Free oxygen radicals and insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of radiation syndrome. The trace elements are functioning as co-factors in antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant system and trace elements have been investigated in many different studies including tissue repair processes but this study deal with radiation injury in male albino rats.The study was carried out to investigate the beneficial role of the used metallo element as radio-protector due to its ability for chelating free radicals produced by ionizing radiation. The efficacy of daily oral treatment of rats with calcium glubionate (daily 6 mg/kg body wt) for 6 successive days to control many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation when these rats subjected to 6 Gy whole body gamma ray were studied. The activity of catalase (CAT) and levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were determined. In addition, CAT activity and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and MDA in liver, kidney and spleen tissues of control, calcium treated, irradiated and protected rat groups were evaluated. Samples were collected from animals 24 hours after end of the Ca- glubionate treatment or exposure to gamma radiation. The data obtained revealed that, radiation exposure caused significant alterations in all tissues and serum biochemistry. On the contrary, neutralization was occurred in these biochemical aspects in protected animal grbiochemical aspects in protected animal groups due to Ca-glubionate treatment. In conclusion, Ca-glubionate could protect rats against biochemical alterations associated with gamma ray oxidative stress. These effects were explained in the light of the presumed different mechanisms of Ca-glubionate
Uduak Akpan Okon; Bassey Nyong Etim
Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three ...
Levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. The present investigation refers to biochemical and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic powder toward CCl4-induced toxicity in adult male albino rats. CCl4 intoxication was attempted using a dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight.Pre-treatment with levanox (one capsule/ kg of rat body weight, each capsule contains 100 mg catechu, 7.5 mg dandelion, 75 mg termiric 2% curcumin, 17.5 mg silymarin, 100 mg lecithin) was more effective than garlic powder (100mg/kg of rat body weight) in reducing CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by its higher potency in reducing elevation of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in serum. Serum of control rats and those treated with levanox or garlic or CCl4 produced 13 types of proteins, differing in the molecular weight (MW) and densities, while those of levanox + garlic or garlic +CCl4 produced 14 bands differing in the MW and densities. The similarity index at the epigenetic level was also studied using the primers under study. The control sample produced one amplified DNA fragment with Rf of 0.73 and a molecular size (MS) of 67 base pair (bp) . Using the same primers, no amplified DNA fragment with the same MS was produced in the sample taken from levanox + garlic treated group.OPA-2 primer of sequence 5?- AGA TGC AGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band wiGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band with MS of 292 bp and Rf of 0.46 . However, the same primer produced one amplified DNA characteristic band with a molecular size of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.In the control sample, OPA-4 primer of sequence 5? - ACG CAC AAC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band of MS of 299 bp and Rf of 0.43. The same primer produced one amplified characteristic DNA band with MS of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.Dual treatment with levanox and garlic powder resulted in a characteristic protein differing from that of control as revealed through SDS-PAGE and confirmed by RAPD-PCR
Abdallah, Inas Z. A.
Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame). Male rats were administe...
Uduak Akpan Okon
Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645
Shadia Ali Radwan; Ahmed Riad El-Sayed; Mohammed Salah Al-Shinnawy
The present investigation was performed to study the effect of daily administration (interperitoneal injection) of synthetic coloring agent amaranth at dose 50 mg /kg b.w. /day for two periods (7 and 21 days), using male albino rats. The effects of amaranth on growth, haematological and some biochemical parameters were examined throughout the study. The results revealed that amaranth treatment cause a marked change in treated groups when compared with control. They showed a significant decrea...
Hemalatha, K; K.Pugazhendy; M.Meenambal; C.Jayanthi
Lead acetate induces the histological changes in liver and kidney tissues of the male albino Wister rat were observed by light microscopy. The rats were exposed to sublethal concentration of lead acetate 1.896 mg/kg body wt for seven days with parallel untreated control, lead acetate along with spirulina 2mg/Kgbody wt and spirulina 2mg/Kg body wt groups were maintained. Liver and kidney tissue used for histological studies. No pathological changes were observed in the untreated control and sp...
Full Text Available The present study reflects the effect of ethanolic extract of Capparis aphylla (Roth. on male reproduction and fertility in adult albino rat. The result revealed that the administration of whole plant ethanolic extract of C. aphylla manifested an antifertility effect on male reproductive system. The complete loss of fertility is attributed to decline in epididymal sperm counts and motility as well as origin of bi- and multinucleate giant cells in the ad luminal compartment of the testis was observed. The administration of ethanolic extract at varied doses led to alteration in both the histoarchitecture of testis, mainly caput epididymis and erratic spermatogenesis have been documented. The data revealed that functional sterility could be induced in male rats by whole plant ethanolic extract treatment, which promises to be a potential male contraceptive.
The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation
The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no ecount, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.
The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate and determine the protective effect of intraperitoneal administration of trace mineral selenium (Se) and antioxidant vitamins E and pantothenic acid (PA) to male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl pesticide. Four groups of rats were used in this study. The data obtained revealed that methomyl caused disturbances in liver functions, which were elucidated through ALT and AST levels, and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin. Also, the levels of serum total protein, albumin, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and acethylcholinesterase activity were significantly changed from those found in control rats for different periods. Treatment of rats with the antioxidant supplements ameliorated to some extent most of the disturbances in the mentioned biochemical parameter levels. The data concluded that such antioxidants could provide some protection against pesticide-induced toxicity
Purushottam Pramanik , Snehangshu Biswas
Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to one control group and two experimental groups. Both the experimental groups were exposed to traffic noise having intensity 80 dB to 90 dB at the rate of 5 hr daily and control group was not exposed. First experimental group was exposed to traffic noise for 30 days and second group for 60 days. Testicular weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular protein level and testicular cholesterol level were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired t test. Result: Contribution of testis to body weight, testicular protein level and sperm count were low but testicular cholesterol level was more in traffic noise exposed rats than unexposed counterpart. Traffic noise exposure also increased percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm. Conclusion: Traffic noise adversely affect male gamete and such effect may be due to noise-induced suppression of testosterone synthesis.
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sectionhological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval
The present study was carried out to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride (CsCl) on growing male albino rats and to evaluate the therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) administration for modification of the chemical toxicity. The experiments were performed on 32 growing male albino rats, (Rattus Rattus), divided into control group and three groups administered a daily dose of CsCl or PB or both. The results revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride caused a significant decrease in the Hb concentration, Ht %, serum folic acid, vitamin B12, potassium levels and body weight gain, with significant increase in WBC's count, serum urea and creatinine. No effect was observed on the other studied parameters including: RBCs count, liver functions, blood glucose, phosphokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase. On the other hand, PB caused a significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that it can be one of the therapeutic agents that might provide a protection against toxicological effects
Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats
Irradiation has been widely reported to damage organisms by attacking proteins, nucleic acids and lipids in cells. However, low dose irradiation has become the focus of research in radiobiology in recent years. This study was undertaken to analyze changes in blood levels of immunoreactive aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), total antioxidant capacity, protein and albumin levels in male albino rats exposed to ultraviolet-type C (UV-C) or low dose of gamma radiation. The role of melatonin, as an antioxidant agent, in restoring the serum levels of the selected biochemical parameters after irradiation was studied in male rats exposed to the two types of radiation. Gamma irradiation as a single dose of 2 Gy resulted in significant decreases in serum total protein, albumin, total antioxidant capacity and serum PIIINP level in male rats as compared to control. One hour ultraviolet irradiation/day for 3 weeks resulted in significant increase in serum total protein and significant decreases in PIIINP and total antioxidant capacity as compared to control.Statistical analysis revealed that intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg melatonin/kg body weight after UV or gamma irradiation restored the levels of the selected serum biochemical parameters as compared to control rats
Shadia Ali Radwan; Ahmed Riad El-Sayed; Mohammed Salah Al-Shinnawy
Full Text Available The present investigation was performed to study the effect of daily administration (interperitoneal injection of synthetic coloring agent amaranth at dose 50 mg /kg b.w. /day for two periods (7 and 21 days, using male albino rats. The effects of amaranth on growth, haematological and some biochemical parameters were examined throughout the study. The results revealed that amaranth treatment cause a marked change in treated groups when compared with control. They showed a significant decrease in percentage of body weight change, RBCs count, Hb concentration and HCT value, while, they recorded a significant increase in WBCs, serum activity of AST and ALP, in addition to serum urea and creatinine levels in treated rats. But ALT and bilirubin showed insignificant changes throughout the experiment.
Nigella sativa (NS), commonly known as black seed, is a plant spices in which thymoquinone is the main active ingredient isolated from the black seeds. The seeds of Nigella sativa are used in herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases. The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of NS against gamma radiation induced nephrotoxicity and inflammatory changes in male albino rats. Twenty four albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy), treated group (rats treated with 0.2 ml/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks), and treated irradiated group (animals treated with 0.2 mL/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy). The obtained results revealed that the administration of Nigella sativa oil to irradiated rats significantly ameliorated the changes induced in kidney antioxidant system; catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as reduced glutathione concentration. Also, NS oil restored the kidney function indices (urea and creatinine) near normal level when compared with their equivalent values in irradiated rats. In addition, the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activities were markedly improved compared to the corresponding values of ir The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of ischemic renal injury in irradiated group, while in treated- irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture with or without focal degeneration. In conclusion, NS acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorates the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological study and also NS oil might provide substantial protection against radiation-induced inflammatory damages.
The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract, equivalent to 2 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks, caused significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in whole blood and in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rat nearly all over the experimental period. Treatment with Salvia aegyptiaca extract also resulted in significant increase in acetylcholine content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus' nearly throughout the whole experimental period. It could be concluded from the present results that the extract of Salvia aegyptiaca caused an increase in acetylcholine content and this increase may be due to the decrease in the activity of acetylcholine esterase enzyme which play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
Ismail Khan, A; Yuvaraj, S; Suthagar, E; Parthasarathy, C; Balasubramanian, K
Many traditional treatments have been recommended in the alternative system of medicine for diabetes mellitus. However, the mode of action of most of the herbals used has not been defined. It has been reported that sex hormones are important regulators of insulin-mediated events in skeletal muscles. In view of this, a novel herbal preparation containing antidiabetic and aphrodisiac plants was used in the present study. Adult male albino rats were divided into following groups after induction of diabetes. Rats were given an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ), at a dose of 65 mg/kg body weight after overnight fasting, to induce diabetic state with blood glucose levels >250 mg/dL. Group 1-Control rats treated with single i.p. injection of vehicle, Group 2-Rats treated with polyherbal preparation (PHP; 500 mg/kg body weight by oral intubation, morning and evening for 30 days), Group 3-STZ-diabetic rats treated orally with equal volumes of vehicle (water) alone and Group 4-STZ-diabetic rats treated with PHP after 10 days of diabetic induction. STZ-diabetes decreased the body weight, serum insulin level and glucose oxidation in liver and skeletal muscles but increased the fasting blood glucose level. After polyherbal treatment, body weight and glucose oxidation were completely restored to control level while serum insulin level was restored partially and the glucose tolerance was significantly improved. There was a significant decrease in total haemoglobin (Hb) level of diabetic rats when compared to control but polyherbal treatment significantly improved the same. However, the other parameters studied (red blood cell [RBC], white blood corpuscle [WBC], packed cell volume [PCV], mean corpuscular volume [MCV] and mean corpuscular haemoglobin [MCH]) were unaltered. In conclusion, the anti-diabetic properties of PHP appear to be mediated through pancreatic beta-cell regeneration, resulting in maintenance of optimal blood glucose and its oxidation in liver and skeletal muscles. PMID:19755436
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effective concentration of ethanol extract of Feronia elephantum leaf and bark on male reproductive system of albino rats. The study was divided into four groups of five animals each. The first group (I received distilled water for a period of 14 days, served as control. The groups II, III and IV of animals were administered the ethanol leaf extract daily at 400mg/kg body weight, bark extract daily at 400 mg/kg body weight and 1:1 ratio of leaf (200mg/kg b.wt and bark (200mg/kg b.wt extract of Feronia elephantum respectively for a period of 14days. Significant decreases in the weight of testis (p<0.05, epididymis (p<0.01 and seminal vesicle (p<0.05 were observed. The results of the hormonal assay showed that, increased serum levels of FSH and estrogen but decreases in the serum levels of LH and testosterone compared to control. The results showed that, Feronia elephantum has effects on male rat reproduction, affecting the sexual behavior and epididymal sperm concentration.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the prophylactic role of pre-intake of ethanolic extract of rosemary (150 mg/kg/day) against some hormonal disturbances and testis histopathological changes induced by acrylamide (50 mg/kg/day) in adult male albino rats.The animals were divided into four equal groups; the control group, the rosemary group, the acrylamide group and the rosemary + acrylamide group. At the end of the experiment (28 days), the rats were decapitated then blood sera were collected and kept frozen at -20oC until the evaluation of thyroxine (T-4), triiodothyronine (T3), total testosterone, free testosterone and estradiol. The testes tissues were also stained and examined.The results denoted that the mortality rate of acrylamide group was about 47% and toxicological symptoms with significant reduction in T3,T4 , total and free testosterone and pathological changes in testicular tissue were observed. Addition of rosemary prior and during acrylamide intake reduced the mortality rate (20%), decreased the toxicological symptoms induced by acrylamide, increased the thyroid hormones and testosterone and avoid the pathological changes in the testes tissues.It could be concluded that the ethanolic extract of rosemary when introduced prior and during acrylamide intake succeed to a great extent in ameliorating the undesirable effects on testis and male sex hormones and to a moderate extent on thyroid hormones. a moderate extent on thyroid hormones.
Twenty four male albino rats, body weight 100-130 g, were used to evaluate the protective role of fresh pomegranate fruit intake for 30 days on the damage induced by single dose of 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group (1): control, group (2): irradiated with 6 Gy, group (3): pomegranate for 30 days and group (4): pomegranate for 30 days followed by 6 Gy whole body irradiation. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed after 12 hours fasting then sera were separated for the determination of sugar, total antioxidant, lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. Results showed that gamma radiation caused significant decline (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant, total protein, albumin, HDL-C and blood glucose with significant elevation (P<0.05) in other hepato-renal markers in addition to serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. These changes were significantly attenuated in irradiated animals pre-treated with whole fresh pomegranate fruit leading to the conclusion that pre-intake of pomegranate fruit had a radio- protective effect. This protection of this whole fruit may be due to the increased total antioxidant level leading to free radical scavenging
Thirty adult male albino rats were used in the present study to assess the effect of using tryptophan or/and hawthorn extract with coenzyme Q 10 in ameliorating the effect of high fat diet (HFD) intake on hyperlipidaemia, hormonal imbalance and body weight. Six animals were served as a control group while the other twenty four rats were supplemented with 20 g butter/100 g standard laboratory diet (HFD) for 8 weeks prior to the experiment. These HFD rats were divided randomly into four equal groups; hyperlipidaemic group, tryptophan and hawthorn groups where animals of the latter two groups were supplemented with 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan and 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract respectively, and mixed group that was daily administrated with a mixture of 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan, 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract and 50 mg/kg B.W. coenzyme Q10. Body weight was recorded twice/week, after 30 days animals were decapitated and sera were collected for determination of total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), testosterone and corticosterone hormones. The data revealed that tryptophan, hawthorn extract alone or mixed with CoQ10 improved the dreadful effects induced by HFD, but the most profit was achieved by mixing these three antioxidants on hyperlipidaemia, tested hormones and body weight.
Noorah S. AL-Sowyan
Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of 14 days diet, enriched in butter, vitamin E (vit. E and green tea, on the major regulators of energy expenditure. Leptin is the product OB gene. This 16 KDa protein is produced by mature adipocytes and is secreted in plasma. Its plasma levels are strongly correlated with adipose mass in rodents as well as in humans. Leptin inhibit food intake, reduces body weight and stimulates energy expenditure. In order to evaluate the effect of diet enriched in butter, vit. E and green tea on body weight, adipose tissue weight and organs weight, serum lipids, lipoproteins content and serum leptin levels in male albino rats supplemented for 14 days on the previous diet. This study showed that high fat diet significantly increased body weight and adipose tissue weight, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered body weight and adipose tissue weight, kidney and spleen weights didnt show significant changes in all the experimental groups. While liver weight decreased in diet supplemented with high fat diet. Also, the results showed that high fat diet and vit. E supplemented diet induced significant increase in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with significant decrease in HDLc. level as compared to normal control rats. Finally green tea supplemented diet induced significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with insignificant increase in HDLc. level in control rats. On the other hand, high fat supplemented diet significantly increased serum leptin levels in rats compared to control group, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered serum leptin levels at the end of experimental period. In conclusion, improving the biological activity of leptin by diet modification may exist as a practical strategy for the treatment of obesity and related disorders and a diet rich in green tea to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD obesity and also protect the liver against free radicals.
Fifty male albino rats were used in this study to correlate liver function after curcumin or/and malathion intake with the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM). The rats were divided into four groups, the first was the control group, the second was given malathion in drinking water (200 ppm), the third was administrated curcumin orally (70 mg/kg b.w.) 5 times /week while the fourth group received both malathion and curcumin with the same previous concentrations. Liver state was evaluated every 10 days by estimating prothrombine time (P.T.) and concentration (PC) and albumin level from blood taken from the retroorbital vein of 5 rats of the malathion group. After 40 days when there is prolongation of P.T. and hypoalbuminemia, ten rats from each group were decapitated. Liver enzymes, total protein, glucose, insulin, IgG and IgM were estimated. The data revealed that there is an increase of liver enzymes, glucose, insulin, and immunoglobulins (IgG) and (IgM) in malathion group and positive correlation between liver enzymes and immunoglobulins. These results denoted that the increase of immunoglobulins after malathion intake had no beneficial effects on the prognosis of liver condition, on the contrary, it may worsen liver state if there is some element of auto immunity, as well as the study proved that turmeric has the potential to improve the toxic effects of Malathion, whether on the functions of the liver or immune globulins.r or immune globulins.
Inas Z.A. Abdallah
Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame. Male rats were administered saccharin (50 mg/kg b.w. or aspartame (100 mg/kg b.w. daily by intragastric gavage for 14 weeks. The results revealed that both saccharin and aspartame provoked highly significant reduction in body weight gain %. Saccharin exerted highly significant reduction in haemoglobin (Hb level, haematocrit (Hct% and red blood cel s (RBCs count, while aspartame induced insignificant changes in al haematological parameters. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity levels were significantly increased with saccharin and aspartame. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels in serum showed slightly insignificant increase by saccharim administration, while aspartame caused a significant rise in ALP. Blood glucose level of rats given saccharin significantly dropped, while aspartame caused a significant elevation in blood glucose level. Liver glycogen content of rats given saccharin significantly increased, while aspartame caused a significant reduction in liver glycogen content. Microscopic examination of liver sections showed lymphocytic and macrophages infiltration of the portal traid in rats administered saccharin, while aspartame group showed no histopathological changes except slight hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes. Urinary bladder sections of rats administered saccharin revealed proliferation of the mucosal epithelial cel s into papil ary invaginated projections with highly vascularized connective tissue core and mononuclear inflammatory cel s infiltration, while aspartame group showed no histopahtological alterations. It could be recommended that the use of saccharin as an artificial sweetener should be restricted, while aspartame should not be administered to diabetic. When it is necessary to use artificial sweeteners, fresh fruits and vegetables should be ingested as they act as scavengers for the liberated free radicals and help to delay the postprandial rise in blood glucose level.
This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 10''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 10th day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52%imental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis
E.U. Madukwe; A.M. Okafor; C.M. Enemkpali
This study assessed effect of Iresine herbstii leaf extract and powder on biochemical profile of adult male albino Wistar rats. Twenty adult male albino Wistar rats divided into four groups of five rats each were used for the study. All the animals received rat-chow and water ad-libitum. Group A was the control. Groups B, C and D received in addition, fresh leaf extract, shade-dried leaf extract and shade-dried leaf powder, respectively. Blood samples were obtained from the rats for lipid pro...
The acute i.p. injection of Sidr ( Zizyphus spina-christi) leaves extract ( 100 mg / kg body wt ) caused a significant increase in epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxiindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and a significant decrease in gamm-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in different brain areas (cerebellum , pons plus medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rats. The increase in E, NE, DA, 5-HT, and 5-HIAA content in the different CNS areas of albino rat may be due to the inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin binding which plays an important role in the release of these neurotransmitters, at the same time GABA inhibits the release of these neurotransmitters by increasing the permeability to Cl ions and such effect may be due to the presence of peptide and cyclopeptide alkaloids in the extract. Zizyphus spina-christi leaves may potentially be safe for use as a sedative drug. (author)
Mohamed Mohamed Soliman
Full Text Available The protective effects of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC against orally administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 for 3 months on male albino rats were examined. Adult male albino rats were given saline as a control group, TiO2 (1200 mg kg-1 BW, NAC (100 mg kg-1 BW and co-treatment of NAC and TiO2 as a protective group for 3 months. Blood was assayed for serum changes in GPT, GOT, lipid profiles, cytokines and immunoglobulins profiles. Moreover, spleen was examined for alterations in cytokines expression and histopathology. Administration of TiO2 significantly increased serum levels of GPT, GOT and increased lipid profiles. Administration of NAC to TiO2 rats improved significant changes induced by TiO2 alone. There were an increase in IL-1Î² and IL-6 secretion in TiO2 administered rats which is normalized by NAC administration. TiO2 administration down regulated IL-8 and IL-10 secretion, while co-administration of rats by NAC together with TiO2 normalized that down regulation. Moreover, TiO2 induced toxicity in spleen that accompanied by a decrease in IgA, IgG and IgM that are normalized by NAC administration. Finally, TiO2 up-regulated IL-1Î², IL-6 and TNF-Î² expression in spleen and NAC administration together with TiO2 normalized cytokines expression. In conclusion, present findings confirmed the protective effect of NAC on TiO2 induced alteration in immune responses in male albino rats.
Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T3) thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body ?-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels were recorded after ?-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of ?-irradiation on serum T3 and T4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. Ht day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by ?-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21
Neveen M. El-Sherif
Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules. All previous results were significantly reversed in the protected group compared with NA treated group. Conclusions: It is concluded that NA has a harmful effect on rat kidney. Rosemary extract had a protective role against renal injury induced by NA and this effect may be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(1.000: 24-32
Full Text Available Silymarin is a mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum [L] Gaertn . Extracts of S. marianum have been used in the treatment of liver diseases for more than 2000 years. Flavonoids are a large group of polycyclic phenols of plant origin. Flavonoids displaying estrogenic effects (phytoestrogen. Phytoestrogens show an estrogenic activity owing to the structural similarity with the estrogen skeleton ,mimicking natural estrogens, it binds to estrogen receptor and modulates its activity . These effects cause complex changes inducing a shift in an overall hormonal balance of the individual. Long term intake of feeds with a higher content of phytoestrogens can induce transient or permanent infertility. Silybum marianum leaves have been traditionally used in Egypt for their antifertility effects .Also, the antifertility property of silybum marianum leaves was investigated in female albino rats. This property highlights the impotance to clarify the role of silymarin (420mg /day a human therapeutic dose on both female and male albino rats. Silymarin (151.2 mg/kg BW prevented pregnancy in adult female albino rats on days 1-5 post coitum. In female rats the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH displayed marked increase, while the luteinizing hormone (LH and estradiol remained within normal levels. These results showed a distinct increase in number and size of ovarian growing follicles while the effect of silymarin on the uterine wall was in the form of hypertrophy of endometrial epithelium, also increase in the number of uterine glands. Ovaries taken from females treated with silymarin for one and two months contained a large number of growing follicles. In male rats treated with silymarin (151.2 mg/kg BW for one month, testosterone and LH were increased significantly, meanwhile estradiol not changed. Testes of rats treated with silymarin for one month showed well developed spermatogenesis with lot of sperms. The epididymis of the same group contained a heavy number of sperms. While rats treated with silymarin for two months displayed significant decrease in serum testosterone levels, while LH and estradiol not changed. These rats displayed some tubules contained well developed spermatogenic layer and normal leyding cells, others appeared moderated by affected. The epididymis contained less number of sperms. These results indicated that silymarin (151.2mg /kgBW a dose equivalent to human therapeutic dose (420mg/ day prevented pregnancy in female rats and caused some histological changes in the ovary and uterus, while it has biological benefits for male rats during short treatment.
Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan
Full Text Available Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of ID based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil (ENO fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P< 0.01 along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis- and agrave;-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of beta-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 125-128
This study was carried out to evaluate the therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB), vermiculite (verm.) and calcium Trisodium salt of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) on internal decontamination of radio-active cesium and/ or cobalt from albino rats and to investigate the side effects of these compounds as well as radiation hazards of these radioactive materials.Adult male albino rats were divided into 15 groups (each of 6 rats);group 1: control, groups (2) - (4) were given PB + vermiculite oral and/or intraperitoneal DTPA. Another five groups of rats were given only a single dose of Co60 and/or Cs134 for three weeks. Groups (10) - (15) were given a single dose of Co60 and/or Cs134 with daily dose of therapeutic agents.Biochemical parameters included blood glucose, renal function (serum urea concentrations and creatinine), creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and some minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous) were investigated. The data obtained revealed that internal contamination by radioactive materials causes a significant increase in serum urea, creatinine concentration, glucose, CPK and LDH activities. In addition, a significant decreased in serum inorganic phosphorous was recorded and non-significant changes were recorded sodium, potassium and calcium levels. The treatment by different therapeutic agents had non-significant effects on the same parameters.On the ott effects on the same parameters.On the other hand, the therapeutic agents caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by internal contamination with variable degrees
The present study was performed on 100 male albino rats arranged into 5 equal groups to evaluate the effect of adding Lettuce and/for cabbage to rat diet on some hematological and biochemical disorders induced by administration of repeated used frying oil in the diet of rats for one and two months. The results indicated that used frying oil caused significant decrease in hemoglobin (Hb), Haematocrit (Hct), Red blood corpuscles (RBCs), Vitamin (B12) and Folic acid with significant increase in total leukocitic count, (WBCs) Platelets body weight, Aspartate amino transferase (AST) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT). The disturbances in the tested parameters were almost improved by vegetables intake denoting the beneficial effect of adding fresh green vegetables to fried food on blood picture and intestinal absorption
Full Text Available The interactive effects of Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA and Ethanol Consumption on the antioxidant defense system in testis tissue of rats were studied in the present research work. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each. Control rats were administered normal saline orally. While experimental animals were fed Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA (1 ?g gm-1 and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 Body weight and sacrificed. A significant depletion of GSH content in testis was observed. This combination was found to be decreased Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD activity in testis. Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive Substrate (TBARS and Catalase (CAT Activity were observed to be increased in testis. In contrast, Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx activity was decreased in testis. The results are discussed in detail.
Thanga Krishna Kumari S
Full Text Available Anti-fertility effect of ethanol extract of whole plant extract of Sarcostemma secamone was observed in male albino rats. The relative weight of the testes and epididymis were decreased. The epididymal sperm count, motility and sperm abnormality were reduced significantly in treated rats. There was an increase in serum protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine and the activity of liver marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and ALP levels of control and treated rats. The activities of serum antioxidants (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST and GRD in plant extract treated rats were decreased. The results of the hormonal assay showed that increased serum levels of FSH and estrogen but decreased in the serum levels of LH and testosterone compared to control. The results of fertility test indicated that the treated adult male rats reduced the number of females impregnation. In addition, the number of implantations and the number of viable featuses were also decreased. The results of the present study concluded that, ethanol extract of whole plant of Sarcostemma secamone inhibited sperm concentration, motility and testosterone which might result in a male fertility.
Full Text Available Abhrak bhasma, an Ayurvedic drug used against many diseases including hepatitis. In present study various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg body wt were tested for hepatoprotective efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidney functions in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 to the normal rat increased serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin indicated acute damage. Abhrak bhasma treatment counteracted the action of CCl4 on liver and kidney functions. With the administration of increasing doses of abhrak bhasma all activities were dropped progressively and significantly at 40 mg dose as compared with silicate control. Conjugation metabolism and excretion of bilirubin were improved with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent protection of all metabolic steps in bilirubin metabolism. Also CCl4 induced acute toxicity increased serum urea and creatinine content, which was progressively controlled by increasing abhrak bhasma doses. The findings of this study indicated that abhrak bhasma exert dose dependent protective effects in liver and kidneys functions against CCl4 induced toxicity in albino rat.
The present study aims to investigate the synergistic effects of squalene and omega-3 as an antioxidant in protection against oxidative stress which induced by gamma- irradiated in male albino rats. The experimental animals, male albino rats (n=48) weighing (120-150 g) were divided into 4 groups: control, gamma irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy, oral administration with 0.4 ml/kg b. wt from squalene and omega-3 for 30 days and oral administration with 0.4 ml/kg b. wt from squalene and omega-3 for 30 days and irradiated with a single dose level (6 Gy). Animals were sacrificed on the 3rd and 7th day post irradiation. Biochemical analysis was carried out on blood glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (MDA). Also lipid profile: plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were assayed. Exposure to gamma radiation at dose level 6 Gy elevated significantly lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decline in level of blood glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and catalase activity (CAT) also, a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and decrease in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). Combined supplementation of squalene and omega-3 significantly prevented the elevation of (MDA) and decline in antioxidant parameters after radiation and ameliorates plasma lipid profile. The resultsliorates plasma lipid profile. The results indicated that the combination of aqualene and omega-3 has a protective role, antioxidant effect and antilipidemic effect against gamma radiation in exposed rats
Ahmed Th. Ibrahim
Full Text Available Lithium (Li therapy has widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Consequently, consciousness of the side effects and pathogenesis of this metal is needed for such treatments. Recently, information on the interaction of Li with oxidative markers and organs toxicity attend the researchers over the world. In the present study we have tried to evaluate the influence of oral administration of LiCl for 4 weeks on the oxidative stress marker and histological structure of brain in male rats. Fifty adult male albino rats weighing 135±15 gm was categorized into 5 groups (10 rats each. Group I worked as negative control, group II administrated with LiCl (0.20 mg/kg bw in drinking water, group III, IV and V were administrated with Zn (10 mg/kg bw, VE (100 mg/kg bw and their combination twice a week besides the daily administration of LiCl for 4 weeks, respectively. Rats after anesthesia with ether killed for collocation of brain for histopathological and biochemical analysis. Data obtained showed a significant increase in LPO, NO, GSH and Li content and the activities of SOD, CAT and AChE with demylination of the nerve fibers and degeneration of neurons in brain of LiCl treated rats. Co-treatment of rats with Zn or VE results in a significant decrease in LPO, NO, GSH content in the activities of SOD, CAT and AChE with less or normal structure of the brain. However, co-treatment with combination of Zn and VE caused a significant increase in SOD, CAT and AChE activities with normal histological structure.In conclusion, the data from the present study show that Zn and VE and their interaction are effective in protection against Li- induced brain toxicity in rat with priority for the combination.
Full Text Available Effects of 50% ethanolic extract of Tecoma stans leaves were investigated in adult Wistar male rats. Changes in weight of the liver, kidneys and adrenal of the rats were statistically insignificant (p<0.05. The relative weight of testes, epididymis, vas deferens, ventral prostate and seminal vesicle were decreased significantly (p<0.001. Tecoma stans treatment showed significant high cholesterol, glycogen and low tissue sialic acid and total protein in testes and epididymis and low fructose level in seminal vesicle of treated rats. Hormonal assay showed decrease in testosterone level. The epididymal sperm count, motility and fertility test (% reduced significantly in treated rats. Histopathological study of the testes depicted marked degenerative changes in testes. The seminiferous tubules appear reduced in size. Vacuolization was observed in the sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Leydig cells were atrophied. Germ cell proliferation beyond the level of the spermatocyte was affected. The lumen contained sloughed debris and few germ cells.
Several studies indicated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against diseases, and populations that consume such diets have higher plasma antioxidants and exhibit lower risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Vegetable is considered major dietary source of fibers and antioxidants such as polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids that can protect against different dietary disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of cabbage and/or carrot against oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in male albino rats. Chemical composition and phenolic contents in cabbage and carrot were determined. Male albino rats were exposed to 5 Gy (single dose with rate 0.46 Gy/min) of whole body gamma irradiation. Thirty five rats were randomly divided into five groups as follow: group 1: control (rats fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks), group 2: irradiated (rats were exposed to whole gamma irradiation and fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks) and groups 3, 4 and 5: irradiated rats fed on balanced diet and received cabbage 15%, carrot 15% and a combination of cabbage and carrot, respectively. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cabbage and/or carrot diet significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum level of glucose and liver function parameters; serum aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and albumin. In addition, significant improvemalbumin. In addition, significant improvements were observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), was observed. The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) associated with remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were observed. Accordingly, it could be concluded that consumption of cabbage and/or carrot could modulate the oxidative stress and protect against chronic diseases caused by radiation exposure and that may be due to the antioxidant activity of both cabbage and carrot
More attention has been drawn to different strategies for prevention of cardiovascular associated with liver dysfunction. The aim of the present study is to compare between statin and free fat- milk supplemented with multivitamins in hyperlipidaemic male rats with or without liver dysfunction induced by CCl4. The animals were allocated to 7 equal experimental groups (16 rats each): control group, hypercholesterolemic group, hypercholestero-lemic-statin group, hypercholesterolemic-free fat milk-multivitamins group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4 group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4-statin group, and hypercholesterolemic-CCl4- fat-free milk-multivita-mins group. After one month half of the rats of each group were decapitated and the rest of the animals were decapitated after two months. Lipid profile, relative liver weight, liver function, CPK and LDH were determined. The effectiveness of statin drug in the management of blood lipids was confirmed without improving or worsening liver functions. Meanwhile, this effectiveness worsened in hypercholesterolemic rats treated with CCl4 as compared to hypercholesterolemic group. Administration of fat-free milk with multivitamins, as an alternative remedy for statin drug, has improved lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats and it revealed no changes in liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemic rats with liver dysfunction indicating the favorable use of them as hypolipotropic agent without affecting liver metabolismng liver metabolism
Eslam A. Header; Naser A. ElSawy; Osama A. Kensara
Different metabolic disorders including hypertension cause renal damage. The aim of this study was to study the effect of Thymus Vulgaris (TV) on kidneys of induced hypertensive rats through biochemical and ultrastructure examination. Thirty three adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups 11 animals each (control, untreated and treated). The first (control) group was fed and followed up for 8 weeks by measuring the systolic BP. In the second group, hypertension was induced by ligation...
Olaoluwa T. Adeyemi
Full Text Available Trachurus trachurus (locally called kote is a low cost table fish in south-west Nigeria. Study was conducted to determine the effect of processed kote on total triglycerides (TG & cholesterol (Chol in the serum as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatinine (CRT, Chol and glucose (Gluc in selected tissues of weaned male albino rats using standard methods. Chemical analyses were carried out on processed fillet; skin, head & bone (SHB diets under standard conditions. 40 male rats were fed with processed fillet or SHB diets for 14 days to assay TG & Chol in serum as well as the activities of LDH & CRT in the heart, kidney, brain, spleen and small intestine; in addition to Chol and Gluc levels in the brain and liver. All data were subjected to analysis of variance by Duncans multiple range test. Results indicated that levels of serum triglycerides and total cholesterol, as well as LDH and Gluc in the liver, heart, kidney and brain were reduced (p kote SHB could be a useful source of valuable nutrients in animal feed.
L-carnitine, a natural component of mammalian tissue, is a necessary factor in the utilization of long-chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of L-carnitine on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by paracetamol, ?-radiation, and paracetamol + ?-radiation. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1-Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2-Carnitine group: rats received L-carnitine (0.5 ml/Kg body weight) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3-Paracetamol group: rats received paracetamol (50 mg/kg body) via intraperi-toneal injection during 21 days, 4- Carnitine + Paracetamol group: rats received L-carnitine in parallel to paracetamol treatment, 5- Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 6- Carnitine + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation with 7Gy, 7- Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation, 8- Carnitine + Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine parallel to paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation.The results demonstrated that rats receiving paracetamol, as well as whole body gamma irradiated rats and rats receiving paracetamol and irradiated showed a significant increase of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amie amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity indicating liver injury. A significant increase of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels was recorded also indicating kidney damage. Alteration in liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant increase in the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities indicating oxidative stress. The administration of L-carnitine resulted in significant improvement of hepatic and renal function tests associated with the reduction of oxidative stress. It could be concluded that L-carnitine might modulate paracetamol and ?-radiation induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity possibly through its antioxidant properties
This study deals with the preparation and microbiology of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OA) that was extracted from Aspergillus niger and injected intraperitoneally to male albino rats at a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (1/5 LD50). Its effect was followed after 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 hours and 7 days. Body weight gain, organs body weights ratio and some hematological and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results revealed significant decrease in body weight gain of treated rats in addition to an alteration in the relative weights of some selected organs. The data revealed dramatic decrease in RBCs count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit value and platelets number, where WBCs count was significantly increased. Moreover, significant increases of serum ALT, AST, ALP and total and direct bilirubin were observed indicating changes in liver function. Total protein and albumin were significantly decreased. Kidney function of treated rats, as determined by alterations in creatinine and blood urea levels, was affected. Also, profound decline in serum testosterone level was observed as performed by radioimmunoassay technique
The aim of the present study was to investigate the daily effect of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L .) root extract on epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) , and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in different brain areas (cerebellum , pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rats .The daily intraperitoneal ( i.p.) injection of 300 mg/kg body wt valerian for 30 days caused a significant increase in epinephrine ( E ) content in pons plus medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex , hypothalamus and in midbrain . Norepinephrine (NE ) content was significantly increased in all brain areas tested except in cerebellum and cerebral cortex . Dopamine (DA) content was significantly increased in all tested brain areas except in cerebral cortex and hippocampus . moreover , there was also a significant increase in serotonin (5-HT ) and 5-hydroxyindol acetic acid (5-HIAA) contents in all tested brain areas . However, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content was significantly decreased in all tested brain areas . After the extract withdrawal, the increase in ( E, NE, DA , 5-HT ) contents and the decrease in GABA content persisted in pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , midbrain and hippocampus , and this might be due to regional differences toward the effect. The increase in E, NE, DA , 5-HT and 5-HIAA contents, at the same time the decr5-HIAA contents, at the same time the decrease in GABA content in the different brain areas of albino rats may be due to the presence of both valepotriates and valerenic acid in the extract which mediated the GABA ergic mechanisms including the inhibition of GABA metabolism and the increase in GABA synthesis and release , although agonized the GABAA receptors which led to the inhibit of the neurotransmitter release. Valerian root extract may be useful as a herbal medicine having sedative effect and it is safe. (author)
Bushra H. El-Zawahry and Effat M. Abu El Kheir
Full Text Available Background: Generation of free radicals in the renal cortex plays an important role in the pathogenesis of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Curcumin, the yellow curry pigment isolated from turmeric, has been confirmed to have a strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging actions. In the present study, we investigated the possible protective effect of curcumin against gentamicin-induced nephropathy in male albino rats. Methods: Thirty two male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Gr.: (Gr.I control, injected i.p with 1cc isotonic saline solution/day for 8 wks; (Gr.II received 200 mg/kg/day curcumin (Cur. orally, suspended in normal saline, for 8 wks ; (Gr.III injected I.p by 100 mg/kg/day gentamicin (Gen. for 8 days followed by 1cc saline I.p thereafter; (Gr.IV (Cur./Gen. received 200 mg/kg/day Cur. for one week before starting Gen injection (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days during which Cur. was received concurrently with Gen then Cur administration was continued thereafter throughout the rest of the study (6 wks. Body weight was recorded weekly. Renal function was evaluated by measuring the 24 h. urine output, the concentrations of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine clearance. Also, kidney weight and the parameters of oxidative stress: reduced glutathione (GSH, thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX were measured in kidney tissue. Results: The Kidney weight, plasma creatinine, BUN and 24 h urine output were significantly increased while the body weight and creatinine clearance were significantly decreased (P < 0.0005, in rats treated with Gen. as compared to control. While Cur. could significantly normalize the previous parameters. In addition Gen. caused oxidative stress in kidney as seen by significant increase in TBARS level, and significant decrease of catalase, GSH, SOD and GPX activities (P < 0.0005, However, Cur. could normalize all the above parameters as compared to control. Conclusion: Our data indicate that Cur. could suppress renal toxicity by blocking oxidative injury in the kidney and restore the antioxidant enzymatic profile. The renoprotective effect of Cur. is also evident by a remarkable improvement of renal function in Gen. injected rats. So Cur. can be used as a potent protective agent against renal oxidative damage mediated by Gen.
levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. the present investigation included physiological, radiometric and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic tablets toward CCl4 - induced toxicity in adult male albion rats ( Rattus norvegicus).CCl4 intoxication, at oral dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight, led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP, CK and LDH. CCl4 caused an elevation of serum triglycerides with no effect on serum total cholesterol. it also increased serum creatinine and urea levels . these biochemical results were in coincidence with the liver and kidneys histopathological alterations . using radioimmunoassay, it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased while that of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) was significantly increased due to CCl4 treatment
Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas, one of the major vegetable crops consumed worldwide, is rich in phytochemicals, which displayed antioxidant activities. This work aims at assessing the radio-protective properties of sweet potato tubers on liver and kidney tissues. Male albino rats were whole body exposed to 0.5 Gy day after day for a period of 20 days. Animal received orally prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers (100 mg kg/body weight), one week before irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure. The results demonstrated that irradiation of rats induced a significant increase in lipid peroxides level measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concomitant with a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in liver and kidney tissues. Administration of a freshly prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers to rats, one week pre-irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure has significantly of ameliorated the oxidative stress in both tissues. The significant amelioration in oxidative stress was substantiated by improvement of liver and kidney enzymes Treatment of rats with sweet potato has significantly reduced the increase in serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, serum creatinine and urea levels. Furthermore, hyperglycemia and alteration in lipid profile manifested by a significann lipid profile manifested by a significant increase in triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), were improved in sweet potato-treated irradiated rats compared to those only irradiated. According to the results obtained in the present study, it could be concluded that sweet potato through its antioxidant activities could protect cellular membrane from radiation induced oxidative damage in animals and preserve the integrity of tissue functions.
Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS), Malvacea family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its benefit effect on some physiological parameters as blood picture, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, liver and kidney functions, electrolytes and antioxidant capacity is mentioned in several recent studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in protecting from alcohol toxicity in rats. Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: group 1 received water orally for 30 days, group 2 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) for 30 days, both group 3 and group 4 received Hibiscus sabdariffa (100 mg/kg/day) orally for 30 days and then group 4 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) orally for another 30 days. Serum hepatic markers (aspartate and alanine minotransferases; AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were increased significantly by alcohol abuse with no observed improvement in treatment with HS. Significant reduction in total protein and albumin was observed in alcohol abuse which improved with HS treatment and showed significant increase as compared with both control and alcohol treated groups. Serum kidney markers (urea, creatinine and uric acid) were increased in alcohol abuse and only creatinine and uric acid nearly returned to normal levels with HS treatment while urea level remains high. Serum glucose was increased significantly in alcohol abuse and significantly decreased in group 3 (HS treated) and group 4 (HS + ethanol). Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherogenic index were increased significantly while HDL-C was significantly reduced in alcohol abuse. HS treatment resulted in significant increase in HDL-C and therefore decreased atherogenic index in both group 3 and group 4 which indicated protective effect of HS for coronary heart diseases. These results lead to the conclusion that the use of HS against alcohol toxicity in male albino rats caused partial protection for different body systems.
1,3-beta-D-Glucan is a natural polysaccharide derived from the cell walls of bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevsiae with immunoenhancing and potent antioxidant effects. This study investigated the pathways through which beta-glucan gavage treatment (50mg/kg) exerts its effect on radiation-induced oxidative damage in male rats. Beta-glucan was given orally to male rats; 3 hours post gamma-irradiation at dose 5Gy, for 10 and 20 days post-irradiation level were assayed, being remarkable indicators in cell oxidative stress. Results pointed out that irradiation at 5Gy significantly depressed all blood parameters, such as erythrocytes count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrit value (Hct), total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, blood glutathione (GSH) level and conversely elevated level of serum ascorbyl radical (AsR), product of lipid peroxidation (MDA melanodialdehyde), triglycerides and cholesterol. Total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, RBCs, Hb, Hct, blood GSH and serum MDA of irradiated animals receiving beta-glucan administration were exhibited significant differences compared to the irradiated group. Marrow count and the percentage of viability and spleenocytes viability were also significantly decreased. Beta-glucan treatment accelerates recovery of cell damage induced by ionizing irradiation through its potential immune-enhancing activity and free radical scavenging ability that is partially mediated through stimulation of immunohaematological system thus could play a role in regulating irradiation complications
Kamel Ismail, Zeinab Mohamed; Morcos, Mary Attia; Eldin Mohammad, Mohammad Deiaa; Gamal Aboulkhair, Alshaymaa
Background and Objectives: Depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders. Endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) could replace damaged Hippocampal neurons in depression. This work was planned to evaluate Rhodiola rosea (Rr) extract possible role in stimulation of NSCs proliferation and in depression improvement. Methods and Results: Thirty adult male albino rats were divided into three groups; control, untreated depressed model and Rr model. After depression induction by chronic mild stress, rats received Rr extract 1.5 g/kg/day for three weeks. The sucrose preference test (SP) was done before, after depression induction and 3 weeks after supplementation of Rr. The brain was removed and processed for H&E and immunohistochemical staining for caspase 3, glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Rr group revealed improved sucrose preference, increased undamaged neurons and decreased dark neurons. Moreover, Caspase 3 +ve cells were not detected, GFAP +ve cells increased and PCNA +ve cells were detected only in Rr group. Conclusions: This work points to the role of Rr in depression improvement and in stimulation of NSCs proliferation. PMID:25473444
Shadia Ali Radwan; Samia Mohamed Sakr; Mohamed Salah Al-Shinnawy and Enas Saleh Abdel-Bakey
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aging and anti-aging hormones on the kidney, the thyroid and the testis of aged male albino rats from the physiological and histological points of view. Material & Methods Thirty five male rats were used in the present study. They were allocated into five groups. The first group (5months old) served as control group and the other remaining groups are (18 months old). The second group 1 ml/kg b.w. corn oil intramuscular injection thro...
This work: aimed to investigate the protective effect of carnitine (3-hydroxy-4-N-trimethyl amino butyric acid) on the contents of total protein, albumin, glucose and lipid peroxides as malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum, in addition to liver glycogen and lipid peroxides content 1, 2, 4 weeks after exposure of rats to a collective dose of 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation and / or lead treatment. Adult male rats received lead (50 mg/kg body weight) and / or exposed to fractionated dose (4 Gy) of gamma irradiation delivered as 0.5 Gy twice weekly for four weeks. Results of the present study revealed that fractionated whole body gamma irradiation and / or lead administration induced cellular damage manifested by a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin, and a significant increase in serum glucose and MDA content as well as significant increase in liver glycogen and MDA. Administration of carnitine (200 mg/kg b.wt.) before lead and / or gamma irradiation, has significantly ameliorated the observed changes, indicating the prophylactic action of carnitine on lead and / or irradiation toxicity
Borax (sod-borate) is a toxic compound that is implicated daily to environmental pollutant, so occupational exposure leading to adverse effects on functions of some organs causing their damage as nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and testicular atrophy . In particularly, kidney is the most organ that is affected by borax exposure due to continuous exposure with slow rate of excretion leading to accumulation in the renal tissue. Supplementation with high potent antioxidant grape seed extract may alleviate the worse damage effects induced in the kidney as a result of continual exposure of borax in our daily life. The current study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract on renal injury of male albino rats intoxicated with sod-borate. Twenty eight male albino rats were classified to 4 groups(GI and II and III and IV).GI served as a control, group GII was a group intoxicated with sod-borate for 45 days, where as rats in GIII supplemented with GSE beside sod-borate for 45 days , GIV was a group supplemented with GSE only. Serum and kidney samples were collected for biochemical, histopathological and DNA examinations. Significant elevation in the levels of blood urea and creatinine in GII were observed when compared to control group(GI). Significant decline were prominent in biochemical kidney functions when intoxicated group supplemented with GSE(GIII) , where as non significant changes were observed between control group and group supplemented with GSE only (GIV). Significant increase in both cytokines TNF-? and IL-6 was observed in group intoxicated with sod-borate(GII) when compared to control rats(GI). Oral supplementation with high potent antioxidant GSE (GIII) caused alleviation in the kidney injury leading to the reduction of both pro-inflammatory mediator cytokines TNF-? and IL-6. DNA% fragment migration showed that worse significant migration of DNA fragements were observed in toxicated group(GII) followed by increase in tail length that was evaluated by a fluorescence microscope, but supplementation with GSE(GIII) caused significant improvement with reduction in the percentage of DNA fragements migration contributing to renal tissue recovery. Corticosteroid levels were elevated in intoxicated group(GII) when compared to control group(GI), whereas significant reduction in the level of corticosteroid were observed when intoxicated rats were supplemented with GSE(GIII). Histopathological examination showed that orally administration with sod-borate induced worse alteration with sever damage in renal tissue when compared to control. Supplementation with GSE to intoxicated group resulted in improvement in the damaged renal tissue with mild congestion when compared to intoxicated group . No histological structure alteration were observed between control group and supplemented group with GSE only. The present work concluded that GSE may act as a natural therapeutic agent to alleviate and neutralize the nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by Sod-borate
The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective role of cinnamon; a spice rich in eugenol, cinnamic acid and cinnamic aldehyde, against tissue injuries induced by gamma irradiation. Moreover, the effect of time of cinnamon aqueous extact (aq.extr).administration was evaluated. Cinnamon aq.extr. (200 mg/Kg body weight) was administered to male albino rats via gavages during 15 successive days or 40 successive days before whole body exposure to gamma rays (3Gy). The animals were sacrificed the 3rd day post-irradiation. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cinnamon aq.extr. during 15 successive days or 40 successive days before irradiation has significantly attenuated hepatic and cardiac tissue injuries. Necrosis, apoptosis, cell death and rupture of cell membrane in both tissues were less severe. However, the protection was better when cinnamon aq.extr.was administered for 40 successive days before irradiation. It could be concluded that taking adequate amount of cinnamon aq.extr. for a long time would protect hepatic and cardiac tissues from radiation-induced damage
Ehsan H.Hassan *, Nabil Abdel Mageed ** Nagwa AbdelWahaab
Full Text Available Background: Fructus Schizandrae Sinensis bail, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to lower the elevated serum level of liver enzymes of patients suffering from chronic active hepatitis. A synthetic derivative compound of Schisandrian, Dimethyl Diphenyl Bicarboxylate (DDB is now used widely in clinical fields as a hepatoprotective drug. Thus it is important to know whether DDB has a beneficial effect on damaged liver or not. Objective: To evaluate the protective effect of DDB on induced liver tissue injury in rats. Design: Experimental study. Setting: National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute. The study was conducted from October (2004 to February (2005. Materials and methods: 120 male albino rats aged 6-8 weeks, weight 150-200g were grouped in six groups, 20 rats per group. Group 1 received food and water only, group 2 received food, water and DDB intragastric 6mg/kg daily for 12 weeks, group 3 received 20% ethanol instead of water, group 4 received 20% ethanol instead of water plus DDB, group 5 received thioacetamide (TAA in a dose of 200mg/kg body weight intraperitoneal injection, group 6 received thioacetamide plus DDB at the same dose of the above group. At the end of the trial, blood samples were taken from all groups for biochemical analysis. Liver tissue excised from each rat was fixed in 10% neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin, and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, as well as Masson's trichome stain, for evaluation of hepatic injury and/or fibrosis. Results: Statistical elevation of serum hepatic enzymes was noticed in rats received alcohol, Thioacetamide and alcohol + DDB (groups III, V and IV respectively compared to the corresponding control (P= 0.000. On the other hand, administration of DDB to TAA treated group (group VI induced significant improvement of liver function tests compared to other groups (P= 0.000. Histopathologically, the control livers showed normal lobular architecture without any pathological changes. Liver sections of animals administered alcohol, TAA respectively showed chronic inflammatory reaction, fat accumulation, hepatic parenchymal necrosis and/or hepatic fibrosis. Administration of DDB resulted in improvement of the pathological changes induced by TAA (group VI, but not that induced by alcohol (group IV. Conclusion: Our results revealed that DDB has antitoxic effect against TAA and ameliorates the dangerous effect on the liver parenchyma, while it has no beneficial effect on alcoholic liver disease.
Darwish, Inas E; Maklad, Hala M; Diab, Iman H
Venlafaxine is an antidepressant of choice, whose effectiveness could be modified by a commonly used medicinal plant and nutrient. The current study had evaluated the barley extract (1 g/kg) when compared to or combined to venlafaxine (32 mg/kg) in a rat stress model. The present study was conducted on 40 male Wister albino rats; divided to five groups. Four groups were subjected to social chronic mild stress. Drugs or saline were orally daily administered one week before stress induction and...
Garlic extract has various medical effects on the treatment of many diseases as hypertension, atherosclerosis, inflammation and diabetes. The alteration of the biochemical parameters in blood serum of irradiated rats may play an important role in determining the pathogenesis of radiation exposure. Many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by reactive free radicals. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of garlic against gamma irradiation (5Gy) induced biochemical disorders in rats. Samples were collected at 1, 7 and 14 days post-irradiation. Lipid peroxide content (malondialdehyde), cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, fatty acids, glucose, insulin, glycogen, haemoglobin, ferritin andiron were estimated.Garlic was orally administered to rats (100 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days before exposure to single dose of gamma irradiation at dose level 5 Gy. The data revealed significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxide, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fatty acids, insulin, glucose and iron accompanied with significant decrease in the levels of HDL-cholesterol, glycogen, haemoglobin and ferritin due to radiation exposure. Administration of garlic alone to the rats caused nonsignificant changes in the estimated parameters indicating its safe use, but the treatment with garlic to rats before radiation exposure ameliorated the changes induced by gamma irradiation and tended to normalize their levels.It could be concluded that garlic administratiould be concluded that garlic administration may has a beneficial role in restoring the biochemical disorders induced by 5 Gy gamma irradiation
A. E. Bawazir
Full Text Available Olive oil is an important source of mono-unsaturated fat and a prime component of the Mediterranean diet. The beneficial health effects of olive oil are due to both its high content of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and its high content of anti-oxidative substances. The objective of this study was to investigate the basis for the epidemiological information relating to the health benefits associated with the consumption of ex-tra-virgin olive oil (EVOO. The effect of olive oil on norepinephrine (NE, dopamine (DA, serotonin (5-HT and gamm-aminobutyric acid (GABA con-tents in different brain regions and histological structure of liver and kindey of male albino rats was studied. The chronic administration of olive oil (7.5 mg/kg body wt. caused a significant increase in norepinephrine (NE, dopamine (DA , serotonin (5-HT and gamm-aminobutyric acid (GABA con-tent in different brain regions (Cerebellum, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, brain steam and hip-pocampus of male albino rats. The increase in NE, DA, 5-HT, and GABA content in the different CNS areas of male albino rat may be due to the inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin binding which plays an important role in the release of these neurotransmitters. The results, also, revealed that urea and creatinne con-centrations in rats with oral administration with olive oil were decreased. Meanwhile, the activities of the enzymes AsT, AlT and ALP were elevated. The pre-sent results indicated that there is no change in tis-sues of kidney after treated with virgin olive oil. Olive oil may potentially be safe for use as a sedative drug. improvement also led to the reductions in risk of Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases.
Al-Hazmi, Mansour A; Rawi, Sayed M; Arafa, Nadia Ms; Wagas, Abeer; Montasser, Ayat Os
The study determined the maximum intraperitoneal (ip) scopolamine dose inducing memory impairment in rats (2 mg/kg) compared to 0.5 or 1 mg/kg dose. The effect reflected by significant increase from normal in the latency time required for rats to find the hidden platform in water maze task and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. The dose-related histopathological effect via the hemorrhage, vacuolation and gliosis in cortex and hippocampus is assessed. Then the study investigated the potency of Panax ginseng root extract on scopolamine cognitive dysfunction rat model compared to memantine hydrochloride as reference Food and Drug Administration approved. Ginseng extract was administered at dose 100 or 200 mg/kg/day and memantine at 20 mg/kg/day orally for 2 weeks. All treatments showed improvement in the water maze task, however, ginseng (200 mg/kg) group acquired the advantage without statistical difference control. Scopolamine (2 mg/kg ip) group showed significant increase in AChE reactivity and glutamate level and reduced monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin) and ?-aminobutyric acid contents in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Ginseng extract in a dose-dependent manner appears effective as memantine and can improve memory impairment through the retrieved homeostasis via neurotransmitter levels and AChE activities in rat brain areas with partial effect on the histological feature of the brain tissue. PMID:23406953
The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of carbonated beverage (colourless or black coloured drinks) on arterial blood gases, kidney function, bone mineral density (BMD), glucose and insulin. The rats were divided into three groups; ten rats per each group. Group (I) used as control, group (II) rats supplemented with colourless carbonated beverage (10 ml /100 ml water) and group (III) rats supplemented with black coloured carbonated beverage (10 ml /100 ml water) for three months. The arterial blood gases were evaluated by measuring ph PO2, , PCO2, , H+ a nd HCO3-. Rats receiving the coloured drinks showed high significant increase in ph while PO2 showed very high significant decrease in both groups. PCO2 showed high significant decrease in groups (II) and (III) while H+ showed high significant decrease in group (III) only. HCO3- showed high significant increase in group III. All these changes were related to carbonic acid dissolved in water and the increased ph lead to alkalinity of the blood and it is inversely proportional to the number of hydrogen ions (H+). Non-significant changes were observed in sodium ions while potassium ions showed significant increase in group (II) and high significant increase in group (III). The level of urea showed high and very high significant increase in groups (II) and (III), respectively. Creatinine level showed non-signiftively. Creatinine level showed non-significant increase in group (III). The histopathology changes were observed in kidney tissues in rats of groups (II) and (III). From these results, it appears that black coloured beverage can increase the risk of kidney problems more than colourless beverages. Ca+ and inorganic phosphorous levels showed non- significant change except Ca ions showed a significant decrease in rats of group (III). The acidity of carbonated beverage leads to weak bones by promoting the loss of calcium. The decrease of bone mineral density was more pronounced in some parts of femur of rats receiving black colour carbonated beverage than rats receiving colourless carbonated beverage. The black colour beverages have caffeine which may be the reason for decreasing bone mineral density. Very high significant increase was recorded in glucose level in groups (II) and (III) while insulin was decreased significantly in group (II), and very high significant decrease in group (III) was observed which lead to diabetes mellitus. It could be concluded that carbonic acid found in carbonated beverages may lead to the alkalinity of the blood which reflect metabolic problem. Cola beverages can increase the risk of kidney problems more than non-cola sodas. Cola beverages consumption may have adverse effects on bone mineral density and furthermore, cola beverages consumption is a significant risk factor for devolving of metabolic syndrome such as insulin resistance that might result in diabetes
The objective of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of co-oral administration of vitamin B12 with vitamin C against radiation induced haematological and biochemical alterations in male albino rats. Male albino rats were divided into six groups (n=8). Group 1: rats were kept as control, Group 2; rats received orally vita-min B12 (2000?gkg-1). Group 3; rats received Vitamin B12 with Vitamin C (500mgkg-1). Group 4; rats whole body exposed to 7Gy of gamma rays. Group 5; rats received vitamin B12 for 21 successive days before irradiation. Group 6; rats received Vitamin B12 with Vitamin C for 21 successive days before irradiation. Animals were sacrificed the third day post irradiation. The oral administration of Vitamin B12 with or with-out Vitamin C enhanced the recovery from radiation-induced haemopoietic injury and some biochemical changes demonstrated by a significant increase (p0.05>) of WBCs, RBCs and Platelets count, Hb content, Hct%, serum erythropoietin and iron levels and a significant reduction (p0.05>) of serum homocysteine level (Hcy), creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities compared to their respective values in irradiated rats. Improvement of oxidative stress in heart and spleen tissues denoted by a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (MDA) and a significant increase in glutathione (GSH) content was recorded aThe co-oral administration of vitamin B12 with vitamin C has no effect on the prophylactic efficacy of vitamin B12
The consumption of foods and beverages containing additives has intensely increased over the past decades. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the main flavor enhancer that can be consumed in high concentrations. Also, human exposure to ionizing radiation (RAD) has become inevitable with its vast application in diagnosis and industry. Humans are frequently exposed to RAD and MSG from various food additives, therapeutic treatments and the environment. Although the use of additives and exposure to RAD in therapeutic treatments are believed to be relatively safe, their combined effects remain unclear. The present study proposed to investigate neurotoxic potentials of exposure to MSG and/or RAD on oxidative stress, neurotransmitters disturbance and metabolic disorders in the rats brain tissue. MSG was supplemented daily by gavages to rats at a dose of 450 mg/Kg bwt/day (equivalent to 5 g/day human consumption) for 7 days pre- and 21 days post-exposure to whole body gamma rays at doses of 2 Gy/week up to a total dose of 8 Gy. Exposure to MSG and/or RAD -induced oxidative stress, neurotransmitters disturbance and metabolic disorders. Oxidative stress was manifested by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione content. The administration of MSG daily during exposure to gamma radiation has potentiated oxidative stress regarding each sineatment. MSG-exposure induced a highly significant decrease of serotonin (P<0.01) and a slight non significant increase (P>0.05) of aspartic and glutamic acids levels while in RAD- group the decrease of serotonin and the increase of amino acids were very highly significant (P<0.001). MSG + RAD-exposure had potentiated the decrease of serotonin and produced an additive effect on the increase of neurotransmitters amino acids. MSG as well as RAD-exposure increased (P<0.05) glucose and insulin levels with no effect on insulin resistance and their co-administration produces an additive effect compared to each single treatment. Regarding lipid profile, MSG as well as RAD-exposure induced hyperlipidaemia more noticeable in case of irradiation. Their co-administration had potentiated hyperlipidaemia compared to each single treatment. It is concluded that exposure to MSG together with RAD increased oxidative stress and neurotransmitter alteration in the brain and the risk of metabolic syndrome. It is thus recommended to limit the intake of MSG when human are at risk of overexposure to ionizing radiation.
The oral administration of 1/5 LD50 of deltamethrin for 15 days resulted in an increase in Na+ and Ca++ ions concentrations, whereas it resulted in significant decreases in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamin (DA) contents in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pans + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of adult male albino rats at most time intervals. Deltamethrin also resulted in significant decreases of serum leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels in adult male albino rats. It could be concluded from the present results that deltamethrin resulted in significant increases in Na+ and Ca++ ions concentration. This observation might be due, in part, to an increase of the intracellular Na+ flow through its binding to Na+ ions channels and prolonging the opening time. Also, deltamethrin may stimulate the activity of protein kinase C/phosphoinositide that results in an increase of the intracellular concentrations ofinositol I, 4, 5-triphosphate (IPS) and free Ca++ ions. The increment in intracellular Ca+ ions led to an increase in the release of neurotransmitters by exocytosis, thai eventually decreased the contents of NE and DA in pre-synaptic cells. It is also clear that deltamethrin may act on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. The decrement in DA content in hypothalamus led to decrease in the release of leutinizing ho decrease in the release of leutinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) which resulted in decreasing in LH and testosterone levels in serum of the treated rats
Exposure to ionizing radiation has become frequent with its vast applications in diagnosis, treatment and industry rather than possible environmental pollution with radiation. The animals of this study were allocated into three groups, control group, irradiated group (5 Gy one shot) and hawthorn treated post-irradiation group. Exposure to radiation was implicated with hematological suppression in all hematological parameters tested red blood cells count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrit percentage (HCT) and white blood cells count (WBCs). Radiation exposure caused alteration of lipid metabolism leading to increased total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) and decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL). In addition, liver enzymes were also elevated, while serum albumin was diminished referring to liver dysfunction. The male reproductive hormone (testosterone) was severely inhibited along with glutathione. Administration of extraction of Crategous oxinatha (hawthorn) with a dose of 500 g/kg b.w. orally for consecutive 15 days post-irradiation showed significant ameliorating effects on both hematological and biochemical parameters leading to the suggestion of using hawthorn as food additive in relatively high amount
After fen valerate and/or Salvia aegyptiaca administration to male albino rats, fenvalerate caused a reduction in liver enzymes activity in liver homogenate with a percent change recording -24.1, -21.94 and-30.46 %, after 7 days, for ALT, AST and ALP, respectively .. Moreover, it increased the total protein and albumin at the same period. On day 7, fenvalerate increased the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP by 351. 24, 164.60 and 119.78%, respectively. On the contrary, fenvalerate reduced the serum levels of total protein and albumin. Significant increase was observed in both creatinine (58.62%) and blood urea (47.41 %) after 7 days, whereas, serum T3 and T4 recorded a percentage change of -3.0.18 and -51.45%, respectively. An increase in GABA content in 7 brain areas was noticed after daily oral administration of fenvalerate, showing that GABA content in 'the cortex was the most affected recording, 191.43% change from control on the 7th day. Daily oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight of Salvia aegyptiaca extract alone or after fenvalerate caused a gradual decrease in ALT, AST and ALP enzyme activity as well as in total protein and albumin content in both liver homogenate and serum, on the 7th day. Salvia extract decreased serum creatinine and blood urea throughout the experimental period. No statistically significant changes in T3 and T4 levels were observed in animals that received salvia extract alone. On the other haived salvia extract alone. On the other hand, salvia improved T3 and T4 levels after it was delivered post fenvalerate administration, bringing the hormonal levels near to that of control. Moreover, salvia extract caused a significant decrease in GABA content throughout the experimental period. However, animals that received combined treatment (fenvalerate + salvia) showed that salvia reduced the elevation that occurred in GABA content as a result of fenvalerate administration in all brain areas under investigation. From the current investigation, it could be recommended that, the duration of exposure as well as the given dose have to be planned carefully if salvia has to be taken as a potential herb for treatment. Further studies have to be undertaken to better elucidate the mode of action of salvia and to extract compounds with potential drug treatment
The present study was conducted to investigate the possibility of whether the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) has a protective and therapeutic effect on the toxicity and distribution of 14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (cerebellum, striatum, cerebral cortex) of adult male albino rats for determination of distribution of 14C-CCl4 and monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5- HT)) and also estimation of serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of 14C-CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of counted 14C in all tested brain areas all over the experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 1'4C-CCl4 injection resulted in a significant reduction (P14C in tested areas. The maximum reduction was observed in cerebral cortex on 1st day (-40.91%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4 . The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period. This may be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. Data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4 .
Soujanya, S.; Lakshman, M.; Kumar, A. Anaad; Reddy, A. Gopala
In the present study, the effects of oral administration of imidacloprid for 4 weeks on serum biochemical, oxidative stress, histopathological and ultrastructural alterations were assessed in the liver of male rats. This study also aimed to investigate whether vitamin C could protect against the imidacloprid-induced oxidative stress. Forty-eight male Sprague dawley rats were divided into four groups of 12 animals each. Group 1 served as the control, while groups 2 and 4 were administered with...
This investigation aimed to study the effects of aflatoxins B1+G1 mixture mainly on total body water (TBW) and on total body solids (TBS) of male albino rats. Some blood components and some reproductive characteristic were also taken into consideration. Two groups, each of 8 male rats were fed the same ration. Rats of one group had been individually ingested daily with a dose of 22 ?g B1 plus 22 ?g G1 for 15 successive weeks. The obtained results showed that aflatoxin administration caused: 1- A decrease in final body weight (FBW), TBW (P<0.01) and TBS (P<0.05). 2- A decrease in serum total proteins (P<0.01), albumin (P<0.05), globulin (P<0.05), glucose (P<0.05) and increase in serum cholesterol, GOT and GPT (P<0.05) activities. 3- A decrease in each of the number of effective matings of males and delivery percentages of females mated with treated males.1 tab
Vijay P.; Yeshwanth R; Bairy K
Objective: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on intratesticular testosterone and lactic dehydrogenase level in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were treated with sodium valproate and sacrificed at the end of the 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week, after the last exposure to sodium valproate. The testes were removed, weighed and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P< 0.001) reduced...
Full Text Available A preliminary study to evaluate if long term treatment of Methanol Sub-Fraction (MSF of the seeds of Carica papaya as a male contraceptive would develop neoplastic lesions in vital organs was carried out in albino rats at 50, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 b.wt. day-1 for a period of 24 months, with a minimum dose being one therapeutic dose. Pre-terminal deaths, 45% in males and 48% in females, well within the acceptance limit, were reported to be age related and not treatment related, resulted due to general/respiratory/gastrointestinal/ urogenital disorders in both males and females of control and treated animals. Skin peeling, withering of fur leaving skin patches were observed in few of the animals after 18 months of treatment. Absence of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymis was evident in all the treated animals. No major structural changes compared to control were evident in the vital organs. Serum testosterone, serum electrolytes, tissue biochemical, hematology and clinical chemistry were comparable to those of control animals, suggesting no adverse effect of the test substance following long term treatment. The results provided evidence that the methanol sub-fraction of the seeds of Carica papaya does not lead any development of neoplastic lesion following life term treatment for 24 months in rats and is safe enough to be permitted for further trials as a male contraceptive.
Full Text Available Abhrak bhasma is a widely used Ayurvedic drug in various diseases including hepatotoxicity. In the present study, protective effect of graded doses (10, 20, 30 and 40mg/kg body wt of abhrak bhasma and its silica control, SiO2 was studied against CCl4 induced liver and kidney damage in male albino rats during single dose experimental schedule for 24 hrs. Administration of CCl4 (3.0ml/ kg body wt induced fatty necrosis in hepatic cells without affecting kidney histology. Treatment of abhrak bhasma showed dose dependent protection against CCl4 induced liver damage by free radical scavenging activity. Silica in SiO2 form also positively influences liver fatty degeneration induced by single dose of CCl4 but is associated with some hepatocytes hypertrophy.
Echinaceae purpurea (EP) is one of the most popular herbal medicines used for many years as a panacea for a variety of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the modulator role of Echinacea purpurea (EP) in some radiation-induced biological damage. Male albino rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 3 Gy delivered as a single shot dose. EP was administered to rats (50 mg/kg body weight) via gavages during four weeks either pre- or post-irradiation. Histological investigations in the liver of irradiated rats revealed degeneration of portal vein area, necrotic hepatic cells and pyknotic nuclei, vacuolated cytoplasm. Testis tissues showed necrotic spermatogenic, degenerated interstitial cells and severe atrophid spermatogonia. The histopathological changes in both tissues were associated with severe oxidative stress denoted by an increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level and a decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities as well as glutathione (GSH) content. Alteration in serum lipid profile, glucose level, transaminase activities and testosterone level were also recorded. Administration of EP to rats either pre- or post-irradiation has significantly attenuated radiation-induced oxidative stress which was associated with significant regeneration of liver and testis tissues. It could be concluded that EP may act as a prophylactic as well as a therapeutic agent, however, its role was more pronounced when administered before irradiation which could be attributed to its free radicals scavenging activities.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on intratesticular testosterone and lactic dehydrogenase level in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 weeks old were treated with sodium valproate and sacrificed at the end of the 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week, after the last exposure to sodium valproate. The testes were removed, weighed and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P< 0.001 reduced in 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg treated rats. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level was significantly (P< 0.001 increased by valproate in a time dependent manner. Conclusion: Valproate causes reversible change in intratesticular testosterone and LDH level.
In mammals most of the physiological and behavioral systems such as sleep-wake cycle, cardiovascular activity, endocrine system, blood pressure, body temperature and hepatic metabolism are regulated by the circadian clock. The aim of the present work was to investigate the disturbances induced after gamma irradiation on the metabolic diurnal rhythm and the role of ?-alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in preventing/or decreasing these disorders in rat. Male Swiss albino rats were divided into 4 groups, one of which served as a normal control group, the second group was exposed to a single whole body gamma radiation dose of 6Gy, the third group was treated by gavage with ALA 100 mg/kg/day for 20 days and the fourth one was orally administered with ALA 100 mg/kg/day for 20 days before whole body gamma radiation at a dose of 6Gy. Rats were irradiated at 10 am and sacrificed at 11 am, 12 pm, 1 pm and 2 pm and then the biochemical analyses were performed. The results showed a significant increase in the level of lipid peroxidation products (MDA) at all time intervals. A significant increase was recorded also in the amount of free radicals at 11 am and 2 pm, and pyruvic acid level at 12 pm and 2 pm. A significant reduction of glutathione level (GSH) was recorded at 12 pm, 1 pm and 2 pm in the liver of the irradiated rats. Furthermore, a significant increase was registered in blood glucose level and blood aminotransferase activities (AST, ALT) in irradiated rats. Administration ofhas significantly attenuated the radiation induced oxidative damage. It could be concluded that the biochemical changes induced by whole body gamma irradiation of rats are dependent on the circadian cycle. Further investigations are necessary to understand these complicated relations.
Nowadays, increasing attention has been given to the roles of free radicals generated through oxidative stres. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidative role lycopene extracted from tomato processing wastes or pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male rats were adminstered lycopene by a daily intragastric gavage(0.24mg/rat/day) or supplemented in a standard casein diet (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) reduced ghutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) were determined in liver homogenate, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). asparate aminotransferase (AST), toral protein, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio were investigated 2 and 13 days post irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in MDA, ALT,AST, albumin levels and A/G ratio. Meanwhile, radiation exposure caused significant reduction in weight gain, SOD activity, GSH, total protein and globulin levels
The Antioxidant properties of the date palm fruit; Phoenix dactylifera-L in mitigation of cellular injury following free radicals release by ionizing radiation has been investigated. Forty-eight male albino rats divided equally into 6 groups were used in this study. Group 1 (G.1) acted as control, G.2 received date extract orally (4 ml/ kg/ day) for 21 days, G.3 was exposed to a single dose of gamma irradiation (6 Gy), G.4 received date extract orally at an identical dose and duration to G.2 and irradiation to G.3, G.5 received the daily date extract for 7 days post irradiation and G.6 received the daily date extract for 21 days before and for 7 days after irradiation. Heart tissue was examined histologically and biochemical testing for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was performed for each rat group. Data from the investigation showed that gamma irradiation caused histopathological damage to the heart tissue and disturbances in most parameters related to cardiac function. Administration of date extracts pre-irradiation provided evidence of a potential protective effect against irradiation hazard
Omega-3 fatty acids play a critical role in the development and function of the reproductive and central nervous systems. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels associated with histopathologic changes induced by gamma irradiation in the testis and brain of male albino rats. Rats were whole body exposed to radiation at a single dose of 3 Gy. Omega-3 fatty acids (0.4 gm/kg b wt/day) were given to rats, by gavages, for 15 consecutive days before irradiation and for 15 days after irradiation. Rats were sacrificed one and 15 days post irradiation .Biochemical analysis of testis and cerebral cortex samples showed that irradiation induced a significant increase in xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) and a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT).Histological examination of testis and cerebral cortex tissues showed spermatogonia degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis in the testis and neurons cell bodies with ill defined and even ruptured cell membrane and damaged blood capillaries in the cerebral cortex. Omega-3 administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the levels of MDA, and XO, and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with amelit enzymes, which was associated with amelioration of the histological injury markers in both testis and cerebral cortex. It could be postulated that omega-3 fatty acids as a multi-functional dietary supplement could exert a modulatory role in radiation- induced testis and cerebral cortex biochemical and histological changes through its antioxidant properties.
Aboul Ezz, Heba S; Khadrawy, Yasser A; Mourad, Iman M
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical used on a wide range in industry. Several studies reported that BPA may cause cardiovascular disorders in humans and animals. The present study aims to investigate the effect of BPA on the heart of adult male rats. The rats received a daily oral administration of BPA (25 mg/kg for 6 weeks and 10 mg/kg for 6 and 10 weeks). It was found that BPA at the two studied doses induced a significant increase in malondialdehyde, and a significant decrease in catalase after 6 weeks. Moreover, a significant decrease in reduced glutathione and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity was observed after treatment with the two doses of BPA throughout the studied time intervals. The two doses (25 and 10 mg/kg) resulted in a significant decrease in nitric oxide (NO) levels after 6 and 10 weeks, respectively. A significant increase in body weight gain occurred in all animals after BPA treatment. These results suggest that BPA has cardiotoxic effects which are mediated by the oxidative stress resulting from the overproduction of free radicals, the deficiency of NO and the inhibition of AchE leading to cholinergic activation. The obesity promoting effect of BPA may also participate in the observed cardiovascular disturbances. PMID:24337652
Oral administration of single doses of organo chlorine insecticide endrin to rats at levels of 10, 30 and 50 % of the LD50 each for 2, 4, 6 and 8 days was employed to evaluate its dose dependent and toxic effect on triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) levels and some amino acids contents.Treatment with 10% LD50 of endrin did not induce any significant change in serum T3 or T4 level in male rats along the experimental period. Endrin induced significant increases in T3 and T4 levels at doses of 30 and 50% on days 2 and 4. At the same doses, endrin induced significant decreases in T3 and T4 levels on day 6. On day 8, the dose 30% resulted in a decrease in T4 level, and the dose 50% decreased the levels of T3 and T4.. Endrin resulted in significant alterations in amino acids contents and the most effect was noticed on days 6 and 8 at the three selected doses.
An Electron Microscopic Study of the Antifertility Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in Male Albino Rats Estudio de Microscopía Electrónica del Potencial Antifertilidad del Romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) en Ratas Macho Albinas
Salah El-din, Rania A.; Abd El-Rahman El-Shahat; Rasha Ahmed Elmansy
The present work was aimed at studying the antifertility potential of the commonly used herb, rosemary in the male albino rats using electron microscopy as the method of investigation. Ethanolic extract of the rosmary prepared and administered orally in two different doses for a period of three months to the animals. At the end of the experiment animals were sacrificed and testes removed. Sections for the electrone microscopy prepared and changes were observed. The present results showed evid...
The present study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) on distribution of14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (hippocampus, brain stem and hypothalamus) and its toxicity using the determination of monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT)) as well as estimation of serum nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of14C-CCl4 (1 ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of 14C amount in all tested brain areas during experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 14C-CCl4 treatment resulted in a significant reduction (P14C amount in areas under investigation. The maximum reduction was recorded in hypothalamus on 3rd day (-49.28%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4. The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period, which might be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. The datager property of its constituents. The data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4.
Arunkumar, R.; Vinayak Meti; Ruckmani, A.; Shobita Devi
Background: Statins are hypocholestrolemic agents used in atherosclerotic vascular disorders. They act by inhibiting hepatic hypoxanthine methyl glutaryl CoA reductase enzyme. They are reported to cause hyperglycemia as an important adverse event. This study was conducted to investigate atorvastatin induced blood sugar changes in Wistar, albino, male rats and the influence of vitamin D on the blood sugar changes. Methods: Forty, 12 weeks old male, Wistar albino rats, were selected and rand...
Abeer M. Waggas
Full Text Available In this study, the neuroprotective effect of the extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale was investigated against MSG-induced neurotoxicity of male albino rat. The daily dose (4 mg kg-1 b.wt. i.p. injection of pure monosodium glutamate (MSG for 30 days and subsequent withdrawal caused a significant decrease in epinephrine (E, norepinephrine (NE, dopamine (DA and serotonin (5-HT content all tested areas (cerebellum, brainstem, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus at most of the time intervals studied. This is may be due to activation of glutamate receptors, which led to increased the intracellular concentration of Ca+2 ions, so the release of neurotransmitters is increased and the content of monoamines is decreased. After the withdrawal, the decrease in monoamines levels remained in striatum, cerebral cortex and hypothalamus, this may be due to the region specific effect of monosodium glutamate. whereas, daily dose (100 mg kg-1 b.wt. i.p., injection of Ginger (Zingiber officinale root extract for 30 days and subsequent withdrawal caused a significant increased in epinephrine (E, norepinephrine (NE, dopamine (DA and serotonin (5-HT content all tested areas at most of the time intervals studied. This is may be due to inhibition of 5HT-3-receptor effects at the same time the extract blockade of Ca+2 channel, as result the release of neurotransmitter is decreased and the content is increased. After the extract withdrawal, the increase in monoamine levels remained in brainstem, striatum and hippocampus, this may be due to the region specific effect of the extract. The coadninisration of monosodium glutamate and ginger root extract caused increased in monoamine content in most of the tested brain areas at different time intervals. This is may be due to partly attributable to an antagonistic action of ginger root extracts on monosodium glutamate effect, so the monoamines content was increased. From these results, we can say that the ginger extract has a neuroprotective role against monosodium glutamate toxicity effect.
The failing heart represents an enormous clinical problem and is a major cause of death throughout the world. Hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress have been shown to contribute to heart failure. Squalene is a remarkable bioactive substance that belongs to a class of antioxidants called isoprenoids, which neutralize the harmful effect of excessive free radicals production in the body.The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of squalene against oxidative cardiac muscle damage induced by gamma irradiation.Rats were treated daily by gavage with 0.4 ml/kg squalene for 42 days before whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy and continued until animals were sacrificed 3 days post irradiation.Histological examination of cardiac muscles sections by using light and electron microscopes showed that exposure of rats to ionizing radiation has provoked a severe architecture damage such as necrotic nuclei, nuclei located at the periphery, alteration in chromatin distribution, ruptured cell and mitochondrial membranes, cristae of mitochondria disappeared, sticking mitochondria and ruptured myofibers. Structural and ultra-structural changes were associated with severe oxidative stress. Significant increase of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) (MDA) along with reduction in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalse (CAT), and glutathione content (GSH), were recorded.Treatment of rats with squalene hrecorded.Treatment of rats with squalene has significantly attenuated the radiation-induced oxidative damage and histopathological changes in cardiac muscle which was substantiated by a significant amelioration in the activity of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Furthermore, administration of squalene to rats has adjusted the radiation-induced increase in plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Based on these results, it could be concluded that squalene through its antioxidant properties might be capable of attenuating radiation-induced damage to cardiac muscles.
Shanmugam, K R; Ramakrishna, C H; Mallikarjuna, K; Reddy, K Sathyavelu
Superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, glutathione and uric acid levels were decreased and xanthine oxidase, glutathione-s-transferase activities were increased in alcohol treated (2 g/kg body weight, once daily for 30 days) group. However, treatment with ethanolic extract of ginger (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg body weight, po, once daily for 30 days) these parameters came to normalcy showing the antioxidant effect of ginger. The antioxidant compounds of ginger may modulate the oxidative stress parameters. The biochemical findings were supplemented by histopathological examination of the kidney. Severe congestion and degenerative changes in tubules in alcohol treated rats were restored by ginger extract treatment. The results confirm the renal protective effect of ginger in alcohol treated rats. PMID:20455323
Radiation poses a major currently irresolvable risk for human. Onion is a major source of dietary flavonoids. The present investigation was carried out to study the protective effects of treating rats with onion oil (150 mg/kg body weight) for consecutive 3 weeks against damages induced by whole body gamma irradiation (7 Gy). Exposure of rats to gamma irradiation caused a significant increase in levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides as well as activities of AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, uric acid and lipid peroxides. Exposure to gamma rays resulted in an increase in the mentioned parameters accompanied by a decrease in urea, total protein, albumin, glutathione content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. It could be concluded that onion oil capable of reducing the biological hazards induced by gamma irradiation
Talaat E.I. Abd-Rabo
Full Text Available Daily exposure to heat stress causes sustained elevation of blood pressure in rats. It is known that the renin-angiotensin system is activated during episodes of behavioral stress, and the purpose of this work was to assess the action of captopril in the development of stress induced hypertension in rats. Animals were divided into four groups. The first group served as a control, while the other groups were subjected to heat stress of 40C and high hamidity of 80% for 10 successive days. The second group was served as heat stress, while the third and the fourth groups were received low and high doses of captopril (0.7 & 1.4 mg/kg. b.wt., respectively. After 10 days of treatment, half of animals from each group were decapitated and brain, liver, muscle, heart and kidney were separated and analysed. The other half of animals were left for another 10 days without any additional treatment for recovery.The results revealed a significant decrease in total protein of liver, heart, kidney, total lipids of heart, muscle and brain and total cholesterol of liver. On the other hand, insignificant change was noticed in muscle and brain total protein. Similarly, AST and ALT activities were also within the normal values for all the organs examined.Results exhibited that renin-angiotensin system may be important in the development of stress-induced hypertension in rats.
Hassan H. A.* and EL-Gendy A. M
Liver disease appears to be increase. Part of this increase may be due to our frequent contact with chemicals and other environmental pollutants. The amount of medicne consumed has increased greatly which could be danger to the liver. The hepatoprotective flavonoid, silymarin (7.56 mg/Kg b. wt.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) (1% of diet) for 4 weeks were used to ameliorate the liver injury in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCL4 , single acute dose 4 ml/ Kg b. wt. of 50% v/v CC...
Proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract) possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation exposure and toxic sodium nitrites induced oxidative stress on the intestine and urinary bladder histologically and also to evaluate the possible protective role of proanthocyanidins. Seventy adult male albino rats, each weighing 95-105 g were used and divided into 7 groups as follows: The first group represents the control group. The second experimental group were exposed to 7 Gy gamma-rays as a single dose and sacrificed on the 7th day. The third experimental group received by a stomach tube daily 50 mg/kg b.wt of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The fourth experimental group received proanthocyanidins, Grape seed extracts (antioxidant) (100 mg/kg) body wt.) daily for seven days before irradiation and the continued for 14 days post irradiation. The fifth group of animals received grape seed extract after being exposed to gamma radiation for two weeks, while the sixth experimental group received the same antioxidant for seven days before and after received sodium nitrite (50 mg/kg) daily for 4 weeks. Finally, the seventh experimental groups was treated with the same antioxidant in same dose and time after received sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed on the end of each experimental duration. The results revealed that both gamma-radiation and sodium nitrite induced different histolog sodium nitrite induced different histological changes in the intestine and urinary bladder of irradiated and sodium nitrite received animals. The effect of gamma radiation exposure showed marked degeneration of intestinal villi, vaculation in the lining epithelium cells and karyolytic nuclei. In addition, using sodium nitrite lead to necrosis of intestinal glandular cells. The effect of gamma radiation on urinary bladder was presented by, hyperplasia and vaculation of mucosal epithelium, congestion of blood capillaries. Rats from nitrite group revealed activation of glandular epithelium. The animals were treated with proanthocyanidins, the tissues revealed histological structure almost similar to the control group. This histological observations were performed to evaluate the efficiency of proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract), through its antioxidant properties which might attenuate radiation or nitrite toxicity.
Meo, Sultan A.; Abdul M. Al-Drees; Sufia Husain; Muhammad M. Khan; Muhammad B. Imran
OBJECTIVES To investigate the effects of electromagnetic field radiation generated by mobile phones on serum testosterone levels in Wistar albino rats. METHODS This experimental interventional control study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period December 2006 to April 2008. A total of 34 male Albino rats [Wistar strain], 2 months of age, weighing 150-160 gm were used for the experiment. These an...
Hassan H. A.* and EL-Gendy A. M
Full Text Available Liver disease appears to be increase. Part of this increase may be due to our frequent contact with chemicals and other environmental pollutants. The amount of medicne consumed has increased greatly which could be danger to the liver. The hepatoprotective flavonoid, silymarin (7.56 mg/Kg b. wt. and ginger (Zingiber officinale (1% of diet for 4 weeks were used to ameliorate the liver injury in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCL4 , single acute dose 4 ml/ Kg b. wt. of 50% v/v CCL4 in olive oil, subcutaneous. The obtained results showed that CCL4 decreased serum and liver total protein and albumin. Also reduced glutathione content. The antioxidant enzymes; glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity decreased in the liver of CCL4 toxicity group. On the other hand, CCL4 toxicity increased serum and liver bilirubin, total lipid and total cholestertol levels. In addition, liver function (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver lipid peroxidation content showed significant increase in the CCL4 treated group. Previous parameters turned back to normal values in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats after treating with silymarin and/ or ginger for one month. Meanwhile, the most interesting effect was induced by a combination of silymarin and ginger. Hence, the present findings will provide a potential scope for future use of ginger for the treatment of liver disorders.
The omega-3 fatty acids are essential dietary nutrients, and one of their important roles is providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for growth and function of nervous tissue. Reduced level of DHA in the brain induce dramatic changes in brain function including changes in size of neurons as well as changes in learning and memory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids on ?-radiation-induced physiological changes in the brain cerebral hemispheres. Omega-3 fatty acids was supplemented daily by gavages to rats at a dose of 400 mg/ kg body wt for 7 days pre- and 21 days post-exposure to whole body fractionated gamma rays at doses of 2 Gy/week up to a total dose of 8 Gy. The results demonstrated that whole body ?-irradiation induced oxidative stress, de - creased the main polyunsaturated fatty acids; DHA and EPA, and induced neurotransmitters alteration in brain tissues. Oxidative stress was manifested by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Oxidative stress was accompanied by alterations in the level of the neurotransmitters manifested by a significant increase of glutamic and aspartic and a significant decrease of serotonin (5-HT) levels in brain cerebral hemispheres. Rats receiving fish oil 7 days before and 21 days after exposure to ?-radiation showed significant improvement in the levels of EPA and DHA associated with significant amelioration of oxidative stress and neurotransmitters alteration. It is concluded that fish oil protect the brain from radiation-induced physiological changes by protecting brain cellular membranes through counteracting the decrease of omega-3 fatty acids and minimizing oxidative stress
Aspirin, both in chronic and acute doses, led to a considerable decrease in percentage uptake of labelled iodine (Na131I) and serum protein-bound iodine by the thyroid gland whereas prostaglandins (PGs) did not exhibit any significant effect on both the parameters. Simultaneous administration of aspirin and PGs caused a significant decrease in the two parameters, and on withdrawal of aspirin from the diet the two parameters were restored to normal levels, thus suggesting that the effect of aspirin on thyroid is direct and reversible. Aspirin, both in acute and chronic doses, effected decrease in glycogen levels, in vivo and in vitro incorporation of [U-14C] glucose into glycogen, and glycogen synthetase activity in the liver of both fed, and fasting, rat. Prostaglandins, on the other hand, resulted in a significant increase in the three parameters, thus enhancing the rate of liver glycogenesis. Normal levels were restored when both aspirin and PGs were given together. Withdrawal of aspirin also restored normal hepatic glycogenesis. Significant reduction in the activities of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes, viz. glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase, phosphopyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase was observed due to chronic and acute administration of aspirin and PGs were devoid of any significant effect on gluconeogenic enzymes, thus ruling out the mediation of PGs. (auth.)ing out the mediation of PGs. (auth.)
Sherifa H. Salah
Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to evaluate the chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells of alloxanized diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of Cleome droserifolia (Sammo, Anastatica hierochuntica (Kafta, Juniperus phoencea (Araar and Hyphaene thebaica (Doum as well as their effects on blood glucose, liver and testes total soluble protein, DNA and RNA contents and also nucleases (RNAase and DNAase activity. The material and Methods: The study was performed in six groups. The first group was the normal healthy control; the second group was rats injected with alloxan (diabetic control. Every one of the other four groups (diabetic rats was ingested with each of the methanolic extracts of Kafta, Doum, Sammo and Araar (individually. The results: The results of chromosomal analysis showed that, diabetic rats had a highly significant increase of chromosomal aberrations compared to that of normal healthy control. Animals which treated with the four plants methanolic extracts showed significant improvements in the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations. In case of biochemical analysis, blood glucose level was significantly increased but immunoglobulins levels were decreased in diabetic albino rats. Diabetes increased serum total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL but serum HDL was decreased. RNA and DNA as well as inhibited the nucleases (RNAase and DNAase activity of both organs (liver and testes tissue. The conclusions: It is concluded that diabetes is much harmful in the animal body, whilst the induction of flavonoids extract (by methanol of Kafta, Somma, Araar and Doum reduced these harmful of diabetes.
Hassan S A El Dawi, Gamal S. Elgharabawy
Introduction:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on the structure of skeletal muscles in male albino rats and the possibility of recovery of any changes in the muscles. Drug used: Atorvastatin (Lipitor 20mg) tablets.The daily single oral dose was 1.6 mg /kg body weight. Experimental animals: Twenty five adult local strain male albino rats with average weight of 160 gm were chosen, divided into five equal groups and fed on ordinary rat diet: Group I (co...
Total of 24 adult male albino rats were randomly assigned as treated and untreated control groups. Treated group supplemented with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for 5 and 9 weeks. The results revealed that rats supplemented with water hyacinth (as a source of heavy metals) for 5 weeks induced significantly increase in RBCs, WBCs counts, hemoglobin content, Heinz bodies percentage and cell number/size ratio. At the same time liver cell size had a significant decrease under the same treatment. The ninth weeks of the experimental period showed a significant rise of Heinz bodies, globulin level, ALT level, liver cellular aspects (DNA, cell number and cell number/size ratio). A significant decrease of WBCs counts, A/G ratio and cell size were illustrated.The histological examination of treated rats liver showed chronic venous congestion with infiltration of the portal tract by chronic inflammatory cells and necrosis of hepatocyte cells consequently after 5 and 9 weeks of treatment
Bruno Ikenna Aguh
Full Text Available Relationship between body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus was investigated. Morphometric data such as body weight (BDYWT, tail length (TL, body length from nose to anus (BLNA, body length from nose to tail tip (BLNT, tail circumference (TC, tail diameter (TD, and ear length (EL were collected from fifty live Albino rats involving 28 females and 22 males. The collected data were evaluated using regression analysis, correlation and independent-sample t-test. There was high significant (P r2 values ranging from 0.264 to 0.81. Regression analysis with high r2 value could be exploited in predicting many morphometric traits with great accuracy with the body weight serving as the explanatory or predictor variable. This research also suggested that male and female Albino rats have very similar morphometric characters as the results of independent-samples t-test showed.
Fouad A.F.Ali*, Ali A.Abdel Rahman* and Ashraf M.Moustafa
Full Text Available The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatment of female rats with a chlorohydrin caused reversible uterine and ovarian changes. Uterine changes took longer time to recover compared with that of ovarian changes. These results support the possibility that this drug could be a functional female sterilant as it was known as a male sterilant.
An Electron Microscopic Study of the Antifertility Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in Male Albino Rats / Estudio de Microscopía Electrónica del Potencial Antifertilidad del Romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) en Ratas Macho Albinas
Rania A. Salah, El-Din; Abd El-Rahman, El-Shahat; Rasha Ahmed, Elmansy.
Full Text Available El trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar el potencial anti-fertilidad de la hierba de uso común, el romero, en ratas albinas macho utilizando microscopía electrónica como método de investigación. El extracto etanólico del romero se preparó y administró por vía oral a los animales en dos dosis diferent [...] es durante un período de tres meses. Los animales experimentales se sacrificaron y se retiraron sus testículos. Se prepararon secciones para microscopía electrónica y se observaron los cambios. Los resultados mostraron cambios microscópicos evidentes en los testículos de los animales que recibieron una dosis mayor del medicamento. La mayoría de los túbulos seminíferos se observaron comprimidos, con una membrana basal irregular y carente de células espermatogénicas. El presente trabajo revela una clara evidencia morfológica de una posible anti-fertilidad dependiente de la dosis del romero administrada en las ratas albinas macho. Abstract in english The present work was aimed at studying the antifertility potential of the commonly used herb, rosemary in the male albino rats using electron microscopy as the method of investigation. Ethanolic extract of the rosmary prepared and administered orally in two different doses for a period of three mont [...] hs to the animals. At the end of the experiment animals were sacrificed and testes removed. Sections for the electrone microscopy prepared and changes were observed. The present results showed evident microscopic changes in the testis of the animals received higher dose of the drug. Most of the seminiferous tubules were compressed, having irregular basement membrane and devoid of any spermatogenic cells. The present work revealed a clear morphological evidence of the dose dependent antifertility potential of the rosemary in the male albino rats.
Thomas Nubila; Ukaejiofo, Ernest O.; Nubila, Nkoyo I.; Okorie, Godfrey I.
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is considered toxic and has other life-threatening side effects. Our aim was to evaluate the haematotoxic effects of lamivudine, zidovudine, and nevirapine fixed-dose combinations in Albino Wistar rats. Fifty (50) three (3) months old male Albino Wistar rats weighing between 200 and 250?g were randomly assigned to five (5) groups (A, B, C, D, and E). Group A served as control. Two (2?mLs) of venous blood was aseptically collected on Days 5, 10,...
Pumpkin seeds have long been used for health benefits and the seed oil has been shown to contain active beneficial components that may protect from oxidative stress. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the modulator role of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) supplementation on gamma radiation induced changes in certain biochemical and histological abnormalities in both kidney and testes tissues. Male rats received 5Gy whole body gamma-irradiation delivered as 1 Gy day after day to result in a cumulative dose of 5 Gy. PSO was orally administered to rats (20mg/Kg body weight) for 20 consecutive days before irradiation and during the period of irradiation. On days seven and twenty one after the last irradiation dose, rats were sacrificed. Biochemical analysis in the serum revealed that PSO supplementation diminished the radiation-induced increase in the level of urea, creatinine , follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Significant amelioration of the radiation-induced decreases in calcium (Ca+2), potassium (K+) and testosterone levels were also recorded. PSO administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the level of lipid peroxides measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and the content of glutathione (GSH). Histological observations of photomicrographs of kidney sections of irradiated rats showed amorphoid glomeruli, renal sclerosis and high content of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, hemorrhage in glomeruli, ruptured proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Examination of testis tissues showed disappearance of seminiferous tubules, ruptured tunica albuginea, and degeneration of interstitial cells. PSO supplementation has obviously improved the radiation-induced histopathological changes in both tissues. It could be concluded that PSO can be used as a useful adjunct for maintaining the integrity of biochemical functions and restoring the original histological architecture of kidneys and testes after irradiation
E.J. Iweala Emeka
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of long term consumption of Gongronema latifolium on some biochemical and histological parameters in male rats. Biochemical parameters evaluated included serum protein, haemoglobin, cholesterol, lipid peroxidation, white blood cells, glutathione-s-transferase, superoxide dismutase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The histological changes of the liver, intestines and testes were examined. The long term feeding of a Gongronema latifolium -supplemented diet caused significant increases (p<0.05 in cholesterol, haemoglobin and white blood cells. The diet exhibited antioxidant properties by reducing lipid peroxidation and increasing superoxide dismutase activity. There was a significant increase (p<0.05 in glutathione-s-transferase and decrease in the liver enzymes namely Alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase suggesting a role of Gongronema latifolium in detoxification and hepatoprotection. However, Gongronema latifolium -supplemented diet did not cause any significant changes in weight and serum protein. The histology of the hepatic plate appeared irregular while the portal tracts showed a lifted basement membrane and few inflammatory cells. The intestinal mucosa showed an elongated and broadened villi. There were no histological changes on the testes.
Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret
Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100?mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250?mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250?mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518
Mamdouh A. Ghaly; El Sayed G. Khedr And Ahmed Abdel Aleem
We have studied the effect of cigarette smoke inhalation versus subcutanous nicotine injction on the liver of 40 adult male albino rats . Animals were divided into; cigarrete inhalation group and subcutaneous nicotine injection group. Inhalation group was subdivided into 5 subgroups ;three groups inhaled the smoke of two cigarettes three times a day in a closed chamber for 1,2&3 weeks respectively; a group of recovery after inhalation and a control group.The nicotine injection group was also ...
Soliman S Ibrahim, Amr Shalaby And Mahmoud Rabeh
The present investigation has been designed to through spot light on the efficiency of these two drugs in treatment of hepatitis patients. Cortisol, antigliadin (1gG) , total protein (TP) albumin (ALB) , Iron (Fe) , alanine aminotransferase (ALT) , aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum of normal mature male and female albino rats that injected intraperitoneally day after day with 1mg/kg body weight of each drug separately for 3 months. The cor...
Study objectives: The objectives of the study are to describe and compare histopathological changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes of rat, with different doses of Ribavirin at different time intervals. Introduction: The chemical disturbances may affect a vast number of potential sites in male reproductive system as well as its complex hormonal regulation. Testicular toxicity may reduce the fertility of the male. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Ribavirin on the histological structure of seminiferous tubules in the testes of albino rats. Materials and Methods: Seventy two sexually mature adult male albino rats weighing 180-200gms were divided into four groups: A, B, C and D; each group having 18 rats. Ribavirin was administered intraperitoneally in different doses to these groups that were 20mg, 100mg and 200mg/kg body weight, while group A was control. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to three time points which were selected for sacrifice that were 20th, 40th and 60th day from the last exposure to drug. Six randomly selected rats from each group were sacrificed on every sacrifice time. Results and Conclusion: The seminiferous tubules with degenerative changes like appearance of vacuole and necrotic material were observed in comparison to control groups, on 20th day of sacrifice in all groups. In rats sacrificed on day 40th and 60th, the sign of recovery in the form of regeneration of seminiferous epithelium was observed that was more marked in low dose groups than high dose groups which showed late recovery. We conclude that ribavirin being used as antiviral drug induces reversible degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes of albino rats. (author)
Concerns have been raised regarding the potential adverse effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) arising from mobile phone. The present study investigates the effect of the daily exposure of adult and young rats to EMR for 1 hour (at a frequency of 900 MHz, a power density of 0.02 mW/cm2 and an average specific absorption rate of 1.165 W/kg) on the DNA content and tissue architecture of the cortex and hypothalamus of the rat brain. Both young and adult rats were sacrificed at two intervals, after 4 months of daily EMR exposure and after 1 month of stopping the exposure. The present results showed a significant increase in the DNA intensity of young and adult rats in both areas after 4 months of daily EMR exposure. However, decreased DNA content around the normal level was observed after one month of stopping the exposure. Light microscopic examination of irradiated rats revealed edema, vacuolation, necrosis and proliferated glial cells. Stopping EMR exposure showed mild amelioration in the structural damage of the cerebral cortex of young animals, however, most drastic changes still persisted in the other animals. In conclusion, these data may confirm the neurotoxic risks arising from the extensive use of mobile phones that may alter the brain histology and impair its function
Propolis (bee glue) is a sticky substance that is collected from plants by honeybees. Due to biological and pharmacological activities, it has been extensively used in folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition, the antimicrobial activity and possible protective effects of ethanolic extract of propolis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced biological damages in rats. The studied rats were allotted to four equal groups (6 rats each) : Group 1 served as control and was given the vehicle (Tween 80 dissolved in distilled water, 1:100 ) orally for 21 consecutive days after which they were sacrificed , group 2 treated orally with ethanolic extract of popolis (100?g/rat) for 21 successive days, group 3 ( CCl4 - treated group) administered orally with a single dose (0.5 ml/kg body weight) of carbon tetrachloride (mixed with an equal volume of olive oil) and group 4 (protected group) was treated with propolis extract (100?g/rat) for 21 successive days, after one hour of the last dose of the treatment, a single dose of CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) was given. Then all animals were sacrificed, 24 hr post experimental design period for each group. Our results revealed that, fourteen compounds were identified by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC- MS analysis). Propolis ethanolic extract inhibited the growth of six from the tested microorganisms including bacteria and fungi at 5 mg/ml against E bacteria and fungi at 5 mg/ml against E. coli and B. subtilis and 20 mg/ml against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Penicillium italicum and Candida albicans, while it has no effect on A. fumigatus and Syncephalstrum racemasum. In experimental animals, Leucocytic counts and platelets, in addition, AST, ALT, CK and LDH were significantly increased, meanwhile, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) level was decreased in CCl4 treated rats (group 3) compared to the control (group 1). Protection with ethanolic extract of propolis to rats received CCl4 (group 4) ameliorated the altered levels of studied parameters as compared to control group. In conclusion, these results suggest that propolis has antimicrobial activity and a protective effect on biological damages induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. More researches are required to isolate and purify the active principle involve in biological activity of propolis to used as a curative agent
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)
Das, Kusal K; Dhundasi, Salim A.; Das, Swastika N.; Amrita Das Gupta
We have studied the effect of simultaneous oral treatment of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum) on heavy metal (nickel II and chromium VI) induced changes in serum lipid profile. Nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) level as well as decrease in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Simultaneous garl...
Mallick, Chhanda; Chatterjee, Kausik; Guhabiswas, Mehuli; Ghosh, Debidas
We evaluated the antihyperglycaemic properties of aqueous-methanolic (40:60) extract of root of Musa paradisiaca and leaf of Coccinia indica in separate as well as in composite manner by conducting experiment on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. We measured food and water intake ability, the fasting blood glucose level, glucose tolerance, activities of important carbohydrate metabolic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hexokinase in liver along with qua...
Mallick, Chhanda; Chatterjee, Kausik; Guhabiswas, Mehuli; Ghosh, Debidas
We evaluated the antihyperglycaemic properties of aqueous-methanolic (40:60) extract of root of Musa paradisiaca and leaf of Coccinia indica in separate as well as in composite manner by conducting experiment on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. We measured food and water intake ability, the fasting blood glucose level, glucose tolerance, activities of important carbohydrate metabolic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hexokinase in liver along with quantification of glycogen in liver and in skeletal muscle and serum insulin level. We noted that after treatment of aqueous methanolic extract of above plant parts in separate as well as in composite manner at a concentration of 80 mg/100 g body weight/day to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat resulted in a significant remedial effect on blood glucose level as well as carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and the quantity of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen. Serum insulin level that was diminished in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat recovered significantly after the co-administration of extract of above plant parts. All the above parameters showed a more potent remedial effect after composite extract treatment with respect to separate treatment and none of the extract has any general metabolic toxicity induction. PMID:20161901
Anjaneyulu Y.; Chandra Sekhara Rao T.S.; Pidugu, Sreeni Vasulu D. And Amravathi P.; Sri latha ch; Karamala, Sujatha K.
An experiment was carried out to study the hematobiochemical changes of chronic lead poisoning in adult male wistar albino rats for a period of twelve weeks. Adult 216 healthy rats were randomly divided into six groups viz. control (groupI), higher dose of lead acetate @60mgs/kg bwt (group II), Lower dose of lead acetate @ 30 mgs / kg bwt (group III), Higher dose of lead + Ocimum @ 400 mgs/ kg bwt (group IV), lower dose of lead + Ocimum @ 400 mgs/ kg bwt (group V), Ocimum control (group VI). ...
With the earths increasing nuclear arsenal and the growing use of nuclear energy, the possibility of radiological accidents involving release of radioactive materials, internal contamination may consequently occurs via inhalation, ingestion or absorption of radioisotopes.Therefore, the present work was oriented to deal with four topics related to the internal decontamination of two of the most widely used isotopes, namely 134Cs and 60Co from contaminated rats:-In vitro study aimed to select agents that can strongly bind the two metal ions and elucidate the best conditions and the factors affecting this binding. The tested agents were bentonite, vermiculite and Prussian blue (PB). The sorption capacity of PB and vermiculite for both metal ions was high and equivalent to more than 1011 Bq 137Cs or 60Co per gram sorbent. As bentonite has lower capacity to both isotopes, further in vivo experiments were performed with PB and vermiculite.-In vivo studies, via 5 groups of rats, devoted to investigate the kinetics of excretion of 134Cs and/or 60Co from contaminated rats. The biological half lives of excretion, excretion stages for both isotopes and the effect of route of entry on the excretion were estimated.-In vivo studies aimed to investigate the effectiveness of PB + vermiculite and CaDTPA as therapeutic agents for accelerating the elimination of 134Cs and/or 60Co from cont4Cs and/or 60Co from contaminated rats. The study was performed via 6 groups of rats given different regimes of therapy. The results showed the high efficiency of PB + vermiculite for accelerating elimination of 134Cs and orally administrated 60Co while CaDTPA succeeded in accelerating intraperitoneally administrated 60Co. The study proved that oral administration of PB + vermiculite and injection with CaDTPA at the same time is very effective in accelerating elimination of both contaminants simultaneously.-The physiological studies aimed to evaluate the hazardous effects of 134Cs and/or 60Co incorporation and any side effect of therapeutic agents on hematological and biochemical parameters. The data obtained revealed that internal contamination causes a significant decrease in the RBC's counts, Hb concentration, haematocrit value, serum total proteins, albumin, serum inorganic phosphorous, in addition to a significant increase in serum urea, creatinine concentration, glucose, CPK and LDH activities. However, no significant changes were recorded in globulin, A/G ratio, total bilirubin, ALT, AST enzymatic activities, sodium, potassium and calcium levels. The treatment by the tested therapeutic agents has no significant effect on the same parameters and causes significant amelioration in the changes produced by internal contamination with variable degrees.
From experiments in albino mongrel rats it is shown that the radiosensitivity of ?-irradiated (60Co) animals follows a daily rhythm. A synchronization of the daily rhythms in radiosensitivity was noted in winter and during the first spring month which was impaired in April. Established wepe the rhythms of radiosensitivity for three seasons, i. e. winter, spring and summer, with the extremes in the dependence upon mean annual values varying significantly
Kusal K. Das
Full Text Available We have studied the effect of simultaneous oral treatment of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum on heavy metal (nickel II and chromium VI induced changes in serum lipid profile. Nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C and triglyceride (TG level as well as decrease in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C level. Simultaneous garlic administration with nickel sulfate showed improvement in serum LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C and TG level. But in case of potassium dichromate, garlic administration did not show satisfactory improvement in lipid profile except VLDL-C and TG level. The results indicate that garlic (Allium sativum has some beneficial effect in preventing heavy metal (nickel and chromium VI induced alteration of lipid profile.
Full Text Available The toxicity of monosodium glutamate has been on the increase due to increased patronage of fast foods; with its attendant effects. There have also been attempts to attenuate these effects. Hence, the attenuating role of vitamin C on sperm toxicity induced by monosodium glutamate was accessed on the weight of testes and epididymes, epididymal count, motility, viability, semen pH and sperm head abnormality in albino rat as a model. The male rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. The rats were administered with MSG and vitamin C treatments for 65 days. Vitamin C attenuated the MSG induced toxicity on weight of testes and epididymes, sperm motility, count and sperm head abnormality. Vitamin C can actually attenuate the effect of MSG induced toxicity in rats as a model.
Administration of fenvalerate (90 mg/kg) to rats resulted in a significant decrease in dopamine (OA) content in most of brain areas under investigation. Its content in pons + medulla oblongata was the most affected recording - 62.98 %, on day 7, compared to control. Furthermore, norepinephrine (NE) content gradually decreased in different brain areas showing its maximal decrease in cerebellum with percentage change -64.89% on day 7. Serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) showed maximal significant decrease, in the cortex with percentage differences -78.33 and -72.61%, respectively. Similarly, fen valerate resulted in a gradual decrease in serum testosterone level recording its maximal effect (-46. 58 %) at the end of the experimental period. On the other hand, administration of Salvia aegyptiaca (2 g/kg) caused a significant increase in monoamine contents (DA, NE, 5-HT and 5- HlAA) in most of the brain areas under investigation, throughout the experimental period. Moreover, Salvia extract administration resulted in a significant elevation in serum testosterone level, one day after administration, recording its maximal effect (55.75%) on day 7. Animals that received the combined treatment (Salvia extract one hour after fen valerate administration) showed that monoamine contents in most of the brain areas were more or less near to the control values. Furthermore, no significant change was noticed in serum testosterone level throughout th in serum testosterone level throughout the experiment in the combined treatment. From the present study, it can be concluded that Salvia aegyptiaca extract seems to be potentially promising for attenuating the disruption that occurred in monoamine and testosterone levels. This could highly recommend Salvia aegyptiaca to be a potential herb for further studies in the future for extracting compounds of medical use
D-glucan is a polysaccharide with multi-branching molecules derived from the cell wall of baker's yeast. It was reported to modulated innate immunity via interaction with membrane receptors on macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells and posses potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging capabilities. The aim of the present study was to investigate chemo-protective and radio-protective effect of D-glucan. Rats were orally (gavages) injected with D-glucan at dose of (20 mg/kg body wt) daily for three weeks. Mitomycin c (MMC) was administered three equal doses (1.5 mg/ kg) day after day for one week (2nd week) before radiation exposure at 3 fractionated doses (2 Gy) day after day in the 2nd week. The investigation were carried out on the days 3 and 10 post radiation-exposure and MMC administration for the determination of bone marrow micronucleus (Mn) frequency and DNA fragmentation in blood lymphocytes. The results showed that the exposure of animals to MMC and/ or irradiation led to clearly defined DNA fragmentation. D-glucan administration resulted in a significant improvement in lymphocytes DNA fragmentation and amelioration of Mn frequencies at day 3 and more pronounced at day 10 post irradiation. This study indicates that D-glucan has radio and chemo-protective effects against oxidative stress as a result of ?-radiation and/ or MMC exposure. So, D-glucan may be used to reduce the genotoxicity effects of different anticancer drugs and to reduce their unwanted side effects.
Full Text Available This work was undertaken to investigate the individual effects and probable mechanism of action of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (largactil and thioridazine hydrochloride (melleril on male reproductive functions, in albino rats. A total of 45 adult male albino Wistar-strain rats were used. Five rats served as the control while the remaining forty rats were divided into four groups, of 10 rats each. Rats in group I were treated with 2.3 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group II received 5.7 mg kg-1 BW of chlorpromazine. Rats in group III, were treated with 1.7 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group IV received 2.3 mg kg-1 BW of thioridazine. Control rats received vehicle of the drugs (i.e. distilled water. Drugs and vehicle were administered orally on a daily basis. Five rats, in each of the four drug-treated groups served as the recovery rats. Sperm characteristics evaluation, serum levels of testosterone and histopathological alterations in the testis were assessed both after four weeks of continuous drug administrations and four weeks of drug withdrawal. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine significantly caused a reduction in the absolute weights of the testis, epididymis and seminal vesicles (p<0.01 at high and low doses. Weight of the prostate gland was also reduced significantly (p<0.05 at the high dose. The epididymal sperm motility, viability (life/death ratio and counts were significantly reduced (p<0.01 at high dose of chlorpromazine and thioridazine. Moreover, sperm morphological abnormalities were significantly increased (p<0.01 at both doses of the drugs. Reduction in serum levels of testosterone for both drugs was statistically significant (p<0.01. The histopathological alterations observed in the testis includes moderate to severe degeneration of seminiferous tubular epithelium. Fertility and other associated changes were restored within four weeks of cessation of treatment. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine appear to have reversible antifertility actions in male albino rats. These actions were probably mediated within the testis and epididymis.
Egbung, G. E.; Essien, E. U.; Atangwho, I. J.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of trans fatty acids on haematological indices. This was done by supplementing the diets fed to the albino Wistar rats with different concentrations of thermally oxidized palm oil and margarine as sources of trans fatty acids. Fifty albino Wistar rats were used for this study and were randomly selected into five groups of ten rats. Group 1 rats serving as the control received only the stock diet. Group 2 received 85% rat pellet supplemented...
Emmanuel Ike Ugwuja
Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the biochemical effects of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol in normal albino rats. Methods: Twenty male albino rats weighing 160-180g were assigned into groups A-E of four rats per group. Group A and B rats were given low and high doses of ED, respectively, groups C and D were administered low and high doses of EDmA, respectively while group E rats were given distilled water and served as control. The treatment lasted for 30 days after which the animals were killed and their blood collected for laboratory analyses using standard methods. Results: There were no significant differences in body weight, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration with either administration of ED or EDmA in comparison to the control. Energy drink alone or EDmA has significant effects on total white blood cell count, plasma potassium, calcium, renal functions, liver enzymes and plasma triglycerides, with EDmA having more effects than ED alone, except for body weight where the energy drink alone has higher effect. Conclusion: Consumption of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol is associated with significant alterations in some biochemical parameters. Caution should be exercised while consuming either of them. Public health education is urgently needed to correct the wrong impression already formed by the unsuspecting consumers, especially the youths.
Eman Salah Abdel-reheim, Hanan Abdel-hameid Abdel-hafeez
Food additives are substances used in food industry in order to improve the foods taste and appearance by preserving its flavor and preventing it from souring. We study the adverse effect of some food additives on the biochemical parameters in adult male albino rats by daily oral exposure of (15mg/kg body weight),(5mg/kg body weight) of Monosodium glutamate and Sodium nitrite respectively, for 4 weeks and show the alteration of the results of these biochemical parameters in serum of ad...
Shati, Ali A.
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of Origanum majorana L. (OM) against cadmium (Cd)-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. METHODS This study was performed at King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from September to December 2010. Thirty-six male albino rats were divided into 6 groups: control, Cd, OM, OM+Cd, OM pre-treated (received OM extract for 14 days followed by Cd for 14 days), OM post-treated (received Cd for 14 days followed by OM extract for 14 days). All...
Soliman S. Ibrahim, Amr Shalaby and Mahmoud Rabeh
Full Text Available The present investigation has been designed to through spot light on the efficiency of these two drugs in treatment of hepatitis patients. Cortisol, antigliadin (1gG , total protein (TP albumin (ALB , Iron (Fe , alanine aminotransferase (ALT , aspartic aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were determined in serum of normal mature male and female albino rats that injected intraperitoneally day after day with 1mg/kg body weight of each drug separately for 3 months. The cortisol level and ALP showed significant increase in each of ribavirin or DDB treated animals, while the IgG concentration in ribavirin treated animals increased significantly, but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animals. On the other hand both ribavirin and DDB treated male and female rats showed significant decrease in the ALT in serum while serum AST elicited non significant decrease in each of ribavirin and DDB treated male and female. With respect to serum TP and ALB levels the result showed significant decrease in ribavirin and non significant decrease in DDB treated male and female rats. Furthermore, the serum Fe level in ribavirin treated male and female rats increased significantly but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animal.
Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the hematobiochemical changes of chronic lead poisoning in adult male wistar albino rats for a period of twelve weeks. Adult 216 healthy rats were randomly divided into six groups viz. control (groupI, higher dose of lead acetate @60mgs/kg bwt (group II, Lower dose of lead acetate @ 30 mgs / kg bwt (group III, Higher dose of lead + Ocimum @ 400 mgs/ kg bwt (group IV, lower dose of lead + Ocimum @ 400 mgs/ kg bwt (group V, Ocimum control (group VI. All lead treated and ameliorated groups given Lead acetate/ lead + Ocimum orally for three days in a week for a period of twelve weeks. The mean PCV, Hb, values were reduced significantly (P<0.05 in lead treated rats as dose dependent manner. Where as significant improvement was noticed in Ocimum treated groups Increased TLC and PLC values as dose dependent manner. A significant reduction in PNC was noticed in ocimum treated groups. Significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum total protein values, serum glucose and increased creatinine values were observed in lead treated groups as dose dependent . Increased protein & glucose and decreased creatinine values obtained in Ocimum treated groups. The alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters in the present study indicates decreased lifespan & fragility of RBC and damage to liver, kidney and Pancreas in lead poisoned wistar albino rats. [Vet. World 2011; 4(6.000: 260-263
Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia
Full Text Available Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day and 7-day oral Dihydroartemisinin (DHA treatments with 5 dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin on the blood and six vital organs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The dosages of DHA tested on 5 test adult Wistar albino rats (weight = 106-140 grams were 1, 2, 60 or 80 mg Kg-1 rat weight of DHA by oral intubation for 5 or 7 days. Four rats of similar weight which served as controls in each experiment were given distilled water equivalents of the administered doses of DHA. Another group of 5 test rats and four control rats (weight 75-90 gms were given 1 mg kg-1 rat weight of DHA or distilled water for 5 or 7 days and were allowed to rest for one week after which the treatment was repeated. Results: The findings of the study showed that Dihydroartemisinin (DHA had erythropoietin-like properties. In the study DHA produced dose, repetition and time dependent statistically significant increases in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: This result suggested that the administered DHA inhibited its own stimulated statistically significant increases in the PCV and the WBC of the treated rats through an inhibitory (negative feed-back effect. The structure and composition of the blood cell types like the presence of large numbers of reticlocytes and left-shifted neutrophils in the blood samples of 5-day DHA -treated rats but not in those of 7-day DHA treated rats indicated that new haemopoiesis was actively going on in the first 5 days of DHA treatment but had slowed down by the sixth and seventh day of treatment. The initial stimulation of haemopoiesis and later inhibition of haemopoesis by a negative feed-back effect on haemopoiesis suggest that DHA has erythropoietin-like properties.
Zuhair Y. Al. Sahhaf
Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the hematological and biochemical effects of the organophosphate insecticide, sumithion, in albino rats. Animals were treated with sumathion at a dose level of 60 mg kg-1 body weight (1/4 LD50 daily for 12 days. It was found that erythrocytes (RBCs count, haemoglobin contents, Mean Corpuscle Volume (MCV and Mean Corpuscle Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC were almost similar in control and treated animals. On the other hand, the results showed that the haemotocrite value, number of leucocytes (WBCs as well as the lymphocytes percentage were significantly increased in treated animals The platelets were significantly decreased. The results also showed that serum total protein was decreased while triglycerides showed insignificant increase in comparison with control. Cholesterol and creatinine significantly increased after 12 days of treatment. Histological examination of kidney of treated rats revealed impairment of the renal tissues.
Abu El-Saad, Abdelaziz S.; Mahmoud, Hamada M.
The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6) in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1) treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) throughout treatment a...
Eman G.E. Helal * Samir A.M. Zaahkouk
Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll) and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow), food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect m...
In recent years, more attention has been paid for searching of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in either medicinal practice or as food raw materials. The aim of the present research is to assess the effect of several well-known products used as antioxidants, on body weight, haemopoesis, endocrine system and lipid profile in normal albino rats. Thirty male adult albino rats were equally arranged into 5 groups, the first group was served as control and the others received special treatments where taurine (2% in drinking water), tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w. orally), hawthorn extract (50 mg/100 g b.w. orally) and coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg b.w. orally) were given for two months. Body weight was regularly recorded twice a week and at the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) content, reticulocytic count, white blood cell count (WBCs) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were estimated in blood, while, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), Testosterone, and corticosterone hormones besides lipid profile were estimated in the serum. The results denoted that although there is a slight improvement in the parameters tested, it does not deserve the coast of the regular use of these antioxidants and further investigations still needed
Eman Salah Abdel-Reheim*, Hanan Abdel-Hameid Abdel-Hafeez, Basant Mohamed Mahmoud and Eman Nazeem Abd-Allah
Full Text Available Food additives are substances used in food industry in order to improve the foods taste and appearance by preserving its flavor and preventing it from souring. We study the adverse effect of some food additives on the biochemical parameters in adult male albino rats by daily oral exposure of (15mg/kg body weight,(5mg/kg body weight of Monosodium glutamate and Sodium nitrite respectively, for 4 weeks and show the alteration of the results of these biochemical parameters in serum of adult male albino rats associated with liver and kidney functions, lipid profile, cardiac enzymes and the effect of these additives on the biomarkers of the oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in tissue homogenates of liver and kidney. In comparison with the normal rats we found that body weight increased in rats treated with MSG while decreased in rats consumed NaNO2; In the liver functions parameters there is an increase in GPT, GOT, ALP, total protein, Albumin, Globulin and billirubin of MSG while, in NaNO2 there is an increase in GPT, GOT, ALP and billirubin activity while, there is a decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin. In our view of lipid profile there is an increased level in total cholesterol and TG concentration in MSG and decreased level of total cholesterol and TG in NaNO2 while, there is a decrease in HDL concentration in both MSG and NaNO2. In cardiac enzymes there is an increase in LDH enzyme in both additives and there is a decrease in CK enzyme activity in MSG while, increased in serum of NaNO2. Our investigations showed an increase in kidney functions in both types of additives. In the oxidative stress observation there is an increase in LPO while, there is a decrease in CAT, GSH, and SOD activity in MSG and NaNO2.
Donatus Onukwufor Onwuli; Holy Brown; Harrison Anaezichukwuolu Ozoani
The antihyperglycaemic activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut (walnut) was investigated in albino rats. A total of 20 albino rats were used for the study. The rats were divided into five groups (AE) of four rats each. Diabetes were induced in the rats except four which served as the positive control group A. Groups B (negative control), C, D, and E contain diabetic rats each with blood sugar level ?17.00?mmol/L. Groups A and B were fed on 85.2?g of top feed grower over the test pe...
Raju B Akondi*
Aims and Objective: To evaluate the effects of phytoestrogen diet alone and high phytoestrogen diet with rutin and naringin on male reproductive system.Experimental Protocol: A total of 48 adult male wistar albino rats were divided in to 8 groups, each contains 6 rats. Low phytoestrogen diet (LPD) and high phytoestrogen diet (HPD) were administered to the two different groups of rats for 35 days. Rutin and naringin, antioxidants were also given in different doses (5mg/kg, 10/kg) for a period ...
Balabaeva, L.; Davidkova, E.; Kurchatova, G.
The effect of carbon sulfide was studied on sexually matured male and female albino rats, subjected to 180-day exposure with concentrations 0.03, 50 and 200 mg/m3, 6 hours daily, 5 days a week. Carbon sulfide effect was studied by indices, characterizing the state of the oxidation processes and lipid metabolism. CS2--50 and 200 mg/m3 were established to inhibit oxygen consumption of liver homogenates better manifested in female animals, whereas in homogenates of testicles the tissue respiration was significantly inhibited only with 200 mg/m3. Some sexual discrepancies were observed in the indices of lipid metabolism, significantly changed with a concentration of 200 mg/m3. More susceptible in male animals proved to be the level of free fatty acids and total cholesterin, whereas in females--liver phospholipids in all cases were lower than the control group.
Jeyaprakash, K; P. Chinnaswamy
Effect of spirulina and Liv-52 on lead induced hypercholesteroleamia in albino rats was studied. Oral administration of lead acetate(10mg/kg body weight/day) for 30 days resulted in a significant increase(P
Nutritional Habits have changed significantly and junk foods have become widely popular, in recent years. The present study aimed to shed the light on the effect of potato chips and / or ketchup consumption on some biochemical parameters. Sixty four male and female albino rats were used in the study. Animals were maintained on 0.25 g potato chips/ rat and / or 0.125 g ketchup / rat, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Potato chips showed the lowest body wt gain in the male rats after 4 weeks but, ketchup modulated this negative effect of the potato chips in the group of male animals fed on potato chips plus ketchup. Potato chips significantly decreased brain serotonin, liver glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in both sexes; brain dopamine, serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, ?2- and ?1-globulins in the females and serum thyroxine (T4) in the male rats. Ketchup apparently affected serum T4 and A / G ratio in both sexes, brain dopamine and liver GSH in the males in addition to brain serotonin, serum total globulins and ?1-globulin in the female rats. Potato chips plus ketchup significantly changed T4, dopamine, GSH, CAT, ?1 and ?2-globulins in both sexes; serotonin and ?1-globulin in the male rats, total proteins and albumin in the females. It could be concluded that potato chips consumption might induce numerous adverse effects in various body organsus body organs
E.J. Iweala Emeka; Obidoa, O
This study investigated the effect of long term consumption of Gongronema latifolium on some biochemical and histological parameters in male rats. Biochemical parameters evaluated included serum protein, haemoglobin, cholesterol, lipid peroxidation, white blood cells, glutathione-s-transferase, superoxide dismutase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The histological changes of the liver, intestines and testes were examined. The long term feeding of a Gongr...
Mamdouh A. Ghaly; El Sayed G. Khedr And Ahmed Abdel Aleem
Full Text Available We have studied the effect of cigarette smoke inhalation versus subcutanous nicotine injction on the liver of 40 adult male albino rats . Animals were divided into; cigarrete inhalation group and subcutaneous nicotine injection group. Inhalation group was subdivided into 5 subgroups ;three groups inhaled the smoke of two cigarettes three times a day in a closed chamber for 1,2&3 weeks respectively; a group of recovery after inhalation and a control group.The nicotine injection group was also subdivided into 5 subgroups;three groups were injected subcutaneously with 0.1ml of 1% nicotine every two days for 1,2&3 weeks respectively; a group of recovery after injection and a control group.Rats were sacrificed at the determined durations and the liver was subjected for preparation of 6 microns paraffin sections. Microscopic examination of paraffin sections stained with H&E; Masson trichrome and PASwas done and interpreted with the image analyzer. Several histological findings such as degenerative changes in hepatocytes, cellular infiltration, periportal fibrosis, and congestion of both central and portal veins have been noticed. Also, histochemical P.A.S. reaction has showed marked decrease in both groups. The mean optical density (O D of P A S in hepatocytes of cigarette group was (0.31±0.02, and that of nicotine group was (0.26±0.03, which were significantly lower than that in the control group with mean O.D. (0.54±0.5 and (0.51±0.03 respectively. In conclusion; the inhalation of nicotine in the form of cigarette smoke resulted in deteriorative changes in the liver of the male adult albino rat more than nicotine injected subcutaneously, and these changes was partialy reversed shortly after withdrawal.
Narayana, D. B. A.
Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both grou...
Sarma, H N; Mahanta, H C
In the present investigation, we attempted to study the modulation of morphological changes of endometrial surface epithelium by Scanning Electron Microscope (SCEM) in the adult albino rat after oral administration of roots extract. The origin of this experiment lies in the fact that the dry powdered roots of five plants, i.e., Plumbago rosea, Borassus flabellifer, Carica papaya (male), Dolichos lablab, and Shorea robusta in mixed form, has been traditionally used by the folk women of this region through oral route during the first seven days of a menstrual cycle to prevent conception. Ethanolic crude extract of these roots in composite form which has been referred to here as composite root extract (CRE) was administered to the adult female albino rat in a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight/day through oral route continuously for 12 days starting from proestrous. The observations under SCEM showed that administration of the CRE induced morphological changes of the endometrial surface epithelium in albino rat uterus. The characteristic smooth regular pattern of normal epithelium appears to have been changed at places by haphazardly oriented groups of cells and loss of microvilli indicating a disorganized picture. This structural disparity has been thought to affect the smooth functioning of nidatory preparation in the endometrium. PMID:11024229
Quercetin, a bioflavonoid, is frequently found in consumed foods including apples, berries, onion, tea and vegetables. Quercetin has many beneficial effects on human health including cardiovascular protection, anti-cancer activity, cataract prevention, anti-viral activity and anti inflammatory effects. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the radio-protective properties of quercetin in gamma irradiated rat and the toxic effect of administration of 1,4-dioxane as well as the efficacy of quercetin as one of the most important antioxidant flavonoid in diet. At the 3rd and 10th days after the last dose of dioxane injection (one month) and radiation exposure (6 Gy, fractionated), the biochemical analysis in the serum showed significant elevation in lipid peroxide content (MDA), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) accompanied by significant depletion in glutathione (GSH). Also, the results showed significant increase in the level of DNA fragmentation in liver tissues of rats. Supplementation of quercetin to rats before and during exposure to gamma radiation and/or administration of 1,4-dioxane induced significant amelioration in the levels of all studied parameters. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that quercetin might provide a protection against oxidative stress and metabolic disorders induced by gamma irradiation and 1,4-dioxane.
Fleming, M D; Benca, R M; Behan, M
The primary visual pathway in albino mammals is characterized by an increased decussation of retinal ganglion cell axons at the optic chiasm and an enhanced contralateral projection to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. In contrast to the primary visual pathway, little is known about the organization of retinal input to most nuclei of the subcortical visual system in albino mammals. The subcortical visual system is a large group of retinorecipient nuclei in the diencephalon and mesencephalon. These areas mediate a range of behaviors that include both circadian and acute responses to light. We used a congenic strain of albino and pigmented rats with a mutation at the c locus for albinism (Fischer 344-c/+; LaVail MM, Lawson NR (1986) Development of a congenic strain of pigmented and albino rats for light damage studies. Exp Eye Res 43:867-869) to quantitatively assess the effects of albinism on retinal projections to a number of subcortical visual nuclei including the ventral lateral hypothalamus (VLH), ventral lateral preoptic area (VLPO), olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN), posterior limitans (PLi), commissural pretectal area (CPA), intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN) and superior colliculus (SC). Following eye injections of the neuroanatomical tracer cholera toxin-beta, the distribution of anterogradely transported label was measured. The retinal projection to the contralateral VLH, PLi, CPA and IGL was enhanced in albino rats. No significant differences were found between albino and pigmented rats in retinal input to the VLPO, OPN and vLGN. These findings raise the possibility that enhanced retinofugal projections to subcortical visual nuclei in albinos may underlie some light-mediated behaviors that differ between albino and pigmented mammals. PMID:16996223
Manjula, K; Rajendran, K; Eevera, T; Kumaran, S
The effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Costus igneus (stem) and isolated compounds lupeol and stigmasterol on calcium oxalate urolithiasis have been studied in male albino Wistar rats. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and oxalate. The increased deposition of stone-forming constituents in the urine, serum, and kidney homogenate of urolithic rats was significantly (p calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the kidney was significantly greater in ethylene glycol-induced urolithic rats. After administration of aqueous and ethanolic extract of C. igneus, the deposition of calcium and oxalate was significantly lowered. Treatment with lupeol and stigmasterol significantly reduced the deposition of calcium and oxalate in the kidney, and also in the blood serum; the lipid profile serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels at 50 and 100 mg/kg were significantly (p calcium oxalate urinary stone. Lupeol and stigmasterol were identified from the stem of C. igneus by high-performance thin layer chromatography technique. The isolated compounds were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and (13)C NMR spectra. PMID:22298189
Full Text Available The present study was intended to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity on ethanolic extract of leaves of Vitex negundo was determined by using Wistar Albino rats in male sex. The V. negundo Linn. is a natural plant product, in its the leaves are used with the added advantage to revert Ibuprofen induced hepatotoxicity. Oral administration of ethanol extract of V. negundo (100 and 300 mg produced a significant and dose dependent inhibition to the acute hepatotoxic induced rats and various parameters were analyzed, when compared with negative control V. negundo showed that the significant activity in 300 mg/kg/b.wt. They exhibited a significant inhibition of hepatic toxicity by using various marker enzymes and the histopathological analysis. The inhibitory effect of the V. negundo on hepatotoxicity was compared to that of positive control group. The various parameters such glucose, protein, triglycerides, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, ALP, ACP, SGPT, SGOT and histopathological parameters was measured by dissection the rats. A significant index and values were observed in the acute assays; an effective significant alteration in all biochemical and histopathological sections was observed. From these results, concluded that the V. negundo having the potential effectiveness at the dose of 300 mg/kg/b.wt., (pV. negundo having the hepatoprotective activity, which support the hepatic cells protection.
The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential dietary supplement to minimize the side effects of radiotherapy
Full Text Available A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with seaweed diet evidenced theiractive participation on the metabolism of the experimental subject. These findings w ere well correlated w ithhistological observation in the liver and intestine shows the hepatocyte appearance and deposited fat and fociat necrosis is also seen in photomicrographs.
The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress
Sayeed Mohammed Abu et al.
Full Text Available Fertility control is an issue of global and national health concern, many study have been done for the male contraception. The use of medicinal plants in different sorts of disease including fertility problem is widespread throughout the world. Though considerable progress has been made the development of highly effective, acceptable and reversible methods of contraception among females, progress possibilities on males are still slow and limited. With recent progress towards a better understanding of male reproductive physiology there is needed to develop new contraceptive modalities for male. Abrus precatorius is one of the folk medicinal plants widely used as an antifertility agent in varius places of south Asian countries including Chittagong region of Bangladesh. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antifertility activity of abrus precarious seed extract intraperitonially administered in adult swiss male albino mice. The intraperitonial administration of 40, 80 and 80 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic seed extract of Abrus precatorius shown a highly antifertility activity which done for two months. The lower concentrations (40 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic seed extract of Abrus precatorius gave temporarily antifertility activity. But the higher dose (80 mg/kg body weight gave relatively more permanent antifertility activity on swiss albino mice compare with the control.
Mallikarjuna, K.; Mahitha, B.; Madhavi, T.; John Sushma, N.
In the present study the pro-oxidant activity of aluminum (Al) and the protective role of Bacopa monniera extract (BME) were determined in the medulla oblongata of albino rats. Albino rats were divided into four groups. First group of rats was used as control, second group of rats received oral dose of Aluminum maltolate only, third group of animals received Bacopa monniera extract (BME) and fourth group of animals received concurrently Aluminum maltolate (Al-M) plus Bacopa monniera (BM...
This work was performed to investigate the biological effects of different thermal neutron fluxes (0.27x108, 0.52X108, 1.089X108, 2.16X108 and 4.32X108) on liver and kidney of male mice using neutron irradiation cell with Ra-Be(?,n) 3 mCi neutron source Leybold (55930). Exposed to various fluxes of thermal neutron induced a dramatic alterations in hepatic and renal functions as indicated by biochemical estimation of several parameters (bilirubin, SGT, and alkaline phosphate .Urea , total protein, and albumin) and confirmed by histological examinations Thermal neutron exposure induces marked increase in the serum activities of total bilirubin, alanine amino transaminase (ALT or GPT), and alkaline phosphate, whereas, urea, total protein and albumin showed marked decline as compared to control group. The physiological changes induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. Histopathological results revealed mild to severe type of necrosis, and degenerative changes in liver and kidney of male mice exposed to thermal neutron fluxes. Also it was found that the histopathological alterations induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. It was found that exposed to thermal neutron fluxes irradiation plays prominent role in the development of the physiological alterations in male Swiss albino mice. The Former up normalities as a result of the sequence events followed interaction of radiation with the former biological mater (liver and kidney) of male Swiss albino mice, which are, physical, physicochemical, chemical, and biological stages.
Chauhan, N. S.; Dixit, V. K.
ethanolic extract of rhizomes was evaluated for its effect on orientation behavior and spermatogenesis in albino rats. A change in orientation behavior was assessed by orientation towards female, towards environment, towards self and type of mobility. Administration of 100 mg/Kg b. w. of ethanolic extract had pronounced effect on orientation of male towards the female rats. Males treated with the extract displayed more frequent and vigorous anogenital sniffing and mounting as compared to untr...
I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.
Full Text Available Increase in population has affected many socio-economic conditions of people by increasing crimes, illiteracy, destructive activities, diseases, improper food and shelter. Thus to control this population and limit the family size at a personal level and at a national level, modern contraceptive methods and medicines were introduced long back. There are many new contraceptives available now, but they have various side effects. Some traditional practitioners used to dispense oral contraceptives mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Such as 1 Pippali (Piper longum, Vidanga (Emblica ribes and Tankana (Sodii Biboras. 2 Talisapatra (Taxus baccata and Gairika (Hematite with cold water and 3 Kanji bhavita Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis. An experimental study on above mentioned 1 and 2 formulations has proved its efficacy as temporary contraceptive medicine. To evaluate the permanent or long term temporary contraceptive effect of Japakusuma, an attempt was made in this study. Study was conducted by Choudary and Khanna method on 18 female, 36 male (for mating albino rats. Japakusuma, Propylene glycol, Ovral L formed the materials. Single dose was administered on proestrous stage of rat oestrous cycle and observed for anti-implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Test drug showed significant anti implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Thus showing the temporary contraceptive activity of Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis.
M. NAGA PRASANNA
Full Text Available Six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F of male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus albinus were orally administered withvaried doses (0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg bw/mouse of imidacloprid; they showed significant decreasein protein, DNA and RNA content in the kidneys of all the treated groups of mice throughout the experimentalperiod (on day 1, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 30 of treatment when compared with controls. It is clear from the results thatthe insecticide caused marked disturbance in the metabolism of protein, DNA and RNA.
A. Tamta; Chaudhary, M; Sehgal, R.
The objective of current study was to evaluate deleterious effects of a potential combination of cefpirome, a member of the latest class of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, in combination of ?-lactamase inhibitor, sulbactum. To assess the toxicity profile of fixed dose regimen Pirotum (Cefpirome+Sulbactum in 2:1 ratio), a repeated dose subacute toxicity study was conducted on Swiss albino mice and Wistar rat (male and female). Three different dose levels (30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1) of combination...
Ghaly, Inas S.; Abd Elfatah, Azza A. M.; Hanafy, Safaa M.
The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and ...
Abousalem, M.; Elgerwi, A.; El-mashad, A.
This study was directed to explore the hazardous effect of occupational exposure to air pollutants arised from benzene station. A total of 48 albino rats were calssified into three groups each of sixteen rats. Groups one and two were kept at a benzene station for 60 and 120 days, respectively and the third group was kept as a control under laboratory conditions. After termination of the experiment, animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical inve...
P. Vikrama Chakravarthi; N. Gopakumar
The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laborat...
Eman G E Helal, Samia M. Abd El-wahab And Ghada A. Zedan
Background: Curcuma longa has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agent. The present investigation aimed at examining the possible potential protective effect of curcuma against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three ...
Full Text Available Sildenafil citrate (Viagra is the pharmacological agent used to treat erectile dysfunction in men, a common problem that in the United State affects between 10 and 30 million men. Because this drug has a vasodilatory effect. Sildenafil citrate and ethanol consumption are used in societies world wide and have been identified as injurious to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Sildenafil citrate and Ethanol consumption on lipid and lipoprotein levels in testis tissue and serum of Albino rats. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each and maximum treated for 45 days as follows, control rats were administered with normal saline orally. Sildenafil citrate (1 ?g gm-1 and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 body weight was given orally at a single doses (short-term after 1, 2½, 4 and 24 h were sacrificed and 15, 30 and 45 days daily continuous doses (long-term of drug and ethanol with a single dosage were given and to be sacrificed after 4 h of the last dosage. Further, the average total body weight gain was significantly higher in 30 days treatment, but 45 days no significant change in the body weight of the rats were observed due to the productive role of Sildenafil citrate and ethanol. This combination was found to be increased serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL levels, whereas the levels of serum HDL was found to be decreased as compared with the control rats. Simultaneously tissue cholesterol and triglycerides significantly (p<0.05 inhibited were found to be the rise in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. Whereas, It is suggested that prolonged exposure to Sildenafil citrate and ethanol administration to rat is found to be increased in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations significantly in an animals.
Alteraciones en las características morfométricas del riñón de ratas albinas machos provocadas por la ingestión crónica de etanol desde la adolescencia Alterations in the morphometric features of kidney of male albino rats provoked by chronic ingestion of ethanol from the adolescence
Aleida Herrera Batista
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se pretendió determinar las variaciones que sobre las características morfométricas del riñón provoca la ingestión crónica de etanol en ratas adolescentes, para lo cual se utilizaron 42 ratas albinas machos de 30 días de nacidas con las cuales se conformaron dos grupos de 21 animales cada uno y con tiempos de tratamiento de tres y cinco meses y con estos, dos subgrupos: experimental y control. A las ratas experimentales se les suministró etanol a dosis de 5 g/kg de peso corporal mediante cánula intraesofágica. A las controles se les administró agua en lugar de etanol, en iguales condiciones. Se emplearon cortes histológicos coloreados con técnica PAS y se estudiaron las porciones contorneadas de los túbulos proximales y distales. Se calculó el área de sección transversal tubular y se midieron los volúmenes nucleares de las células de ambos túbulos. Se comprobó que las ratas experimentales mostraron volúmenes nucleares menores que las controles. El grupo experimental mostró valores de áreas de sección transversal de los túbulos renales mayores que los controles, siendo estos valores superiores en los túbulos proximales en las ratas de cinco meses, y los distales en las ratas de tres meses. Se concluyó que en la muestra estudiada el alcoholismo crónico iniciado en la adolescencia provocó variaciones morfométricas en los túbulos proximales y distales del riñón.Present paper allowed us to determine the variations exerted by the chronic ingestion of ethanol from the adolescence on the kidney morphometric features in 42 male albino rats of 30 days born divided into two groups of 21 animal each and with the treatment times of three and five months and with these 42 animals into two subgroups: one of experimental type and other as control. The experimental rats received ethanol at 5 g/kg doses according to the body weight using an intraesophageal cannula. The control ones received water instead of ethanol in similar conditions. We used histological sections stained with PAS technique to study the outlined portions of the proximal and distal tubules. The tubular transversal section area was estimated measuring the nuclear volumes of cells in both tubules. It was demonstrated that the experimental rats showed higher values of the transversal section of renal tubules higher than the control ones, where these values were superior in proximal tubules in the five months old rats and the distal ones in the three months old. We conclude that in study sample the chronic alcoholism started during adolescence provoked morphometric variations in proximal and distal tubules of kidney.
Alteraciones en las características morfométricas del riñón de ratas albinas machos provocadas por la ingestión crónica de etanol desde la adolescencia / Alterations in the morphometric features of kidney of male albino rats provoked by chronic ingestion of ethanol from the adolescence
Aleida, Herrera Batista; Giselle, Puldón Seguí; Héctor, Ruiz Candina.
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se pretendió determinar las variaciones que sobre las características morfométricas del riñón provoca la ingestión crónica de etanol en ratas adolescentes, para lo cual se utilizaron 42 ratas albinas machos de 30 días de nacidas con las cuales se conformaron dos grupos de 21 a [...] nimales cada uno y con tiempos de tratamiento de tres y cinco meses y con estos, dos subgrupos: experimental y control. A las ratas experimentales se les suministró etanol a dosis de 5 g/kg de peso corporal mediante cánula intraesofágica. A las controles se les administró agua en lugar de etanol, en iguales condiciones. Se emplearon cortes histológicos coloreados con técnica PAS y se estudiaron las porciones contorneadas de los túbulos proximales y distales. Se calculó el área de sección transversal tubular y se midieron los volúmenes nucleares de las células de ambos túbulos. Se comprobó que las ratas experimentales mostraron volúmenes nucleares menores que las controles. El grupo experimental mostró valores de áreas de sección transversal de los túbulos renales mayores que los controles, siendo estos valores superiores en los túbulos proximales en las ratas de cinco meses, y los distales en las ratas de tres meses. Se concluyó que en la muestra estudiada el alcoholismo crónico iniciado en la adolescencia provocó variaciones morfométricas en los túbulos proximales y distales del riñón. Abstract in english Present paper allowed us to determine the variations exerted by the chronic ingestion of ethanol from the adolescence on the kidney morphometric features in 42 male albino rats of 30 days born divided into two groups of 21 animal each and with the treatment times of three and five months and with th [...] ese 42 animals into two subgroups: one of experimental type and other as control. The experimental rats received ethanol at 5 g/kg doses according to the body weight using an intraesophageal cannula. The control ones received water instead of ethanol in similar conditions. We used histological sections stained with PAS technique to study the outlined portions of the proximal and distal tubules. The tubular transversal section area was estimated measuring the nuclear volumes of cells in both tubules. It was demonstrated that the experimental rats showed higher values of the transversal section of renal tubules higher than the control ones, where these values were superior in proximal tubules in the five months old rats and the distal ones in the three months old. We conclude that in study sample the chronic alcoholism started during adolescence provoked morphometric variations in proximal and distal tubules of kidney.
Full Text Available Objective : The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 g. The effect of O. sanctum and C. sinensis was evaluated for anxiety and depression using elevated plus maze (EPM test, open field test (OFT, forced swim test (FST, and tail suspension test (TST. Result : Restraint stress (3 h/day for six consecutive days induced a significant reduction in both the percentage number of entries and time spent in open arms in EPM, and these changes were reversed with post-treatment of aqueous extract of O. sanctum and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg for 6 days. Restraint stress-induced (a increased latency and (b decreased ambulation and rearing were also reversed by O. sanctum and C. sinensis in OFT. A significant increase in immobility period was observed in FST and TST after restraint stress. O. sanctum and C. sinensis significantly reduced the immobility times of rats in FST and TST. Conclusion : O. sanctum and C. sinensis possess anxiolytic and antidepressant activities.
Tolstoj, V A; Lytvynets, A; Langrova, I
Trichinellosis treated with Mebendazole often leads to complications in the course of the disease in humans and animals as a result of intoxication and hyper-sensitization of an organism due to the massive destruction of parasites. This study was conducted to research Mebendazole incidence on lipid peroxidation processes (LPP) in rats' blood in Trichinella spiralis-infected and parasite-free albino rats. The research was conducted to evaluate erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonic dialdehyde (MDA) concentration in blood serum. The parameters of the SOD-MDA system in infected albino rats, which were treated or untreated with Mebendazole were analyzed. It was concluded that Mebendazole amplifies the LPP in the blood of both infected and parasite-free animals: in a dose of 150 mg/kg anthelmintic causes disturbances of biochemical homeostasis in the SOD-MDA system, thus working as a pro-oxidant. PMID:17186274
Eman G.E. Helal; **Mohamad H.A. Hasan;***Ashraf M. Mustafa
Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract from Aloe vera on thirty adult male albino rats were divided into three groups, the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg / kg B.wt. and served as diabetic group and the third was injected with alloxan and treated with Aloe vera water extract ( 0.5 ml / 100 g B.wt. . After thirty days of treatment half of each group were scarified and the other one were left for 15 days without any additional treatment as a recovery period . The results revealed highly significant decrease ( p> 0.01 in blood glucose, and highly significant increase in both liver glycogen content and serum insulin level in the diabetic group treated with aqueos extract of A. vera when compared with the diabetic untreated group. It seems, therefore that water extract of A. vera results in a definite hypoglycemic, hyperinsulinemic effect. On the other hand, a significant increase of body weight gain and liver glycogen content was achieved. The results of this study clarify the role of Aloe vera active as antidiabetic plant and suggest a relationship between drenching. A. vera extract and insulin production which needs further investigation
Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102
Abd El-Tawab M. Ismail - Ashraf M.Moustafa
Full Text Available Recently the use of synthetic food coloring additives was increased and the levels of human exposure to such agents are very broad, thus feeding over long periods may continually possess potential hazards to the human health. Also most of the food colors tested in the conventional toxicity experiments showed toxic effects at very high level of intake i.e. 1-5 % in the diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological and histochemical effects of some of these substances (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow on the liver of adult albino rats. The study included three main parts: A. Histological studies on the liver under the effect of (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow substances. Using paraffin sections, which were stained with Hx & Eosin, Masson Trichrome B. Evaluation of histochemical activity of both alkaline phosphates enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes on the renal tissue. C. Statistical evaluation using image analyzer to detect glomerular area, area percentage of collagen fibers distribution and optical density of both alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in glomerulus and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity in renal tubules. Seventy adult male albino rats were used. Nitrate and sunset yellow were given orally through a gastric tube in dose of 1 mg / kg / b.w. daily. The animals were classified into seven groups. 1. Group I (Control group 2. Group II: The animals were given sodium nitrate in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt for one month. 3. Group III: The animals were given sun set yellow in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/day for one month. 4. Group IV: The animals were given sodium nitrate and sunset yellow for one month in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/for each drug in a separate manner. 5. Group V: The animals were given sodium nitrate similar to the previous dose as group II for one month and left 2 weeks without oral intubations. 6. Group VI: The animals were given sun set yellow No 6 in a dose and route of administrations as group III for one month and kept without intubations for 2 weeks. 7. Group VII: The animals were given both sodium nitrate & sunset yellow by the same dose and route of administration as in group IV for one month and kept without intubations for 2 weeks.
Adeleye, G. S.
Full Text Available This Experiment is undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary advanced lipid oxidation end products on colitis healing in albino rats. 45 albino rats (divided into 3 groups - control, low dose and high dose ALE groups of average weight of 200g were used for this study. Colitis was induced in all groups using 6% acetic acid. The low and high doses were fed with 7.5g and 15g ALE respectively for 20 days. The control animals ate normal rat chow. The stools of all animals were scored according to the scale of Masonobu et al (2002 for 20 days. On days 7, 14 and 20 three animals were sacrificed from each group and 8cm of the colon was cut out for weight measurement and gross morphological scoring. The results show that on day 6 colitis scores were 0.63 ± 0.03 (control, 0.80 ± 0.03(low dose, 0.73 +_ 0.03(high dose. On day 20, 0.33 ± 0.03 (control, 0.50 ± 0.03 (low dose, 0.50 ± 0.02 (high dose. ALE reduced colitis healing rate compared to the control. This study concludes that ALE aggravated acetic-acid induced colitis in albino rats.
Propolis is a resinous natural hive product derived from plant exudate collected by honey bees and has been extensively used in folk medicine. The present study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of propolis in alleviating the toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl3)on some hematological and biochemical parameters of male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were arranged into 4 equal groups; control group, aluminium group (34 mg AlCl3/kg/day), propolis group (100?g propolis/rat)and aluminium plus propolis group. Rats were orally administered their respective doses daily for 30 days. AlCl3 caused significant decrease in hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrit (Ht), total and differential leucocyte count (TLC) when compared to control. On the other hand, aluminium administration caused a significant increase in urea, uric acid, creatinin, bilirubin, the content of phosphorous, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and asparate aminotransferase (AST) and significant decrease in total protein, albumin, globulin and calcium when compared to control. The administration of propolis alleviated the toxic effect of AlCl3 in experimental rats. It could be concluded thal propolis my afford protection from toxicity caused by aluminium chloride in male albino rats
The metabolic action of prolactin on insulin levels in plasma and pancreas has been studied. Prolactin was injected in a single dose or single daily doses on 4 successive days into albino rats in six different physiological states. Insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay using 125I insulin. From the results it is concluded that prolactin injected i.p. influences the output of insulin and stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin into the plasma. (author)
H. Saikia; A Lama
Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol). The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL) on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (...
anil kashinath mali
Abstract: There are many causes of non-lactation after delivery in some dairy mammals and human female. In present investigation study was carried out to find out effect of Ageratum conyzoides leaf extract on histological structure of non lactating mammary gland of wistra white albino rat female. Ageratum conyzoides is supposed to induce lactation in non-lactating mammalian female including woman1. The effect of extract on non-lactating mammary gland after seven and fou...
Ravishankar M; Shreenivas P. Revankar; Jagadeesh K
Background: Wound healing is an important process in regeneration of the lost tissue, it involves various steps. Varieties of substances are known to interact in the healing process, some of the plant products are found to be beneficial. Jasmine leaves are mentioned to have healing effect in ancient literature. Hence the study was carried out to evaluate the wound healing effect by assessing the histopathological parameters. Methods: The study was done in the albino rats which were divided...
K Arun; S.Suguna
Plants play an important role in the life of human, as the major source of food, as well as for the maintenance and improvement of health and for the elimination of the enemies since ages. Plants are the basic source of knowledge of modern medicine. The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of aqueos extract of aerial parts of Cinnamon zeylanicum are evaluated in alcohol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Silymarin (100mg/kg) was given as re...
Donga, Shilpa; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Ashok, B. K.; Mishtry, I. U.
In the present study, toxic effects of powder of seeds of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze were evaluated for a period of 3 months in albino rats. Control group received distilled water. The powder suspension was orally given to the treated group at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Parameters like body weight, weight of important organs, biochemical, hematological parameters, bone marrow cytology and histopathology of vital organs were studied. Test drug administration did not affect the b...
Asha, B.; Nagabhushan, A.; Shashikala, G. H.
Introduction: Ocimum sanctum, when given orally in one of the studies showed wound healing property. Since majority of the agents tried for wound healing are topical, the present study was planned to compare the oral and topical Ocimum sanctum for wound healing property. Methods: Excision and incision resutured wound models in albino rats were used to study complete epithelisation time, wound contraction, histopathological study and tensile strength of the wounds. Results: The animals were di...
S A Braid
Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain the effect of a cassava based diet (gari on crude oil heamato-toxicity in albino rats by feeding diet contaminated with various concentrations of crude oil mixed with 20% gari to determine the protective effect of gari. The haematological parameters haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count (WBC(Total and differential were monitored in the animals. Gari feeding at 20% caused insignificant dose dependent decrease in Hb and PCV but significant dose dependent white blood cell count in gari fed albino rats compared with Petroleum fed albino rats (PIndustrial relevanceCassava is a staple food in human diets in over 80 countries (Gomez, et al 1988. Gari a starchy food prepared from cassava (Manihot utilisima tubers is one of the most popular staple foods of the people of the rain forest belt of West Africa. Gari contains mainly starch-20% amylase and 70% amylopectin having lost the soluble carbohydrates. Crude petroleum is capable of eliciting haemolytic toxicity of the blood cells in conditions of long- exposure causing decrease haemoglobin, white cell count and PCV levels. The study was carried out to see the effect of gari, a staple food on haemolytic toxicity caused by crude petroleum.Keywords: Cassava; Gari; Petroleum; haemato-toxicity
Das, Saibal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjib; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath
This study was done to evaluate possible hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Basella alba in comparison with silymarin in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Six groups of six albino rats each received orally for 6 weeks, vehicle, paracetamol (2 g/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus silymarin (50 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (60 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (80 mg/kg/day) and paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (100 mg/kg/day). Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by comparing serum bilirubin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, proteins, alkaline phosphatase and liver histopathology. Results were represented as mean ± SEM. One-way ANOVA was done followed by post hoc Tukey's test with a highly significance level of P < 0.001. Aqueous leaf extracts of B. alba 100 mg/kg/day orally had significant hepatoprotective effect in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The results were well comparable and even in some respects superior to standard drug silymarin. PMID:25347929
Tabassum Imrana; Siddiqui Zeba; Rizvi Shamim
Objective : The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 g). The effect of O. sanctum and C. sinensis was evaluated for anxiety and depression using elevated plus maze (EPM) test, open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST). Result : Restraint stress (3 h/day for six consec...
Antidiabetogenic Effects of Separate and Composite Extract of Seed of Jamun (Eugenia jambolana and Root of Kadali (Musa paradisiaca in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Comparative Study
Full Text Available The present study investigates separate as well as composite methanolic extracts of seed of Jamun (Eugenia jambolana and root of Kadali (Musa paradisiaca for the management of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rat. As oxidative stress is one of the consequences of diabetes so the present study have measured the activities of some important carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and oxidative stress condition in important visceral organs. After treatment of methanolic extract of above plant parts in separate or in composite manner in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat resulted a significant recovery in the activities of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in liver along with correction in fasting blood glucose as well as liver and skeletal muscle glycogen level and plasma insulin level in respect to diabetic group. Activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase along with the quantity of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and conjugated dienes in liver and skeletal muscle were also corrected by these plant extracts in respect to diabetic state. The composite extract shows a significant recovery in parameters mentioned earlier than the separate extract. None of the extract has any metabolic toxicity induction in general. From this experiment it may be concluded that the composite extracts of above plants parts have some potential antidiabetogenic activities.
Maisaa M. AL-Rawi
Full Text Available Introduction: The present study deals with the effect of oat bran (Avena sativa L. in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in comparison with a hypocholesterolemic drug, atorvastatin, on hypercholesterolemic liver in male albino rats. Material and Methods: For this purpose four groups of rats (each containing 6 rats were used. The first group was used as a control, the second was cholesterol-fed group with cholesterol (0.5% w/w for 6 weeks. The third group was oats-fed hypercholesterolemic rats on oat supplemented diet (20% w/w for 4 weeks and the forth group was atorvastatin-treated hypercholesterolemic rats orally at a dose of 0.18 mg/Kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Results: The biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum LDL-C and a significant decrease in HDL-C level. In addition the activity of AST was increased in cholesterol-fed rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with oat soluble fiber or atorvastatin drug improved the above mentioned parameters. The histopathological examination of liver sections of cholesterol-fed group showed accumulation of lipid. Hepatocytes showed ballooning degeneration and manifested clear necrotic signs. Inflammatory cellular infiltration was found around the blood vessels, mild fibrosis near the portal blood vessels. However, liver impairment was reduced markedly in the liver of oat soluble fiber fed rats rather than atorvastatin drug treated rats. Conclusion: The present study, however, confirms that the cereal grain oat may have potent beneficial health effects in reducing LDL cholesterol and should be included in the prudent diet of individuals with hyperlipidemia.
Full Text Available The leaves of Enicostemma littorale blume (Ens and Eclipta alba (Ecl have been used for skin infection, antiviral and antibacterial activity in traditional medicine. The present study is aimed at to evaluate the hepato-protective effect of the aqueous leaf extracts of the above two plants during ethanol induced oxidative stress in albino rats. The aqueous leaf extracts of Enicostemma littorale and Eclipta alba combine (1:1 at dose level of 250 mg kg-1 b.wt. were tested for hepato-protective and antioxidant effects during ethanol induced oxidative stress in liver tissue of wistar male albino rats. The degree of hepatoprotection was assessed by measuring the activity levels of the marker enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Free radicals generated lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS and the activity levels of the tissue antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD. The ethanol supplemented rats recorded elevated activity levels of serum AST, ALT and ALP revealing ethanol induced hepatotoxicity. The increased levels of TBARS in liver and decreased activity levels of SOD and CAT in ethanol fed animals revealed oxidative stress. The aqueous leaf extracts supplementation of Ens+Ecl in 1:1 produced significant hepatoprotection and antioxidative effect during ethanol induced hepatotoxicity. The study can be concluded that the therapeutic effect of aqueous leaf extracts of Ens+Ecl in 1:1 is not only hepatoprotective but also possess significant antioxidant property.
The present study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of the watery extract of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum majorana L. (marjoram) or their mixture on the toxicity induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl imidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) which is one of the most abundant toxic heterocyclic amines (HCA) in cooked meat. Oral administration of PhIP (75 ml/kg) twice a week for four weeks resulted in a significant increase in liver function (AST, ALT and ALP) with a percentage change recording 33.79% , 70.96% and 127.64%, respectively, accompanied with decrease in total protein content. Significant increase (P<0.05) was observed in both creatinine (45.33%) and blood urea (109.17%), whereas serum T3 and T4 recorded significant decrease with a percentage change of -57.32% and -42.44%, respectively. A marked significant reduction (P<0.05) in monoamine contents (DA and NE) in total brain was observed after the ingestion of PhIP recording -13.23% and -13.47%, respectively, as percentage change from control. The daily oral administration of thyme, marjoram and their mixture (W/W) in dose of 500 mg/kg alone, before or after PhIP administration caused a decrease in ALT, AST and ALP levels and increase in total protein in serum and also cause decrease in serum creatinine and urea. Non-significant changes in T3 and T4 levels were observed in rats received the herbal extract. On the other hand, the herbal extract improved T3 and T4 levels before and afct improved T3 and T4 levels before and after PhIP treatment bringing the hormonal levels near to that of control. Moreover, rats that received pre and post treatment with thyme, marjoram and their mixture (W/W) after being treated with PhIP showed high significant reduction in the elevated levels of DA and NE produced by PhIP treatment. From the current investigation, it could be concluded that the watery extract polyphenol flavonoids of thyme and marjoram has the protective and therapeutic effect on the toxicity produced by heterocyclic amine (PhIP) which may be due to their antioxidant property and free radical scavengers activity
Nedosa U. Anastasia
Full Text Available Problem statement: Iron is present in ferritin, the storage form of iron in the tissues; in the respiratory cytochrome enzymes; in hemoglobin of the blood and in the myoglobin of muscle Dihydroartemisinin (DHA has been shown to interact with heme groups in vivo and in vitro. This study investigated the effects of 5 day and 7day oral dihydroartemisinin treatments on the blood and tissues of the lungs, the heart, the liver, the intestines, the spleen and the kidney of Wistar albino rats. The dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin employed in the study were: A single dosage regimen of 1 mg kg-1; a repeated dosage regimen of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1. Approach: The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin interacted with the hemoglobin of the blood and the myoglobin of muscle to stimulate new haemopoesis in a concentration, repetition and time dependent manner in the tissues of the lungs, liver, spleen, intestine, heart and kidney of Wistar albino rats which was absent in the control rats. Results: Statistically significant increases were observed in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: These haemopoetic effects of DHA were greater and of longer duration in 5 day DHA-treatment rats than in those of the 7 day DHA-treatment rats.
Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required in humans and animals for many physiological functions, including antioxidant functions. The evidence to date indicates that zinc is an important element that links antioxidant system and tissue damage. Acetaminophen (AP), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic, produces hepatocyte and renal tubular necrosis in human and animals following overdose. In human, AP is one of the most common causes of acute liver failure as a result of accidental or deliberate overdose. Moreover, the initial event in AP toxicity is a toxic metabolic injury with the release of free radicals and subsequent cellular death by necrosis and apoptosis. This study was designed to evaluate the potential protective role of zinc aspartate in case of acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in rats. A total number of 32 adult male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups: group I (control group), group II (zinc aspartate treated group), group III (acetaminophen treated group; by a single oral dose of 750 mg/kg body weight) and group IV acetaminophen plus zinc treated group; (zinc aspartate was intraperitoneally given one hour after acetaminophen administration in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight). Serum levels of: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, xanthine oxidase (XO), glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were assessed in all groups. The resultO) were assessed in all groups. The results of this study showed that treatment with acetaminophen alone (group III) produced a significant increase in serum levels of the liver enzymes and direct bilirubin. Moreover, in the same group there was a significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine compared to the control group. In addition, there was a significant increase in XO and MDA and a significant decrease in GSH and NO level. Injection of rats with zinc aspartate after acetaminophen treatment could produce a significant protection against the toxic effect of acetaminophen, in comparison with that of acetaminophen treated group. In conclusion, biochemical evaluation revealed that zinc aspartate has a partial protective effect against acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity and oxidative stress. Accordingly, zinc may be an effective therapeutic agent in prevention and treatment of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and free radical production
Ashraf M. Mostafa, 1 Abdel Hamid A. Serwah, 2 Waleed S. Mohamed, 3
Full Text Available Background and aim of the study- Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. More than 400 traditional medicinal plants have been recorded for helping in controlling such disease. This study investigated effects of some plants used in Saudi Arabia and some other Arab countries as antidiabetic agents. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty adult male Albino rats were divided into six experimental groups each consist of twenty five rats. The first group was considered as a control group. The rest of groups were affected by induction of experimental diabetes by subcutaneous injection of Alloxan. The second group consisted of diabetic rats without any treatment. The third group was treated by the aqueous extract of mixture contains Foenugreek, Nigella and Termis seeds. The fourth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds, while the fifth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Foenugreek seeds.The sixth one was treated with the aqueous extract of Termis seeds with the administered dose of the plant extracts (100 mg/kg body weight.After four weeks of treatment, different biochemical parameters were performed including estimation of blood sugar level and serum insulin level. Pancreatic and liver samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both heamatoxylin and eosin as well as a special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of Langerhans. Results: The usage of the mixture or each plant alone corrected the glucose level and insulin level. Microscopically there was definite decrease in the number and diameter of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of medicinal plants in the different groups of this study greatly improved such cellular changes and the level of blood sugar level was corrected. The present results showed that the activity of the mixture was the best when compared with Nigella, Foenugreek and Termis seeds. Conclusions: The water extract of the mixture is the most powerful in amelioration hyperglycemia and most of all damage effects of Alloxan on the liver and texture, hematological parameters, and lipid profile. So it is advised to use the plant mixture as an antidiabetic agent rather than the use of each plant separately. Repeating such study with the use of variable doses may be helpful in better evaluation for the required doses.
Y.V. Kishore Reddy
Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the possible interference of cisplatin or carboplatin on oxidative enzymes in liver of albino rats. Rats were divided into three groups each consisting of eight animals. Group 1 (Control received 0.9% of normal saline. Group 2 (Treatment received cisplatin of 3 mg/kg body weight and Group 3 (Treatment received carboplatin of 10 mg/kg body weight. Injections were given intra-peritoneally to rats on 1st, 3rd and 5th day of experimentation. On 45th day of experiment, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Succinate dehydrogenases (SDH, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH activities in the cytosol fraction were assayed in liver of albino rats. Cisplatin or carboplatin treatment caused significant changes in activity levels of SDH, LDH & G-6-PDH in liver of experimental rats, when compared to control rats. From the study it may be concluded that, hepatic tissue is meeting its energy requirements through alternative pathways. In other words this can be viewed as functional or physiological adaptation of the liver in treated rats, may be due to stress caused by platinum-based anticancer drugs.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3 is commonly used in daily life but it can be potentially toxic. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of camel' milk against aluminum-induced biochemical alterations and oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of white albino rats. Approach: White albino male rats (230-250 g were divided into three groups of 10 rats: a control group treated with normal saline, the AlCl3-treated group and the camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group. The AlCl3 treated group received 0.5 mg kg-1 of AlCl3 orally. The camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group was fed 1 mL of fresh camel's milk 10 minutes prior to the administration of oral AlCl3. All rats were treated every day for 30 days. Liver and kidney biochemical serum parameters were analyzed. Lipid peroxidation, as determined by the tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and hydrogen peroxide (HP, and the oxidative stress status, as measured by glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity, were evaluated in the kidney and liver of treated rats. Results: Data showed that the oral administration of AlCl3 resulted in statistically significant increases in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, cholesterol and triglycerides; the total amount of protein and albumin were also significantly decreased. However, these parameters were within normal levels in the rats given camel's milk prior to AlCl3. Additionally, oral administration of AlCl3 induced lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney, which was indicated by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation biomarkers (TBARS and HP and a significant decrease in the activities of GSH, SOD and CAT. In all rats treated with camel's milk before being given AlCl3, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress parameters were within normal levels. Conclusion: Treatment with camel's milk prior to AlCl3 exposure alleviates AlCl3-associated hazards and protects the kidney and liver from AlCl3 toxicity.
Ajayi; Olubunmi Bolanle; Ajimoko; Yemisi Rufina
A study on the effect of low- protein diet on the toxicity of acute doses of Actellic-20 in the heart and brain of albino rats was carried out. Three weeks old weaning albino rats Rattus norvegicus were grouped into two and fed low and normal protein diet for four weeks after which they were given Actellic-20 at low dose levels (100ppm and 150ppm) by oral intubation. The rats were sacrificed at 24h, 72h, and 120h after dosing and the activities of Alkaline phosphatase, Alanine aminotra...
Kumar, Sanjay; Nirala, Jay Prakash; Behari, J; Paulraj, R
Reports of declining male fertility have renewed interest in assessing the role of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Testicular function is particularly susceptible to the radiation emitted by EMFs. Significant decrease in sperm count, increase in the lipid peroxidation damage in sperm cells, reduction in seminiferous tubules and testicular weight and DNA damage were observed following exposure to EMF in male albino rats. The results suggest that mobile phone exposure adversely affects male fertility. PMID:25241589
Background: The current study was carried out to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism on the histological structure of parotid salivary gland of the rat. Methods: Twenty male albino rats, weighing between 130-150 grams, were used which were divided into two groups; control group (A) and an experimental group (B), each containing 10 animals. Group B was rendered hypothyroid by giving methimazole (MMI) as 0.02% solution in drinking water daily for 3 weeks. On day 22 parotid and thyroid glands were removed, weighed and processed for light microscopy. Salivary gland was fixed in Bouin's solution, H and E and Toluidine blue stains were used for histological examination. Serum T /sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Results: In group A, serum concentration of T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH was 12.58+-3.05 mu g/ml, 4.72 +- 1.20 macro g/dl, and 0.25 +- 0.24 macro IU/ml respectively, where as in group B it was 2.14+-1.83 mu g/ml, 1.04 +- 0.44 macro g/dl and 1.44+-0.20 mu U/ml respectively. When differences between T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH of the groups were compared, the p-value was <0.000, <0.000, and <0.000 respectively. Mean thyroid weight significantly increased in group B (44.1 0+-1.66 mg) when compared to that in group A (33.70+-1.56 mg). These findings established the occurrence of hypothyroid state in the experimental group. There was a statistically significant reduction in the parotid gland weight in the animals of the experimental weight in the animals of the experimental group (38.30 +- 1.15 mg) when compared to the control group (39.60 +- 0.84 mg), (p<0.01). With light microscopy, group A showed a normal structure of parotid salivary gland, whereas multiple histological changes were observed in parotrid gland of the experimental group. Number of mast cells in parotid gland was also significantly higher (p<0.017) in group B (3.70 +- 1.11/mm/sup 2/) than in group A (2.25 +- 1.34/mm/sup 2/). Conclusion: The level of T/sub 3/ T/sub 4/ decreased and that of TSH increased in the experimental group when compared with control group; there were also changes in the histological structure of the parotid salivary gland. (author)
Khaled Al-Kubaisy; Luay Y. Al-Essa; Hamad Al-Jamain; Maissa T. Shawagfeh
This study evaluates the effect of acute (24 h) and subacute (3 weeks) treatment of the Teucrium polium decoction on liver and kidney functions and hematological parameters in rats. The toxicity study with this decoction did not produce mortality. No marked adverse alterations were observed in hematological and biochemical parameters during acute toxicity. In the subacute toxicity studies, red blood cells counts, Hemoglobin (Hb) and Packed Cell Volume (PVC) insignificantly decreased. However,...
This study aims to investigate the effect of aspartame (artificial sweetener) and sunset yellow (artificial colour) on monoamines content in different brain areas of the adult male albino mice (cerebellum, brain stem, striatum, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex), and also on testosterone level in serum.The present study showed that the daily intraperitoneal injection of aspartame with dose of 200 mg/kg caused significant increase in monoamines content and testosterone level at most experimental periods. The elevation of monoamines content may be due to increase in phenylalanine concentration which leading to increase the synthesis of monoamines. The elevation of testosterone level may be due to the increment of DA content in hypothalamus which led to increase the release of LHRH. On the other hand, the daily intraperitoneal injection of sunset yellow with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg caused significant decrease in monoamines content and non-significant change in serum testosterone level at most experimental periods. The decrement in monoamines content may be due to the decrease in its uptake by the neurotransmitters or decrease in its synthesis
Acrylamide (ACR) is an industrial neurotoxic chemical that has been recently found in carbohydrate rich foods cooked at high temperature. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the protective effects of rosemary extract against ACR-induced toxicity in rats. The experimental rats were divided into four groups included a control group, a group treated orally with rosemary extract by supercritical fluid extractor (150 mg/kg/day) for 14 days, a group treated orally with ACR (50 mg/kg/day) for 14 days and a group treated orally with rosemary extract + acrylamide for 14 days. The results indicated that treatment with ACR alone resulted in a significant decrease in the haematological parameters, triglycerides, insulin, creatine kinase and choline esterase while the concentrations of urea, creatinine, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were increased. Treatment with rosemary extract during ACR treatment reduced the effects induced by ACR. It could be concluded that rosemary extract exhibited a protective action against ACR-induced biochemical alterations in rats. For this reason, rosemary is recommended to be used in cooked food due to its palatable taste and prophylactic effect.
Full Text Available Background: Flunarizine is commonly used for migraine prophylaxis. It is a calcium channel blocker which blocks the L-type, T-type and N-type of calcium channels of pancreatic beta cells and other cells. It is believed to cause alterations in blood glucose levels secondary to its effect on calcium channel dependent insulin secretion.Objective: To evaluate the effect of flunarizine on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test (OGTTMaterials and Methods: Flunarizine and distilled water were given orally for 5 days to the test (T and control (C groups of 6 normal albino rats respectively (N = 6. OGTT was conducted on both the groups on the 5th day and blood glucose levels were analyzed at 0, 60 and 150 minutes. Data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and independent samples t -test.Results: Flunarizine caused hyperglycemia at all durations of the OGTT with a maximum difference of 26% at 0 hour. The extent of worsening was maximum at 60 - 0 minute interval in both the instances i.e. test group value compared with control (T-C and control values compared with itself (C-C. The comparison of extent of hyperglycemia revealed that T-C showed 17% (47mg/dl more hyperglycemia than the C-C (40 mg/dl.Conclusion: Flunarizine has hyperglycemic effects in normal albino rats when given for 5 consecutive days orally even at the dose used for prophylaxis of migraine in human beings. A word of caution is thus advised when using flunarizine in impaired glucose tolerance or diabetic subjects.
Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.
Full Text Available Endosulfan, a neurotoxic organochlorine insecticide and cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial, and agricultural situations. An effective dose (1/3rd , 1/6th of 0.28 ppm/kg-1 LD50 of endosulfan was injected to 4, 5 and 6 week of albino rats and its exposure was studied on histopathology of kidney after 15, 30 and 45 days of exposure. The histopathological changes in renal tissue of rats exposed to endosulfan by interdermal injection showed pronounced changes in the structure of renal corpuscles and caused renal necrosis. The examination revealed nephrotoxic effects on endosulfan treated rats. The effect of this pesticide on oxidative stress and its biodegradation were also explained. This review will be useful for the researchers working in the field of pesticides and will create an awareness regarding its hazardous effect.
Caffeine is an alkaloid (purine derivative) that contains flavonoids, where as aspirin, natural component of mammalian tissue ( acetylsalicylic acid) is one of the most commonly used non steroidal anti - inflammatory , and it is a necessary factor in the utilization of long - chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore, it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. Th e objective of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of caffeine (1,3,7 - trimethyl xanthine) 80 mg/kg b.wt. a nd aspirin ( acetylsalicylic acid) in the amelioration of the physiological and histological changes in stomach and intestine of rats exposed to gamma irradiation . Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1 - Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2 - Caffeine group: rats received caffeine ( 80 ml/Kg body weight )via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days, 3 - Aspirin group: rats received aspirin (150 mg / kg body) via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days , 4 - Caffeine + Aspirin group: rats received caffeine a nd aspirin treatment, 5 - Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated at 8 Gy , 6 - Caffeine + Radiation group: rats received caffeine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation at 8 Gy, 7 - Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received aspirin during 21 days before w hole body gamma irradiation , 8 - Caffeine + Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received caffeine parallel to aspirin for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 24 hrs post irradiation. The results demonstrated that rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation showed a significant increase in alanine amino transferase (AL ) , aspartate amino transferase ( AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease in total protein indicating liver injury. A significant increase in urea, creatinine, Na+,and K+ were recorded indicating kidney damage. Alteration of liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant increase in the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities indicating oxidative stress. In addition, radiation caused inflammatory, fibrotic and cellular damage to the intestine and stomach. A demonstration of caffeine and aspirin resulted in significant improvement in hepatic and renal functions associated with reduction in oxidative stress and amelioration of the histological changes caused by gamma irradiation. It could be concluded that the antioxidant properties of caffeine and aspirin might modulate ?-radiation-induced oxidative stress and histological disorders
anil kashinath mali
Full Text Available Abstract: There are many causes of non-lactation after delivery in some dairy mammals and human female. In present investigation study was carried out to find out effect of Ageratum conyzoides leaf extract on histological structure of non lactating mammary gland of wistra white albino rat female. Ageratum conyzoides is supposed to induce lactation in non-lactating mammalian female including woman1. The effect of extract on non-lactating mammary gland after seven and fourteen days was observed on non lactating mammary gland showed small size mammary gland with no secretion. After 7 days the epithelial lining showed growth and increasing size of secretary glands. Ducts were also seen increasing a proliferation. After 14 days secretory gland showed more tortures structure and secretion was accumulated in to lumen and gland. The 14 days treated female rat mammary gland showed more secretary activity indicating lactation was induced in lactating gland of mammary gland1. Key Words: albino rat, Phytochemical, Gangotry species, Ageratum conyzoides
Full Text Available Plants play an important role in the life of human, as the major source of food, as well as for the maintenance and improvement of health and for the elimination of the enemies since ages. Plants are the basic source of knowledge of modern medicine. The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of aqueos extract of aerial parts of Cinnamon zeylanicum are evaluated in alcohol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Silymarin (100mg/kg was given as reference standard. The aqueos extract of aerial parts of Cinnamon zeylanicum have shown very significant hepatoprotection against alcohol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats in reducing SGOT, SGPT, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and GGT and levels of total bilirubin and total protein were investigated and showed an increase in alcohol induced rats when compared to control. The extracts of the test plant exhibited significant (p < 0.05 hepatoprotective activity against the alcohol induced liver models by improving liver function which was indicated by reduction in the levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, total bilirubin and total protein.
The effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of collagen in bone was studied in young female albino rats after a single injection of 3H-proline. Both specific and total radioactivities of hydroxyproline in the total collagen of the bone were found to decrease in the protein-deficient animals, indicating decreased rate of collagen synthesis. In the urine the amount of hydroxyproline excreted and total radioactivity of 3H-hydroxyproline were greatly decreased. The results of the present investigation therefore clearly indicate decreased synthesis and catabolism of collagen in bones of protein deficient animals compared to controls. (auth.)
Devipriya, D.; S. Gowri; Nideesh, T.R
Medicinal plants play a key role in human health care. Pterocarpus marsupium is one of the plants used in treatment of diabetes mellitus and the present study was aimed to assess hepatoprotective effect of the plant against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I was normal control group; Group II, the hepatotoxic group was given CCl4 (2ml/kg body weight intraperitoneally); Groups III received CC14 + Plant extract (100 mg/kg b.w orally); Group IV...
Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Ganiyu Adeosun; Abdul-Waheed Ademosun; Gassal Raheem; Godwin Avwioro
Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of t...
Sakr, Saber A.; Zowail, Mohamed E.; Marzouk, Amera M.
The present study investigated the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiepileptic drug, sodium valporate (SVP) in albino rats and the effect of saffron aqueous extracts. Treating rats with SVP caused a significant increase in the chromosomal aberrations either structural or numerical and decreased the mitotic index. Besides, animals administered SVP showed DNA damage appeared in the single strand breaks (comet assay). Testis of SVP-treated rats showed many histopathological ch...
Ezz-Eldin E-Abdalla*, Zienab M. Gebaly**, Abd-Elghany A.Moustafa*, Ibrahim M. Amr
Full Text Available Sildenafil citrate (SC or Viagra is an oral medication widely used to treat erectile dysfunction and maintains a sufficient erection for satisfactory sexual performance. The side effects of sildenafil citrate have been reported.Aim of the work: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of sildenafil citrate in the therapeutic dose in different regimes. Materials and methods: This study included forty senile male albino rats divided into four equal groups. Group (A was used as a control group (did not receive any treatment. Group (B receive the therapeutic dose of Viagra (1.5 mg suspended in 1.5 ml distilled water orally using a gastric gavage as daily dose for one week. Group (C received the therapeutic dose of Viagra 3 times / week for two weeks. Group (D received the therapeutic dose of Viagra each week for 4 weeks. Half of the treated rats of the different groups were sacrificed, other half were sacrificed after two weeks from the last dose as recovery groups (RB, RC and RD. The testes were dissected and blocked in paraffin. Hematoxylin and Eosin (HX&E and Periodic acid Schiff stain (PAS were applied and serum testosterone levels in the different groups were evaluated.Results: The present study showed that the therapeutic dose of sildenafil caused several histological findings in the germinal epithelial of the rat testes including degeneration , detachment of the spermatogenic cells especially the primary spermatocytes with addition thickening of the basement membranes of the seminiferous tubules and increased interstitial Leydig cells. The serum testosterone of the treated rats showed increased level of testosterone especially in group D. The recovery rats showed relative improvement of parameter toward normal.Conclusion: Sildenafil produce morphological and histological alterations in the testes.
Full Text Available This study evaluates the effect of acute (24 h and subacute (3 weeks treatment of the Teucrium polium decoction on liver and kidney functions and hematological parameters in rats. The toxicity study with this decoction did not produce mortality. No marked adverse alterations were observed in hematological and biochemical parameters during acute toxicity. In the subacute toxicity studies, red blood cells counts, Hemoglobin (Hb and Packed Cell Volume (PVC insignificantly decreased. However, other blood indices, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC were not changed. There was significant (p<0.001 increase in white blood cells. Serum glucose level change was insignificant, while the level of serum cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly (p<0.001 reduced. The Activity of Serum Transaminases (ALT and AST showed non significant changes, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were found non significant changes. In conclusion the statistical analysis of our results indicates that treatment with T. polium did not cause any attension that might suggest the presence of pathological damage at the dose investigation.
Full Text Available Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae is traditionally used for its hair growth promoting activity in rural community of Indian sub-continent. Studies were therefore carried out to evaluate petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous base and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats for thirty days. The time required for hair growth initiation and completion was significantly (P < 0.01 reduced. Minoxidil 2% solution applied topically served as positive control. The treatment was successful in bringing 73% of hair follicles in anagenic phase by application of 5% methanolic extract as comparable to standard. Bioactivity guided fractionation was carried out of methanolic extract and was fractionated as aqueous and non-aqueous extract and screened pharmacologically. Water insoluble methanolic extract was found to be more potent and reduced the hair growth initiation and completion time significantly (P < 0.01 as comparable to standard. It holds the promise of potent alternative for minoxidil.Keywords:
Eteng, M U; Ibekwe, H A; Amatey, T E; Bassey, B J; Uboh, F U; Owu, D U
The effect of oral administration of vitamin C on serum lipids and electrolyte profile were investigated in albino rats of the Wistar strain. Eighteen (18) albino rats of opposite sexes weighing between 150-300 g were used for the study and randomly assigned on the basis of body weight and litter origin to three study groups of six animals each. The control group received via oral route a placebo (4 ml of distilled water), while test groups 1 and II received 100 mg/kg body weight and 200 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C in 2.5 ml and 5.0 ml of the vehicle via gastric intubation respectively. The administration of vitamin C for 30 days produced a significant [P < 0.05] decrease in total cholesterol (TC), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the test groups versus control but there was no change in triglycerides (TG) and High density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Computed HDL:LDL ratio also increased in the treatments relative to the control. Except for computed HDL:LDL ratio all the other changes were dose dependent and there was a slight non-significant increase in all electrolytes (Na(+), K(+); and HCO3(-) ions. The study confirms the hypocholesterolaemic effect of vitamin C and that Vitamin C has no adverse effect on serum electrolytes. It is suggested that its administration in moderate to high doses may protect against atherosclerosis and hypertension. PMID:17242728
Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan
This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21?mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19?mm at concentration of 500?µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats. PMID:25224162
Hasan, Zora; Zumrut F. Biber, Muftuler; Ilknur, Demir; Ayfer Yurt, Kilcar; Cigdem, Ichedef; Perihan, Unak.
Full Text Available In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are hig [...] hly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae) which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.
Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H; Abdelhafez, S; Ismail, T A
Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts on some pathogenic microorganisms so we evaluated antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts of clove and cinnamon using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 40 adult healthy male albino rats divided into four groups: Group 1: negative control group (received intragastric saline solution daily); Group 2: injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S. aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis then received intragastric saline solution daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension then received intragastric clove extract 500 mg/kg/day; and Group (4): injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received intragastric cinnamon 500 mg/kg/day. Five rats from each group were sacrificed after 1 and 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozymes activity and nitric oxide production, lymphocyte transformation test, as well as counting of both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirmed the efficacy of clove extract as natural antimicrobials and suggested the possibility of its use in treatment of such bacterial infections. PMID:25816407
Avocado oil, extracted from the pulp of the fruit, is rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, linolenic, oleic acids and the monounsaturated fatty acid. It also contains B-sitosterol, B-carotene, lecithin, minerals and vitamins A, C, D and E. Avocado oil lowers the blood levels of serum lipids and has antioxidant properties as a free radical scavenger. Male albino rats were divided into 5 groups. 1- Control group: rats not subjected to any treatment, 2- Avocado treated group: rats received avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3- Irradiated group: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 4- Avocado + irradiated group: rats received avocado oil for 21 days then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation with 7 Gy and 5- Radiation + avocado group: rats were exposed to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then received avocado oil for 21 days. Avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) was given to rats, receiving a standard diet, for 21 days before exposure to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then the treatment was continued for 10 days after irradiation. Several investigations were carried out such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), lipid profile and blood sugar. High significant increase in MDA was observed and treatment with avocado before irradiation caused significant increase in GSH, CAT and SOD and significant decrease in MDA as compared to the irradiated groups. The results also showed that treatment with avocado oil significantly diminished the radiation-induced alterations observed in the levels of lipid profile and glucose. The results demonstrated that whole body gamma irradiated rats showed significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose. By studying the lipid profile, significant increases in cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C levels were recorded while significant decrease was recorded in HDL-C. The significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with significant decrease in glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) indicated oxidative stress. The administration of avocado oil resulted in significant improvement in hepatic function and lipid profile which associated with reduction in oxidative stress. The histological study showed that administration of avocado oil before irradiation led to partial improvement in hepatocytes and also preserved hepatic architecture while after irradiation, loss of architecture, fibrosis and fatty infiltration were observed. These results indicated that avocado oil can enhance the improvement of liver tissues in gamma irradiated rats. It could be concluded that avocado oil may have a bioprotective effect on radiation-induced oxidative stress and might modulate gamma radiation-induced hepatotoxicity possibly through its antioxidant properties
Full Text Available The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological indices of the exposed rats were examined on days 10, 20, 30, and 60 post administrations. White blood cell, red blood cell and hemoglobin counts peaked between days 20 and 30. This observation was markedly so for the higher doses, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, in contrast to the 500 mg/kg dose. The platelet count however indicated a gradual increase within the study period. Observed changes for these indices from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system.
Full Text Available In this study the plant Cannabis sativa seeds petroleum oil extract was investigatedfor anti- inflammatory activity on albino rats. The inflammation was firstly obtained byusing carrageenan suspension 0.1 ml of 10% saline injected at the sub plantar region ofthe left limb for inducing a local acute oedema. A decreased in oedema size was reportedafter 24 hours for the rats pretreated with carrageenan30 minutes before injection withsuspension( 4.56, 0.59 and 0.93 for control, 1ml/kg per day and 0.5ml/kg per day groupsgiven C. sativa seed extracts respectively., compared to Indomethacin standard antiinflammatorydrug which reported a decrease in oedema size diameter to 0.55mm, which
Full Text Available Feronia limonia Swingle, though mentioned as a high utility medicinal plant in Ayurveda for the treat-ment of liver disorders, but has no scientific investigations. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of extracts of Feronia limonia fruit on albino rat liver, damage induced by single dose of carbon-tetrachloride (1.5 ml/kg, p.o.. The oral administration of extracts (500 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days has shown significant hepatoprotective action. There is reduction in the elevated levels of serum enzymes such SGOT, SGPT, ALP and Serum bilirubin and elevation in level of GSH, GPX,GLY and total protein in Feronia limonia protected rats.
Full Text Available Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage, mercuric chloride (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of virgin olive oil and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 2 weeks of experimental period. Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of virgin olive oil resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and glutathione S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by virgin olive oil supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of virgin olive oil. The results clearly demonstrate that virgin olive oil treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.
Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746
Provitamin D, cholecalciferol, undergoes hydroxylation at the 25 and the 1? position in the liver and the kidney, respectively, before it turns into a hormonally active form regulating calcium homeostasis. The main purpose of the present study is to assess the potential of the 1? hydroxyvitamin D3 analogue to aggravate the ability of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to cause hepatotoxicity in albino rats. For this purpose, four groups of male albino rats, each of five, were used as follow: control group (G 1) received no treatment, CCl4 treated group (G 2) received CCl4 at a dose of 0.2 ml/100 g body weight in sunflower oil (1/1) v/v ratio two times per week for three weeks subcutaneously, 1? hydroxyvitamin D3 treated group (G 3) received a total dose of 5 ng/g body weight of 1? hydroxyvitamin D3 dissolved in propyl alcohol divided into six doses each given twice weekly for three weeks via the subcutaneous route, and CCl4 + 1? hydroxyvitamin D3 treated group (G 4) received the same dose of CCl4 and 1? hydroxyvitamin D3 concomitantly as previously described. Liver tissues from sacrificed animals were fixed in 10% formalin before sectioning and stained with eosin and hematoxyline then were examined histopathologically. Sera from control and treated animals were separated from blood and examined for ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase and LDH levels. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G, bilirubin, creatinine, pholin, A/G, bilirubin, creatinine, phosphorous and Ca levels were also monitored. Data from the present study showed that administration of 1? hydroxyvitamin D3 aggravated CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as evidenced by the exacerbation of the rise in serum ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase levels. The analogue, however, had no effect on serum liver enzymes in CCl4 untreated rats. Though, CCl4 caused significant impairment of kidney function as shown by the rise in serum creatinine and urea levels which were differentially affected by the analogue. In conclusion, the 1? hydroxyvitamin D3 compound used widely in the treatment of hypocalcemia of different etiologies may aggravate the hepatotoxic potential of liver injurious agents and this should be considered in patients suffering from liver cirrhosis associated with hypocalcemia
Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and to compare it with a standard hypolipidaemic drug simvastatin. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (100-200 g were randomized into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The groups were treated as follows: Group A: normal diet (ND; Group B: HFD (vanaspati ghee + coconut oil mixture in ratio of 3:2 at 10 ml/kg/day; Group C: HFD+ AEBSL (100 mg/kg/day; Group D: HFD + AEBSL (200 mg/kg/day; Group E: HFD + simvastatin (1.8 mg/kg/day. Lipid profile was estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. AEBSL showed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL levels and significant (p<0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in hypercholesteromic rats (Group C and Group D. AEBSL 200 mg/kg/day found to be more effective than AEBSL 100 mg/kg/day. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01 and increases the percentage of protection AEBSL treated animals. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves have excellent lipid lowering potentiality.
The aim of the study was to investigate the bacteriological effects of different diets by Streptococcus mutans counts on 50 Swiss albino rats inoculated with Streptococcus mutans CCUG 6519 serotype c. A powdered form of standard basal diet meeting rats' nutritional needs was used in combination with diets containing different percentages of starch, sucrose and xylitol for 90 days. Dental plaque samples were collected at the end of the experiment and S. mutans and total bacterial counts w...
The influence of ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression in male albino rats was investigated in the present study. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four equal groups; control group (receiving no treatment), ginger group where the rats received ginger orally at a dose of 15 g/rat/day for 120 consecutive days, gamma radiation group which subjected to a single 6 Gy whole body gamma radiation and gamma radiation plus ginger group where each rat after taking daily 15 g of ginger for 120 consecutive days was subjected to 6 Gy whole body irradiation. Complete blood pictures and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) were estimated and spleen tissue was also examined histologically. The data obtained revealed that exposure to 6 Gy of gamma radiation caused significant decrease in the body weight, spleen weight, IgG, IgM, erythroide and leucoid elements and produced histological damage in spleen tissue. On the other hand, ginger as a protective agent, caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by irradiation especially immunoglobulins leading to the conclusion that ginger supplementation for 120 days caused modulation of the humoral immune response in irradiated rats. In conclusion, these findings indicated that ginger has the regulatory effect against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression.
Zahra, K; Khan, M A; Iqbal, F
The aim of this project was to determine the effect of 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory, locomotory and short-term memory formation in male albino mice. Five weeks old, male albino mice were used as the experimental animals in order to demonstrate the effect of O. basilicum's extract on learning and memory. Each male albino mouse was weighted and orally treated either with 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of O. basilicum leaf extract or with commercially available saline solution (Otsuka, Pakistan) for 7 days. Behavioral observations were made by applying a series of neurological tests (Elevated plus maze, Light and dark box, Open field and Rota rod). Dose supplementation continued during neurological testing. It was observed that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract improves neuromuscular co-ordination and male albino mouse performance in open field, light dark box and during novel object test when compared with control group. We concluded that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract has the potential to improve neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory behavior, object recognition ability and transfer latency in male albino mice and can be safely administrated orally. PMID:25082078
Ahmet Ozkaya; Muammer Bahsi; Alpaslan Dayangac; Okkes Yilmaz
The aim of this study was to evaluate fatty acids compositions, oxidative stress levels and some antioksidant levels in the testes of 24 h fasted rats and linalool application. Adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned as Control (C), 24 h fasted (24 h F) group and added linalool (120 mg kg-1) during 24 h fasted (24 h F+L) groups. After applications, the animals were killed and the testes were excised for determination of tissue malondialdehyde, Glutation Peroxidase (GSH-Px), the activity o...
Wheat bran was mixed with standard rat diet in order to assess the role of high fiber diet on the damage induced by 4 Gy gamma irradiation in male rats. Immediately after exposure to irradiation, the male albino rats were fed on diet containing 10% wheat bran ad libitum. After 15 days, the rats were decapitated then blood picture, levels of calcium, glucose, folic acid, vitamin B12 , triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), testosterone and insulin hormones were determined. The results denoted that wheat bran had an improvement effect on the radiation damage on blood picture, calcium level, vitamin B12 , folic acid and testosterone hormone, which most probably due to the effect of the high antioxidant action of wheat bran that might improve the gastro intestinal metabolism.
Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves that promotes vasodilatation and improves blood flow through arteries, veins and capillaries and has antioxidant properties as a tree radical scavenger. This study was designed to evaluate the protective efficacy of EGb 761 against gamma radiation and/ or alcohol induced disorders in the liver of male albino rats. EGb 761 was given orally at a dose level of 100 mg/ kg body wt for 4 days, absolute alcohol was administered orally at a dose level of 1ml/ rat for 4 days and the dose of gamma radiation was 6.5 Gy. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA). reduced glutathion (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in the liver tissue. In irradiated and/ or alcoholic animal groups, there was a highly significant decrease in liver NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD. On the other hand, significant increase in MDA content was observed. Treatment with EGb 761 before irradiation and/or alcohol causes significant increase in NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD and significant decrease in MDA content compared to the irradiated and/ or alcoholic groups. Based on these observations, one could conclude that pre-treatment of rats with EGb 761 could partly protect liver from gamma rays and/ or absolute alcohol injurious and this protection may be induced, at least partly, throtion may be induced, at least partly, through antioxidant mechanisms
The levels of total glutathione GSH, GSSG and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were studied in the liver of adult albino rats subjected to 3-fold external ?-irradiation throughout 2 weeks at the overall dose of 0.75 Gy after 15 h, 2 and 5 days from the last irradiation. Some animals were injected intraperitoneally with the pantothenate containing complex > 3 times on days 1-3 before the irradiation. The radiation related decrease of GSH, GSH/GSSG and the total glutathione level was prevented by the prophylactic administration of the complex and probably at the expense of the activation of the G-SH biosynthesis and/or transport in the liver by the CoA biosynthetic precursor. (author)
Eman G.E. Helal,Fatma Ahmed Eid and Amira M. Salah EL-Din Ahmed El
Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia, hyperlipoproteinemia or dyslipidemia is the presence of elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and / or lipoproteins in the blood. Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities are extremely common in the general population and are regarded as a highly modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease due to the influence of cholesterol, one of the most clinically relevant lipid substances in atheroscterosis. Aim of the work: This study aimed to evaluate the possible treatment and protective effect of triphala on hyperlipidemic rats. Material and methods: Six groups (5rat/group of female albino rats (Rattus albinus were used. The 1st group used as control, in the 2nd group hyperlipidemia (25% fat & 2% cholesterol was induced for 3 weeks only then sacrified , the 3rd group was hyperlipidemic rats for 3 weeks then left for other 3 weeks without any additional treatment as a recovery period, the 4th group served as hyperlipidemic group for 3 weeks then treated with triphala for another 3 weeks (25 mg/100 gm b. wt., the 5th group was hyperlipidemic (25% fat & 2% cholesterol for 6 weeks and the 6th group served as hyperlipidemic rats for 6 weeks, and at the same time given triphala (25 mg/100 gm b. wt. by oral administration. Results: The biochemical parameters showed highly significant increase in the body weight, serum glucose, ASAT, ALAT, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin and total lipids in liver .Many histopathological and histochemical changes were detected in liver tissue of the hyperlipidemic rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with triphala ameliorated the biochemical parameters, histological and histochemical results. Conclusion: It is recommended to use triphala in diets for hyperlipidemic patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.
The effect of chronic and acute doses of aspirin and prostaglandins F2? and E2 individually on the oxidation of glucose through Embden Meyerhof-TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathways and some key glycolytic enzymes of liver were studied in male albino rats. Studies were extended to find the combined effect of PGF2? and E2 with an acute dose of aspirin. There was increased utilisation of both 1-14C glucose and 6-14C glucose on aspirin treatment. However, the metabolism through the EM-TCA pathway was more pronounced as shown by a reduced ratio of 14CO2 from 1-14C and 6-14C glucose. Two hepatic key glycolytic enzymes viz. hexokinase and pyruvate kinase were increased due to aspirin treatment. Withdrawal of aspirin corrected the above impaired carbohydrate metabolism in liver. Prostaglandin F2? also caused a reduction in the utilisation of 1-14C glucose, while PGE2 recorded an increase in the utilisation of both 1-14C and 6-14C glucose when compared to controls, indicating that different members of prostaglandins could affect metabolisms and differently. Administration of the PGs and aspirin together showed an increase in the utilisation of 6-14C glucose. (auth.)
Eman G. E. Helal(1 Samir A.M.Zaahkouk
Full Text Available Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow, food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect might explain hyperactivity of children that was claimed associated with consumption of food colorants. The study revealed that administration of both natural and synthetic food colorants (permitted dose significantly increases serum AST and serum urea. All colorants with the exception of sun-set yellow significantly increase serum total bilirubin. While, chlorophyll, fast-green and sun-set yellow were significantly increase serum ALT. Some of the colorants used have a retard destructive effect on some vital organ functions, which extends even after the recovery period. Therefore, large quantities and /or long periods of colorants administration should not be used as additive in man's diet or as a drink. Hence, these colorants should restrictly be used in nutritional therapy. And more caring must be done prevent our children to eat or drink these colorants with much amounts or for long period.
Studies were carried out to investigate the efficacy of serotonin as a potential radioprotector and/or therapeutic agent. Irradiation of male albino rats was applied in single doses at 6.5 and 10 Gy levels. The effect was traced on FSH, LH, PrL and testosterone in blood and testicular tissue. The data obtained revealed marked and significant protection both serum and testicular tissue for the lower dose level of 6.5 Gy. Serotonin proved to exert nonsignificant control of hormonal changes due to the higher dose level of 10 Gy. Serotonin administered after radiation exposure, showed partial curative role for changes in LH, whereas it failed to exert any significant therapeutic role on changes in FSH, PrL and tester one induced by either of the two applied dose levels. It could be concluded that serotonin played only a good role as radioprotector on all investigated hormones in serum and testis at the radiation dose level 6.5 Gy. 8 figs., 8 tabs
Sabry, Marwa Mohammed; Elkalawy, Seham Abd-Elhamed; Abo-Elnour, Rahma Kamal El-din; Abd-El-Maksod, Dalia Fathy
Aim of work: To demonstrate the bleomycin induced histological changes in the lung and the possible protective and/or therapeutic effect of stem cell therapy. Materials and methods: Study was carried out on 36 adult male albino rats, classified into 4 groups: group I (control), group II (bleomycin treated group), group III (early stem cell treated group: immediately after bleomycin), group IV (late stem cell treated group: 7 days after bleomycin). Sections were taken at the 14th day of experiment. stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Massons trichrome, immunohistochemichal stains for ?-SMA & PCNA. Sections were examined by light & immunofluroscent microscopy. Area percent of collagen fibers, area percent & optical density of ?-SMA immunopositive cells were measured as well as the number of H&E and PCNA stained pneumocytes type II was counted. Results: Group II showed, thickening of septa, extravasation of blood, dividing pneumocytes type II cells with acinar formation, cellular infiltration, fibroblast cells, almost complete loss of normal lung architecture in certain fields, consolidation and replacement of the lung tissue with fibrous tissue in other fields. Restoring of lung tissue with significant decrease in mean area % of collagen fibers, ?-SMA immunopositive cells were detected in group III. Conclusions: Early treatment with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) immediately after bleomycin administration showed a significant reduction in fibrotic changes, however the late treatment with BMSCs (7 days) after bleomycin administration showed non significant results. PMID:24921026
Fifty mature male albino rats were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of using crude garlic for one month on general heath condition and to compare between garlic intakes pre and post-irradiated stressed rats.Fresh minced cloves (8-10) of garlic were added to the rat diet twice per day for 30 days in garlic group and for 7 and 15 days prior to and after 4 Gy irradiation in pre and post-irradiated garlic groups, respectively. The results denoted that the extensive use of garlic in food improved the general condition in non-stressed rats while in irradiated stressed rats, the immediate intake of garlic after radiation was more efficient in ameliorating the undesirable radiation effects, where some biochemical and hematological parameters were examined in pre and post-garlic intake such as Hb, RBCs, platelets, T3, testosterone and insulin.
Biswas, S; Murugesan, T; Maiti, K; Ghosh, L; Pal, M; Saha, B P
Methanol extract of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds (SPSE) was evaluated for its diuretic activity in Wistar albino rats. The SPSE was administered at the graded doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight. The parameters which were taken into account during the experimental on each rat were: total urine volume (corrected for water intake during the test period), body weight before and after the experiment, and the concentration of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions in urine. The total urine volumes of the SPSE (600 mg/kg)-treated rats were evaluated nearly two and half fold then compared with the control (saline treated) group. Excretion of cations (sodium and potassium ions) and anions (chloride ions) also increased significantly with respect to the control group. The diuretic effect was comparable with that of the standard drug Furosemide. The increase of cations in the urine on treatment with Strychnospotatorum seed extract (SPSE) was dose-dependent. This effect supports the use of the Strychnos potatorum seeds as a diuretic in folk remedies. PMID:11824523
Prashanth, S.; Kumar, A. Anil; Madhu, B.; Rama, N.; Sagar, J. Vidya
Aims: To find out the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interaction of carbamazepine, a protype drug used to treat painful diabetic neuropathy with glibenclamide in healthy albino Wistar rats following single and multiple dosage treatment. Materials and Methods: Therapeutic doses (TD) of glibenclamide and TD of carbamazepine were administered to the animals. The blood glucose levels were estimated by GOD/POD method and the plasma glibenclamide concentrations were estimated by a sensitive RP HPLC method to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Results: In single dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations of rats treated with both carbamazepine and glibenclamide were significantly increased when compared with glibenclamide alone treated rats and the mechanism behind this interaction may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport of glibenclamide by carbamazepine, but in multiple dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations were reduced and it may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport and induction of CYP2C9, the enzyme through which glibenclamide is metabolised. Conclusions: In the present study there is a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between carbamazepine and glibenclamide was observed. The possible interaction involves both P-gp and CYP enzymes. To investigate this type of interactions pre-clinically are helpful to avoid drug-drug interactions in clinical situation. PMID:21701639
Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the effect of petroleum ether (60-80, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Plumbago rosea leaves on the estrous cycle and to identify the estrogenic activity of active acetone and ethanol extracts in female albino rats. Methods : Plant extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at two dose levels: 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The effective acetone and ethanol extracts were further studied on estrogenic activity in rats. Histological studies of the uterus were carried out to confirm their estrogenic activity. Results : The acetone and ethanol extracts were most effective in interrupting the normal estrous cycle of the rats (P< 0.05, < 0.01, < 0.001. These later exhibited prolonged diestrous stage of the estrous cycle with consequent temporary inhibition of ovulation. The antiovulatory activity was reversible on discontinuation of treatment. Both the extracts showed significant estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Conclusion : The acetone and ethanolic extracts of P. rosea leaves have an antifertility activity.
Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the potential toxicity of ethanol extract of the medicinal plant Solanum villosum (Mill. Methods: Ethanol extract of S. villosum administered orally at ranges of doses 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg/bw to assess its impact on biochemical indices of Wistar albino rats. Hematological profile, biochemical assays, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation assays were compared between control and experimental animals. An acute toxicity test was performed in rats at different concentration of ethanol extract of S. villosum in order to establish the approximate oral lethal dose (LD 50. Results: No mortality occurred during the two weeks experimental period, in both control and experimental groups. The changes in biochemical parameters were statistically insignificant at p<0.05 levels. The treated rats showed that very less toxic symptoms only after 800 mg/kg/bw. These observations were supported by hematological and liver function markers. Conclusions: The medicinal plant Solanum villosum can be administered orally at a dose range of 200 mg/kg/bw was very effective and without any side effects. Ethanol extract of S. villosum is not toxic and therefore it may be used safely in clinical trials. It is the first documented report about the plant Solanum villosum (Mill in the toxicity assessment study.
Background: Administration of quinolone therapy is controversial during growing age as stated by earlier authors. The flouroquinolones are currently not indicated for young children because of arthropathy and adverse effect as new born shown by studies. However the effects of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ on prenatal conceptus have remained undocumented. The present study was designed to compare the effects on conceptus after maternal ingestion of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ using Wastar albino rats. Methods: Ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ was administrated to pregnant female albino rats. Ciprofloxacin with a dose of 20 mg/Kg bodyweight and ZnCl/sub 2/ 120 micro g/100 gm bodyweight two times therapeutic dose for 10 days (from day 8-18 of pregnancy). Each animal was weighted on day 1, day 8 and day 18 of pregnancy. Abortion resulted on day 18th of pregnancy. Each group of pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation by over dose of either anaesthesia, abdomen opened, uterus and both cornua containing conceptus identified, removed, there weight recorded, crown rump length was measured and was compared with similar value of control animals. The results were statistically analysed to find out the significance. Results: The ciprofloxacin induces a mordanting effect as obviated by increased basophilia. Our study reveals that ciprofloxacin administered in maternal, decreased maternal body weight to 38.4+-0.9 gm. However simultaneous ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained the bodimultaneous ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained the body weight to 41.4+-0.7 gm, while ZnCl/sub 2/ increased the body weight to 46.5+-2.25 gm. The body weight and Crown Rump length (CR Length) in conceptus decreased by 4.52+-0.10 gm and 3.06+-0.09 Cm respectively. That ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ administration maintained the body weight and CR length by 5.46+-0.09 gm and 3.79+-0.13 Cm respectively. That ZnCl/sub 2/ administration increased the body weight and CR length by 6.71+-0.05 gm and 4.15+-0.08 Cm respectively. Conclusion: Prenatal administration of Ciprofloxacin caused reduction in growth rate and CR length, and ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained body weight and CR length and growth of the rat conceptus. (author)
Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken, to evaluate the protective effect of sodium selenite against mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in experimental rats. Female Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: sodium selenite (1mg/ kg b.w; ip, mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of sodium selenite and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 10 days experimental period. Results: Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of sodium selenite resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH -Px and glutathione S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by sodium selenite supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of sodium selenite. Conclusion: The results clearly demonstrate that sodium selenite treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.
Full Text Available This study was directed to explore the hazardous effect of occupational exposure to air pollutants arised from benzene station. A total of 48 albino rats were calssified into three groups each of sixteen rats. Groups one and two were kept at a benzene station for 60 and 120 days, respectively and the third group was kept as a control under laboratory conditions. After termination of the experiment, animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical investigations. Sera were separated and used to check the effects of air pollutants arising at a benzene station on the liver and kidney functions as well as on the immune status of the body. Results indicated a pronounced time-dependent reductions in RBCs, Hb, PCV, total and differential (neutrophil and lymphocyte leucocytic counts. Total protein, albumin, globulin and immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM showed marked lower levels in animals exposed to air pollutants in the benzene station. Organ function tests revealed elevations of the levels of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT that indicate impaired liver function compared to those of the corresponding control. Similar results were recorded for creatinine kinase, urea and creatinine indicating toxic effects on the heart and kidneys.
Sahar Mohamed Kamal
Full Text Available Calcium channel blockers are increasingly used for the treatment of hypertension. Hypertension is an important risk factor for liver damage and several other circulatory abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of lacidipine in a irradiation-induced hepatocellular damage model in Deoxyc Orticosterone Acetate (DOCA-salt-induced hypertensive model in rats. In this study, animals were divided into five groups as follows: control (Group 1, hypertensive (Group 2, irradiated (Group 3, irradiated and hypertensive (Group 4 and irradiated, hypertensive and lacidipine-treated (Group 5. At the end of the experiment, the livers were removed and its homogenates were biochemically examined. Significant differences were found between values of all groups (p<0.05. Group 3 and particularly Group 4 showed significant increase in lipid peroxidation and Nitric Oxide (NO and serum tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-? with a significant reduction in serum level of alanine amine transferase (ALT enzyme and in superoxide dismutase in red blood cells lysates. Lacidipine-treated group (5 showed a significant reduction in elevated systolic blood pressure together with a great protection of ALT and SOD enzymes from the destructive effects of irradiation and hypertension. Additionally, this CCB reduces hepatic NO and serum TNF-? levels that were increased in groups (2,3,4. The present study suggests that lacidipine has some important protective effects on liver of hypertensive irradiated albino rats.
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the acute oral toxicity potentials of certain herbal veterinary preparations in albino Wistar rats. In the sighting study, the test substances were administered in sequential manner to one animal each at 2000 and 5000 mg kg-1 body weight followed by four animals at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight in the main study; whereas the test materials with well documented traditional use were evaluated at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight. The treated animals were observed for mortality, untoward clinical/toxic signs, alterations in body weight gain and necropsy findings during the study. The treated animals survived throughout the study period and did not reveal any treatment related major abnormal clinical signs at the tested dose levels for all the products. The overall percent body weight gain in rats treated with the herbal products was found to be normal during the 14 day observation period. On necropsy, no abnormalities were observed. In conclusion, acute oral toxicity testing of screened herbal veterinary products did not produce any treatment-related adverse effects upto the dose level of 5000 mg kg-1 body weight.
Chandra shekar Rajan
Full Text Available Anxiety is defined as a psychological state characterized by abnormal cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. Anxiety is normal reaction to stress. However, when it becomes excessive, falls under the classification of an anxiety disorder. Even though Benzodiazepines (BZDs are the major class of compounds used in anxiety; long-term use of the same may cause many adverse psychological and physical effects. In the present study, we have attempted to evaluate the acute anxiolytic effect of ethanolic extract of Saraca asoka Bark (EESAB in Wistar Albino Rats. The rats weighing 150200gm were divided into 5 groups containing 6 animals for each dose and were housed for 10 days prior to testing. In this study, control (1% Gum acacia, test drug EESAB (100, 200 & 400mg/ kg and standard drug Diazepam (1.0mg/kg were administered orally. One hour after oral administration of the drugs / vehicle, the experiment were conducted by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM. Our results suggest that, behavioral dis-inhibitory effects of EESAB exhibited anxiolytic activity at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg compared to control.
P. Vikrama Chakravarthi
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg/celecoxib @ 10mg/kg (in case of COX?2 assay on 7th day of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days. All groups of lotus seed extracts were revealed anti-inflammatory activity in Carragenin induced inflammation as well as in COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay. While comparing all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed extracts, exhibited more pronounced inhibition than other groups. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 157-159
Moideen K; Haja Sherief, S.; Sengottuvelu S.; Sivakumar, T.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Coccinia grandis root extract against paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress in wistar albino rats. The ethanolic extracts of Coccinia grandis (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) were administered orally to the animals and hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (750mg/kg). The extracts were administered orally by suspending in 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose solution. Silymarin (25mg/kg) was given as reference...
Ganesan, Balaraman; Anandan, Rangasamy; Lakshmanan, Pindath Thandayan
Stress can be defined as physical and psychological modifications that disrupt the homeostasis and the balance of organisms. Stress is known as one of the most important reasons of several diseases. In the present study, the anti-stress effect of betaine was evaluated with reference to its antioxidant property. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups such as control, betaine, restraint stress (6 h/day for 30 days), and betaine?+?restraint stress. The oxidative damage was assess...
Mo?seenok, A G; Gurinovich, V A; Ovchinnikov, V A
Mature albino rats were exposed to gamma-rays in a sublethal dose. A decrease of 22-35%, 13-39% and 29-37% was observed in the incorporation of 14C-pantothenate, 4'-phosphopantetheine and CoA, respectively, into the extracted fraction of free vitamin. After the first hour of observation specific activity of CoA decreased by 33% and corresponded to a decrease in the activity of ATP: D-pantothenate-4'-phosphotransferase. PMID:6359248
Konate?, K.; Souza, A.; Aworet Samseny, R. R. R.; Batchelili, B.; Marlaine, B.; Lamidi, M.; Barro, N.; Millogo-rasolodimby, J.; Nacoulma, O. G.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba. (Malvaceae) an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally hepatics affections in albinos Wistar rats. Animals were treated by gavage during 28 days with different doses of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida alba. (75, 100, 150 mg/kg) suspended in 35% ethanol. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethano l for 28 days results an ac...
Stauss, Harald M.; Rarick, Kevin R.; Leick, Katie M.; Burkle, Jason W.; Rotella, Diane L.; Anderson, Michael G.
Experimental techniques allowing longitudinal studies of vascular disease progression or treatment effects are not readily available for most animal models. Thus, most existing studies are destined to either study individual time points or use large cohorts of animals. Here we describe a noninvasive technique for studying vascular disease that is based on in vivo imaging of the long posterior ciliary artery (LPCA) in the iris of albino rats. Using a slit-lamp biomicroscope, images of the LPCA...
Inas S. Ghaly
Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated, each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1 the gestation period (subgroup one, (2 the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two and (3 animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal.
Uboh, F. E.; Akpanabiatu, M. I.; Alozie, Y.; Edet, E. E.; Ndem, J. I.; Ebong, P. E.
Comparative effect of vitamins A and E on gasoline vapours haematotoxicity, growth-depression and weight-loss was assessed in male Wistar albino rats. The rats were exposed to gasoline vapours (17.8±2.6 cm3/h/m3/day), 6 h/day, 6 days/week for 20 weeks. Vitamins A (retinol) and E(?-tocopherol) at prophylactic dosage (400 and 200 IU/kg/day, respectively) were orally administered to the rats separately, in the last 2 weeks of exposure. The levels of haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit or Packed Cell...
Das, Koushik; Pratim Chakraborty, Partha; Ghosh, Debidas; Kumar Nandi, Dilip
The present study has been designed to find out the protective effect of aqueus extract of Terminalia arjuna against dehydration induced oxidative stress and uremia, protection by plant extract in male Wister strain albino rats, and therefore to find out the scientific basis of local use of Terminalia arjuna bark extract by village ayurved doctors to protect the progressive kidney disorder (renal failure) relating to dehydration and other related problems. Water withdrawing for 15 days in mal...
D. P. Oparinde
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the possible effects of aqeous extract of Moringa oleifera on blood glucose and lipid profile in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats.Materials and Methods: Forty four (44 adult healthy Albino rats of both sexes divided into three groups (A=23, B=10 and C=11were used for this study; they were kept under standard conditions in the Animal House of the Department of Biomedical Sciences of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Nigeria. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats in groups A and B with 5-day of alloxan administered intraperitoneally. Only rats in group A were given aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera for a period of nine days. Body weight and fasting blood glucose were checked at 5th and 14th day of the experiment. Parameters of lipid profile were determined in rats at day 14.Results: Average fasting blood sugar for groups A, B and C were observed to be 10.10mmol/l, 9.84mmol/l and 4.23mmol/l respectively at day 5. There was a reduction in fasting blood glucose in rats in groups A and C while there was an increase in fasting blood glucose in rats in group B when checked at day 14. Rats in group B (alloxan induced DM without Moringa oleifera supplement had lowest value of HDL-Chol while their values of LDL-Chol, TC-Chol and Tg were the highest. There was significant lower value of HDL-Chol in group B than rats in Group A (p<0.05 and rats in group C (p<0,05.Conclusion: There was a hypoglycaemic effect of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera. It also has capacity to ameliorate dyslipidaemia in diabetic rats.
Full Text Available The objective of current study was to evaluate deleterious effects of a potential combination of cefpirome, a member of the latest class of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, in combination of ?-lactamase inhibitor, sulbactum. To assess the toxicity profile of fixed dose regimen Pirotum (Cefpirome+Sulbactum in 2:1 ratio, a repeated dose subacute toxicity study was conducted on Swiss albino mice and Wistar rat (male and female. Three different dose levels (30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1 of combination were administered for twenty eight days. Physical parameters, hematological parameters and biochemical parameters related to liver toxicity and nephrotoxicity were evaluated as end point parameters. Findings of present study were also supported by hematological as well as histopathology parameters. Data of current study indicated that Pirotum exerted no deleterious effect on blood, liver and kidney function as no alteration was observed in biochemical parameters at any dose level.
Full Text Available The seed products of Carica papaya have been proven as potential male contraceptives in laboratory animals. In this study, chromosomal aberrations were investigated in spermatogonia of albino rats and rabbits, following oral administration of Methanol Sub-Fraction (MSF of Carica papaya seeds. The experimental animals were divided into three groups, each group had 5 male Wistar rats and rabbits. In the first group, double distilled water served as negative control. The second group received monomeric acrylamide at 72.5 mg kg-1 body weight; two doses with a gap of 3 h served as positive control and in the third group, the MSF was orally administered at 500 mg kg-1 body weight (10 x contraceptive dose; CD; two doses with a gap of 3 h. The chromosomal fragments, dicentrics, rings, exchanges, damaged chromosomes and total chromosomal aberrations in MSF treated rats and rabbits were not significantly different when compared with negative control animals, however, were found to be reduced significantly (p<0.001 when compared with positive control group. The results suggested that the MSF did not induce chromosomal aberrations.
Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of follicles. This may help elevate the socio-economic status of the country. Thus, the present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of A. indica and M. azedarach seed extracts on reproduction of albino rats.
J.K., Roop; P.K., Dhaliwal; S.S., Guraya.
Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino [...] rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group) after oral administration of polar (PF) and non-polar (NPF) fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05) in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02) and follicles in various stages (I-VII) of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05) the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF) and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF) treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively). Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of follicles. This may help elevate the socio-economic status of the country. Thus, the present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of A. indica and M. azedarach seed extracts on reproduction of albino rats.
Two greenable albino mutation lines W24 and W27 induced by 60Co gamma rays treatment on seeds of a thermosensitive genie male sterile (TGMS) rice c.v 2177S were investigated on their usefulness in two-line hybrid rice. The leaf color of W24 and W27 was similar and could be expressed in different temperature conditions. The first three leaves of W24 and W27 were ablinotic at extending, but changed into green after the fourth leaf extended. The greenable leaf area were about 40% for the first leaf and 90% for the third leaf. No significant differences were detected in morphoagronomic characters and styler extrusion rate between the mutation line and 2177S, which suggested that the mutation leaf color may be a useful marker in eliminating contamination of selfed seeds in two-line hybrid rice
Full Text Available Osama Mohamed M Sarhan,1,2 Rehab M Hussein31Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Fayoum University, Al Fayoum, Egypt; 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute dosing with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs and identify potential ultrastructural alterations in the liver and kidney and their effect on blood parameters in the albino rat.Methods: Twenty rats were used to assess the acute effects of AgNPs. Rats in the treatment group were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 mL of distilled water containing AgNPs at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg body weight followed by a second injection after 48 hours. Control rats received two 0.5 mL doses of distilled water only. After 3 days, blood samples were collected, and the rat kidneys and livers were extracted and processed for electron microscopy to investigate for hematologic and histopathologic alterations.Results: Renal tubules showed swollen epithelium with cytoplasmic vacuolization, thickening of the basement membrane, and destruction of some mitochondrial cristae. Podocytes showed elongation and swelling of their primary and secondary processes. The basement membrane of the capillary tufts became thicker. The hepatic tissue showed narrowing of the sinusoids, swollen hepatocytes with hypertrophied nucleoli, and accumulation of fat globules in the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The hepatic sinusoids showed hypertrophied endothelial and Kupffer. Destructed cristae of some mitochondria, endosomes, and larger lysosomes filled with Ag-NPs were also observed in the Kupffer cells. Significant increases were observed in white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, granulocytes, and hemoglobin. There was a significant increase in serum creatinine, urea, and aspartate and alanine aminotransferases.Conclusion: To the best of the authors' knowledge, the ultrastructural changes in renal and liver tissue observed in this study have not been described before. Our results suggest that injection of AgNPs could have severe cytotoxic effects on the structure and function of these organs.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, kidney, liver, blood, toxicity, rat
Lotfy Sayed*, Esam Eldin Abdel Hady*, Hosam Eldin Hussin
Full Text Available The increased exposure to radiation in medicine or industries increases the hazards of radiation on various organs of the human body. The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of anti oxidant (vitamin C against the effect of radiation on rat testes. Thirty adult albino rats were divided into three groups, each contained ten rats .The first group (G.1 was exposed to 415 r (G.1' or 622 r (G.1" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week. The second group (G.2 was exposed to 415 r (G.2' or 622 r (G.2" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week, in addition to vitamin C equivalent to 86.9 mg./liter orally for the two sub groups for the same period . The third group (G.3 was a control group. The examined testes of G.1 showed damaged germinal epithelium with remaining some layers of spermatogonia. There was no affection of spermatocytes, mature sperms, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, the lumen contained little sperms and debris of germ cells (G.1' .While for (G.1" there was marked damage of the seminiferous tubules with irregular outline, destruction of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids with pyknotic type of nuclear degeneration and the lumen was devoid of mature sperms. The examined testes of the (G.2 showed evidence of almost complete recovery for G .2' and marked recovery for G.2" It is concluded that anti oxidants were essential to patients exposed to x-ray , to guard against its hazards.
Full Text Available Background Chronic stress increases glucocorticoid levels and accelerates reduction in Leydig cells functions and numbers. Chronic stress models in the working place comprise sleep deprivation, sedentary stress, and physical stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various work stress models, such as stress from paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD, immobilization, and footshock, on serum testosterone levels and number of Leydig cells in male albino rats. Methods This study was of experimental randomized post-test only with control group design using 24 male Wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The sample was divided into 4 groups: K1 (control, K2 (PSD, K3 (immobilization and K4 (footshock, receiving treatment for 25 days. Measured parameters were serum testosterone level and Leydig cell number. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by post hoc LSD. Results Mean serum testosterone levels (0.07 ± 0.08 ng/mL and Leydig cell numbers (4.22 ± l0.96 were lowest in the PSD stress model. Serum testosterone levels differed significantly between controls and PSD group (p=0.014, while there was a significant difference in numbers of Leydig cells between footshock stress and PSD (p=0.011 and between the three stress groups and controls (p=0.006. Conclusion This study demonstrated that PSD, immobilization and footshock stress significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and number of Leydig cells in male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The mechanism by which PSD affects serum testosterone is still unclear.
Konate?, K.; Oue?draogo, M.; Ouattara, M. B.; Dibala, I. C.; Mavoungou, J. F.; Lepengue?, A. N.; Souza, A.; Batchi, B. M.; Nacoulma, O. G.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae) an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally liver disease in albinos Wistar rats. Animals received by gavage 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of extract daily for a period of 28 days. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethanol for a period of 28 days in rats showed an activity of liver marker enz...
Marisa Pascale Quintino
Full Text Available Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled as follows. Controls (C, animals treated with the drug vehicle (destilled water; experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3, animals treated with 35, 105 or 315 mg/kg b.w. pyrazinamide by gavage (oral route once daily up to the term (20th day of pregnancy. Drug or vehicle volume was always 0.5 ml. Body weight gain was followed up every week. At term, upon sacrifice (in excess of anesthesia and histerectomy, the following parameters have been studied: number of implantations and reabsorptions; intrauterine deaths; number of living foetuses and of placentae; weights of concepts and of placentae; major foetal malformations; maternal mortality index. No significant effects of pyrazinamide on rat pregnancy have been observed regarding the maternal body weight gain, the weights of concepts, the number of implantations and reabsorptions and the weights of placentae and foetuses. Also, no deleterious effects have been noticed regarding major foetal malformations, intrauterine deaths or maternal mortality. With the highest pyrazinamide dosis employed (315 mg/kg b.w., however, a significant lowered uterine weight was recorded. Although otherwise safe, a high-dose regimen of pyrazinamide during rat pregnancy can induce a slight yet significant reduction of uterine weight.La pyrazinamida es un fármaco muy utilizado para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, pero no hay datos en la literatura respecto a sus potenciales riesgos para la preñez. Debido a esto, en este trabajo tratamos ratas preñadas durante toda la gestación (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20 con 3 dosis de pyrazinamida (35, 105 o 315 mg/kg, una vez al día para una primera observación sobre los efectos de la pyrazinamida durante la preñez. Las ratas control recibieron el vehículo de la droga (agua destilada. Los resultados mostraron que no hubo alteraciones significativas en cuanto a la evolución del peso corporal de las ratsa madres, al peso de los fetos, al número de implantaciones y reabsorciones, ni tampoco en cuanto a los pesos de placentas y fetos. Además, no se observaron malformaciones fetales mayores, muertes intrauterinas o aumento de la mortalidad materna. El único efecto significativo observado con la dosis de 315 mg/kg de pyrazinamida, fue una reducción del peso uterino
Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.
Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters cognition, learning memory and emotional responses, causing mental disorders like depression and anxiety and stress in rats. Methods: The experiment was carried out with 12 healthy albino Wistar female rats weighing about 150-180gms. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of six animals each. Group I (control, Group II (Stressed Group. Group II rats are placed in plastic tanks for 45minutes for15 days. Temperature of water was maintained at 20?C. During stress phase, the animals will be trained for forced swim test, behavioral changes observed by open field apparatus for emotions, and eight arm maze for memory & leaning, elevated plus maze for anxiety. Results: Forced swim stress causes to a significant change (p<0.05 on cognitive functions: motivation, learning and memory. Forced swim stress is the factor damaging the hippocampus causes repeated immobilization and produce atrophy of dendrites of pyramidal neurons and neuroendocrinological disturbances, controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Repeated stress in the form of forced swimming activates the free radical processes leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation in many tissues. Conclusion: This study reveals the effect of repeated forced swim stress causes wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. The earlier findings have reported that chronic and acute stress procedures weaken working memory functions in rats. There are very fewstudies on sub acute forced swim stress on working memory status of the animal. The study was undertaken to assess the various behavioral changes by applying sub acute forced swim.
Full Text Available Pathological anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders in humans. Anxiolytic drugs, mostly belonging to the benzodiazepine (BDZ group and serotonergic groups are widely used to treat anxiety. However the clinical uses of these established drugs are associated with lot of adverse effects. Therefore the development of new agent possessing anxiolytic effect with minimal or no adverse effects would be of great importance in the treatment of anxiety related disorders. Very high importance is given to the phytoconstituents by the scientific community for a new anxiolytic agent which is devoid of side effects/ minimal adverse effects. In this research work the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica (300 mg/kg body weight was administered oral for ten days to Wistar albino rats for screening its anxiolytic effect by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM and Light Dark Arena (LDA test. The results of our study demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica has significant anxiolytic activity in EPM and LDA models of anxiety.
Thamizh Selvam N
Full Text Available Management of Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest challenges among the developing and developed countries. The use of herbal medicine is steadily growing in the management of various diseases all over the world. The present study has been taken up on a poly herbal formulation -SPHAG, a combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre for its hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activity in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. The four groups containing 6 animals in each group, like Healthy Control, Disease Control, SPHAG lower dose(250 mg/kg.b.wt. and SPHAG higher dose (500 mg/kg.b.wt. were maintained. The oral administration of SPHAG had showed significant reduction in the glucose level and HbA1C level when compared with Disease Control. Biochemical parameters comprising of liver function and renal function tests had shown improved health status in SPHAG treated groups over Disease Control group. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase levels in blood and tissues including liver, kidney and heart were found to be decreased in the Disease control group. SPHAG treated animals showed significant improvement on the antioxidant enzyme levels and the efficacy is found to be dose dependent. Thus, the present study has demonstrated hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of SPHAG in the experimental animals. The synergistic contribution of major phyto-constituents of SPHAG i.e. flavonoids and phenols are expected for its biopotency and efficacy.
Full Text Available Introduction: Ocimum sanctum, when given orally in one of the studies showed wound healing property. Since majority of the agents tried for wound healing are topical, the present study was planned to compare the oral and topical Ocimum sanctum for wound healing property. Methods: Excision and incision resutured wound models in albino rats were used to study complete epithelisation time, wound contraction, histopathological study and tensile strength of the wounds. Results: The animals were divided into four groups of oral test, control and topical test, control with 6 animals in each group. The time taken for 50% wound contraction and complete eipthelisation by oral Ocimum sanctum, topical Ocimum sanctum was significantly (p<0.001 less compared to oral and topical controls. Histopathological studies showed early inflammatory changes, dense collagen and neovascularisation in wounds treated with oral and topical Ocimum sanctum, compared to respective controls. Mean tensile strength of oral and topical Ocimum sanctum treated wound was significantly great (p<0.001 compared to controls. Interpretation and Conclusion: Oral and topical Ocimum sanctum promoted better granulation tissue, early and complete epithelisation and better tensile strength compared to both controls.
Solanine is a toxic compound produced in nightshades family as potato,tomato and eggplant when exposed to light.The current study was carried out on 18 female postmenopausal albino rats to investigate the effect of solanine on the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.Animals were classified into 3 groups feeding on balanced diet only (GI) or replaced by two third with small pieces of diseased potatoes for 2 and 4 weeks (GII,GIII) respectively . Serum levels of arthritic bio markers were investigated as the estimation of erythrocytes sedimentation rate ( ESR) , C-Reactive Protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA),Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?),Interleukin-6( IL-6) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in all groups. There was a significant positive increase in the levels of ESR, CRP , MDA , TNF-?, IL-6 , and IgG among different groups depending on potatoes intake. There was positive correlation between the serum levels of CRP and TNF-? ,Il-6 and IgG.However, a non significantly positive correlation between serum level of CRP and the level of MDA was observed. The data of the present study showed that old age and postmenopausal suffering from arthritis and joint swollen must eliminat or avoid the nightshades plants to alleviate the joint pain and also decrease the destruction of the tissues
U. A. Utoh-Nedosa
Full Text Available Problem statement: Five dosages of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA which included 1mg kg-1; a repeated dose of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1 were administered orally to albino rats for 5 days. The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin treatment significantly elevated the total white cell count (pApproach: By increasing the population of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes (which engage in chemo tactic response; microbial killing; microbial ingestion and antibody production in the blood, dihydroartemisinin demonstrated that it stimulates increase in their population and uses them as part of its own arsenals of warfare against endoparasites (like malaria parasites and pathogens. Results: The results of this study show that dihydroartemisinin stimulated a lot of new white blood cell production by haemopoetic sites of the body The increases in the total white blood cell count; the percentage neutrophils count and the percentage lymphocyte counts were significant at pConclusion: The results of the study suggest that the phagocytic and immunological activities of the body?s white blood cell population are important components of the efficacious Plasmodium Schizonticidal actions of Dihydroartemisinin in malaria treatment.
Full Text Available Vitex-negundo Linn (Verbenaceae, a large aromatic shrub with typical five foliolate leaves pattern has been claimed to possess anticonsulvant activity apart from many medicinal properties. Maximal electroshock seizures (MES in albino rats were used to study anticonvulsant activity of Vitex-negundo leaf extract. The ethanol leaf extract of Vitex-negundo was administered orally in graded doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg and 2000mg/kg p.o in the experimental model and the effects were compared with Diphenylhydantoin in MES method as standard and normal saline as control. The Vitex-negundo in the doses 1000 mg/kg has significant effect and 2000mg/kg p.o showed protection against MES to a highly significant extent. Test drug in the dose (1000 mg/kg, po showed 60% protection in clonic seizures. It also decreased number and duration of convulsions significantly.These findings suggested that Vitex-negundo possesses anticonvulsant activity against MES induced convulsions. Vitex-negundo may be useful as an adjuvant therapy along with standard anticonvulsants and can possibly lower the requirement of Diphenylhydantoin and other anti convulsant drugs, Ethanol leaf extract of vitex ningundo significantly (P<0.01 decreased the duration of tonic extensor phase in MES-induced seizures. TheVitex-negundo extract showed a maximum inhibition (80% mortality against MES-induced seizures.Thus, it has been concluded that ethanolic extract of Vitex-negundo possesses anti-epileptic activity.
Donga, Shilpa; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B; Ashok, B K; Mishtry, I U
In the present study, toxic effects of powder of seeds of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze were evaluated for a period of 3 months in albino rats. Control group received distilled water. The powder suspension was orally given to the treated group at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Parameters like body weight, weight of important organs, biochemical, hematological parameters, bone marrow cytology and histopathology of vital organs were studied. Test drug administration did not affect the body weight, organ weight and bone marrow cytology to a significant extent. Among the 18 hematological parameters studied, significant changes were observed in three parameters, namely, significant decrease in hemoglobin content, red blood cell count and hematocrit. Of 16 biochemical parameters studied, significant changes were observed in 5 parameters, namely, decrease in total protein, albumin, bilirubin and significant increase in very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride. The histopathology of 18 organs revealed changes such as fatty changes, glomerular congestion and tubular hemorrhage in the kidneys, decrease in the cellularity of the spleen, epithelial disruption in jejunum, decrease in spermatogenesis in the testis, epithelial proliferation in ventral prostate and decrease in epithelial proliferation in the uterus. Thus, toxicity profile obtained from the present study shows that B. monosperma seeds are likely to produce toxic effect when administered in a powder form. PMID:22131770
The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).
We have reported that atrazine (ATR, 200 mg/kg x 30 d) causes increased serum estrone (E) and estradiol (E2) in male wistar rats (Toxicol. Sci. 2000, 58:50-59). This study evaluates the short-term effects of ATR on E, E2 and their precursors in the steroidogenic pathway. Sixty-da...
Sakr, Saber A; Zowail, Mohamed E; Marzouk, Amera M
The present study investigated the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiepileptic drug, sodium valporate (SVP) in albino rats and the effect of saffron aqueous extracts. Treating rats with SVP caused a significant increase in the chromosomal aberrations either structural or numerical and decreased the mitotic index. Besides, animals administered SVP showed DNA damage appeared in the single strand breaks (comet assay). Testis of SVP-treated rats showed many histopathological changes. A significant decrease in seminiferous tubules and their epithelial heights diameters and inhibition of spermatogenesis was recorded. In addition, the number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Biochemical results revealed an increase in malondialdhyde (MDA) which is lipid peroxidation marker and a significant decrease in the level of serum antioxidant enzyme, catalase (CAT) and reducing antioxidant power (RAP). Animals given SVP and saffron showed an improvement in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by SVP. Moreover, MDA decreased and CAT and RAP increased. It is concluded from the present results that the ameliorative effects of saffron extract against SVP-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats may be due to the presence of one or more antioxidant components of saffron. PMID:25276476
KARAKA?, Alper; CO?KUN, Hamit; KIZILKAYA, Fevziye Umut
Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue that informs the brain about the fat stores of the body. In this study, we examined the effects of timed leptin injections on spatial memory performances of adult and juvenile male and female Wistar rats with the Morris water maze test. We applied the injections and conducted the training trials for 4 days. On the fifth day after leptin injections, the experiments were performed. The activities were recorded and analyzed with the Noldus Ethovisio...
Parathion in technical or formulated form at a sub-lethal dose of 1/20 LD50 was applied orally or dermally at 2-day interval for three months to determine its effect on RNA, DNA and protein content as well as RNA ase and DNA ase activity in different organs liver, brain and kidneys of adult male albino rats. Also, serum GOT, GPT and ALP activity as well as serum total soluble protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin and uric acid content were determined in adult male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). In addition, the present studies were undertaken to investigate different biological activities of the above parameters of black nightshades (Solanum nigrum L) methanolic extract. Two kinds of experimental works were taken off (antioxidants and protective). The results showed that technical and formulated parathion increased RNA and protein content but the content of DNA was insignificantly decreased in all rat organs tissue (liver, brain and kidneys) relative to control. The activity of RNA ase was also stimulated. In case of liver and kidney functions the present data observed that serum GOT, GPT and ALP activity was stimulated but total soluble protein, albumin and globulin content was decreased but the urea, uric acid and bilirubin content of serum was increased. Also, liver lipid peroxidation was elevated significantly either by technical or formulated parathion (ingested orally or induced dermally). It should be noted that formulated parathion ingested orally that formulated parathion ingested orally was the most effective, but the technical one had the lowest toxicity. The results of the present studies showed that crude methanolic extract of black nightshades ripe fruits has a strong antioxidant activity as showed by DPPH, nitric oxide scavenging, total reducing power, Fenton's reaction and total antioxidant capacity assay. Finally the the methanolic extract of the present medicinal plant observed a valuable influence as a protective agent in vivo in serum, liver, brain and kidneys damage of parathion intoxicated rats represented by improvements the all previous parameters which were disturbed by the both forms of parathion either induced orally or dermally
Full Text Available Acute renal failure is defined as rapid loss of renal function and has been associated with a high mortality rate. Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury of the kidney is the most prominent cause of intrinsic acute renal failure. Activation of reactive oxygen species is implicated in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. This study investigated the anti-ischemic effect of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC against renal I/R injury by its effect on reactive oxygen species. Wistar albino rats were administered different doses of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC before renal ischemia, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. Serum creatinine, Serum Cystatin C, serum oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were measured for renal dysfunction. Serum and tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels were measured. Renal sections were analyzed for histological grading of renal injury. Hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC signiï¬cantly reduced increased creatinine, Cystatin C, serum oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Ocimum canum also increased kidney superoxide dismutase activity, catalase and reduced glutathione levels and reduced the malondialdehyde levels. Hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum reduced histological renal damage. These results suggest that the hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum reduces renal dysfunction and injury caused by renal I/R.
Kathleen G. Bersabal
Full Text Available Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus root extract, with a bronchodilating agent, is traditionally used for treating asthma. To provide a scientific basis for such claim, this study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the formulated syrup of such extract by determining its acute oral toxicity level, approximate effective dose, the significant difference in the total leukocyte count (TLC, total eosinophil count (TEC and histopathologic evaluation of lung tissue. Female Swiss mice were used to determine the toxicity at selected fixed dose levels of 5, 50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg. Approximate Effective Dose (AED determination was conducted using female albino rats with a logarithmic increase by 0.6 intervals. Animals were administered with alumovalbumin and desired dose of root extract, respectively. Blood samples were collected for leukocyte and eosinophil counts. It was found that acute oral toxicity was at 2000mg/kg and 5000 mg/kg. AED has significant influence on TLC and TEC at dose levels of 15.85, 251.19, 1000 and 3981.07 mg/ kg. Analysis of Variance showed a significant difference in the mean of the decrease in the total leukocyte count due to the formulated syrup of root extract, Salbutamol (positive control and plain syrup (negative control. Tukey's multiple comparison tests, t-test and histopathologic evaluation on the group treated with Salbutamol and root extract formulation showed no significant difference on the TLC and TEC. Salbutamol was not significantly different from the formulated syrup. Hence, both treatments were effective as bronchodilating agents.
Nabila A. R. Abdel Motaal
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the effect of colchicine administration on the histology of spleen and testis of albino rat. Colchicine was given in a daily dose of 3mg/kg body weight for five days. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 4 and 7 days following treatment. Histopathological studies of the spleen and testis were undertaken. Histological examination of spleen showed that colchicine caused histopathological changes in spleen manifested by massive haemorrhage, highly expanded red pulps accompanied by reduced white pulps with multi small degenerated areas, disturbed architecture, degenerated areas wer occupied by the hemorrhagic areas, prominent haemosiderin deposition, increased number of megakaryocytes in red pulp and subcapsular edema. These histopathological changes depend on the duration of colchicine intake. Histological examination of the testis one, four and seven days post treatment with colchicine showed dilatation and congestion of interstitial blood vessels, moderate degeneration of spermatogoneal cells, debris of spermatozoa could be detected in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. The testis also suffered from interstitial edema with signs of fatty degeneration and degeneration of spermatogoneal cells lining some seminferous tubules. Complete destruction with hypocellularity in the spermatogenic layers in some seminiferous tubules and others contained only the debris of germ cells and disturbed nuclei of spermatogoneal cells with appearance of giant cells with highly reduced number of Leydig cells which contained pyknotic nuclei were also noticed in some examined sections. These results indicate that colchicine is considered as a toxic drug to the spleen and testis at double therapeutic doses as indicated by the histological changes.
Sayeed Mohammed Abu et al.
Fertility control is an issue of global and national health concern, many study have been done for the male contraception. The use of medicinal plants in different sorts of disease including fertility problem is widespread throughout the world. Though considerable progress has been made the development of highly effective, acceptable and reversible methods of contraception among females, progress possibilities on males are still slow and limited. With recent progress towards a better understa...
El-Anany, A. M.
Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend a reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intake as a means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and CVD. The main objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of feeding blended oils consisting of coconut oil (CNO with different proportions of Tiger nut oil (TNO on serum lipid levels in Albino rats. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of the blended oils. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with coconut oil at the volume ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 25:75, 10:90 and 0:100. Fifty-six male albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 8 rats each according to the oil type. The blended oils were fed to rats for a period of up to 10 weeks. Total cholesterol (T-Ch, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch, and triglycerides (TG, were determined. The atherogenic Index (AI was calculated. The results showed that non-significant changes in all nutritional parameters were observed between the control group and the rats fed with the tested oils. The results also indicate that coconut oil had 86% saturated fatty acids. On TNO contains 66% oleic acid. Therefore, blending coconut oil with tiger nut oil can reduce the proportions of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in CNO. The rats that were fed blended oils showed significantly reduced levels of serum cholesterol as compared to those fed CNO. The HDL levels were marginally enhanced in the rats that were fed blended oils. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were controlled when TNO/CNO proportions varied between 25/75 and 70/30. This was reflected in the calculation of the atherogenic index. Similar changes were observed with serum triglyceride levels.
La hiperlipidemia es un factor de riesgo predominante para la aterosclerosis y las enfermedades cardiovasculares asociadas (ECV. Las directrices internacionales emitidas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud recomiendan una reducción de grasas saturadas y colesterol, como medio para prevenir la hipercolesterolemia y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. El principal objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar los efectos de una alimentación conteniendo mezclas de aceites, que consiste en aceite de coco (CNO con diferentes proporciones de aceite de chufa (TNO, sobre los niveles de lípidos en suero en ratas albinas. Se realizó un análisis GLC para determinar la composición de ácidos grasos de los aceites mezclados. Los aceites se obtuvieron mezclando aceite de chufa con aceite de coco en las relaciones:100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 25:75, 10:90 y 0:100 (volumen:volumen. Cincuenta y seis ratas albinas macho se dividieron aleatoriamente en 7 grupos de 8 ratas cada uno, según el tipo de aceite y se alimentaron durante un período de hasta 10 semanas con las mezclas de aceites. Se determinó el colesterol total (T-Ch, colesterol en lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL-Ch, colesterol en lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL-Ch, triglicéridos (TG y el índice aterogénico (IA. Los resultados mostraron cambios no significativos en todos los parámetros nutricionales entre el grupo control y las ratas alimentadas con los aceites ensayados. Los resultados también indican que el aceite de coco tiene un 86% de ácidos grasos saturados. TNO por otro lado contiene un 66% de ácido oleico. Por lo tanto, una mezcla de aceite de coco con aceite de chufa reduce la relación de ácidos grasos saturados a insaturados del CNO. Las ratas alimentadas con las mezclas de aceites mostraron niveles significativamente mas bajos de colesterol en suero en comparación con los de CNO. Los niveles de HDL mejoraron ligeramente en las ratas alimentadas con las mezclas de aceites. El colesterol total y colesterol LDL estuvieron controlados cuando las proporciones TNO / CNO variaron entre el 25/75
Full Text Available Effect of Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae (Raw Garlic Extract (RGE was studied on free amino acids (FAA level in female albino rats. The garlic extract was tested in three different doses 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight daily as low, medium and high dose respectively for a period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The significant (P<0.01 increase in Free amino acid (FAA level was observed when rats were fed with low and medium dose but when rats were fed with 4ml/kg body weight of garlic extract there was a not significant increase in Free Amino Acid (FAA level was observed.
Considerações sobre o músculo estriado na desnutrição proteica estudo experimental, em ratos albinos Considerations about the striate muscle in protein deprivation: an experimental study in albino rats
Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento
Full Text Available Os efeitos da desnutrição sobre o músculo «gastrccnemius plantaris» de ratos albinos, limitando-se à genitora a dieta em 6,7% de proteínas e aos seus produtos, em 3,2% após o desmame, foram observados em microscopia óptica e eletrônica e comparados com os controles. Os animais, em número de 40, foram distribuídos em grupo hipoproteico e normal, sendo a metade de cada grupo sacrificada aos 15 dias e a restante, após o desmame, aoa 30 dias. Observamos acentuada redução ponderai dos ratos com alimentação bipoproteica, chegando a cerca de 50% em relação aos normais. As fibras do músculo estudado, nos ratos desnutridos, apresentaram importante redução de seus diâmetros. As reações histoquímicas revelaram que tanto as fibras do tipo I como as do tipo II estavam comprometidas, ocorrendo maior redução nas últimas. Fibras do tipo II, de pequena espessura, com aspecto de fibra P (fetal foram encontradas nos animais subnutridos de 15 dias, denotando retardo na maturação destas fibras. As avaliações em ultramicroscopia não mostraram alterações específicas dia ultra-estrutura muscular, revelando apenas intensa redução do calibre das fibras, quando comparadas às dos ratos normais. Concluímos pela hipoplasia e não atrofia do tecido muscular dos animais submetidos a desnutrição pré e pós-natal. O presente estudo, somado a outros nos quais foram analisados a ponta anterior da medula e o nervo periférico de ratos desnutridos, permite-nos considerar que na privação proteica ocorrem retardo no desenvolvimento e hipoplasia da unidade mootra. Conjecturamos a possibilidade de, na amiotrofía espinhal progressiva da infância (doença de Werdnig-Hoffmann, acontecer também hipoplasia das fibras do tipo II e não atrofia, aventando a hipótese de, nesta doença, haver alterações no metabolismo proteico.The effects of undernutrition on the «gastrocnemius plantaris» muscle of young albino nats were observed with light and electronmicroscopy and were compared with controls. Pregnant rats received a diet containing 6.7% protein and the neonates had a 3.2% protein diet after weaning. A total number of 40 animals were distributed in two groups: one nypoproteic and one control. Half of the animals of each group were killed 15 days after birth and the remaining ones at 30 days. We could observe important reduction in the weight of the undernourished rats reaching about 50% when compared with the control animals. An important reduction in the diameter of muscle fibers was noted in undernourished rats. Histochemical reactions showed that not only the type I but also the type II fibers were involved, the latter being more severely reduced in size. Type II fibers os small diameter, resembling F (fetal fiber were found in animals at 15 days indicating a delay in maturation. TJltrastructural evaluation of the muscle did not show specific changes except for a severe reduction in the caliber of fibers when compared with control animals. We concluded that there was hypoplasia and not atrophy of the muscular tissue in animals submitted to pre- and post-natal undernutrition. The present study, associated with others in which the spinal motor cells and peripheral nerves of undernourished rats were analysed, allow us to consider that with protein deprivation there is a delay in the development, a hypoplasia of the motor unit. We think that in infantile progressive spinal amyotrophy (Werdnig-Hoffmann disease there is possibly hypoplasia and not atrophy of the type II fibers and we postulate that a metabolic proteic problem is involved in this disease.
Considerações sobre o músculo estriado na desnutrição proteica estudo experimental, em ratos albinos / Considerations about the striate muscle in protein deprivation: an experimental study in albino rats
Osvaldo J. M., Nascimento; Kalil, Madi; João Batista Guedes e, Silva; Porphirio J., Soares Filho; Myriam D, Hahn; Bernardo, Couto; Marcos R. G., Freitas.
Full Text Available Os efeitos da desnutrição sobre o músculo «gastrccnemius plantaris» de ratos albinos, limitando-se à genitora a dieta em 6,7% de proteínas e aos seus produtos, em 3,2% após o desmame, foram observados em microscopia óptica e eletrônica e comparados com os controles. Os animais, em número de 40, fora [...] m distribuídos em grupo hipoproteico e normal, sendo a metade de cada grupo sacrificada aos 15 dias e a restante, após o desmame, aoa 30 dias. Observamos acentuada redução ponderai dos ratos com alimentação bipoproteica, chegando a cerca de 50% em relação aos normais. As fibras do músculo estudado, nos ratos desnutridos, apresentaram importante redução de seus diâmetros. As reações histoquímicas revelaram que tanto as fibras do tipo I como as do tipo II estavam comprometidas, ocorrendo maior redução nas últimas. Fibras do tipo II, de pequena espessura, com aspecto de fibra P (fetal) foram encontradas nos animais subnutridos de 15 dias, denotando retardo na maturação destas fibras. As avaliações em ultramicroscopia não mostraram alterações específicas dia ultra-estrutura muscular, revelando apenas intensa redução do calibre das fibras, quando comparadas às dos ratos normais. Concluímos pela hipoplasia e não atrofia do tecido muscular dos animais submetidos a desnutrição pré e pós-natal. O presente estudo, somado a outros nos quais foram analisados a ponta anterior da medula e o nervo periférico de ratos desnutridos, permite-nos considerar que na privação proteica ocorrem retardo no desenvolvimento e hipoplasia da unidade mootra. Conjecturamos a possibilidade de, na amiotrofía espinhal progressiva da infância (doença de Werdnig-Hoffmann), acontecer também hipoplasia das fibras do tipo II e não atrofia, aventando a hipótese de, nesta doença, haver alterações no metabolismo proteico. Abstract in english The effects of undernutrition on the «gastrocnemius plantaris» muscle of young albino nats were observed with light and electronmicroscopy and were compared with controls. Pregnant rats received a diet containing 6.7% protein and the neonates had a 3.2% protein diet after weaning. A total number of [...] 40 animals were distributed in two groups: one nypoproteic and one control. Half of the animals of each group were killed 15 days after birth and the remaining ones at 30 days. We could observe important reduction in the weight of the undernourished rats reaching about 50% when compared with the control animals. An important reduction in the diameter of muscle fibers was noted in undernourished rats. Histochemical reactions showed that not only the type I but also the type II fibers were involved, the latter being more severely reduced in size. Type II fibers os small diameter, resembling F (fetal) fiber were found in animals at 15 days indicating a delay in maturation. TJltrastructural evaluation of the muscle did not show specific changes except for a severe reduction in the caliber of fibers when compared with control animals. We concluded that there was hypoplasia and not atrophy of the muscular tissue in animals submitted to pre- and post-natal undernutrition. The present study, associated with others in which the spinal motor cells and peripheral nerves of undernourished rats were analysed, allow us to consider that with protein deprivation there is a delay in the development, a hypoplasia of the motor unit. We think that in infantile progressive spinal amyotrophy (Werdnig-Hoffmann disease) there is possibly hypoplasia and not atrophy of the type II fibers and we postulate that a metabolic proteic problem is involved in this disease.
Full Text Available Backgrounds: This study was conducted to establish olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in Wistar albino rats as a newer model to screen putative hepatoprotective agents namely silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups, namely vehicle control group (CG, olanzapine-treated group (OZ, and olanzapine plus silymarin (OZS treated groups. Both the OZ and OZS groups were treated with the same dose of intraperitoneal olanzapine for 6 weeks and group OZS additionally received oral silymarin. Baseline and terminal hepatic enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, and ALP were measured in all three groups. Results: Histopathological examination of livers of both OZ and OZS groups showed degenerative changes, whereas those of control group showed normal architecture. Liver enzyme levels showed statistically significant rise in comparison to the control group as well as the respective base line values in both the test groups, but the differences in the rise of liver enzymes between the two test groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in rats can be used as a model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents and in our setting silymarin has failed to provide any hepatoprotection.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control were administered 10 mL?kg body weight distilled water (vehicle, group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra, while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3. Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Results Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.
Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M. Moussa Sharaf**
Full Text Available Fatty liver causes were markedly increased in Egyptian people throughout last years. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds. Ginger is a natural dietary rhizome with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger treated group; which was treated with ginger water extract (125 mg/kg for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120 mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger protective group; which received ginger for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment with ginger ameliorated most of the evaluated biochemical parameters and improved the induced degenerative histopathological changes. The pre-treatment with ginger before the induction of fatty liver gave some protection against factors that experimentally induced fatty liver. Conclusion: Ginger as diet additive is recommend for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.
Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M.Moussa Sharaf**
Full Text Available Background: Fatty liver is now one of the most common diseases in Egypt. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds.The current investigation was carried out to examine the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days resulting in steatosis and c chicory treated group; which was treated with chicory water extract (70 mg/kg for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days and c drug protection group; which received chicory for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment with chicory ameliorated most of the evaluated biochemical parameters and improved the induced degenerative histopathological changes. The pre-treatment with chicory before the induction of fatty liver gave some protection against factors that experimentally induced fatty liver. Conclusion: Chicory as diet additive is recommend for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.
DEBIPRASAD GHOSH; PRASENJIT MITRA; TANAYA GHOSH; RAVINDERNATH SALHAN; TAKHELMAYUM AMUMACHA SINGH; AMIT CHAKRABARTI; PRASANTA KUMAR MITRA
Objective: Effect of AS-1, a compound isolated from the leaves of Amaranthus spinosus L., was studied on aspirin induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Method: Gastric ulcer was produced in rats by aspirin and effect of AS-1 was studied. Result: Result showed that the compound could decrease ulcer index in rats induced by aspirin. The compound produced gastric anti secretory effect by decreasing gastric volume and acidity. It further increased gastric mucin which showed gastric cytoprotective ...
The organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are the most widely used substances employed in agriculture and pollute the environment. On the other hand, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in Egypt. The present study was performed to investigate the toxic interaction of the OP insecticide cyolane and Schistosoma mansoni infection on the liver and kidney functions, blood glucose and insulin hormone in male albino mice. The obtained data indicated that treatment of normal mice or those infected by S.mansoni with cyolane at daily dose levels of 1/50 or 1/20 LD 50 significantly increased AST, ALT, total and direct bilirubin, urea and creatinine. Also, fluctuations in fasting glucose levels and in insulin hormone were recorded in cyolane treated groups. These fluctuations were pronounced in infected - treated groups. Histopathological investigation revealed that, hepatic tissue sections in S. mansoni infected group showed both cellular and fibrocellular granuloma around ova. In S. mansoni infected group and treated with cyolane, the mean number of granuloma was decreased. The granulomas were fibrocellular rather than cellular. The foci of the inflammatory cells detected in hepatic parenchyma without ova were characteristic in infected - treated groups. Consequently, exposure to insecticides should be avoided specially in the rural areas where schistosomiasis is still endemic
Nowadays, it is easy and common to eat unhealthy food with poor nutritional value, low micro nutrients and high content of calories which may called junk or fast food. The present study aimed to shed the light on the hazardous effects of long term consumption of potato chips and ketchup as a model of the most popular fast food toppings or garnishing accessories. Eighty male and female rats were divided into four equal groups, each of ten rats. For four weeks, the animals were fed on basal diet (group 1), basal diet supplemented with 2 g of potato chips (group 2), basal diet supplemented with 1 g ketchup (group 3) while group 4 was supplemented with 2 g potato chips + 1 g ketchup beside their basal diet. The mortality was recorded in all treated groups but reached the maximum rate in males of group 4. The toxicological symptoms like tremors, dermatitis with general hair loss from the body, especially on the face region and eye bulge, were found in almost treated groups. The red blood cells count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) were significantly decreased in group 2 (supplemented with potato chips) and group 4 (supplemented with both potato chips + ketchup) as compared with control one. Significant reductions in white blood cells count (WBC) were observed in rats of groups 2 and 4 except in females of group 2. Lipid profile was affected seriously, especially in rats of group 2 (supplemented with potato chips), whereas significant increases were recorded ineas significant increases were recorded in TC, TG, LDL-C and atherogenic index, and significant reduction in HDL-C, especially in males, was recorded. The testosterone level was significantly reduced in all treated groups as compared to control group. The estradiol level was significantly increased in groups 2 and 4 as compared to group 3 and controls. In all parameters, the males were more seriously affected than females which may be related to gender differences in body composition, estrogen levels, growth rate, differences in food metabolism and toxin elimination, and group 4 was the most dangerously affected group. The present study revealed that potato chips is dangerous for human health and we should decrease our consumption from it as possible and try to return to the home made balanced diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables and avoiding deep fried food.
Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. The raw matured seeds which have been reported to be used as food and clarifying agent of turbid water caused growth retardation in albino rats and this might have been due to its anti-nutritional contents. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soaking the seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done. Its effect on growth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rats were investigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weights measured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 Chemistry Analyzer. The growth rates of rats fed with the commercial rat pellets, Casilan diet and the processed Moringa seed diet had a range of 80.06±3.54 to 100.98±5.37, 66.70±7.54 to 55.23±7.47 and 52.99±4.15 to 35.47±2.26, respectively. The parameters assayed for the group that received the processed Moringa seed diet are 144.00±16.80 (AST, 41.00±7.05 (ALT, 66.50±8.80 (ALP and 12.45±1.18 (Total Bilirubin. The one-way ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the parameters of all the groups at 95% significance level (pMoringa oleifera seed did not support growth in the animal subjects and also did not pose a threat to the liver. However, it is better to develop more suitable processing methods to improve the seeds nutritional capabilities.
Igwilo, I O; Ogoke, T J; Ogbu, D O; Igwilo, S N; Obi, E; Abdulsalami, M S
Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. The raw matured seeds which have been reported to be used as food and clarifying agent of turbid water caused growth retardation in albino rats and this might have been due to its antinutritional contents. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soaking the seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done. Its effect on growth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rats were investigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weights measured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 Chemistry Analyzer. The growth rates of rats fed with the commercial rat pellets, Casilan diet and the processed Moringa seed diet had a range of 80.06 +/- 3.54 to 100.98 +/- 5.37, 66.70 +/- 7.54 to 55.23 +/- 7.47 and 52.99 +/- 4.15 to 35.47 +/- 2.26, respectively. The parameters assayed for the group that received the processed Moringa seed diet are 144.00 +/- 16.80 (AST), 41.00 +/- 7.05 (ALT), 66.50 +/- 8.80 (ALP) and 12.45 +/- 1.18 (Total Bilirubin). The one-way ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the parameters of all the groups at 95% significance level (p Moringa oleifera seed did not support growth in the animal subjects and also did not pose a threat to the liver. However, it is better to develop more suitable processing methods to improve the seed's nutritional capabilities. PMID:24199486
Full Text Available The reproductive performance of rats given graded levels of the Nigerian Qua-Iboe brent crude oil was investigated in 32 female wistar albino rats. The experiment was divided into three parts, whereby, crude oil was given orally at the dose of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mL, corresponding to Groups A, B and C, respectively, for four weeks, while the untreated group served as control (Group D. Experiment one investigated the effect of the crude oil on the oestrous cycle in rats divided into four groups of four replicates, monitored for four consecutive cycles for regularity of oestrous cycle using vaginal cytology. Three of the four groups were drenched with graded levels of the crude oil while remaining group served as the control. Experiment two investigated the effect of crude oil on gestation, using another set of female Wistar albino rats which were grouped and drenched as in experiment one. Mating was monogamous, while drenching done every other day following mating. The gestation length, litter size, stillbirth and gross malformation of foetuses were monitored. The same group of animals in experiment two was used for experiment three, whereby the animals were drenched prior to mating and until parturition. Results showed irregularity of oestrous cycle in the drenched groups, with significant differences (p<0.05 existing between the experimental group and control group considering stillbirths, conception rates, gestation length and litter size. These findings suggested that exposure to Nigerian Qua-Iboe Brent crude oil affected the reproductive performance of the rats.
Full Text Available Objective: The roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. (Compositae are employed in Ayurvedic system of medicine as Vajikaran Rasayana a category of drugs for vitality and virility. They are believed to have aphrodisiac action. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate their effects on sexual behavior in male rats. Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into control group, testosterone group, low-dose (50 mg/kg petroleum ether extract (PEE group and high-dose (100 mg/kg PEE group. PEE obtained from the roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum was administered orally to albino rats once daily, and 0.5 mg/kg (body weight of testosterone was given intramuscularly twice weekly and served as positive control. The course of treatment was 28 days. The effects of PEE and testosterone on changes in body and accessory sexual organ weights, sexual behavior, penile erection and sexual performance were studied before treatment, after 15 and 28 days of treatment and 7 and 15 days after treatment.Results: After 28 days of treatment, PEE and testosterone had a marked influence on body and accessory sexual organ weights as compared with arachis oil. The treated male rats were more receptive and oriented towards female rats and increased precopulatory activities like licking and sniffing of female anogenitals were observed. The penile erection index was significantly increased with reduction in mount latency and intromission latency period. There were four-fold increase in mount and three-fold increase in intromission frequency in treated rats reflecting improved sexual performance. The behavioral and sexual parameters were also observed after a lapse of 7 and 15 days of discontinuance of drug treatment.Conclusion: Unlike testosterone, the PEE of Anacyclus pyrethrum shows efficacy in rats tested after the lapse of 7 and 15 days of discontinuation of treatment. This suggests that the drug has prolonged effect and capacitate the treated rats for improved sexual potential.
This study carried out to investigate the possible role of whey protein protein concentrate in ameliorating some biochemical disorders induced in gamma irradiated male rats. Forty eight male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1 fed on normal diet during experimental period. Group 2 where the diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate instead of soybean protein . Group 3 rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation with single dose of 5 Gy and fed on the normal diet. Group 4 rate exposed to 5 Gy then fed on diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate, the rats were decapitated after two and four weeks post irradiation. Exposure to whole body irradiation caused significant elevation of serum ALT, AST, glucose, urea, creatinine and total triiodothyronine with significant decrease in total protein, albumin and thyroxin. Irradiated rats fed on whey protein concentrate revealed significant improvement of some biochemical parameters. It could be conclude that whey protein concentrate may be considered as a useful protein source for reducing radiation injury via metabolic pathway.
Nabil Abdel Mageed *, Ehsan Hassan **, Azza Hegazy **, Nagwa M. Abdel
Full Text Available Background: Recombinant human interferon alpha (rh-IFN- is used therapeutically in malignant disorders and chronic hepatitis. The phenotypic effects of this drug at the structural levels on testicular tissue were hardly ever addressed. Hence, this work was designed in adult male albino mice to study the phenotypic effects of rh-INF--2b on testicular tissue as well as assessing its effects on serum testosterone and gonadotropins levels. Objective: This research was planned to through light on the effects of interferon-alpha-2b (IFN-alpha-2b on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT axis of the adult male albino mice. Design: Experimental study. Setting: National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute (NHTMRI. The study was conducted from November (2004 to February (2005. Materials and methods: Thirty sexually mature male mice were divided into three groups (10 mice in each group, namely: the control, the experimental and the recovery groups. Mice in the experimental and recovery groups were administered recombinant human interferon alpha intraperitoneally at a dose of 3000 U / mouse weekly for 12 weeks in a volume of 1.0-microliter isotonic normal saline, then animals in the recovery group were left to recover for a further period of two months. At the end of the experiment, serum concentrations of gonadotropins and testosterone were measured and then all animals were then sacrificed to study histopathologically the possible effects of interferon on the testicular tissue. Results: rh-IFN--2b induced remarkable decline in the serum levels of both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH in mice of the experimental group compared to the corresponding control and mice of recovery group. At the same time, testosterone was moderately increased in the experimental group, and then returned to its normal levels within 2 months after cessation of treatment. Histopathologically, in the experimental group, there were focal thickening of the basement membrane, degenerative changes and clumping of the germinal epithelial cells in the center of seminiferous tubules, partial desquamation of the germinal epithelium from basement membrane, reduction in the germ cell height, partial arrest of maturation and increased number of Sertoli cells. Increased number of Leydig's cells and hypervascularity were detected in the interstitial spaces. In the recovery group, there was lessening of the germ cell hypoplasia manifested by restoration of spermatogenic cells and accidental disruption in the basement membrane. Most of the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells restored their polarity, height and maturation. Conclusion: our results suggest that rh-INF--2b temporally affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (HPT, both centrally and peripherally (at the testicular level, through the lessening of FSH, LH, raise of testosterone serum levels and direct phenotypic effect on the testicular tissue.
Sherif E.A. Badr
Full Text Available In this study, the rheological properties of composite flour and their guar meal blends were studied by farinography. The water absorption percent, arrival time, development time, dough stability, mixing tolerance, ash, protein, falling number, baking strength, index of swelling and extensibility were estimated. The effect of feeding guar seeds powder on liver enzymes (GOT and GPT and kidney functions (urea and creatinine of rats were investigated. The results showed that diets with 5% guar seeds powder had the best effect on GOT (17.7 U L-1, GPT (22.2 U L-1, urea (26.0 mg dL-1 and creatinine (0.83 mg dL-1. Histopathological studies were also carried out in the kidney and liver of the albino rats.
Moayad Khataibeh; Khalid Abu-Alruz; Omar Al-Widyan; Mahmoud Abu-Samak; Jafar Al-Qudah
The study was designed to investigate the chemoprotective effect of Combined Supplementation of soy and garlic on 7,12-dimethylbenz[?]anthrance (DMBA) induced mammary cancer in female Albino rats. Animals (eighty rats) where equally divided into four groups, (twenty rats each). Group I: each rat received 1 mL of 0.1% saline daily for twenty days. Group II: received 1 mL of 0.1% saline given orally once a day for twenty days after DMBA infusion (30 mg kg-1) and these rats served as controls (...
Nisha, A; Muthukumar, S P; Venkateswaran, G
Safety evaluation of arachidonic acid rich Mortierella alpina biomass was carried out in Wistar rats by acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies. A preliminary acute toxicity study revealed that the biomass was safe at acute doses and that the LD50 exceeded 5000mg/kg BW, the highest dose used in the study. In subchronic study, rats were fed diet containing 0, 2500, 5000, 10,000, 20,000 and 30,000mg/kg, M. alpina biomass for a period of 13 weeks. Results indicated that biomass fortification had a positive influence on growth with no overt toxic effects on the survival, food consumption and body weight gain throughout the treatment interlude. The statistically significant changes in relative organ weights, serum biochemical and hematological indices in M. alpina fed groups' viz., higher relative weights of spleen, liver, brain and ovary in females, reduced hemoglobin concentration in males, elevated WBC counts at highest dose, reduction in serum triglycerides and increased alkaline phosphatase activity were not concomitant with pertinent histopathological changes and hence toxicologically inconsequential. No microscopic or macroscopic lesions attributable to the treatment were manifested in the experimental groups. The results of the present study strongly advocate the safety of M. alpina biomass in rats at levels used in the study. PMID:19545514
Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), one of the most common flavonoids, has been shown to possess a variety of biological activities including tumor growth inhibition and chemopreventation. In the present study, apigenin was labeled with 131I using iodogen method and investigated of its bioactivity. Radiolabeling yield is 98±0.2%, as determined by radio thin layer chromatography (RTLC), electrophoresis and radio high performance liquid chromatography (RHPLC). Besides, structure analysis of synthesized cold iodoapigenin complex were assessed with LCMS/ MS and 1H-NMR. Results of in vitro study indicated a high stability (3 hours) in human serum. Biodistrubition studies are performed in male and female albino Wistar rats. Biodistribution data related to the male rats showed significant uptake in the small intestine. The female rats biodistribution results indicated that the uptake of 131I-apigenin was high in the intestine and uterus. (author)
Atorvastatin Has no Effects on Kidney Tissues of Wistar Albino Rats in the Long-Term Intake: An Electron Microscopic Study Atorvastatina no Tiene Efectos sobre los Tejidos Renales de Ratas Wistar Albinas en el Consumo a Largo Plazo: Un Estudio de Microscopia Electrónica
Ayfer Aktas; M Serhan Tasdemir; M. Cudi Tuncer; Yusuf Nergiz; Murat Akkus; Hüsnü Alper Bagriyanik
In this study, we evaluated the ultrastructural findings of kidney with systemic administration of different doses of atorvastatin in a rat model. Statins may have anti-inflammatory effects that would play a role in preventing the cellular damage. The aim of this study was to investigate how atorvastatin could play a role in kidney tissues. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats (200250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups of ten rats each (A1, A2, A3 and Control). Three different doses of at...
Full Text Available Garlic is an ayurvedic herb that has been extensively used as medication and as the taste enhancer of the food. The present investigation was undertaken to provide data on the efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. extract on glycogen deposition and protein metabolism in female albino rats that may further explore medicinal potential of garlic. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight as low, medium and high dose respectively and given orally for the period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days daily to the rats of group B, C and D as stated above. The significant (P<0.01 & P<0.05 increase in glycogen and protein level was observed when rats were fed with low and medium dose but when rats were fed with high dose of garlic extract there was significant (P<0.01 decrease in glycogen level and a not significant decrease in protein level was observed.
E,A. Khalil* and M. H. Affifi
Full Text Available An excess intake of vitamin D2 can result in mobilization of calcium in the skeleton and increase the serum calcium level. This calcium is taken up by soft tissues such as arteries. The risk of calcium builds up in arteries, a significant component of atherosclerotic plaque. Many researches clarify the relationship between oral contraceptives and atherosclerosis. This study aims to evaluate the changes in some biochemical parameters as well as the histopathological examination of liver and aorta following the administration of hormonal oral contraceptives (O .CS with different concentrations of estrogen (ethinyle-estradiol (E.E and progestogen DL-norgestrel (norethindrone (NOR. to the atherosclerotic rats. In addition to this, the study clarifies 92the role of low dose oral contraceptives. 48 adult female albino rats were divided into six comparable groups of 8 animals each. Group I (Gr.1 was considered as control, group II (Gr. II was intramuscularly (i.m. injected with vit. D2 350.000 IU /kg B.W., group III (Gr. III administered O.C (35 g E.E/0.5 mg NOR., group IV (Gr. IV received (vit. D2 350.000 I.U vit. D2 /kg B.W plus O.C 35 g E.E/0.5 mg., group V(Gr.V received (vit. D2 350.000 I.U/kg B.W. plus O.C 35 g E.E/1mg NOR., group VI (Gr.VI received (vit. D2350.000 I.U /kg B.W.plus O.C 70 g E.E/0.5 mg NOR. daily for an experimental period eight weeks.Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP displayed significant increase in the following groups (higher progestogen concentrations in O.Cs plus vit. D2 treated group, at low-dose O.C plus vit. D2 treated group, at higher estrogen dose within O.C plus vit. D2 treated group, vit. D2 treated,and at low-dose O.C treated group. Serum triglycerides recorded significant increase in group treated with higher estrogen dose within O.C plus vit. D2 treated group, low-dose O.C plus vit. D2 treated group , higher progestogen concentrations in O.Cs plus vit. D2 treated group, vit. D2 treated group,and at low-dose O.C treated group respectively. Serum total cholesterol increased significantly in higher progestogen concentrations in O.Cs plus vit. D2 treated group, at low-dose O.C plus vit. D2 treated group, vit. D2 treated group, low-dose O.C treated group and at higher estrogen dose within O.C plus vit. D2 treated group at 8 weeks in comparison with control. Histopathological studies of livers showed severe at the higher progestogen concentration in O.C plus vit. D2 treated group and at low dose O.C plus vit. D2 treated group .Liver displayed moderate degenerative changes in higher estrogen dose within O.C plus vit. D2 treated group, in vit. D2 treated group and in low dose O.C treated group. Media calcinosis in aorta was more obvious at the higher progestogen concentrations in O.Cs plus vit. D2 treated group. Also it develops at low dose O.C treated group. In conclusion atherosclerosis may develop at low dose O.C due to progestogen content.
Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad
The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:24556450
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Coccinia grandis root extract against paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress in wistar albino rats. The ethanolic extracts of Coccinia grandis (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg were administered orally to the animals and hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (750mg/kg. The extracts were administered orally by suspending in 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose solution. Silymarin (25mg/kg was given as reference standard. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis roots produced a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SGOT, SGPT, SALP, Total bilirubin and Direct bilirubin and it also produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in Total protein when compared to paracetamol treated group indicating hepatoprotective action. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis root produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in SOD, CAT and GSH activity when compared to paracetamol treated group and it also produced significant (P<0.01 increase in activity of Px and GPx at 400mg/kg dose, indicating antioxidant activity. But it produced less significant in Px at 200mg/kg dose and it showed no significant activity in GPx at 200mg/kg dose. The histopathological study of liver section of rat treated with ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis (200 and 400 mg/kg showed mild hepatocyte degeneration. It was concluded from the result that ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats.
Mohammad Reza Shahraki
Full Text Available Background: Since liver is a gland which has an important role in drug metabolism, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a single dose and repeated administration of morphine on LFT, blood sugar and fasting insulin resistance index in fructose- fed male rats. Materials and Methods: The experiment was performed on 36 Wistar-Albino male rats, which were divided into a control (A and three tests groups (B, C and D. The control group consumed tap water, but the test groups consumed fructose-enriched water (10%, w/v and received null, single, and repeated doses of morphine, respectively. At the end, animals were anesthetized and blood samples were collected. Liver enzymes, insulin and insulin resistance were measured. Data were analyzed by SPSS-11, using ANOVA and Tukey tests as post hoc test. Results were expressed as mean±SD and Statistical differences were recognized significant by p<0.05. Results: The results showed that all test groups were insulin resistant; alanine aminotransferase (ALT and asparatate aminotransferase (AST activity values in group D significantly increased compared to other groups while its plasma glucose and insulin values showed a significant decrease in comparison to other test groups. Conclusion: It seems that repeated morphine administration can affect liver function test (LFT and fasting Insulin resistance index (FIRI in fructose- fed male rats.
Ashu Chaudhary; Ran Vir Singh
Antifertility and histopathological investigations were carried out on reproductive organs of male albino rats induced by tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of iron(II). The complexes were synthesized by the template condensation of 1,2-diaminoethane, 1,3-diaminopropane with succinic acid and phthalic acid in 2 : 2 molar ratios which are abbreviated as [Fe(TAMLn)OAc] (n = 1 or 2 and TAMLn represents tetraazamacrocyclic ligand). The complexes have been characterized by elemental anal...
Suresh Kumar Bansal
Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the in-vivo hepatoprotective effect of the ethanolic extracts of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn. against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Animal Model: Swiss Albino rats of either sex were used, divided into six groups with six in each group. Group 1-Normal control: The animals were maintained under normal control, which were given distilled water only. Group 2-Induction of hepatotoxicity: The animals received paracetamol 500 mg/kg b.w. (p.o every 72 h for 10 Days. Groups 3 to 5: Animals received ethanolic extract of Citrullus colocynthis L. at 50, 100 & 200 mg/kg bw/day for 7 days (p.o. Group 6: The animals were treated with Silymarin (100 mg/kg p.o which served as standard. Groups 3 to 6 were intoxicated with paracetamol (500 mg/kg bw 1 h before the administration of extract or Silymarin for 10 days. Histopathological findings, different hepatic biochemical parameters viz. AST, ALT, ALP, Total bilirubin, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, & the body weight before & after treatment were evaluated to investigate the hepatoprotective activity. Results: Paracetamol induced a significant rise in AST, ALT, ALP, Total Bilirubin, Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides. Administration of 200 mg/kg bw of ethanolic extract of Citrullus colocynthis L. effectively reduced these pathological damages caused by paracetamol intoxication. In addition to serum parameters treatment of 200 mg/kg bw of ethanolic extract of Citrulus colocynthis L. also promotes the body weight in albino rats as shown in Figure 6 respectively. Histopathological changes of the liver samples were compared with the normal control as shown in Figures 2-5 respectively. Conclusion: From our results we may infer that the mode of action of 90% ethanolic extract of Citrullus colocynthis L. (200 mg/kg bw in affording the in-vivo hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol may be due to the cell membrane stabilization, hepatic cell regeneration & normalizing the serum parameters.
Full Text Available To study the effects of ?-carotene on the body growth and physiological antioxidants, male weanling rats were fed with low and high amount of ?-carotene before four weeks and after six months of Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1 treatment (0.5 mg kg-1 body wt., on alternate days, total 10 doses, i.p. The results were compared with animals treated with AFB1. The final body weight of AFB1 treated animals was significantly reduced in the normal group (NVE. Plasma vitamin E was reduced significantly in NVE group whereas vitamin C levels decreased significantly in NVE and low ?-carotene (LBE fed group. The maximum reduction was found in NVE group. Plasma GSH levels were increased significantly in animals in high ?-carotene (HBC fed group. Liver protein showed significant reduction in NVE group. Liver lipid peroxidation was increased significantly in NVE and LBE groups. Liver vitamin A showed dose dependent increased levels in animals fed with high amount of ?-carotene. Vitamin E was decreased significantly in NVE group. Liver antioxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase levels were reduced significantly in the treated animals of the NVE group. Results obtained indicated that ?-carotene supplementation elevated the levels of vitamin C, glutathione and glutathione related enzymes which act as a free radical scavenger and reduced the toxicity effect of AFB1 in rats.
Five groups of albino male rats, every group consist of seven rats, were used to study the effect of microwave proteins on liver, kidney functions and blood parameters. Control group was fed on 10% casein. The 2nd one was fed on 10% protein from microwave chicken. The 3rd one was fed on 10% protein from boiled chicken. The 4th one was fed on 10% protein from microwave kidney beans. The 5th one was fed on 10% protein from boiled kidney beans. The time of experiment was seven weeks. The biochemical parameters included (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, total lipids, triglyceride, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, creatinin, uric acid and amino acids). The group of rats fed on microwave chicken showed more increase in cholesterol level than the group fed on boiled chicken. The group fed on microwave kidney beans showed decrease in cholesterol level. The group fed on microwave chicken showed decrease in HDL and increase in LDL. The highest activity of SGOT was shown in group fed on microwave kidney beans followed by the group fed on microwave chicken. The groups fed on boiled kidney beans and boiled chicken proteins showed significant increase in SGPT activity. The group fed on boiled kidney beans have the highest activity of ALP enzyme; but the group fed on microwave chicken showed increase in the activity of ALP enzyme compared to the control group. The feeding of microwave chicken leads to increase in creatinine and uric acid levels in comparison to the control group. Microwave cooking leads to little increase in all amino acids in comparison to the control group
Damasceno Débora C; Campos Kleber E; Db, Fernandez Carla; Sa, Fernandes Glaura; Anselmo-Franci Janete A; Dg, Kempinas Wilma
Abstract Background Hyperglycemia can impair the male reproductive system in experimental animals and in men during reproductive age. Studies have shown that vitamin C has some good effects on male reproductive system, and therefore vitamin C treatment could attenuate the dysfunctions in this system caused by hyperglycemia. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate whether vitamin C treatment could attenuate reproductive dysfunctions in hyperglycemic male rats. Methods Adult male rats ...
Laskar, S; Ghosh-Majumdar, S; Basak, B; Maity, C R
The influence of protein, isolated from teak (Tectona grandis) seed upon albino rats with respect to some of their serum, liver and intestinal enzymes and liver lipids has been studied. The protein in question contains aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, lysine, phenylalanine, histidine and arginine as determined by amino acid analyser. After feeding experiment an increase in body weight including the liver weight was noted in the test animals due to excess protein in the diet. A marked increase was observed in G.O.T., G.P.T. and total lipid of liver, whereas G.O.T. and G.P.T. of serum were decreased. The observed increased concentration of lipid in liver may be due to excess addition of protein in diet. The overall observation is an indication of probable fatty infiltration in liver of test animals. PMID:4070763
Mirza Danish Baig
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to conduct phytochemical screening, perform acute oral toxicity effect and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extracts of leaf and stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum on albino Wistar rats. Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma techniques were applied to determine anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts. Extracts were administered orally. Acute oral toxicity studies were conducted using the OECD guidelines 423 Annexure 2d. The results indicate the mortality was not observed during the toxicity studies and maximum safe does was determined. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extracts showed significant dose dependent effect (200 mg/kg b.w and 400 mg/kg b.w on both acute and chronic models of inflammation i.e., carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma respectively. Additionally, Calophyllum inophyllum leaves extract showed more activity compared to Calophyllum inophyllum stem bark extract.
Ramadan, Gamal; El-Beih, Nadia M; Zahra, Mai M
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the most popular alkylating anticancer drugs that show a high therapeutic index, despite the widespread side effects and toxicity particularly in high-dose regimens and long-term use. Here, we evaluated and compared the efficacy of two different doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, given orally for 30 consecutive days) of Egyptian sweet marjoram leaf powder (MLP) and marjoram leaf aqueous extract (MLE) in alleviating the genotoxicity, immunosuppression and other complications induced by CP in non-tumour-bearing albino rats. The present study showed (probably for the first time) that both MLP and MLE significantly alleviated (P herbal tea) may be useful as an immunostimulant and in reducing genotoxicity in patients under chemotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22172207
Full Text Available : Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (Rananculacene or Black cumin seed is widely used in the Indian subcontinent in treatment of gastric ulcer as a traditional medicine. Aim: To investigate gastro-protective activity of aqueous extract of black cumin seeds in aspirin induced ulcer models in albino rats taking ranitidine as positive control. Settings and Design: Albino rats of Wistar strain, (150-200 g was divided randomly into four groups (n=6 and received the following medications orally for five days. Group A -1% gum acacia 5 ml/kg, Group B and Group C aqueous extract of Black Cumin 250 mg/kg and 500 mg / kg body wt respectively and Group D - Ranitidine 20 mg / kg body wt; followed by aspirin 200mg/kg body wt administered orally on 6th day to all groups after 24 hours of fasting. Methods and Materials: Animals were sacrificed after 4 hours of pyloric ligation. The stomachs were removed. The gastric contents were evaluated by biochemical parameters and gastric ulceration was studied by comparing the volume of gastric juice, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index and by histopathological study. Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was done using one way ANOVA and Tukey Kramer Multiple Comparison Test. Results: Aqueous extract of N. Sativa in doses 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg reduced volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity and ulcer index in a highly significant manner when compared to control (p0.05 to positive control (ranitidine 20 mg/kg, while N. sativa 250mg/kg proved to be less effective than its higher dose and ranitidine (pThe results were expressed as mean ± SEM Conclusion: Aqueous extract of NS (500mg/kg has potent gastroprotective properties comparable to Ranitidine 20mg/kg. Key Words; Black cumin, Nigella sativa (Ns, antiulcer.
Arykerne Chamon do, Carmo; Danilo Nagib Salomão, Paulo; Ricardo Martins, Oliveira-Filho; Manuel de Jesus, Simões; Luiz, Kulay Júnior.
Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar os efeitos do uso crônico do fármaco anti-emético domperidona durante toda a prenhez da rata albina. Métodos: foram utilizadas 50 ratas albinas prenhes distribuídas ao acaso em cinco grupos: GI - sem nenhum tratamento (controle I); GII - recebeu água (controle II), GIII, GIV e GV [...] foram tratadas, respectivamente, com 2, 6 e 12 mg/kg de peso corporal por dia de domperidona, com doses fracionadas de 4 em 4 horas, por gavagem, sempre em 1 ml de água destilada, desde o dia zero até o 20º dia de prenhez. O ganho de peso das matrizes foi avaliado no dia zero e no 7º, 14º e 20º dia de prenhez, sendo que no 20º dia todos os animais foram sacrificados. A seguir foram anotados os seguintes parâmetros: número de sítios de implantação, de placentas e de fetos, pesos das placentas e dos fetos, malformações e mortalidade materna e fetal. Resultados: considerando as variáveis apreciadas, o fármaco influiu somente sobre a mortalidade fetal, sendo respectivamente de 14, 26 e 32 óbitos intra-uterinos entre 74, 60 e 57 crias, considerando os grupos III, IV e V. Conclusões: embora os resultados da experimentação animal não possam ser diretamente levados para a clínica humana, este trabalho alerta para os cuidados na prescrição de domperidona durante o período gestacional. Abstract in english Purpose: the aim of the present work was to study the chronic action of the antiemetic domperidone on the pregnancy of albino rats. Methods: fifty albino, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups: GI (control I) = intact rats; GII (control II) = rats receiving the drug vehicle (di [...] stilled water) by gavage at the same schedule of the experimental groups; rats in groups GIII, GIV and GV were treated with domperidone by gavage, 2, 6 and 12 mg/kg per day, respectively, divided into 4 daily doses, always in 1 ml of distilled water, from time zero up to the 20th day of pregnancy. The evolution of body weight gain was followed throughout and the animals were sacrificed at term (20th day) by deep ether anesthesia. Number of fetuses, placenta and implantation sites, placenta and fetus weight, fetal malformations and maternal and fetal mortality were evaluated. Results: we observed only intrauterine fetal mortality with 14, 26 and 32 in 74, 60 and 57 newborns of the groups III, IV and V, respectively. Conclusion: though the results of animal experimentation cannot directly be transposed to human conditions, this paper calls attention to the need for a safe judgement when prescribing domperidone to a first-trimester pregnant patient in order to reduce her emetic crises.
Arykerne Chamon do Carmo
Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar os efeitos do uso crônico do fármaco anti-emético domperidona durante toda a prenhez da rata albina. Métodos: foram utilizadas 50 ratas albinas prenhes distribuídas ao acaso em cinco grupos: GI - sem nenhum tratamento (controle I; GII - recebeu água (controle II, GIII, GIV e GV foram tratadas, respectivamente, com 2, 6 e 12 mg/kg de peso corporal por dia de domperidona, com doses fracionadas de 4 em 4 horas, por gavagem, sempre em 1 ml de água destilada, desde o dia zero até o 20º dia de prenhez. O ganho de peso das matrizes foi avaliado no dia zero e no 7º, 14º e 20º dia de prenhez, sendo que no 20º dia todos os animais foram sacrificados. A seguir foram anotados os seguintes parâmetros: número de sítios de implantação, de placentas e de fetos, pesos das placentas e dos fetos, malformações e mortalidade materna e fetal. Resultados: considerando as variáveis apreciadas, o fármaco influiu somente sobre a mortalidade fetal, sendo respectivamente de 14, 26 e 32 óbitos intra-uterinos entre 74, 60 e 57 crias, considerando os grupos III, IV e V. Conclusões: embora os resultados da experimentação animal não possam ser diretamente levados para a clínica humana, este trabalho alerta para os cuidados na prescrição de domperidona durante o período gestacional.Purpose: the aim of the present work was to study the chronic action of the antiemetic domperidone on the pregnancy of albino rats. Methods: fifty albino, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups: GI (control I = intact rats; GII (control II = rats receiving the drug vehicle (distilled water by gavage at the same schedule of the experimental groups; rats in groups GIII, GIV and GV were treated with domperidone by gavage, 2, 6 and 12 mg/kg per day, respectively, divided into 4 daily doses, always in 1 ml of distilled water, from time zero up to the 20th day of pregnancy. The evolution of body weight gain was followed throughout and the animals were sacrificed at term (20th day by deep ether anesthesia. Number of fetuses, placenta and implantation sites, placenta and fetus weight, fetal malformations and maternal and fetal mortality were evaluated. Results: we observed only intrauterine fetal mortality with 14, 26 and 32 in 74, 60 and 57 newborns of the groups III, IV and V, respectively. Conclusion: though the results of animal experimentation cannot directly be transposed to human conditions, this paper calls attention to the need for a safe judgement when prescribing domperidone to a first-trimester pregnant patient in order to reduce her emetic crises.
Dracocephalum moldavica (DM); a medicinal plant with antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties, has been cultivated recently in Egypt. The purpose of this study was to investigate its possible protective effect against radiation induced damage in male albino rats. DM total extract was administered by oral gavages to male albino rats at a dose of 40 mg/kg body wt daily for 2 weeks before whole body gamma irradiation with 6 Gy. Exposure of rats to whole body gamma irradiation induced oxidative stress and biochemical disorders in liver and kidney tissues. Oxidative stress was manifested by significant increase of liver and kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) along with the reduction in glutathione (GSH) contents on the 1st, 3rd and 7th day post- irradiation. Biochemical disorders were evidenced by a significant increase in serum creatinine and uric acid levels, transaminases (ALT and AST) activities, and triglycerides level. A significant decrease in total cholesterol was recorded on the 1st day post irradiation followed by a significant increase on the 3rd and 7th day. DM administration pre-irradiation has significantly attenuated radiation- induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney tissues which was associated with significant improvement of the biochemical disorders. It could be concluded that DM extract through its antioxidant properties and the synergistic relationship of its different constituents may protect the liver and kidney tissues from radiation induced oxidative damage associated with biochemical disorders.
Sharma Gauri D
Full Text Available Abstract Background The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals for supporting the immune system or fighting infections is based on centuries-old tradition. Macrophages are involved at all the stages of an immune response. The present study focuses on the immunostimulant properties of Tinospora cordifolia extract that are exerted on circulating macrophages isolated from CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight intoxicated male albino mice. Methods Apart from damaging the liver system, carbon tetrachloride also inhibits macrophage functions thus, creating an immunocompromised state, as is evident from the present study. Such cell functions include cell morphology, adhesion property, phagocytosis, enzyme release (myeloperoxidase or MPO, nitric oxide (NO release, intracellular survival of ingested bacteria and DNA fragmentation in peritoneal macrophages isolated from these immunocompromised mice. T. cordifolia extract was tested for acute toxicity at the given dose (150 mg/kg body weight by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay. Results The number of morphologically altered macrophages was increased in mice exposed to CCl4. Administration of CCl4 (i.p. also reduced the phagocytosis, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release properties of circulating macrophages of mice. The DNA fragmentation of peritoneal macrophages was observed to be higher in CCl4 intoxicated mice. The bacterial killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages was also adversely affected by CCl4. However oral administration of aqueous fraction of Tinospora cordifolia stem parts at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight (in vivo in CCl4 exposed mice ameliorated the effect of CCl4, as the percentage of morphologically altered macrophages, phagocytosis activity, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release, DNA fragmentation and intracellular killing capacity of CCl4 intoxicated peritoneal macrophages came closer to those of the control group. No acute toxicity was identified in oral administration of the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. Conclusion From our findings it can be suggested that, polar fractions of Tinospora cordifolia stem parts contain major bioactive compounds, which directly act on peritoneal macrophages and have been found to boost the non-specific host defenses of the immune system. However, the molecular mechanism of this activity of Tinospora cordifolia on immune functions needs to be elucidated.
Effect of Sitagliptin "a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP-4 Inhibitor" on the Endocrine Part of the Pancreas in Experimentally induced Diabetes in Adult Albino Rat; A Light Microscopic and Biochemical Studies
Tamer M. M. Abu-Amara and Zeinab M.Gebaly
Full Text Available Sitagliptin is highly selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitor that is considered as one of the new oral therapies for management of type II diabetes. Because of the sitagliptin unknown effects on the endocrine part of the pancreas, especially on the cellular levels, this study was done to evaluate its effect on the endocrine part of the pancreas in experimentally-induced type II diabetic in adult albino rats. Material and Methods: The present study was carried out on 30 adult male albino rats which were divided into; Group I (untreated control group, Group II (diabetic group, where type II diabetes had been induced via alloxan intake and group III (treated group, where 0.14 mg/100 mg B.W. sitagliptin was given orally per day for 3 weeks after induction of type-2 diabetes. The specimens were prepared for light microscopic examination. In parallel, the related biomedical parameters such as serum glucose and serum insulin levels had been estimated, statistically analyzed and compared between the three groups.Results: Sections of pancreas taken from diabetic rats showed morphological changes in islets of Langerhans cells in the form of pyknotic nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolation, poor differentiation and abnormal shape and size of the cells. These morphological changes had been partially recovered in diabetic rats treated with sitagliptin. Also, the hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia that was detected in the control diabetic group had been nearly returned to normal after sitagliptin treatment.Conclusion: Sitagliptin drug has improved islet functions on both morphological and biomedical parameters in type II diabetic rats and can be taken into consideration as one of the new oral anti-diabetic drugs on the human level that need to be more investigated
K.R. Tandel* and B.K. Shah
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the effect of unripe dried banana powder in experimentally induced gastric ulcers and effect on gastric acid secretion. To evaluate the antiulcerogenic effect of plantain banana of Gujarat as a part of evaluation of impact of biological variables on this activity. Materials and methods: Total of 24 albino rats of either sex weighing between 150-250 gm were randomly divided into 4 groups. Each group has 6 no. of rats. The first group received placebo (distilled water, the second, third & forth group received 0.5gm/kg, 1gm/kg and 2mg/kg of banana powder respectively. Banana powder was given as suspension at fixed time (3 times in a day for two days and animals were kept for fasting for another 48hrs. On 5th day, the animals were sacrificed after 7 hrs and stomach were removed for examination and gastric juice samples were collected to analyze volume and acidity.Results: Orally administered banana powder in the dose of 2gm/kg caused a statistically significant decrease in aspirin with pyloric ligation induced ulcers in rats without significantly decrease in secretary activity.Conclusion: It can be concluded from these results that vegetable plantain banana has antiulcerogenic and mucosal protective actions, but it has no antisecretory activity.
Full Text Available Pleurotus ostreatus, an edible mushroom in the tropics was artificially cultivated on the mixture of the sawdust of two different tropical trees(African nut (Pycnanthus angolensis, Welw, Warb; Family: Myristicaceae and hog plum (Spondias mombin, L; Family: Anacardiaceae . The fruitbodies obtained were used to feed experimental animals (Wistar strain albino rats while the subsequent toxicological effects was investigated on the hematological parameters of the experimental animals. There was a significant decrease (P > 0.05 in the Packed Cell Volume (34.0%, Red Blood Cell (3.2 x 1012/L, White Blood Cell (3.5 x 103/L, Mean Corpuscular Volume (8.0 g/fL and Hemoglobin (11.33 g/dL of the rats fed with protein free diet compared to the rats fed with the mushroom composed diet (PCV, 40.0%; RBC, 5.0 x 1012/L; WBC, 8.5 x 103/L; MCV, 90.0 g/fL and Hb, 13.33 g/dL. The values obtained from the rats fed mushroom composed diet however compared favourably with the results obtained in rats fed with the soybean composed diet (positive control which is given as (PCV, 35.0%; RBCs, 6.6 x 1012/L; WBCs, 6.5 x 103/L, MCV (93.0 g/fL and Hb, 11.67 g/dL. It was therefore concluded that the hematological parameters of the experimental animals was not in any way affected as a result of consumption of mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated on sawdust of these two tropical trees.
Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was more prominent in male vitamins combination group. Conclusions HCD-induced renal injury in female was higher than in male animals, suggesting a better anti-oxidative stress defense response in male's kidney. Moreover, the antioxidant and reno-protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid were augmented following their combination.
Full Text Available Objective: Effect of AS-1, a compound isolated from the leaves of Amaranthus spinosus L., was studied on aspirin induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Method: Gastric ulcer was produced in rats by aspirin and effect of AS-1 was studied. Result: Result showed that the compound could decrease ulcer index in rats induced by aspirin. The compound produced gastric anti secretory effect by decreasing gastric volume and acidity. It further increased gastric mucin which showed gastric cytoprotective effect. Results were comparable to that of ranitidine, a standard anti ulcer drug. Conclusion: AS-1 thus provides a scientific rationale for the use as anti gastric ulcer drug.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250, and 500 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 6 once a day for seven days. The female albino rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were determined and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. The probable gastric ulceration and adverse effects of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency; Intromission Latency, Erections; Quick Flips, Long Flips as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The test drug was also found to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Conclusion The results indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of clove produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats, without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Thus, the resultant aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders.
Ibrahim G. Ibrahim*, Boshra El-Salkh**, Nagwa Shawki
Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the adverse effects of gliclazide and two antidiabetic plants extracts on 15 &18 days fetuses of albino rat (Rattus norvegicus. The two antidiabetic plants extracts were aquatic extract of Aremisia herba alba (shih-balady and alcoholic extract of Salix babylonica L. leaves (Om-Ashoor which is known by salicin. The doses used were 4 mg / kg (Katsumata, and kastumata 1990 for the gliclazide drug (diamicron, 450 mg/kg for Artemisia herba alba (Al-Waili, 1986 and 1.5 gm/kg for salicin. Pregnant rats were given orally the applied does level every other day from the onset of gestation till the 15th or to the 18th day. The pregnant rats were divided into control group (G1; diabetic pregnant female rats (G2; Artemisia treated group (G3; salicin treated group (G4 and glicalzide treated group (G5. Fetuses showed diminution of size. Crown-rump lentght while the number of embryos increased in case of salicin treatment and decreased in case of gliclazide treatment due to increased resorption rate. The endoskeleton system of fetuses obtained from pregnant diabetic mothers (G2 showed normal ossification in all fetuses with enlarged skeleton. Some fetuses of Artemisia treated group showed major enoskeletal anomalies in the from of incomplete ossification of the skull bones, or missing in some skull bones, and also missing of caudal vertebrae. Salicin treated group fetuses showed lack in ossification of the nasal, frontal and complete absence of parietal bone. While gliclazide treated group fetuses showed moderate ossification of nasal and frontal bones. On the other hand parietal bone exhibited complete missing.
The present study was carried out to investigate the role of epinephrine in modifying the radiation induced effects on serum protein as presented by total protein, protein fractions and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio in adult albino rats. Epinephrine was intraperitoneally injected at a concentration of 200 M/g body weight, 15 min, pre-9 or just after 0 whole body gamma-irradiation of rats at a dose of 6 Gy (single dose). Studies have been undertaken at periods of 1 hr, 4 hrs, 1,3 and 7 days after irradiation. Data of the present study revealed that whole body gamma-irradiation induced significant decreased in the total content of serum protein and albumin at 1,3 and 7 days post radiation exposure alpha 1-globulin significantly increased only on the 1 st hr post-irradiation, however alpha 1-globulin significantly increased along all the experimental periods. B-globulin insignificantly changed after irradiation but gamma-globulin significantly decreased during the experimental periods. These changes were associated with significant decreases in A/G ratio at 3 and 7 days post-irradiation. Administration of epinephrine pre-or after radiation exposure produced some amelioration in the radiation induced changes in the studied parameters. So, it could be concluded that epinephrine plays a beneficial radioprotective role through its pharmacologic properties
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba. (Malvaceae an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally hepatics affections in albinos Wistar rats. Animals were treated by gavage during 28 days with different doses of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida alba. (75, 100, 150 mg/kg suspended in 35% ethanol. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethano l for 28 days results an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum as compared with rats which received water (control water. However, administrations of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05. This study revealed that Sida alba presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of affection hepatics.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale), a common part of the diet in many parts of the world, is one of the strongest plant antioxidants that has various pharmacological effects. Accordingly, this study was investigated to clarify the beneficial effect of maternal intake of ginger on radiation-induced maternal and fetal detrimental impacts. Pregnant albino rats were administered ginger tea from gestation day 10 to 14 at a dose rate of 10 ml/kg body weight before being exposed to a single dose of 6 Gy of whole body gamma irradiation at day 15 of gestation, after which they were excised on the 18th day of pregnancy. Maternal ginger pre-treatment before radiation exposure was able to diminish the high levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose, lipids, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) recorded in the serum of irradiated mother rats in addition to restoring the histopathological lesions induced in their aorta and uterus tissues. Moreover, ginger intake was found to reduce the severe deleterious symptoms of radiation-induced fetal mortality rate with increased growth in surviving fetuses and remarkable protection against severe morphological deformities.The present study suggests that ginger is an effective agent for improving the affected maternal biochemical and histological studied parameters and reducing the embryonic injuries induced by gamma irradiation
Shetty, B Somashekar; Udupa, S L; Udupa, A L; Somayaji, S N
Centella asiatica is a reputed medicinal plant used in the treatment of various skin diseases in the Indian system of medicine. The objective of the study presented in this article was to evaluate the wound-healing potential of the ethanolic extract of the plant in both normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing. The study was done on Wistar albino rats using incision, excision, and dead space wounds models. The extract of C asiatica significantly increased the wound breaking strength in incision wound model compared to controls (P treated wounds were found to epithelize faster, and the rate of wound contraction was significantly increased as compared to control wounds (P wound model also increased at statistically significant levels as shown. The extract of the leaves had the effect of attenuating the known effects of dexamethasone healing in all wound models (P wound healing significantly and is able to overcome the wound-healing suppressing action of dexamethasone in a rat model. These observations were supported by histology findings. PMID:16928669
Rajesh H*, Rejeesh EP and Rao Sudarshanram Narayan
Full Text Available Experimentally induced periodontitis forms the basis for trials of novel drugs and therapeutics. Ketamine, an N- amino-D- aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist is considered to be safe dissociative anesthetic agent. But, the literature on the use of Ketamine as an effective general anesthetic is conflicting. We had to determine, safe and effective dose range of intra-peritoneal Ketamine hydrochloride injection in Wistar albino rats for the placement of ligatures in the oral cavity. 50 rats of the age group (greater than 4 months and weight of160g-350g were selected for the study from the Department of Pharmacology, Yenepoya University, and Mangalore. Intraperitonial injection was administered using Tuberculin syringe. The optimal dose for each animal was tabulated and log dose was calculated. Nonlinear regression analysis was done. 95% confidence limit and ED50 was calculated from the graph was 101.9mg/kg (68.1-152.6mg/kg correlation coefficient was 0.4946. Profound and effective anesthesia was obtained at a dose of 60mg/kg-275mg/kg. The dose range of Ketamine alone from 60-275mg/kg i.p.route produced profound reproducible anesthesia. Minor oral surgical procedures could be carried out without discomfort. Mortality and morbidity due to anesthesia was low.
Ahmed, Marwa A; Kurkar, Adel
Nowadays, tramadol hydrochloride is frequently used as a pain reliever, and for the treatment of premature ejaculation. Decreased semen quality was noted in chronic tramadol users. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of tramadol on the testicular functions of adult male rats. A total of 40 albino adult male rats were divided into control and tramadol groups, with 20 rats for each group. Rats of the tramadol group were subcutaneously injected with 40 mg/kg three times per week for 8 weeks. The control group received normal saline 0.9%. Blood samples from each animal were obtained. Plasma levels of different biochemical substances were determined. Nitric oxide was measured in testicular tissue samples. Those samples together with epididymal tissue samples were processed for histopathological examination. Tramadol significantly reduced plasma levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone and total cholesterol, but elevated prolactin and estradiol levels compared with the control group. In addition, tramadol increased the testicular levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, and decreased the anti-oxidant enzymes activities significantly compared with the control group. The tramadol group showed decreased sperm count and motility, and numbers of primary spermatocytes, rounded spermatid and Leydig cells. Immunohistochemical examinations showed that tramadol increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in testicular tissues. The present study showed that tramadol treatment affects the testicular function of adult male rats, and these effects might be through the overproduction of nitric oxide and oxidative stress induced by this drug. PMID:24472030
Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of E. alba on liver function in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The study was designed to identify the protective effect of Eclipta alba in experimental diethylnitrosamine (DEN induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Sixty four male Wistar albino rats were randomly allotted to four groups of 16 rats each. DEN (0.01%, v/v was given in drinking water ad libitum and E. alba (50 mg/kg BW/day was administered per os either alone or in combination for 120 days. Serum protein, albumin and liver functional status enzyme profiles were studied. Results: Administration of DEN resulted in reduction in the body weights and DEN in combination with E. alba caused poor weight gain in male Wistar albino rats. Concurrent administration of E. alba with DEN significantly alleviated the effects of DEN on serum protein and albumin, while a partial protective effect was observed for other biochemical values and body weight. Conclusion: The designed study could establish the partial protective effect of E. alba in experimentally induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.
Jeevangi Santoshkumar, Manjunath S, Sakhare Pranavkumar M
: Emblica Officinalis (Amla), belonging to the genus, Phyllanthus emblica is widely used for medicinal purpose. Its fruits have been used traditionally as a hypolipidemic. Objectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of Emblica officinalis in high fat fed albino rats. Materials and Methods: For study of anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic activity. 5 groups of 6 animals in each received normal saline, E. Officina...
Gerald Otti; Paulicarp N. Okafor
The influence of pollution from petroleum refining activities on the levels of nitrates and nitrites in five edible vegetable species was investigated. Besides, the kinetics of nitrite and nitrate was studied in vivo using albino rats with focus on the possible influence of concentration difference on kinetics and implications to toxicity. Leaf samples of the five vegetable species were collected randomly from various locations within Eleme, a host community of Port Harcour...
Ezz-eldin E Abdalla, Gamal S. Elgharabawi And Moustafa E. Elsawy
High fat diets as well as hyperlipidemia represent an important clinical and social problem. It is referred to increased concentration of lipids (Triglycerides, Cholesterol and Fatty acids) in the blood. Such increase may lead to metabolic risks affecting blood vessels and paranchymatous organ mainly the liver. Material and methods: Forty five adult female albino rats were used and divided into 9 equal groups. The first group was considered as a control group. The second group was of high fat...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate fatty acids compositions, oxidative stress levels and some antioksidant levels in the testes of 24 h fasted rats and linalool application. Adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned as Control (C, 24 h fasted (24 h F group and added linalool (120 mg kg-1 during 24 h fasted (24 h F+L groups. After applications, the animals were killed and the testes were excised for determination of tissue malondialdehyde, Glutation Peroxidase (GSH-Px, the activity of superoxide dismutase and determination of tissue fatty acids compositions. The activites of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA in testicular tissue specimens were determined spectrophotometrically. The fatty acid compositons in the testes were analyzed as percent by gas chromatography (GC. Researchers calculated between C16:0 (palmitic acid and C22:6 (docosahexaenoic acid fatty acids in the testes of all experimental groups. Treatment with fasted rats resulted in a significant reduction in C16:1 (palmitoleate fatty acids when compared to the control rats (p0.05. SOD and GSH-Px levels in the fasted rats were statistically lower than control groups (p0.05. In addition, MDA levels in the fasted groups were higher than control groups. Besides, MDA levels in the linalool application groups were lower compared to fasted groups (p<0.05. These findings indicate that fasted state has oxidative effects on testicular tissue and linalool has protective effects on male reproductive system.
Full Text Available Summary. The effect of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed on pituitary prolactin and milk production was evaluated in albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were randomly grouped at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n=6. The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline, metoclopramide (5mg/kg and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200mg/kg respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. Milk yield for rats were estimated by pup weight and weight gain. The animals were then euthanized on the day 18 and pituitary prolactin was analyzed using prolactin kit. The prolactin level of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa showed a significant increase (PHibiscus sabdariffa l. seed has lactogenic activity because it increases pituitary prolactin level and milk production in lactating female albino rats. The LD50 of Ethyl-acetate fraction Hibiscus sabdariffa l. was found to be above 5000mg/kg. Industrial relevance. The outstanding advantage of this galactagogue option is that, it is safer, affordable and tolerable, and it is taken as an alternative in preference to anti-psychotic drugs that have side effect of drowsiness and depression. The plant calyces, leaves and seeds are eaten as foods because it contain substantial amount of essential fatty, Tocopherol (Vitamin E, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C, mineral salts calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus. Keywords. Hibiscus sabdariffa; prolactin; lactation; milk; pituitary
Full Text Available Comparative effect of vitamins A and E on gasoline vapours haematotoxicity, growth-depression and weight-loss was assessed in male Wistar albino rats. The rats were exposed to gasoline vapours (17.8±2.6 cm3/h/m3/day, 6 h/day, 6 days/week for 20 weeks. Vitamins A (retinol and E(?-tocopherol at prophylactic dosage (400 and 200 IU/kg/day, respectively were orally administered to the rats separately, in the last 2 weeks of exposure. The levels of haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit or Packed Cell Volume (PCV, Red Blood Cells (RBC, growth-rate and weight-gain in the rats exposed to the vapours were significantly lower (p<0.05 compared, respectively to the levels obtained for control rats. On the other hand, the levels of White Blood Cells (WBC in the test rats were significantly higher (p<0.05 compared, respectively with the level obtained for male control rats. These observations indicate that exposure to gasoline vapours may cause haematotoxicity, growth-depression and weight-loss in male rats. However, administration of vitamins A and E was observed to produce a significant recovery (p<0.05 in haematotoxicity, growth-depression and weight-loss observed to be associated with exposure to gasoline vapours, although, the rats administered with vitamin E were noted to respond more favourably than those administered with vitamin A. This suggests that although retinol and ?-tocopherol may be used to reverse or prevent haematotoxicity, growth-depression and weight-loss in subjects exposed to gasoline vapours, the reversal potency of ?-tocopherol is higher than that of retinol.
Mangala Priya, Viswanathan; Mayilvanan, Chinnaiyan; Akilavalli, Narasimhan; Rajesh, Parsanathan; Balasubramanian, Karundevi
Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous endocrine disruptor and plasticizer of polyvinyl chloride, is being used in the manufacture of consumer and medical products as well as in children's toys. Fetuses and newborns are more sensitive to endocrine disruption. DEHP is a lipophilic substance, which could easily be transferred to the developing offspring through placenta or breast milk. DEHP alters the metabolism of the endocrine organs, which leads to energy imbalance associated with increased risk of insulin resistance, obesity and cardiovascular disease. The heart is an insulin-responsive organ. The effect of DEHP on the cardiac muscle insulin signaling remains obscure. Since the developmental period is more vulnerable to the adverse effect of DEHP, the present study was framed to study the impact of lactational exposure of DEHP on insulin signaling molecules in the cardiac muscle of F1 progeny female albino rat (postnatal day 60). Healthy dams were treated with DEHP orally (0, 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively) from the postpartum day 1-21. Both low and high doses are relevant to the human exposure, and hence, both were used in this study. At a low dose (1 mg/kg body weight/day), obvious differences were observed in the fasting blood glucose and the insulin signaling molecule when compared to control. But marked differences were observed in the cardiac tissue insulin signaling molecules of animals treated with high doses. In conclusion, the DEHP treatment significantly increased the fasting blood glucose level and decreased the insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1), p-IRS-1(Tyr632), p-Akt(Ser473), plasma membrane glucose transporter (GLUT4), (14)C-2-deoxyglucose uptake and the (14)C-glucose oxidation. Conversely, Akt and GLUT4 protein in cytosol remained unaltered compared to control. Lactational exposure of DEHP impairs insulin signal transduction and glucose oxidation in the cardiac muscle of the F1 female albino rats, suggesting its possible role in the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24297258
N S Chauhan
Full Text Available ethanolic extract of rhizomes was evaluated for its effect on orientation behavior and spermatogenesis in albino rats. A change in orientation behavior was assessed by orientation towards female, towards environment, towards self and type of mobility. Administration of 100 mg/Kg b. w. of ethanolic extract had pronounced effect on orientation of male towards the female rats. Males treated with the extract displayed more frequent and vigorous anogenital sniffing and mounting as compared to untreated animals. The increased spermatogenesis in treated group was confirmed by change in histoarchitecture as evidenced by increase in number of spermatocyte and spermatids. These findings support the folk use of this plant as aphrodisiac. Industrial relevance: Study proposes to elucidate and demarcate the potential of Rasayan herbs in the treatment as well as uprooting the causes of disease; which is the underlying principle of Rasayana therapy. This leads to discovery of newer phytoconstituents with better activities and provide source of new biomolecules for biotechnologists to work on. The study explore the utilization of Rasyana herbs for effective management of sexual dysfunction. It brings out a competent literature on rasayana, validating their utilization. It gives a larger platform for the herbal cultivators by providing scientific support and data to the traditional unvalidated herbal drugs as rejuvenative tonics.
Retinal toxicity of chloroquine has been known for several years, but the mechanism(s) of toxicity remain controversial; some author support the idea that the binding of chloroquine to melanin pigments in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) play a major toxic role by concentrating the drug in the eye. In our study, 12 albinos Sprague-Dawley (SD) and 12 pigmented Brown Norway (BN) rats were treated orally for 3 months with chloroquine to compare functional and pathological findings. On Flash electroretinograms (ERG) performed in scotopic conditions, similar and progressive (time-dependent) delayed onset and decreased amplitudes of oscillatory potentials (from Day 71) and b-waves (on Day 92) were identified in both BN and SD rats. In both strains, identical morphological changes consisted of neuronal phospholipidosis associated with UV auto-fluorescence without evidence of retinal degeneration and gliosis; the RPE did not show any morphological lesions or autofluorescence. IHC analyses demonstrated a decrease in GABA expression in the inner nuclear layer. In addition, a marked accumulation of synaptic vesicles coupled with a marked disruption of neurofilaments in the optic nerve fibers was identified. In conclusion, ERG observations were very similar to those described in humans. Comparable ERG modifications, histopathology and immunohistochemistry findings were observed in the retina of both rat strains suggesting that melanin pigment is unlikely involved. chloroquine-induced impairment of synaptic vesicle transport, likely related to disruption of neurofilaments was identified and non-previously reported. This new mechanism of toxicity may also be responsible for the burry vision described in humans chronically treated with chloroquine
Full Text Available Background & Objective : The Cucurbita pepo is one of plants that are functional in traditional therapy. This plant has antioxidant and skin damage repair properties. This study investigated the effect of Cucurbita pepo nano silver as a new nano-plant composition in wound repair skin in male mice. Materials & Methods: In this investigation, male albino mice were places in 8 groups, each containing 8 animals. Group I VIII were treated with nano silver (500, 250, and 125 ppm concentrations and different concentrations of extracts [70%, 50%, and 25%] and the control group received a mixture of 25% Cucurbita pepo extract (125 ppm nano silver. The eighth group, as control, was treated with sterile deionizer water after the induction of wound skin. The average diameter of the wounds was measured 28 days after treatment in the control and treatment groups. These data were analyzed using the t-test and ANOVA statistical method. Results: The results of this study showed that ethanol extraction (80% has its highest repair effect 28 days post treatment. The average diameter of the wounds in the control group was 1.16 ±. 0.46 cm, which was decreased to 0 cm and 0.12 ±. 0.23 cm in the ethanol extract (70% of the Cucurbita pepo and component groups, respectively (p value ? 0.01. Conclusion: In this project, nano silver-Cucurbita pepo ethanol extraction for wound repair in albino male mice was more effective than single materials. These findings show that the repair synergic effects are between alcoholic extract and nano silver in this nano composite.
Full Text Available The effects of the aqueous root extract of urena lobata on the rat liver was investigated using a total of (25 adult Wister rats of both sexes that were randomly divided into five groups of five rats each. Group I served as the control, while rats in groups II-IV where administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively for 28 days. Rats in group V were administered 300 mg/kg of the extract for 28 days and allowed to stay for 14 days post treatment to observe for reversibility, persistence or delayed occurrence of toxic effects. At the end of the experimental period the animals were sacrificed and liver weight taken and fixed for routine histological examinations. Administration of the extract to rats had no effects on liver and body weights but the extract caused a decrease in albumin level and increases in the levels of Aspartate Transaminases (AST, Alanine Transaminases (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP. Histopathological assessment of the liver revealed mild to severe interstitial hemorrhage, mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis, congestion and edema in the liver of the treated rats while withdrawal of the extract for 14 days showed a slight degree of recovery in the rats. This findings suggest that the biochemical and morphological organization of the liver can significantly be altered with continues and increase use of the extract, but further studies on the long term effect of the extract and a prolonged recovery period is recommended in further studies.
Cisplatin is one of the most active antineoplastic drugs showing a broad therapeutic activity spectrum against different types of human neoplasms. To elvaute the subacute toxicity of the drug and to test the probable preventive effect of vitamin E in rats, forty-eight male albino rats were used in this study. Animals were classified into four groups, control, vitamin E, cisplatin and vitamin E with cisplatin. Vitamin E was administered orally at a dose of 2 mg/rat for two weeks prior to cisplatin intraperitoneal injection (5 mg/kg as a single dose) and then administration of vitamin E which was continued for two another weeks (end of experiment). The changes in body weight, counts of RBC and WBC, lipid peroxide, Na+, K+, chromosomal aberration and aldosterone hormone were recorded. Cisplatin administration caused 57.4% and 60% mortality at 3 and 5 weeks intervals. Regular intake of vitamin E induced significant role against the physiological disorders and chromosomal alterations occurred after cisplatin drug administration. The present study is directed to demonstrate the toxic effect of cisplatin on mortality, body weight, blood cells, aldosterone hormone, lipid peroxidation, Na+, K+, urea, creatinia as well as on chromosomal pattern and the efficacy of vitamin E in modulating cisplatin toxicity
S. Zahra Bathaie
Full Text Available Objective(s: Gastric cancer is the first and second leading cause of cancer related death in Iranian men and women, respectively. Gastric cancer management is based on the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, for the first time, the beneficial effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract (SAE on the 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG-induced gastric cancer in rat was investigated. Materials and Methods: MNNG was used to induce gastric cancer and then, different concentrations of SAE were administered to rats. After sacrificing, the stomach tissue was investigated by both pathologist and flow cytometry, and several biochemical parameters was determined in the plasma (or serum and stomach of rats. Results: Pathologic data indicated the induction of cancer at different stages from hyperplasia to adenoma in rats; and the inhibition of cancer progression in the gastric tissue by SAE administration; so that, 20% of cancerous rats treated with higher doses of SAE was completely normal at the end of experiment and there was no rat with adenoma in the SAE treated groups. In addition, the results of the flow cytometry/ propidium iodide staining showed that the apoptosis/proliferation ratio was increased due to the SAE treatment of cancerous rats. Moreover, the significantly increased serum LDH and decreased plasma antioxidant activity due to cancer induction fell backwards after treatment of rats with SAE. But changes in the other parameters (Ca2+, tyrosine kinase activity and carcino-embryonic antigen were not significant. Conclusion: SAE inhibits the progression of gastric cancer in rats, in a dose dependent manner.
Fatma A. Morsy
Full Text Available The present investigation deals with histopathological and histochemical studies of profenophos on liver and kidney of male albino rats and the protective effects of vitamin C and ginseng to reduce the deleterious effect induced by profenophos. Oral administration of profenophos at dose level of 1/10 LD50 for 15 successive days induced histological changes in liver and kidney. No histological or histochemical change could be detected in liver and kidney of rats treated with each of vitamin C and ginseng. Profenophos treatment also resulted in histochemical changes in liver and kidney including decrease in protein granules and marked decrease in DNA and mucopolysaccharides content. Administration of vitamin C (0.01/ 100 g b.w and ginseng (20 mg/ kg b.w to profenophos treated animals resulted in an improvement in histological picture of liver and kidney as well as the histochemical parameters.
Ndidi, Uche Samuel; Umar, Ismaila Alhaji; Mohammed, Aminu; Samuel, Cosmas; Oladeru, Amos Oladiran; Yakubu, Rahinat Nimma
The effect of aqueous extract of Acacia albida stem bark was investigated in Wistar albino rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. The extract showed highest reduction in parasitemia at the dose of 600 mg/kg body weight (bw). A dose of 300 mg/kg bw improved packed cell volume the most by 14.35%. The group treated with 150 and 600 mg/kg bw of the extract showed significant decrease (P < 0.05) in alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels which were lower than those of the group treated with diminazene aceturate. The group treated with 150 mg/kg bw of the extract showed the least urea, albumin and protein level and lowest relative organ weight. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the levels of catalase and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver and kidney of the animals in the infected-untreated group and the extracts-treated groups. The results of this study show that the extracts of A. albida have antitrypanosomal activity against T. evansi infection. PMID:25420715
Shukla, Dipali J; Vyas, Hitesh A; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B
Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya. PMID:23723655
Sakr, Saber A; Shalaby, Somaya Y
Carbendazim is a broad spectrum carbamate fungicide used in the control of various fungal pathogens. Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is one of the widely used medicinal plants in oriental nations. The present work studied the effect of licorice aqueous extract on carbendazim-induced testicular toxicity in albino rats. Administration of carbendazim induced significant decrease in testis weight, diameter, and germinal epithelial height of the seminiferous tubules. Histological results revealed degeneration of seminiferous tubules, loss of spermatogenic cells, and apoptosis. Moreover, carbendazim caused elevation of testicular malondialdehyde (MDA), marker of lipid peroxidation, and reduced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Coadministration of licorice extract with carbendazim improved the histomorphological and histopathological changes observed in animals treated with carbendazim. In addition, licorice treatment leads to a significant decrease in the level of MDA and increase in the activities of SOD and CAT. According to the present results, it is concluded that licorice aqueous extract can improve the testicular toxicity of carbendazim and this effect may be attributed to antioxidant properties of one or more of its constituents. PMID:22903170
Mitra, Swarnendu; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, Bk; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B
Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. PMID:23284209
Folic acid, a member of the water-soluble vitamin B group, is emerged as an important nutritional factor especially during the course of pregnancy. It is rapidly absorbed from the proximal part of small intestine, distributed to the body tissues, stored in the liver and actively concentrated in the cerebrospinal fluid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency of maternal folic acid supplementation in ameliorating the maternal and fetal detrimental impacts of gamma irradiation. Folic acid, at a dose level of 4 mg/Kg body weight was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 1st to the 20 th day of pregnancy, while mothers were subjected to gamma irradiation at the dose of 3 Gy on day 10 of gestation during the sensitive period of organogenesis. Experimental investigations carried out 1 day prior to parturition have demonstrated that folic acid intake throughout the whole gestational period had significantly diminished the deleterious histopathological disorders in large intestine, liver and uterus of irradiated mothers. Concomitantly, folic acid has been able to enfeeble the hazardous teratological effects of radiation including mainly the fetal intrauterine lethality, developmental delay and prominent morphological deformities. Conclusively, folic acid was found to offer protection during pregnancy against radiation injury, thus was capable of modulating the histopathological impacts of the studied maternal body ocal impacts of the studied maternal body organs and suppressing the embryonic mortality rates and serious fetal malformations induced by radiation
Ezekwesili, C N; Eneh, F U
The pulp of Dacryodes edulis G.Don which is rich in oils is commonly consumed in Nigeria when in season. The effect of diet supplementation with edulis fruit pulp oil on body lipid parameters was evaluated in male Wistar albino rats. D. edulis oil was extracted in n-hexane. The test diet was.compounded using the oil extract (10%), whereas the control animals were kept on control diet formulated with groundnut oil (10%). After six weeks, the animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and blood samples collected through cardiac puncture for the determination of serum lipid profile. Results revealed that D. edulis fruit pulp oil did not cause any significant (p > 0.05) alterations in serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol. The total amount of lipids present in the serum was increased by 33.3%, whereas the quantity of liver lipids decreased by the same factor (33.3%). Insignificant (p > 0.05) increases in the weights (g 100 g(-1) BW) of the liver (2.91 ± 0.17 to 3.38 ± 0.25), kidney (0.36 ± 0.06 to 0.40 ± 0.02) and heart (0.32 ± 0.02 to 0.33 ± 0.04) were observed in the test group. No significant change (p > 0.05) in the average body weight of the test animals was recorded. HPLC analysis of D. edulis oil showed that it contained palmitic acid (48.7%), linoleic acid (28.6%),oleic acid (12.9%), stearic acid (5.0%), lauric acid (2.2%), linolenic acid (1.7%) and myristic acid (0.9%). The peroxide value of the oil was 0.00. Prolonged intake of D. edulis fruit pulp oil may induce adverse effects on the body organs, even though the body lipid profile remains unaltered. PMID:26035940
Full Text Available The pulp of Dacryodes edulis G.Don which is rich in oils is commonly consumed in Nigeria when in season. The effect of diet supplementation with edulis fruit pulp oil on body lipid parameters was evaluated in male wistar albino rats. D. edulis oil was extracted in n-hexane. The test diet was compounded using the oil extract (10%, whereas the control animals were kept on control diet formulated with groundnut oil (10%. After six weeks, the animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and blood samples collected through cardiac puncture for the determination of serum lipid profile. Results revealed that D. edulis fruit pulp oil did not cause any significant (p>0.05 alterations in serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol. The total amount of lipids present in the serum was increased by 33.3%, whereas the quantity of liver lipids decreased by the same factor (33.3%. Insignificant (p>0.05 increases in the weights (g 100 g-1 BW of the liver (2.91±0.17 to 3.38±0.25, kidney (0.36±0.06 to 0.40±0.02 and heart (0.32±0.02 to 0.33±0.04 were observed in the test group. No significant change (p>0.05 in the average body weight of the test animals was recorded. HPLC analysis of D. edulis oil showed that it contained palmitic acid (48.7%, linoleic acid (28.6%,oleic acid (12.9%, stearic acid (5.0%, lauric acid (2.2%, linolenic acid (1.7% and myristic acid (0.9%. The peroxide value of the oil was 0.00. Prolonged intake of D. edulis fruit pulp oil may induce adverse effects on the body organs, even though the body lipid profile remains unaltered.
Snoeren, Eelke M S; Ågmo, Anders
Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are emitted in response to a sexual partner before, during, and after copulation. These vocalizations are the so-called 50-kHz USVs and can be subdivided into flat and frequency-modulated (FM) 50-kHz trill calls. In the present series of experiments, the potential unconditioned and conditioned incentive properties of female 50-kHz USVs for male rats were examined. USVs were recorded from sexually receptive females during the precopulatory phase. A complete 10-min song, or single flat or FM trill calls were selected as auditory stimuli for Experiments 1 and 2. As FM trill calls, a multistep call was used in Experiments 1 and 2a, and an upward ramp call was used in Experiment 2b. The auditory stimuli were played back with a loudspeaker to naïve and sexually experienced male rats in a sexual incentive motivation test. The odor of a sexually receptive female rat was also used as an incentive stimulus for comparison. In a third experiment, a devocalized female, a sham female and a male rat were used as incentive stimuli. It was found that the auditory stimuli did not induce approach behavior in naïve and sexually experienced male rats, but the olfactory stimulus did. In addition, the males spent equal amounts of time in the vicinity of devocalized and vocalizing females. These data show that 50-kHz USVs neither are unconditioned nor conditioned incentives for male rats. PMID:23458403
The objective of this study is to illustrate the radiomodulatory role of melatonin in the regulation of some biochemical and histopathological damage in case of total body irradiated rats.Male albino rats weighing 120-150 g were divided into four groups, group (I) control animals, group (II) animals received melatonin daily by gavages (3 mg/kg body weight) for two weeks, group (III) animals irradiated with 4 Gy Gamma rays and group (IV) animals irradiated with 4 Gy Gamma rays followed by daily administration with melatonin (3 mg/kg body weight) for two weeks. Rats were sacrificed on the 1st and 2nd week post-irradiation. Blood samples were collected for biochemical investigations. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were determined as biomarkers of liver functions, urea and creatinine contents were measured as markers of kidney functions, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were selected to evaluate heart damage. Alteration in the level of serum glucose was also determined. Tissue specimens from liver, kidney, heart and spleen were collected for the pathological studies.The results indicated that, the levels of liver enzymes, kidney functions and glucose were increased after irradiation of rats and reduced by the treatment with melatonin. These reductions were more noticed during the second weeks except in case of glucose which increased during the second glucose which increased during the second week compared to the first week. On the other hand, heart enzymes levels were reduced by the effect melatonin which may be important for cardiopathological patients.Histopathological results showed that irradiation of rats induced tissue injuries in liver, kidney, heart and spleen.Melatonin treatment reduced these injuries to minimum.It could be concluded that, melatonin could be used as antioxidant to protect vital organs and their functions against irradiation since it works as free radicals scavenger
Full Text Available Ethanol extract of Solanum pubescens Linn was evaluated for hepato protective and antioxidant activities in rats. The plant extract (500mg/kg/day showed a remarkable hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as judged from the serum marker enzymes and antioxidant levels in liver tissues. CCl4 induced a significant rise in aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, LPO with a reduction of total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, and reduced glutathione (GSH. Treatment of rats with plant extract (500 mg/kg significantly (P<0.01 altered serum marker enzymes and antioxidant levels to near normal against CCl4 - treated rats. The activity of the extract at dose of 500 mg/kg was comparable to the standard drug, Silymarin (50 mg/kg, p.o.. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotective activity of plant.
The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45?mg/kg?bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P ? 0.05) reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy rates were decreased by 100% in untreated cyclic female rats paired with male rats treated with 0.2% triptolide. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.2% triptolide bait in regulating reproductive output of R. rattus. PMID:25374942
Dietary fat and cholesterol enter the circulation as chylomicrons. They are removed from the circulation by attachment to lipoprotein lipase located on the endothelial surfaces. As the result of lipoprotein lipase action, chylomicrons are partially hydrolyzed and then reenter the circulation as remnants, which are rapidly cleared by the liver. We investigated the fate of 3H-retinol- and 14C-cholesterol-labeled chylomicrons injected into male and female rats. The disappearance curves of chylomicrons from the circulation were not significantly different in males and females, which suggests that translocation from plasma to endothelium is similar for both sexes. However, in male rats, the dwell time of chylomicrons on the endothelium was significantly prolonged. At 10 and 20 minutes after chylomicron injection, more label was found in the livers of female than male rats. The opposite was true for hearts. Male hearts contained significantly more endothelium-bound chylomicrons when compared with female hearts. This increase in dwell time may allow greater cholesterol deposition in the endothelium of male rats. The more rapid processing of chylomicrons was associated with a 300% greater postheparin lipoprotein lipase in female rats, which suggests a greater enzyme density at chylomicron attachment points on endothelium
Moustafa, Mona A. R. Salem And Nehal A.
Eruca Sativa (E.S) or Gargir seed oil is widely used in folk medicine. This study was conducted to investigate its possible effect on male rat fertility. Histological changes of the testis, level of testosterone hormone and sperm count were determined. The results revealed that administration of low dose of E.S. seed oil caused dilatation of the seminiferous tubules, proliferation of spermatogenic cells and increase of its mitotic activity. Increased number of sperms and epididymis weight, el...
Yakubu, M T; Akanji, M A; Oladiji, A T
The antiandrogenic effect of oral administration of aqueous extract of Chromolaena odoratum leaves (250 and 500 mg kg(-1) body weight) for 14 days in male albino rats was investigated. Forty-two white albino rats were randomly divided into three groups: A, B and C. Group A which served as the control received 1 ml of distilled water (the vehicle) twice daily for 14 days, whereas groups B and C were treated in the same way like the control except that the animals received 250 and 500 mg kg(-1) body weight of the plant extract respectively. Compared with the control, extract administration at 250 and 500 mg kg(-1) body weight revealed a significant reduction (P0.05) in serum concentrations of follicle stimulating and luteinising hormones. Histological examination revealed disruption in the arrangement of seminiferous tubules with no distinct basement membrane. These changes were accompanied by reduction in the number of spermatozoa. All these results indicated that aqueous extract of C. odoratum leaves possesses antiandrogenic property by interfering with steroidogenesis at the testicular level and this will adversely affect the functional capacity of the testes and the fertility of the animal. PMID:18076423
The present study evaluates the action of vitamin E and urea as chemical radioprotectors for controlling the radiation induced changes in creatine and creatinine levels in the forebrain of female rats subjected to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The levels of creating and creatinine in the forebrain of normal control rats were±704±22 to±724±23 and 11.053 0.119 to 11.553 0.127 /g fresh tissue; respectively. The applied radiation dose caused a significant increase in the creating level of about 15%, 18%, 13% and 41% on the first,third,seventh and tenth days post irradiation; respectively. At the same post irradiation days, the level of creatinine generally increased, but not to the same extent as creatine. The treatment of rats either with vitamin E or with urea pre radiation exposure caused a remarkable recovery in both creatine and creatinine levels in the forebrain of irradiated rats.The results are discussed in the high of discussed in the high of available literatures. 2 tab
Exposure to ionizing radiation cause variety of pathological processes in irradiated cells. The killing action of ionizing radiation is mainly mediated through the free radicals generated from the radiolysis of cellular water. In the present study, protective effects of Nardostachys Jatamansi root extract (NJE) on radiation induced depletion of glycogen in rats exposed to 3 Gy whole body electron beam irradiation (EBR) was investigated. EBR was performed at Microtron centre, Mangalore University. Treatment of rats with NJE at a dosage of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw respectively once daily for 15 days before, after and both before and after irradiation was done. The liver, kidney and muscle was separated and used for the estimation of total glycogen content using standard procedures and also for the histochemical localization of glycogen by PAS staining method. The data was analyzed by paired t test and Kruskal Wallis test. P<0.05 was the level of significance. The irradiated rats exhibited significant decline (p=0.000) in the level of total glycogen content in the tissues of liver, kidney and muscle whereas, a nonsignificant variation was recorded in rats treated with NJE. This study indicated that treatment with NJE both before and after irradiation for 15 consecutive days provided significant protection against irradiation induced depletion of glycogen. (author)
Oda, Samah S; El-Maddawy, Zeynab Kh
The current study was performed to assess the adverse effect of deltamethrin (DLM) on reproductive organs and fertility in male rats and to evaluate the protective role of vitamin E (VE) and selenium (Se) combination in alleviating the detrimental effect of DLM on male fertility. The lethal dose 50 (LD(50)) of DLM for male rats was estimated at 6 mg/kg bwt. Thirty male albino rats (10-weeks-old) were divided into three groups (10 rats each): Control group was injected subcutaneously with 2 ml/kg bwt saline twice weekly and was daily administered 2 ml distilled water intra-gastrically; DLM-treated group received 0.6 mg/kg bwt (1/10 LD(50)) DLM intra-gastrically once daily; DLM+VE/Se-treated group was injected subcutaneously with 1.2 mg/kg bwt Viteselen(®)15 (VE/Se) twice weekly with concurrent daily administration of 0.6 mg/kg bwt (1/10 LD(50)) DLM intra-gastrically. The experiment was conducted for 60 consecutive days. DLM caused a significant reduction in reproductive organs weights, sperm count, sperm motility percent, alive sperm percent, serum testosterone level and testicular reduced glutathione concentration (GSH). DLM-treated group showed a significant increase in sperm abnormalities and testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Histopathologically, DLM caused impairments in testes, epididymes and accessory sex glands. Conversely, treatment with VE/Se combination improved the reduction in the reproductive organs weights, sperm characteristics, DLM-induced oxidative damage of testes and the histopathological alterations of reproductive organs. Results indicate that DLM exerts significant harmful effects on male reproductive system and that the concurrent administration of VE/Se partly reduced the detrimental effects of DLM on male fertility. PMID:21478004
Recent experimental evidence suggests that Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), the extensively prescribed analgesic, can improve female fertility by suppressing the prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis and modulating the uterine circulation. Aspirin has also been found to exhibit a protective ability on the radiation induced oxidative stress. Thus the present work aims to investigate the effect of oral low-dose Aspirin treatment on the radiation induced female reproductive disturbance. Adult female rats were used in the current experiment. All rat group treatments started at the onset of the proestrus phase and terminated at the diestrus encompassing 2 complete estrus cycles. Subsequently, the rats were divided into 4 equal groups: Group 1-Control: female rats receiving distilled water via an oral gavage; Group 2- Irradiation: female rats subjected to 6 Gy gamma rays at the proestrus cycle and receiving distilled water; Group 3-Aspirin: rats orally administered a daily dose of 7mg/kg body weight aspirin dissolved in distilled water via an oral gavage and Group 4- Irradiation + Aspirin: female rats irradiated as group 2 and receiving aspirin treatment. A number of rats from each experimental group were allowed to mate following every treatment to serve as Control mated (Subgroup 1), Irradiated mated (Subgroup 2), Aspirin administered mated (Subgroup 3) and Irradiated + Aspirin treated mated (Subgroup 4). At the assigned day of the second estrus cycle completion, blood was collected from Groups 1-4 for subsequent hormonal assay, lipid peroxides and glutathione (GSH) estimation whereas Subgroups 1-4 were carefully monitored for reproduction and infertility rates. Results have shown that the 6 Gy ?- irradiation of the rats at the proestrus cycle (Group 2) caused a decrease in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) levels associated with a drastic increase in the progesterone levels in addition to the significant elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels compared to the related serum control values. The radiation effect was extended to Subgroup 2 that revealed apparent infertility. Moreover, Aspirin oral daily administration caused a remarkable reduction in both FSH and LH hormones alongside with elevated progesterone and PRL levels with no noted E2 level changes (Group 3). However the same treatment accelerated both the fertility and re productivity rates of Subgroup 3. However, the results of the present study revealed the potency of the anti-inflammatory drug Aspirin when administered post radiation exposure (Group 4) in ameliorating the abrupt irradiation induced hormonal imbalance and the significant elevation in serum MDA in addition to its ability in alleviating the radiation induced reproductive disorders (Subgroup 4). In conclusion, oxidative stress caused by radiation exposure of cycling female rats induced marked disturbance in their hormonal balance leading to negative fertility outcomes that has been ameliorated by Aspirin therapy.
Ragy, Merhan Mamdouh
Abstract Increasing use of mobile phones in daily life with increasing adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR), emitted from mobile on some physiological processes, cause many concerns about their effects on human health. Therefore, this work was designed to study the effects of exposure to mobile phone emits 900-MHz EMR on the brain, liver and kidney of male albino rats. Thirty male adult rats were randomly divided into four groups (10 each) as follows: control group (rats without exposure to EMR), exposure group (exposed to 900-MHz EMR for 1?h/d for 60?d) and withdrawal group (exposed to 900-MHz electromagnetic wave for 1?h/d for 60?d then left for 30?d without exposure). EMR emitted from mobile phone led to a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and significant decrease total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in brain, liver and kidneys tissues. The sera activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea, creatinine and corticosterone were significantly increased (p?stress in brain, liver and renal tissue of albino rats. These alterations were corrected by withdrawal. PMID:24712749
Abeer M. Hassan, Magda M. Naim, Somaya H. Mahmoud, Fouad M. Badr
Full Text Available Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and experimental. The control group (n=8 received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle (castor oil & benzyl benzoate once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days. Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12 received IM injection of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna, once every 5 days for 6 times, and were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injection. Experimental group 2; E2 (n=12 were injected as in group E1 then left for 15 days. Uterine tissue was used for various techniques; histological (H&E & Masson's trichrome and immunohistochemical (staining of progesterone receptors, using Labeled-Streptavidin method. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were done to assess the degree of uterine affection. Quantitative measurements (optical density, color area percentage, line distance & cells count were performed using the image analyzer. Mesigyna injection showed increased endometrial folding (91.6% of the animals with decreased endometrial thickness. Luminal epithelium showed proliferation with pseudostratification of its nuclei (75% of animals, necrotic changes (31.3% of animals, hyperplasia (epithelial tufting; in 25% of animals and desquamation (8.3%of animals. Increased gland size and stromal hypercellularity were also observed. Polymorphonuclear cellular infiltration in both endometrium and myometrium, Vascular congestion and increased myometrial thickness were respectively seen in 83.33%, 63.5 %, 83.5% of E1 group animals. Mesigyna also caused reduction in the amount of collagen fibers. Immunostaining revealed decreased number and optical density of progesterone receptors in nuclei of surface epithelium, glandular epithelium and stromal cells while they were increased in nuclei of smooth muscle fibers. Image analysis results confirmed both the histological and the immunohistochemical results. After withdrawal of the drug (group E2, results showed reduction in necrotic changes, endometrial folding, epithelial tufting and hyperplasia. However there was an aggravation of Polymorphonuclear infiltration, vascular congestion and immunohistochemical changes which indicated delayed recovery of these changes in rat uterus under the effect of Mesigyna. In conclusion Mesigyna was found to produce severe histopathological changes which were not completely recovered after 15 days of drug stoppage.
Prabhu, Latha V; Rai, Rajalakshmi; Ranade, Anu V; Kini, Hema; Krishnamurthy, Ashwin; Bernhardt, Kavitha Leigelin
Introduction: Although sildenafil citrate, one of the selective phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors, is considered the best treatment for erectile dysfunction, studies have shown that it has also a beneficial effect on a variety of cardiovascular conditions. In spite of reports of a significant protective effect of sildenafil against necrosis in intact hearts, there are also contradictory reports regarding its beneficial effect on the heart. Since there are not enough reports regarding the histomorphological changes in the cardiomyocytes after exposure to sildenafil citrate, the present study was conducted to observe the same along with other biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods: Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain were used in the present study. The animals were divided into a control group and two experimental groups containing six rats each. The animals were treated with a solution of sildenafil citrate dissolved in distilled water. Histomorphological changes were observed by light microscopy and the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and PDE in the heart were measured by spectrophotometry. Results: It was observed that animals treated with sildenafil citrate showed a highly significant increase in NO and a decrease in PDE level, but the histological architecture of the cardiomyocytes did not show much change other than a slightly elongated and swollen nucleus. Conclusions: This study shows that sildenafil citrate at low dosage is well tolerated by cardiac muscle cells, but as dosage increases, it may become detrimental through its NO and PDE activity. PMID:24083141
The possible biological effects of electromagnetic fields became an attractive public health concern, due to the wide use of mobile phones. Therefore, the present work was designed to study the effect of exposure in male albino rats to electromagnetic radiations(EMR), produced from a cellular tower for mobile telephone, on some redox elements (copper, iron, zinc and manganese), hepatic glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in addition to the stress hormone ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone), serum total proteins and total lipids with evaluation of the possible protective role of the antioxidant Glutathione Enhancer. The rats were arranged into three groups: the control unexposed, the exposed untreated and the exposed treated groups. Both exposed groups were subjected to electromagnetic field at frequency of 900-930 MHz, for 24 h/day for 8 weeks, at the same time the third exposed group was supplied with oral injection of the antioxidant three times/week. Results showed that serum levels of zinc, copper, iron and hepatic tissue contents of reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity and serum total proteins were reduced while serum level of ACTH and manganese were increased in the exposed group compared to control unexposed. Most data of the studied parameters showed improvement after treatment supporting the suggestive protective role of Glutathione Enhancer against the effect of EMR emitted by mobile base stationile base station
While radiation hazards, due to free radical generation, present an enormous challenge for biological and medical safety, green tea extract is a potent scavenger of a variety of free radicals. This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of green tea against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage in the liver and kidney in male rats using vitamin E as a reference drug. Green tea aqueous extract (300 mg/Kg body weighty) or vitamin E (40 mg/ Kg body weighty) were administered to male albino rats via gavages during 21 successive days before whole body exposure to gamma rays (6.5 Gy), from cesium-137 source, and during 7 days after irradiation. The animals were sacrificed the 7th day post-irradiation. The levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), urea, and creatinine, as well as activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased in sera of the irradiated rats. Moreover, radiation induced disturbances in liver and kidney content of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn). Treatment with green tea extract and or vitamin E before and post irradiation were significantly ameliorated the levels of cholesterol, TG, creatinine, and urea, as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and ALP in serum. Also, green tea extract and or vitamin E achieved significant amelioration liver and kidney contents of Ca, Mg and Mn. In conclusion, green tea f Ca, Mg and Mn. In conclusion, green tea extract and or vitamin E show a radioprotective impact against ionizing-radiation-induced liver and kidney injury
Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the objectives of investigating antidiarrhoel activity of Vernonia cinerea whole plant (Family-Compositae, collected from tarai region of Uttarakhand. The plant extracts were obtained via cold extraction method. For the purpose of evaluating antidiarrhoel efficacy of methanolic extract of the plant, rats were used as test animal. The time of onset of first wet faeces increased significantly and dose dependently by the extract. It was excellent at higher doses (100 & 200 mg/kg body wt., orally. It indicated reduction in peristaltic movement of gastro intestinal tract of animals. The antidiarrhoel activity was further confirmed by its significant and dose dependent decrease in number of wet faeces and number of total faeces in comparison to rats used as control.
Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman
Full Text Available Natural products are believed to be an important source of new chemical substance with potential therapeutic applicability. Several plant species traditionally used as anti-inflammatory.This research work is carryout for the anti-inflammatory activity of Pterocarpus marsupium roxb. Stem bark extracts using Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Ibuprofen 60mg/kg p.o. was kept as standard. The research was carried out in Wister strain weighing 150-200gm. The Methanol (100mg/Kg and Aqueous extract (100mg/Kg has exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Flavonoids present in stem bark may be responsible for anti-inflammatory activity. However, it needs isolation, structural elucidation and screening of above active principles to pin point activity of drug.
Nodal, FR; López, DE
The cochlear root neurons (CRNs) are thought to mediate the auditory startle reflex (ASR) in the rat, which is widely used as a behavioral model for the investigation of the sensorimotor integration. CRNs project, among other targets, to the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (PnC), a major component of the ASR circuit, but little is known about the organization of this projection. Thus, we injected biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) in CRNs to study their projections with light and electron m...
The objective is to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of ethanolic, aqueous, total aqueous extracts of leaves of Coccinia grandis (Linn.) , Anti-ulcer activity of the three extracts was studied in rats by using pylorus ligated ulcer model and it was subjected to preliminary phytochemical studies for the identification of phytoconstituents and also studied for color, consistency and percentage yield of various extracts. Omeprazole was used as the standard drug for comparison. The animals were s...
Bathaie, S. Zahra; Miri, Hamidreza; Mohagheghi, Mohammad-ali; Mokhtari- Dizaji, Manijeh; Shahbazfar, Amir-ali; Hasanzadeh, Hadi
Objective(s): Gastric cancer is the first and second leading cause of cancer related death in Iranian men and women, respectively. Gastric cancer management is based on the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, for the first time, the beneficial effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) aqueous extract (SAE) on the 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric cancer in rat was investigated.
Ita, S O; Etim, O E; Ben, E E; Ekpo, O F
The potential haematological effects associated with the administration of ethanolic leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides was investigated in rats. 27 rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group had 6 rats and served as control, the remaining 3 experimental groups and had 7 rats each. These later groups were gavaged with the extract of Ageratum conyzoides in concentrations of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively for 30 days at a dose of 0.1 ml/body weight. The control group was gavaged with 0.9% sodium chloride at a dose of 0.1 m1/body weight as placebo. The extract at the doses administered was found to increase in a dose-related fashion PCV and Hb ([P < 0.01] for 200 mg/kg and [P < 0.001] for 400 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), RBC ([P < 0.05] for 400 mg/Kg and 500 mg/kg) and marginal increases that were not significant for 200 mg/kg); MCH and MCV ([P < 0.05] and [P < 0.01] for 400 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively) 200 mg/kg was not significant. MCHC recorded no significant change. WBC recorded marginal increases that were not significant, similarly, the differential white blood cell recorded marginal increases that were not significant, except lymphocytes that recorded significant increase in group 4 [P < 0.05]. Marginal decreases in body weight were also observed, these decreases were however not significant. The result of this study thus indicate haematopoietic potentials of the extract and could possibly remedy anaemia. PMID:18379624
Pratik Kumar Chatterjee; Vinodini N A; Ranjith Singh; Rakshatha R.; Anwar Amemarsoofi; Pai, Sheila R.
Cadmium (Cd), a transitional metal, is an important industrial & environmental toxicant, adversely affecting various organs like liver, lungs, pancreas, testis, kidneys, etc., It has been found to cause a definitive oxidative stress on the kidneys of studied rats. Moringaoleifera, a perennial softwood herbal plant, having anti-oxidant, anti- inflammatory properties, etc., which has been advocated for centuries for its nutritional, medicinal & industrial uses, is most oftenlyused to combat tox...
Full Text Available Aqueous extract of Spondias mombin in different dilutions was employed to assess its impact on male reproductive, haematologic and biochemical indices of male albino rats. A single daily intragastric administration of 8.4, 16.8 and 33.6 mg kg-1 b.w day-1 of the extract for four weeks did not cause any adverse effect on body and organ weights except the weight of the liver that showed a slight increase. There was a marked dose-dependent reduction (p<0.05 in epididymal sperm progressive motility, sperm count, viability (live/dead ratio and a dose-dependent increase (p<0.05 in percentage abnormal spermatozoa. Abnormalities like double heads, double tails, detached heads and broken tails were frequently observed. Epididymal ?-glucosidase activity was significantly reduced (p<0.05. However, prostatic acid phosphatase activity and citric acid levels and seminal fructose concentrations remained unchanged following Spondias mombin treatment. Blood analysis showed that red cell and white cell counts and haematocrit (Hct levels were in the normal range. Bilirubin, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, urea and protein concentrations were slightly altered by the extract of Spondias mombin. Discontinuation of the extract resulted in full recovery within four weeks of treatment cessation. The results suggest that aqueous extract of the bark of Spondias mombin has reversible antifertility action, the testis and the epididymis probably being the prime sites of action.
Full Text Available The study was designed to investigate the chemoprotective effect of Combined Supplementation of soy and garlic on 7,12-dimethylbenz[?]anthrance (DMBA induced mammary cancer in female Albino rats. Animals (eighty rats where equally divided into four groups, (twenty rats each. Group I: each rat received 1 mL of 0.1% saline daily for twenty days. Group II: received 1 mL of 0.1% saline given orally once a day for twenty days after DMBA infusion (30 mg kg-1 and these rats served as controls (cancer control for groups III and IV. Group III: were post treated with garlic after Infusion with DMBA. Group IV: Treated with Combined Supplementation of Soy and Garlic after DMBA infusion. Biochemical measurement were carried out on liver tissues and serum of experimental animals. Circulating levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT and glutamate pyrovate transaminase (GPT were elevated, while the activities of glutathione-s-transferase (GST and superoxide dismutase (SOD and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH were reduced in liver tissues in DMBA infused rats as compared to normal. Combined Supplementation of Soy and Garlic treatment altered the above mentioned biochemical parameters towards normal values. Present findings indicate that combined supplementation of soy and garlic got more marked effect on DMBA infused rats as compared to a group of rats received only garlic treatment.
Nabila, S. Hassan, Naglaa, F. Abbas And Hafiza, A. Sharaf
Taurine is an amino acid like compound, it is found mostly in meat and fish.This study was designed to evaluate the effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) on liver Histopathological & Histochemical changes and the protective role of taurine (2amino-ethanosulfonic acid ) was studied . Fourty two albino rats were divided into seven groups : control, taurine alone (200mg/kg), CCL4 alone, CCL4 plus 50mg/kg of taurine, CCL4 plus 100mg/kg of taurine, CCL4 plus 200mg/kg of taurine (taurine was inje...
Sai Ram, M; Anju, B; Pauline, T; Dipti, P; Kain, A K; Mongia, S S; Sharma, S K; Singh, B; Singh, R; Ilavazhagan, G; Kumar, D; Selvamurthy, W
The effect of Kombucha tea (KT) on oxidative stress induced changes in rats subjected to chromate treatment are reported. KT feeding alone did not show any significant change in malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, but did enhance humoral response and delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) response appreciably over control animals. Chromate treatment significantly enhanced plasma and tissue MDA levels, decreased DTH response considerably, enhanced glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities; however, no change in GSH, superoxide dismutase and antibody titres was noticed. KT feeding completely reversed the chromate-induced changes. These results show that Kombucha tea has potent anti-oxidant and immunopotentiating activities. PMID:10904168
Ran Vir Singh
Full Text Available Antifertility and histopathological investigations were carried out on reproductive organs of male albino rats induced by tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of iron(II. The complexes were synthesized by the template condensation of 1,2-diaminoethane, 1,3-diaminopropane with succinic acid and phthalic acid in 2:2 molar ratios which are abbreviated as [Fe(TAMLnOAc] (n=1 or 2 and TAMLn represents tetraazamacrocyclic ligand. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, IR, and electronic spectra.
Full Text Available Antifertility and histopathological investigations were carried out on reproductive organs of male albino rats induced by tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of iron(II. The complexes were synthesized by the template condensation of 1,2-diaminoethane, 1,3-diaminopropane with succinic acid and phthalic acid in 2:2 molar ratios which are abbreviated as [ Fe ( TAML n OAc] ( n=1 or 2 and TAML n represents tetraazamacrocyclic ligand. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, IR, and electronic spectra.
Bairy Laxminarayana; Paul Vijay; Rao Yeshwanth
Objectives: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on rat sperm morphology, sperm count, motility, and histopathological changes in testis. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 week old) were treated with sodium valpraote and sacrificed at the end of 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week after the last exposure to sodium valproate. Epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and histopathology of testes were analyzed. Results: Sperm count and sperm ...
Khaled Gamal El-Deen Abdel-Wahhab; Karima Abbas El-Shamy; Nadia Abd El-Zizz El-Beih; Fatma Adly Morcy; Fathia Abd Elwahid Mannaa
The present study was conducted to study the chemoprotective effect of Egyptian rosemary extract(RE) against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Eight experimental groups were used as follow: (1) control;(2&3) RE alone (440 mg/kgb.w) for 4 and 8 weeks, respectively; (4) CCl4 (1ml/kg b.w, twice a week,i.p) for 4 weeks; (5&7) RE (220&440 mg/kg) for 4 weeks before CCl4 for a similar period; and (6&8) RE(220&440 mg/kg) for four weeks before CCl4 in combination with RE another four weeks. The sequentialC...
Asomugha R. N.
Full Text Available ThehepaticeffectsofaqueousleafextractofChromolaenaodorata,aplantcommonlyusedfortraditionalmedications,wasevaluatedusingmaleWistaralbinorats.Acuteandsubchronictoxicitywasevaluatedafter90daysofexposure.TheLD50was2154mg/kg.Serumlevelsofglucose,lactatedehydrogenase,aspartateaminotransferasetransaminase,andtotalbilirubinincreasedsignificantlyinthe538.5and1077mg/kgdosegroups.Thesetwogroupsalsohadsignificantlyreducedserumlevelsalbuminandtotalserumproteinwhencomparedwiththecontrolgroup.Histopathologicalassessmentshoweddegenerativechangesintheliver.AqueousleafextractofChromolaenaodoratausedintraditionalmedicalpracticemaybesafewhereashighdosesmayhavedeleterioushepaticeffects
Asomugha R. N.; Okafor P.N; IjehI I; Orisakwe O. E; Asomugha A. L.
Eman G E Helal, Mohamed M. M. Badawi
Background: Xenoestrogens are widely used environmental chemicals that have recently been under scrutiny because of their possible role as endocrine disrupters. Among them is digoxin that is commonly used in the treatment of heart failure and atrial dysrhythmias. Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside derived from the foxglove plant, Digitalis lanata and suspected to act as estrogen in living organisms. Aim of the work: The purpose of the current study was to elucidate the sexual hormonal and bioc...
Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis; Noramaliza Mohd Noor; Nattaya Konsue
Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is an isothiocyanate found in watercress as the glucosinolate (gluconasturtiin). The isothiocyanate is converted from the glucosinolate by intestinal microflora or when contacted with myrosinase during the chopping and mastication of the vegetable. PEITC manifested protection against chemically-induced cancers in various tissues. A potential mechanism of chemoprevention is by modulating the metabolism of carcinogens so as to promote deactivation. The principal...
Neena Singla; Swati Challana
The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45?mg/kg?bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P ? 0.05) reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy...
Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos
Pankaj G. Jain
Full Text Available The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o. along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control. The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.As folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, são usados na medicina natural da Índia como um agente hipolipemiante em pacientes obesos. Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com extrato metanólico de M. oleifera (150, 300 e 600 mg/kg, p.o. e sinvastatina (4 mg/kg, p.o., juntamente com dieta hiperlipídica por 30 dias. Moringa oleifera e sinvastatina reduziram o colesterol, triacilglicerídeoss, VLDL, LDL e índice aterogênico, mas não aumentaram o HDL em comparação com o grupo controle, com dieta rica em colesterol. O mecanismo de ação do extrato metanólico de Moringa oleifera foi também investigado estimando atividade de HMG CO-A redutase. Moringa oleifera aumentou a excreção fecal de colesterol. Assim, o estudo demonstra que a M. oleifera parece ter efeito hipolipemiante.
Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats / Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos
Pankaj G., Jain; Savita D., Patil; Nitin G., Haswani; Manoj V., Girase; Sanjay J., Surana.
Full Text Available As folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, são usados na medicina natural da Índia como um agente hipolipemiante em pacientes obesos. Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com extrato metanólico de M. oleifera (150, 300 e 600 mg/kg, p.o.) e sinvastatina (4 mg/kg, p.o.), juntamente com dieta h [...] iperlipídica por 30 dias. Moringa oleifera e sinvastatina reduziram o colesterol, triacilglicerídeoss, VLDL, LDL e índice aterogênico, mas não aumentaram o HDL em comparação com o grupo controle, com dieta rica em colesterol. O mecanismo de ação do extrato metanólico de Moringa oleifera foi também investigado estimando atividade de HMG CO-A redutase. Moringa oleifera aumentou a excreção fecal de colesterol. Assim, o estudo demonstra que a M. oleifera parece ter efeito hipolipemiante. Abstract in english The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic d [...] iet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control). The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.
Yogesh Chand Yadav
Full Text Available
The present study was designed to investigate to possible potential nephrocurative, nephroprotective activity and in vivo antioxidant potential of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg ethanolic extract of Lepidium sativum L. seeds was use to against cisplatin (5mg/kg, i.p. induced nephrotoxicity. The experimental protocol designed as the animals were divided into six groups (n=6 like control, model control, two curative (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, and two protective groups (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, were received vehicle, cisplatin, cisplatin + extract, and extract + cisplatin respectively. After 6th days, blood collected from retro-orbital sinus of rats and determined urea and creatinine level in serum of each group after then rats were sacrificed for quantitative estimation of various enzymes and ATPase content in kidney tissue. A single dose of cisplatin induced loss in body weight, increase urine excretion, increased urea & creatinine level in serum; it was significantly recovered by 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg in curative and protective groups. The enzyme estimation in kidney tissue it found that increase malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione level, it was significantly monitored by 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg in curative and protective groups. These are defined as vivo antioxidant potential. The level of brush border enzymes like Na+ / K+ ATPase, Ca++ ATPase and Mg++ATPase were found significantly reduced after single dose cisplatin injection. It was overcome by treatment of same extract in curative and protective groups. Finally it is concluded that the present study data conformed nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin due oxidative stress and ethanolic extract of Lepidium sativum L. seeds may have nephroprotective and curative activity.
Keywords: Cisplatin; Nephrotoxicity; urea; creatinine; glutathione; Lipid peroxidation
Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance:Elaeis guineensisJacq (Arecaceae is one of the plants that are central to the lives of traditional societies in West Africa. It has been reported as a traditional folkloric medicine for a variety of ailments. The plant leaves are also used in some parts of Africa for wound healing, but there are no scientific reports on any wound healing activity of the plant. Aim of the study:To investigate the effects of E. guineensis leaf on wound healing activity in rats. Methods: A phytochemical screening was done to determine the major phytochemicals in the extract. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was examined using the disk diffusion technique and broth dilution method. The wound healing activity of leaves of E. guineensiswas studied by incorporating the methanolic extract in yellow soft paraffin in concentration of 10% (w/w. Wound healing activity was studied by determining the percentage of wound closure, microbial examination of granulated skin tissue and histological analysis in the control and extract treated groups. Results: Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the extract. The extract showed significant activity against Candida albicans with an MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL. The results show that the E. guineensis extract has potent wound healing capacity, as evident from better wound closure, improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Assessment of granulation tissue every fourth day showed a significant reduction in microbial count. Conclusions: E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting this traditional use.
Man is exposed to natural radiations from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore, it is well known that the gamma irradiation-induced biochemical alteration depends mostly on oxidative stress. Basil or sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is known to have numerous pharmacological activities. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the radioprotective activity of basil in albino rats. The effect of basil aqueous extract (BAE) was evaluated on hepatic marker enzymes, sex hormones, lipid profile and antioxidant status. The results showed that - rays caused a significant increase in serum level of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (ALT, AST, ALP and GT), cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and VLDL-C) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). A significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in serum was observed, compared with control group. Moreover, - rays induced a significant drop in the serum sex hormones levels testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The BAE administered orally to rats has significantly modulated all the radiation-induced biochemical alterations. These findings showed that basil would exert a radioprotective properties.
Vinayak Patel; Suresh Sail
To study the effects of ?-carotene on the body growth and physiological antioxidants, male weanling rats were fed with low and high amount of ?-carotene before four weeks and after six months of Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) treatment (0.5 mg kg-1 body wt., on alternate days, total 10 doses, i.p). The results were compared with animals treated with AFB1. The final body weight of AFB1 treated animals was significantly reduced in the normal group (NVE). Plasma vitamin E was reduced significantly in NVE...
Full Text Available The aqueous root-bark extract of Ficus sycomorus (Linn was screened for its chemical constituents, median lethal dose and its histomorphological effect on the liver and kidney of albino rats. A total of 114 adult albino rats of both sexes weighing between 150-320 g were used in this study. The animals were weighed and randomly divided into two batches for the acute toxicity and histomorphological studies. In the acute toxicity study the aqueous extract of the root-bark of Ficus sycomorus was administered intraperitoneally (ip in a dose range of 0.2-12 g kg-1 and the rats were observed for the physical signs of toxicity for 24 h. For the histomorphological effect of the extract on the liver and kidney 320, 640 and 1,280 mg kg-1 were administered to the rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. At the end of each treatment period, the animals were weighed before been sacrificed and the liver and kidneys were extracted, weighed and processed for histological assessment. Phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and reducing sugar while the median lethal dose (LD50 was calculated as 3.20±0.60 g kg-1. A significant decrease (p<0. 001 in body weight was observed but weights of kidney and liver treated with the extract were not affected significantly. Microscopic examination of the liver tissues of rats treated with the extract showed degenerative changes ranging from cytoplasmic vacuolation of hepatocytes, necrosis, dilatation of the central vein and proliferation of bile ducts. There was no observable effect on the kidney. The results of the study suggest that the extract possess hepatotoxic potentials and should be used with caution but a further research to assess the pharmacokinetics of the extract on cell membrane stability, lipid peroxidation, parenchymal cell regeneration and ultra structural study will be useful and is recommended.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, the spatial navigation memory of rats was evaluated by cross-arm maze. In this study lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in hippocampus. Diabetes caused to significant decrease in alternation percent in the cross-arm maze, as a spatial memory index, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, whereas administration of melatonin prevented the spatial memory deficit in diabetic rats. Also melatonin injection significantly increased the spatial memory in intact animals compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Assessment of hippocampus homogenates indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activities in the diabetic group compared to the control animals, while melatonin administration ameliorated these indices in diabetic rats. In conclusion, diabetes induction leads to debilitation of spatial navigation memory in rats, and the melatonin treatment improves the memory presumably through the reduction of oxidative stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats.
M. P. SINHA
Full Text Available The effect of aqueous extract of leaves on some haematological and serum lipid parameters in rats during a sevenday administration of the doses of 250mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight orally was investigated. The parametersevaluated include serum lipids, red and white blood cell indices. The results show that the extract administeredsignificantly increased (p<0.05 packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, red blood cell, MCH, MCHC,MCV and platelet count t at the dose of 250mg /kg and 500 mg/kg body weight when compared with control.Whereas Psidium guajava the platelet was significantly increased (p<0.05 at 250mg/kg body weight but at500mg/kg body weight the count significanty reduced (p<0.05. Also, the extract significantly increased (p<0.05white blood cell count at all doses administered when compared with control. Moreover, the extract significantlyreduced (p<0.05 total cholesterol concentration, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol concentration in the serumwhile it had no significant effect on serum LDL-cholesterol concentration at all doses administered when comparedwith controls. The results of this study suggest that the extract may have beneficial effect on serum cholesterolconcentration and triglycerides reduction as well as in anemia and immunity dependent disorders.
Full Text Available The objective is to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of ethanolic, aqueous, total aqueous extracts of leaves of Coccinia grandis (Linn. , Anti-ulcer activity of the three extracts was studied in rats by using pylorus ligated ulcer model and it was subjected to preliminary phytochemical studies for the identification of phytoconstituents and also studied for color, consistency and percentage yield of various extracts. Omeprazole was used as the standard drug for comparison. The animals were sacrificed after 19 hrs after the ligation. Stomach was dissected out and contents were drained into tubes and were centrifuged at 1000 rpm for 10min and volume was noted. The PH of gastric juice was recorded using a PH meter. The contents were subjected for analysis of free and total acidity and Na+, k+ ion concentration. The numbers of ulcers per stomach was noted and severity of ulcers scored. Then the blood samples were collected and subjected to estimation of serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase level. The expected result is to get an anti-ulcer activity of the leaf extracts of Coccinia grandis should owing to the presence of one or more phytoconstituents, which may reduce the acidity of the gastric juice and also prevents the mucosal damage and ulcer formation. The Ethanolic Extract 400mg/kg expected to showed comparable anti ulcer-activity as that of standard Omeprazole.
Full Text Available The effect of Carum carvi L. pretreatment on gastric mucosal injuries caused by NaCl, NaOH, ethanol and pylorous ligation accumulated gastric acid secretions was investigated in rats. Pretreatment at oral doses of 250 and 500 mg kg-1, body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against the (i ulcerogenic effects of different necrotizing agents (ii ethanol-induced histopathological lesions, depletion of stomach wall mucus and Nonprotein Sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH and (iii pylorous ligated accumulation of gastric acid secretions. The protective effect of Carum carvi against ethanol-induced damage of the gastric tissue appears to be related with the free-radical scavenging property of its constituents. The exact mechanism of action of the gastroprotective activity is not known. However, it might be due to flavonoid related suppression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1 which are known to convert xenobiotics and endogenous compounds to toxic metabolites.
The present study aims to investigate the biological effects of carrot oil as an antioxidant, our results recorded that blood glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity, total white blood cells count (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit value (Hct%), platelets count (PLT) and serum testosterone were significantly decreased on the 1st and 7th day post-exposure to 7 Gy gamma irradiation, while serum total cholesterol level, triglycerides level and malondialdehyde (MDA) revealed a significant increase on the 1st and 7th days post-irradiation. Oral administration of carrot oil (200 mg/Kg b.w.) for consecutive 3 weeks before exposure to 7 Gy gamma irradiation in male albino rats, the data revealed significant amelioration in the previous parameters, it could be concluded that carrot oil capable of reducing the biological hazards induced by gamma irradiation
R. S. Gupta
Full Text Available Benzothiazoline HNC6H4SCÃ¯Â¸Â¹(C6H5CH:C(OHCOOCH3Ã¢ÂÂ1 prepared by the condensation reaction of aroyl pyruvate and 2-aminothiophenol has been treated with Ph3Sb(OPri2 to yield Ph3Sb[SC6H4NC(C6H5CH:COÃ¯Â¸Â¹COOCH3]Ã¢ÂÂ2. These compounds have been characterized by elemental analyses and molecular weight determinations. The probable structures of the ligand as well as antimony complex have been tentatively proposed on the basis of IR and NMR (H1 and C13 spectral evidences. Both compounds have been tested for their antifertility activity in male albino rats. The oral administration of compounds 1 and 2 at the dose level of 10 mg/rat/day significantly reduced the weights of testes, epididymides, ventral prostate, and seminal vesicles. The production of preleptotene spermatocytes was decreased by 36.57%; 57.23%, pachytene spermatocytes by 40.06%; 62.01%, and secondary spermatocytes by 52.45%; 63.22%, following the treatment of compounds 1 and 2, respectively. The marked reduction in sperm motility and density resulted in infertility by 100%. Significant (P<.01 alterations were found in biochemical parameters of reproductive organs in treated animals as compared to control group. It is concluded that all these effects may finally impair the fertility of male rats.
Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Soldier Ant (Dorylus spp Meal in Partial Replacement for Fishmeal on Some Haematological, Biochemical and Enzymological Parameters of Wistar Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional and toxic effects of soldier ant meal as a supplement for fishmeal on some haematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters of wistar albino rats. Thirty rats aged 3 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments (T in a complete randomized design with six rats per treatment. The rats were fed with diets containing 0% (T1 (Control, 25 % (T2, 50 % (T3, 75 % (T4 and 100% (T5 soldier ant meal. The experimental diets and drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of three weeks. There were significant reduction (p<0.05 among T2, T3, T4 and T5 for red blood cell count (RBC, packed cell volume (PCV and haemoglobin (Hb , mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC compared to the control treatment T1. Also, significant increase in the white blood cell count (WBC of the treated rats compared to the control treatment was observed. There were significant differences (p<0.05 in the biochemical parameters among the treatments and enzymological study showed significant (p<0.05 increase in the activities of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT in the liver and muscle of T2, T3, T4 and T5 compared to the control treatment. It can be concluded that soldier ant meal has adverse effects on the haematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters of rats.
Babatunji E. Oyinloye
Full Text Available Objective: Herbal medicinal products play an important role in the management of liver diseases for the lack of satisfactory liver protective drugs in allopathic medical practices. Searching for hepatoprotective drugs with high efficacy and safety is of great need. Our aim is to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of Piper guineense (P.G. on ethanol induced toxicity in Wistar rats. Methods: In order to assess the hepatoprotective effect of this extract in experimental animals, twenty-four Wistar male albino rats (weighing 150-170 g were divided into four groups. Toxicity was induced by administering 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg b.w by oral gavage for 21 days. Serum triglyceride (TG levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities were monitored. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD and gluthathione-S-transferase (GST activities were determined in the liver. Results: At the end of the experiment, chronic administration of ethanol resulted in enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO with depletion in the levels of GSH as well as reduction in the activities of SOD and GST. TG levels, ALT and AST activities were elevated. This was attenuated by the co-administration of the P.guineense extract by oral gavage (100 or 200 mg/kg b.w. Administration of the plant extract during ethanol exposure inhibited hepatic LPO and ameliorated SOD and GST activities as well as restoring GSH levels significantly. Conclusion: From this study it can be concluded that aqueous extract of P.guineense possess some potent antioxidants which can ameliorate hepatic damage associated with chronic ethanol exposure in rat models. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 71-76
Full Text Available Objective: We investigated hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of extracted anthocyanins fraction of red radish for the first time. Methods: Anthocyanins fraction of red radish (Raphanus sativus; AFRS was selectively extracted by employment of polymeric ion-exchange resin. AFRS was evaluated for antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The animals were divided into seven groups of six animals each. Group I (control received vehicle. Group II (drug control received AFRS. Group III (toxicant received CCl4. Group IV, V and VI received AFRS at doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg po, respectively. Group VII (standard received silymarin. Various biochemical parameters like alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin (TB and direct bilirubin (DB levels in serum as well as the glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in the liver were determined. Histopathological changes in the liver were also studied. The activity of AFRS was compared with the reference drug silymarin. Results: The yield of AFRS was found to be 0.084% (w/w. AFRS treated group did not show any significant change in the activity of serum ALT, AST, ALP, TB, DB, MDA and GSH level compared to control group. CCl4 significantly raised the serum level of all biochemical parameters (except GSH in the toxicant group. The pre-treatment of AFRS for seven days had reversed the alteration of biochemical parameters towards normal, and the effects were comparable to standard drug (silymarin 100 mg/kg. The animals received pre-treatment of AFRS showed amelioration in necrotic zones and hepatocellular degeneration. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanins fraction isolated from Raphanus sativus and thus scientifically supports the usage of it as food colorant and also justifies the use of the crude extracts of radish to treat various liver ailments in Indian folk medicine. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(1: 43-50
Full Text Available Introduction: Nanosilver particles are one of the functional grounds in nanotechnology field. These nanoparticles may produce free radicals and destruct different cells. In this study, Nanosilver toxic effects on RBC and WBC numbers in male Rats were studied. Thus, male rats were treated with nanosilver and RBC and WBC were detected. Methods: In this study, RBC was detected in male Wistar rats following exposure to 50, 100, 200 and 400ppm concentration of silver nanoparticles administrated peritoneally. Then, RBC and WBC were collected in rats 3, 8 and 12 days after treatment of nanosilver particles. Numbers of RBC and WBC were compared in treatment and control groups. Results: The study results indicated that dose of 400ppm nanosilver was effective on decrease of RBC and increase of WBC in treatment rats 12 day after treatment. These results were significant (p?0/01. Discussion: The efficiency of 400ppm concentration of nanosilver, RBC decease and WBC increase could be referred to probabale lyses of RBC cell membranes and sever incitement of cellular immune system. The extra investigation is recommended regarding variety of new shapes, sizes and composition of nanosilver.
Guilherme L., Fernandes; Manuel J., Simões; Edmund C., Baracat; Sílvia, Espiridião; Ricardo M., Oliveira-Filho; Luiz, Kulay Jr..
Full Text Available En los países del tercer mundo, el uso indiscriminado durante el embarazo del fármaco antiinflamatorio no-esteroide, ácido mefenámico, es un tema de preocupación, fundamentalmente, porque este fármaco posee efectos colaterales potencialmente graves, principalmente, a nivel del aparato digestivo. En [...] este trabajo, ratas hembras fueron tratadas durante toda la preñez (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20 de la gestación) con 5, 15 o 45 mg/kg de ácido mefenámico (AM), una vez al día. Los controles recibieron el vehículo de la droga. Se observó una discreta, aunque significativa, disminución del ritmo de aumento del peso de las madres tratadas con las dos dosis más altas (15 y 45 mg/kg AM). Si bien hay relatos de que el fármaco puede producir efectos adversos importantes sobre funciones metabólicas hepáticas y renales, no hemos observado señales de toxicidad sobre el hígado o los riñones, tanto de las madres como de sus crías. Los efectos digestivos del AM son inhibición del movimiento del fluído luminal para fuera de la luz del tubo digestivo y por ende, aumento del tránsito intestinal, lo que podría responder por la pérdida de peso corporal materno observada, principalmente, durante el último tercio de la preñez Abstract in english Misuse and abuse of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic mefenamic acid among pregnant women in developing coutries constitute a matter of medical concern, mainly as a function of the potentially serious side effects of that drug, notably at the digestive system level. Female rats were [...] treated during the entire pregnancy period (from day 0 up to day 20) with 5, 15, or 45 mg/kg of mefenamic acid (MA) once daily, by gavage. Controls received the drug vehicle. We observed that there was a slight yet significant impairment of maternal body weight gain of the animals treated with the two highest doses of MA. Although the drug was proven to exert deleterious effects on kidney and liver metabolic functions, no gross signs of renal or hepatic toxicity were detected in our animals and in their concepts. The digestive effects would be presumably caused by the inhibitory actions of MA on the luminal fluid movement and are accounted for by the observed body weight loss during pregnancy.
Guilherme L. Fernandes
Full Text Available Misuse and abuse of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic mefenamic acid among pregnant women in developing coutries constitute a matter of medical concern, mainly as a function of the potentially serious side effects of that drug, notably at the digestive system level. Female rats were treated during the entire pregnancy period (from day 0 up to day 20 with 5, 15, or 45 mg/kg of mefenamic acid (MA once daily, by gavage. Controls received the drug vehicle. We observed that there was a slight yet significant impairment of maternal body weight gain of the animals treated with the two highest doses of MA. Although the drug was proven to exert deleterious effects on kidney and liver metabolic functions, no gross signs of renal or hepatic toxicity were detected in our animals and in their concepts. The digestive effects would be presumably caused by the inhibitory actions of MA on the luminal fluid movement and are accounted for by the observed body weight loss during pregnancy.En los países del tercer mundo, el uso indiscriminado durante el embarazo del fármaco antiinflamatorio no-esteroide, ácido mefenámico, es un tema de preocupación, fundamentalmente, porque este fármaco posee efectos colaterales potencialmente graves, principalmente, a nivel del aparato digestivo. En este trabajo, ratas hembras fueron tratadas durante toda la preñez (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20 de la gestación con 5, 15 o 45 mg/kg de ácido mefenámico (AM, una vez al día. Los controles recibieron el vehículo de la droga. Se observó una discreta, aunque significativa, disminución del ritmo de aumento del peso de las madres tratadas con las dos dosis más altas (15 y 45 mg/kg AM. Si bien hay relatos de que el fármaco puede producir efectos adversos importantes sobre funciones metabólicas hepáticas y renales, no hemos observado señales de toxicidad sobre el hígado o los riñones, tanto de las madres como de sus crías. Los efectos digestivos del AM son inhibición del movimiento del fluído luminal para fuera de la luz del tubo digestivo y por ende, aumento del tránsito intestinal, lo que podría responder por la pérdida de peso corporal materno observada, principalmente, durante el último tercio de la preñez
Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.
Full Text Available We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 ± 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 ± 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004. No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 ± 5.41 vs 127.02 ± 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001. These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.
Damasceno Débora C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycemia can impair the male reproductive system in experimental animals and in men during reproductive age. Studies have shown that vitamin C has some good effects on male reproductive system, and therefore vitamin C treatment could attenuate the dysfunctions in this system caused by hyperglycemia. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate whether vitamin C treatment could attenuate reproductive dysfunctions in hyperglycemic male rats. Methods Adult male rats were divided into 3 groups: a normoglycemic (n = 10 and two hyperglycemic (that received a single dose of streptozotocin - 40 mg/kg BW. The two last groups (n = 10 per group were divided into: hyperglycemic control (Hy and hyperglycemic + 150 mg of vitamin C (HyC, by gavage during 30 consecutive days. The normoglycemic and hyperglycemic control groups received the vehicle (water. The first day after the treatment, the rats were anesthetized and killed to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers (TBARS, SOD, GSHt and GSH-Px in the erythrocytes, body and reproductive organ weights, sperm parameters, plasma hormone levels (FSH, LH and testosterone, testicular and epididymal histo-morphometry and histopathology. Results Compared with the normoglycemic animals, hyperglycemic control rats showed reduced weight of the body and reproductive organ but testis weight was maintained. It was also observed reduction of testosterone and LH levels, seminiferous tubular diameter, sperm motility and sperm counts in the epididymis. In addition, there was an increase in morphological abnormalities on spermatozoa as well as in oxidative stress level. Vitamin C reduced the oxidative stress level, diminished the number of abnormal sperm, and increased testosterone and LH levels and seminiferous tubular diameter but did not show improvement of sperm motility in relation to the hyperglycemic control group. Hyperglycemia caused a rearrangement in the epididymal tissue components (stroma, ephitelium and lumen as demonstrated by the stereological analysis results. However, this alteration was partially prevented by vitamin C treatment. Conclusions We conclude that vitamin C partially attenuated some male reproductive system dysfunctions in hyperglycemic rats.
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Background and Objectives: Cisplatin, Platinum co-ordinate complex is a widely used antineaplastic agent for treatment of metastatic tumors. Taurine is an organic acid and an endogenous antioxidant. In this study we investigated the protective effect of taurine as an endogenous antioxidant against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotexicity.
Methods: 24 male albino rats (180-220 grams were divided into 4 groups (n=6: (1: saline-treated group (2: cisplatin-treated group (10mg/kg, ip (3: group that received taurine (400mg/kg, ip 1hr before cisplatin (10mg/kg, ip administration (4: taurine (400mg/kg, ip. The animals were killed 7days after treatment and then blood samples were collected.
Results: The results of this study indicated that cisplatin significantly increased CRATININ, URE, ALT, AST levels as compared to control group. Moreover, taurine significantly decreased CRATININ, URE, ALT and AST levels compared to cisplatin group.
Conclusion: According to this study taurine prevents the incease of Creatinin, BUN, ALT and AST levels assisted by cisplatin, which may be due to its antioxidant properties.
Forty male albino rats were divided equally into four groups, the first group acted as control group, the second group was subjected to 5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation, the third group was injected intraperitoneally daily with soya oil (15 mg/kg b.w. for 14 days) before gamma irradiation and the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally daily with garlic oil (150/kg b.w. for 14 days) before gamma irradiation. Mortality percentage and body weight were recorded. Blood samples were collected one week post-gamma irradiation from all animals for biochemical analysis. Serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol were measured. Total proteins and albumin were measured using photometric methods. Globulin value was calculated by subtraction of albumin from total protein values. The results showed that gamma irradiation with dose level of 5 Gy induced retardation of live body weight and increased the mortality. The data also showed significant increases in TBARS, total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol levels, whereas the levels of total proteins, albumin and globulin were significantly decreased. The soya oil or garlic oil injected pre-irradiation exerted noticeable amelioration in induced radiation changes on body weight, mortality, TBARS, lipid profiles and protein fractions
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cisplatin, Platinum co-ordinate complex is a widely used antineaplastic agent for treatment of metastatic tumors. Taurine is an organic acid and an endogenous antioxidant. In this study we investigated the protective effect of taurine as an endogenous antioxidant against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotexicity.Methods: 24 male albino rats (180-220 grams were divided into 4 groups (n=6: (1: saline-treated group (2: cisplatin-treated group (10mg/kg, ip (3: group that received taurine (400mg/kg, ip 1hr before cisplatin (10mg/kg, ip administration (4: taurine (400mg/kg, ip. The animals were killed 7days after treatment and then blood samples were collected.Results: The results of this study indicated that cisplatin significantly increased CRATININ, URE, ALT, AST levels as compared to control group. Moreover, taurine significantly decreased CRATININ, URE, ALT and AST levels compared to cisplatin group.Conclusion: According to this study taurine prevents the incease of Creatinin, BUN, ALT and AST levels assisted by cisplatin, which may be due to its antioxidant properties.Keywords: Cisplatin; Taurine; Hepatoxicity; Nephrotoxicity; Nephrons.
This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil (FEO) against gamma irradiation-induced biochemical changes in male rats. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. was orally administrated at dose level of 250 mg/kg body wt/day for 21 days before irradiation and 7 days post exposure (6.5 Gy single dose). Rats exposed to ionizing radiation exhibited a potential elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels, lipid abnormalities, and an increase in tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metallothioneins (MTs). On the other hand, noticeable drop in liver and kidney glutathione content and serum total protein, albumin and testosterone levels were recorded. Tissue organs displayed some changes in trace element concentrations, which may be due to the radiation ability to induce oxidative stress. The data obtained from rats treated with fennel oil before and after whole body gamma irradiation revealed significant modulation in the biochemical tested parameters and profound improvement in the activity of antioxidant status, glutathione and metallothioneins. The treatment of irradiated rats with fennel oil also appeared to be effective in minimizing the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation as well as changes in essential trace elements in some tissue organs. In addition to its containing many chemical antioxidant constituents such as polyphenols, fennel was found to contain detectable concentrations of essential trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Mn and Ca) which may be involved in multiple biological processes as constituents of enzymes system including superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn, Mn, SODs), oxide reductase, glutathione (GSP, GSH, GST), metallothionein MTs, etc. Overall, it could be concluded that Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil exerts beneficial protective role against radiation-induced deleterious biochemical effects related to many organ functions and deteriorated antioxidant defense system.
Hooded (Mol:PVG) and albino (Mol:WIST) rats were used to study the distribution pattern of 14C-trimethoprim by whole-body autoradiography. Accumulation of radioactivity was demonstrated in the uveal tract of the eye and the pigmented parts of the skin in the hooded rats. No radioactivity was present in the corresponding tissues in the albino rats. This difference in the distribution pattern was interpreted to reflect binding to melanin of 14C-trimethoprim and/or its metabolites. (author)
Male albino rats were whole body subjected to 2 Gy every other day up to a total dose of 8 Gy. Animals sacrificed on the 8th day after irradiation showed significant decreases in testis/body weight ratio. Biochemical analysis in testicular tissues showed significant decreases in SOD and CAT activities, concomitant with significant increase in XO activity and TBARS contents. Radiation exposure induced also significant increases in testicular DNA fragmentation, significant increases in mitochondrial NO and Ca+2 contents associated with significant decrease in nuclear GSH content. Testicular LDL-C content showed a significant increase which was much higher than its increase in serum, the content of HDL-C increased significantly, contrarily to serum where a significant decrease was recorded. Histological examination through electron microscope revealed apoptosis in testicular tissue. Either allopurinol (50 mg/kg body weight supplied via intra peritoneal injection) or Hesperidine (200 mg/kg body weight supplied orally by gastric intubation) or allopurinol + hesperidine supplied to rats during 7 consecutive days before irradiation or during 7 consecutive days after irradiation resulted in significant decrease of apoptosis associated with significant amelioration in the disequilibrium between antioxidants and oxidants. All treatments have improved the biochemical alteration in testicular tissues as well as mitochondrial and nuclear changes. However, the improvement was significantly higher when allopurinol, or hesperidine or allopurinol + hesperidine were administered pre-irradiation than post-irradiation. According to the results obtained in the current study, it could be concluded that antioxidants supplementation would protect testicular tissues from apoptosis.
Wood, Ruth I.; Vertelkina, Nina V.; Antzoulatos, Eleni
Testosterone and other anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are reinforcing in animals, as determined by conditioned place preference or self-administration. Most drugs of abuse produce subjective effects on mood and perception that initiate and maintain drug taking. Whether AAS have similar effects is not known. Food-restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9) were tested for their ability to discriminate an injection of testosterone from the ?-cyclodextrin vehicle using a standard two-lever op...
Pometlová, M.; Mikulecká, Anna; lamberová, Romana; Schutová, B.; Hrubá, L.; Rokyta, R.
Ro?. 18, Suppl.1 (2007), S77-S77. ISSN 0955-8810. [Biennial Meeting of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society /12./. 31.08.2007-03.09.2007, Tübingen] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) 1A8610; GA Mk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : metemphetamine * behavior * male rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology
The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effect of contaminated food with organophosphorus pesticide curacron for different periods on serum glucose, total protein, free amino acids, glutamic pyruvic and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases in male rats. Radioimmunoassay technique was used the effect of curacron pesticide on serum insulin level in rats for 45 days. It has been found that curacron caused disturbance in in liver functions which were elucidated through the biochemical determination of glutamic oxaloacetic (SGOT) and glutamic pyruvic (SGPT) transaminases and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin of rats fed with daily doses of 71.6 mg curacron/kg for 45 days. The administered dose of curacron showed cumulative physiological effect and caused marked increases in SGOT, SGPT, total protein and serum insulin levels. On the other hand, it caused significant decreases in levels of serum glucose and free amino acids (FAA) as compared with the control ones
Kazeminasab, Fatemeh; Marandi, Mohammad; Ghaedi, Kamran; Esfarjani, Fahimeh; Moshtaghian, Jamal
Liver X receptor ? (LXR?) is a member of the ligand-activated transcription factor of nuclear hormonal receptor superfamily, whose activation leads to modulation in the expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis including ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which plays a crucial role in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) remodeling. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether endurance training enhanced the expression level of liver LXR? gene. Twelve adult male Wistar rats (200-220 g) were divided into control and training groups. Training group received exercise on a motor-driven treadmill at 28 m/min (0 % grade) for 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise session, the rats were killed and blood was taken from the right ventricle of each rat. Plasma was collected for HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TC and TG measurements. Furthermore, a portion of the liver of each rat was excised and washed in ice-cold saline and frozen in liquid nitrogen for assessment of LXR? and ABCA1 mRNA levels. Data indicated significant increase in both LXR? and ABCA1 mRNA levels in trained rats, compared to control rats. Plasma HDL-C concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in trained rats at the end of treadmill exercise. However, there was a significant decrease in LDL-C (P < 0.003), TG, TC concentration, TC/HDL-C and LDL/HDL-C ratios in trained rats compared with those in the control group (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we found that endurance training induced significant elevation in LXR? gene expression, which correlated with enhanced levels of ABCA1 mRNA and plasma HDL-C concentration. PMID:23674092
Full Text Available Effects of estrogen in the brain regions which are not directly related to neuroendocrine functions are not fully known. Therefore we investigated the long term effects on the cerebellar cortex of a neonatally (3rd day administered single dose (1 mg of estrogen. Golgi impregnated and paraffin sections (Bielschowsky, Klûver-Barerra and basic fuchsin-alcian-blue of cerebella of 10 treated adult (365 days old male rats and of 10 matched controls were studied. Simultaneous to the morphological analysis of the cerebellar cortex, stereological methods were applied. In treated rats the Purkinje neurons had a more developed dendritic arborisation with numerous spines, but had significantly decreased (p<0.001 cellular body volumes (14 x 10-3 mm3 in comparison to controls (27 x 10-3 mm3. In treated animals the molecular layer thickness (148.94 ?m of the cerebellar cortex was significantly decreased (p<0.001 compared to controls (514.52 ?m, and the thickness of the granular layer (372.35 ?m was significantly (p<0.001 increased compared to controls (270.80 ?m. In treated rats the number of neurons in the granular layer was 338.87 mm2 (controls 118.81 mm2 and in the molecular layer was 22.86 mm2 (controls 55.23 mm2. Our results indicate significant and long term effects of a single dose of estrogen (administered in the neonatal period on the cerebellar cortex of male rats.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Aluminum (Al is an indifferent element from a toxicological point of view. In recent years, however, Al has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several clinical disorders. One of the most frequently described problem in aluminum toxicity is anemia. The present study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of Camel?s milk in alleviating the toxicity of aluminum chloride (AlCl3 on certain hematological parameters, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress enzyme in the RBC?s of white albino rats. Approach: Ten rats per group were divided into three treatment groups: Group one were rats given normal saline and served as control group, group two were rats treated with 1 ml of AlCl3 (0.5 mg kg-1 body weight and named AlCl3 treated rats, group 3 were rat treated with 1ml fresh camel?s milk 10 min before the administration of AlCl3 (0.5 mg kg-1 body weight and named Camel?s milk and AlCl3 treated rats. Rats were orally administered their respective doses every day for 30 days. Evaluations were made for hematological parameters in the blood and for lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress enzymes activities in the RBC?s. Results: Results obtained showed that oral AlCl3 treatment caused a significant decrease (p3 induced free radicals and as a result caused an increase the concentration of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS and decreased activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD and Catalsae (CAT in the RBCs homolysate. The oral administration of Camel?s milk before the administration of AlCl3, alleviated it?s toxic effect. Camel?s milk administration resulted in a significant increase (p3 treated rats. Camel?s milk reduced free radicals production and oxidative stress status in the RBC?s noticed by the significant decreased levels of TBARS and increased activities of SOD and CAT when compared to AlCl3 treated rats. Conclusion: our data proved that there is an alternation in the hematological parameters and antioxidant system in the red blood cells of rats administered aluminum chloride orally, whereas oral administration of Camel?s milk prior the administration of Aluminum chloride protects the red blood cell form toxic effect of aluminum.
Full Text Available The influence of pollution from petroleum refining activities on the levels of nitrates and nitrites in five edible vegetable species was investigated. Besides, the kinetics of nitrite and nitrate was studied in vivo using albino rats with focus on the possible influence of concentration difference on kinetics and implications to toxicity. Leaf samples of the five vegetable species were collected randomly from various locations within Eleme, a host community of Port Harcourt Refinery Company and the Indorama Petrochemical Company. Also, samples were collected from Umuahia, which served as pollution-free control. The leaf samples were analyzed for their nitrite and nitrate contents. Nitrite was determined spectrophotometrically while nitrate was determined after cadmium column reduction. Results showed that samples from Eleme had higher mean nitrate (349.20 mg/100g dry leaf mass; P < 0.05 and nitrite (63.12 mg/100g dry leaf mass; P > 0.05 as compared to the same samples from Umuahia. Solutions of nitrate and nitrite, equivalent in concentration to mean nitrate and nitrite content of the vegetable samples from the two locations were administered enterally to four groups of albino rats. Analysis of their blood levels were monitored five times at 30 minutes intervals following administration. Rates of change of blood nitrites and nitrates were found to be fairly constant in absorption as well as in the elimination phase. Their peak blood concentrations varied proportionately with their concentrations in administered solutions. However, peak blood nitrate was attained later in group of animals receiving higher amount of nitrate solution. Refining activities may pre-dispose people living within Eleme community to health hazards through contamination of edible vegetables.
Mukhtar Ahmed; Nazeer Ahamed; Ravindranath H Aladakatti; Mukhtar Ahmed G Ghodesawar
AbstractBackground: Recent studies have shown that benzene extract of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) leaves induces the ultrastructural changes in the epithelial cells of the cauda epididymis, its subsequent recovery in the seminiferous epithelium and fertility of male albino rats.Objective: Our aim was to investigate the effect of benzene extract of O.sanctum leaves on the cauda epididymal sperm parameters, morphology and their organelles at the ultrastructural level in albino rats. Materials a...
L-Carnitine is a dipeptide amino acid necessary for fat metabolism, it provides energy by transporting long-chain fatty acids to mitochondria to act as a fuel and it is considered a powerful antioxidant. In addition, zinc is an essential mineral which helps to increase the secretion of male sex hormones and raises the sperm count, so its combination with L-carnitine is useful for the fertility process. The present study aims to evaluate the potency of L-carnitine and zinc as radio- protective and curative agent pre and after exposure to ?-radiation through biochemical, histological, morphological abnormalities of sperms and DNA damage in the sperms induced by ?-irradiation by comet assay. Animals received L-carnitine (LC) and zinc (Zn) orally at the dose 9.45 mg/100 gm body wt./day for successive 20 days and then exposed to whole body gamma radiation at the dose 4 Gy (1 Gy for 4 days, day after day) on the 7th day from treatment with antioxidant. Histological examinations of heart and testis tissues showed that administration of LC and Zn have attenuated radiation induced damage and improved tissues architecture. Moreover, the observed amelioration in the tissues was accompanied by a remarkable decrease of their lipid peroxide levels (malondialdehyde (MDA)), together with an increase in glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Hormonal determinations of serum testosterone (T), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinine (LH) which carried out for fertility assessment showed that whole body ?-irradiation of rats induced significant decrease in serum testosterone while FSH and LH were significantly increased as compared with control group. On the other hand, irradiation caused significant elevation in the total number of abnormal head, and / or tail of sperms in comparison to the control rats. The comet assay showed that exposure to ?-radiation induced DNA damage of sperms (tail moment values).
Lemos, Ana Janaina J M; Siqueira, Herbert A A; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Maia, Frederico C L; Teixeira, Álvaro A C; Silva, Edson J; Oliveira, José V
Products with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and synthetic insecticides have been widely used against important vectors of human diseases. However, few studies have addressed the application of these substances on the female reproduction apparatus during pregnancy at doses that do not cause clinical symptoms of intoxication. Seventy pregnant albino rats were analyzed with regard to fertility and histopathology of the kidneys, liver and lungs as well as the morphology of the neonates. The rats were submitted to three sub-lethal doses of the biological insecticide XenTari(®) WG (B. thuringiensis subsp. Aizawai) and the synthetic insecticide deltamethrin (Decis(®) 25CE). After the confirmation of copulation, the insecticides were administered orally for either seven days or during the entire pregnancy. The analysis revealed histopathological alterations in all organs analyzed in both treatments. No miscarriages occurred and the neonates did not exhibit signs of malformation of the head, limbs, thorax or abdomen. However, there were a smaller number of pups in the groups that received higher doses of the insecticides in comparison to the control group. Both insecticides produced similar lesions in the kidneys, liver and lungs and reduced the fertility of rats when administered at sub-lethal doses with no clinical signs of intoxication. Thus, this study suggests that sublethal doses of both insecticides can provide chronic toxicity in humans. PMID:22436576
Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and sperm acrosome reaction (AR to monosodium L- glutamate (MSG in rats. Materials and methods. Rats were divided into four groups and fed with non-acidic MSG at 0.25, 3 or 6 g/kg body weight for 30 days or without MSG. The morphological changes in the reproductive organs were studied. The plasma testosterone level, epididymal sperm concentration, and sperm AR status were assayed. Results. Compared to the control, no significant changes were discerned in the morphology and weight of the testes, or the histological structures of epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle. In contrast, significant decreases were detected in the weight of the epididymis, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration of rats treated with 6 g/kg body weight of MSG. The weight loss was evident in the seminal vesicle in MSG-administered rats. Moreover, rats treated with MSG 3 and 6 g/kg exhibited partial testicular damage, characterized by sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the seminiferous tubular lumen, and their plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased. In the 6 g/kg MSG group, the sperm concentration was significantly decreased compared with the control or two lower dose MSG groups. In AR assays, there was no statistically significant difference between MSG-rats and normal rats. Conclusion. Testicular morphological changes, testosterone level, and sperm concentration were sensitive to high doses of MSG while the rate of AR was not affected. Therefore, the consumption of high dose MSG must be avoided because it may cause partial infertility in male.
Larkin, Lisa M.; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Supiano, Mark A.
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that, in the male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (F344xBN) rat, aging would be associated with an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity and a decrease in skeletal muscle ?-adrenergic-receptor (?-AR) density and function. Radioligand-binding studies using [125I]iodocyanopindolol were done to evaluate ?-AR density (Bmax) and antagonist-binding affinity in gastrocnemius and cardiac muscle from 6-, 18-, and 28-mo-old male F344xBN rats. ?-AR funct...
Mona A. R. Salem and Nehal A. Moustafa
Full Text Available Eruca Sativa (E.S or Gargir seed oil is widely used in folk medicine. This study was conducted to investigate its possible effect on male rat fertility. Histological changes of the testis, level of testosterone hormone and sperm count were determined. The results revealed that administration of low dose of E.S. seed oil caused dilatation of the seminiferous tubules, proliferation of spermatogenic cells and increase of its mitotic activity. Increased number of sperms and epididymis weight, elevated level of testosterone hormone and hyperplasia of interstitial Leydig cells have also been noticed. DNA analysis revealed an increase of the percentage of haploid and decrease of diploid and tetraploid cells. Administration of E.S. seed oil at higher dose showed. decreased diameter of the seminiferous tubules, reduced spermatogenic activity and number of sperms . Also testosterone hormone level decreased and the interstitial cells appeared few. DNA analysis showed a reduction of the percentage of the haploid and increase of the percentage of diploid and tetraploid cells.
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on rat sperm morphology, sperm count, motility, and histopathological changes in testis. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 week old were treated with sodium valpraote and sacrificed at the end of 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week after the last exposure to sodium valproate. Epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and histopathology of testes were analyzed. Results: Sperm count and sperm motility were decreased significantly by sodium valproate. The percentage of abnormal sperms increased in a dose-dependent manner. A histopathological study revealed that sodium valproate had caused sloughing of epithelial cells in testes. Conclusion: Sodium valproate causes reversible change in sperm motility, sperm count, morphology, and cytoarchitecture of testes.
Issa, N. A.; Zangana, I. K.
The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and from asymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%), clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching was rep...
Full Text Available Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. Results: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47 vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66, P< 0.05 and an increase in number of penile thrusting; 52.80 (SEM 11.28 vs. 26.50 (SEM 6.17, P< 0.05, compared to controls. The same group had elevated prolactin (PRL and testosterone (T levels compared to controls at the end of treatment period; PRL- 7.22 ng/dl (SEM 3.68 vs. 2.90 ng/dl (SEM 0.34 and T- 8.21 ng/ml (SEM 6.09 vs. 2.39 ng/ml (SEM 1.79, P< 0.05. In contrast, reduction of libido was evident in the same group, but this effect was not statistically significant ( P> 0.05. However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. Conclusions : Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction.
Full Text Available Purpose: Renal ischemia reperfusion (IR is an important cause of renal dysfunction. It contributes to the development of acute renal failure (ARF. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of erythropoietin (EPO and melatonin (MEL, which are known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents, in IR-induced renal injury in rats. Methods: Male Wistar Albino rats were unilaterally nephrectomized and subjected to 45 min of renal pedicle occlusion followed by 24 h reperfusion. MEL (10mg/kg, i.p and EPO (5000U/kg, i.p were administered prior to ischemia. After 24 h reperfusion, blood samples were collected for the determination of total antioxidant capacity (TAC, malondialdehyde (MDA and serum creatinine levels. Also, renal samples were taken for Immunohistochemical evaluation of Bcl2 and TNF-? (tumor necrosis factor-? expression. Results: Ischemia reperfusion increased creatinine, TAC, MDA levels and TNF-? expression, also, IR decreased Bcl2 expression. Treatment with EPO or MEL decreased creatinine, MDA levels, and increased TAC level. Also, MEL up-regulated Bcl2 expression and down-regulated TNF-? expression compared with EPO. Conclusion: Treatment with EPO and MEL had a curative effect on renal IR injury. These results may indicate that MEL protects against inflammation and apoptosis better than EPO in renal IR injury.
Maryam Norozi Sarkarabad
Full Text Available Introduction: The principal dose-limiting factor in the use of cisplatin as an antineoplastic drug is its hepatic toxicity. This study was designed to investigate the protective role of taurine against cisplatin-induced hepatic injury. Methods: Male albino rats (180-220 g were divided in to 4 groups (n=8 as follows: (1 saline-treated group (2: cisplatin-treated group (10 mg/kg ip (3: group that received taurine (200 mg/kg ip for 1hr before cisplatin (10 mg/kg ip administration (4: taurine treated group (200 mg/kg ip. After 7 days, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected from the heart as well as liver tissues were kept at -70 °C till further analyses. Results: analyses showed that cisplatin significantly increased ALT and AST serum levels (P<0.05 while pretreatment with taurine resulted in the reduction of these markers. Catalase activity in cisplatin-treated rats was significantly decreased (P<0.05 and taurine administration could recover this reduction. MDA content of the liver tissue was significantly increased in cisplatin-exposed animals, while taurine treatment reduced the amount of MDA in liver tissue. Conclusion: Our data suggest that taurine prevents from cisplatin-induced hepatic injury and this effect may be due to its antioxidant properties.
Nabila, S. Hassan, Naglaa, F. Abbas And Hafiza, A. Sharaf
Full Text Available Taurine is an amino acid like compound, it is found mostly in meat and fish.This study was designed to evaluate the effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCL4 on liver Histopathological & Histochemical changes and the protective role of taurine (2amino-ethanosulfonic acid was studied . Fourty two albino rats were divided into seven groups : control, taurine alone (200mg/kg, CCL4 alone, CCL4 plus 50mg/kg of taurine, CCL4 plus 100mg/kg of taurine, CCL4 plus 200mg/kg of taurine (taurine was injected twice daily for one week before CCL4 treatment, CCL4 plus 200mg/kg of taurine with and after CCL4 treatment. The sections (six microns of rat liver were stained with haematoxyline and eosin for histological examination. Total protein content, alkaline phosphatase (Alk.ph, succinic dehydrogenase (SDH ,and lipids were demonstrated.CCL4 treatment showed vacuolar degeneration , necrosis , mononuclear cellular infiltration around the central vein and fatty degeneration .These histological changes which appeared in the animals treated with CCL4 alone were more extensive and severe than those seen in the animals treated with CCL4 plus taurine . The incidences of total protein content, and SDH reaction were markedly reduced in CCL4 treated rats than in those protected with taurine . The Alk.ph. activity and lipid content were markedly higher in the CCL4 treated rats than in those protected with taurine.Taurine in this study ,not only reduced the hepatocellular damage but also improved the hepatocellular functions.
Full Text Available Jatropha multifida Linn is a plant used in traditional medicine in the treatment of certain diseases or skin troubles in Republic of the Benin. In this study, the sap of the plant was used to evaluate its healing and antimicrobial activities.With this intention, the antimicrobic activity of the sap carried out starting from the method of dilution in solid medium was evaluated on two germs of references: Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.The results showed that J multifida has a very strong inhibiting activity on the growth of S. aureus (nearly 100% with one CMI equal to 20mg/ml and an average inhibition on the growth of E coli. The healing activity of the sap was required on the wounds (wound of excision of size 2,25cm2 carried out in the albino rat Wistar. The results indicated that at the end of 19 days of treatment (once every 48 hours, the wounds of the rats of the treated batch were healed to 99% compared to those of the batch untreated and being used as witness of which the percentage of retraction of the wounds is 43% at the same stage.
O. Igile Godwin
Full Text Available The effect of iron fortified gari, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers were divided into four subsamples; A-C and then mixed with Ferrous Sulphate (FS, Iron (III sulphate (F3 and Ferric Alum (FA, respectively in ratio 1:5000 (0.2 g fortificant kg-1 mash. The samples along with the Control (D were each fermented in a solid state for 24 h and stir-fried to obtain gari granules. The gari samples were fed to rats divided into four groups of five for fourteen days and the serum, then analyzed for serum iron concentration, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and hemoglobin concentration. The results showed significant increase (p-1 and hemoglobin (13.63±2.8 g dL-1 and significantly lower level (55.5±2.2 ?mol L-1 of TIBC(p<0.05, indicating a better iron bioavailabilty. The findings suggests that fortification of gari with Ferrous Sulphate (FS had higher bioavailability of iron and therefore hold promise in combating iron deficiency anemia.
Full Text Available The phytotochemical screening of Leaves, stem bark and root bark of Vitex doniana were carried out and some Lipid profile were assessed in normal albino rats after administration of the extracts. Twenty mixed sex Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g was divided into 4 groups. Group 1 serves as control while 2, 3, 4 were administered (100 mg/kg aqueous extracts of leaves, stem bark and root bark of Vitex doniana. The phytochemical screening of the leaves, stem bark and root bark of Vitex doniana shows the presence of Glycosides, Cardiac glycosides, Saponins, Flavonoids and Tannins while the quantitative analysis showed a higher value in the amount of saponin present in the extracts. Daily oral administration of the extracts (100 mg/kg for the period of 21days shows that all the extracts significantly (p<0.05 decreased the levels of serum total Cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. The atherogenic risk predictor indices also showed that root bark extract significantly (p<0.05 increased HDL-Cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio which may possess antiatherogenic effect and therefore these findings may be of clinical importance to individuals at risk of cardiovascular disease.
Reich, Christian G.; Taylor, Michael E.; McCarthy, Margaret M
Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS), an animal model of depression, downregulates hippocampal CB1 receptors in adult male rats. Given that endocannabinoids are implicated in modulating stress and anxiety and that women are vulnerable to stress-related disorders, we tested the effects of CMS on both female and male rats. Gonadectomized (gndx) and gonadally intact male and female rats were exposed to a three-week chronic stress protocol. Following CMS, CB1 receptor and fatty-acid-amide-hydr...
Sandipan Chatterjee; Tigari Prakash; Dupadahalli Kotrsha; Nadendla Rama Rao; Divakar Goli
The study was undertaken to evaluate the comparative efficacy of hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves of Tagetes erecta (T. erecta) and aerial parts of Centella asiatica (C. asiatica) on Excision, Incision and Dead space wound models in albino rats. Extract of T. erecta and C. asiatica (P < 0.001) showed significant increase in rate of wound contraction, epithelization and forma...
Garcia Luis I
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prostate is a key gland in the sexual physiology of male mammals. Its sensitivity to steroid hormones is widely known, but its response to prolactin is still poorly known. Previous studies have shown a correlation between sexual behaviour, prolactin release and prostate physiology. Thus, here we used the sexual behaviour of male rats as a model for studying this correlation. Hence, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of prolactin on sexual behaviour and prostate organization of male rats. Methods In addition to sexual behaviour recordings, we developed the ELISA procedure to quantify the serum level of prolactin, and the hematoxilin-eosin technique for analysis of the histological organization of the prostate. Also, different experimental manipulations were carried out; they included pituitary grafts, and haloperidol and ovine prolactin treatments. Data were analyzed with a One way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnet test if required. Results Data showed that male prolactin has a basal level with two peaks at the light-dark-light transitions. Consecutive ejaculations increased serum prolactin after the first ejaculation, which reached the highest level after the second, and started to decrease after the third ejaculation. These normal levels of prolactin did not induce any change at the prostate tissue. However, treatments for constant elevations of serum prolactin decreased sexual potency and increased the weight of the gland, the alveoli area and the epithelial cell height. Treatments for transient elevation of serum prolactin did not affect the sexual behaviour of males, but triggered these significant effects mainly at the ventral prostate. Conclusion The prostate is a sexual gland that responds to prolactin. Mating-induced prolactin release is required during sexual encounters to activate the epithelial cells in the gland. Here we saw a precise mechanism controlling the release of prolactin during ejaculations that avoid the detrimental effects produced by constant levels. However, we showed that minor elevations of prolactin which do not affect the sexual behaviour of males, produced significant changes at the prostate epithelium that could account for triggering the development of hyperplasia or cancer. Thus, it is suggested that minute elevations of serum prolactin in healthy subjects are at the etiology of prostate abnormal growth.
Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects and potential mechanism(s of action of icariin on the reproductive functions of male rats. Adult rats were treated orally with icariin at doses of 0 (control, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight for 35 consecutive days. The results show that icariin had virtually no effect on the body weight or organ coefficients of the testes or epididymides. However, 100 mg/kg icariin significantly increased epididymal sperm counts. In addition, 50 and 100 mg/kg icariin significantly increased testosterone levels. Real-time PCR suggests icariin may be involved in testosterone production via mRNA expression regulation of genes such as peripheral type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR. Furthermore, 100 mg/kg icariin treatment also affected follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR and claudin-11 mRNA expression in Sertoli cells. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured in the testes; 50 and 100 mg/kg icariin treatment improved antioxidative capacity, while 200 mg/kg icariin treatment upregulated oxidative stress. These results collectively suggest that icariin within a certain dose range is beneficial to male reproductive functions; meanwhile, higher doses of icariin may damage reproductive functions by increasing oxidative stress in the testes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.
Heydarpour F, Rostami A, Alipour M, Amini B, Heydarpour P
Full Text Available "nBackground: The function of internal systems can be influenced significantly by hypernatremia, even anesthesia may be affected by this electrolyte imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single anesthetic dose of ketamine in an experimental rat model of chronic hypernatremia. "n"nMethods: Sixty male Wistar rats, weighing 300(±20g, were allocated randomly to three groups: the control group received drinking water and test groups 1 and 2 received 1% and 2% NaCl, respectively, for 144 hours. We measured the parameters of sensitivity to the ketamine injection (125mg/kg including length of times to the inhibition of the righting reflex, inhibition of the response to painful stimulus and the times to the reappearance of the response to painful stimulus and recovery from anesthesia. We also determined the mortality rates during anesthesia. "n"nResults: The times for inhibition of the righting reflex and response to painful stimulus for group 2 were significantly shorter than those for group 1 and the control group. The times for the reappearance of response to painful stimulus and full recovery from anesthesia in group 2 were significantly longer than those of group 1 and the control group. "n"nConclusions: Hypernatremia affects ketamine anesthesia in the rat, increasing the speed of passing through the different steps of anesthesia. The duration of ketamine efficacy increases, while recovery from anesthesia is significantly delayed.
Kumar, Vineet; Vasudevan, Anand; Soh, Linda Jing Ting; Le Min, Choo; Vyas, Ajai; Zewail-Foote, Maha; Guarraci, Fay A
Female rats show a distinct attraction for males. This attraction remains consistent without the necessity for the physical presence of the male. However, the identity of the olfactory cues contributing to attraction in rats remains unknown. Rat urine contains copious amounts of major urinary proteins (MUPs). Here, we investigated the hypothesis that MUPs mediate sexual attractiveness in rats. We first demonstrated that a member of a male dyad receiving greater copulatory opportunities in competitive mate choice tests excrete greater amounts of MUPs. Furthermore, the amount of male MUPs positively correlated with both copulatory opportunities received and female exploration of the urine. Using females and a two-choice olfactory attraction test, we demonstrated that urinary fractions containing MUPs were sufficient to induce attraction and that male MUPs activated neurons in the posterodorsal medial amygdala in female rats. Taken together, these results suggest that olfactory cues associated with MUPs act as an attractant to female rats in estrus. PMID:25359898
Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of soy infant formula based on phytochemical components such as genistein, structurally similar to estradiol (E2). To examine potential estrogenic actions on male development, we fed weanling male rats casein-based or soy protein isolate (SPI)-based die...
Aspirin is one of the most commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, induces during pregnancy high incidence of developmental anomalies in pregnant rats when given on specific days during stage of organogenesis. Accordingly, this study was performed to clarify the beneficial effect of maternal intake of wheat germ oil on the effect of aspirin administration and/or radiation induced maternal and foetal detrimental impact. Pregnant albino rats were administered aspirin from the gestational day (GD), 6 to (GD) 17 at a dose of 250 mg kg/day body wt and exposed to whole body ?-irradiation at dose of 0.5 Gy for 4 times on GD 9,10,11 and 12 days from pregnancy. The extent of lipid peroxidase formation as well as estimation of alkaline phosphatase and total proteins content in tissues of liver and placenta was used as sensitive parameters of choice to evaluate tissue damage. Radiation exposure and aspirin administration induced marked elevation in lipid peroxidase (malondialdehyde), alkaline phosphatase, accompanied by decline in total protein content in placenta and liver tissues. In addition, miscellaneous malformations including anopthalmia, microtia, excencephaly, diminution of size or kypophysis were designated. The results showed that supplementation of pregnant female rats with wheat germ oil were able to reduce the high levels of malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase. Total protein content returned once more to its normal pattern. Also, reduction of severe ormal pattern. Also, reduction of severe deleterious symptoms of radiation and aspirin administration inducing i foetal mortality were reduced. Wheat germ oil showed to increase growth in surviving foetuses and remarkable protection against severe morphological deformities as well as biochemical, histochemical and embryological disorders
Our earlier studies have shown that Glycyrrhiza glabra (family: Leguminosae) aqueous root extract treatment in Wistar albino rats enhances both spatial learning ability and retention of learned tasks accordingly, the present study was designed to investigated the nootropic action of aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra treatment on the dendritic morphology (dendritic arborization and dendritic intersections) of hippocampal CA1 neurons in one month old male Wistar albino rats. Methods: T...
Increasing exposure to electro pollution has become inevitable for people living in civilized and industrialized environments. This pollution can increase the production and life-span of free radicals which are causative factors in the oxidative damage of cellular structures and functions. This study evaluated the effects of exposure to electro pollution emitted from mobile base station on the oxidative status parameters, neurotransmitters, glycemic index and lipid profile in male rats and the protective role of garlic oil. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into three equal groups; group 1 served as control, group 2 exposed for 24 hr to electro pollution emitted from mobile base station founded on a roof of building for 4 weeks and group 3 exposed to electro pollution as group 2 then supplemented by stomach tube with garlic oil (250 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Exposure to electro pollution caused significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) while significant decreases in reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were observed. Significant decrease in serotonin (5-HT) and significant increase in dopamine (DA) were also noticed with significant increase in serum glucose and significant decrease in insulin hormone. In addition, the lipid profile showed significant decrease in total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and significant increase in triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Garlic oil supplementation ameliorates almost these disturbances leading to the conclusion that garlic oil exhibited significant protection against oxidative stress, neuro degeneration, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidaemia produced by electro pollution
Sharma, Vikas; Boonen, Jente; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Thakur, Mayank; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Dixit, V K
According to Indian Systems of Medicine, Spilanthes acmella (L.) Murr. (Family - Asteraceae), is considered effective in the treatment of sexual deficiencies especially due to ageing. In the present study, characterization of ethanolic extracts of the Spilanthes acmella flower and its effect on general mating pattern, penile erection and serum hormone levels of normal male Wistar albino rats were investigated and compared with sildenafil citrate. In vitro nitric oxide release was also investigated in human corpus cavernosum cell line. As N-alkylamides are a promising group, their profiling was performed using a gradient reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS) method on an embedded polar column. MS(1) and MS(2) fragmentation data were used for identification purposes. For assessment of sexual behavior, animals were divided into five groups of eight male rats. The extracts (50, 100 and 150mg/kgbodyweight/day) and sildenafil citrate (5mg/kgbodyweight/day) (positive control) were administered orally for 28 days. The behavioral and sexual parameters were observed at days 0, 15, 28 and after a lapse of 7 and 14 days of discontinuance of drug treatment. Five N-isobutylamides, one 2-methylbutylamide and one 2-phenylethylamide were identified. The orally administered extract had a dose dependent positive effect on mounting frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculation frequency and the most significant effects (pextract the values for FSH, LH and testosterone were 3.10±0.25mlU/ml, 6.87±0.18mlU/ml and 3.72±0.12ng/ml, respectively. In vitro nitric oxide release was 21.7±2.9?M, which was significantly higher compared to the control group (pSpilanthes acmella extract was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. N-Alkylamides might attribute to the improved sexual potential. Study lends support to the traditional utilization of S. acmella as a sexual stimulating agent. PMID:21757328
Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate the comparative efficacy of hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves of Tagetes erecta (T. erecta and aerial parts of Centella asiatica (C. asiatica on Excision, Incision and Dead space wound models in albino rats. Extract of T. erecta and C. asiatica (P < 0.001 showed significant increase in rate of wound contraction, epithelization and formation of scar faster in excision wound model compare to control group. T. erecta extract (250 and 500 mg/kg showed significantly increased the wound breaking strength in incision wound model and wet and dry granulation tissue weights, breaking strength in a dead space wound model compare to control and C. asiatica treated group (P < 0.001. In this investigation the work is conclude that the comparison made between the above two plants, the T. erecta extract showed potent wound healing activity then the reported C. asiatica in different wound parameters.
Ezz-Eldin E. Abdalla, Gamal S. Elgharabawi and Moustafa E. Elsawy
Full Text Available High fat diets as well as hyperlipidemia represent an important clinical and social problem. It is referred to increased concentration of lipids (Triglycerides, Cholesterol and Fatty acids in the blood. Such increase may lead to metabolic risks affecting blood vessels and paranchymatous organ mainly the liver. Material and methods: Forty five adult female albino rats were used and divided into 9 equal groups. The first group was considered as a control group. The second group was of high fat diet (25% fat and 2% cholesterol for 3 weeks. Groups 3,4 and 5 were similar to the second group but received three medicinal plants respectively Oat ,Fennel and Triphala. The sixth group was also of high fat diet but for 6 weeks. Groups 7, 8 and 9 were treated with same medicinal plants as groups 3, 4 and 5. Two main parameters were performed; the first was microscopic study of the liver tissue while the second was laboratory evaluation of liver functions. Results: The hepatic tissue greatly affected by the induction of high fat diet in the form of variable grades of fatty infiltration and vascular congestion either after 3 or 6 weeks of induction. Fibrous content and PAS +ve material were also affected. Structural changes were confirmed by laboratory data. Conclusions: Medicinal plants and regulation of diet quality plays a good role in limiting the risk of fatty liver and atherosclerosis
Jeevangi Santoshkumar, Manjunath S, Sakhare Pranavkumar M
Full Text Available : Emblica Officinalis (Amla, belonging to the genus, Phyllanthus emblica is widely used for medicinal purpose. Its fruits have been used traditionally as a hypolipidemic. Objectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of Emblica officinalis in high fat fed albino rats. Materials and Methods: For study of anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic activity. 5 groups of 6 animals in each received normal saline, E. Officinalis powder, high fat diet, High fat diet plus E. Officinalis powder both and Atorvastatin respectively for 8 weeks. Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding animals with high fat diet per orally, consisting of coconut oil and vanaspati ghee, daily ad libitum. At the end of the study, blood samples of the animals were sent for the estimation of the lipid profile and effects of test drug studied by comparing levels of Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and Atherogenic index. The statistical significance between groups was analysed by using one way ANOVA, followed by Dunnets multiple comparison test. Results: Fruit of Amla showed significant anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect. All these effects may contribute to its anti-atherogenic activity. Conclusion: Present study revealed the antihyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect of Amla fruit powder and can be safely used in the treatment of mild to moderate cases of hyperlipidemia considering its easy availability, cost effectiveness, and other beneficial effects.
Ilyas, U. K.; Katare, Deepshikha P.; Aeri, Vidhu
Background: Phyllanthus maderaspatensis species (Euphorbiaceae) has been used in folk medicine of many countries as a remedy against several pathological conditions including jaundice and hepatitis. This study is an attempt to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of P. maderaspatensis against galactosamine-induced toxicity and also investigation of polyphenols in each extract. Materials and Methods: The extraction of P. maderaspatensis as per Ayurveda was simultaneously standardized and quantified for biochemical markers viz., polyphenols: Kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid by high-performance thin layer chromatography. Hepatotoxicity was induced albino adult rats by intraperitoneal injection of galactosamine (400 mg/kg). The quantified aqueous, hydroalcoholic and alcoholic extract of P. maderaspatensis (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day) were compared for evaluation of hepatoprotective potential, which were assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, change in serum enzymes such as aspartate amino transaminase, alanine amino transaminase and alkaline phosphatase and increase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results and Discussion: The hydroalcoholic extract was found to contain comparatively high amount of kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid which are responsible for hepatoprotection. Antioxidant parameters such as glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity in liver tissues were restored toward the normalization more significantly by the hydroalcoholic extract when compared with other extracts. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract standardized with respect to known biomarkers may be considered as a pote