulin and immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM showed marked lower levels in animals exposed to air pollutants in the benzene station. Organ function tests revealed elevations of the levels of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT that indicate impaired liver function compared to those of the corresponding control. Similar results were recorded for creatinine kinase, urea and creatinine indicating toxic effects on the heart and kidneys.

M. Abousalem

2012-06-01

327

ACUTE ANXIOLYTIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SARACA ASOKA BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Anxiety is defined as a psychological state characterized by abnormal cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. Anxiety is normal reaction to stress. However, when it becomes excessive, falls under the classification of an anxiety disorder. Even though Benzodiazepines (BZDs are the major class of compounds used in anxiety; long-term use of the same may cause many adverse psychological and physical effects. In the present study, we have attempted to evaluate the acute anxiolytic effect of ethanolic extract of Saraca asoka Bark (EESAB in Wistar Albino Rats. The rats weighing 150–200gm were divided into 5 groups containing 6 animals for each dose and were housed for 10 days prior to testing. In this study, control (1% Gum acacia, test drug EESAB (100, 200 & 400mg/ kg and standard drug Diazepam (1.0mg/kg were administered orally. One hour after oral administration of the drugs / vehicle, the experiment were conducted by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM. Our results suggest that, behavioral dis-inhibitory effects of EESAB exhibited anxiolytic activity at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg compared to control.

Chandra shekar Rajan

2013-06-01

328

Evaluation of analgesic activity of lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the analgesic effect of red and white lotus (Nelumbo nucifera seeds in albino rats. The analgesic action in acute pain model was studied by tail flick method. The methanolic extracts of lotus seeds were screened for phytochemical analysis and it?s revealed the presence of all components excluding tannins. The Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg on 7thday of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days.  It is observed that the both lotus seed extracts shows considerable analgesic effect in acute pain model which is less than the effect of Diclofenac group. The higher dose groups of lotus seed extracts (600mg/kg were revealed more activity than their corresponding lower dose. While evaluating all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed (600mg/kg, exhibited more pronounced activity than other extracts. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 355-357

P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

329

Acute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Some Polyherbal Formulations in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the acute oral toxicity potentials of certain herbal veterinary preparations in albino Wistar rats. In the sighting study, the test substances were administered in sequential manner to one animal each at 2000 and 5000 mg kg-1 body weight followed by four animals at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight in the main study; whereas the test materials with well documented traditional use were evaluated at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight. The treated animals were observed for mortality, untoward clinical/toxic signs, alterations in body weight gain and necropsy findings during the study. The treated animals survived throughout the study period and did not reveal any treatment related major abnormal clinical signs at the tested dose levels for all the products. The overall percent body weight gain in rats treated with the herbal products was found to be normal during the 14 day observation period. On necropsy, no abnormalities were observed. In conclusion, acute oral toxicity testing of screened herbal veterinary products did not produce any treatment-related adverse effects upto the dose level of 5000 mg kg-1 body weight.

A.J. Joshua

2008-01-01

330

Attenuation of Experimental Gastric Ulceration by Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the therapeutic dose of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine on experimentally induced gastric ulceration in albino rats. Rats were given sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (22.5 mg kg-1 intramuscularly for 24 h after formation of ulcers induced by indomethacin or by acidified ethanol. Upon sacrifice, colorimetric assays were applied to determine the concentration of protein and mucus, activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxidation in homogenized gastric mucosal samples. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was observed to alleviate gastric lesions produced either by indomethacin or acidified ethanol. Also, the drug seemed to attenuate the indomethacin or acidified ethanol induced effects on gastric juice volume, pH and acid output. On the other hand, thiobarbituric acid reactants (TBAR was decreased and superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities increased in the gastric mucosal samples, though, however, protein and mucus concentrations remained statistically unchanged. The use of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine may be safe on the integrity of the stomach, especially in existing gastric ulcers. It ameliorates oxidative stress in the gastric mucosa caused by indomethacin and acidified ethanol.

S.B. Olaleye

2009-01-01

331

Effect of Oilseed Diets on Plasma Lipid Profile in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of fermented melon seed oil (Citrullus lanatus (Ogiri and palm kernel oil on the plasma lipid profile of female albino rats were investigated. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups and fed diet composed with fermented melon seed oil, palm kernel oil and control diet for seven weeks. After the feeding trial, plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (p<0.05 than control in palm kernel oil diet while there was no significant difference in high density lipoprotein cholesterol. In contrast, the total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (p<0.5 than control while the low density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower (p<0.05 in the fermented melon seed oil diet. The Ogiri oil diet had significantly reduced LDL/HDL ratio compared with the control while the palm kernel oil diet had a higher LDL/HDL ratio. The result implies that fermented melon seed oil (Ogiri oil appears to have hypolipidemic effect while dietary intake of palm kernel oil could pose a risk for coronary artery disease on long term basis.

Ajayi, Olubunmi Bolanle

2009-01-01

332

Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats  

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The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE) in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5?mg/kg?bw and 10?mg/kg?bw) of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides), lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity. PMID:25254057

Lodhi, Poonam; Tandan, Neeraj; Singh, Neera; Kumar, Divyansh; Kumar, Monu

2014-01-01

333

Number and spatial distribution of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the adult albino rat.  

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Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) respond directly to light and are responsible of the synchronization of the circadian rhythm with the photic stimulus and for the pupillary light reflex. To quantify the total population of rat-ipRGCs and to assess their spatial distribution we have developed an automated routine and used neighbour maps. Moreover, in all analysed retinas we have studied the general population of RGCs - identified by their Brn3a expression - and the population of ipRGCs - identified by melanopsin immunodetection - thus allowing the co-analysis of their topography. Our results show that the total mean number ± standard deviation of ipRGCs in the albino rat is 2047 ± 309. Their distribution in the retina seems to be complementary to that of Brn3a(+)RGCs, being denser in the periphery, especially in the superior retina where their highest densities are found in the temporal quadrant, above the visual streak. In addition, by tracing the retinas from both superior colliculi, we have also determined that 90.62% of the ipRGC project to these central targets. PMID:23295345

Galindo-Romero, C; Jiménez-López, M; García-Ayuso, D; Salinas-Navarro, M; Nadal-Nicolás, F M; Agudo-Barriuso, M; Villegas-Pérez, M P; Avilés-Trigueros, M; Vidal-Sanz, M

2013-03-01

334

Effect Of Extensive Use Of Garlic In Feed On Normal And Irradiated Stressed Male Rats  

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Fifty mature male albino rats were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of using crude garlic for one month on general heath condition and to compare between garlic intakes pre and post-irradiated stressed rats.Fresh minced cloves (8-10) of garlic were added to the rat diet twice per day for 30 days in garlic group and for 7 and 15 days prior to and after 4 Gy irradiation in pre and post-irradiated garlic groups, respectively. The results denoted that the extensive use of garlic in food improved the general condition in non-stressed rats while in irradiated stressed rats, the immediate intake of garlic after radiation was more efficient in ameliorating the undesirable radiation effects, where some biochemical and hematological parameters were examined in pre and post-garlic intake such as Hb, RBCs, platelets, T3, testosterone and insulin.

335

Antiovulatory Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Chromatographic Fractions of Citrus medica Seeds in Albino Rats  

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In India the control of fertility is based on the folk use of numerous traditional antifertility plants that has been practiced for many years. The petroleum ether extract of Citrus medica seeds which showed promising antiovulatory activity in female albino rats was examined for the isolation of its active fractions. Two fractions were obtained using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of the extract. Both fractions were subjected for testing their anti-ovulatory activity and estrous...

Patil, Saraswati B.; Patil, Sharangouda J.

2013-01-01

336

Utilization of greenable albino mutation lines of thermosensitive genie male sterile rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp indica)  

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Two greenable albino mutation lines W24 and W27 induced by 60Co gamma rays treatment on seeds of a thermosensitive genie male sterile (TGMS) rice c.v 2177S were investigated on their usefulness in two-line hybrid rice. The leaf color of W24 and W27 was similar and could be expressed in different temperature conditions. The first three leaves of W24 and W27 were ablinotic at extending, but changed into green after the fourth leaf extended. The greenable leaf area were about 40% for the first leaf and 90% for the third leaf. No significant differences were detected in morphoagronomic characters and styler extrusion rate between the mutation line and 2177S, which suggested that the mutation leaf color may be a useful marker in eliminating contamination of selfed seeds in two-line hybrid rice

337

Cytotoxic Effect of Aspartame (Diet Sweet on the Histological and Genetic Structures of Female Albino Rats and Their Offspring  

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Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated, each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1 the gestation period (subgroup one, (2 the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two and (3 animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal.

Inas S. Ghaly

2012-01-01

338

Protective effect of ethanolic extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in Wistar Albino rats.  

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This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in rats. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tabernaemontana divaricata at doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg body weight and 5-fluorouracil (standard drug) was orally administered to male Wistar Albino rats once daily for 24 weeks, simultaneously treated with the carcinogen DEN and Fe NTA. In simultaneously treated animals, the plant extract significantly decreased the levels of uric acid, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP in serum and increased the levels of liver marker enzymes in liver. Treatment with the extracts resulted in a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants accompanied by a marked reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde when compared to DEN and Fe NTA treated group. When compared with 200?mg/kg bw rats, 400?mg/kg bw rats and 5-fluorouracil treated rats showed better results in all the parameters. The histopathological studies confirmed the protective effects of extract against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis. Thus, it could be concluded that the use of Tabernaemontana divaricata extract in the treatment of carcinogen induced hepatic necrosis. PMID:25136566

Poornima, Kannappan; Chella Perumal, Palanisamy; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan

2014-01-01

339

Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. against DEN and Fe NTA Induced Liver Necrosis in Wistar Albino Rats  

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This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in rats. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tabernaemontana divaricata at doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg body weight and 5-fluorouracil (standard drug) was orally administered to male Wistar Albino rats once daily for 24 weeks, simultaneously treated with the carcinogen DEN and Fe NTA. In simultaneously treated animals, the plant extract significantly decreased the levels of uric acid, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP in serum and increased the levels of liver marker enzymes in liver. Treatment with the extracts resulted in a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants accompanied by a marked reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde when compared to DEN and Fe NTA treated group. When compared with 200?mg/kg bw rats, 400?mg/kg bw rats and 5-fluorouracil treated rats showed better results in all the parameters. The histopathological studies confirmed the protective effects of extract against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis. Thus, it could be concluded that the use of Tabernaemontana divaricata extract in the treatment of carcinogen induced hepatic necrosis. PMID:25136566

2014-01-01

340

Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats  

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Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of follicles. This may help elevate the socio-economic status of the country. Thus, the present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of A. indica and M. azedarach seed extracts on reproduction of albino rats.

Roop J.K.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

The Protective Effect of Vitamin C on Irradiated Testes of Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available The increased exposure to radiation in medicine or industries increases the hazards of radiation on various organs of the human body. The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of anti oxidant (vitamin C against the effect of radiation on rat testes. Thirty adult albino rats were divided into three groups, each contained ten rats .The first group (G.1 was exposed to 415 r (G.1' or 622 r (G.1" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week. The second group (G.2 was exposed to 415 r (G.2' or 622 r (G.2" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week, in addition to vitamin C equivalent to 86.9 mg./liter orally for the two sub groups for the same period . The third group (G.3 was a control group. The examined testes of G.1 showed damaged germinal epithelium with remaining some layers of spermatogonia. There was no affection of spermatocytes, mature sperms, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, the lumen contained little sperms and debris of germ cells (G.1' .While for (G.1" there was marked damage of the seminiferous tubules with irregular outline, destruction of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids with pyknotic type of nuclear degeneration and the lumen was devoid of mature sperms. The examined testes of the (G.2 showed evidence of almost complete recovery for G .2' and marked recovery for G.2" It is concluded that anti oxidants were essential to patients exposed to x-ray , to guard against its hazards.

Lotfy Sayed*, Esam Eldin Abdel Hady*, Hosam Eldin Hussin

2005-06-01

342

Effect of curcuma longa L. on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats.  

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Full Text Available Background: Curcuma longa has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agent. The present investigation aimed at examining the possible potential protective effect of curcuma against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline ( 120mg/kg for three consecutive days resulting in steatosis and c curcuma treated group; which was treated with curcuma ( 0.4 % of diet for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group and c drug protection group; which received curcuma for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10 % formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine while HDL cholesterol and A/G ratio were significantly decreased compared to control group. Histopathological changes were detected in liver tissue of fatty liver rats. The treatment with curcuma ameliorated the biochemical parameters and histological changes. The pre-treatment with curcuma before the induction of fatty liver also ameliorated the results but they did not turn back to the normal values. Conclusion: It is recommend to using curcuma as diet additive for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

Eman G.E. Helal , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab and Ghada A. Zedan

2011-04-01

343

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREÑADA  

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Full Text Available Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled as follows. Controls (C, animals treated with the drug vehicle (destilled water; experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3, animals treated with 35, 105 or 315 mg/kg b.w. pyrazinamide by gavage (oral route once daily up to the term (20th day of pregnancy. Drug or vehicle volume was always 0.5 ml. Body weight gain was followed up every week. At term, upon sacrifice (in excess of anesthesia and histerectomy, the following parameters have been studied: number of implantations and reabsorptions; intrauterine deaths; number of living foetuses and of placentae; weights of concepts and of placentae; major foetal malformations; maternal mortality index. No significant effects of pyrazinamide on rat pregnancy have been observed regarding the maternal body weight gain, the weights of concepts, the number of implantations and reabsorptions and the weights of placentae and foetuses. Also, no deleterious effects have been noticed regarding major foetal malformations, intrauterine deaths or maternal mortality. With the highest pyrazinamide dosis employed (315 mg/kg b.w., however, a significant lowered uterine weight was recorded. Although otherwise safe, a high-dose regimen of pyrazinamide during rat pregnancy can induce a slight yet significant reduction of uterine weight.La pyrazinamida es un fármaco muy utilizado para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, pero no hay datos en la literatura respecto a sus potenciales riesgos para la preñez. Debido a esto, en este trabajo tratamos ratas preñadas durante toda la gestación (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20 con 3 dosis de pyrazinamida (35, 105 o 315 mg/kg, una vez al día para una primera observación sobre los efectos de la pyrazinamida durante la preñez. Las ratas control recibieron el vehículo de la droga (agua destilada. Los resultados mostraron que no hubo alteraciones significativas en cuanto a la evolución del peso corporal de las ratsa madres, al peso de los fetos, al número de implantaciones y reabsorciones, ni tampoco en cuanto a los pesos de placentas y fetos. Además, no se observaron malformaciones fetales mayores, muertes intrauterinas o aumento de la mortalidad materna. El único efecto significativo observado con la dosis de 315 mg/kg de pyrazinamida, fue una reducción del peso uterino

Marisa Pascale Quintino

2003-01-01

344

Effect of Monthly Injectable Contraceptive (Mesigyna) on the Uterus of Adult Female Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study  

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Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and experimental). The control group (n=8) received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle (castor oil & benzyl benzoate) once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days. Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12) received IM injection of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna), once ...

Abeer M Hassan, Magda M. Naim

2006-01-01

345

Sub-Acute Toxicity Profile of Fixed Dose Combination of Pirotum (Cefpirome-Sulbactam in Swiss Albino Mice and Wistar Rat  

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Full Text Available The objective of current study was to evaluate deleterious effects of a potential combination of cefpirome, a member of the latest class of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, in combination of ?-lactamase inhibitor, sulbactum. To assess the toxicity profile of fixed dose regimen Pirotum (Cefpirome+Sulbactum in 2:1 ratio, a repeated dose subacute toxicity study was conducted on Swiss albino mice and Wistar rat (male and female. Three different dose levels (30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1 of combination were administered for twenty eight days. Physical parameters, hematological parameters and biochemical parameters related to liver toxicity and nephrotoxicity were evaluated as end point parameters. Findings of present study were also supported by hematological as well as histopathology parameters. Data of current study indicated that Pirotum exerted no deleterious effect on blood, liver and kidney function as no alteration was observed in biochemical parameters at any dose level.

A. Tamta

2010-01-01

346

Induction of functional sterility in male rats by low dose Carica papaya seed extract treatment.  

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The result revealed that a short term administration of an aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed manifested an androgen deprived effect on the target organs and thereby caused antifertility effect in adult male albino rats. The complete loss of fertility is attributed to decline in sperm motility and alteration in their morphology as well as to reduced contractile response of the vas deferens. The androgen deprived effect of the extract led to slight alteration in the histoarchitecture and weight of the reproductive organs, mainly cauda and distal vas deferens which has been related to their greater androgen sensitivity in comparison to the other target organs and or their greatly diminished target organ response to testosterone or its metabolites. The data revealed that functional sterility could be induced in male rats by papaya extract treatment, which promises to be a potential male contraceptive. PMID:6675389

Chinoy, N J; George, S M

1983-01-01

347

Evaluation of the Abortifacient Properties of Chloroform Extract of Carica papaya L. Seed in Female Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the impact of oral administration of chloroform extract of Carica papaya seed (CPE on implantation and pregnancy in female albino rats. The study was divided into three experimental sections. Each section was subdivided into 4 groups treated, respectively with 25, 50 and 100 mg kg 1 b.w CPE and 2.5% tween 80 in normal saline (vehicle for CPE; control. Rats in section 1 were treated with CPE for two weeks before mating (pre-coital. Rats in section 2 were administered CPE from day 1 of pregnancy till term (post coital while rats in section 3 received the extract for two weeks before mating and thereafter throughout term (pre and post-coital. Implantation sites and resorptions were determined in some of the pregnant rats after laparotomy. The gestation period, litter size and fetal weight were recorded in the remaining rats. The litters were also observed for any morphological alterations. The extract treated rats had significant decreases in litter size and implantation count (p<0.01. The percentage resorptions increased in a dose dependent manner while the fetal weight and morphology remain unchanged when compared with the normal untreated control groups. The percentage resorptions were high in CPE treated rats when compared with the control group. None of the 100 mg kg 1 b.w CPE treated female rats had litters. The results suggest that the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seed has anti-implantation and abortifacient properties in female albino rats.

Y. Raji

2006-01-01

348

Observations on Chromosomal Aberrations Following the Administration of Methanol Sub-Fraction of Carica papaya Seeds for Contraception in Albino Rats and Rabbits  

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Full Text Available The seed products of Carica papaya have been proven as potential male contraceptives in laboratory animals. In this study, chromosomal aberrations were investigated in spermatogonia of albino rats and rabbits, following oral administration of Methanol Sub-Fraction (MSF of Carica papaya seeds. The experimental animals were divided into three groups, each group had 5 male Wistar rats and rabbits. In the first group, double distilled water served as negative control. The second group received monomeric acrylamide at 72.5 mg kg-1 body weight; two doses with a gap of 3 h served as positive control and in the third group, the MSF was orally administered at 500 mg kg-1 body weight (10 x contraceptive dose; CD; two doses with a gap of 3 h. The chromosomal fragments, dicentrics, rings, exchanges, damaged chromosomes and total chromosomal aberrations in MSF treated rats and rabbits were not significantly different when compared with negative control animals, however, were found to be reduced significantly (p<0.001 when compared with positive control group. The results suggested that the MSF did not induce chromosomal aberrations.

S. Goyal

2011-01-01

349

Stimulatory Effects of Dihydroartemisinin on the Leucocyte Population of Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Five dosages of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA which included 1mg kg-1; a repeated dose of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1 were administered orally to albino rats for 5 days. The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin treatment significantly elevated the total white cell count (pApproach: By increasing the population of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes (which engage in chemo tactic response; microbial killing; microbial ingestion and antibody production in the blood, dihydroartemisinin demonstrated that it stimulates increase in their population and uses them as part of its own arsenals of warfare against endoparasites (like malaria parasites and pathogens. Results: The results of this study show that dihydroartemisinin stimulated a lot of new white blood cell production by haemopoetic sites of the body The increases in the total white blood cell count; the percentage neutrophils count and the percentage lymphocyte counts were significant at pConclusion: The results of the study suggest that the phagocytic and immunological activities of the body?s white blood cell population are important components of the efficacious Plasmodium Schizonticidal actions of Dihydroartemisinin in malaria treatment.

U. A. Utoh-Nedosa

2011-01-01

350

Comparative Study of Wound Healing Activity of Topical and Oral Ocimum Sanctum Linn in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Ocimum sanctum, when given orally in one of the studies showed wound healing property. Since majority of the agents tried for wound healing are topical, the present study was planned to compare the oral and topical Ocimum sanctum for wound healing property. Methods: Excision and incision resutured wound models in albino rats were used to study complete epithelisation time, wound contraction, histopathological study and tensile strength of the wounds. Results: The animals were divided into four groups of oral test, control and topical test, control with 6 animals in each group. The time taken for 50% wound contraction and complete eipthelisation by oral Ocimum sanctum, topical Ocimum sanctum was significantly (p<0.001 less compared to oral and topical controls. Histopathological studies showed early inflammatory changes, dense collagen and neovascularisation in wounds treated with oral and topical Ocimum sanctum, compared to respective controls. Mean tensile strength of oral and topical Ocimum sanctum treated wound was significantly great (p<0.001 compared to controls. Interpretation and Conclusion: Oral and topical Ocimum sanctum promoted better granulation tissue, early and complete epithelisation and better tensile strength compared to both controls.

B. Asha

2011-10-01

351

Evaluation of Anticonvulsant Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Vitex nigundo in Swiss Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Vitex-negundo Linn (Verbenaceae, a large aromatic shrub with typical five foliolate leaves pattern has been claimed to possess anticonsulvant activity apart from many medicinal properties. Maximal electroshock seizures (MES in albino rats were used to study anticonvulsant activity of Vitex-negundo leaf extract. The ethanol leaf extract of Vitex-negundo was administered orally in graded doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg and 2000mg/kg p.o in the experimental model and the effects were compared with Diphenylhydantoin in MES method as standard and normal saline as control. The Vitex-negundo in the doses 1000 mg/kg has significant effect and 2000mg/kg p.o showed protection against MES to a highly significant extent. Test drug in the dose (1000 mg/kg, po showed 60% protection in clonic seizures. It also decreased number and duration of convulsions significantly.These findings suggested that Vitex-negundo possesses anticonvulsant activity against MES induced convulsions. Vitex-negundo may be useful as an adjuvant therapy along with standard anticonvulsants and can possibly lower the requirement of Diphenylhydantoin and other anti convulsant drugs, Ethanol leaf extract of vitex ningundo significantly (P<0.01 decreased the duration of tonic extensor phase in MES-induced seizures. TheVitex-negundo extract showed a maximum inhibition (80% mortality against MES-induced seizures.Thus, it has been concluded that ethanolic extract of Vitex-negundo possesses anti-epileptic activity.

Dr.Kishan.PV

2012-03-01

352

Chronic toxicity study of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze seeds in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, toxic effects of powder of seeds of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze were evaluated for a period of 3 months in albino rats. Control group received distilled water. The powder suspension was orally given to the treated group at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Parameters like body weight, weight of important organs, biochemical, hematological parameters, bone marrow cytology and histopathology of vital organs were studied. Test drug administration did not affect the body weight, organ weight and bone marrow cytology to a significant extent. Among the 18 hematological parameters studied, significant changes were observed in three parameters, namely, significant decrease in hemoglobin content, red blood cell count and hematocrit. Of 16 biochemical parameters studied, significant changes were observed in 5 parameters, namely, decrease in total protein, albumin, bilirubin and significant increase in very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride. The histopathology of 18 organs revealed changes such as fatty changes, glomerular congestion and tubular hemorrhage in the kidneys, decrease in the cellularity of the spleen, epithelial disruption in jejunum, decrease in spermatogenesis in the testis, epithelial proliferation in ventral prostate and decrease in epithelial proliferation in the uterus. Thus, toxicity profile obtained from the present study shows that B. monosperma seeds are likely to produce toxic effect when administered in a powder form. PMID:22131770

Donga, Shilpa; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B; Ashok, B K; Mishtry, I U

2011-01-01

353

Histological study on effect of Nigella sativa on aged olfactory system of female albino rat.  

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Nigella sativa (NS) has wide-ranging healing properties, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects. Aging process is commonly associated with a decline in the chemical senses including smell. To detect a possible improvement effect of NS on the aging of the olfactory system we used 15 female albino rats that equally divided into three groups: group I (control adult), group II (control aged), group III (treated aged) received 40 mg/kg/day NS orally for two months. Specimens from the olfactory epithelium (OE), main olfactory bulb (MOB) and piriform cortex (PC) were processed for light and electron microscopy. Aging in OE revealed reduction in thickness, vacuolations, an increase in PAS reaction and lipofuscin autofluorescence. Aged MOB and PC exhibited a reduction in basophilia and accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in mitral and pyramidal cells respectively. NS treatment improved the structure and the thickness of the OE and reduced the lipofuscin autofluorescence. It also attenuated the reduction in cytoplasmic basophilia and the accumulation of lipofuscin pigment and the NFTs in both mitral and pyramidal cells and the lipofuscin autofluorescence. These observations indicate that use of NS, could be of value in improving the structural changes of the peripheral and central main olfactory organs, which occurred in association with aging. PMID:24969982

Eltony, Sohair A M; Elgayar, Sanaa A M

2014-01-01

354

Effect of Solanine on Arthritis Symptoms in Postmenopausal Female Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solanine is a toxic compound produced in nightshades family as potato,tomato and eggplant when exposed to light.The current study was carried out on 18 female postmenopausal albino rats to investigate the effect of solanine on the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.Animals were classified into 3 groups feeding on balanced diet only (GI) or replaced by two third with small pieces of diseased potatoes for 2 and 4 weeks (GII,GIII) respectively . Serum levels of arthritic bio markers were investigated as the estimation of erythrocytes sedimentation rate ( ESR) , C-Reactive Protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA),Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?),Interleukin-6( IL-6) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in all groups. There was a significant positive increase in the levels of ESR, CRP , MDA , TNF-?, IL-6 , and IgG among different groups depending on potatoes intake. There was positive correlation between the serum levels of CRP and TNF-? ,Il-6 and IgG.However, a non significantly positive correlation between serum level of CRP and the level of MDA was observed. The data of the present study showed that old age and postmenopausal suffering from arthritis and joint swollen must eliminat or avoid the nightshades plants to alleviate the joint pain and also decrease the destruction of the tissues

355

Hematological and histopathological changes in female albino rats after gamma irradiation and /or piper nigrum treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of whole body gamma irradiation, at dose level of 6.0 Gy (single dose), and or daily treatment with P. nigrum (black pepper) at doses of 160 and 320 mg/kg body weight up to 36, 71 and 99 days on some hematological aspects as well as histopathological changes in lung, kidney and brain tissues of female albino rats. The results revealed that whole body gamma irradiation significantly elevated the values of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and hematocrit percentage (HC %) but hemoglobin level was significantly decreased. These changes were ameliorated after treatment with P. nigrum. Non-significant changes were obtained regarding the effect of both doses of P. nigrum on red and white blood cell counts throughout the three time intervals. However, a dose of 160 mg/kg body weight of P. nigrum significantly reduced the hemoglobin contents throughput the experimental period. Histopathological examination revealed that lung, kidney and brain tissues showed marked to moderate pathological changes after irradiation and/or P.nigrum treatments. However, treatment with P. nigrum showed positive effect against the harmful effects of gamma irradiation, concerning kidney and brain. Although no malignant transformation could be detected, the resultant marked alveolar inflammation, bronchial wall hyperplasia and reactive astrocytic proliferation are important pathological changes that should be considered as pre-neoplges that should be considered as pre-neoplastic changes

356

Evaluation of gastroprotective role of alpha-tocopherol in indomethacin induced peptic ulcer in albino rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Oxidative free radicals induce gastric injury in animal models of peptic ulcer. Hence antioxidants may provide gastroprotection. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the gastroprotective role of antioxidant alpha-tocopherol in indomethacin induced gastric ulceration in albino rats. Materials and methods: Animals were divided into 3 groups (n=6, group I (control which received distilled water, group II (alpha-tocopherol 12.5 mg/kg and group III (omeprazole 3.6 mg/kg. Each group received the corresponding drug orally for 5 days. On fifth day, animals were administered indomethacin 20 mg/kg orally to induce ulceration. After 4 hours, animals were sacrificed and their stomachs were studied for ulceration, adherent mucin content, and ulcer index was calculated. The results of alpha-tocopherol were compared with those of control and omeprazole treated groups, and data was analyzed manually using Student ‘t’ test. A p value of ttab2.23 at 5% level of significance, p ttab 3.16 at 1% level of significance, p < 0.01. Thus results of test drug were similar to omeprazole treated group. Conclusion: Alpha-tocopherol treatment provides gastroprotection in indomethacin induced gastric ulceration

Shobha V Huligol

2012-06-01

357

The Effect of Yaji-Meat-Sauce Consumption on Cerebellar Neurons of White Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This study on the cerebellum is one in the series of several studies aimed at determining the effects of Yaji on the histology of the brain. Eighteen-week-old white albino<