Mohammed Salah Ab.Ab.AL-Shinnawy
Background:The current investigation was carried out to study the effect of orally administration of diazinon insecticide on some biochemical blood indices on male albino rats. Material and methods: The organophosphorus insecticide , diazinon was orally administrated at a dose (100mg/kg body weight=1/3LD50) , daily for 10 days (short term) and 20 days (long term) to adult male albino rats . Results: The results revealed the following: 1- Diazinon led to an increase in rat blood serum glucos...
Inas Z.A. Abdallah
Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame). Male rats were administe...
Eman G. E. Helal, Ashraf M. Mostafa*, Amany F. MhMood
In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB) on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period) then were sacrificed. The body weight of each ...
Uduak Akpan Okon
Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645
Full Text Available Lead acetate induces the histological changes in liver and kidney tissues of the male albino Wister rat were observed by light microscopy. The rats were exposed to sublethal concentration of lead acetate 1.896 mg/kg body wt for seven days with parallel untreated control, lead acetate along with spirulina 2mg/Kgbody wt and spirulina 2mg/Kg body wt groups were maintained. Liver and kidney tissue used for histological studies. No pathological changes were observed in the untreated control and spirulina alone groups. Lead acetate treated group shows sevier histological changes were noticed and lead acetate along spirulina treated group cell recover was observed.
Lead (heavy metal) was given as lead acetate for two groups of adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus) in drinking water at dose level of 100 mg/litre for 3 and 6 weeks to evaluate its toxic effects on protein and its fractions by using electrophoresis technique, serum testosterone using radioimmunoassay and histological investigation of the testis of male rats.Administration of 100 mg/L lead acetate in drinking water for 3 and 6 weeks induced fluctuated changes in serum total proteins, protein fractions and significant decrease in serum testosterone hormone.Histopathological examination showed cellular changes and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules after 3 and 6 weeks of administration of lead acetate.The treatment of rats with antox (10 mg/kg) during the experimental period caused improvement in protein fraction and testosterone level, and the testes sections appeared more or less normal.
The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation
The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.
The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate and determine the protective effect of intraperitoneal administration of trace mineral selenium (Se) and antioxidant vitamins E and pantothenic acid (PA) to male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl pesticide. Four groups of rats were used in this study. The data obtained revealed that methomyl caused disturbances in liver functions, which were elucidated through ALT and AST levels, and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin. Also, the levels of serum total protein, albumin, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and acethylcholinesterase activity were significantly changed from those found in control rats for different periods. Treatment of rats with the antioxidant supplements ameliorated to some extent most of the disturbances in the mentioned biochemical parameter levels. The data concluded that such antioxidants could provide some protection against pesticide-induced toxicity
Sixty male albino rats were arranged into 5 equal groups which were used in this study to investigate the relation between leptin and insulin hormones under high fat intake and to assess the role of fresh vegetable intake on minimizing dyslipidemia.The results denoted that dietary fat caused significant increase in the levels of blood glucose and leptin hormone with significant decrease in insulin concentration and with prolonged high fat intake, insulin level was increased. However, the increased leptin and glucose indicated that prolonged fatty diet may cause insulin resistance. Addition of green vegetables to the diet normalized to a great extent the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, glucose and insulin
The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential benefits of dietary supplementation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) as antioxidant against ?- rays-induced biochemical changes in male albino rats by estimating some of the components of antioxidant defense in the; liver glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), serum aspartate amino transferase,(AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into four groups as Control group, group 2 received diet supplemented with 10% of eggplant (Solanum melongnea) fruit for 21 successive days , group 3: irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), group 4 received eggplant for 21 successive days then exposed to 6.5 Gy. All animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Rats exposed to ?-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT activities, and lipid abnormalities .Noticeable drop in liver GSH content and SOD activity associated with increase of MDA was recorded. Treatment with dietary eggplant for 21 days before irradiation significantly abolished radiation induced elevations in MDA and significantly elevates hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. The levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated and noticeable improvement in the lipid profile levels
Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.
High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.
Purushottam Pramanik , Snehangshu Biswas
Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to one control group and two experimental groups. Both the experimental groups were exposed to traffic noise having intensity 80 dB to 90 dB at the rate of 5 hr daily and control group was not exposed. First experimental group was exposed to traffic noise for 30 days and second group for 60 days. Testicular weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular protein level and testicular cholesterol level were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired â€˜tâ€™ test. Result: Contribution of testis to body weight, testicular protein level and sperm count were low but testicular cholesterol level was more in traffic noise exposed rats than unexposed counterpart. Traffic noise exposure also increased percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm. Conclusion: Traffic noise adversely affect male gamete and such effect may be due to noise-induced suppression of testosterone synthesis.
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval
Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram; Mahajan, Arun Y.
Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of Ipomoea digitata (ID) based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P management of male infertility. PMID:26401398
Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats
Gupta, Rajnish; Kachhawa, Jai B S; Gupta, R S; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Sharma, M C; Dobhal, M P
This study was conducted to evaluate the antifertility potential of Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae) in male albino rats with their phytochemical evaluations. Phytochemical examination showed that plant is rich in active constituents, i.e. ?-amyrin acetate, lupeol acetate, ?-amyrin, ?-amyrin, lupeol and thevetigenin. T. peruviana stem bark methanol extract (TPMtE) administered orally to male rats at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day did not cause any significant reduction in body weight, while the weight of reproductive organs reduced significantly. A significant fall in the total protein and sialic acid content of the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate, as well as in the glycogen content of testes was also observed; however, cholesterol was increased significantly. TPMtE also caused a decline in spermatogenic elements, i.e. preleptotene and pachytene spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, round spermatids and mature Leydig cells. At this dose level Leydig cell nuclear diameter, seminiferous tubular diameter and Sertoli area were significantly reduced (p?peruviana inhibited spermatogenesis in rats, indicating the possibility of developing a herbal male contraceptive. PMID:21466267
Nigella sativa (NS), commonly known as black seed, is a plant spices in which thymoquinone is the main active ingredient isolated from the black seeds. The seeds of Nigella sativa are used in herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases. The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of NS against gamma radiation induced nephrotoxicity and inflammatory changes in male albino rats. Twenty four albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy), treated group (rats treated with 0.2 ml/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks), and treated irradiated group (animals treated with 0.2 mL/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy). The obtained results revealed that the administration of Nigella sativa oil to irradiated rats significantly ameliorated the changes induced in kidney antioxidant system; catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as reduced glutathione concentration. Also, NS oil restored the kidney function indices (urea and creatinine) near normal level when compared with their equivalent values in irradiated rats. In addition, the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-Î±), Interleukin-1Î² (IL-1Î²) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activities were markedly improved compared to the corresponding values of irradiated group. The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of ischemic renal injury in irradiated group, while in treated- irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture with or without focal degeneration. In conclusion, NS acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorates the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological study and also NS oil might provide substantial protection against radiation-induced inflammatory damages.
Muhammad Aliyu; Sani Ibrahim; Inuwa, Hajiya M.; Sallau, Abdullahi B.; Olagunju Abbas; Idowu A. Aimola; Nathan Habila; Uche, Ndidi S.
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups...
This study aimed to investigate the in vivo effect of dietary supplementation with ginger to evaluate its therapeutic effect against lung and kidney cancer and in combination with cisplatin as chemotherapy and radiotherapy in male albino rats. 54 male albino rats were divided into nine groups of 6 animals each, all animals were allowed to food and water ad libitum . Group I was treated with 0.5 ml saline, orlly for 12 consecutive weeks serve as con - trol group Group II injected with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ); all groups were injected with NDMA + CCl4 for 6 weeks. Group III were given ginger for 6 consecutive weeks (200 mg/kg, b.wt./day). Group IV animals received cisplatin, group V irradiated with 2 Gy, group VI treated with ginger then irradiated, group VII treated with ginger then injected with cisplatin, group VIII injected with cisplatin then irradiated and group IX treated with ginger and cisplatin then irradiated. Antioxidant status in both kidney and lung tissues were estimated by determining the activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD); as well as the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO). In parallel to histopathological investigations of lung and kidney tissues. In addition, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-?) level, advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), urea, creatinine and uric acid. Remarkable disturbances were observed in the levels of all tested parameters in NDMA + CCl4 group. On the other hand, rats injected with the cancer agents then treated with cisplatin+radiation showed moderate improvements in the studied parameters while, treatment with ginger + cisplatin + radiation ameliorated the levels of the disturbed bio
Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf M. Mostafa**, Fawzy A. Ashour
Full Text Available In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period then were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. It was noticed that B.C.B treatment led to a significant improve in the decreased body weight, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, decreased liver glycogen caused by alloxan. And this improvement was also seen after the recovery period. B.C.B treatment led also to marked improvement in the histopathological degenerative changes in the cells of islets of Langerhans caused by alloxan after both the treated and recovery periods.
The present study has been initiated to evaluate the radioprotective effect of septilin against whole body gamma radiation and identifying the mechanism whereby septilin extract could protect against radiation toxicity. Irradiation induced significant increase in the serum enzymes of liver ASAT, ALAT, ALP, GGT activities and total bilirubin level when rats exposed to both gamma irradiation doses while direct bilirubin level rise when rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation only. There was a significant increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol with significant decrease in HDL cholesterol. Besides, it produced high levels of liver malondialdehyde, nitric oxide while serum nitric oxide rise when rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation only with significant decrease in total glutathione in liver and liver superoxide dismutase activity. Irradiation induced significant decrease in WBCs, RBCs, Hb, PCV, platelets count and blood indices.Septilin manifested good melioration in the radiation-induced changes in the studied parameters and histopathological changes. Hence, it could be concluded that septilin plays a beneficial radioprotective role against radiation hazard in male albino rats.
Thirty adult male albino rats were used in the present study to assess the effect of using tryptophan or/and hawthorn extract with coenzyme Q 10 in ameliorating the effect of high fat diet (HFD) intake on hyperlipidaemia, hormonal imbalance and body weight. Six animals were served as a control group while the other twenty four rats were supplemented with 20 g butter/100 g standard laboratory diet (HFD) for 8 weeks prior to the experiment. These HFD rats were divided randomly into four equal groups; hyperlipidaemic group, tryptophan and hawthorn groups where animals of the latter two groups were supplemented with 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan and 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract respectively, and mixed group that was daily administrated with a mixture of 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan, 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract and 50 mg/kg B.W. coenzyme Q10. Body weight was recorded twice/week, after 30 days animals were decapitated and sera were collected for determination of total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), testosterone and corticosterone hormones. The data revealed that tryptophan, hawthorn extract alone or mixed with CoQ10 improved the dreadful effects induced by HFD, but the most profit was achieved by mixing these three antioxidants on hyperlipidaemia, tested hormones and body weight.
Enas A. M. Khalil
Full Text Available Olive leaf extract is used for centuries in treatment of various medical purposes. This investigation aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves against overdose paracetamol . 18 rats were divided into three groups, control , 0.5 gm/kg B.W. intrapereitoneally (i. p. paracetamol treated group and rats were given 2.5 gm /kg BW i. p. of olive leaf aqueous extract for three consecutive days prior to the administration of paracetamol. The results indicated that treatment with paracetamol caused a marked significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST,serum alanine aminotransferase (ALTand alkaline phosphatase (ALP accompanied by severe congestion of central and hepatic portal veins, vacuolization and ballooning also, a lot of pyknotic nuclei were detected with many small necrotic areas of hepatocytes. Meanwhile group treated by olive leaf extract followed by paracetamol displayed significant reduction in serum (AST,(ALTand (ALPassociated with nearly normal hepatocyte architecture. In conclusion, an aqueous extract of olive leaves has antioxidant property could protect against liver damage occurred by overdose paracetamol in male albino rats.
Twenty four male albino rats, body weight 100-130 g, were used to evaluate the protective role of fresh pomegranate fruit intake for 30 days on the damage induced by single dose of 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group (1): control, group (2): irradiated with 6 Gy, group (3): pomegranate for 30 days and group (4): pomegranate for 30 days followed by 6 Gy whole body irradiation. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed after 12 hours fasting then sera were separated for the determination of sugar, total antioxidant, lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. Results showed that gamma radiation caused significant decline (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant, total protein, albumin, HDL-C and blood glucose with significant elevation (P<0.05) in other hepato-renal markers in addition to serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. These changes were significantly attenuated in irradiated animals pre-treated with whole fresh pomegranate fruit leading to the conclusion that pre-intake of pomegranate fruit had a radio- protective effect. This protection of this whole fruit may be due to the increased total antioxidant level leading to free radical scavenging
Maisa Mohammad Amin Al-Qudah
Full Text Available Overcrowding as a chronic source of stress constituted a major threat to psychological well-being. Dense populations were characterized by considerably increased aggressive behavior . The present study aimed to examine the effect of overcrowding stress on the histology of fundus and fundic glands of male albino rats .Ten animals were used in this study divided into two groups: control group (group A was formed of 5 animals and experimental group (group B was formed of 5 animals that were subjected to overcrowding. The rats were kept in the overcrowded condition continuously for 4 h/day, for a period of 7 days. at the end of the experiment stomach specimens were obtained, processed and subjected to different histological techniques. All the layers of stomach were affected in rats exposed to overcrowding stress conditions. Overcrowding stress led to desquamation, necrosis and ulceration of gastric epithelium. Mononuclear cellular infiltrate and congested blood vessels were also noted in lamina propria. Necrosis in mucosa was the prominent histological change when the effect reached the maximum. It could be concluded that overcrowding stress lead to gastric mucosal damage represented by necrosis and ulceration. Moreover, the other layers of fundus were affected such as muscularis.
Das S, Syam; Nair, Saritha S; Kavitha, S; Febi, John; Indira, M
Nicotine is a parasympathomimetic alkaloid present in tobacco which can induce hyperlipidemia and has a direct effect on neural functions. Statins, competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxymethyl-3-glutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase, are cholesterol lowering drugs. It has some neuroprotective effects. Hence we analysed the combined effect of nicotine and statin on the learning behaviour of male albino rats. We employed Y-Maze conditional discrimination task. Rats were divided into 4 groups with six rats in each group. (1) Control, (2) Atorvastatin (10mg/kgb.wt), (3) Nicotine (0.6mg/kgb.wt) and (4) Atorvastatin (10mg/kgb.wt)+Nicotine (0.6mg/kgb.wt). After 30days of treatment rats from each group were selected for behavioural study and they were observed for 30days. At the end of the experimental period rats were sacrificed, and brain and liver were dissected out for further biochemical analysis. Nicotine treated group showed least performance in learning in comparison with control, atorvastatin and atorvastatin+nicotine treated groups. Co-administration of atorvastatin and nicotine improved learning behaviour compared to nicotine treated group. Reactive oxygen species level was significantly increased in nicotine group compared to control. The level of neurotransmitter serotonin which has a significant role in learning was found to be decreased in nicotine treated group compared to the control group. Activity of Na(+) K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase and glutathione content was significantly reduced in nicotine treated group compared to control. The activity of acetylcholine esterase was significantly increased in the nicotine treated group. Expression studies showed significant decrease in N-methyl D-aspartate receptors and increase in mono amine oxidase-A and mono amine oxidase-B in nicotine treated group and was reversed in atorvastatin + nicotine treated group. It can be concluded that co-administration of nicotine with statin ameliorates the neural functional alterations caused by nicotine to a significant level. PMID:26409179
The Present work aimed to evaluate the therapeutic role of prussian blue (PB), vermiculite and calcium trisodium salt of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as internal de contaminants of radio-active cesium and/ or cobalt in adult male albino rats. Radionuclides were given as a single doses; 60Co was introduced orally, subcutaneously or intraperitoneally (ip) while 134Cs was taken orally or in combination with ip injection of 60Co. The de contaminants were supplied daily for three weeks immediately after 60Co or 134Cs intake; oral dose of PB + vermiculite treated the oral 134Cs group, oral and subcutaneous 60Co groups and combined 60Co and 134Cs groups. Rats receiving ip dose of 60Co were treated with daily ip dose of DTPA while the three de contaminants were added to the combined 60Co and 134Cs groups.Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrite percentage (Ht), red blood cells count (RBC's), as well as liver function tests (total bilirubine, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/ G ratio, alanine transaminase (ALT), spartic transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)) were analyzed in all groups. The data obtained revealed that internal contamination by radioactive materials causes a significant decrease in the RBC's counts, Hb concentration, haematocrit value, serum total proteins and albumin. On the other hand, the therapeutic agents caused a significant amelioration in the changes produced by internal contamination with variable degree. Thus, it could be concluded that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against internal contamination hazards
The present study aims to evaluate the anti oxidative activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male Swiss albino rats were orally administered by lycopene (1.2 mg/rat/day) using suitable stomach tube 7 days before exposure to a sublethal single dose (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) levels in plasma, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood were determined, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase activity (GGT) were investigated 7 and 15 days post-irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in plasma levels of MDA, serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, as well as significant reduction in GSH content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood. Administration of lycopene by using suitable stomach tube pre-irradiation has significantly ameliorated the radiation-induced disturbances in all the investigated parameters
Noorah S. AL-Sowyan
Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of 14 days diet, enriched in butter, vitamin E (vit. E and green tea, on the major regulators of energy expenditure. Leptin is the product OB gene. This 16 KDa protein is produced by mature adipocytes and is secreted in plasma. Its plasma levels are strongly correlated with adipose mass in rodents as well as in humans. Leptin inhibit food intake, reduces body weight and stimulates energy expenditure. In order to evaluate the effect of diet enriched in butter, vit. E and green tea on body weight, adipose tissue weight and organs weight, serum lipids, lipoproteins content and serum leptin levels in male albino rats supplemented for 14 days on the previous diet. This study showed that high fat diet significantly increased body weight and adipose tissue weight, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered body weight and adipose tissue weight, kidney and spleen weights didn’t show significant changes in all the experimental groups. While liver weight decreased in diet supplemented with high fat diet. Also, the results showed that high fat diet and vit. E supplemented diet induced significant increase in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with significant decrease in HDLc. level as compared to normal control rats. Finally green tea supplemented diet induced significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with insignificant increase in HDLc. level in control rats. On the other hand, high fat supplemented diet significantly increased serum leptin levels in rats compared to control group, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered serum leptin levels at the end of experimental period. In conclusion, improving the biological activity of leptin by diet modification may exist as a practical strategy for the treatment of obesity and related disorders and a diet rich in green tea to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD obesity and also protect the liver against free radicals.
Inas Z.A. Abdallah
Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame. Male rats were administered saccharin (50 mg/kg b.w. or aspartame (100 mg/kg b.w. daily by intragastric gavage for 14 weeks. The results revealed that both saccharin and aspartame provoked highly significant reduction in body weight gain %. Saccharin exerted highly significant reduction in haemoglobin (Hb level, haematocrit (Hct% and red blood cel s (RBCs count, while aspartame induced insignificant changes in al haematological parameters. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity levels were significantly increased with saccharin and aspartame. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels in serum showed slightly insignificant increase by saccharim administration, while aspartame caused a significant rise in ALP. Blood glucose level of rats given saccharin significantly dropped, while aspartame caused a significant elevation in blood glucose level. Liver glycogen content of rats given saccharin significantly increased, while aspartame caused a significant reduction in liver glycogen content. Microscopic examination of liver sections showed lymphocytic and macrophages infiltration of the portal traid in rats administered saccharin, while aspartame group showed no histopathological changes except slight hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes. Urinary bladder sections of rats administered saccharin revealed proliferation of the mucosal epithelial cel s into papil ary invaginated projections with highly vascularized connective tissue core and mononuclear inflammatory cel s infiltration, while aspartame group showed no histopahtological alterations. It could be recommended that the use of saccharin as an artificial sweetener should be restricted, while aspartame should not be administered to diabetic. When it is necessary to use artificial sweeteners, fresh fruits and vegetables should be ingested as they act as scavengers for the liberated free radicals and help to delay the postprandial rise in blood glucose level.
This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 10''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 10th day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis
Ahmed, N. A. [???? ??? ???? ????
The principal objective of this study was to determine the modifications induced by the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide cyfluthrin in the concentrations of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine(E) in selected brain and spinal cord regions of male albino rats. A group of 30 rats were injected intraperitoneally every other day with cyfluthrin at 1/4 LD50 dose level for 18 days. Other two groups (30 rats each) were daily given cyfluthrin intraperitoneally at the dose levels of 1/8 ...
Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A.G.; Amal H. Atta
Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative cont...
The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with oral administrations of the strawberry flavor and carmoisine color. The tested materials were given to the animals in their drinking water. Biochemical parameters were determined in liver, kidney and brain DNA and RNA contents.Sera was used for liver and kidney functions, lipid profile and thyroid hormones estimation. Histopathological, histochemical and cytophotometric studies were performed in liver and kidney tissues. Equal weights of flavoring and coloring agents were mixed at 0.1% w/v with drinking water. Forty adult male albino rats were assigned to four equal groups, two groups were served as controls and the remaining two groups received standard diet and water containing the tested materials for three and six week. There were no deaths and all the studied parameters were affected in a time dependent manner. Liver DNA contents were significantly decreased, kidney DNA contents tended to increase and brain DNA contents were significantly increased only after 6 weeks of treatment. RNA contents were significantly decreased in liver and brain
Full Text Available The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg was used as standard while normal saline (0.9% was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour Spreng possess diuretic activities.
The whole body exposure to high doses of gamma radiation resulted in alterations in the biological functions of vital organs in the body. This study is divided in two main parts: Part I - A preliminary study designed to determine the optimal dose of mint oil (MO) which delayed the onset of mortality and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the irradiated group. Male albino rats were assorted into two main groups. 1-Animals of this group were exposed to whole body (8 Gy) gamma irradiation. 2-Animals of this group were subdivided into 4 subgroups that received four different concentrations of mint essential oil (100, 150, 200, 250 Î¼1/animal/ day) for three consecutive days before irradiation. All animals were observed during 30 days for signs of radiation sickness, body weight change and mortality. The results revealed that pretreatment of rats with different doses of the MO prior to exposure to 8 Gy of gamma radiation resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in the survival time up to 200 Î¼1/kg b. wt., where the highest number of survival (80%) was observed 30 days post irradiation, when compared with the 8 Gy irradiated control (33.5%). The optimum protection against irradiation was observed at a dose 200 Î¼1/kg b. wt. and was used for the further investigations. The 2nd part intended to investigate the radio-protective effects of MO on some biochemical and haematological parameters. For this purpose, Swiss albino rats were selected and assorted into 4 groups. Animals in Group I control: animals without any treatment. Group II mint oil (MO): rats were administered orally MO once daily at a dose of 200 Î¼1for 3 consecutive days. Group III, Irradiated (IRR): animals were exposed to a single dose of 6 Gy gamma radiations. Group IV Rats were treated with MO (as in Group-II), and exposed to 6 Gy after half an hour of the last administration of MO. Animals of each group were sacrificed 1, 7 and 28 days post-irradiation for biochemical estimation in blood , liver, kidney and testis. Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in haemoglobin, hematocrite values, and erythrocytes and leucocytes counts. Significant decreases in serum EPO level, GSH content and ALP was observed in all specimens. Meanwhile, the values of MDA, serum acid phosphatase were significantly higher in irradiated rats as compared to control group. In MO pretreated irradiated animals, a significant increase was observed in blood constituents, EPO (erythropoietin) level, GSH content and ALP level in testes, liver and blood accompanied with remarkable decrease in the values of MDA, serum acid phosphatase. The results show that MO could exert a radioprotective effect by antioxidant activity, and might stimulate cellular regeneration, that may be attributed to the synergistic effects of its constituents.
Mohamed Mohamed Soliman
Full Text Available The protective effects of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC against orally administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 for 3 months on male albino rats were examined. Adult male albino rats were given saline as a control group, TiO2 (1200 mg kg-1 BW, NAC (100 mg kg-1 BW and co-treatment of NAC and TiO2 as a protective group for 3 months. Blood was assayed for serum changes in GPT, GOT, lipid profiles, cytokines and immunoglobulins profiles. Moreover, spleen was examined for alterations in cytokines expression and histopathology. Administration of TiO2 significantly increased serum levels of GPT, GOT and increased lipid profiles. Administration of NAC to TiO2 rats improved significant changes induced by TiO2 alone. There were an increase in IL-1ÃŽÂ² and IL-6 secretion in TiO2 administered rats which is normalized by NAC administration. TiO2 administration down regulated IL-8 and IL-10 secretion, while co-administration of rats by NAC together with TiO2 normalized that down regulation. Moreover, TiO2 induced toxicity in spleen that accompanied by a decrease in IgA, IgG and IgM that are normalized by NAC administration. Finally, TiO2 up-regulated IL-1ÃŽÂ², IL-6 and TNF-ÃŽÂ² expression in spleen and NAC administration together with TiO2 normalized cytokines expression. In conclusion, present findings confirmed the protective effect of NAC on TiO2 induced alteration in immune responses in male albino rats.
The effect of whole body gamma irradiation at the dose level 7 Gy delivered as shot dose or cumulative doses, on the electrophoretic pattern of serum protein components, was studied in male albino rats subjected to Nigella sativa treatment. Sodium dodecyl sulphate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of serum proteins of irradiated rats showed significant increases in percentages of some fractions of high molecular weights. Administration of nigella sativa oil before radiation exposure resulted in detectable radioprotective effect. Radiation protection effect exerted by nigella sativa oil prior to cumulative doses was more pronounced than that in case of one shot dose
Recent studies demonstrated the role of vitamin C as antioxidant in alleviating organ damage caused by gamma irradiation. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of vitamin C on liver biochemical functions such as serum ALT, AST, albumin and bilirubin after experimental liver damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats irradiated with gamma radiation were used as a model of liver injury terminating with necro inflammatory activity and acute hepatitis. Forty male albino rats were classified into 6 groups (G0-G5). G0 included 8 male albino rats that were divided to 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). Both subgroups were exposed to gamma irradiation with 6 Gy as a single dose. The first subgroup was left for 3 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected while in the second subgroup, 2 rats were died and the remaining 2 rats were left for 6 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected. G1 was the negative control while in the rest groups, the whole body of rats was exposed to gamma irradiation of dose 8 Gy divided to 2 doses (4 Gy/one dose) at one week interval in between. G2 included 12 albino rats divided into 3 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). The whole body of albino rats of G2 was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one day, two days and four days after last dose of irradiation. G3 also included 8 rats that were divided into 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that were divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one week for one subgroup and 2 weeks for other subgroup after last dose of irradiation. The rest 2 groups (4 rats/group) were exposed to 8Gy gamma irradiation divided as before, but the rats in one group were orally supplemented with low dose of vitamin C. G4 and the others were supplemented with high dose of vitamin C for 2 weeks starting after last dose of irradiation (G5) then serum and liver samples were collected. Liver biochemical functions and histopathological examinations were done. The data of the current study showed mild non-significant alteration in the levels of liver biochemical parameters towards the level of baseline particularly when albino rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation as a single dose and left for 3 or 6 weeks for recovery. Exposure to accumulative dose of 8 Gy gamma irradiation caused worse alteration in both biochemical markers associated with obvious damage in hepatocytes causing acute liver injury in histopathological examination especially after 4 days of gamma radiation exposure but when albino rats were orally supplemented with vitamin C, there were significant amelioration and marked regression towards normal position in both biochemical parameters and histopathological pictures, so, the present data revealed that oral dose of vitamin C has trends to support the liver during the acute phase post-gamma irradiation and enhance its spontaneous recovery
Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T3) thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body ?-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels were recorded after ?-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of ?-irradiation on serum T3 and T4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by ?-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21
Full Text Available Silymarin is a mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum [L] Gaertn . Extracts of S. marianum have been used in the treatment of liver diseases for more than 2000 years. Flavonoids are a large group of polycyclic phenols of plant origin. Flavonoids displaying estrogenic effects (phytoestrogen. Phytoestrogens show an estrogenic activity owing to the structural similarity with the estrogen skeleton ,mimicking natural estrogens, it binds to estrogen receptor and modulates its activity . These effects cause complex changes inducing a shift in an overall hormonal balance of the individual. Long term intake of feeds with a higher content of phytoestrogens can induce transient or permanent infertility. Silybum marianum leaves have been traditionally used in Egypt for their antifertility effects .Also, the antifertility property of silybum marianum leaves was investigated in female albino rats. This property highlights the impotance to clarify the role of silymarin (420mg /day a human therapeutic dose on both female and male albino rats. Silymarin (151.2 mg/kg BW prevented pregnancy in adult female albino rats on days 1-5 post coitum. In female rats the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH displayed marked increase, while the luteinizing hormone (LH and estradiol remained within normal levels. These results showed a distinct increase in number and size of ovarian growing follicles while the effect of silymarin on the uterine wall was in the form of hypertrophy of endometrial epithelium, also increase in the number of uterine glands. Ovaries taken from females treated with silymarin for one and two months contained a large number of growing follicles. In male rats treated with silymarin (151.2 mg/kg BW for one month, testosterone and LH were increased significantly, meanwhile estradiol not changed. Testes of rats treated with silymarin for one month showed well developed spermatogenesis with lot of sperms. The epididymis of the same group contained a heavy number of sperms. While rats treated with silymarin for two months displayed significant decrease in serum testosterone levels, while LH and estradiol not changed. These rats displayed some tubules contained well developed spermatogenic layer and normal leyding cells, others appeared moderated by affected. The epididymis contained less number of sperms. These results indicated that silymarin (151.2mg /kgBW a dose equivalent to human therapeutic dose (420mg/ day prevented pregnancy in female rats and caused some histological changes in the ovary and uterus, while it has biological benefits for male rats during short treatment.
Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan
Full Text Available Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of ID based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil (ENO fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P< 0.01 along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis- and agrave;-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of beta-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 125-128
Full Text Available Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb. DC (Rutaceae, called Tez-mui or Tejamool in Assamese, is a large prickly shrub occurring in North-Eastern India and its roots are used traditionally for several medicinal purposes. In the present study, the aqueous extract from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum nitidum (ZNA was evaluated for its protective effects on gastric mucosal lesions in male Wistar albino rats against acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, ethanol and water immersion restraint stress induced gastric mucosal damage. In each model, ZNA was administered orally to rats at the doses of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 body weight, prior to chemical or stress challenge, followed by determination of ulcer index. Ranitidine hydrochloride at the dose of 35 mg kg-1, p.o. served as the reference drug. The test extract exhibited dose dependent and significant amelioration of gastric mucosal lesions in chemical (ASA and ethanol as well as in stress-induced ulcers in male Wistar albino rats, thus confirming its antiulcer potential.
The present study was performed on 100 male albino rats arranged into 5 equal groups to evaluate the effect of adding Lettuce and/for cabbage to rat diet on some hematological and biochemical disorders induced by administration of repeated used frying oil in the diet of rats for one and two months. The results indicated that used frying oil caused significant decrease in hemoglobin (Hb), Haematocrit (Hct), Red blood corpuscles (RBCs), Vitamin (B12) and Folic acid with significant increase in total leukocitic count, (WBCs) Platelets body weight, Aspartate amino transferase (AST) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT). The disturbances in the tested parameters were almost improved by vegetables intake denoting the beneficial effect of adding fresh green vegetables to fried food on blood picture and intestinal absorption
Full Text Available The interactive effects of Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA and Ethanol Consumption on the antioxidant defense system in testis tissue of rats were studied in the present research work. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each. Control rats were administered normal saline orally. While experimental animals were fed Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA (1 ?g gm-1 and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 Body weight and sacrificed. A significant depletion of GSH content in testis was observed. This combination was found to be decreased Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD activity in testis. Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive Substrate (TBARS and Catalase (CAT Activity were observed to be increased in testis. In contrast, Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx activity was decreased in testis. The results are discussed in detail.
Full Text Available Abhrak bhasma, an Ayurvedic drug used against many diseases including hepatitis. In present study various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg body wt were tested for hepatoprotective efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidney functions in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 to the normal rat increased serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin indicated acute damage. Abhrak bhasma treatment counteracted the action of CCl4 on liver and kidney functions. With the administration of increasing doses of abhrak bhasma all activities were dropped progressively and significantly at 40 mg dose as compared with silicate control. Conjugation metabolism and excretion of bilirubin were improved with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent protection of all metabolic steps in bilirubin metabolism. Also CCl4 induced acute toxicity increased serum urea and creatinine content, which was progressively controlled by increasing abhrak bhasma doses. The findings of this study indicated that abhrak bhasma exert dose dependent protective effects in liver and kidneys functions against CCl4 induced toxicity in albino rat.
Gamma-irradiation of the whole body of male albino rats at single dose levels (100, 300 and 600 rad) significantly decreased blood reduced, glutathione (GSH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-P D H). activity, glutathione stability, red blood cell (R B C s) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and packed cell volume % (P C V %). The reduction in the above cited criteria was dose and time dependent. Intravenous injection of l methionine at a single dose of 50 mg/kg body weight prior to irradiation of male albino rats significantly bypassed the radiation affect
The present study aims to investigate the synergistic effects of squalene and omega-3 as an antioxidant in protection against oxidative stress which induced by gamma- irradiated in male albino rats. The experimental animals, male albino rats (n=48) weighing (120-150 g) were divided into 4 groups: control, gamma irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy, oral administration with 0.4 ml/kg b. wt from squalene and omega-3 for 30 days and oral administration with 0.4 ml/kg b. wt from squalene and omega-3 for 30 days and irradiated with a single dose level (6 Gy). Animals were sacrificed on the 3rd and 7th day post irradiation. Biochemical analysis was carried out on blood glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (MDA). Also lipid profile: plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were assayed. Exposure to gamma radiation at dose level 6 Gy elevated significantly lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decline in level of blood glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and catalase activity (CAT) also, a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and decrease in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). Combined supplementation of squalene and omega-3 significantly prevented the elevation of (MDA) and decline in antioxidant parameters after radiation and ameliorates plasma lipid profile. The results indicated that the combination of aqualene and omega-3 has a protective role, antioxidant effect and antilipidemic effect against gamma radiation in exposed rats
Azza M. Gawish
Aluminium (Al) is one of the most abundant and important elements in the environment. In recent years, the production of this metal and its toxicity increased with its discharge into the environment. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Al intake toxicity in liver and kidney tissues of albino rats and the role of zinc as a protective agent against Al toxicity. Fourty five male albino rats were divided into equal three groups. The first group of animals was considered as control. ...
Full Text Available Effects of 50% ethanolic extract of Tecoma stans leaves were investigated in adult Wistar male rats. Changes in weight of the liver, kidneys and adrenal of the rats were statistically insignificant (p<0.05. The relative weight of testes, epididymis, vas deferens, ventral prostate and seminal vesicle were decreased significantly (p<0.001. Tecoma stans treatment showed significant high cholesterol, glycogen and low tissue sialic acid and total protein in testes and epididymis and low fructose level in seminal vesicle of treated rats. Hormonal assay showed decrease in testosterone level. The epididymal sperm count, motility and fertility test (% reduced significantly in treated rats. Histopathological study of the testes depicted marked degenerative changes in testes. The seminiferous tubules appear reduced in size. Vacuolization was observed in the sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Leydig cells were atrophied. Germ cell proliferation beyond the level of the spermatocyte was affected. The lumen contained sloughed debris and few germ cells.
Several studies indicated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against diseases, and populations that consume such diets have higher plasma antioxidants and exhibit lower risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Vegetable is considered major dietary source of fibers and antioxidants such as polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids that can protect against different dietary disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of cabbage and/or carrot against oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in male albino rats. Chemical composition and phenolic contents in cabbage and carrot were determined. Male albino rats were exposed to 5 Gy (single dose with rate 0.46 Gy/min) of whole body gamma irradiation. Thirty five rats were randomly divided into five groups as follow: group 1: control (rats fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks), group 2: irradiated (rats were exposed to whole gamma irradiation and fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks) and groups 3, 4 and 5: irradiated rats fed on balanced diet and received cabbage 15%, carrot 15% and a combination of cabbage and carrot, respectively. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cabbage and/or carrot diet significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum level of glucose and liver function parameters; serum aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and albumin. In addition, significant improvements were observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), was observed. The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) associated with remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were observed. Accordingly, it could be concluded that consumption of cabbage and/or carrot could modulate the oxidative stress and protect against chronic diseases caused by radiation exposure and that may be due to the antioxidant activity of both cabbage and carrot
The toxicological studies of the insecticide. Diflubenzuron were investigated in experimental animals during 45th days feeding study. The studies carried out included treatment of wheat grains with 100 and 300 ppm DFB, this was accomplished by feeding male rats for 45 days (sub chronic toxicity study) on DFB incorporated in grains to monitor any possible change that might have been altered in the animal during that period. 6 tabs., 17 figs., 109 refs
Eslam A. Header; Naser A. ElSawy; Osama A. Kensara
Different metabolic disorders including hypertension cause renal damage. The aim of this study was to study the effect of Thymus Vulgaris (TV) on kidneys of induced hypertensive rats through biochemical and ultrastructure examination. Thirty three adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups 11 animals each (control, untreated and treated). The first (control) group was fed and followed up for 8 weeks by measuring the systolic BP. In the second group, hypertension was induced by ligation...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the daily effect of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L .) root extract on epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) , and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in different brain areas (cerebellum , pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rats .The daily intraperitoneal ( i.p.) injection of 300 mg/kg body wt valerian for 30 days caused a significant increase in epinephrine ( E ) content in pons plus medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex , hypothalamus and in midbrain . Norepinephrine (NE ) content was significantly increased in all brain areas tested except in cerebellum and cerebral cortex . Dopamine (DA) content was significantly increased in all tested brain areas except in cerebral cortex and hippocampus . moreover , there was also a significant increase in serotonin (5-HT ) and 5-hydroxyindol acetic acid (5-HIAA) contents in all tested brain areas . However, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content was significantly decreased in all tested brain areas . After the extract withdrawal, the increase in ( E, NE, DA , 5-HT ) contents and the decrease in GABA content persisted in pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , midbrain and hippocampus , and this might be due to regional differences toward the effect. The increase in E, NE, DA , 5-HT and 5-HIAA contents, at the same time the decrease in GABA content in the different brain areas of albino rats may be due to the presence of both valepotriates and valerenic acid in the extract which mediated the GABA ergic mechanisms including the inhibition of GABA metabolism and the increase in GABA synthesis and release , although agonized the GABAA receptors which led to the inhibit of the neurotransmitter release. Valerian root extract may be useful as a herbal medicine having sedative effect and it is safe. (author)
Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia on alloxan induced diabetics in male albino Wistar rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were treated with aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. and its influence on glucose level, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, serum total cholesterol, levels of pancreas enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione were observed. Histological observation of pancreas also studied. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia at the dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. to alloxan treated rats showed significantly decrease in plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, serum total cholesterol, where as plasma insulin, hemoglobin, levels of pancreas enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione were significantly increased. Histopathological observation of pancreas reverses the trends towards normalcy. Hence, it can be concluded that Asteracantha longifolia leaf extracts may be prove to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus owing to its ability to increase insulin secretion and enhance the antioxidant activity.
This study deals with the preparation and microbiology of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OA) that was extracted from Aspergillus niger and injected intraperitoneally to male albino rats at a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (1/5 LD50). Its effect was followed after 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 hours and 7 days. Body weight gain, organs body weights ratio and some hematological and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results revealed significant decrease in body weight gain of treated rats in addition to an alteration in the relative weights of some selected organs. The data revealed dramatic decrease in RBCs count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit value and platelets number, where WBCs count was significantly increased. Moreover, significant increases of serum ALT, AST, ALP and total and direct bilirubin were observed indicating changes in liver function. Total protein and albumin were significantly decreased. Kidney function of treated rats, as determined by alterations in creatinine and blood urea levels, was affected. Also, profound decline in serum testosterone level was observed as performed by radioimmunoassay technique
L-carnitine, a natural component of mammalian tissue, is a necessary factor in the utilization of long-chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of L-carnitine on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by paracetamol, Î³-radiation, and paracetamol + Î³-radiation. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1-Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2-Carnitine group: rats received L-carnitine (0.5 ml/Kg body weight) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3-Paracetamol group: rats received paracetamol (50 mg/kg body) via intraperi-toneal injection during 21 days, 4- Carnitine + Paracetamol group: rats received L-carnitine in parallel to paracetamol treatment, 5- Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 6- Carnitine + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation with 7Gy, 7- Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation, 8- Carnitine + Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine parallel to paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation.The results demonstrated that rats receiving paracetamol, as well as whole body gamma irradiated rats and rats receiving paracetamol and irradiated showed a significant increase of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity indicating liver injury. A significant increase of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels was recorded also indicating kidney damage. Alteration in liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant increase in the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities indicating oxidative stress. The administration of L-carnitine resulted in significant improvement of hepatic and renal function tests associated with the reduction of oxidative stress. It could be concluded that L-carnitine might modulate paracetamol and Î³-radiation induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity possibly through its antioxidant properties
Bushra H. El-Zawahry and Effat M. Abu El Kheir
Full Text Available Background: Generation of free radicals in the renal cortex plays an important role in the pathogenesis of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Curcumin, the yellow curry pigment isolated from turmeric, has been confirmed to have a strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging actions. In the present study, we investigated the possible protective effect of curcumin against gentamicin-induced nephropathy in male albino rats. Methods: Thirty two male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Gr.: (Gr.I control, injected i.p with 1cc isotonic saline solution/day for 8 wks; (Gr.II received 200 mg/kg/day curcumin (Cur. orally, suspended in normal saline, for 8 wks ; (Gr.III injected I.p by 100 mg/kg/day gentamicin (Gen. for 8 days followed by 1cc saline I.p thereafter; (Gr.IV (Cur./Gen. received 200 mg/kg/day Cur. for one week before starting Gen injection (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days during which Cur. was received concurrently with Gen then Cur administration was continued thereafter throughout the rest of the study (6 wks. Body weight was recorded weekly. Renal function was evaluated by measuring the 24 h. urine output, the concentrations of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine clearance. Also, kidney weight and the parameters of oxidative stress: reduced glutathione (GSH, thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX were measured in kidney tissue. Results: The Kidney weight, plasma creatinine, BUN and 24 h urine output were significantly increased while the body weight and creatinine clearance were significantly decreased (P < 0.0005, in rats treated with Gen. as compared to control. While Cur. could significantly normalize the previous parameters. In addition Gen. caused oxidative stress in kidney as seen by significant increase in TBARS level, and significant decrease of catalase, GSH, SOD and GPX activities (P < 0.0005, However, Cur. could normalize all the above parameters as compared to control. Conclusion: Our data indicate that Cur. could suppress renal toxicity by blocking oxidative injury in the kidney and restore the antioxidant enzymatic profile. The renoprotective effect of Cur. is also evident by a remarkable improvement of renal function in Gen. injected rats. So Cur. can be used as a potent protective agent against renal oxidative damage mediated by Gen.
levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. the present investigation included physiological, radiometric and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic tablets toward CCl4 - induced toxicity in adult male albion rats ( Rattus norvegicus).CCl4 intoxication, at oral dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight, led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP, CK and LDH. CCl4 caused an elevation of serum triglycerides with no effect on serum total cholesterol. it also increased serum creatinine and urea levels . these biochemical results were in coincidence with the liver and kidneys histopathological alterations . using radioimmunoassay, it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased while that of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) was significantly increased due to CCl4 treatment
1,3-beta-D-Glucan is a natural polysaccharide derived from the cell walls of bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevsiae with immunoenhancing and potent antioxidant effects. This study investigated the pathways through which beta-glucan gavage treatment (50mg/kg) exerts its effect on radiation-induced oxidative damage in male rats. Beta-glucan was given orally to male rats; 3 hours post gamma-irradiation at dose 5Gy, for 10 and 20 days post-irradiation level were assayed, being remarkable indicators in cell oxidative stress. Results pointed out that irradiation at 5Gy significantly depressed all blood parameters, such as erythrocytes count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrit value (Hct), total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, blood glutathione (GSH) level and conversely elevated level of serum ascorbyl radical (AsR), product of lipid peroxidation (MDA melanodialdehyde), triglycerides and cholesterol. Total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, RBCs, Hb, Hct, blood GSH and serum MDA of irradiated animals receiving beta-glucan administration were exhibited significant differences compared to the irradiated group. Marrow count and the percentage of viability and spleenocytes viability were also significantly decreased. Beta-glucan treatment accelerates recovery of cell damage induced by ionizing irradiation through its potential immune-enhancing activity and free radical scavenging ability that is partially mediated through stimulation of immunohaematological system thus could play a role in regulating irradiation complications
Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas, one of the major vegetable crops consumed worldwide, is rich in phytochemicals, which displayed antioxidant activities. This work aims at assessing the radio-protective properties of sweet potato tubers on liver and kidney tissues. Male albino rats were whole body exposed to 0.5 Gy day after day for a period of 20 days. Animal received orally prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers (100 mg kg/body weight), one week before irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure. The results demonstrated that irradiation of rats induced a significant increase in lipid peroxides level measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concomitant with a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in liver and kidney tissues. Administration of a freshly prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers to rats, one week pre-irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure has significantly of ameliorated the oxidative stress in both tissues. The significant amelioration in oxidative stress was substantiated by improvement of liver and kidney enzymes Treatment of rats with sweet potato has significantly reduced the increase in serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, serum creatinine and urea levels. Furthermore, hyperglycemia and alteration in lipid profile manifested by a significant increase in triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), were improved in sweet potato-treated irradiated rats compared to those only irradiated. According to the results obtained in the present study, it could be concluded that sweet potato through its antioxidant activities could protect cellular membrane from radiation induced oxidative damage in animals and preserve the integrity of tissue functions.
Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS), Malvacea family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its benefit effect on some physiological parameters as blood picture, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, liver and kidney functions, electrolytes and antioxidant capacity is mentioned in several recent studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in protecting from alcohol toxicity in rats. Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: group 1 received water orally for 30 days, group 2 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) for 30 days, both group 3 and group 4 received Hibiscus sabdariffa (100 mg/kg/day) orally for 30 days and then group 4 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) orally for another 30 days. Serum hepatic markers (aspartate and alanine minotransferases; AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were increased significantly by alcohol abuse with no observed improvement in treatment with HS. Significant reduction in total protein and albumin was observed in alcohol abuse which improved with HS treatment and showed significant increase as compared with both control and alcohol treated groups. Serum kidney markers (urea, creatinine and uric acid) were increased in alcohol abuse and only creatinine and uric acid nearly returned to normal levels with HS treatment while urea level remains high. Serum glucose was increased significantly in alcohol abuse and significantly decreased in group 3 (HS treated) and group 4 (HS + ethanol). Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherogenic index were increased significantly while HDL-C was significantly reduced in alcohol abuse. HS treatment resulted in significant increase in HDL-C and therefore decreased atherogenic index in both group 3 and group 4 which indicated protective effect of HS for coronary heart diseases. These results lead to the conclusion that the use of HS against alcohol toxicity in male albino rats caused partial protection for different body systems.
Malnutrition seems to be a common problem in most of the developing communities especially among the labour level,specifically child labour. In spite of the great awareness of the dangerous use of insecticides, yet several hundred types of these chemicals are still widely used. The present study was conducted to investigate the harmful effect of malnutrition and /or exposure to organophosphorus insecticide (chloropyrifos) with different doses (low dose; 30 mg/kg body weight/day and high dose; 60 mg/kg body weight/day) on liver and testis function in male rats. The results showed significant decrease in body weight, haemoglobin, serum total protein, albumin and testosterone level. On the other hand, liver enzyme activities (ALT and AST) and ferritin concentration recorded significant elevation after treatment with chloropyrifos
This work: aimed to investigate the protective effect of carnitine (3-hydroxy-4-N-trimethyl amino butyric acid) on the contents of total protein, albumin, glucose and lipid peroxides as malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum, in addition to liver glycogen and lipid peroxides content 1, 2, 4 weeks after exposure of rats to a collective dose of 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation and / or lead treatment. Adult male rats received lead (50 mg/kg body weight) and / or exposed to fractionated dose (4 Gy) of gamma irradiation delivered as 0.5 Gy twice weekly for four weeks. Results of the present study revealed that fractionated whole body gamma irradiation and / or lead administration induced cellular damage manifested by a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin, and a significant increase in serum glucose and MDA content as well as significant increase in liver glycogen and MDA. Administration of carnitine (200 mg/kg b.wt.) before lead and / or gamma irradiation, has significantly ameliorated the observed changes, indicating the prophylactic action of carnitine on lead and / or irradiation toxicity
Shadia Ali Radwan; Samia Mohamed Sakr; Mohamed Salah Al-Shinnawy and Enas Saleh Abdel-Bakey
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aging and anti-aging hormones on the kidney, the thyroid and the testis of aged male albino rats from the physiological and histological points of view. Material & Methods Thirty five male rats were used in the present study. They were allocated into five groups. The first group (5months old) served as control group and the other remaining groups are (18 months old). The second group 1 ml/kg b.w. corn oil intramuscular injection thro...
Nowadays, increasing attention has been given to the roles of free radicals generated through the oxidative stress. The present study aims to evaluate the anti oxidative role of hesperidin (C28H34O15), natural citrus bioflavonoids, against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male rats were administered hesperidin (25 mg/kg body weight) by a suitable stomach tube two weeks before exposure to whole body fractionated dose of gamma radiation (2 Gy day after day for three times intervals). Levels of lipid peroxides (MDA), sodium (Na), potassium (K), total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) were investigated in serum 1, 7 and 15 days post-irradiation and / or hesperidin administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in MDA, K, cholesterol, triacylglycerol and LDL-C, 1, 7 and 15 days post the last dose of radiation exposure. Meanwhile, radiation exposure caused significant reduction in Na and HDL-C. Orally administration of hesperidin by suitable stomach tube pre-irradiation has significantly ameliorated the radiation induced disturbances in all the investigated parameters. It could be concluded that administration of hesperidin may have a beneficial role in modulating oxidative stress by improving the natural antioxidant mechanism
Salim S. Al-Rejaie
Full Text Available The effect of acute carvedilol (a third-generation nonselective ?-blocker pretreatment on gastric mucosal injury induced by 80% ethanol was investigated in male Wistar albino rats. The effects caused by pylorous ligation, accumulated gastric acid secretions and ethanol-induced changes in gastric mucus secretions, levels of proteins, nucleic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA and non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH in the stomach wall were investigated. The gastric ulcers were induced by administration of 1 mL of 80% ethanol, as a necrotizing agent into the stomach. Carvedilol pretreatment at two oral doses of 30 and 60 mg kg-1 body weight were found to protect against the ulcerogenic effects of ethanol. Same dose regimen of carvedilol offered significant protection against ethanol-induced damage on the parameters evaluated for histopathology. Furthermore, the pretreatment afforded a significant inhibition of pylorous ligated accumulation of gastric acid secretions and ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus, nucleic acids, proteins and NP-SH contents. Only higher dose of carvedilol provided inhibition of ethanol-induced increase in MDA concentration. The protective effects of carvedilol against gastric secretion or damage to the gastric-wall mucosa may be mediated through its effects on mucus production and NP-SH concentrations, possible free-radical scavenging ability and/or cytoprotective properties.
Maisa M. Al-Qudah
Full Text Available Emotional changes can influence feeding behavior. Feed intake is the cornerstone of animal productivity. The consequences of inadequate intake include inhibited growth, delayed puberty, infertility, reduced milk production and lowered resistance to parasites and disease. In this study, the histological changes observed in male albino rats’ stomach mucosa which was exposed to hunger were examined. Pieces from stomach were taken in the 1st-5th days following last feeding. These tissue specimens were fixed by using 10% neutral formalin which was compressed. After routine tissue checks, the tissue pieces were sunk into paraffin wax and some blocks were prepared. With the aim to examine histological structures of the pieces taken, they were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E. An increase in the number of blood cells taken part in stomach tissue was observed in the first 24 h. At the end of the 3rd day of hunger, necrosis of fundic glands, especially the base of fundus and mild congestion of mucosal blood vessels were observed. A widening in glandular epithelium lumen was seen after 2 days. A tendency to slim was observed in mucosa layer of the surface and glandular lumen during hunger. In the stomach mucosa, structural changes were caused by hunger. It was found that these changes were in direct proportion with hunger duration.
Certain cancer patients are subjected to varying levels of intermittent radiation delivered in certain cases as whole body exposure. Effective control of many haematological complications built up during radiation treatment would necessarily contribute to up-grading of cancer radiotherapy. In the present study, the effect of either shot or intermittent whole body gamma irradiation at cumulative dose levels up to 6 and 10 Gy, have been evaluated on the levels of total lipids and lipid fractions in blood serum of male albino rats. The pharmacological role of serotonin and its potential radioprotective capacity have been assessed on the serum lipid pattern. The results indicated generally significant increases in the levels of blood lipid fractions especially HDL-cholesterol. On the other hand, the level of LDL-cholesterol recorded a significant decrease on the third day post either shot or cumulative dose levels at 6 or 10 Gy and also post 4 successive doses of serotonin administration. The only exceptions were recorded in the case of LDL-cholesterol post administration of single dose of serotonin and serotonin prior to shot dose levels of 6 or 10 Gy. 2 tabs
The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective role of cinnamon; a spice rich in eugenol, cinnamic acid and cinnamic aldehyde, against tissue injuries induced by gamma irradiation. Moreover, the effect of time of cinnamon aqueous extact (aq.extr).administration was evaluated. Cinnamon aq.extr. (200 mg/Kg body weight) was administered to male albino rats via gavages during 15 successive days or 40 successive days before whole body exposure to gamma rays (3Gy). The animals were sacrificed the 3rd day post-irradiation. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cinnamon aq.extr. during 15 successive days or 40 successive days before irradiation has significantly attenuated hepatic and cardiac tissue injuries. Necrosis, apoptosis, cell death and rupture of cell membrane in both tissues were less severe. However, the protection was better when cinnamon aq.extr.was administered for 40 successive days before irradiation. It could be concluded that taking adequate amount of cinnamon aq.extr. for a long time would protect hepatic and cardiac tissues from radiation-induced damage
Borax (sod-borate) is a toxic compound that is implicated daily to environmental pollutant, so occupational exposure leading to adverse effects on functions of some organs causing their damage as nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and testicular atrophy . In particularly, kidney is the most organ that is affected by borax exposure due to continuous exposure with slow rate of excretion leading to accumulation in the renal tissue. Supplementation with high potent antioxidant grape seed extract may alleviate the worse damage effects induced in the kidney as a result of continual exposure of borax in our daily life. The current study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract on renal injury of male albino rats intoxicated with sod-borate. Twenty eight male albino rats were classified to 4 groups(GI and II and III and IV).GI served as a control, group GII was a group intoxicated with sod-borate for 45 days, where as rats in GIII supplemented with GSE beside sod-borate for 45 days , GIV was a group supplemented with GSE only. Serum and kidney samples were collected for biochemical, histopathological and DNA examinations. Significant elevation in the levels of blood urea and creatinine in GII were observed when compared to control group(GI). Significant decline were prominent in biochemical kidney functions when intoxicated group supplemented with GSE(GIII) , where as non significant changes were observed between control group and group supplemented with GSE only (GIV). Significant increase in both cytokines TNF-? and IL-6 was observed in group intoxicated with sod-borate(GII) when compared to control rats(GI). Oral supplementation with high potent antioxidant GSE (GIII) caused alleviation in the kidney injury leading to the reduction of both pro-inflammatory mediator cytokines TNF-? and IL-6. DNA% fragment migration showed that worse significant migration of DNA fragements were observed in toxicated group(GII) followed by increase in tail length that was evaluated by a fluorescence microscope, but supplementation with GSE(GIII) caused significant improvement with reduction in the percentage of DNA fragements migration contributing to renal tissue recovery. Corticosteroid levels were elevated in intoxicated group(GII) when compared to control group(GI), whereas significant reduction in the level of corticosteroid were observed when intoxicated rats were supplemented with GSE(GIII). Histopathological examination showed that orally administration with sod-borate induced worse alteration with sever damage in renal tissue when compared to control. Supplementation with GSE to intoxicated group resulted in improvement in the damaged renal tissue with mild congestion when compared to intoxicated group . No histological structure alteration were observed between control group and supplemented group with GSE only. The present work concluded that GSE may act as a natural therapeutic agent to alleviate and neutralize the nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by Sod-borate
Ehsan H.Hassan *, Nabil Abdel Mageed ** Nagwa AbdelWahaab
Full Text Available Background: Fructus Schizandrae Sinensis bail, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to lower the elevated serum level of liver enzymes of patients suffering from chronic active hepatitis. A synthetic derivative compound of Schisandrian, Dimethyl Diphenyl Bicarboxylate (DDB is now used widely in clinical fields as a hepatoprotective drug. Thus it is important to know whether DDB has a beneficial effect on damaged liver or not. Objective: To evaluate the protective effect of DDB on induced liver tissue injury in rats. Design: Experimental study. Setting: National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute. The study was conducted from October (2004 to February (2005. Materials and methods: 120 male albino rats aged 6-8 weeks, weight 150-200g were grouped in six groups, 20 rats per group. Group 1 received food and water only, group 2 received food, water and DDB intragastric 6mg/kg daily for 12 weeks, group 3 received 20% ethanol instead of water, group 4 received 20% ethanol instead of water plus DDB, group 5 received thioacetamide (TAA in a dose of 200mg/kg body weight intraperitoneal injection, group 6 received thioacetamide plus DDB at the same dose of the above group. At the end of the trial, blood samples were taken from all groups for biochemical analysis. Liver tissue excised from each rat was fixed in 10% neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin, and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, as well as Masson's trichome stain, for evaluation of hepatic injury and/or fibrosis. Results: Statistical elevation of serum hepatic enzymes was noticed in rats received alcohol, Thioacetamide and alcohol + DDB (groups III, V and IV respectively compared to the corresponding control (P= 0.000. On the other hand, administration of DDB to TAA treated group (group VI induced significant improvement of liver function tests compared to other groups (P= 0.000. Histopathologically, the control livers showed normal lobular architecture without any pathological changes. Liver sections of animals administered alcohol, TAA respectively showed chronic inflammatory reaction, fat accumulation, hepatic parenchymal necrosis and/or hepatic fibrosis. Administration of DDB resulted in improvement of the pathological changes induced by TAA (group VI, but not that induced by alcohol (group IV. Conclusion: Our results revealed that DDB has antitoxic effect against TAA and ameliorates the dangerous effect on the liver parenchyma, while it has no beneficial effect on alcoholic liver disease.
Garlic extract has various medical effects on the treatment of many diseases as hypertension, atherosclerosis, inflammation and diabetes. The alteration of the biochemical parameters in blood serum of irradiated rats may play an important role in determining the pathogenesis of radiation exposure. Many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by reactive free radicals. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of garlic against gamma irradiation (5Gy) induced biochemical disorders in rats. Samples were collected at 1, 7 and 14 days post-irradiation. Lipid peroxide content (malondialdehyde), cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, fatty acids, glucose, insulin, glycogen, haemoglobin, ferritin andiron were estimated.Garlic was orally administered to rats (100 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days before exposure to single dose of gamma irradiation at dose level 5 Gy. The data revealed significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxide, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fatty acids, insulin, glucose and iron accompanied with significant decrease in the levels of HDL-cholesterol, glycogen, haemoglobin and ferritin due to radiation exposure. Administration of garlic alone to the rats caused nonsignificant changes in the estimated parameters indicating its safe use, but the treatment with garlic to rats before radiation exposure ameliorated the changes induced by gamma irradiation and tended to normalize their levels.It could be concluded that garlic administration may has a beneficial role in restoring the biochemical disorders induced by 5 Gy gamma irradiation
Olive leaf extract is used for centuries in treatment of various medical purposes. This investigation aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves against overdose paracetamol . 18 rats were divided into three groups, control , 0.5 gm/kg B.W. intrapereitoneally (i. p.) paracetamol treated group and rats were given 2.5 gm /kg BW i. p. of olive leaf aqueous extract for three consecutive days prior to the administration of paracetamol. The results indicate...
Al-Hazmi, Mansour A; Rawi, Sayed M; Arafa, Nadia Ms; Wagas, Abeer; Montasser, Ayat Os
The study determined the maximum intraperitoneal (ip) scopolamine dose inducing memory impairment in rats (2 mg/kg) compared to 0.5 or 1 mg/kg dose. The effect reflected by significant increase from normal in the latency time required for rats to find the hidden platform in water maze task and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. The dose-related histopathological effect via the hemorrhage, vacuolation and gliosis in cortex and hippocampus is assessed. Then the study investigated the potency of Panax ginseng root extract on scopolamine cognitive dysfunction rat model compared to memantine hydrochloride as reference Food and Drug Administration approved. Ginseng extract was administered at dose 100 or 200 mg/kg/day and memantine at 20 mg/kg/day orally for 2 weeks. All treatments showed improvement in the water maze task, however, ginseng (200 mg/kg) group acquired the advantage without statistical difference control. Scopolamine (2 mg/kg ip) group showed significant increase in AChE reactivity and glutamate level and reduced monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin) and ?-aminobutyric acid contents in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Ginseng extract in a dose-dependent manner appears effective as memantine and can improve memory impairment through the retrieved homeostasis via neurotransmitter levels and AChE activities in rat brain areas with partial effect on the histological feature of the brain tissue. PMID:23406953
The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of carbonated beverage (colourless or black coloured drinks) on arterial blood gases, kidney function, bone mineral density (BMD), glucose and insulin. The rats were divided into three groups; ten rats per each group. Group (I) used as control, group (II) rats supplemented with colourless carbonated beverage (10 ml /100 ml water) and group (III) rats supplemented with black coloured carbonated beverage (10 ml /100 ml water) for three months. The arterial blood gases were evaluated by measuring ph PO2, , PCO2, , H+ a nd HCO3-. Rats receiving the coloured drinks showed high significant increase in ph while PO2 showed very high significant decrease in both groups. PCO2 showed high significant decrease in groups (II) and (III) while H+ showed high significant decrease in group (III) only. HCO3- showed high significant increase in group III. All these changes were related to carbonic acid dissolved in water and the increased ph lead to alkalinity of the blood and it is inversely proportional to the number of hydrogen ions (H+). Non-significant changes were observed in sodium ions while potassium ions showed significant increase in group (II) and high significant increase in group (III). The level of urea showed high and very high significant increase in groups (II) and (III), respectively. Creatinine level showed non-significant increase in group (III). The histopathology changes were observed in kidney tissues in rats of groups (II) and (III). From these results, it appears that black coloured beverage can increase the risk of kidney problems more than colourless beverages. Ca+ and inorganic phosphorous levels showed non- significant change except Ca ions showed a significant decrease in rats of group (III). The acidity of carbonated beverage leads to weak bones by promoting the loss of calcium. The decrease of bone mineral density was more pronounced in some parts of femur of rats receiving black colour carbonated beverage than rats receiving colourless carbonated beverage. The black colour beverages have caffeine which may be the reason for decreasing bone mineral density. Very high significant increase was recorded in glucose level in groups (II) and (III) while insulin was decreased significantly in group (II), and very high significant decrease in group (III) was observed which lead to diabetes mellitus. It could be concluded that carbonic acid found in carbonated beverages may lead to the alkalinity of the blood which reflect metabolic problem. Cola beverages can increase the risk of kidney problems more than non-cola sodas. Cola beverages consumption may have adverse effects on bone mineral density and furthermore, cola beverages consumption is a significant risk factor for devolving of metabolic syndrome such as insulin resistance that might result in diabetes
Histological and Histochemical Studies on the Effects of Methotrexate on the Liver of Adult Male Albino Rat Estudios Histológico e Histoquímico del Efecto del Metotrexato en el Hígado de Rata Macho Albina Adulta
Mohamed Akram Al-Motabagani
Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used in the therapy of various types of malignancy. The present work was designed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes in the liver of albino rat following methotrexate administration. Fifteen adult male albino rats were used in the present work. They were divided into three main groups: Group I was kept without treatment and served as control. Groups II and III were given intraperitoneal injections of normal saline and MTX, respectively, at a...
The consumption of foods and beverages containing additives has intensely increased over the past decades. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the main flavor enhancer that can be consumed in high concentrations. Also, human exposure to ionizing radiation (RAD) has become inevitable with its vast application in diagnosis and industry. Humans are frequently exposed to RAD and MSG from various food additives, therapeutic treatments and the environment. Although the use of additives and exposure to RAD in therapeutic treatments are believed to be relatively safe, their combined effects remain unclear. The present study proposed to investigate neurotoxic potentials of exposure to MSG and/or RAD on oxidative stress, neurotransmitters disturbance and metabolic disorders in the rat’s brain tissue. MSG was supplemented daily by gavages to rats at a dose of 450 mg/Kg bwt/day (equivalent to 5 g/day human consumption) for 7 days pre- and 21 days post-exposure to whole body gamma rays at doses of 2 Gy/week up to a total dose of 8 Gy. Exposure to MSG and/or RAD -induced oxidative stress, neurotransmitters disturbance and metabolic disorders. Oxidative stress was manifested by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione content. The administration of MSG daily during exposure to gamma radiation has potentiated oxidative stress regarding each single treatment. MSG-exposure induced a highly significant decrease of serotonin (P<0.01) and a slight non significant increase (P>0.05) of aspartic and glutamic acids levels while in RAD- group the decrease of serotonin and the increase of amino acids were very highly significant (P<0.001). MSG + RAD-exposure had potentiated the decrease of serotonin and produced an additive effect on the increase of neurotransmitters amino acids. MSG as well as RAD-exposure increased (P<0.05) glucose and insulin levels with no effect on insulin resistance and their co-administration produces an additive effect compared to each single treatment. Regarding lipid profile, MSG as well as RAD-exposure induced hyperlipidaemia more noticeable in case of irradiation. Their co-administration had potentiated hyperlipidaemia compared to each single treatment. It is concluded that exposure to MSG together with RAD increased oxidative stress and neurotransmitter alteration in the brain and the risk of metabolic syndrome. It is thus recommended to limit the intake of MSG when human are at risk of overexposure to ionizing radiation.
The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract with a dose of 2 g/kg body weight (0.5 ml solution /rat) for 4 weeks resulted in significant increases in tryptophan, serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in all tested brain areas, almost allover the experimental period. Also, it caused significant decrease in serum cortisol level. According to the obtained results, it could be concluded that the extract of Salvia egyptiaca may affect GABA-benzodiazepine receptors, that eventually inhibit the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) which consequently caused decrease in serum cortisol level. The low level of cortisol inhibits the tryptophan pyrrolase activity resulting in an increase of the peripheral availability of tryptophan for 5-HT synthesis in brain. Accordingly, 5-HT content as well as its metabolite 5-HIAA were increased
The objective of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of co-oral administration of vitamin B12 with vitamin C against radiation induced haematological and biochemical alterations in male albino rats. Male albino rats were divided into six groups (n=8). Group 1: rats were kept as control, Group 2; rats received orally vita-min B12 (2000Î¼gkg-1). Group 3; rats received Vitamin B12 with Vitamin C (500mgkg-1). Group 4; rats whole body exposed to 7Gy of gamma rays. Group 5; rats received vitamin B12 for 21 successive days before irradiation. Group 6; rats received Vitamin B12 with Vitamin C for 21 successive days before irradiation. Animals were sacrificed the third day post irradiation. The oral administration of Vitamin B12 with or with-out Vitamin C enhanced the recovery from radiation-induced haemopoietic injury and some biochemical changes demonstrated by a significant increase (p0.05>) of WBCs, RBCs and Platelets count, Hb content, Hct%, serum erythropoietin and iron levels and a significant reduction (p0.05>) of serum homocysteine level (Hcy), creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities compared to their respective values in irradiated rats. Improvement of oxidative stress in heart and spleen tissues denoted by a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (MDA) and a significant increase in glutathione (GSH) content was recorded also. The co-oral administration of vitamin B12 with vitamin C has no effect on the prophylactic efficacy of vitamin B12
Exposure to ionizing radiation has become frequent with its vast applications in diagnosis, treatment and industry rather than possible environmental pollution with radiation. The animals of this study were allocated into three groups, control group, irradiated group (5 Gy one shot) and hawthorn treated post-irradiation group. Exposure to radiation was implicated with hematological suppression in all hematological parameters tested red blood cells count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrit percentage (HCT) and white blood cells count (WBCs). Radiation exposure caused alteration of lipid metabolism leading to increased total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) and decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL). In addition, liver enzymes were also elevated, while serum albumin was diminished referring to liver dysfunction. The male reproductive hormone (testosterone) was severely inhibited along with glutathione. Administration of extraction of Crategous oxinatha (hawthorn) with a dose of 500 g/kg b.w. orally for consecutive 15 days post-irradiation showed significant ameliorating effects on both hematological and biochemical parameters leading to the suggestion of using hawthorn as food additive in relatively high amount
After fen valerate and/or Salvia aegyptiaca administration to male albino rats, fenvalerate caused a reduction in liver enzymes activity in liver homogenate with a percent change recording -24.1, -21.94 and-30.46 %, after 7 days, for ALT, AST and ALP, respectively .. Moreover, it increased the total protein and albumin at the same period. On day 7, fenvalerate increased the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP by 351. 24, 164.60 and 119.78%, respectively. On the contrary, fenvalerate reduced the serum levels of total protein and albumin. Significant increase was observed in both creatinine (58.62%) and blood urea (47.41 %) after 7 days, whereas, serum T3 and T4 recorded a percentage change of -3.0.18 and -51.45%, respectively. An increase in GABA content in 7 brain areas was noticed after daily oral administration of fenvalerate, showing that GABA content in 'the cortex was the most affected recording, 191.43% change from control on the 7th day. Daily oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight of Salvia aegyptiaca extract alone or after fenvalerate caused a gradual decrease in ALT, AST and ALP enzyme activity as well as in total protein and albumin content in both liver homogenate and serum, on the 7th day. Salvia extract decreased serum creatinine and blood urea throughout the experimental period. No statistically significant changes in T3 and T4 levels were observed in animals that received salvia extract alone. On the other hand, salvia improved T3 and T4 levels after it was delivered post fenvalerate administration, bringing the hormonal levels near to that of control. Moreover, salvia extract caused a significant decrease in GABA content throughout the experimental period. However, animals that received combined treatment (fenvalerate + salvia) showed that salvia reduced the elevation that occurred in GABA content as a result of fenvalerate administration in all brain areas under investigation. From the current investigation, it could be recommended that, the duration of exposure as well as the given dose have to be planned carefully if salvia has to be taken as a potential herb for treatment. Further studies have to be undertaken to better elucidate the mode of action of salvia and to extract compounds with potential drug treatment
The oral administration of 1/5 LD50 of deltamethrin for 15 days resulted in an increase in Na+ and Ca++ ions concentrations, whereas it resulted in significant decreases in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamin (DA) contents in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pans + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of adult male albino rats at most time intervals. Deltamethrin also resulted in significant decreases of serum leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels in adult male albino rats. It could be concluded from the present results that deltamethrin resulted in significant increases in Na+ and Ca++ ions concentration. This observation might be due, in part, to an increase of the intracellular Na+ flow through its binding to Na+ ions channels and prolonging the opening time. Also, deltamethrin may stimulate the activity of protein kinase C/phosphoinositide that results in an increase of the intracellular concentrations ofinositol I, 4, 5-triphosphate (IPS) and free Ca++ ions. The increment in intracellular Ca+ ions led to an increase in the release of neurotransmitters by exocytosis, thai eventually decreased the contents of NE and DA in pre-synaptic cells. It is also clear that deltamethrin may act on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. The decrement in DA content in hypothalamus led to decrease in the release of leutinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) which resulted in decreasing in LH and testosterone levels in serum of the treated rats
The present study was conducted to investigate the possibility of whether the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) has a protective and therapeutic effect on the toxicity and distribution of 14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (cerebellum, striatum, cerebral cortex) of adult male albino rats for determination of distribution of 14C-CCl4 and monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5- HT)) and also estimation of serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of 14C-CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of counted 14C in all tested brain areas all over the experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 1'4C-CCl4 injection resulted in a significant reduction (P14C in tested areas. The maximum reduction was observed in cerebral cortex on 1st day (-40.91%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4 . The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period. This may be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. Data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4 .
This investigation aimed to study the effects of aflatoxins B1+G1 mixture mainly on total body water (TBW) and on total body solids (TBS) of male albino rats. Some blood components and some reproductive characteristic were also taken into consideration. Two groups, each of 8 male rats were fed the same ration. Rats of one group had been individually ingested daily with a dose of 22 ?g B1 plus 22 ?g G1 for 15 successive weeks. The obtained results showed that aflatoxin administration caused: 1- A decrease in final body weight (FBW), TBW (P<0.01) and TBS (P<0.05). 2- A decrease in serum total proteins (P<0.01), albumin (P<0.05), globulin (P<0.05), glucose (P<0.05) and increase in serum cholesterol, GOT and GPT (P<0.05) activities. 3- A decrease in each of the number of effective matings of males and delivery percentages of females mated with treated males.1 tab
Azza M. Gawish
Full Text Available Aluminium (Al is one of the most abundant and important elements in the environment. In recent years, the production of this metal and its toxicity increased with its discharge into the environment. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Al intake toxicity in liver and kidney tissues of albino rats and the role of zinc as a protective agent against Al toxicity. Fourty five male albino rats were divided into equal three groups. The first group of animals was considered as control. The animals in the second group were given (50mg/kg/day of Al sulphate orally using gastric tube for 45 day. Third group were given Al sulphate (50mg/kg/day followed by zinc sulphate (50mg/kg/day orally as well as samples of liver and kidney tissues were obtained after 15, 30, 45 days of last doses respectively. Paraffin sections (5m were prepared for histological study stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin. The obtained histological results of the histological study of the second group showed that there were congested blood sinusoids and swelling of some hepatocytes within cytoplasm in which there were vacuoles, fragmented nuclei with some cellular infiltration. Kidney tissue showed shrinkage of some glomeruli and distortion of the tubular epithelial cells. Results in the third group, where zinc sulphate was added, showed amelioration and improvement in both liver and kidney tissues.
Full Text Available A preliminary study to evaluate if long term treatment of Methanol Sub-Fraction (MSF of the seeds of Carica papaya as a male contraceptive would develop neoplastic lesions in vital organs was carried out in albino rats at 50, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 b.wt. day-1 for a period of 24 months, with a minimum dose being one therapeutic dose. Pre-terminal deaths, 45% in males and 48% in females, well within the acceptance limit, were reported to be age related and not treatment related, resulted due to general/respiratory/gastrointestinal/ urogenital disorders in both males and females of control and treated animals. Skin peeling, withering of fur leaving skin patches were observed in few of the animals after 18 months of treatment. Absence of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymis was evident in all the treated animals. No major structural changes compared to control were evident in the vital organs. Serum testosterone, serum electrolytes, tissue biochemical, hematology and clinical chemistry were comparable to those of control animals, suggesting no adverse effect of the test substance following long term treatment. The results provided evidence that the methanol sub-fraction of the seeds of Carica papaya does not lead any development of neoplastic lesion following life term treatment for 24 months in rats and is safe enough to be permitted for further trials as a male contraceptive.
Full Text Available Abhrak bhasma is a widely used Ayurvedic drug in various diseases including hepatotoxicity. In the present study, protective effect of graded doses (10, 20, 30 and 40mg/kg body wt of abhrak bhasma and its silica control, SiO2 was studied against CCl4 induced liver and kidney damage in male albino rats during single dose experimental schedule for 24 hrs. Administration of CCl4 (3.0ml/ kg body wt induced fatty necrosis in hepatic cells without affecting kidney histology. Treatment of abhrak bhasma showed dose dependent protection against CCl4 induced liver damage by free radical scavenging activity. Silica in SiO2 form also positively influences liver fatty degeneration induced by single dose of CCl4 but is associated with some hepatocytes hypertrophy.
Samir, A.M. Zaahkouk* ; Eman, G.E. Helal
The effect of daily oral administration of carbamate (1/10 L.D50) on rats for 30 successive days were studied. The male rats were divided into five groups (control, control + oil, carbamate, carbamate + vit. A and carbamate + vit. E). Each group (except control and control + oil) was daily administrated carbamate (0.012 mg/kg B.wt.). Two groups of carbamate intoxicated animals provided with vit. A (700 mg/kg.B.wt) or vit. E (10 mg/kg.B.wt). Poisoning symptoms were recorded, e.g. unbalanse, ...
A N Ezejiofor
Full Text Available Background: The use of medicinal plants in Nigeria has significantly increased over recent years as it is easily accessible, cheap and the strong belief that herbal remedies are natural and therefore non toxic. Aims: This study aims to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity (28-day of the aqueous extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl leaves on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 male albino Wistar rats (113-205 g divided into four groups of five weight-matched animals each, were used for the study. Group 1 received standard feed and water ad libitium and served as the control. Group 2, 3 and 4 received 375, 750 and 1125 mg/kg of aqueous extract of C. afer leaves respectively. The animals were sacrificed under ether anesthesia and the organs were harvested, weighed and histopathological studies carried out. The effect of C. afer on the hepatic biomarkers aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT; alkaline phosphatase (ALP; triglyceride (TG; total bilirubin (TB; conjugated bilirubin (CB; albumin (ALB and kidney biomarkers urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate were investigated. Statistical Analysis: Data were evaluated using Mann Whitney. If P ? 0.05 groups were considered to be significantly different. Results: C. afer contained alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. The average body, organ, relative weights, feed and fluid intake showed no significant changes (P > 0.05 when compared to the control. The liver function tests (ALT, ALP, AST, CB, TB and ALB showed significant differences (P 0.05. The kidney function tests (urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate showed no significant differences (P > 0.05 in the test groups when compared to the control. Conclusion: Costus afer may be hepatotoxic but non-toxic to the kidney.
Echinaceae purpurea (EP) is one of the most popular herbal medicines used for many years as a panacea for a variety of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the modulator role of Echinacea purpurea (EP) in some radiation-induced biological damage. Male albino rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 3 Gy delivered as a single shot dose. EP was administered to rats (50 mg/kg body weight) via gavages during four weeks either pre- or post-irradiation. Histological investigations in the liver of irradiated rats revealed degeneration of portal vein area, necrotic hepatic cells and pyknotic nuclei, vacuolated cytoplasm. Testis tissues showed necrotic spermatogenic, degenerated interstitial cells and severe atrophid spermatogonia. The histopathological changes in both tissues were associated with severe oxidative stress denoted by an increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level and a decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities as well as glutathione (GSH) content. Alteration in serum lipid profile, glucose level, transaminase activities and testosterone level were also recorded. Administration of EP to rats either pre- or post-irradiation has significantly attenuated radiation-induced oxidative stress which was associated with significant regeneration of liver and testis tissues. It could be concluded that EP may act as a prophylactic as well as a therapeutic agent, however, its role was more pronounced when administered before irradiation which could be attributed to its free radicals scavenging activities.
Nowadays, increasing attention has been given to the roles of free radicals generated through oxidative stres. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidative role lycopene extracted from tomato processing wastes or pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male rats were adminstered lycopene by a daily intragastric gavage(0.24mg/rat/day) or supplemented in a standard casein diet (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) reduced ghutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) were determined in liver homogenate, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). asparate aminotransferase (AST), toral protein, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio were investigated 2 and 13 days post irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in MDA, ALT,AST, albumin levels and A/G ratio. Meanwhile, radiation exposure caused significant reduction in weight gain, SOD activity, GSH, total protein and globulin levels
Hanan Mostafa Rabei
Full Text Available Tramadol is a synthetic opioid analgesic. It is commonly prescribed for moderate to severe pain, becoming abused more popular among teens in most countries. Paracetamol as anti-inflammatory drugs (acetaminophen (APAP is widely used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. Meanwhile, tramadol/acetaminophen (tramacet is effective in acute or chronic moderate-to-moderately severe pain. In comparative study, the current investigation threw the light on the effect of over doses of tramadol and/or APAP on the immune function and hepatocytes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Material and methods: Treated rats received oral doses of each drug for 15 consecutive days and after last treatment, they kept three days later for withdrawal studies. The rats were divided into four treatment groups, in the first group, rats received saline and used as control. The second, third and fourth groups treated with tramadol (45 mg/kg, tramadol/APAP (45/450 mg/kg, APAP (450 mg/kg respectively, once a-day at the first week and ending with 90, 90/900, 900 mg/kg at the second week. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the first, second weeks and three days of last treatment. Results: Daily doses of tramadol and /or APAP exposure in rats decreased the cellularity of spleen. Moreover, phagocytic and killing of S. aureus by PMN and macrophage cells caused a highly significant decrease in treated groups. IFN- was reduced in a statistically different treated group of rats. Serum IL-10 was unaffected by any of the treatment regimens but increased only in tramadol/APAP treated rats. Spleen histology exhibited mild pathological alteration with different injures between treated groups. Splenic white pulp accompanied by ill deformed which reflected the reduction of white pulp zones, thickened vasculature in the splenic net work, fibrous trabeculae become prominent feature, where splenic red pulp occupied large areas of the splenic network with predominant edema and megakaryocytes. On the other hand, the effect of tramadol and/or APAP induced DNA alterations of hepatocytes in dose dependent pattern as elucidated by dendrogramatic analysis. Liver histopathological changes of treated groups included vacuolated hepatocytes, dilated sinusoid with proliferated Kupffer cells; atrophied hepatocytes with nuclei reduced in size and darkly stained. Many areas of hepatocytes showed loss of architecture, congested central vein, expanded portal area with edema and inflammatory reaction. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the effect of tramadol/APAP induced anti-inflammatory cytokines than tramadol and APAP alone. Tramadol and/or APAP may display severe pathological consequences of hepatocytes. These hepatic lesions may be caused impairment of the liver function.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. belongs to Zingiberaceae family has biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. Pain is often the first indication of disease or injury and a major symptom in many clinical conditions and can significantly interferes with a person’s quality of life and general functioning. The standard and test drugs suppress the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. This article brings out the analgesic activity of C. Amada in comparison with aspirin. Therefore aqueous extract of C. amada was evaluated for analgesic activity in animal models of pain. OBJECTIVES: 1. To evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats and to compare the analgesic activity with aspirin . 2. To Evaluate if combination of Curcuma Amada with aspirin is synergistic . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats are the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines .The aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada was used. Aspirin (100mg/kg was used as the standard analgesic drug. 4x4 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity will be assessed with the help of following screening methods Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid, Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer, Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C , Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULTS : Aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to standard drug aspirin. In the Tail flick and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain ( R eaction time. In the Tail immersion test the test drug significantly (P <0.001 reduced pain at 30 min when compared to the standard drug Aspirin at 60 min of oral administration. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION : We can conclude that, Curcuma Amada possess analgesic activity which can be explained by animal models of pain. Probably, it acts by peripheral and central mechanisms. The combination of Curcuma Amada and Aspirin is synergistic
The Antioxidant properties of the date palm fruit; Phoenix dactylifera-L in mitigation of cellular injury following free radicals release by ionizing radiation has been investigated. Forty-eight male albino rats divided equally into 6 groups were used in this study. Group 1 (G.1) acted as control, G.2 received date extract orally (4 ml/ kg/ day) for 21 days, G.3 was exposed to a single dose of gamma irradiation (6 Gy), G.4 received date extract orally at an identical dose and duration to G.2 and irradiation to G.3, G.5 received the daily date extract for 7 days post irradiation and G.6 received the daily date extract for 21 days before and for 7 days after irradiation. Heart tissue was examined histologically and biochemical testing for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was performed for each rat group. Data from the investigation showed that gamma irradiation caused histopathological damage to the heart tissue and disturbances in most parameters related to cardiac function. Administration of date extracts pre-irradiation provided evidence of a potential protective effect against irradiation hazard
Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu
Full Text Available The acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg; (UF - A commercial bi-herbal formula prepared with Alstonia boonei and Xylopia aethiopica in male Wistar albino rats was evaluated. There was no mortality in rats administered 2000 mg/kg body weight (BW of UF in an acute toxicity study. A significant (p and #8804;0.05 increase in daily consumption of feed and fluid intake in experimental rats after 28 days was recorded followed by a progressive increase in BW of rats administered 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW of UF in a dose-dependent manner. Alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, triacylglycerides and creatinine increased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in rats treated with UF, whereas urea and fasting blood sugar decreased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in a dose-dependent manner when compared with control. There was a marginal decrease in serum calcium ion and phosphate ion following the administration of UF when compared with control. Packed cell volume and hemoglobin decreased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in rats treated with UF, whereas white blood cell increased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in a dose-dependent manner when compared with control. Histological examination of the liver, kidney, heart and lungs showed normal architecture in control group, whereas hepatocytes of rats treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW of UF were characterized by slight periportal fatty change, marked change and ballooning degeneration. Heart muscle of rats treated with 200mg/kg BW of UF showed slight inflammation while histological examination of the lungs showed areas of interstitium damage and diffuse alveolar damage in rats treated with UF. In conclusion, indiscriminate administration of UF could be of public health concern and long-term exposure may cause a significant potential health risk. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 970-977
Oral administration of single doses of organo chlorine insecticide endrin to rats at levels of 10, 30 and 50 % of the LD50 each for 2, 4, 6 and 8 days was employed to evaluate its dose dependent and toxic effect on triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) levels and some amino acids contents.Treatment with 10% LD50 of endrin did not induce any significant change in serum T3 or T4 level in male rats along the experimental period. Endrin induced significant increases in T3 and T4 levels at doses of 30 and 50% on days 2 and 4. At the same doses, endrin induced significant decreases in T3 and T4 levels on day 6. On day 8, the dose 30% resulted in a decrease in T4 level, and the dose 50% decreased the levels of T3 and T4.. Endrin resulted in significant alterations in amino acids contents and the most effect was noticed on days 6 and 8 at the three selected doses.
Omega-3 fatty acids play a critical role in the development and function of the reproductive and central nervous systems. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels associated with histopathologic changes induced by gamma irradiation in the testis and brain of male albino rats. Rats were whole body exposed to radiation at a single dose of 3 Gy. Omega-3 fatty acids (0.4 gm/kg b wt/day) were given to rats, by gavages, for 15 consecutive days before irradiation and for 15 days after irradiation. Rats were sacrificed one and 15 days post irradiation .Biochemical analysis of testis and cerebral cortex samples showed that irradiation induced a significant increase in xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) and a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT).Histological examination of testis and cerebral cortex tissues showed spermatogonia degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis in the testis and neurons cell bodies with ill defined and even ruptured cell membrane and damaged blood capillaries in the cerebral cortex. Omega-3 administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the levels of MDA, and XO, and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with amelioration of the histological injury markers in both testis and cerebral cortex. It could be postulated that omega-3 fatty acids as a multi-functional dietary supplement could exert a modulatory role in radiation- induced testis and cerebral cortex biochemical and histological changes through its antioxidant properties.
Shadia Ali Radwan; Samia Mohamed Sakr; Mohamed Salah Al-Shinnawy and Enas Saleh Abdel-Bakey
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aging and anti-aging hormones on the kidney, the thyroid and the testis of aged male albino rats from the physiological and histological points of view. Material & Methods Thirty five male rats were used in the present study. They were allocated into five groups. The first group (5months old served as control group and the other remaining groups are (18 months old. The second group 1 ml/kg b.w. corn oil intramuscular injection through a period of two weeks .The third group received 2mg/kg b.w. of melatonin hormone orally daily for two weeks. The fourth group received 0.57 mg/kg b.w. of testosterone hormone via intramuscular injection through two weeks. The fifth group received the same dose of both hormones (Melatonin & Testosterone for two weeks. Some biochemical parameters of the kidney, the thyroid and histological structure of the testis were examined. Results The untreated aged group showed insignificant change in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones levels. The melatonin treated group showed significant decrease in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones. The testosterone treated group showed highly significant increase in urea, T3 and T4 hormones and highly significant decrease in creatinine level. Whereas, fifth group showed significant decrease in urea accompanied with a highly significant decrease in creatinine and highly significant increase in T3 with a significant increase in T4. The histological changes induced by aging and anti-aging hormones included intertubular haemorrhage, odematous areas present between the seminiferous tubules. The interstitial tissue was degenerated. The degenerated seminiferous tubules revealed maturation arrest in late-stage spermatides. Conclusion In conclusion, aging and anti-aging hormones administration into adult male rats exerts a clear effect on the kidney and the thyroid functions and on the testicular structure. On the other hand, amelioration in T3 &T4 serum level was found in anti-aging treated rats compared with untreated aged rats.
An Electron Microscopic Study of the Antifertility Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in Male Albino Rats Estudio de Microscopía Electrónica del Potencial Antifertilidad del Romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) en Ratas Macho Albinas
Rania A. Salah El-Din; Abd El-Rahman El-Shahat; Rasha Ahmed Elmansy
The present work was aimed at studying the antifertility potential of the commonly used herb, rosemary in the male albino rats using electron microscopy as the method of investigation. Ethanolic extract of the rosmary prepared and administered orally in two different doses for a period of three months to the animals. At the end of the experiment animals were sacrificed and testes removed. Sections for the electrone microscopy prepared and changes were observed. The present results showed evid...
Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar
The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose a...
Sanghishetti Vijay Prasad, Nayak BB, Ghongane BB, Raul AR, Vijay Kumar AN, Mutalik MM, Kapure NL.
Full Text Available Introduction: Physical and Psychological stresses are believed to reduce sexual functions, resulting fromneurotransmission changes in various erectile response pathways and reduced blood flow in genital organs.Intake of alcohol depends on numerous genetic and environmental factors. Stress has long been thought to influence the alcohol drinking in humans. Forced swimming in laboratory animals has been widely used as a model of stress to study the physiological changes and the capacity of the organism in response to stress. Aim: 1. To assess the effect of forced swimming stress on seminal fluid profile, Serum testosterone level, Testicular lipid peroxidation levels. 2. To assess the effect of Vitamin E on stress induced changes. Method: Adult male albino rats weighing 200 – 220 g, aged 12-15 weeks were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into four groups of 6 animals each. Group1 (control received distilled water, Group 2 (Forced Swimming Stress received distilled water Group 3: subjected to Forced Swimming stress with 20% alcohol intake p.o. Group 4: Swimming stress with 20% alcohol treated with Vitamin E(200mg/kg/day orally. The following parameters were studied in all groups 1. Body weight. 2. Sperm count Motility and Life /death Ratio (SLDR. 3. Serum Testosterone 4. Testicular Malondialdehyde level (MDA. Results: Forced swimming stress caused loss in body wt, reduction in sperm count, motility and SLDR in sperm analysis, reduction in serum testosterone and increase testicular MDA levels compared to control. All the changes were statistically significant. When alcohol was added along with forced swimming it caused further loss in body wt, sperm count, motility and SLDR, serum testosterone level and slightly further increase in MDA levels. These observations were also statistically significant. In case of group IV in which Vitamin E was administered long with stress with alcohol it showed a trend of reversal phenomenon of stress and alcohol induced change (Group III exhibited by gain in body wt, increase sperm count, motility and SLDR, serum testosterone and decrease in MDA level. All the results were statically significant except serum testosterone. Conclusion: Force swimming indicates that swimming is an effective model for producing stress in albino rats. The stress induced changes were further accentuated by addition of ethyl alcohol. However Vit E treatment reverses the effect of stress and alcohol.
The present study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) on distribution of14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (hippocampus, brain stem and hypothalamus) and its toxicity using the determination of monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT)) as well as estimation of serum nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of14C-CCl4 (1 ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of 14C amount in all tested brain areas during experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 14C-CCl4 treatment resulted in a significant reduction (P14C amount in areas under investigation. The maximum reduction was recorded in hypothalamus on 3rd day (-49.28%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4. The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period, which might be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. The data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4.
Uroko Robert Ikechukwu
Full Text Available This study evaluates qualitative and quantitative phytochemical properties of Abrus precatorius leaves. The vitamins and therapeutic effect of methanol extract against tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver damage in male Wistar albino rats. The results of phytochemical and vitamins indicates richness in saponins, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids with value 30.05±0.22%, while vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, antioxidant and vitamins A, C and E was quantified. The liver damage was observed in the animals with significant increase in ALT, AST and ALP following the in traperitoneal administration of CCl4. The methanol extract caused significant decrease (p4 but were not treated. The extract showed potentials to mopping-up of free radicals generated by CCl4. The extract reduced lipid peroxidation in concentration dependent manner. The findings suggests that the extract have the capacity to improving liver functions and liver regeneration at high concentration. The extracts are safe for consumption, abundant phytochemicals and antioxidant vitamins could offer reasonable protections against oxidative stress.
Abeer M. Waggas
Full Text Available In this study, the neuroprotective effect of the extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale was investigated against MSG-induced neurotoxicity of male albino rat. The daily dose (4 mg kg-1 b.wt. i.p. injection of pure monosodium glutamate (MSG for 30 days and subsequent withdrawal caused a significant decrease in epinephrine (E, norepinephrine (NE, dopamine (DA and serotonin (5-HT content all tested areas (cerebellum, brainstem, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus at most of the time intervals studied. This is may be due to activation of glutamate receptors, which led to increased the intracellular concentration of Ca+2 ions, so the release of neurotransmitters is increased and the content of monoamines is decreased. After the withdrawal, the decrease in monoamines levels remained in striatum, cerebral cortex and hypothalamus, this may be due to the region specific effect of monosodium glutamate. whereas, daily dose (100 mg kg-1 b.wt. i.p., injection of Ginger (Zingiber officinale root extract for 30 days and subsequent withdrawal caused a significant increased in epinephrine (E, norepinephrine (NE, dopamine (DA and serotonin (5-HT content all tested areas at most of the time intervals studied. This is may be due to inhibition of 5HT-3-receptor effects at the same time the extract blockade of Ca+2 channel, as result the release of neurotransmitter is decreased and the content is increased. After the extract withdrawal, the increase in monoamine levels remained in brainstem, striatum and hippocampus, this may be due to the region specific effect of the extract. The coadninisration of monosodium glutamate and ginger root extract caused increased in monoamine content in most of the tested brain areas at different time intervals. This is may be due to partly attributable to an antagonistic action of ginger root extracts on monosodium glutamate effect, so the monoamines content was increased. From these results, we can say that the ginger extract has a neuroprotective role against monosodium glutamate toxicity effect.
Radiation poses a major currently irresolvable risk for human. Onion is a major source of dietary flavonoids. The present investigation was carried out to study the protective effects of treating rats with onion oil (150 mg/kg body weight) for consecutive 3 weeks against damages induced by whole body gamma irradiation (7 Gy). Exposure of rats to gamma irradiation caused a significant increase in levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides as well as activities of AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, uric acid and lipid peroxides. Exposure to gamma rays resulted in an increase in the mentioned parameters accompanied by a decrease in urea, total protein, albumin, glutathione content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. It could be concluded that onion oil capable of reducing the biological hazards induced by gamma irradiation
The failing heart represents an enormous clinical problem and is a major cause of death throughout the world. Hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress have been shown to contribute to heart failure. Squalene is a remarkable bioactive substance that belongs to a class of antioxidants called isoprenoids, which neutralize the harmful effect of excessive free radicals production in the body.The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of squalene against oxidative cardiac muscle damage induced by gamma irradiation.Rats were treated daily by gavage with 0.4 ml/kg squalene for 42 days before whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy and continued until animals were sacrificed 3 days post irradiation.Histological examination of cardiac muscles sections by using light and electron microscopes showed that exposure of rats to ionizing radiation has provoked a severe architecture damage such as necrotic nuclei, nuclei located at the periphery, alteration in chromatin distribution, ruptured cell and mitochondrial membranes, cristae of mitochondria disappeared, sticking mitochondria and ruptured myofibers. Structural and ultra-structural changes were associated with severe oxidative stress. Significant increase of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) (MDA) along with reduction in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalse (CAT), and glutathione content (GSH), were recorded.Treatment of rats with squalene has significantly attenuated the radiation-induced oxidative damage and histopathological changes in cardiac muscle which was substantiated by a significant amelioration in the activity of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Furthermore, administration of squalene to rats has adjusted the radiation-induced increase in plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Based on these results, it could be concluded that squalene through its antioxidant properties might be capable of attenuating radiation-induced damage to cardiac muscles.
Talaat E.I. Abd-Rabo
Full Text Available Daily exposure to heat stress causes sustained elevation of blood pressure in rats. It is known that the renin-angiotensin system is activated during episodes of behavioral stress, and the purpose of this work was to assess the action of captopril in the development of stress induced hypertension in rats. Animals were divided into four groups. The first group served as a control, while the other groups were subjected to heat stress of 40C and high hamidity of 80% for 10 successive days. The second group was served as heat stress, while the third and the fourth groups were received low and high doses of captopril (0.7 & 1.4 mg/kg. b.wt., respectively. After 10 days of treatment, half of animals from each group were decapitated and brain, liver, muscle, heart and kidney were separated and analysed. The other half of animals were left for another 10 days without any additional treatment for recovery.The results revealed a significant decrease in total protein of liver, heart, kidney, total lipids of heart, muscle and brain and total cholesterol of liver. On the other hand, insignificant change was noticed in muscle and brain total protein. Similarly, AST and ALT activities were also within the normal values for all the organs examined.Results exhibited that renin-angiotensin system may be important in the development of stress-induced hypertension in rats.
Hassan H. A.* and EL-Gendy A. M
Full Text Available Liver disease appears to be increase. Part of this increase may be due to our frequent contact with chemicals and other environmental pollutants. The amount of medicne consumed has increased greatly which could be danger to the liver. The hepatoprotective flavonoid, silymarin (7.56 mg/Kg b. wt. and ginger (Zingiber officinale (1% of diet for 4 weeks were used to ameliorate the liver injury in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCL4 , single acute dose 4 ml/ Kg b. wt. of 50% v/v CCL4 in olive oil, subcutaneous. The obtained results showed that CCL4 decreased serum and liver total protein and albumin. Also reduced glutathione content. The antioxidant enzymes; glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity decreased in the liver of CCL4 toxicity group. On the other hand, CCL4 toxicity increased serum and liver bilirubin, total lipid and total cholestertol levels. In addition, liver function (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver lipid peroxidation content showed significant increase in the CCL4 treated group. Previous parameters turned back to normal values in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats after treating with silymarin and/ or ginger for one month. Meanwhile, the most interesting effect was induced by a combination of silymarin and ginger. Hence, the present findings will provide a potential scope for future use of ginger for the treatment of liver disorders.
The omega-3 fatty acids are essential dietary nutrients, and one of their important roles is providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for growth and function of nervous tissue. Reduced level of DHA in the brain induce dramatic changes in brain function including changes in size of neurons as well as changes in learning and memory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids on Î³-radiation-induced physiological changes in the brain cerebral hemispheres. Omega-3 fatty acids was supplemented daily by gavages to rats at a dose of 400 mg/ kg body wt for 7 days pre- and 21 days post-exposure to whole body fractionated gamma rays at doses of 2 Gy/week up to a total dose of 8 Gy. The results demonstrated that whole body Î³-irradiation induced oxidative stress, de - creased the main polyunsaturated fatty acids; DHA and EPA, and induced neurotransmitters alteration in brain tissues. Oxidative stress was manifested by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Oxidative stress was accompanied by alterations in the level of the neurotransmitters manifested by a significant increase of glutamic and aspartic and a significant decrease of serotonin (5-HT) levels in brain cerebral hemispheres. Rats receiving fish oil 7 days before and 21 days after exposure to Î³-radiation showed significant improvement in the levels of EPA and DHA associated with significant amelioration of oxidative stress and neurotransmitters alteration. It is concluded that fish oil protect the brain from radiation-induced physiological changes by protecting brain cellular membranes through counteracting the decrease of omega-3 fatty acids and minimizing oxidative stress
Proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract) possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation exposure and toxic sodium nitrites induced oxidative stress on the intestine and urinary bladder histologically and also to evaluate the possible protective role of proanthocyanidins. Seventy adult male albino rats, each weighing 95-105 g were used and divided into 7 groups as follows: The first group represents the control group. The second experimental group were exposed to 7 Gy gamma-rays as a single dose and sacrificed on the 7th day. The third experimental group received by a stomach tube daily 50 mg/kg b.wt of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The fourth experimental group received proanthocyanidins, Grape seed extracts (antioxidant) (100 mg/kg) body wt.) daily for seven days before irradiation and the continued for 14 days post irradiation. The fifth group of animals received grape seed extract after being exposed to gamma radiation for two weeks, while the sixth experimental group received the same antioxidant for seven days before and after received sodium nitrite (50 mg/kg) daily for 4 weeks. Finally, the seventh experimental groups was treated with the same antioxidant in same dose and time after received sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed on the end of each experimental duration. The results revealed that both gamma-radiation and sodium nitrite induced different histological changes in the intestine and urinary bladder of irradiated and sodium nitrite received animals. The effect of gamma radiation exposure showed marked degeneration of intestinal villi, vaculation in the lining epithelium cells and karyolytic nuclei. In addition, using sodium nitrite lead to necrosis of intestinal glandular cells. The effect of gamma radiation on urinary bladder was presented by, hyperplasia and vaculation of mucosal epithelium, congestion of blood capillaries. Rats from nitrite group revealed activation of glandular epithelium. The animals were treated with proanthocyanidins, the tissues revealed histological structure almost similar to the control group. This histological observations were performed to evaluate the efficiency of proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract), through its antioxidant properties which might attenuate radiation or nitrite toxicity.
Aspirin, both in chronic and acute doses, led to a considerable decrease in percentage uptake of labelled iodine (Na131I) and serum protein-bound iodine by the thyroid gland whereas prostaglandins (PGs) did not exhibit any significant effect on both the parameters. Simultaneous administration of aspirin and PGs caused a significant decrease in the two parameters, and on withdrawal of aspirin from the diet the two parameters were restored to normal levels, thus suggesting that the effect of aspirin on thyroid is direct and reversible. Aspirin, both in acute and chronic doses, effected decrease in glycogen levels, in vivo and in vitro incorporation of [U-14C] glucose into glycogen, and glycogen synthetase activity in the liver of both fed, and fasting, rat. Prostaglandins, on the other hand, resulted in a significant increase in the three parameters, thus enhancing the rate of liver glycogenesis. Normal levels were restored when both aspirin and PGs were given together. Withdrawal of aspirin also restored normal hepatic glycogenesis. Significant reduction in the activities of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes, viz. glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase, phosphopyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase was observed due to chronic and acute administration of aspirin and PGs were devoid of any significant effect on gluconeogenic enzymes, thus ruling out the mediation of PGs. (auth.)
Meo, Sultan A.; Abdul M. Al-Drees; Sufia Husain; Muhammad M. Khan; Muhammad B. Imran
OBJECTIVES To investigate the effects of electromagnetic field radiation generated by mobile phones on serum testosterone levels in Wistar albino rats. METHODS This experimental interventional control study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period December 2006 to April 2008. A total of 34 male Albino rats [Wistar strain], 2 months of age, weighing 150-160 gm were used for the experiment. These an...
Emmanuel Ike Ugwuja
Purpose: To determine the biochemical effects of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol in normal albino rats. Methods: Twenty male albino rats weighing 160-180g were assigned into groups A-E of four rats per group. Group A and B rats were given low and high doses of ED, respectively, groups C and D were administered low and high doses of EDmA, respectively while group E rats were given distilled water and served as control. The treatment lasted for 30 days after which the anima...
Sailaja, K V; Shivaranjani, V Leela; Poornima, H; Rahamathulla, S B Md; Devi, K Lakshmi
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at a dose of 85 mg/kg body weight for two consecutive days intraperitoneally at an interval of 24 h. ISO induced myocardial infarction (MI) was confirmed by disturbances in serum lipid profile, heart tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum total cholesterol (32.60 %), triglycerides (41.30 %), very low density lipoproteins (81.81 %), low density lipoproteins (84%) and phospholipids (38.88 %) and a significant decrease in the levels of high density lipoproteins (33.33 %) in the ISO control group when compared to normal controls. Additionally, there is a significant decrease in the levels of heart tissue antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and depletion of reduced glutathione, which indicates enhanced lipid peroxidation(172 %). Pretreatment with extract significantly showed a protective effect against ISO altered lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. The present study showed therapeutic effect of TTFAEt on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in experimental rats. PMID:26417233
Bruno Ikenna Aguh
Full Text Available Relationship between body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus was investigated. Morphometric data such as body weight (BDYWT, tail length (TL, body length from nose to anus (BLNA, body length from nose to tail tip (BLNT, tail circumference (TC, tail diameter (TD, and ear length (EL were collected from fifty live Albino rats involving 28 females and 22 males. The collected data were evaluated using regression analysis, correlation and independent-sample t-test. There was high significant (P r2 values ranging from 0.264 to 0.81. Regression analysis with high r2 value could be exploited in predicting many morphometric traits with great accuracy with the body weight serving as the explanatory or predictor variable. This research also suggested that male and female Albino rats have very similar morphometric characters as the results of independent-samples t-test showed.
Fouad A.F.Ali*, Ali A.Abdel Rahman* and Ashraf M.Moustafa
Full Text Available The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatment of female rats with a chlorohydrin caused reversible uterine and ovarian changes. Uterine changes took longer time to recover compared with that of ovarian changes. These results support the possibility that this drug could be a functional female sterilant as it was known as a male sterilant.
An Electron Microscopic Study of the Antifertility Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in Male Albino Rats / Estudio de Microscopía Electrónica del Potencial Antifertilidad del Romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) en Ratas Macho Albinas
Rania A. Salah, El-Din; Abd El-Rahman, El-Shahat; Rasha Ahmed, Elmansy.
Full Text Available El trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar el potencial anti-fertilidad de la hierba de uso común, el romero, en ratas albinas macho utilizando microscopía electrónica como método de investigación. El extracto etanólico del romero se preparó y administró por vía oral a los animales en dos dosis diferent [...] es durante un período de tres meses. Los animales experimentales se sacrificaron y se retiraron sus testículos. Se prepararon secciones para microscopía electrónica y se observaron los cambios. Los resultados mostraron cambios microscópicos evidentes en los testículos de los animales que recibieron una dosis mayor del medicamento. La mayoría de los túbulos seminíferos se observaron comprimidos, con una membrana basal irregular y carente de células espermatogénicas. El presente trabajo revela una clara evidencia morfológica de una posible anti-fertilidad dependiente de la dosis del romero administrada en las ratas albinas macho. Abstract in english The present work was aimed at studying the antifertility potential of the commonly used herb, rosemary in the male albino rats using electron microscopy as the method of investigation. Ethanolic extract of the rosmary prepared and administered orally in two different doses for a period of three mont [...] hs to the animals. At the end of the experiment animals were sacrificed and testes removed. Sections for the electrone microscopy prepared and changes were observed. The present results showed evident microscopic changes in the testis of the animals received higher dose of the drug. Most of the seminiferous tubules were compressed, having irregular basement membrane and devoid of any spermatogenic cells. The present work revealed a clear morphological evidence of the dose dependent antifertility potential of the rosemary in the male albino rats.
Grewal, K K; Sandhu, G S; Kaur, Ranjit; Brar, R. S.; H.S. Sandhu
In the present investigation, the behavioral, morphological, and histopathological effects of cypermethrin, a widely used synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, was ascertained in male and female albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). Cypermethrin administered at repeated oral doses of 5 and 20 mg/kg/day for 30 days produced varying degree of mild to moderate toxic symptoms and behavioral changes in both male and female rats. The lower dose produced very mild toxicosis characterized by intermittent diar...
Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret
Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are bes...
Uranium exhibits both radiotoxic and chemotoxic properties. Common route of contamination is ingestion through drinking water. Uranium is mainly nephrotoxic and is also hepatotoxic to mammals including humans. The dose range at which it affects organs still remains in predicament. To study the effect of ingested uranium on enzymatic and histopathological changes of liver in albino wistar rats. Uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UN) solutions were prepared at different concentrations in distilled water for administration. Healthy male and female albino wistar rats weighing 120±20 g were randomly divided into six groups, each group with five animals. Group 1 was the control. All the five treatment groups (group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5 and group 6) were orally administered with 0.156, 0.625, 2.5, 10 and 40 mg/kg/day of UN for 28 days duration. Blood samples collected on 29th day were analyzed for ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). In addition, histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed. Significant reduction by 61 and 46 % in GGT levels in female rats of groups 4 and 5 respectively while in male rats, increase of 55, 52 and 40 % in groups 3, 4 and 5 respectively were observed compared to control. In females, ALP levels were decreased by 38 % in group 2 and 29 % in group 4 while no changes were observed in males of control and test groups. SGPT level was decreased by 22 % in group 6 in females but increased by 29 and 35 % in groups 2 and 6 respectively in males, compared to control. In females, 25 % increase in SGOT levels in group 4 was observed, but decreased in group 5 and 6 by 26 and 22 % respectively. A 27 % increase in SGOT level in males was recorded in group 2 compared to control. No histopathological changes were observed in liver tissues of test groups or the control. Uranium causes dose-independent changes in key marker enzymes of liver function indicating hepatic damage. Conversely, no histopathological alterations were observed in liver tissues. (author)
Abu Gabal H*, Moamena M** and Al Moalla H
Aim of the work. The present study was planned to investigate the role played by Bee venom in improving the morphometric and morphological changes induced by carbimazole in pregnant albino rats and their embryos. Materials and method .A total number of 60 mature virgin female and 30 male Wistar wistar albino rats (for fertilization) were used in this study.Pregnancy was ascertained by vaginal smears.The experimental animals were divided into the following groups:?- (Normal group): in this gro...
In mammals most of the physiological and behavioral systems such as sleep-wake cycle, cardiovascular activity, endocrine system, blood pressure, body temperature and hepatic metabolism are regulated by the circadian clock. The aim of the present work was to investigate the disturbances induced after gamma irradiation on the metabolic diurnal rhythm and the role of Î±-alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in preventing/or decreasing these disorders in rat. Male Swiss albino rats were divided into 4 groups, one of which served as a normal control group, the second group was exposed to a single whole body gamma radiation dose of 6Gy, the third group was treated by gavage with ALA 100 mg/kg/day for 20 days and the fourth one was orally administered with ALA 100 mg/kg/day for 20 days before whole body gamma radiation at a dose of 6Gy. Rats were irradiated at 10 am and sacrificed at 11 am, 12 pm, 1 pm and 2 pm and then the biochemical analyses were performed. The results showed a significant increase in the level of lipid peroxidation products (MDA) at all time intervals. A significant increase was recorded also in the amount of free radicals at 11 am and 2 pm, and pyruvic acid level at 12 pm and 2 pm. A significant reduction of glutathione level (GSH) was recorded at 12 pm, 1 pm and 2 pm in the liver of the irradiated rats. Furthermore, a significant increase was registered in blood glucose level and blood aminotransferase activities (AST, ALT) in irradiated rats. Administration of ALA has significantly attenuated the radiation induced oxidative damage. It could be concluded that the biochemical changes induced by whole body gamma irradiation of rats are dependent on the circadian cycle. Further investigations are necessary to understand these complicated relations.
Pumpkin seeds have long been used for health benefits and the seed oil has been shown to contain active beneficial components that may protect from oxidative stress. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the modulator role of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) supplementation on gamma radiation induced changes in certain biochemical and histological abnormalities in both kidney and testes tissues. Male rats received 5Gy whole body gamma-irradiation delivered as 1 Gy day after day to result in a cumulative dose of 5 Gy. PSO was orally administered to rats (20mg/Kg body weight) for 20 consecutive days before irradiation and during the period of irradiation. On days seven and twenty one after the last irradiation dose, rats were sacrificed. Biochemical analysis in the serum revealed that PSO supplementation diminished the radiation-induced increase in the level of urea, creatinine , follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Significant amelioration of the radiation-induced decreases in calcium (Ca+2), potassium (K+) and testosterone levels were also recorded. PSO administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the level of lipid peroxides measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and the content of glutathione (GSH). Histological observations of photomicrographs of kidney sections of irradiated rats showed amorphoid glomeruli, renal sclerosis and high content of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, hemorrhage in glomeruli, ruptured proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Examination of testis tissues showed disappearance of seminiferous tubules, ruptured tunica albuginea, and degeneration of interstitial cells. PSO supplementation has obviously improved the radiation-induced histopathological changes in both tissues. It could be concluded that PSO can be used as a useful adjunct for maintaining the integrity of biochemical functions and restoring the original histological architecture of kidneys and testes after irradiation
Creel, D; Giolli, R A
The retinogeniculate fiber projections were studied by degeneration methods in several strains of rats with pigmentation in their eyes and pelts ranging from the intensely pigmented self phenotype to the albino. The ipsilateral retinogeniculate input in the self, Irish, and hooded rats, and rats with "bicolor fundus" is located medially within the dorsal alteral geniculate nucleus (LGd) and is seen as a single lamina of moderately dense degeneration. PMID:1270616
E.J. Iweala Emeka
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of long term consumption of Gongronema latifolium on some biochemical and histological parameters in male rats. Biochemical parameters evaluated included serum protein, haemoglobin, cholesterol, lipid peroxidation, white blood cells, glutathione-s-transferase, superoxide dismutase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The histological changes of the liver, intestines and testes were examined. The long term feeding of a Gongronema latifolium -supplemented diet caused significant increases (p<0.05 in cholesterol, haemoglobin and white blood cells. The diet exhibited antioxidant properties by reducing lipid peroxidation and increasing superoxide dismutase activity. There was a significant increase (p<0.05 in glutathione-s-transferase and decrease in the liver enzymes namely Alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase suggesting a role of Gongronema latifolium in detoxification and hepatoprotection. However, Gongronema latifolium -supplemented diet did not cause any significant changes in weight and serum protein. The histology of the hepatic plate appeared irregular while the portal tracts showed a lifted basement membrane and few inflammatory cells. The intestinal mucosa showed an elongated and broadened villi. There were no histological changes on the testes.
Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret
Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100â€‰mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250â€‰mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250â€‰mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518
Concerns have been raised regarding the potential adverse effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) arising from mobile phone. The present study investigates the effect of the daily exposure of adult and young rats to EMR for 1 hour (at a frequency of 900 MHz, a power density of 0.02 mW/cm2 and an average specific absorption rate of 1.165 W/kg) on the DNA content and tissue architecture of the cortex and hypothalamus of the rat brain. Both young and adult rats were sacrificed at two intervals, after 4 months of daily EMR exposure and after 1 month of stopping the exposure. The present results showed a significant increase in the DNA intensity of young and adult rats in both areas after 4 months of daily EMR exposure. However, decreased DNA content around the normal level was observed after one month of stopping the exposure. Light microscopic examination of irradiated rats revealed edema, vacuolation, necrosis and proliferated glial cells. Stopping EMR exposure showed mild amelioration in the structural damage of the cerebral cortex of young animals, however, most drastic changes still persisted in the other animals. In conclusion, these data may confirm the neurotoxic risks arising from the extensive use of mobile phones that may alter the brain histology and impair its function
Propolis (bee glue) is a sticky substance that is collected from plants by honeybees. Due to biological and pharmacological activities, it has been extensively used in folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition, the antimicrobial activity and possible protective effects of ethanolic extract of propolis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced biological damages in rats. The studied rats were allotted to four equal groups (6 rats each) : Group 1 served as control and was given the vehicle (Tween 80 dissolved in distilled water, 1:100 ) orally for 21 consecutive days after which they were sacrificed , group 2 treated orally with ethanolic extract of popolis (100?g/rat) for 21 successive days, group 3 ( CCl4 - treated group) administered orally with a single dose (0.5 ml/kg body weight) of carbon tetrachloride (mixed with an equal volume of olive oil) and group 4 (protected group) was treated with propolis extract (100?g/rat) for 21 successive days, after one hour of the last dose of the treatment, a single dose of CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) was given. Then all animals were sacrificed, 24 hr post experimental design period for each group. Our results revealed that, fourteen compounds were identified by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC- MS analysis). Propolis ethanolic extract inhibited the growth of six from the tested microorganisms including bacteria and fungi at 5 mg/ml against E. coli and B. subtilis and 20 mg/ml against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Penicillium italicum and Candida albicans, while it has no effect on A. fumigatus and Syncephalstrum racemasum. In experimental animals, Leucocytic counts and platelets, in addition, AST, ALT, CK and LDH were significantly increased, meanwhile, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) level was decreased in CCl4 treated rats (group 3) compared to the control (group 1). Protection with ethanolic extract of propolis to rats received CCl4 (group 4) ameliorated the altered levels of studied parameters as compared to control group. In conclusion, these results suggest that propolis has antimicrobial activity and a protective effect on biological damages induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. More researches are required to isolate and purify the active principle involve in biological activity of propolis to used as a curative agent
Histological and Histochemical Studies on the Effects of Methotrexate on the Liver of Adult Male Albino Rat / Estudios Histológico e Histoquímico del Efecto del Metotrexato en el Hígado de Rata Macho Albina Adulta
Mohamed Akram, Al-Motabagani.
Full Text Available El metotrexato es ampliamente usado en la terapia de varias enfermedades malignas. El presente trabajo fue diseñado para investigar los cambios histológicos e histoquímicos del hígado de rata albina, después de administrar dicho fármaco. Se usaron 15 ratas albinas, machos, adultas, que fueron dividi [...] das en 3 grupos: El grupo I no tuvo tratamiento correspondiendo al control. A los grupos II y III se les administró, por vía intraperitoneal, una solución salina normal y metotrexato, respectivamente, con una dosificación de 0,5 mg por Kg de peso, dos veces por semana, con una duración total de 3, 6 y 9 semanas. Las ratas fueron sacrificadas y los hígados extraídos y procesados para los estudios histológico e histoquímico. El examen de los hígados del grupo III mostró infiltración celular mononuclear y un incremento en la cantidad de fibras colágenas en la vía portal. Hubo áreas focales de necrosis de células hepáticas con distorsión de la arquitectura hepática normal. Además, hubo un gradual y progresivo decrecimiento del contenido de glicógeno en los hepatocitos. La actividad de deshidrogenasa succínica y fosfatas alcalinas también disminuyó, pero sí hubo un aumento de la actividad de las fosfatasas ácidas en las áreas degeneradas y pérdida de actividades en áreas de necrosis celular masiva. En conclusión, inyecciones repetidas de metotrexato causan daño hepático de maginitud definida. Esta hepatotoxicidad progresó a medida que las dosis se fueron acumulando. El presente estudio muestra evidencias claras de la potencia citotóxica de este medicamento. Abstract in english Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used in the therapy of various types of malignancy. The present work was designed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes in the liver of albino rat following methotrexate administration. Fifteen adult male albino rats were used in the present work. The [...] y were divided into three main groups: Group I was kept without treatment and served as control. Groups II and III were given intraperitoneal injections of normal saline and MTX, respectively, at a dosage of (0.5 mg/Kg) twice weekly for total durations of 3, 6 and 9 weeks. The rats were sacrificed and the livers were excised and processed for histological and histochemical study. Examination of sections of the livers of group III showed mononuclear cell infiltration and an increase in the amount of collagen fibers in the portal tracts. There were focal areas of liver cell necrosis with distortion of the normal hepatic architecture. Moreover, there was a gradual and progressive decrease of glycogen content in the hepatocytes. Furthermore, succinic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity were also decreased. In addition there was an increase in acid phosphatase activities in the degenerated areas and loss of activities in areas of massive cellular necrosis. It was concluded that repeated injections of MTX causes hepatic damage of a definite magnitude. This hepatotoxicity progressed with increasing cumulative doses of methotrexate. The present study provided further evidence to the cytotoxic potency of this antifolate
Kusal K. Das; Salim A. Dhundasi; Das, Swastika N.; Amrita Das Gupta
We have studied the effect of simultaneous oral treatment of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum) on heavy metal (nickel II and chromium VI) induced changes in serum lipid profile. Nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) level as well as decrease in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Simultaneous garl...
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)
Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud
The present study aimed to clarify the effect of aqueous extracts of five plants (Nigella sativa , Aloe vera, Ferula assafoetida, Boswellia carterii Birdw and Commiphora myrrha) and their mixture on liver and kidney functions and protein profiles. Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into eight groups, the first served as control group, other groups were injected with alloxan(120mg/kg b.wt). The second group served as diabetic rats, the third were treated with a mixture (0.1g/100g b.wt)...
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sub-acute toxicity of paracetamol infusion in albino wistar rats (male and female at different dose levels, ranging from 16 to 66 mg/kg body weight. No mortality was seen in any of the treatment groups during the course of study. Various physiological, hematological as well as biochemical parameters were studied and found not to be changed significantly, indicating that paracetamol infusion is non toxic even at higher dose level in wistar rats. Overall safety and tolerability profile of paracetamol infusion is proved good and does not appear to carry risk of serious adverse effects.
Kuramoto, Takashi; Nakanishi, Satoshi; Ochiai, Masako; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Voigt, Birger; Serikawa, Tadao
Albino and hooded (or piebald) rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H) locus has been mapped to the ?460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the...
Hyperthermia and radiotherapy are used as relatively successful modalities in the treatment of some diseases. This work aims to gain a better understanding about the testicular physiological changes caused by a combined stress of heat and gamma radiation. Rats were divided into four groups : 1.Control, 2.Irradiated at a dose level 6 Gy, 3.Exposed to heat tress for one, 3, 5 and 7 days and group 4 exposed to heat tress as group 3 followed by irradiation directly at the end of heat treatment. Plasma levels of testosterone, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total lipids and total cholesterol, as well as, testicular content of total lipids and total cholesterol were detected. Results showed that irradiation (6 Gy) induced significant decreases (P<0.001) in plasma testosterone level, whereas, it elevated significantly the plasma levels of LDH activity and total cholesterol. The heat stress caused significant declines in plasma testosterone , LDH (after 1, 3 and 5 days) and total lipids, but not testicular content of total lipids. Conversely, it increased the rectal temperature and both, plasma and testicular tissue content of total cholesterol levels. The whole-body gamma irradiation direcrly post heat stress intervals boosted the heat stress effect on all the examined parameters. Hence it could be concluded that exposure to whole-body gamma irradiation in high ambient temperatures diminished the testicular function by decreasing the sexual hormone testosterone although its precursor cholesterol increased in both plasma and testicular tissue. This combined treatment seemed to block the mechanism of testosterone formation in testicular tissue, and in turn, decresed its levels in plasma. Further investigations are needed to study such combined effect of heat stress andirradiation on the testicular potency and the testicular function
D-glucan is a polysaccharide with multi-branching molecules derived from the cell wall of baker's yeast. It was reported to modulated innate immunity via interaction with membrane receptors on macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells and posses potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging capabilities. The aim of the present study was to investigate chemo-protective and radio-protective effect of D-glucan. Rats were orally (gavages) injected with D-glucan at dose of (20 mg/kg body wt) daily for three weeks. Mitomycin c (MMC) was administered three equal doses (1.5 mg/ kg) day after day for one week (2nd week) before radiation exposure at 3 fractionated doses (2 Gy) day after day in the 2nd week. The investigation were carried out on the days 3 and 10 post radiation-exposure and MMC administration for the determination of bone marrow micronucleus (Mn) frequency and DNA fragmentation in blood lymphocytes. The results showed that the exposure of animals to MMC and/ or irradiation led to clearly defined DNA fragmentation. D-glucan administration resulted in a significant improvement in lymphocytes DNA fragmentation and amelioration of Mn frequencies at day 3 and more pronounced at day 10 post irradiation. This study indicates that D-glucan has radio and chemo-protective effects against oxidative stress as a result of Î³-radiation and/ or MMC exposure. So, D-glucan may be used to reduce the genotoxicity effects of different anticancer drugs and to reduce their unwanted side effects.
Administration of fenvalerate (90 mg/kg) to rats resulted in a significant decrease in dopamine (OA) content in most of brain areas under investigation. Its content in pons + medulla oblongata was the most affected recording - 62.98 %, on day 7, compared to control. Furthermore, norepinephrine (NE) content gradually decreased in different brain areas showing its maximal decrease in cerebellum with percentage change -64.89% on day 7. Serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) showed maximal significant decrease, in the cortex with percentage differences -78.33 and -72.61%, respectively. Similarly, fen valerate resulted in a gradual decrease in serum testosterone level recording its maximal effect (-46. 58 %) at the end of the experimental period. On the other hand, administration of Salvia aegyptiaca (2 g/kg) caused a significant increase in monoamine contents (DA, NE, 5-HT and 5- HlAA) in most of the brain areas under investigation, throughout the experimental period. Moreover, Salvia extract administration resulted in a significant elevation in serum testosterone level, one day after administration, recording its maximal effect (55.75%) on day 7. Animals that received the combined treatment (Salvia extract one hour after fen valerate administration) showed that monoamine contents in most of the brain areas were more or less near to the control values. Furthermore, no significant change was noticed in serum testosterone level throughout the experiment in the combined treatment. From the present study, it can be concluded that Salvia aegyptiaca extract seems to be potentially promising for attenuating the disruption that occurred in monoamine and testosterone levels. This could highly recommend Salvia aegyptiaca to be a potential herb for further studies in the future for extracting compounds of medical use
Lokesh K. Verma; Aruna K. Singh; Vaibhav R. Pachade; Koley, K.M.; Vadlamudi, V. P.
The present study was carried out to determine the antipyretic activity of the methanolic extract of Blumea lacera leaves (BLE) on albino rats. Acute toxicity study of BLE was performed by limit test as per OECD guideline. Antipyretic activity was studied by inducing pyrexia with Brewer's yeast. Acute oral LD50 of BLE in female rats was more than 2000 mg/kg. Three ascending doses of 100 (1/20 LD50), 200 (1/10 LD50) and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50) were selected for studying the antipyretic activity o...
Full Text Available The toxicity of monosodium glutamate has been on the increase due to increased patronage of fast foods; with its attendant effects. There have also been attempts to attenuate these effects. Hence, the attenuating role of vitamin C on sperm toxicity induced by monosodium glutamate was accessed on the weight of testes and epididymes, epididymal count, motility, viability, semen pH and sperm head abnormality in albino rat as a model. The male rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. The rats were administered with MSG and vitamin C treatments for 65 days. Vitamin C attenuated the MSG induced toxicity on weight of testes and epididymes, sperm motility, count and sperm head abnormality. Vitamin C can actually attenuate the effect of MSG induced toxicity in rats as a model.
Lokesh K. Verma
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the antipyretic activity of the methanolic extract of Blumea lacera leaves (BLE on albino rats. Acute toxicity study of BLE was performed by limit test as per OECD guideline. Antipyretic activity was studied by inducing pyrexia with Brewer's yeast. Acute oral LD50 of BLE in female rats was more than 2000 mg/kg. Three ascending doses of 100 (1/20 LD50, 200 (1/10 LD50 and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50 were selected for studying the antipyretic activity of BLE in rats. BLE at dose rates of 200 and 400 mg/kg reduced brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats suggesting antipyretic effect of BLE.
Full Text Available Background: Leucas Aspera is used in traditional medicine for many ailments. The present study was designed to evaluate the neuro behavioural effects in Wistar albino rats after oral administration of leaves of Leucas Aspera for 28 days. Methods: Wistar albino rats of either sex were treated with the aqueous suspension of dried powdered leaves of L. aspera. Three different groups of animals received L. aspera suspension in doses of 50 mg/kg/day, 100 mg /kg/day or 200mg/kg/day orally for 28 days. The animals were weighed once in a week and the food and water consumption was monitored every day. Behavioural changes in these animals were monitored every week using Rotarod, Actophotometer and William?s maze. Results: A significant increase in body weight, food and water consumption in rats could be recorded after 3rdand 4th week of treatment with 200mg/kg/day L. aspera. However, there were no changes in any of the behavioural responses in L. aspera treated groups compared to control. Conclusions: The unaltered neuro behavioural responses after L. aspera treatment indicate the safe nature of this medicinal plant. The significant increase in food consumption and body weight changes suggest a potential anabolic/ nutraceutical property of L aspera.. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 433-437
Aruna K. Singh; Lokesh K. Verma; Vaibhav R. Pachade; Koley, K.M.; Vadlamudi, V. P.
Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities along with the phytochemical screening of hot methanolic extract of A. scholaris stem bark (ASE) in albino rats was undertaken. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, phystosterols, phenolic compounds, glycoside and flavonoids. Oral LD50 of ASE by limit test was found to be above 2000 mg/kg. Two dose level of 200 (1/10 LD50) and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50) were selected for studying the...
Emmanuel Ike Ugwuja
Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the biochemical effects of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol in normal albino rats. Methods: Twenty male albino rats weighing 160-180g were assigned into groups A-E of four rats per group. Group A and B rats were given low and high doses of ED, respectively, groups C and D were administered low and high doses of EDmA, respectively while group E rats were given distilled water and served as control. The treatment lasted for 30 days after which the animals were killed and their blood collected for laboratory analyses using standard methods. Results: There were no significant differences in body weight, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration with either administration of ED or EDmA in comparison to the control. Energy drink alone or EDmA has significant effects on total white blood cell count, plasma potassium, calcium, renal functions, liver enzymes and plasma triglycerides, with EDmA having more effects than ED alone, except for body weight where the energy drink alone has higher effect. Conclusion: Consumption of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol is associated with significant alterations in some biochemical parameters. Caution should be exercised while consuming either of them. Public health education is urgently needed to correct the wrong impression already formed by the unsuspecting consumers, especially the youths.
Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar
The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572
Eman G.E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud ** Essam E. El-Badawy
The present study aimed to clarify the antidiabetic activity of Commiphora myrrha (CM) aqueous extract on thirty adult male albino rats, which were divided into two groups; the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg/Kg body weight) and divided into two subgroups the first served as diabetic group, the second treated with (CM) water extract (0.05mg/100 gm bwt). After 30 days of the treatment half of each group was sacrificed and the other half was left for...
Z. Kechrid, F. Dahdouh, R. M. Djabar, N. Bouzerna
The contamination of water by metal compounds is a worldwide environmental problem. Concentration of metals is widely related to biochemical values, which are used in diseases diagnosis due to environmental toxicity. The sub-chronic combined effects of nickel and cobalt on body weight gain and biochemical parameters were determined and compared with those of Ni (2+) or Co (2+) alone in 6 weeks male albino (Wistar) rats. Animals were given drinking solutions of NiSO4 6H2O [Ni (II) cation, LD50...
Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia
Full Text Available Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day and 7-day oral Dihydroartemisinin (DHA treatments with 5 dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin on the blood and six vital organs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The dosages of DHA tested on 5 test adult Wistar albino rats (weight = 106-140 grams were 1, 2, 60 or 80 mg Kg-1 rat weight of DHA by oral intubation for 5 or 7 days. Four rats of similar weight which served as controls in each experiment were given distilled water equivalents of the administered doses of DHA. Another group of 5 test rats and four control rats (weight 75-90 gms were given 1 mg kg-1 rat weight of DHA or distilled water for 5 or 7 days and were allowed to rest for one week after which the treatment was repeated. Results: The findings of the study showed that Dihydroartemisinin (DHA had erythropoietin-like properties. In the study DHA produced dose, repetition and time dependent statistically significant increases in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: This result suggested that the administered DHA inhibited its own stimulated statistically significant increases in the PCV and the WBC of the treated rats through an inhibitory (negative feed-back effect. The structure and composition of the blood cell types like the presence of large numbers of reticlocytes and left-shifted neutrophils in the blood samples of 5-day DHA -treated rats but not in those of 7-day DHA treated rats indicated that new haemopoiesis was actively going on in the first 5 days of DHA treatment but had slowed down by the sixth and seventh day of treatment. The initial stimulation of haemopoiesis and later inhibition of haemopoesis by a negative feed-back effect on haemopoiesis suggest that DHA has erythropoietin-like properties.
Ashok Iyyaswamy; Sheeladevi Rathinasamy
This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.
Zuhair Y. Al. Sahhaf
Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the hematological and biochemical effects of the organophosphate insecticide, sumithion, in albino rats. Animals were treated with sumathion at a dose level of 60 mg kg-1 body weight (1/4 LD50 daily for 12 days. It was found that erythrocytes (RBCs count, haemoglobin contents, Mean Corpuscle Volume (MCV and Mean Corpuscle Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC were almost similar in control and treated animals. On the other hand, the results showed that the haemotocrite value, number of leucocytes (WBCs as well as the lymphocytes percentage were significantly increased in treated animals The platelets were significantly decreased. The results also showed that serum total protein was decreased while triglycerides showed insignificant increase in comparison with control. Cholesterol and creatinine significantly increased after 12 days of treatment. Histological examination of kidney of treated rats revealed impairment of the renal tissues.
Full Text Available Accumulative reports documented that oxidative stress is implicated in many human and animal diseases. However, the reports concerning the effect of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome are limited and scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome and to assess the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and E on oxidative stress parameters in blood and placental tissue samples in experimental pregnant animals model exposed to oxidative stress. Wister Albino rats were used in this work to investigate the effects of oxidative stress exposure (addition of H2O2 to the drinking water on pregnancy outcome. Rats were divided into 5 groups, as follows: Group I (included 7 normal pregnant rats which served as control group. Group II (exposed to 1 % H2O2 included 7 pregnant rats, the rats were allowed to become pregnant and received (1% H2O2 in drinking water from day 7th till the day 19th of pregnancy. Group III (exposed to 3% H2O2 included 8 pregnant rats. Same as group 2, but the rats were exposed to a higher concentration of H2O2 (3% in drinking water. Group IV (included 8 pregnant rats. Pregnant rats received vitamins C and E without induction of oxidative stress. Group V (included 8 pregnant rats.induction of oxidative stress by 1% H2O2 with vitamins supplementation in the pregnant rats. Serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC, serum and placental tissue oxidative stress biomarker; 8-iso prostaglandin F2? (8-Isoprostane were measured using specific ELISA kits. Also placental tissues of pregnant rats were isolated and put directly in 10% formalin prepared for histopathological examination. Results revealed a significant decrease in the median values of the body weight and total serum antioxidants capacity (TAC in groups II and III of rats compared with the control group. A significant higher median value of TAC obtained in the groups IV and V when compared with the control group. Significant higher levels of serum and tissue Isoprostane observed in both groups II and III compared with control group. Histopathological, oxidative stress induced macroscopically degenerative with microscopical appearance of vasculitis and hemorrhage within decidua. Data of the present study demonstrated that imbalance oxidative stress status in pregnant rats occurred due to exposure to oxidant, which played an important role in the pathogenesis of abnormal pregnancy outcome. In addition antioxidants supplementation (vitamins E and C were valuable in reducing this stress.
A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with...
In recent years, more attention has been paid for searching of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in either medicinal practice or as food raw materials. The aim of the present research is to assess the effect of several well-known products used as antioxidants, on body weight, haemopoesis, endocrine system and lipid profile in normal albino rats. Thirty male adult albino rats were equally arranged into 5 groups, the first group was served as control and the others received special treatments where taurine (2% in drinking water), tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w. orally), hawthorn extract (50 mg/100 g b.w. orally) and coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg b.w. orally) were given for two months. Body weight was regularly recorded twice a week and at the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) content, reticulocytic count, white blood cell count (WBCs) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were estimated in blood, while, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), Testosterone, and corticosterone hormones besides lipid profile were estimated in the serum. The results denoted that although there is a slight improvement in the parameters tested, it does not deserve the coast of the regular use of these antioxidants and further investigations still needed
Parashuram B Teli, Priti B Chougule Jaywant T Jadhav and Aruna A Kanase
Full Text Available In Ayurveda, many drugs are mentioned to treat liver and kidney diseases. Abhrak bhasma is commonly used Ayurvedic medicine against many diseases including hepatitis. This study was planned to investigate the curative effect of abhrak bhasma in liver and kidney functions in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ kg body wt were given in curative experimental schedule in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 increased serum Aspartate Transaminase (AST, Alanine Transaminase (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP activities reflected intoxication that produced cellular degeneration or destruction. With increasing doses of abhrak bhasma given to CCl4 treated rats in 7 days hepatocure schedule normalized the elevated activities of AST, ALT and ALP. Similarly CCl4 mediated increased contents of conjugated, unconjugated and total bilirubin level was reduced with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent bilirubin clearance efficiency. Abhrak bhasma also mediated urea and creatinine clearance indicating renal curative potency. It was found that abhrak bhasma has more curative effects than SiO2 doses. The present findings concluded that abhrak bhasma possess dose dependent curative effects against CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidneys functions in albino rat.
Eman G.E. Helal * Samir A.M. Zaahkouk
Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll) and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow), food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect m...
Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Prajapati, P. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.
The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:22131741
Possible role of desferrioxamine (Dfx) against histopathological damages induced by ?-rays is evaluated.Male albino rats were divided into 4 groups. 1st group control animals, 2nd group: animals were exposed to whole body ?-irradiation (6 Gy), 3rd group: animals received intra peritoneal (I.P.) injections of Dfx for one week (250 mg/kg body wt) and 4th group: animals received Dfx one week before irradiation. The animals were investigated after 1, 7 and 21 days from irradiation.The results obtained revealed that exposure to ionizing-radiation caused histopathological disorders in liver tissues manifested as degeneration and vaculation of hepatocytes, pyknosis of nuclei, hepatocytes and congestion and dilation of blood sinusoids after 1, 7 and 21 days of irradiation.On the other hand, Dfx protected rats showed reduction in the histopathological changes produced by ?-irradiation.Thus, it could be concluded that Dfx might provide protection against radiation that induced histopathological damage in liver.
Aruna K. Singh
Full Text Available Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities along with the phytochemical screening of hot methanolic extract of A. scholaris stem bark (ASE in albino rats was undertaken. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, phystosterols, phenolic compounds, glycoside and flavonoids. Oral LD50 of ASE by limit test was found to be above 2000 mg/kg. Two dose level of 200 (1/10 LD50 and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50 were selected for studying the anti -inflammatory activity of ASE using the carrageenan - induced acute paw oedema model in rats. The extract showed significant (p < 0.01 dose dependent reduction in rat paw oedema. The percentages of inhibition of oedema were 42.55 and 53.19 with 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. doses of ASE, respectively, as compared to control. The anti-inflammatory action of ASE can be attributed to its flavonoid contents, which are known to act through inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis.
It has been demonstrated in experimental animal models that oxidative stress causes persistent and chronic hyperglycaemia, causing reduction in antioxidant defence system, ultimately leading to accumulation of free radicals.This study was performed to observe the effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats. Methods: Forty healthy adult male albino rats were included in the study and divided equally into 4 groups for 6 weeks. Group-A was taken as control. Group-B received streptozotocin I/P in a dose of 37 mg/kg body weight. Group-C received 10 mg/100 ml melatonin in drinking water and Group-D received only melatonin. Results: Streptozotocin significantly increased serum glucose and decreased weight in group B animals, whereas in group C, melatonin significantly restored serum glucose but could not restore the body weights reduced by streptozotocin. There was a significant reduction in body weight in melatonin treated group D animals. Conclusion: Melatonin decreases oxidative stress and hyperglycemia, but cannot restore the body weight reduced by streptozotocin. In fact, it further reduces body weight both in diabetic and normal state. (author)
Genotoxicity and DNA damage endpoints are used to evaluate results in the context of cell survival. Genotoxicity in mammalian cells is monitored mostly by using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The score of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used as a biomarker and also as a bio-dosimeter of radiation exposure. In the present study the effect of natural radiation on albino rats has been investigated, to find out if there is any increase in MN frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Animals at the age of 2-3 weeks were exposed to natural radiation, at the dose of 10.38 ?Gyh-1 for a period of 6 months. A parallel control set was also maintained (0.12 ?Gy h-1'). Blood samples were collected from both test (exposed to natural radiation) and control rats. Lymphocyte culture was done following 'microculture techniques' for 72 h. Cytochalasin B, at a concentration of 6.0 ?g/ml, was added to the lymphocyte cultures at 44 h to block cytokinesis. The frequency of MN was evaluated by scoring a total of 1000 binucleated (BN) cells from one slide. The frequency of MN among the rats exposed to natural radiation was found to be 1.83±0.05 per 1000 BN cells and in the control it was 1.82±0.07 per 1000 BN cells. No statistically significant difference in the MN frequencies of exposed and control groups (p>0.05) was seen. The lower MN frequency in natural radiation exposed rats could be an indication of adaptive response. (author)
Naikwade Nilofar S
Full Text Available Numerous medicinal plants and their formulations are used for various disorders in ethno medical practices as well in the traditional system of medicine in India. The Vrukkadoshantake vati (VV and Nephrovin (NEP are ayurvedic polyherbal formulations and are used in alternative system of medicine for treatment of urinary disorder. No data is available for its efficacious use in urinary disorders. The Lipschits method was used for collection of supportive data for diuretic action of the Vrukkadoshantake vati and Nephrovin. Wistar albino rats were fasted for 18 h prior to experiment and aqueous suspensions of the formulations were administered at the graded doses of 200, & 400mg/kg body weight. After the treatment, urine was collected for 24h and diuretic activity was assessed by evaluation of the total volume of urine, Na+, K+, Cl- concentration and also the Diuretic index, Nariuretic effect, & saluretic effect were calculated. The total urine volume of the rats treated with the aqueous suspensions of the formulations (400 mg/kg were found to be nearly two fold (p<0.05 when compared with the control (saline treated group. Excretion of cations (sodium and potassium ions and anions (chloride ions was also found to be increased significantly (p<0.01 with respect to the control group. The diuretic effect was comparable with that of the standard drug Furosemide.
Nutritional Habits have changed significantly and junk foods have become widely popular, in recent years. The present study aimed to shed the light on the effect of potato chips and / or ketchup consumption on some biochemical parameters. Sixty four male and female albino rats were used in the study. Animals were maintained on 0.25 g potato chips/ rat and / or 0.125 g ketchup / rat, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Potato chips showed the lowest body wt gain in the male rats after 4 weeks but, ketchup modulated this negative effect of the potato chips in the group of male animals fed on potato chips plus ketchup. Potato chips significantly decreased brain serotonin, liver glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in both sexes; brain dopamine, serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, Î±2- and Î²1-globulins in the females and serum thyroxine (T4) in the male rats. Ketchup apparently affected serum T4 and A / G ratio in both sexes, brain dopamine and liver GSH in the males in addition to brain serotonin, serum total globulins and ?1-globulin in the female rats. Potato chips plus ketchup significantly changed T4, dopamine, GSH, CAT, Î±1 and Î±2-globulins in both sexes; serotonin and Î²1-globulin in the male rats, total proteins and albumin in the females. It could be concluded that potato chips consumption might induce numerous adverse effects in various body organs
The plasma levels of T3, T4 and TSH were determined following daily administrations of 1/10 LD50 of metacide (organophoshosphorus) or methavine (carbamate or metoxuron (herbicide) pesticides in male albino rats for 45 days. At the end of the experiment, significant increase of body weights were observed in rats treated with metacide or metoxuron while methavine led to significant decreased TSH secretion. Metoxuron caused significant decrease in both T3 and T4 levels in plasma and metacide increased T3 and increased T4 levels in plasma of male rats
Sarma, H N; Mahanta, H C
In the present investigation, we attempted to study the modulation of morphological changes of endometrial surface epithelium by Scanning Electron Microscope (SCEM) in the adult albino rat after oral administration of roots extract. The origin of this experiment lies in the fact that the dry powdered roots of five plants, i.e., Plumbago rosea, Borassus flabellifer, Carica papaya (male), Dolichos lablab, and Shorea robusta in mixed form, has been traditionally used by the folk women of this region through oral route during the first seven days of a menstrual cycle to prevent conception. Ethanolic crude extract of these roots in composite form which has been referred to here as composite root extract (CRE) was administered to the adult female albino rat in a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight/day through oral route continuously for 12 days starting from proestrous. The observations under SCEM showed that administration of the CRE induced morphological changes of the endometrial surface epithelium in albino rat uterus. The characteristic smooth regular pattern of normal epithelium appears to have been changed at places by haphazardly oriented groups of cells and loss of microvilli indicating a disorganized picture. This structural disparity has been thought to affect the smooth functioning of nidatory preparation in the endometrium. PMID:11024229
Quercetin, a bioflavonoid, is frequently found in consumed foods including apples, berries, onion, tea and vegetables. Quercetin has many beneficial effects on human health including cardiovascular protection, anti-cancer activity, cataract prevention, anti-viral activity and anti inflammatory effects. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the radio-protective properties of quercetin in gamma irradiated rat and the toxic effect of administration of 1,4-dioxane as well as the efficacy of quercetin as one of the most important antioxidant flavonoid in diet. At the 3rd and 10th days after the last dose of dioxane injection (one month) and radiation exposure (6 Gy, fractionated), the biochemical analysis in the serum showed significant elevation in lipid peroxide content (MDA), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) accompanied by significant depletion in glutathione (GSH). Also, the results showed significant increase in the level of DNA fragmentation in liver tissues of rats. Supplementation of quercetin to rats before and during exposure to gamma radiation and/or administration of 1,4-dioxane induced significant amelioration in the levels of all studied parameters. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that quercetin might provide a protection against oxidative stress and metabolic disorders induced by gamma irradiation and 1,4-dioxane.
Kolawole Victor Olorunshola
Full Text Available Chlorpirifos (CPF is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for both agricultural and domestic purposes with attendant human exposures. Many authors have documented the toxic effects of CPF on the central nervous system. This study was designed to study the effect of CPF and the influence of coadministration of ascorbic acid (AA on the testicular functions of albino rats. Twenty five 2 months old male albino wistar rats were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each (Group A-E. A (control received vegetable oil, B received 16.3 mg/kg CPF, C received 32.6 mg/kg CPF, D received 16.3 mg/kg CPF + AA 100 mg/kg and E received 32.6 mg/kg CPF + AA 100 mg/kg. Treatment was orally for a duration of 21 days. Thereafter, body weight, serum testosterone, testicular, epididymal and seminal vesicle weight, epididymal sperm concentration, sperm motility and histopathology of the testis, epidydimis and seminal vesicles were determined using standard methods. CPF caused a statistically significant change (p<0.05 in body weight, testicular weight, epididymal weight, sperm concentration, sperm motility and serum testosterone concentration. Seminal vesicle weight was not affected. Histopathological studies revealed reduced sperm reserve, fibrosis and fatty infiltration in the epididymis, seminiferous tubules and seminal vesicles respectively. Co-administration of AA significantly caused improvement in all the parameters measured. It is concluded that CPF caused testicular toxicity by possible oxidative stress which was reversed with co-administration of AA.
Full Text Available The effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata on the level of cretatine kinase was investigated using albino rats. The extract with ethanol yielded 7.80%. The albino rats were treated with doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight of the extract for seven days. Results showed that there was a slight decrease in physical activities and body weight of all the animals treated with the ethanolic extract compared to the control. There was a significant (P > 0.05 increase in serum creatine kinase activity in albino rats treated with the ethanolic extract than the control. Within the groups treated with the ethanolic extract, Group A (400mg/kg body weight was significantly (P > 0.05 higher than Group B (200mg/kg body weight. This increase value of creatine kinase activity could encourage the supply of energy needed for muscular contraction.
Eman G.E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud ** Essam E. El-Badawy
Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the antidiabetic activity of Commiphora myrrha (CM aqueous extract on thirty adult male albino rats, which were divided into two groups; the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg/Kg body weight and divided into two subgroups the first served as diabetic group, the second treated with (CM water extract (0.05mg/100 gm bwt. After 30 days of the treatment half of each group was sacrificed and the other half was left for other 15 days without any additional treatment (recovery period. Our results revealed highly significant decrease (p< 0.01 in blood glucose level and highly significant increase in body weight of the diabetic rats with different histological changes in cells of islets of Langerhans. These histological and physiological changes were ameliorated in rats treated with CM. Water extract of CM has a definite hypoglycemic, hyperinsulinimic effect, on the other hand, a significant increase in body weight, cell number and liver glycogen contents were achieved. The results of the present study clarify the role of CM as an active antidiabetic plant and suggest a relationship between drenching CM extract and insulin production. Other of investigations want be done to detect effects of different doses and time intervals of CM in diabetic animals.
The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential dietary supplement to minimize the side effects of radiotherapy
Full Text Available A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with seaweed diet evidenced theiractive participation on the metabolism of the experimental subject. These findings w ere well correlated w ithhistological observation in the liver and intestine shows the hepatocyte appearance and deposited fat and fociat necrosis is also seen in photomicrographs.
The effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata on the level of cretatine kinase was investigated using albino rats. The extract with ethanol yielded 7.80%. The albino rats were treated with doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight of the extract for seven days. Results showed that there was a slight decrease in physical activities and body weight of all the animals treated with the ethanolic extract compared to the control. There was a significant (P > 0.05) increase i...
Somaia Z.A. Rashed
The effect of low-energy diet (Low protein or low fat-diet) was studied using male albino rats. The experiment was expended to 45 days (30 days treatment and 15 days recovery period). Body weight gain or loss as well as blood samples for blood picture (R.B.CS. W.B.CS count, Hb. concentration, Hct value and erythrocyte indices such as MCV, MCH and MCHC) well recorded Biochemical examination for glucose concentration, total protein, albumin, globulin and A/g ratio. Triglyceride level, total cho...
Semee Mumtaz; Salim-ur- Rehman; Nuzhat Huma; Amer Jamil
The effect of Xylooligosaccharide (XO) enriched yogurt in addition to basal diet on serum biochemical profile of albino rats assigned to 5 dietary treatments for a period of 21 days were studied. In all groups of rats (n = 5) serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were observed. The weight gain in rats receiving yogurt was higher than those in control group. XO enriched yogurt showed significant improvement in minerals absorption. There was no significant change in serum cholesterol lev...
Weijs, W A; Dantuma, R
The masticatory apparatus in the albino rat was studied by means of electromyography and subsequent estimation of muscular forces. The activity patterns of the trigeminal and suprahyoid musculature and the mandibular movements were recorded simultaneously during feeding. The relative forces of the individual muscles in the different stages of chewing cycles and biting were estimated on the basis of their physiological cross sections and their activity levels, as measured from integrated electromyograms. Workinglines and moment arms of these muscles were determined for different jaw positions. In the anteriorly directed masticatory grinding stroke the resultants of the muscle forces at each side are identical; they direct anteriorly, dorsally and slightly lingually and pass along the lateral side of the second molar. Almost the entire muscular resultant force is transmitted to the molars while the temporo-mandibular joint remains unloaded. A small transverse force, produced by the tense symphyseal cruciate ligaments balances the couple of muscle resultant and molar reaction force in the transverse plane. After each grinding stroke the mandible is repositioned for the next stroke by the overlapping actions of three muscle groups: the pterygoids and suprahyoids produce depression and forward shift, the suprahyoids and temporal backward shift and elevation of the mandible while the subsequent co-operation of the temporal and masseter causes final closure of the mouth and starting of the forward grinding movement. All muscles act in a bilaterally symmetrical fashion. The pterygoids contract more strongly, the masseter more weakly during biting than during chewing. The wide gape shifts the resultant of the muscle forces more vertically and moreposteriorly. The joint then becomes strongly loaded because the reaction forces are applied far anteriorly on the incisors. The charateristic angle between the almost horizontal biting force and the surface of the food pellet indicates that the lower incisors produce a chisel-like action. Tooth structure reflects chewing and biting forces. The transverse molar lamellae lie about parallel to the chewing forces whereas perpendicular loading of the occlusal surfaces is achieved by their inclination in the transverse plane. The incisors are loaded approximately parallel to their longitudinal axis, placement that avoids bending forces during biting. It is suggested that a predominantly protrusive musculature favors the effective force transmission to the lower incisors, required for gnawing. By grinding food across transversely oriented molar ridges the protrusive components of the muscles would be utilized best. From the relative weights of the masticatory muscles in their topographical relations with joints, molars and incisors it may be concluded that the masticatory apparatus is a construction adapted to optimal transmission of force from muscles to teeth. PMID:1171253
The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress
I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet surviveÂ®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.
M. NAGA PRASANNA
Full Text Available Six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F of male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus albinus were orally administered withvaried doses (0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg bw/mouse of imidacloprid; they showed significant decreasein protein, DNA and RNA content in the kidneys of all the treated groups of mice throughout the experimentalperiod (on day 1, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 30 of treatment when compared with controls. It is clear from the results thatthe insecticide caused marked disturbance in the metabolism of protein, DNA and RNA.
Z. Kechrid, F. Dahdouh, R. M. Djabar, N. Bouzerna
Full Text Available The contamination of water by metal compounds is a worldwide environmental problem. Concentration of metals is widely related to biochemical values, which are used in diseases diagnosis due to environmental toxicity. The sub-chronic combined effects of nickel and cobalt on body weight gain and biochemical parameters were determined and compared with those of Ni (2+ or Co (2+ alone in 6 weeks male albino (Wistar rats. Animals were given drinking solutions of NiSO4 6H2O [Ni (II cation, LD50/2] or CoSO4 6H2O [Co (II cation, LD50/2]. For the combined treatment (Ni + Co, the rats received both Ni (II cation (LD 50/2 and CO (II cation (LD50/2. Nickel and cobalt treatment decreased body weight gain. The nickel sulphate increased also the glucose level. The two heavy elements produced hepatic and renal damage, characterized by increased activity of alanine and aspartate transaminases (GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase. However lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH was decreased. In addition, serum urea, serum creatinine, serum total protein and serum bilurebin concentrations were significantly elevated. In general the combined effect of Ni-Co was slightly less toxic than nickel or cobalt alone, suggesting antagonism between these toxicants.
Full Text Available Increase in population has affected many socio-economic conditions of people by increasing crimes, illiteracy, destructive activities, diseases, improper food and shelter. Thus to control this population and limit the family size at a personal level and at a national level, modern contraceptive methods and medicines were introduced long back. There are many new contraceptives available now, but they have various side effects. Some traditional practitioners used to dispense oral contraceptives mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Such as 1 Pippali (Piper longum, Vidanga (Emblica ribes and Tankana (Sodii Biboras. 2 Talisapatra (Taxus baccata and Gairika (Hematite with cold water and 3 Kanji bhavita Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis. An experimental study on above mentioned 1 and 2 formulations has proved its efficacy as temporary contraceptive medicine. To evaluate the permanent or long term temporary contraceptive effect of Japakusuma, an attempt was made in this study. Study was conducted by Choudary and Khanna method on 18 female, 36 male (for mating albino rats. Japakusuma, Propylene glycol, Ovral L formed the materials. Single dose was administered on proestrous stage of rat oestrous cycle and observed for anti-implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Test drug showed significant anti implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Thus showing the temporary contraceptive activity of Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis.
A M Prasad
Full Text Available Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001 reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia.
Inas S. Ghaly; Azza A.M. Abd Elfatah; Safaa M. Hanafy
The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and ...
Beta-carotene is a group of plant compounds called carotenoids. It is a precursor for vitamin A and an important antioxidant. This study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of ?-carotene against gamma radiation induced disorders in the testis of male albino rats, it included 4 groups: control group, treated group; animals of this group received a daily oral dose of ?-carotene (30 mg/kg body wt) for 1 week, irradiated group; animals of this group were subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy, and treated-irradiated group; animals received a daily oral dose of ?-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) for 1 week before exposure to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy. 6 animals of each group were autopsied at 1, 3 and 5 days after ?-carotene treatment and/ or irradiation. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase in testis homogenate. In irradiated animals there was a highly significant decrease in testis alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity. On the other hand, significant increase in acid phosphatase activity was observed. Treatment with ?-carotene before irradiation causes significant increase in alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity and significant decrease in acid phosphatase activity compared to the irradiated group. The results of the present study indicated that ?-carotene ameliorated oxidative stress and the loss of cellular antioxidants and suggest that ?-carotene may reduce the radiation damage in testis of male albino rats
Pandya, Preeti N.; Aghera, Hetal B.; Ashok, B.K.; Acharya, Rabinarayan
Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration ...
Eman G.E. Helal , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab and Ghada A. Zedan
Background: Curcuma longa has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agent. The present investigation aimed at examining the possible potential protective effect of curcuma against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three ...
Ibrahim H Jasim
Objective This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Lactobacillus acidophilus to reduce zearalenone toxicity in vital systems of albino white rats. Methods Fusarium graminearum isolate was tested to produce zearalenone toxin. L. acidophilus was used to reduce the toxin in rats. This ability was studied by many parameters such as biochemical and physiological parameters in addition to histological study. Results The results showed that L. acidophilus had the ability to reduce ...
The present study was designed to explore the radioprotective potential of lycopene in gamma irradiated male rats. Four groups, each of sixteen rats, were assigned as follows: the first was untreated (control group), the second fed on chow diet mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg diet (lycopene group), the third exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated group) and the fourth fed on chow mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg and exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated and treated group). Animals exposed to ionizing radiation experienced decline in their body weights, increased ALT and AST enzymes and decreased serum albumin level. The study also showed decline in hemoglobin, total white blood cells count and blood platelets count. Bone marrow examination revealed profound hypoplasis and reduction of the cellular elements. Histological examination of liver, spleen, testis and intestine showed disruption of normal architecture of these organs. Irradiated and treated animals maintained a more or less steady body weight, and improved serum ALT, AST and albumin in comparison with those irradiated. The results also showed increased hemoglobin, total white blood cells, platelets count and partial improvement of bone marrow cellularity. Lycopene was also capable of partial preservation of normal architecture of liver, spleen, intestine and testis in gamma irradiated group.In conclusion, lycopene seems to be a useful radioprotector probably because of its potent antioxidant property
Pradhan Manas Ranjan
Full Text Available To study the antifertility effect of methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn (PBL in female albino rats.Three months young female albino rats were administered with graded doses of methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn for 30 consecutive days and the effect of the extract on the estrus cycle was assessed by observing the changes produced in the vaginal smear, over the 30 days observation period, in comparison to the control. The rats treated with PBL showed highly significant (p<0.05, dose-dependent decrease in the numbers of estrus phase, in comparison to control rats. Large, cornified cells appeared after proestrus phase and number of cornified cells per field decreased. There was no significant change in the number of proestrus, Metestrus or diestrus phases of the estrus cycle, in the PBL treated group in comparison to control. Anestrus phase appeared in all the rats treated with PBL extract, which was not observed in the control group. The methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn possesses antifertility activity in female albino rats.
Full Text Available Objective : The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 g. The effect of O. sanctum and C. sinensis was evaluated for anxiety and depression using elevated plus maze (EPM test, open field test (OFT, forced swim test (FST, and tail suspension test (TST. Result : Restraint stress (3 h/day for six consecutive days induced a significant reduction in both the percentage number of entries and time spent in open arms in EPM, and these changes were reversed with post-treatment of aqueous extract of O. sanctum and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg for 6 days. Restraint stress-induced (a increased latency and (b decreased ambulation and rearing were also reversed by O. sanctum and C. sinensis in OFT. A significant increase in immobility period was observed in FST and TST after restraint stress. O. sanctum and C. sinensis significantly reduced the immobility times of rats in FST and TST. Conclusion : O. sanctum and C. sinensis possess anxiolytic and antidepressant activities.
Eman G.E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab*, Atef M. moussa** and Anwaar A. Mohammad
Full Text Available Back ground: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major health problem worldwide in recent time. Asia and Africa are the most viable areas where the disease is feared to raise 2–3 folds. Many herbal products have been recommended for the treatment of DM in ancient literature of Ayurveda in India and other worldwide.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Catharanthus rosea (C.roseus on diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic C.roseus treated groups. After thirty days of treatment all rats of each group were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid and protein profiles, liver and kidney functions, blood picture and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. Pancreatic samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with heamatoxylin and eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the islets of Langerhans.Results: The obtained results showed that the diabetic rats were diagnosed by laboratory assessment to body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia, significant increase in liver and kidney functions, lipid and protein profiles and decreased liver glycogen content. While, C.roseus treatment led to a significant improvement in these parameters except liver function. Microscopically there was definite vaculation, degeneration, karyolysis and pyknosis of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of C.roseus treatment of this study greatly improves such cellular changes.Conclusion: It was recommended that the use of the water extract of C. roseus levies as a hypoglycemic agent may offer a new hope to the diabetics in future. It's well recommended to use variable doses and different periods of treatment to evaluate the best dose and period
Full Text Available Sildenafil citrate (Viagra is the pharmacological agent used to treat erectile dysfunction in men, a common problem that in the United State affects between 10 and 30 million men. Because this drug has a vasodilatory effect. Sildenafil citrate and ethanol consumption are used in societies world wide and have been identified as injurious to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Sildenafil citrate and Ethanol consumption on lipid and lipoprotein levels in testis tissue and serum of Albino rats. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each and maximum treated for 45 days as follows, control rats were administered with normal saline orally. Sildenafil citrate (1 ?g gm-1 and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 body weight was given orally at a single doses (short-term after 1, 2½, 4 and 24 h were sacrificed and 15, 30 and 45 days daily continuous doses (long-term of drug and ethanol with a single dosage were given and to be sacrificed after 4 h of the last dosage. Further, the average total body weight gain was significantly higher in 30 days treatment, but 45 days no significant change in the body weight of the rats were observed due to the productive role of Sildenafil citrate and ethanol. This combination was found to be increased serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL levels, whereas the levels of serum HDL was found to be decreased as compared with the control rats. Simultaneously tissue cholesterol and triglycerides significantly (p<0.05 inhibited were found to be the rise in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. Whereas, It is suggested that prolonged exposure to Sildenafil citrate and ethanol administration to rat is found to be increased in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations significantly in an animals.
Tolstoj, V A; Lytvynets, A; Langrova, I
Trichinellosis treated with Mebendazole often leads to complications in the course of the disease in humans and animals as a result of intoxication and hyper-sensitization of an organism due to the massive destruction of parasites. This study was conducted to research Mebendazole incidence on lipid peroxidation processes (LPP) in rats' blood in Trichinella spiralis-infected and parasite-free albino rats. The research was conducted to evaluate erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonic dialdehyde (MDA) concentration in blood serum. The parameters of the SOD-MDA system in infected albino rats, which were treated or untreated with Mebendazole were analyzed. It was concluded that Mebendazole amplifies the LPP in the blood of both infected and parasite-free animals: in a dose of 150 mg/kg anthelmintic causes disturbances of biochemical homeostasis in the SOD-MDA system, thus working as a pro-oxidant. PMID:17186274
Carbini, L; Dazzi, E; Padalino, A; Scarpa, A L
Albino male rats of Wistar strain, weighing about 350 g., were administered orally a single dose of 2,50 mu C of retinol-C14 after a fast of 24 h. At intervals of 3 h and of 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 days rats were killed; livers, kidneys, blood, white fat tissue and brown fat tissue were removed. Samples were dried and radioactivity was measured. From the results, expressed in mu C/g of dry tissue, it is clear that vitamin A is taken up by all tissues. After 3 days it decreases in all tissues, between the 3rd and 18th day, its rate is constant and the depletion is complete within 24 days. PMID:1037632
Alteraciones en las características morfométricas del riñón de ratas albinas machos provocadas por la ingestión crónica de etanol desde la adolescencia Alterations in the morphometric features of kidney of male albino rats provoked by chronic ingestion of ethanol from the adolescence
Aleida Herrera Batista
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se pretendió determinar las variaciones que sobre las características morfométricas del riñón provoca la ingestión crónica de etanol en ratas adolescentes, para lo cual se utilizaron 42 ratas albinas machos de 30 días de nacidas con las cuales se conformaron dos grupos de 21 animales cada uno y con tiempos de tratamiento de tres y cinco meses y con estos, dos subgrupos: experimental y control. A las ratas experimentales se les suministró etanol a dosis de 5 g/kg de peso corporal mediante cánula intraesofágica. A las controles se les administró agua en lugar de etanol, en iguales condiciones. Se emplearon cortes histológicos coloreados con técnica PAS y se estudiaron las porciones contorneadas de los túbulos proximales y distales. Se calculó el área de sección transversal tubular y se midieron los volúmenes nucleares de las células de ambos túbulos. Se comprobó que las ratas experimentales mostraron volúmenes nucleares menores que las controles. El grupo experimental mostró valores de áreas de sección transversal de los túbulos renales mayores que los controles, siendo estos valores superiores en los túbulos proximales en las ratas de cinco meses, y los distales en las ratas de tres meses. Se concluyó que en la muestra estudiada el alcoholismo crónico iniciado en la adolescencia provocó variaciones morfométricas en los túbulos proximales y distales del riñón.Present paper allowed us to determine the variations exerted by the chronic ingestion of ethanol from the adolescence on the kidney morphometric features in 42 male albino rats of 30 days born divided into two groups of 21 animal each and with the treatment times of three and five months and with these 42 animals into two subgroups: one of experimental type and other as control. The experimental rats received ethanol at 5 g/kg doses according to the body weight using an intraesophageal cannula. The control ones received water instead of ethanol in similar conditions. We used histological sections stained with PAS technique to study the outlined portions of the proximal and distal tubules. The tubular transversal section area was estimated measuring the nuclear volumes of cells in both tubules. It was demonstrated that the experimental rats showed higher values of the transversal section of renal tubules higher than the control ones, where these values were superior in proximal tubules in the five months old rats and the distal ones in the three months old. We conclude that in study sample the chronic alcoholism started during adolescence provoked morphometric variations in proximal and distal tubules of kidney.
Abd El-Tawab M. Ismail - Ashraf M.Moustafa
Full Text Available Recently the use of synthetic food coloring additives was increased and the levels of human exposure to such agents are very broad, thus feeding over long periods may continually possess potential hazards to the human health. Also most of the food colors tested in the conventional toxicity experiments showed toxic effects at very high level of intake i.e. 1-5 % in the diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological and histochemical effects of some of these substances (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow on the liver of adult albino rats. The study included three main parts: A. Histological studies on the liver under the effect of (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow substances. Using paraffin sections, which were stained with Hx & Eosin, Masson Trichrome B. Evaluation of histochemical activity of both alkaline phosphates enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes on the renal tissue. C. Statistical evaluation using image analyzer to detect glomerular area, area percentage of collagen fibers distribution and optical density of both alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in glomerulus and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity in renal tubules. Seventy adult male albino rats were used. Nitrate and sunset yellow were given orally through a gastric tube in dose of 1 mg / kg / b.w. daily. The animals were classified into seven groups. 1. Group I (Control group 2. Group II: The animals were given sodium nitrate in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt for one month. 3. Group III: The animals were given sun set yellow in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/day for one month. 4. Group IV: The animals were given sodium nitrate and sunset yellow for one month in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/for each drug in a separate manner. 5. Group V: The animals were given sodium nitrate similar to the previous dose as group II for one month and left 2 weeks without oral intubations. 6. Group VI: The animals were given sun set yellow No 6 in a dose and route of administrations as group III for one month and kept without intubations for 2 weeks. 7. Group VII: The animals were given both sodium nitrate & sunset yellow by the same dose and route of administration as in group IV for one month and kept without intubations for 2 weeks.
Dina Helmy Abdel-Kader and Safinaz Salah Eldin Sayed
Full Text Available Background: Disorders of testicular function may have their origins in fetal or early life as a result of abnormal development. Laminin-1 is emerging as the key molecule in early embryonic basement membrane assembly. Accumulating evidence supported the idea that extracellular matrix (ECM molecules and mesenchymal cells might influence Sertoli and spermatogenic cell functions. Aim of the work: detecting the changes in the distribution and prevalence of laminin-1 assembly during postnatal development of the testis, epididymis and vas deferens in albino rats. Materials and methods: Thirty male albino rats were used and divided into six groups (n= 5 each according to the age (postnatal day. These were one day, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks postnatal. Specimens were fixed and processed, sectioned and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical stain for laminin-1. The area percent of positive laminin immunostaining was measured and results were statistically analyzed. Results: at day one postnatal, the testis was formed of solid un-canalized cords of seminiferous tubules with abundant laminin expression in the cells of the cords. With advancement of development the cords were luminized and the laminin expression declined to involve the basement membrane and the apical portions of the Sertoli cells at the 8th week postnatal. The epididymis at postnatal day one had a small diameter and narrow lumen and laminin expression involved the cytoplasm of the epithelial lining. As development proceeded the expression became confined to the apical portion, the site of stereocilia together with its presence in the basement membranes. The same pattern of changes in laminin expression together with morphological appearance was detected in the vas deferens. Conclusion: The present study was able to demonstrate a change in the distribution as well as the prevalence of laminin-1 immunoreactivity within the testis, epididymis and vas. During the period of postnatal development starting at postnatal day one up to 8 weeks postnatal. This would reflect an essential role for laminin in early postnatal period of development
Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102
Eman G.E. Helal; **Mohamad H.A. Hasan;***Ashraf M. Mustafa
Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract from Aloe vera on thirty adult male albino rats were divided into three groups, the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg / kg B.wt. and served as diabetic group and the third was injected with alloxan and treated with Aloe vera water extract ( 0.5 ml / 100 g B.wt. . After thirty days of treatment half of each group were scarified and the other one were left for 15 days without any additional treatment as a recovery period . The results revealed highly significant decrease ( p> 0.01 in blood glucose, and highly significant increase in both liver glycogen content and serum insulin level in the diabetic group treated with aqueos extract of A. vera when compared with the diabetic untreated group. It seems, therefore that water extract of A. vera results in a definite hypoglycemic, hyperinsulinemic effect. On the other hand, a significant increase of body weight gain and liver glycogen content was achieved. The results of this study clarify the role of Aloe vera active as antidiabetic plant and suggest a relationship between drenching. A. vera extract and insulin production which needs further investigation
GHADA, Z. A. Soliman
Introduction: Cynara scolymus L. (Artichoke) grows in Egypt and other countries. It is used as foods and has medicinal properties. Artichoke extracts have been shown to produce various pharmacological effects, such as the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis and low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Purpose: To study the effect of Cynara scolymus L. and its extract on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic male rats. Study Design: Eighty male albino rats, Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing (204.0±...
Nabi; A. Khouri; Haytham Daradka
We explore through this study blood parameters changes after 7 days treatment with Orchis anatolica (O. anatolica) plant roots ethanol extract in Albino rats. An intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was carried on to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of the extract on blood glucose and insulin titer using Albino rats fasting for 18 hours. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels where determined throughout one hour period prior to a single treatment dose of 400mg/kg/BW O. anatolica ex...
: Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (Rananculacene) or Black cumin seed is widely used in the Indian subcontinent in treatment of gastric ulcer as a traditional medicine. Aim: To investigate gastro-protective activity of aqueous extract of black cumin seeds in aspirin induced ulcer models in albino rats taking ranitidine as positive control. Settings and Design: Albino rats of Wistar strain, (150-200 g) was divided randomly into four groups (n=6) and received the following medications orally ...
Adeleye, G. S.
Full Text Available This Experiment is undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary advanced lipid oxidation end products on colitis healing in albino rats. 45 albino rats (divided into 3 groups - control, low dose and high dose ALE groups of average weight of 200g were used for this study. Colitis was induced in all groups using 6% acetic acid. The low and high doses were fed with 7.5g and 15g ALE respectively for 20 days. The control animals ate normal rat chow. The stools of all animals were scored according to the scale of Masonobu et al (2002 for 20 days. On days 7, 14 and 20 three animals were sacrificed from each group and 8cm of the colon was cut out for weight measurement and gross morphological scoring. The results show that on day 6 colitis scores were 0.63 ± 0.03 (control, 0.80 ± 0.03(low dose, 0.73 +_ 0.03(high dose. On day 20, 0.33 ± 0.03 (control, 0.50 ± 0.03 (low dose, 0.50 ± 0.02 (high dose. ALE reduced colitis healing rate compared to the control. This study concludes that ALE aggravated acetic-acid induced colitis in albino rats.
Ch. Sampath kumar; Rajender.Arutla; D.Swaroopa; K. Sridhar Rao
The wound healing activity of topically applied extract of bark of Ziziphus jujuba was evaluated in albino rat by excision wound model for a period of 24 days. In this study, the rats were divided into four groups, each groups continued healing process with 5 and 10% w/w methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba mg/cm2. Test duration was 24 days, wound diameter measurement using digital image analysis on days 0, 8th, 16th , 21st and 24th with biopsy of two rats from each group were taken. The ...
Sreedevi, C; Ravi Kumar, P; Jyothisree, Ch
A study was carried out on adult albino Wistar laboratory rats to know the incidence of hymenolepiosis, a zoonotic disease which were brought for experiment purpose. Faecal samples of 95 rats examined for parasitic infection by simple floatation technique in which 32 were positive (33.68 %) for hymenolepiosis. Identification of species of Hymenolepis was done based on morphology of egg. The highest prevalence of Hymenolepis diminuta (23.15 %) was recorded followed by Hymenolepis nana (10.52 %). Heavy infection with Hymenolepis in rats draws attention in view of public health importance in contact persons. PMID:26064027
Vohora, S B; Garg, S K; Chaudhury, R R
The effect of 6 indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats was tested by a screening procedure standardized in this laboratory. Pe troleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of each plant were tested for antifertilizing, antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early abortifacient activity. The aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves and alcoholic extract of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. roots showed encouraging results while the extracts of Abroma augusta Linn. roots, Calotropis gigantea Linn. flowers and leaves, Michaelia champaka Linn. unripe fruit, and Plumbago rosea Linn. roots did not show any antiimplantation activity. None of the rats delivered to experimental rats showed evidence of teratogenicity up to the age of 1 month. PMID:5820437
Sankar, Renu; Baskaran, Athmanathan; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan
An impaired wound healing is one of the major health related problem in diabetic and non-diabetic patients around the globe. The pathogenic bacteria play a predominant role in delayed wound healing, owing to interaction in the wound area. In our previous work we developed green chemistry mediated copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract. In the present study we make an attempt to evaluate the anti-bacterial, and wound healing activity of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles in male Wistar Albino rats. The agar well diffusion assay revealed copper oxide nanoparticles have substantial inhibition activity against human pathogenic strains such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, which were responsible for delayed wound healing process. Furthermore, the analyses results of wound closure, histopathology and protein profiling confirmed that the F. religiosa leaf extract tailored copper oxide nanoparticles have enhanced wound healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. PMID:26194977
Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud
Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the effect of aqueous extracts of five plants (Nigella sativa , Aloe vera, Ferula assafoetida, Boswellia carterii Birdw and Commiphora myrrha and their mixture on liver and kidney functions and protein profiles. Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into eight groups, the first served as control group, other groups were injected with alloxan(120mg/kg b.wt. The second group served as diabetic rats, the third were treated with a mixture (0.1g/100g b.wt, the fourth was treated with Nigella sativa (0.1g/100g b.wt, the fifth was treated with Aloe vera (0.05 g/100g b.wt , the sixth was treated with Ferula assafoetida (0.1g/100g b.wt, the seventh was treated with Boswellia carterri Birdw (0.1g/100g b.wt and the eighth group was treated with Commiphora myrrha (0.05 g/100g b.wt . After thirty days of treatment half of each group was decapitated and the other one was left for 15 days without any additional treatment as recovery period to followup their hazards if present. The results revealed highly significant increase (p<0.01 in serum transaminases (aspartate ( AST and alanine (ALT, alkaline phosphates (ALP, total bilirubin, urea and creatinine and recorded highly significant decrease (p<0.01 in serum total protein , albumin and globulin concentrations in the diabetic group when compared with normal rates. Otherwise, all plants extracts treated groups showed insignificant changes in the previous parameters when compared with control one . It seams, therefore that the water extracts of these plants and their mixture have protective effect against the side effects of alloxan on liver and kidney.
Eman G.E. Helal* and Shadia, A. Radwan**
Full Text Available Some of slimming drugs had been withdrawn from markets so, the present study was conducted to follow the effect of three different anorexic drugs; on the haematological and physical parameters of adults albino rats. The used drugs differ in their nature, where the first one i.e., apple-lite is a fully natural substance, the 2nd one i.e., mirapront-N. is a chemical substance and the 3rd one i.e., tenuate is a synthetic foamy filler substance. Fourty adult male albino rats (130 20g were randomly divided into four groups, ten on each treated group and ten for the first group which conserved as control group. The 2nd group was treated daily with apple-lite (3.5mg/ 100g.b.wt, the 3rd group was treated daily with mirapro-N (0.14mg/100g.b.wt and the 4th group was treated daily with tenuate (0.1 mg/100g.b.wt. Haematological parameters (RBCs, WBCs count, haemoglobin content (Hb, hematocrit value (Hct%, mean cell volume (MCV, mean cell heamoglobin (MCH and mean cell heamoglobin concentration (MCHC were detected after 30 days of treatment and also after 15 days of the last treatment as a recovery period. Also, body weight, percent of organs weight/body weight, skin-fold thickness and some vital measurements i.e. heart beats, respiratory rate and rectal temperature were recorded after the same periods of treatment and recovery. Haematological studies revealed that RBCs count, total WBCs count, Hb and Hct values were significantly decreased in the three groups treated daily with anorexic drugs for 30 days. These changes aere also recorded after the recovery period except in apple-lite treated group which showed insignificant change in RBCs and Hb after the recovery period. The calculated mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC recorded significant increase in apple-lite after treated and recovery periods, while non significant changes in MCHC were observed after mirapro-N and tenuate groups after treatment 30 daysfor 30 days but significant increase of MCHC was recorded after the recovery period of tenuate treated group. Skin-fold thickness of the three regions tested (gluteal, back and belly revealed significant decrease in all the treated groups except the belly region in apple-lite treated group which showed insignificant decrease after treatment for 30 days. Significant decrease of skin-fold thickness of different regions still present after the recovery period of 15 days in the three treated groups except the back region of mirapro-N and the belly region of apple-lite- treated rats which showed insignificant decrease. Percent of organs weight/body weight were affected according the type of tested drug, while apple-lite- caused non significant changes, mirapro-N caused significant increase in hepatosomatic ratio and cardiosomatic ratio, and significant decrease in gonadosomatic ratio. On the other hand, tenuate resulted in a significant increase in percentage weight of kidneys and hepatosomatic ratio and significant decrease of gonadosomatic ratio after treatment for 30 days. After the recovery period, apple-lite revealed significant decrease in brain/b.wt. ratio, while mirapro-N still affected kidneys, gonadosomatic ratio and brain and tenuate still affected gonadosomatic ratio and brain; they recorded significant decrease. The physical measurement of vital signs, i.e. heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature recorded insignificant change after treatment with apple-lite, mirapro-N and tenuate for 30 days, but significant increase of rectal temperature was recorded in the tenuate group of the treated rats. After recovery period insignificant changes in heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature of the treated rats were observed in the three treated groups.
Vadivelan, R.; Elango, K.; Suresh, B.; Ramesh, B. R.
Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.
Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R
Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier. PMID:22557209
Musa E.M; EL Badwi S.M; Jah Elnabi M.A; Osman E. A; Dahab M. M
In this study the plant Cannabis sativa seeds petroleum oil extract was investigatedfor anti- inflammatory activity on albino rats. The inflammation was firstly obtained byusing carrageenan suspension 0.1 ml of 10% saline injected at the sub – plantar region ofthe left limb for inducing a local acute oedema. A decreased in oedema size was reportedafter 24 hours for the rats pretreated with carrageenan30 minutes before injection withsuspension( 4.56, 0.59 and 0.93 for control, 1ml/kg per day a...
The present study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of the watery extract of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum majorana L. (marjoram) or their mixture on the toxicity induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl imidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) which is one of the most abundant toxic heterocyclic amines (HCA) in cooked meat. Oral administration of PhIP (75 ml/kg) twice a week for four weeks resulted in a significant increase in liver function (AST, ALT and ALP) with a percentage change recording 33.79% , 70.96% and 127.64%, respectively, accompanied with decrease in total protein content. Significant increase (P<0.05) was observed in both creatinine (45.33%) and blood urea (109.17%), whereas serum T3 and T4 recorded significant decrease with a percentage change of -57.32% and -42.44%, respectively. A marked significant reduction (P<0.05) in monoamine contents (DA and NE) in total brain was observed after the ingestion of PhIP recording -13.23% and -13.47%, respectively, as percentage change from control. The daily oral administration of thyme, marjoram and their mixture (W/W) in dose of 500 mg/kg alone, before or after PhIP administration caused a decrease in ALT, AST and ALP levels and increase in total protein in serum and also cause decrease in serum creatinine and urea. Non-significant changes in T3 and T4 levels were observed in rats received the herbal extract. On the other hand, the herbal extract improved T3 and T4 levels before and after PhIP treatment bringing the hormonal levels near to that of control. Moreover, rats that received pre and post treatment with thyme, marjoram and their mixture (W/W) after being treated with PhIP showed high significant reduction in the elevated levels of DA and NE produced by PhIP treatment. From the current investigation, it could be concluded that the watery extract polyphenol flavonoids of thyme and marjoram has the protective and therapeutic effect on the toxicity produced by heterocyclic amine (PhIP) which may be due to their antioxidant property and free radical scavengers activity
Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity. PMID:25362605
Full Text Available The leaves of Enicostemma littorale blume (Ens and Eclipta alba (Ecl have been used for skin infection, antiviral and antibacterial activity in traditional medicine. The present study is aimed at to evaluate the hepato-protective effect of the aqueous leaf extracts of the above two plants during ethanol induced oxidative stress in albino rats. The aqueous leaf extracts of Enicostemma littorale and Eclipta alba combine (1:1 at dose level of 250 mg kg-1 b.wt. were tested for hepato-protective and antioxidant effects during ethanol induced oxidative stress in liver tissue of wistar male albino rats. The degree of hepatoprotection was assessed by measuring the activity levels of the marker enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Free radicals generated lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS and the activity levels of the tissue antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD. The ethanol supplemented rats recorded elevated activity levels of serum AST, ALT and ALP revealing ethanol induced hepatotoxicity. The increased levels of TBARS in liver and decreased activity levels of SOD and CAT in ethanol fed animal’s revealed oxidative stress. The aqueous leaf extracts supplementation of Ens+Ecl in 1:1 produced significant hepatoprotection and antioxidative effect during ethanol induced hepatotoxicity. The study can be concluded that the therapeutic effect of aqueous leaf extracts of Ens+Ecl in 1:1 is not only hepatoprotective but also possess significant antioxidant property.
Ashraf M. Mostafa, 1 Abdel Hamid A. Serwah, 2 Waleed S. Mohamed, 3
Full Text Available Background and aim of the study- Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. More than 400 traditional medicinal plants have been recorded for helping in controlling such disease. This study investigated effects of some plants used in Saudi Arabia and some other Arab countries as antidiabetic agents. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty adult male Albino rats were divided into six experimental groups each consist of twenty five rats. The first group was considered as a control group. The rest of groups were affected by induction of experimental diabetes by subcutaneous injection of Alloxan. The second group consisted of diabetic rats without any treatment. The third group was treated by the aqueous extract of mixture contains Foenugreek, Nigella and Termis seeds. The fourth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds, while the fifth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Foenugreek seeds.The sixth one was treated with the aqueous extract of Termis seeds with the administered dose of the plant extracts (100 mg/kg body weight.After four weeks of treatment, different biochemical parameters were performed including estimation of blood sugar level and serum insulin level. Pancreatic and liver samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both heamatoxylin and eosin as well as a special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of Langerhans. Results: The usage of the mixture or each plant alone corrected the glucose level and insulin level. Microscopically there was definite decrease in the number and diameter of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of medicinal plants in the different groups of this study greatly improved such cellular changes and the level of blood sugar level was corrected. The present results showed that the activity of the mixture was the best when compared with Nigella, Foenugreek and Termis seeds. Conclusions: The water extract of the mixture is the most powerful in amelioration hyperglycemia and most of all damage effects of Alloxan on the liver and texture, hematological parameters, and lipid profile. So it is advised to use the plant mixture as an antidiabetic agent rather than the use of each plant separately. Repeating such study with the use of variable doses may be helpful in better evaluation for the required doses.
Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required in humans and animals for many physiological functions, including antioxidant functions. The evidence to date indicates that zinc is an important element that links antioxidant system and tissue damage. Acetaminophen (AP), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic, produces hepatocyte and renal tubular necrosis in human and animals following overdose. In human, AP is one of the most common causes of acute liver failure as a result of accidental or deliberate overdose. Moreover, the initial event in AP toxicity is a toxic metabolic injury with the release of free radicals and subsequent cellular death by necrosis and apoptosis. This study was designed to evaluate the potential protective role of zinc aspartate in case of acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in rats. A total number of 32 adult male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups: group I (control group), group II (zinc aspartate treated group), group III (acetaminophen treated group; by a single oral dose of 750 mg/kg body weight) and group IV acetaminophen plus zinc treated group; (zinc aspartate was intraperitoneally given one hour after acetaminophen administration in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight). Serum levels of: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, xanthine oxidase (XO), glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were assessed in all groups. The results of this study showed that treatment with acetaminophen alone (group III) produced a significant increase in serum levels of the liver enzymes and direct bilirubin. Moreover, in the same group there was a significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine compared to the control group. In addition, there was a significant increase in XO and MDA and a significant decrease in GSH and NO level. Injection of rats with zinc aspartate after acetaminophen treatment could produce a significant protection against the toxic effect of acetaminophen, in comparison with that of acetaminophen treated group. In conclusion, biochemical evaluation revealed that zinc aspartate has a partial protective effect against acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity and oxidative stress. Accordingly, zinc may be an effective therapeutic agent in prevention and treatment of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and free radical production
This study aims to investigate the effect of aspartame (artificial sweetener) and sunset yellow (artificial colour) on monoamines content in different brain areas of the adult male albino mice (cerebellum, brain stem, striatum, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex), and also on testosterone level in serum.The present study showed that the daily intraperitoneal injection of aspartame with dose of 200 mg/kg caused significant increase in monoamines content and testosterone level at most experimental periods. The elevation of monoamines content may be due to increase in phenylalanine concentration which leading to increase the synthesis of monoamines. The elevation of testosterone level may be due to the increment of DA content in hypothalamus which led to increase the release of LHRH. On the other hand, the daily intraperitoneal injection of sunset yellow with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg caused significant decrease in monoamines content and non-significant change in serum testosterone level at most experimental periods. The decrement in monoamines content may be due to the decrease in its uptake by the neurotransmitters or decrease in its synthesis
Dwajani S; Ranjana Gurumurthy
Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the wound healing activity of Paroxetine in different wound models in wistar rats and to study its effects on dexamethasone suppressed wound healing. Methods: For assessment of wound healing activity, excision and incision wound models were used. Group I was assigned as control, orally, Group II received Paroxetine, i.p, Group III received Dexamethasone intramuscularly (i.m) and Group IV received Dexamethasone i.m and Paroxetine, i....
Purwar, Brijesh; Shrivastava, Abha; Arora, Neetu; Kumar, Anil; Saxena, Yogesh
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol, is an active principle of the perennial herb Curcuma longa commonly known as turmeric. Turmeric (CURCUMA LONGA L.) is a medicinal plant extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha medicine as a home remedy for various diseases including biliary diseases, cough, hepatic diseases, wound healing. However studies on the effect of curcumin on the gastric emptying are nearly nonexistent. It is hypothesized that curcumin may have an effect on gastric emptying. For this reason the present study was aimed to study the effect of curcumin on gastric emptying. Rats were divided into 5 groups (Group I - Group V), based on the time interval between administration of curcumin/vehicular fluid to administration of barium sulphate (Group I - 1 hr, Group II - 8 hrs, Group III - 16 hrs, Group IV - 24 hrs, Group V - 48 hrs). Each group was further divided into two subgroups, Group A (control) and Group B (experimental), containing 6 rats each. Rats in experimental group were administered curcumin intragastrically, in the dose of 1 gm/kg body weight, suspended in normal saline (0.9% NaCl). The controls were given vehicular fluid intragastrically, in volume equal to the experimental animals. It was observed that there was a decrease in the gastric emptying in all the experimental groups. PMID:23387246
Propolis is a resinous natural hive product derived from plant exudate collected by honey bees and has been extensively used in folk medicine. The present study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of propolis in alleviating the toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl3)on some hematological and biochemical parameters of male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were arranged into 4 equal groups; control group, aluminium group (34 mg AlCl3/kg/day), propolis group (100?g propolis/rat)and aluminium plus propolis group. Rats were orally administered their respective doses daily for 30 days. AlCl3 caused significant decrease in hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrit (Ht), total and differential leucocyte count (TLC) when compared to control. On the other hand, aluminium administration caused a significant increase in urea, uric acid, creatinin, bilirubin, the content of phosphorous, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and asparate aminotransferase (AST) and significant decrease in total protein, albumin, globulin and calcium when compared to control. The administration of propolis alleviated the toxic effect of AlCl3 in experimental rats. It could be concluded thal propolis my afford protection from toxicity caused by aluminium chloride in male albino rats
A O Adegoke
Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain the effect of a cassava based diet (gari on crude oil heamato-toxicity in albino rats by feeding diet contaminated with various concentrations of crude oil mixed with 20% gari to determine the protective effect of gari. The haematological parameters haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count (WBC(Total and differential were monitored in the animals. Gari feeding at 20% caused insignificant dose dependent decrease in Hb and PCV but significant dose dependent white blood cell count in gari fed albino rats compared with Petroleum fed albino rats (P<0.05. Dose dependent decrease in Hb, PCV and white blood cell count was also observed in petroleum fed rats compared with their controls (P<0.05. The study showed that ingestion of petroleum contaminated diet caused decreased haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count, an indicator of possible blood damage but supplementation of the diet with 20% gari decreased the haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count observed in petroleum fed albino rats. This study showed that feeding on gari diet did not reverse the damage caused by crude petroleum as evidenced by insignificant differences in Hb and PCV concentrations possibly as result of cyanide present in the gari.Industrial relevanceCassava is a staple food in human diets in over 80 countries (Gomez, et al 1988. Gari a starchy food prepared from cassava (Manihot utilisima tubers is one of the most popular staple foods of the people of the rain forest belt of West Africa. Gari contains mainly starch-20% amylase and 70% amylopectin having lost the soluble carbohydrates. Crude petroleum is capable of eliciting haemolytic toxicity of the blood cells in conditions of long- exposure causing decrease haemoglobin, white cell count and PCV levels. The study was carried out to see the effect of gari, a staple food on haemolytic toxicity caused by crude petroleum.Keywords: Cassava; Gari; Petroleum; haemato-toxicity
Full Text Available : OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the antinociceptive effect of pentazocine in three graded doses (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg and its combination with morphine at sub-analgesic doses, and comparing their effect with analgesic dose of morphine (1mg/kg by tail flick method in albino rats. MATERIALS & METHODS: Tail flick method using analgesiometer and tail immersion test by hot water bath was selected for evaluating antinociceptive action of pentazocine and standard drug morphine. RESULTS: Pentazocine in the doses of 6mg/kg, 12 mg/kg intra peritoneal (i.p and morphine 1mg/kg i.p, produced significant antinociceptive effect in comparison to control by tail flick test and tail immersion test. Pentazocine 3 mg/kg, i.p and morphine 0.1 mg/kg, i.p had not produced significant antinociceptive action when given alone, but combination (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg treatment produced significant antinociceptive effect in comparison to control. CONCLUSION: Pentazocine in the doses of 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg and their combination in low doses (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg demonstrated significant antinociceptive activity in albino rats. Combination in low doses (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg showed comparable antinociceptive activity with pentazocine 6 mg/kg in albino rats. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: One way ANOVA and multiple comparison test (LSD was applied only to MPE% at 60 min.
Full Text Available Background: Flunarizine is commonly used for migraine prophylaxis. It is a calcium channel blocker which blocks the L-type, T-type and N-type of calcium channels of pancreatic beta cells and other cells. It is believed to cause alterations in blood glucose levels secondary to its effect on calcium channel dependent insulin secretion.Objective: To evaluate the effect of flunarizine on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test (OGTTMaterials and Methods: Flunarizine and distilled water were given orally for 5 days to the test (T and control (C groups of 6 normal albino rats respectively (N = 6. OGTT was conducted on both the groups on the 5th day and blood glucose levels were analyzed at 0, 60 and 150 minutes. Data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and independent samples t -test.Results: Flunarizine caused hyperglycemia at all durations of the OGTT with a maximum difference of 26% at 0 hour. The extent of worsening was maximum at 60 - 0 minute interval in both the instances i.e. test group value compared with control (T-C and control values compared with itself (C-C. The comparison of extent of hyperglycemia revealed that T-C showed 17% (47mg/dl more hyperglycemia than the C-C (40 mg/dl.Conclusion: Flunarizine has hyperglycemic effects in normal albino rats when given for 5 consecutive days orally even at the dose used for prophylaxis of migraine in human beings. A word of caution is thus advised when using flunarizine in impaired glucose tolerance or diabetic subjects.
anil kashinath mali
Full Text Available Abstract: There are many causes of non-lactation after delivery in some dairy mammals and human female. In present investigation study was carried out to find out effect of Ageratum conyzoides leaf extract on histological structure of non lactating mammary gland of wistra white albino rat female. Ageratum conyzoides is supposed to induce lactation in non-lactating mammalian female including woman1. The effect of extract on non-lactating mammary gland after seven and fourteen days was observed on non – lactating mammary gland showed small size mammary gland with no secretion. After 7 days the epithelial lining showed growth and increasing size of secretary glands. Ducts were also seen increasing a proliferation. After 14 days secretory gland showed more tortures structure and secretion was accumulated in to lumen and gland. The 14 days treated female rat mammary gland showed more secretary activity indicating lactation was induced in lactating gland of mammary gland1. Key Words: albino rat, Phytochemical, Gangotry species, Ageratum conyzoides
Full Text Available Endosulfan, a neurotoxic organochlorine insecticide and cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial, and agricultural situations. An effective dose (1/3rd , 1/6th of 0.28 ppm/kg-1 LD50 of endosulfan was injected to 4, 5 and 6 week of albino rats and its exposure was studied on histopathology of kidney after 15, 30 and 45 days of exposure. The histopathological changes in renal tissue of rats exposed to endosulfan by interdermal injection showed pronounced changes in the structure of renal corpuscles and caused renal necrosis. The examination revealed nephrotoxic effects on endosulfan treated rats. The effect of this pesticide on oxidative stress and its biodegradation were also explained. This review will be useful for the researchers working in the field of pesticides and will create an awareness regarding its hazardous effect.
Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.
A.J. Joshua; K.S. Goudar; A. Damodaran; N. Sameera; Amit, A.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the acute oral toxicity potentials of certain herbal veterinary preparations in albino Wistar rats. In the sighting study, the test substances were administered in sequential manner to one animal each at 2000 and 5000 mg kg-1 body weight followed by four animals at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight in the main study; whereas the test materials with well documented traditional use were evaluated at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight. The treated animals were obs...
The effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of collagen in bone was studied in young female albino rats after a single injection of 3H-proline. Both specific and total radioactivities of hydroxyproline in the total collagen of the bone were found to decrease in the protein-deficient animals, indicating decreased rate of collagen synthesis. In the urine the amount of hydroxyproline excreted and total radioactivity of 3H-hydroxyproline were greatly decreased. The results of the present investigation therefore clearly indicate decreased synthesis and catabolism of collagen in bones of protein deficient animals compared to controls. (auth.)
Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Ganiyu Adeosun; Abdul-Waheed Ademosun; Gassal Raheem; Godwin Avwioro
Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of t...
Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves that promotes vasodilatation and improves blood flow through arteries, veins and capillaries and has antioxidant properties as a tree radical scavenger. This study was designed to evaluate the protective efficacy of EGb 761 against gamma radiation and/ or alcohol induced disorders in the liver of male albino rats. EGb 761 was given orally at a dose level of 100 mg/ kg body wt for 4 days, absolute alcohol was administered orally at a dose level of 1ml/ rat for 4 days and the dose of gamma radiation was 6.5 Gy. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA). reduced glutathion (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in the liver tissue. In irradiated and/ or alcoholic animal groups, there was a highly significant decrease in liver NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD. On the other hand, significant increase in MDA content was observed. Treatment with EGb 761 before irradiation and/or alcohol causes significant increase in NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD and significant decrease in MDA content compared to the irradiated and/ or alcoholic groups. Based on these observations, one could conclude that pre-treatment of rats with EGb 761 could partly protect liver from gamma rays and/ or absolute alcohol injurious and this protection may be induced, at least partly, through antioxidant mechanisms
Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan
Creatine is known to rescue animals following brain damage. Present study was designed to demonstrate the effect of long term (15 week) supplementation of 2% creatine monohydrate (Cr), following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult, on learning and memory formation in male albino mouse. Albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8% hypoxia for 25 minutes. Following weaning, animals were separated and grouped on the basis of dietry supplementation for 15 weeks followed by a battery of neurological tests including Morris water maze, open field and rota rod. It was observed that HI mice fed on 2% Cr for 15 weeks performed better than their littermates mice on normal rodent diet during water maze (learning and memory) and rotating rod (neuro-muscular coordination and balance) test while the results of open field test remained unaffected. It was also observed that Cr treated animals had a reduced brain infarct volume than untreated but this difference did not reached statistical significance. We have also observed an overall increase in body weight in Cr treated mice during the study. Over all our results are indicating that long term Cr supplementation is beneficial for male albino following hypoxic ischemic insult. PMID:25445997
NHR111S is a new two-line male sterile line with a marker of green-revertible albino leave that was bred from in vitro mutagens is of the thermo/photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line 'Guangzhan63S' by 60Co ?-rays. It has the same desired agronomic traits, fertility characteristics and combining ability as characteristics of the parent. It is convenient to develop leaf color marker-aided elimination strategy in the multiplication and production of hybrid rice seeds. (authors)
Abu Gabal H*, Moamena M** and Al Moalla H
Full Text Available Aim of the work. The present study was planned to investigate the role played by Bee venom in improving the morphometric and morphological changes induced by carbimazole in pregnant albino rats and their embryos. Materials and method .A total number of 60 mature virgin female and 30 male Wistar wistar albino rats (for fertilization were used in this study.Pregnancy was ascertained by vaginal smears.The experimental animals were divided into the following groups:?- (Normal group: in this group the pregnant rats were injected intraperitonealy by distilled water (The solvent of both carbimazole and bee venom by dose 1ml/200g.body weight, from day 1 to day 18 of gestation.II-The group of treated animals: this group was divided into 3 subgroups:1-The carbimazole group: this group was divided into2 subgroups, the pregnant rats were orally injected at a dose 2 and 3mg /200g.body weight, daily from day 1 to day 18 of gestation.2-The Bee venom group: the pregnant rats were intraperitonealy injected with a dose 0.6 mg/200g. body weight on days 2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,15 and 16 of gestation.3-The treatment group: the pregnant rats were intraperitonealy injected with Bee venom at a dose 0.6 mg/200g. body weight 1 hour after the intraperitonealy injection by the 2 doses of carbimazole (2 and 3mg /200g. body weight.The days of injection for both treatments (Bee venom and carbimazole were as mentioned before. Results. The results of the present study showed that carbimazole treatment with its 2 doses induced highly significant increase in the body weights of pregnant rats, highly significant reduction of the uterus weight with shortness of the horns as well as unequal distribution of the embryos between them, increased number of the resorbed fetuses when comparing with the control group, Bee venom injection revealed improvement of these changes .The orally injection of the 2 doses of carbimazole resulted in very highly decrease in fetuses body weights and lengths; however Bee venom induced obvious improvement as compared with the carbimazole effects. Orally injection of carbimazole at the dose 3mg /200g body weight showed increased fetal mortality rate as compared with the control group; however, intraperitonealy injection of Bee venom resulted in improvement in the rate of live fetuses and never of dead ones was observed after Bee venom treatment. The 2 doses of carbimazole induced lots of malformations of embryos such as variations in the size of embryos of the same mother, the embryos exhibited fragile skin, sub dermal blood coagulation beside edema in different regions of the fetal body ,as well as malformations of the regions of the eye resembled in exophthalmos and rostrum region such as cleft lips, beside clubbed fore and hind limbs , kyphosis of the body of the embryos, exencephaly.Bee venom treatment resulted in control of the changes induced by carbimazole injection. The fetuses were resembled to those of the control group.Conclusion: It is clear that bee venom plays an important role in controlling the morphometric and morphological changes in fetuses of albino rats suffering from hypothyroidism induced by carbimazole
Patil, S; Kanase, A; Varute, A T
Daily treatment of CCl4(3 ml/kg body wt) for 7 days induced acute hepatic necrosis in albino rats. Treatment of CCl4 caused significant alterations in the activities of acid lipase, alkaline lipase, lipoprotein lipase of liver, kidney and adipose tissue and hormone sensitive lipase of adipose tissue of albino rat. Administration of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs (kumari asav, kumari kalp, arogyavardhini and tamra bhasma) concomitant with CCl4 counteracted the action of CCl4 on lipolytic enzymes exhibiting hepatoprotection. The possible physiological significance of alterations in lipolytic enzymes during hepatic necrosis induced by CCl4 and hepatoprotection by the above ayurvedic drugs is discussed. PMID:8500840
Full Text Available The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts in albino rats.
Caffeine is an alkaloid (purine derivative) that contains flavonoids, where as aspirin, natural component of mammalian tissue ( acetylsalicylic acid) is one of the most commonly used non steroidal anti - inflammatory , and it is a necessary factor in the utilization of long - chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore, it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. Th e objective of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of caffeine (1,3,7 - trimethyl xanthine) 80 mg/kg b.wt. a nd aspirin ( acetylsalicylic acid) in the amelioration of the physiological and histological changes in stomach and intestine of rats exposed to gamma irradiation . Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1 - Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2 - Caffeine group: rats received caffeine ( 80 ml/Kg body weight )via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days, 3 - Aspirin group: rats received aspirin (150 mg / kg body) via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days , 4 - Caffeine + Aspirin group: rats received caffeine a nd aspirin treatment, 5 - Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated at 8 Gy , 6 - Caffeine + Radiation group: rats received caffeine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation at 8 Gy, 7 - Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received aspirin during 21 days before w hole body gamma irradiation , 8 - Caffeine + Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received caffeine parallel to aspirin for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 24 hrs post irradiation. The results demonstrated that rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation showed a significant increase in alanine amino transferase (AL ) , aspartate amino transferase ( AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease in total protein indicating liver injury. A significant increase in urea, creatinine, Na+,and K+ were recorded indicating kidney damage. Alteration of liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant increase in the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities indicating oxidative stress. In addition, radiation caused inflammatory, fibrotic and cellular damage to the intestine and stomach. A demonstration of caffeine and aspirin resulted in significant improvement in hepatic and renal functions associated with reduction in oxidative stress and amelioration of the histological changes caused by gamma irradiation. It could be concluded that the antioxidant properties of caffeine and aspirin might modulate Î³-radiation-induced oxidative stress and histological disorders
Sakr, Saber A; El-Gamal, Ezz M
Amiodarone is a potent antiarrhythmic drug that is used to treat ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The present work studied the effect of amiodarone on the kidney of albino rats and the possible ameliorative role of grapefruit juice. Administration of amiodarone by gastric intubation (18 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), daily for 5 weeks) caused many histological alterations including intertubular leucocytic infiltrations, degeneration of the renal tubules, and atrophy of the glomeruli. Amiodarone caused marked elevation in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histochemical examination of the renal tubules revealed depletion of glycogen and total proteins. Besides, animals administered with amiodarone showed an increase of apoptotic bands as detected by gel electrophoresis. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice (27 ml/kg b.w.) caused an improvement in histological and histochemical appearance of the kidney together with decrease of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Moreover, the apoptosis was decreased. It is concluded from the obtained results that grapefruit juice ameliorates the nephrotoxicity of amiodarone in albino rats and this may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components. PMID:24021428
Electrical stimulation of the sinoatrial node region of isolated atria in medium containing physostigmine (0.1 micrograms/ml) produces a negative chronotropic effect whose intensity and duration depend mainly on the amount of acetylcholine released from postganglionic parasympathetic fibres endings. This technique was used to study functional maturation of the given neurones during postnatal development of albino rats. Preparations from animals of different ages were stimulated with 2-second bursts of rectangular pulses (frequency 50 Hz, pulse duration 0.02 ms, voltage 22.5--27.5 V) and frequency changes of the preparation were registered by recording extracellular action potentials. At 10 days the negative chronotropic effect is very weak and at 15 days it is only slightly stronger, but at 18 days it is almost the same as in adult animals. At 24 and 34 days the reaction is somewhat stronger than in adulthood. It can be concluded from these observations that functional maturation of the postganglionic parasympathetic neurones innervating the sinoatrial node in albino rats occurs between the 10th and 20th day of postnatal life. PMID:160578
Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one
Ketoconazole (KZ) is used widely for treating the superficial, systemic fungal activities and hyperandrogenemic states. Its uses are limited by its deleterious effect on histological structure and function of the adrenal cortex. This study investigates whether vitamin D3 supplement can ameliorate the morphological changes induced by KZ. Thirty four adult male albino rats were randomized into control group (Group I) which was subdivided into: control 1 (n=7) and control 2 (n=7): In control 1, rats were intraperitoneal (I.P) injected once with 1 ml of polyethylene glycol-400 for 15 consecutive days and control 2 rats were injected I.P with (1 Î¼g/kg) of vitamin D3 for the same period. Group II (n=10): rats were I.P injected with KZ (10 mg/100 g of body weight) once daily for 15 days; Group III (n=10): rats were I.P concomitantly injected with KZ and vitamin D3 similar doses to animals in groups II and control 2 respectively. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma ACTH, corticosterone and aldosterone levels. The right adrenal specimens sections were stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin and Masson Trichrome for histological studies and treated with Bax, Ubiquitin and vitamin D receptors for immunohistochemical studies. KZ induced adrenal cortical morphological changes in forms of disturbed adrenocorticocyte cytological architecture, nuclear changes, and intracellular lipid accumulation. KZ also increased adrenal Bax and Ub but decreased the vitamin D receptors immunopositive staining expression, in addition to increased plasma ACTH as well as decreased corticosterone and aldosterone levels. These changes were ameliorated by supplementing with vitamin D3
Ezz-Eldin E-Abdalla*, Zienab M. Gebaly**, Abd-Elghany A.Moustafa*, Ibrahim M. Amr
Full Text Available Sildenafil citrate (SC or Viagra is an oral medication widely used to treat erectile dysfunction and maintains a sufficient erection for satisfactory sexual performance. The side effects of sildenafil citrate have been reported.Aim of the work: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of sildenafil citrate in the therapeutic dose in different regimes. Materials and methods: This study included forty senile male albino rats divided into four equal groups. Group (A was used as a control group (did not receive any treatment. Group (B receive the therapeutic dose of Viagra (1.5 mg suspended in 1.5 ml distilled water orally using a gastric gavage as daily dose for one week. Group (C received the therapeutic dose of Viagra 3 times / week for two weeks. Group (D received the therapeutic dose of Viagra each week for 4 weeks. Half of the treated rats of the different groups were sacrificed, other half were sacrificed after two weeks from the last dose as recovery groups (RB, RC and RD. The testes were dissected and blocked in paraffin. Hematoxylin and Eosin (HX&E and Periodic acid Schiff stain (PAS were applied and serum testosterone levels in the different groups were evaluated.Results: The present study showed that the therapeutic dose of sildenafil caused several histological findings in the germinal epithelial of the rat testes including degeneration , detachment of the spermatogenic cells especially the primary spermatocytes with addition thickening of the basement membranes of the seminiferous tubules and increased interstitial Leydig cells. The serum testosterone of the treated rats showed increased level of testosterone especially in group D. The recovery rats showed relative improvement of parameter toward normal.Conclusion: Sildenafil produce morphological and histological alterations in the testes.
Full Text Available The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological indices of the exposed rats were examined on days 10, 20, 30, and 60 post administrations. White blood cell, red blood cell and hemoglobin counts peaked between days 20 and 30. This observation was markedly so for the higher doses, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, in contrast to the 500 mg/kg dose. The platelet count however indicated a gradual increase within the study period. Observed changes for these indices from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system.
Full Text Available The traditional medicinal plant P.edulis was tested for its hypoglycemic effect in Wistar albino rats. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in overnight fasted normal as well as in alloxan induced diabetic rats (150 mg/kg, of alloxan, i.p. with the administration of 100,200,300,400 mg/kg of b.wt of P.edulis. The blood sample withdrawn at 0, 60, 120, 180 min of glucose administration from the retro orbital sinus by capillary puncture indicated the hypoglycemic nature of the P.edulis leaf extract and identified the most effective dose as 200mg/kg b.wt.
Kuntscherová, J; Vlk, J
Changes in the acetylcholine (ACh) content and concentration in the atrial tissue of albino rats between the third day of postnatal life and adulthood were studied. The ACh content (ng in whole atria) rose during the whole of the period in question, from 5.6 ng at 3--4 days to 307.5 ng in adult rats. The ACh concentration (micrograms/g fresh tissue) rose up to the 53rd day after birth, when it attained adult values. The fastest increase in both the ACh content and concentration was observed between the 10th and the 17th postnatal day, when it amounted to over 46% of the total concentration increase between the third day of life and adulthood. PMID:160579
The testes weights as well as the histopathological changes of testes and epididymes of albino rats exposed to whole-body gamma-irradiation in doses 100, 200 and 400 rad for 1, 15, 30 and 45 days were investigated. Testes weights were reduced in rats exposed to 200 and 400 rad for 15, 30 and 45 days. The histopathological changes of testes and epididymes varied according to the degree of irradiation. The degree and intensity of damage to the organs was in proportion to the intensity of irradiation. With the small dose (100 rad) there was degeneration of the primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm cells. With higher doses (200 and 400 rad) there were degeneration and necrosis of the spermatogenic cells and spermatogonia, hyalinization of the interstitial tissue, as well as connective tissue proliferation around the epididymal tubules
Full Text Available Aim and objective: Leucas cephalotes is traditionally used as an emmenagogue. The present aim of the study is to evaluate and explore the antifertility effect of chloroform and alcoholic flowers extract of Leucas cephalotes. Material and method: Using soxhlet, extraction for 48 hrs with solvents chloroform and ethanol, flower extract was prepared. Anti-implantation, estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities were evaluated using albino female rat animals. Result and conclusion: The chloroform and alcoholic extract was found to be more potent in causing significant anti-implantation activity at the tested dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight. The extracts further showed more significant increase in uterine weight in immature ovariectomised rats. It revealed that administration of extract with ethinyl estradiol causing significant anti-estrogenic activity. Thus it can be concluded that chloroform and alcoholic extract of Leucas cephaloteshas antifertility activity.
Pandya, Preeti N; Aghera, Hetal B; Ashok, B K; Acharya, Rabinarayan
Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration of the test drug increased the urine volume in a non-significant manner, while it enhanced the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, and potassium significantly, in comparison to the control group. From the present study it can be concluded that the leaves of L. ramosissima have a significant diuretic activity. PMID:23723679
Full Text Available In this study the plant Cannabis sativa seeds petroleum oil extract was investigatedfor anti- inflammatory activity on albino rats. The inflammation was firstly obtained byusing carrageenan suspension 0.1 ml of 10% saline injected at the sub – plantar region ofthe left limb for inducing a local acute oedema. A decreased in oedema size was reportedafter 24 hours for the rats pretreated with carrageenan30 minutes before injection withsuspension( 4.56, 0.59 and 0.93 for control, 1ml/kg per day and 0.5ml/kg per day groupsgiven C. sativa seed extracts respectively., compared to Indomethacin standard antiinflammatorydrug which reported a decrease in oedema size diameter to 0.55mm, which
Dazzi, E; Carbini, L; Padalino, A; Scarpa, A L; Lantini, T
We have determined the incorporation of retinol-C14 into liver mitochondrial membranes and blood cell stroma in albino male Wistar strain rats, fed with a vitamin A deficient diet for 30, 60 and 90 days. At the end of the vitamin A deficient period, rats were kept fasting for 24 hours and then administered orally retinol-C14 (1,25 microC). They were divided into groups and killed after 3 hours, 3, 6, 12 days from the administration of retinol-C14. The incorporation is very high in one-month deficient rats, it decreases as the experimental period and the intervals after the administration of retinol-C14 grow longer. PMID:582873
Hanaa F. Waer, **Seham A. Helmy
Back ground & Aim of the work: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder brings great danger to human health. Low-dose-rate radiation modulates various biological responses including carcinogenesis, immunological responses and diabetes. This study examined the effect of low doses of irradiation on the pathological and ultrastructural progression of type I diabetes in rats inducted by Streptozotocin.Material and Methods: The present study was done on 80 healthy adult albino male...
Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H; Abdelhafez, S; Ismail, T A
Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts on some pathogenic microorganisms so we evaluated antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts of clove and cinnamon using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 40 adult healthy male albino rats divided into four groups: Group 1: negative control group (received intragastric saline solution daily); Group 2: injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S. aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis then received intragastric saline solution daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension then received intragastric clove extract 500 mg/kg/day; and Group (4): injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received intragastric cinnamon 500 mg/kg/day. Five rats from each group were sacrificed after 1 and 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozymes activity and nitric oxide production, lymphocyte transformation test, as well as counting of both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirmed the efficacy of clove extract as natural antimicrobials and suggested the possibility of its use in treatment of such bacterial infections. PMID:25816407
Hasan, Zora; Zumrut F. Biber, Muftuler; Ilknur, Demir; Ayfer Yurt, Kilcar; Cigdem, Ichedef; Perihan, Unak.
Full Text Available In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are hig [...] hly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae) which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.
Avocado oil, extracted from the pulp of the fruit, is rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, linolenic, oleic acids and the monounsaturated fatty acid. It also contains B-sitosterol, B-carotene, lecithin, minerals and vitamins A, C, D and E. Avocado oil lowers the blood levels of serum lipids and has antioxidant properties as a free radical scavenger. Male albino rats were divided into 5 groups. 1- Control group: rats not subjected to any treatment, 2- Avocado treated group: rats received avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3- Irradiated group: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 4- Avocado + irradiated group: rats received avocado oil for 21 days then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation with 7 Gy and 5- Radiation + avocado group: rats were exposed to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then received avocado oil for 21 days. Avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) was given to rats, receiving a standard diet, for 21 days before exposure to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then the treatment was continued for 10 days after irradiation. Several investigations were carried out such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), lipid profile and blood sugar. High significant increase in MDA was observed and treatment with avocado before irradiation caused significant increase in GSH, CAT and SOD and significant decrease in MDA as compared to the irradiated groups. The results also showed that treatment with avocado oil significantly diminished the radiation-induced alterations observed in the levels of lipid profile and glucose. The results demonstrated that whole body gamma irradiated rats showed significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose. By studying the lipid profile, significant increases in cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C levels were recorded while significant decrease was recorded in HDL-C. The significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with significant decrease in glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) indicated oxidative stress. The administration of avocado oil resulted in significant improvement in hepatic function and lipid profile which associated with reduction in oxidative stress. The histological study showed that administration of avocado oil before irradiation led to partial improvement in hepatocytes and also preserved hepatic architecture while after irradiation, loss of architecture, fibrosis and fatty infiltration were observed. These results indicated that avocado oil can enhance the improvement of liver tissues in gamma irradiated rats. It could be concluded that avocado oil may have a bioprotective effect on radiation-induced oxidative stress and might modulate gamma radiation-induced hepatotoxicity possibly through its antioxidant properties
Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746
Zeinab E. Hanafy
Full Text Available Aim of the work, In spite of the wide range of use of aluminium. With the increasing awareness of possible health hazards associated with their use, more attention have been focused on their biological and biochemical activity. Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant in under cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown. Aluminium is known to have genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects. Melatonin reduces the free radical generation and metal detoxification .This study was planned to determine the effects of melatonin on aluminium induced toxicity in the chromosomes of bone marrow cell . Material and Methods ,Forty female albino rats were used in the present work for the chromosomal analysis. Four groups of adult female albino rats were used in the following way: Group -I, control group; Group-II,50 mg /kg b.wt aluminium orally; Group-III, 50g / kg b.wt melatonin orally and Group- IV, 50 mg /kg b.wt aluminium orally (am +50 g / kg b.wt melatonin orally(pm. Doses were given 30 days. All animals were sacrificed and the bone marrow of femur bones was taken for subsequent cytogenetic studies. The results, Aluminium treatment induced a significant increase in the structural as well as numerical chromosomal aberrations . The frequency of chromosomal aberrations showed significant decrease when rats treated with melatonin and aluminium .In conclusion, the results indicated that melatonin showed a significant improvement of genetic damages induced by aluminium
Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah; Atif, Muhammad
The study aims to evaluate the diuretic effect and acute toxicity of a crude aqueous extract of Nigella sativa using animal models. To evaluate the diuretic activity of the plant, Albino rats were divided into five groups. The control group received normal saline (10 mL/kg), the reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and the test groups were administered different doses (i.e., 10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) of the crude extract by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. We observed significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. However, urinary pH remained unchanged during the course of the study. The diuretic index values showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. The Lipschitz values demonstrated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 46% diuretic activity compared with furosemide. With regard to the acute toxicity study, no lethal effects were observed among Albino mice even at the higher dose of 5000 mg/kg. The extract of Nigella sativa, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, significantly increased the urinary volume and modified the concentration of urinary electrolytes, and there was observed no signs of acute toxicity associated with the crude extract. Further studies are encouraged to isolate the pure phytochemical responsible for diuresis. PMID:25850208
Rajesh H*, Rejeesh EP and Rao Sudarshanram Narayan
Experimentally induced periodontitis forms the basis for trials of novel drugs and therapeutics. Ketamine, an N- amino-D- aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist is considered to be safe dissociative anesthetic agent. But, the literature on the use of Ketamine as an effective general anesthetic is conflicting. We had to determine, safe and effective dose range of intra-peritoneal Ketamine hydrochloride injection in Wistar albino rats for the placement of ligatures in the oral cavity. 50 rats of ...
The aim of the study was to investigate the bacteriological effects of different diets by Streptococcus mutans counts on 50 Swiss albino rats inoculated with Streptococcus mutans CCUG 6519 serotype c. A powdered form of standard basal diet meeting rats' nutritional needs was used in combination with diets containing different percentages of starch, sucrose and xylitol for 90 days. Dental plaque samples were collected at the end of the experiment and S. mutans and total bacterial counts w...
Background: Valproid Acid (VPA) is a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug. Its use during pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies and hepatotoxicity. This study was designed to assess the effects of VPA on the gross structure of liver in developing albino rats exposed to the drug during various trimesters of pregnancy. Methods: In this experimental study 40 pregnant rats were divided into 4 equal groups A, B, C and D. Group A received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day intraperitonealy (I/P) on days 3, 4 and 5 of gestation. Group B received the drug in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 8, 9 and 10 of gestation. Group C received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 16, 17 and 18 of gestation. Group D received no treatment and was kept as a control group. On day 21, the rats were euthanised by cervical dislocation. The liver of the foetuses were dissected out for the assessment of their gross structure. Results: Foetal liver of the experimental groups showed significant decrease in weight as well as relative tissue weight index (RTWI) as compared to the control group, although the gross appearance of the foetal liver was normal in all the groups. Conclusion: The use of VPA during various trimesters of pregnancy produces hepatotoxicity in the developing rats. So, the use of this drug during pregnancy should be carefully decided. (author)
The levels of total glutathione GSH, GSSG and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were studied in the liver of adult albino rats subjected to 3-fold external ?-irradiation throughout 2 weeks at the overall dose of 0.75 Gy after 15 h, 2 and 5 days from the last irradiation. Some animals were injected intraperitoneally with the pantothenate containing complex > 3 times on days 1-3 before the irradiation. The radiation related decrease of GSH, GSH/GSSG and the total glutathione level was prevented by the prophylactic administration of the complex and probably at the expense of the activation of the G-SH biosynthesis and/or transport in the liver by the CoA biosynthetic precursor. (author)
Nasseer Ahmad Shah
Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284
Ahmed, K K Mueen; Rana, A C; Dixit, V K
The alcoholic extract of the latex obtained from Calotropis procera (Asclepidaceae) was evaluated for protection against isoproterenol (20 mg/100 g body wt., s.c.)-induced myocardial infarction in albino rats. The heart damage induced by isoproterenol was indicated by elevated levels of the marker enzymes such as Creatine Kinase-isoenzyme (CK-MB), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) in serum with increased lipid peroxide and reduced glutathione content in heart homogenates. Microscopical examination (histopathology) was also performed on the myocardial tissue. Pretreatment with an ethanolic latex extract of Calotropis procera at a dose of 300 mg/kg body wt., administered orally thrice a day for 30 days, reduced significantly (p < 0.01) the elevated marker enzyme levels in serum and heart homogenates in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Histopathological observation revealed a marked protection by the extract in myocardial necrotic damage. PMID:15185846
The negative chronotropic effects of acetylcholine were studied in the isolated atria of the hearts of albino rats aged 2, 15, 29 and 47 days and adult. In untreated preparations, i.e. with full cholinesterase activity, the strongest effects were observed in newborn animals; with advancing age the reaction grew weaker. If cholinesterase activity was inhibited with physostigmine, the differences between the various age groups were obliterated. It is thus evident that the actual acetylcholine sensitivity of the sinoatrial node tissue does alter during postnatal life, but that growing cholinesterase activity reduces the amount of acetylcholine diffusing from the medium into the acetylcholine receptor zone. The change which takes place in cholinesterase activity in the myocardial tissue during postnatal life is so great that is must be taken into account when considering the development of cholinergic control of cardiac function. PMID:6459593
Dabhadkar, Dinesh; Zade, Varsha
To evaluate the potential abortifacient activity of the aqueous, alcohol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of P. rubra pod in female albino rats 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight doses of each extract were administered from day 11 to 15 of pregnancy and animals were allowed to go full-term. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, simple phenolics, steroids, tannins and saponins. Clinical toxicity symptoms such as respiratory distress, salivation, weight loss, dull eyes, diarrhea, and change in the appearance of fur as well as mortality were not observed in the animals at any period of the experiment. All the four extracts of P. rubra pods exhibited abortifacient activity (8-100%). The extracts significantly reduced the number of live fetuses, whereas the resorption index and post implantation losses increased significantly. The % of abortion was found to be highest (100%) with 200 mg/kg dose of alcoholic extract of P. rubra pods. PMID:23214263
Natural honey (NH) and Nigella sativa (NS) seeds have been in use as a natural remedy for over thousands of years in various parts of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of NS (Nigella sativa) and NH (natural honey) on acetylsalicylic acid induced gastric ulcer in an experimental model with comparison to Cimetidine (CD). The study was conducted on 100 male albino rats, divided into 5 groups, with 20 animals in each group. Group A was used as a control and treated with Gum Tragacanth (GT). Eighty animals of the other groups were given acetylsalicylic acid (0.2 gm/kg body weight for 3 days) to produce ulcers by gavage. Two animals from each group were sacrificed for the detection of gastric ulcers. The remaining 72 animals were equally divided in four groups (B, C, D and E). The rats in group B, C and D were given NS, NH, and CD respectively while those in E were kept as such. No gastric lesions were seen in control group A while all the animals in group E revealed gastric ulcers. The animals of group B, C and D showed healing effects in 15/18 (83%), 14/18 (78%) and 17/18 (94%) animals grossly; 13/18 (72%), 14/18 (78%) and 16/18 (89%) rats showed recovery on microscopic examination respectively. The healing effects were almost the same in all three groups therefore, the statistical difference was not significant among them (p =0.40 and 0.65) while significant from group E (p=0.0000075, 0.0000016 and 0.0000012 respectively). NS and NH are equally effective in healing of gastric ulcer similar to cimetidine. Further broad spectrum studies as well as clinical trials should be conducted before the use of these products as routine medicines. (author)
Eman G.E. Helal,Fatma Ahmed Eid and Amira M. Salah EL-Din Ahmed El
Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia, hyperlipoproteinemia or dyslipidemia is the presence of elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and / or lipoproteins in the blood. Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities are extremely common in the general population and are regarded as a highly modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease due to the influence of cholesterol, one of the most clinically relevant lipid substances in atheroscterosis. Aim of the work: This study aimed to evaluate the possible treatment and protective effect of triphala on hyperlipidemic rats. Material and methods: Six groups (5rat/group of female albino rats (Rattus albinus were used. The 1st group used as control, in the 2nd group hyperlipidemia (25% fat & 2% cholesterol was induced for 3 weeks only then sacrified , the 3rd group was hyperlipidemic rats for 3 weeks then left for other 3 weeks without any additional treatment as a recovery period, the 4th group served as hyperlipidemic group for 3 weeks then treated with triphala for another 3 weeks (25 mg/100 gm b. wt., the 5th group was hyperlipidemic (25% fat & 2% cholesterol for 6 weeks and the 6th group served as hyperlipidemic rats for 6 weeks, and at the same time given triphala (25 mg/100 gm b. wt. by oral administration. Results: The biochemical parameters showed highly significant increase in the body weight, serum glucose, ASAT, ALAT, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin and total lipids in liver .Many histopathological and histochemical changes were detected in liver tissue of the hyperlipidemic rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with triphala ameliorated the biochemical parameters, histological and histochemical results. Conclusion: It is recommended to use triphala in diets for hyperlipidemic patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.
Dr. Sushma V. Naidu et al
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of amlodipine on blood glucose levels through oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic albino Rats and the magnitude of its effect on basal v/s glucose induced glycemic value compared to control.Methods: Rats were divided into control and test groups to study the effect of glucose induced glycemic changes in normal rats following oral administration of amlodipine. The control group received 1 ml of distilled water everyday, test group received amlodipine everyday in the dose of 1.5 mg/Kg BW for 3 days.On the third day, 2 hours after drug administration both groups were administered oral glucose in the dose of 0.6 gm/Kg BW. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 60 and 150 minutes after glucose administration by rat tail snipping method using ACCUCHEK glucometer.Results: The mean CBG of Test group is significantly higher(P<0.001 at all times of the glucose challenge i.e. 0, 60, 150 minutes from the time of glucose administration compared to control group. The optimal hyperglycemia was seen at 60 minutes which is 32.76% higher than the control group, followed by 0 minutes (29.41% and 150 minutes (7.92%. Conclusion: Amlodipine worsens glycaemic control in normal rats at all hours of glucose challenge. Extending this to human beings, whether with impaired glucose tolerance or overt diabetes mellitus, it is suggested to limit the use of amlodipine to situations unless absolutely necessary since it induces hyperglycaemia even in normoglycaemic rats by a postulated mechanism of inhibition of both basal and glucose induced insulin secretion significantly.
Ganchrow, J R; Seltzer, Z; Bitchacho, N
Small-diameter fibers present in gustatory peripheral nerves have historically been suspected of relaying information about the bitter quality of a taste stimulus. Neonatally injected capsaicin irreversibly destroys a proportion of unmyelinated C- and some A delta-fibers. Consummatory responses to increasing concentrations of quinine and other chemical solutions following neonatal capsaicin injection were compared to those of untreated and vehicle-injected control Sabra albino rats. Capsaicin-treated rats significantly increased their withdrawal thresholds to noxious, CO2 laser-generated heat pulses verifying treatment effectiveness. Furthermore, neonatal capsaicin treatment diminished sensitivity to pungent capsaicin solutions in mature rats. However, there were no group differences in quinine intake, suggesting that the full array of unmyelinated fibers associated with taste buds is not essential for the transmission of bitter taste. Capsaicin-treated animals showed a significant reduction in intake of normally highly preferred sodium chloride and sucrose concentrations. These results were probably not due to loss of peripheral unmyelinated afferent fibers per se, but rather to secondary central changes. PMID:1484858
Bacanl?, Merve; Ayd?n, Sevtap; Taner, Gökçe; Gökta?, Hatice Gül; ?ahin, Tolga; Ba?aran, A Ahmet; Ba?aran, Nur?en
Oxidative stress has an important role in the development of sepsis-induced multiorgan failure. Ferulic acid (FA), a well-established natural antioxidant, has several pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, anticancer and hepatoprotective. This study aimed to investigate the effects of FA on sepsis-induced oxidative damage in Wistar albino rats. Sepsis-induced DNA damage in the lymphocytes, liver and kidney cells of rats were evaluated by comet assay with and without formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg). The oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and total glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also measured. It is found that DNA damage in sepsis+FA-treated group was significantly lower than the sepsis group. FA treatment also decreased the MDA levels and increased the GSH levels and SOD and GSH-Px activities in the sepsis-induced rats. It seems that FA might have ameliorative effects against sepsis-induced oxidative damage. PMID:25305738
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the beneficial effects of the methanol extract of Synsepalum dulcificum on some biochemical parameters. Methods: In this study, rats were orally administered (gavage with methanol extracts at doses of 0 mg/kg (Group 1, as normal group, 100 mg/kg (Group 2, 200 mg/kg (Group 3 and 500 mg/kg (Group 4 body weight per day for 28 d. Results: Acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract was not toxic to rats up to 5 000 mg/kg. From the results, the 100 mg/kg doses of the extract significantly (P<0.05 reduced serum levels of bilirubin, low density lipoprotein, alanine aminotransferase and glucose after 14 d compared with those after 28 d. A significant difference (P<0.05 was observed in the malondialdehyde and serum protein concentration in Group 4 while glucose concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05 in Group 1 and Group 4 after 14 d compared with 28 d. The high density lipoprotein significantly increased (P<0.05 in Group 3. Conclusions: The fruit has no negative effect on some biochemical parameters in albino rats.
Ch. Sampath kumar
Full Text Available The wound healing activity of topically applied extract of bark of Ziziphus jujuba was evaluated in albino rat by excision wound model for a period of 24 days. In this study, the rats were divided into four groups, each groups continued healing process with 5 and 10% w/w methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba mg/cm2. Test duration was 24 days, wound diameter measurement using digital image analysis on days 0, 8th, 16th , 21st and 24th with biopsy of two rats from each group were taken. The results revealed that treatment with low-dose group of methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba (5% less shrinkage of wound area and also from the perspective of Histopathological change. In the second and third week, tissue had better organization than most other groups (p<0.01, but the group treated with high doses of methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba (10% had most wound shrinkage and organization.
The effect of chronic and acute doses of aspirin and prostaglandins F2? and E2 individually on the oxidation of glucose through Embden Meyerhof-TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathways and some key glycolytic enzymes of liver were studied in male albino rats. Studies were extended to find the combined effect of PGF2? and E2 with an acute dose of aspirin. There was increased utilisation of both 1-14C glucose and 6-14C glucose on aspirin treatment. However, the metabolism through the EM-TCA pathway was more pronounced as shown by a reduced ratio of 14CO2 from 1-14C and 6-14C glucose. Two hepatic key glycolytic enzymes viz. hexokinase and pyruvate kinase were increased due to aspirin treatment. Withdrawal of aspirin corrected the above impaired carbohydrate metabolism in liver. Prostaglandin F2? also caused a reduction in the utilisation of 1-14C glucose, while PGE2 recorded an increase in the utilisation of both 1-14C and 6-14C glucose when compared to controls, indicating that different members of prostaglandins could affect metabolisms and differently. Administration of the PGs and aspirin together showed an increase in the utilisation of 6-14C glucose. (auth.)
Studies were carried out to investigate the efficacy of serotonin as a potential radioprotector and/or therapeutic agent. Irradiation of male albino rats was applied in single doses at 6.5 and 10 Gy levels. The effect was traced on FSH, LH, PrL and testosterone in blood and testicular tissue. The data obtained revealed marked and significant protection both serum and testicular tissue for the lower dose level of 6.5 Gy. Serotonin proved to exert nonsignificant control of hormonal changes due to the higher dose level of 10 Gy. Serotonin administered after radiation exposure, showed partial curative role for changes in LH, whereas it failed to exert any significant therapeutic role on changes in FSH, PrL and tester one induced by either of the two applied dose levels. It could be concluded that serotonin played only a good role as radioprotector on all investigated hormones in serum and testis at the radiation dose level 6.5 Gy. 8 figs., 8 tabs
Background: Administration of quinolone therapy is controversial during growing age as stated by earlier authors. The flouroquinolones are currently not indicated for young children because of arthropathy and adverse effect as new born shown by studies. However the effects of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ on prenatal conceptus have remained undocumented. The present study was designed to compare the effects on conceptus after maternal ingestion of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ using Wastar albino rats. Methods: Ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ was administrated to pregnant female albino rats. Ciprofloxacin with a dose of 20 mg/Kg bodyweight and ZnCl/sub 2/ 120 micro g/100 gm bodyweight two times therapeutic dose for 10 days (from day 8-18 of pregnancy). Each animal was weighted on day 1, day 8 and day 18 of pregnancy. Abortion resulted on day 18th of pregnancy. Each group of pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation by over dose of either anaesthesia, abdomen opened, uterus and both cornua containing conceptus identified, removed, there weight recorded, crown rump length was measured and was compared with similar value of control animals. The results were statistically analysed to find out the significance. Results: The ciprofloxacin induces a mordanting effect as obviated by increased basophilia. Our study reveals that ciprofloxacin administered in maternal, decreased maternal body weight to 38.4+-0.9 gm. However simultaneous ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained the body weight to 41.4+-0.7 gm, while ZnCl/sub 2/ increased the body weight to 46.5+-2.25 gm. The body weight and Crown Rump length (CR Length) in conceptus decreased by 4.52+-0.10 gm and 3.06+-0.09 Cm respectively. That ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ administration maintained the body weight and CR length by 5.46+-0.09 gm and 3.79+-0.13 Cm respectively. That ZnCl/sub 2/ administration increased the body weight and CR length by 6.71+-0.05 gm and 4.15+-0.08 Cm respectively. Conclusion: Prenatal administration of Ciprofloxacin caused reduction in growth rate and CR length, and ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained body weight and CR length and growth of the rat conceptus. (author)
The tropical ginger, Zingiber montanum (J. König) A. Dietr, has potentials in scavenging free radicals and affording protection from radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations. The present investigation aims at determining antioxidant and radioprotective properties of the rhizome extract. Sulphur free radical, DPPH and superoxide scavenging assays were carried out for assessing antioxidant activities. Radiation-induced (500 cGy) DNA damage in pBR322 in vitro could be significantly reduced upto 71% (P < 0.05) by treatment with 60% ethanol extract (20 ?g). Acute toxicity of the 60% ethanol extract was determined and suitable injectable dose was selected for intra-peritoneal administration in albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). The LD50 of extract calculated for 72 hrs was found to be 2.9 g/kg, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of rhizome extract was 1.3 g/kg. Rhizome extract (0.5 g/kg) in 60% ethanol was intra-peritoneally injected to albino rats and exposed to 100, 300 and 500 cGy. Radioprotective effect of the extract was determined by alkaline single cell comet assay. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) of comet DNA (68%) and length (61%)in rat bone marrow cells was observed at a radiation dose of 500 cGy. The results demonstrate that tropical ginger possess free radical scavenging properties and can protect bone marrow cells from radiation-induced DNA damages. The results on radiation induced DNA damage using plasmid pBR322 DNA obviously justify that the extract at a low dose can protect DNA from undergoing strand breakage due to gamma radiation exposure. Versatility of Zingiber montanum in different chemical assays in terms of its radical scavenging potential shows that this non-conventional food plant as a lot of potential in maintaining human health through dietary supplementation as nutraceutical. This candidate plant also can possibly be a promising candidate in clinical radiotherapy perhaps as a substitute of or the well-know radioprotector amifostine. (author)
Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken, to evaluate the protective effect of sodium selenite against mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in experimental rats. Female Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: sodium selenite (1mg/ kg b.w; ip, mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of sodium selenite and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 10 days experimental period. Results: Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of sodium selenite resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH -Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by sodium selenite supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of sodium selenite. Conclusion: The results clearly demonstrate that sodium selenite treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the acute oral toxicity potentials of certain herbal veterinary preparations in albino Wistar rats. In the sighting study, the test substances were administered in sequential manner to one animal each at 2000 and 5000 mg kg-1 body weight followed by four animals at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight in the main study; whereas the test materials with well documented traditional use were evaluated at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight. The treated animals were observed for mortality, untoward clinical/toxic signs, alterations in body weight gain and necropsy findings during the study. The treated animals survived throughout the study period and did not reveal any treatment related major abnormal clinical signs at the tested dose levels for all the products. The overall percent body weight gain in rats treated with the herbal products was found to be normal during the 14 day observation period. On necropsy, no abnormalities were observed. In conclusion, acute oral toxicity testing of screened herbal veterinary products did not produce any treatment-related adverse effects upto the dose level of 5000 mg kg-1 body weight.
Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.
Slavíková, J; Vlk, J; Hlavicková, V
In experiments on adult albino rats the authors used the substances BW 284 C51 (1.5-bis(allyldimethylammoniumphenyl)-pentane-3-one-dibromide) as a specific inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and ethopropazine (10-(2-diethylaminopropyl) phenothiazine hydrochloride) as a specific inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) to determine the two enzyme activities in atrial homogenates and to investigate changes after AChE or BuChE inhibition of the negative chronotropic effect of acetylcholine (ACh) on atria incubated in vitro. AChE accounted for only 12% and BuChE for 88% of the total ability of atrial homogenates to hydrolyse acetylcholine. The concentration of exogenous ACh needed to reduce the spontaneous frequency of contractions of the isolated right atrium by 30, 60, or 90/min fell by 78%, 79% and 84% respectively after BW 284 C51 inhibition of AChE and by 95%, 94% and 94% after simultaneous inhibition of AChE and BuChE. The significance of AChE in control of the negative chronotropic effect of ACh is thus evidently significantly greater than would correspond to the percentual proportion of AChE in cholinesterase activities in the atria of the rat heart. In can be assumed that AChE is functionally associated with parasympathetic innervation of the heart and that it is probably present in a high concentration in the primary pacemaker region. PMID:6217470
P. Vikrama Chakravarthi
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg/celecoxib @ 10mg/kg (in case of COX?2 assay on 7th day of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days. All groups of lotus seed extracts were revealed anti-inflammatory activity in Carragenin induced inflammation as well as in COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay. While comparing all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed extracts, exhibited more pronounced inhibition than other groups. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 157-159
Sahar Mohamed Kamal
Full Text Available Calcium channel blockers are increasingly used for the treatment of hypertension. Hypertension is an important risk factor for liver damage and several other circulatory abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of lacidipine in a irradiation-induced hepatocellular damage model in Deoxyc Orticosterone Acetate (DOCA-salt-induced hypertensive model in rats. In this study, animals were divided into five groups as follows: control (Group 1, hypertensive (Group 2, irradiated (Group 3, irradiated and hypertensive (Group 4 and irradiated, hypertensive and lacidipine-treated (Group 5. At the end of the experiment, the livers were removed and its homogenates were biochemically examined. Significant differences were found between values of all groups (p<0.05. Group 3 and particularly Group 4 showed significant increase in lipid peroxidation and Nitric Oxide (NO and serum tumor necrosis factor-Î± (TNF-Î± with a significant reduction in serum level of alanine amine transferase (ALT enzyme and in superoxide dismutase in red blood cells lysates. Lacidipine-treated group (5 showed a significant reduction in elevated systolic blood pressure together with a great protection of ALT and SOD enzymes from the destructive effects of irradiation and hypertension. Additionally, this CCB reduces hepatic NO and serum TNF-Î± levels that were increased in groups (2,3,4. The present study suggests that lacidipine has some important protective effects on liver of hypertensive irradiated albino rats.
The influence of ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression in male albino rats was investigated in the present study. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four equal groups; control group (receiving no treatment), ginger group where the rats received ginger orally at a dose of 15 g/rat/day for 120 consecutive days, gamma radiation group which subjected to a single 6 Gy whole body gamma radiation and gamma radiation plus ginger group where each rat after taking daily 15 g of ginger for 120 consecutive days was subjected to 6 Gy whole body irradiation. Complete blood pictures and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) were estimated and spleen tissue was also examined histologically. The data obtained revealed that exposure to 6 Gy of gamma radiation caused significant decrease in the body weight, spleen weight, IgG, IgM, erythroide and leucoid elements and produced histological damage in spleen tissue. On the other hand, ginger as a protective agent, caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by irradiation especially immunoglobulins leading to the conclusion that ginger supplementation for 120 days caused modulation of the humoral immune response in irradiated rats. In conclusion, these findings indicated that ginger has the regulatory effect against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression.
Hawazen A. Lamfon; Faiza A. Mahboub
Carbendazim is a broad spectrum carbamate fungicide used in the control of various fungal pathogens. The present work studied the effect of carbendazim on the liver of albino rats and the possible protective role of Ginko biloba extract (EGB). Liver of carbendazim-treated animals showed histopathological and histochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, and congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infil...
Konaté, K.; Souza, A.; R.R.R. Aworet Samseny; B. Batchelili; B. Marlaine; Lamidi, M.; Barro, N.; Millogo-Rasolodimby, J.; O. G. NACOULMA
The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba. (Malvaceae) an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally hepatics affections in albinos Wistar rats. Animals were treated by gavage during 28 days with different doses of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida alba. (75, 100, 150 mg/kg) suspended in 35% ethanol. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethano l for 28 days results an ac...
Anusha Bhaskar; V Nithya
Objective: To investigate the wound-healing potency of the ethanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods: The wound-healing activity of H. rosa sinensis (5 and 10% w/w) on Wistar albino rats was studied using three different models viz., excision, incision and dead space wound. The parameters studied were breaking strength in incision model, granulation tissue dry weight, breaking strength and collagen content in dead space wound model, percentage of wo...
Ganesan, Balaraman; Anandan, Rangasamy; Lakshmanan, Pindath Thandayan
Stress can be defined as physical and psychological modifications that disrupt the homeostasis and the balance of organisms. Stress is known as one of the most important reasons of several diseases. In the present study, the anti-stress effect of betaine was evaluated with reference to its antioxidant property. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups such as control, betaine, restraint stress (6 h/day for 30 days), and betaine?+?restraint stress. The oxidative damage was assessed by ...
Khaja Zeeyauddin; Mohammed Ibrahim; Muna Abid; Mangamoori Lakshmi Narsu
The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae) was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg) in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg) of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark ext...
Mishra, Arun K.; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with s...
Two greenable albino mutation lines W24 and W27 induced by 60Co gamma rays treatment on seeds of a thermosensitive genie male sterile (TGMS) rice c.v 2177S were investigated on their usefulness in two-line hybrid rice. The leaf color of W24 and W27 was similar and could be expressed in different temperature conditions. The first three leaves of W24 and W27 were ablinotic at extending, but changed into green after the fourth leaf extended. The greenable leaf area were about 40% for the first leaf and 90% for the third leaf. No significant differences were detected in morphoagronomic characters and styler extrusion rate between the mutation line and 2177S, which suggested that the mutation leaf color may be a useful marker in eliminating contamination of selfed seeds in two-line hybrid rice
Inas S. Ghaly
Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated, each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1 the gestation period (subgroup one, (2 the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two and (3 animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal.
Wheat bran was mixed with standard rat diet in order to assess the role of high fiber diet on the damage induced by 4 Gy gamma irradiation in male rats. Immediately after exposure to irradiation, the male albino rats were fed on diet containing 10% wheat bran ad libitum. After 15 days, the rats were decapitated then blood picture, levels of calcium, glucose, folic acid, vitamin B12 , triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), testosterone and insulin hormones were determined. The results denoted that wheat bran had an improvement effect on the radiation damage on blood picture, calcium level, vitamin B12 , folic acid and testosterone hormone, which most probably due to the effect of the high antioxidant action of wheat bran that might improve the gastro intestinal metabolism.
Full Text Available Fluorides have been a cause of concern for scientists and environmentalists for the long because of their harmful effects on the human and animal life but the problem was highlighted during the twentieth century because of great increase in the human population and industrialization. Since fluorides accumulate in calcified and hard tissues of the body such as bone and teeth and can be detected easily in these tissues, so most of the previous studies focused on the effects of fluorides on these tissues. However, during the past decade researchers all over the world have felt that there is a need to study the effects of fluorides on various other tissues of the body including CNS as fluoride intake for prolonged period is known to cause abnormal behavioural pattern, grave implications for Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, Attention deficit disorder and reduced I.Q in children as the fluorides are known to cross blood brain barrier. Hence the present study has thrown light on the involvement of brain in chronic fluoride toxicity. The target organ of studied was cerebrum. In the Study, albino rats were exposed to 30 or 100 ppm fluoride (asNaF in drinking water for 3 months. Rats exposed to 30 ppm fluoride did not show any notable alterations in brain histology, whereas rats exposed to 100 ppm fluoride showed significant neurodegenerative changes in lhe motor cortex.Changes included decrease in size and number of neurons in all the regions, signs of chromatolysis and gliosis in the motor cortex. These histological changes suggest a toxic effect of high-fluoride intake & on chronic use. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2012; 1(1.000: 30-34
Eman G.E. Helal , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab and Ghada A. Zedan
Full Text Available Background: Curcuma longa has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agent. The present investigation aimed at examining the possible potential protective effect of curcuma against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline ( 120mg/kg for three consecutive days resulting in steatosis and c curcuma treated group; which was treated with curcuma ( 0.4 % of diet for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group and c drug protection group; which received curcuma for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10 % formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine while HDL cholesterol and A/G ratio were significantly decreased compared to control group. Histopathological changes were detected in liver tissue of fatty liver rats. The treatment with curcuma ameliorated the biochemical parameters and histological changes. The pre-treatment with curcuma before the induction of fatty liver also ameliorated the results but they did not turn back to the normal values. Conclusion: It is recommend to using curcuma as diet additive for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.
Lotfy Sayed*, Esam Eldin Abdel Hady*, Hosam Eldin Hussin
Full Text Available The increased exposure to radiation in medicine or industries increases the hazards of radiation on various organs of the human body. The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of anti oxidant (vitamin C against the effect of radiation on rat testes. Thirty adult albino rats were divided into three groups, each contained ten rats .The first group (G.1 was exposed to 415 r (G.1' or 622 r (G.1" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week. The second group (G.2 was exposed to 415 r (G.2' or 622 r (G.2" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week, in addition to vitamin C equivalent to 86.9 mg./liter orally for the two sub groups for the same period . The third group (G.3 was a control group. The examined testes of G.1 showed damaged germinal epithelium with remaining some layers of spermatogonia. There was no affection of spermatocytes, mature sperms, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, the lumen contained little sperms and debris of germ cells (G.1' .While for (G.1" there was marked damage of the seminiferous tubules with irregular outline, destruction of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids with pyknotic type of nuclear degeneration and the lumen was devoid of mature sperms. The examined testes of the (G.2 showed evidence of almost complete recovery for G .2' and marked recovery for G.2" It is concluded that anti oxidants were essential to patients exposed to x-ray , to guard against its hazards.
Purpose: Gastritis leadind to G.I.ulcers is a very prevalent metabolic and life style disorder. Many a times it is condition which arise due to various medications like NSAID's. Drugs effective in Ulcer protection is the need of the hour. Medications such as sucralfate in conventional system do work but in higher dose and with limitations. Thus, present study has been carried out, to evaluate efficacy of Varatika bhasma in ulcer protective activity with standard control as Sucralfate in aspirin induced ulcer. Method: Varatika bhasma was prepared by shodhana with kanji, bhaavana with kumari swarasa and subjecting to gajaputa. Further it was analyzed and used for experimental study. Winstar strain albino rats of either sex was taken in 3 groups with 6 rats in each group. Control group with food and water, standard with sucralfate and test with varatika bhasma was given for 6 days. on 7th day ulcer was induced with aspirin. later rats were sacrificed to cut open the stomach and to study the ulcer index and histopathology. Result: When compared to Sucralfate for ulcer protective effect, Varatika Bhasma shows significant result in lower doses. (Sucralfate 1 gm 6 hourly and Varatika Bhasma 250 mg twice daily). In ulcer index and histopathology studies, there were less / no ulcers found in the group treated with Varatika Bhasma in comparison with Sucralfate and Control group. Conclusion: For the ulcer protection, Varatika Bhasma provides better and promising result when compared to Sucralfate. This also cuts the cost of medication and time constrain for the administration of the medicine.
Marisa Pascale Quintino
Full Text Available Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled as follows. Controls (C, animals treated with the drug vehicle (destilled water; experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3, animals treated with 35, 105 or 315 mg/kg b.w. pyrazinamide by gavage (oral route once daily up to the term (20th day of pregnancy. Drug or vehicle volume was always 0.5 ml. Body weight gain was followed up every week. At term, upon sacrifice (in excess of anesthesia and histerectomy, the following parameters have been studied: number of implantations and reabsorptions; intrauterine deaths; number of living foetuses and of placentae; weights of concepts and of placentae; major foetal malformations; maternal mortality index. No significant effects of pyrazinamide on rat pregnancy have been observed regarding the maternal body weight gain, the weights of concepts, the number of implantations and reabsorptions and the weights of placentae and foetuses. Also, no deleterious effects have been noticed regarding major foetal malformations, intrauterine deaths or maternal mortality. With the highest pyrazinamide dosis employed (315 mg/kg b.w., however, a significant lowered uterine weight was recorded. Although otherwise safe, a high-dose regimen of pyrazinamide during rat pregnancy can induce a slight yet significant reduction of uterine weight.La pyrazinamida es un fármaco muy utilizado para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, pero no hay datos en la literatura respecto a sus potenciales riesgos para la preñez. Debido a esto, en este trabajo tratamos ratas preñadas durante toda la gestación (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20 con 3 dosis de pyrazinamida (35, 105 o 315 mg/kg, una vez al día para una primera observación sobre los efectos de la pyrazinamida durante la preñez. Las ratas control recibieron el vehículo de la droga (agua destilada. Los resultados mostraron que no hubo alteraciones significativas en cuanto a la evolución del peso corporal de las ratsa madres, al peso de los fetos, al número de implantaciones y reabsorciones, ni tampoco en cuanto a los pesos de placentas y fetos. Además, no se observaron malformaciones fetales mayores, muertes intrauterinas o aumento de la mortalidad materna. El único efecto significativo observado con la dosis de 315 mg/kg de pyrazinamida, fue una reducción del peso uterino
4 to 5 days after injection of [3H] proline into the medial entorhinal cortex of adult male rats, a sufficient labelling of the contralateral fascia dentata (FD) could be demonstrated autoradiographically. The radioactive labelling was spread over the mid-third of the molecular layer of the ventral as well as of the dorsal part of the FD. (author)
Rajput, Dhrupadsinh K.; Patel, Pragnesh B.; Highland, Hyacinth N.
India is one of the endemic areas where control of malaria has become a formidable task. Artesunate is the current antimalarial drug used to treat malaria, especially chloroquine resistant. The objective of the present study was to investigate the dose-dependent effect of oral administration of artesunate on the oxidative parameters in testes of adult male Swiss albino mice and ameliorative efficacy of curcumin, a widely used antioxidant. An oral dose of 150 mg/kg body weight (bwt; low dose) and 300 mg/kg bwt (high dose) of artesunate was administered for a period of 45 days to male mice, and ameliorative efficacy of curcumin was also assessed. The results revealed that artesunate caused significant alteration in oxidative parameters in dose-dependent manner. Administration of artesunate brought about significant decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, whereas lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase activity were found to be significantly increased. The results obtained show that oxidative insult is incurred upon the intracellular antioxidant system of testis tissue by artesunate treatment. Further, administration of curcumin at the dose level of 80 mg/kg bwt along with both doses of artesunate attenuated adverse effects in male mice.
Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.
Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters cognition, learning memory and emotional responses, causing mental disorders like depression and anxiety and stress in rats. Methods: The experiment was carried out with 12 healthy albino Wistar female rats weighing about 150-180gms. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of six animals each. Group â€“ I (control, Group â€“ II (Stressed Group. Group â€“II rats are placed in plastic tanks for 45minutes for15 days. Temperature of water was maintained at 20ËšC. During stress phase, the animals will be trained for forced swim test, behavioral changes observed by open field apparatus for emotions, and eight arm maze for memory & leaning, elevated plus maze for anxiety. Results: Forced swim stress causes to a significant change (p<0.05 on cognitive functions: motivation, learning and memory. Forced swim stress is the factor damaging the hippocampus causes repeated immobilization and produce atrophy of dendrites of pyramidal neurons and neuroendocrinological disturbances, controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Repeated stress in the form of forced swimming activates the free radical processes leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation in many tissues. Conclusion: This study reveals the effect of repeated forced swim stress causes wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. The earlier findings have reported that chronic and acute stress procedures weaken working memory functions in rats. There are very fewstudies on sub acute forced swim stress on working memory status of the animal. The study was undertaken to assess the various behavioral changes by applying sub acute forced swim.
U. A. Utoh-Nedosa
Full Text Available Problem statement: Five dosages of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA which included 1mg kg-1; a repeated dose of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1 were administered orally to albino rats for 5 days. The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin treatment significantly elevated the total white cell count (pApproach: By increasing the population of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes (which engage in chemo tactic response; microbial killing; microbial ingestion and antibody production in the blood, dihydroartemisinin demonstrated that it stimulates increase in their population and uses them as part of its own arsenals of warfare against endoparasites (like malaria parasites and pathogens. Results: The results of this study show that dihydroartemisinin stimulated a lot of new white blood cell production by haemopoetic sites of the body The increases in the total white blood cell count; the percentage neutrophils count and the percentage lymphocyte counts were significant at pConclusion: The results of the study suggest that the phagocytic and immunological activities of the body?s white blood cell population are important components of the efficacious Plasmodium Schizonticidal actions of Dihydroartemisinin in malaria treatment.
Solanine is a toxic compound produced in nightshades family as potato,tomato and eggplant when exposed to light.The current study was carried out on 18 female postmenopausal albino rats to investigate the effect of solanine on the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.Animals were classified into 3 groups feeding on balanced diet only (GI) or replaced by two third with small pieces of diseased potatoes for 2 and 4 weeks (GII,GIII) respectively . Serum levels of arthritic bio markers were investigated as the estimation of erythrocytes sedimentation rate ( ESR) , C-Reactive Protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA),Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?),Interleukin-6( IL-6) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in all groups. There was a significant positive increase in the levels of ESR, CRP , MDA , TNF-?, IL-6 , and IgG among different groups depending on potatoes intake. There was positive correlation between the serum levels of CRP and TNF-? ,Il-6 and IgG.However, a non significantly positive correlation between serum level of CRP and the level of MDA was observed. The data of the present study showed that old age and postmenopausal suffering from arthritis and joint swollen must eliminat or avoid the nightshades plants to alleviate the joint pain and also decrease the destruction of the tissues
Full Text Available Pathological anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders in humans. Anxiolytic drugs, mostly belonging to the benzodiazepine (BDZ group and serotonergic groups are widely used to treat anxiety. However the clinical uses of these established drugs are associated with lot of adverse effects. Therefore the development of new agent possessing anxiolytic effect with minimal or no adverse effects would be of great importance in the treatment of anxiety related disorders. Very high importance is given to the phytoconstituents by the scientific community for a new anxiolytic agent which is devoid of side effects/ minimal adverse effects. In this research work the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica (300 mg/kg body weight was administered oral for ten days to Wistar albino rats for screening its anxiolytic effect by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM and Light Dark Arena (LDA test. The results of our study demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica has significant anxiolytic activity in EPM and LDA models of anxiety.
Khumanthem Deepak Singh
Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn, belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is one of the fast growing, glabrous, deciduous tree and has recently gained importance as a commercial source of alkaloids like kaempferol, karanjin. Methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata was subjected to phytochemical screening. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by oral administration of various noxious chemicals including Ethanol, Indomethacin, Pylorus ligation and Cold restraint stress. In pharmacological screening, the effect of methanolic extract of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn was evaluated in Wistar Albino Rats of either sex(150-200g for Antiulcer activity at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg(p.o and the effect was compared with Omeprazole(10mg/kg p.o as standard drug. The extract decreased the ulcer index thereby increasing the percentage ulcer protection. Thus from the study and literature, it can be concluded that Pongamia pinnata Linn have potent antiulcer activity.
Full Text Available Vitex-negundo Linn (Verbenaceae, a large aromatic shrub with typical five foliolate leaves pattern has been claimed to possess anticonsulvant activity apart from many medicinal properties. Maximal electroshock seizures (MES in albino rats were used to study anticonvulsant activity of Vitex-negundo leaf extract. The ethanol leaf extract of Vitex-negundo was administered orally in graded doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg and 2000mg/kg p.o in the experimental model and the effects were compared with Diphenylhydantoin in MES method as standard and normal saline as control. The Vitex-negundo in the doses 1000 mg/kg has significant effect and 2000mg/kg p.o showed protection against MES to a highly significant extent. Test drug in the dose (1000 mg/kg, po showed 60% protection in clonic seizures. It also decreased number and duration of convulsions significantly.These findings suggested that Vitex-negundo possesses anticonvulsant activity against MES induced convulsions. Vitex-negundo may be useful as an adjuvant therapy along with standard anticonvulsants and can possibly lower the requirement of Diphenylhydantoin and other anti convulsant drugs, Ethanol leaf extract of vitex ningundo significantly (P<0.01 decreased the duration of tonic extensor phase in MES-induced seizures. TheVitex-negundo extract showed a maximum inhibition (80% mortality against MES-induced seizures.Thus, it has been concluded that ethanolic extract of Vitex-negundo possesses anti-epileptic activity.
Fifty mature male albino rats were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of using crude garlic for one month on general heath condition and to compare between garlic intakes pre and post-irradiated stressed rats.Fresh minced cloves (8-10) of garlic were added to the rat diet twice per day for 30 days in garlic group and for 7 and 15 days prior to and after 4 Gy irradiation in pre and post-irradiated garlic groups, respectively. The results denoted that the extensive use of garlic in food improved the general condition in non-stressed rats while in irradiated stressed rats, the immediate intake of garlic after radiation was more efficient in ameliorating the undesirable radiation effects, where some biochemical and hematological parameters were examined in pre and post-garlic intake such as Hb, RBCs, platelets, T3, testosterone and insulin.
Full Text Available The seed products of Carica papaya have been proven as potential male contraceptives in laboratory animals. In this study, chromosomal aberrations were investigated in spermatogonia of albino rats and rabbits, following oral administration of Methanol Sub-Fraction (MSF of Carica papaya seeds. The experimental animals were divided into three groups, each group had 5 male Wistar rats and rabbits. In the first group, double distilled water served as negative control. The second group received monomeric acrylamide at 72.5 mg kg-1 body weight; two doses with a gap of 3 h served as positive control and in the third group, the MSF was orally administered at 500 mg kg-1 body weight (10 x contraceptive dose; CD; two doses with a gap of 3 h. The chromosomal fragments, dicentrics, rings, exchanges, damaged chromosomes and total chromosomal aberrations in MSF treated rats and rabbits were not significantly different when compared with negative control animals, however, were found to be reduced significantly (p<0.001 when compared with positive control group. The results suggested that the MSF did not induce chromosomal aberrations.
Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is the third most common disorder of the urinary system with high recurrence rate. Clinical treatment of lithiasis is costly and can cause harmful side effects and hence nowadays phytotherapy have higher clinical significance in kidney stone management. Aim of the study is to investigate the antilithiatic property of the methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (MEAP in experimentally induced nephrolithiatic rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar albino rats by administering the dose of 0.75% ethylene glycol for a period of 28 days. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups. Group I served as normal control. Group II received standard antilithiatic drug and group III as the lithiatic control. Group IV and V indicated as preventive regime, received 400mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight MEAP and group VI, VII, VIII and IX indicated curative regime of which VI and IX received 400mg/kg extract and VII and VIII at 200mg/kg body weight of MEAP. At the end of the experimental period, serum (creatinine, blood urea, BUN, uric acid urine (protein, calcium and phosphorus and kidney (calcium and phosphorus were analyzed. All the elevated biochemical parameters in EG received group were declined in the MEAP treated groups at dosage of 200 and 400mg/kg. Urinary protein, phosphorus and calcium also declined in both MEAP treatment groups than the lithiatic groups. Serum creatinine declined significantly in high dose received group than its low dose in both post and co treatment groups. A dose dependent effect was observed in all the serum parameters except BUN. Kidney phosphorus and calcium of preventive regime which received MEAP at a high dose of 400mg/kg showed a clear dose dependent effect than the curative regimes. The result of the present study suggests the usefulness of MEAP against nephrolithiasis.
Full Text Available Twenty male albino rats of the Wistar strain were placed in four experimental groups of five rats each. Group A (Reference group received a standard protein diet, Group B received a basal or protein-free diet, Group C received the F1-QPM diet, while Group D received common maize (CM diet. Water and feed were allowed ad libitum. Rats were fed for 21 days at the expiration of which indices of protein nutritional quality viz PER, NPU, NPR, TD and BV, were evaluated. The results showed that Group C rats had a higher (p0.05. Additionally, the protein contents of the F1-QPM and CM diets compared showed that though F1-QPM had a higher level of protein (11.80 ± 2.84% than CM (10.67 ± 0.31%, the difference was not significant (p>0.05. Quality protein maize (QPM maintained its high nutritional quality in spite of change in environment. Increased cultivation and utilization of QPM is recommended as this could help to alleviate hunger and protein malnutrition in developing countries.
Mahboobeh Ashrafi; Seyedeh Zahra Bathaie; Saeid Abroun
Objective: N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) induces breast cancer in rodents, particularly in rats. This model of breast cancer is very similar to human breast cancer. As a continuation of our recent work, we investigated the expressions of cyclin D1 and p21 in NMU-induced breast cancer of Wistar Albino rats.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, mammary carcinoma was induced in female Wistar Albino rats by a new protocol which included the intraperitoneal injection of NMU (50 mg/kg) ...
Nabila S. Hassen* , Nadia M.El Roubi and Enayat A. Omara
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a global disabling and deadly disease found world-wide. Altered testicular structure and function have been observed in diabetic human and animal models of diabetes with impaired reproductive function. The testicular atrophy and infertility were common in untreated or poorly controlled diabetics. Aim of the work The present study was carried out to compare the protective effect of melatonin and chromium against testicular alterations in alloxan-induced diabetes in albino rats. Material and Methods: Thirty-five adult male albino rats were used in this study. The animals were divided into two main groups (each five: non diabetic and diabetic rats, the first group was subdivided into 3 sub-groups: normal control, melatonin-treated animals and chromium-treated animals. The second group was subdivided into 3 sub-group ( each five: diabetic, diabetic rats treated with chromium, and diabetic rats treated with melatonin. Diabetes was induced by a single intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate in dose of 60 mg/ kg body weight (BW. The experiment was carried for forty-two days. Computer image analysis was used to measure the thickness of the basement membranes of the seminiferous tubules, the perimeter of the seminiferous tubules and the number of Leydig cells. Results: In diabetic rats the seminiferous tubules showed statistically significant decrease in diameter, irregular outline and deformed shape because there was degeneration and disappearance of germ cells from many tubules. There was significant thickening of the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules also detected. Ultrastructurally, nuclei of germ cells showed rarefied chromium and separated areas of nuclear envelop. Spermatids showed abnormal condensed nuclear chromatin surrounded by membranes with focal areas of discontinuity together with vacuolation of Sertoli cell cytoplasm. Melatonin and chromium improved the diabetic alteration in the basement membranes, diameter of the seminiferous tubules and the number of Leydig cells but they did not return to the control values. The improvement with melatonin was more than that with chromium. Conclusion: From the present study, it could be concluded that, melatonin and chromium showed a protective effect on histological alterations of the testis of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.
I G Bako; Abubakar, M S; M.A. Mabrouk; Mohammed, A.
Lactogenic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed was evaluated on serum prolactin and milk production in lactating albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were grouped randomly at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n = 6). The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline), metoclopramide (5 mg/kg) and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg) respectively from day 3-17 of lactat...
Sabah S.A. Al-Tekrity
Full Text Available The effect of heat stress was studied over two months (July and August by using thirty adult male rats. The animals were divided into six groups (five animals per each group and tested for 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days, under controlled condition (45±5°C. The clinical observation indicated significant decrease in activity and body weight associated with oligourea and hypophagia. All these signs were prominent after five days of the experiment. The kidneys of rats under heat stress showed degenerated glomeruli began at 7th day of the study and widening of the capsular space. Atrophy of some glomeruli was also noticed. With prolong exposure to heat changes in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules were prominent when compared with normal rats’ kidneys.
The functional organization of the visual system was studied in the albino rat. Metabolic differences were measured using the 14C-2-deoxyglucose (DG) autoradiographic technique during visual stimulation of one entire retina in unrestrained animals. All optic centers responded to changes in light intensity but to different degrees. The greatest change occurred in the superior colliculus, less in the lateral geniculate, and considerably less in second-order sites such as layer IV of visual cortex. These optic centers responded in particular to on/off stimuli, but showed no incremental change during pattern reversal or movement of orientation stimuli. Both the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate increased their metabolic rate as the frequency of stimulation increased, but the magnitude was twice as great in the colliculus. The histological pattern of metabolic change in the visual system was not homogenous. In the superior colliculus glucose utilization increased only in stratum griseum superficiale and was greatest in visuotopic regions representing the peripheral portions of the visual field. Similarly, in the lateral geniculate, only the dorsal nucleus showed an increased response to greater stimulus frequencies. Second-order regions of the visual system showed changes in metabolism in response to visual stimulation, but no incremental response specific for type or frequency of stimuli. To label proteins of axoplasmic transport to study the terminal fields of retinal projections 14C-amino acids were used. This was done to study how the differences in the magnitude of the metabolic response among optic centers were related to the relative quantity of retinofugal projections to these centers
Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Akbar, Atif; Iqbal, Furhan
Creatine monohydrate (Cr) is a dietary supplement known to improve cognitive functions and has positive therapeutic results under various clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2 % Cr supplementation on learning, memory formation, neuromuscular coordination, exploratory and locomotory in male albino mice following hypoxic ischemic insult. At postnatal day, 10 male albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8 % hypoxia for 25 min. On postnatal day 20, male mice were separated from the litter and divided into two groups on the basis of special diet supplementation. One group was supplemented with 2 % Cr in diet while the other group was raised on ordinary rodent chow for 8 weeks. Behavioral observations were made during rota rod, open field and Morris water maze test for both treatments. It was observed that supplementation with 2 % Cr for 8 weeks following neonatal brain damage resulted in enhanced muscular strength, neuromuscular coordination and improved body weight. In Morris water maze test, it was observed that Cr supplementation significantly improved mean swimming speed and mice on 2?% Cr diet covered more distance but the spatial memory was not improved significantly following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). Open field parameters and percentage of infarct volume remained unaffected following Cr supplementation. We concluded that 2 % dietary Cr supplementation has a potential to improve the muscle strength and body weight in male albino mice following (HIE) and should be considered for the treatment of neurological ailments. PMID:25511980
Full Text Available Background Chronic stress increases glucocorticoid levels and accelerates reduction in Leydig cells functions and numbers. Chronic stress models in the working place comprise sleep deprivation, sedentary stress, and physical stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various work stress models, such as stress from paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD, immobilization, and footshock, on serum testosterone levels and number of Leydig cells in male albino rats. Methods This study was of experimental randomized post-test only with control group design using 24 male Wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The sample was divided into 4 groups: K1 (control, K2 (PSD, K3 (immobilization and K4 (footshock, receiving treatment for 25 days. Measured parameters were serum testosterone level and Leydig cell number. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by post hoc LSD. Results Mean serum testosterone levels (0.07 ± 0.08 ng/mL and Leydig cell numbers (4.22 ± l0.96 were lowest in the PSD stress model. Serum testosterone levels differed significantly between controls and PSD group (p=0.014, while there was a significant difference in numbers of Leydig cells between footshock stress and PSD (p=0.011 and between the three stress groups and controls (p=0.006. Conclusion This study demonstrated that PSD, immobilization and footshock stress significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and number of Leydig cells in male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The mechanism by which PSD affects serum testosterone is still unclear.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic stress increases glucocorticoid levels and accelerates reduction in Leydig cells functions and numbers. Chronic stress models in the working place comprise sleep deprivation, sedentary stress, and physical stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various work stress models, such as stress from paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD, immobilization, and footshock, on serum testosterone levels and number of Leydig cells in male albino rats. METHODS This study was of experimental randomized post-test only with control group design using 24 male Wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The sample was divided into 4 groups: K1 (control, K2 (PSD, K3 (immobilization and K4 (footshock, receiving treatment for 25 days. Measured parameters were serum testosterone level and Leydig cell number. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by post hoc LSD. RESULTS Mean serum testosterone levels (0.07 ± 0.08 ng/ml and Leydig cell numbers (4.22 ± l0.96 were lowest in the PSD stress model. Serum testosterone levels differed significantly between controls and PSD group (p=0.014, while there was a significant difference in numbers of Leydig cells between footshock stress and PSD (p=0.011 and between the three stress groups and controls (p=0.006. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated that PSD, immobilization and footshock stress significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and number of Leydig cells in male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The mechanism by which PSD affects serum testosterone is still unclear.
Bondarenko Larysa Borysivna
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Comparative estimation of metabolic syndrome (MS mediated changes of blood, cardio-vascular system, liver, pancreas and kidneys morphologic structure in adult and pubertal rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar albino male rats of two age categories (young animals of 21 days age (50-70g and adults (160-180g were divided into 4 groups (8 animals in each: 1 - Control 1 (intact young rats; 2 - Control 2 (intact adult rats; 3 - MS3 (young rats with MS and 4 - MS4 (adult rats with MS. The metabolic syndrome model was induced by full replacement of drinking water with 20% fructose solution (200g/l. After 60 days of MS modeling, determination of rat hematological and serum biochemical parameters, glucose tolerance, blood pressure, liver rates of lipid peroxydation and chromatin DNA fragmentation, as well as morphological macroscopic and microscopic studies were carried out. Results: In pubertal rats, glucose tolerance, hypertension, blood clotting disturbances, DNAfragmentation and lipid peroxydation rates were affected more profoundly, while mature rats showed greater Pseudo Pelger-Huet anomaly development, serum cholesterol and lipoproteins increases, liver and kidney morphology changes. Conclusions: Our current data combined with previous results of other authors allow us to conclude that an animal model (Wistar rats of MS is quite easily obtained in a full age range, from juvenile to mature rats.
To compare effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and Nigella sativa on serum lipids in albino rats. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pathology Department of Postgraduate Medical Institute, for 12 weeks. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trials. Material and Methods: Seventy two albino rats were selected and randomly divided into six groups of twelve animals with equal number of male and female in each. Fourteen days after acclimatization to the environment and basal diet, fasting blood samples (zero week) were collected by heart puncture under ether anesthesia and experimental diets were started which were continued for 12 weeks. All parameters were measured using enzymatic colorimetric methods. Results: Estimations of serum lipids showed increase in total cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) levels but fall in LDL-c concentrations in groups fed on canola oil diet. On the other hand, even atherogenic supplemented groups had decrease in cardio-protective HDL-c and raised LDL-c; although statistically non-significant. Thus canola oil diets were not hyperlipidaemic and prevented adiposity. Nigella sativa (NS) diets significantly decreased serum total cholesterol and LDL-c while HDL-c was raised but non-significantly. Thus Nigella sativa prevented deposition of lipids in tissues, thus preventing tendency to obesity and atherogenesis by decreasing LDL-c in serum. Conclusion: Nigella sativa produces antilipidaemic and anti-obesity effects by decreasing low density lipoprotein cholesterol level which is statistically significant in two out of the three groups fed on Ns; it also increased high density cholesterol which was however non-significant in comparison with Canola oil alone. (author)
Lamia M. Farghaly* , Nagwan A. Sabak ** and Naglaa A. El-sherbeny
Full Text Available Aim of the study: This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effects of L- treptophan "a precursor of melatonin" and alpha lipoic acid against L- arginine-induced experimental acute pancreatitis in albino rats. Methods: Fourty adult male albino rats (200- 250g were randomized into 4 groups (n= 10. Group I, the control group was given 0.9% saline intraperitoneally (i.p. Group II, was given 500 mg/100g L-arginine (i.p as a single dose to induce acute pancreatitis. Group III: was given 250mg/kg L-tryptophan (i.p 30 min prior to L- arginine injection. Group IV: was given 50mg/kg alpha lipioc acid(i.p 30 min prior to L-arginine. Before scarifice, blood samples were obtained from all groups to assay serum amylase and interleukin 6. Animals were sacrificed after 6 hours. For the histopathological study, pancreatic tissue was prepared for histological (H&E, PAS histochemical ( Tween stain for lipases and immunohistochemical ( Bax stain for apoptosis techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were done to assess the degree of acinar cells affection Results: It was revealed that serum amylase and interleukin 6 in group II rose rapidly. Microscopically, severe acinar cells degeneration, interstitial edema, diffuse bleeding and inflammatory infiltration were demonstrated. These changes were markedly improved with the administration of both L- tryptophan and alpha lipoic acid. Conclusion: It was concluded that both L- tryptophan & alpha lipoic acid reduced the effects of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis with better protection achieved by L-tryptophan administration.
Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan
IL-6 has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia while IL-8 is a pro inflammatory cytokine structurally related to interleukin-1 family. In the present study, we tried to determine whether 2% Creatine monohydrate supplementation for variable duration influence the IL-6 and 18 concentrations in the serum of male albino mouse following right common carotid artery ligation and hypoxia (8% oxygen) for 25 minutes. Our result revealed that serum concentration of IL6 (P=0.0001) as well as IL-18 (P=0.003) were significantly higher in mice supplemented with creatine monohydrate for 15 weeks than in male albino mice on normal rodent diet following hypoxic ischemic insult indicating that long term creatine monohydrate supplementation up regulates the IL-6 and IL-18 concentrations triggering the neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective responses. PMID:26639507
Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the effect of metformin and the combined activity of P. daemia and metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS induced rats. Female albino wistar rats (150- 180 g were injected with Testosterone propionate (TP for the development PCOS. The PCOS induced rats were divided into two groups, one were treated with metformin and the other were treated with the combination of metformin and Pergularia daemia extract over a period of 15 days. The vaginal smear and histological studies proved the combined efficacy of metformin and the P. daemia extract by restoring the estrous cycle and re-establishment of the ovarian morphology. The biochemical and hormonal assays also confirms the same. Thus we conclude that the combined activity of metfromin and P. daemia extract is an effective medicine in treating PCOS than metformin alone.
Dubey Subodh; Verma Vijendra K.; Sahu Amit K.; Jain Amit K; Tiwari Akash
The present study was carried with the rhizomes of Costus Speciosus Linn, belonging to family Zingiberaceae. It is an erect perennial herb and has recently gained importance as a commercial source of diosgenin and commonly known as “Push Kara“, “Kashmeera”, “Keu” and Kust. In Pharmacological screening the effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of rhizomes of Costus Speciosus Linn was evaluated in Albino rats of either sex (150-200g) for diuretic activity at a dose of 250mg/kg. b.w. the effe...
The organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are the most widely used substances employed in agriculture and pollute the environment. On the other hand, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in Egypt. The present study was performed to investigate the toxic interaction of the OP insecticide cyolane and Schistosoma mansoni infection on the liver and kidney functions, blood glucose and insulin hormone in male albino mice. The obtained data indicated that treatment of normal mice or those infected by S.mansoni with cyolane at daily dose levels of 1/50 or 1/20 LD 50 significantly increased AST, ALT, total and direct bilirubin, urea and creatinine. Also, fluctuations in fasting glucose levels and in insulin hormone were recorded in cyolane treated groups. These fluctuations were pronounced in infected - treated groups. Histopathological investigation revealed that, hepatic tissue sections in S. mansoni infected group showed both cellular and fibrocellular granuloma around ova. In S. mansoni infected group and treated with cyolane, the mean number of granuloma was decreased. The granulomas were fibrocellular rather than cellular. The foci of the inflammatory cells detected in hepatic parenchyma without ova were characteristic in infected - treated groups. Consequently, exposure to insecticides should be avoided specially in the rural areas where schistosomiasis is still endemic
Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M.Moussa Sharaf**
Full Text Available Background: Fatty liver is now one of the most common diseases in Egypt. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds.The current investigation was carried out to examine the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days resulting in steatosis and c chicory treated group; which was treated with chicory water extract (70 mg/kg for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days and c drug protection group; which received chicory for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment with chicory ameliorated most of the evaluated biochemical parameters and improved the induced degenerative histopathological changes. The pre-treatment with chicory before the induction of fatty liver gave some protection against factors that experimentally induced fatty liver. Conclusion: Chicory as diet additive is recommend for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.
Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M. Moussa Sharaf**
Full Text Available Fatty liver causes were markedly increased in Egyptian people throughout last years. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds. Ginger is a natural dietary rhizome with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger treated group; which was treated with ginger water extract (125 mg/kg for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120 mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger protective group; which received ginger for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment with ginger ameliorated most of the evaluated biochemical parameters and improved the induced degenerative histopathological changes. The pre-treatment with ginger before the induction of fatty liver gave some protection against factors that experimentally induced fatty liver. Conclusion: Ginger as diet additive is recommend for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.
El-Anany, A. M.
Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend a reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intake as a means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and CVD. The main objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of feeding blended oils consisting of coconut oil (CNO with different proportions of Tiger nut oil (TNO on serum lipid levels in Albino rats. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of the blended oils. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with coconut oil at the volume ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 25:75, 10:90 and 0:100. Fifty-six male albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 8 rats each according to the oil type. The blended oils were fed to rats for a period of up to 10 weeks. Total cholesterol (T-Ch, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch, and triglycerides (TG, were determined. The atherogenic Index (AI was calculated. The results showed that non-significant changes in all nutritional parameters were observed between the control group and the rats fed with the tested oils. The results also indicate that coconut oil had 86% saturated fatty acids. On TNO contains 66% oleic acid. Therefore, blending coconut oil with tiger nut oil can reduce the proportions of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in CNO. The rats that were fed blended oils showed significantly reduced levels of serum cholesterol as compared to those fed CNO. The HDL levels were marginally enhanced in the rats that were fed blended oils. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were controlled when TNO/CNO proportions varied between 25/75 and 70/30. This was reflected in the calculation of the atherogenic index. Similar changes were observed with serum triglyceride levels.
La hiperlipidemia es un factor de riesgo predominante para la aterosclerosis y las enfermedades cardiovasculares asociadas (ECV. Las directrices internacionales emitidas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud recomiendan una reducción de grasas saturadas y colesterol, como medio para prevenir la hipercolesterolemia y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. El principal objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar los efectos de una alimentación conteniendo mezclas de aceites, que consiste en aceite de coco (CNO con diferentes proporciones de aceite de chufa (TNO, sobre los niveles de lípidos en suero en ratas albinas. Se realizó un análisis GLC para determinar la composición de ácidos grasos de los aceites mezclados. Los aceites se obtuvieron mezclando aceite de chufa con aceite de coco en las relaciones:100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 25:75, 10:90 y 0:100 (volumen:volumen. Cincuenta y seis ratas albinas macho se dividieron aleatoriamente en 7 grupos de 8 ratas cada uno, según el tipo de aceite y se alimentaron durante un período de hasta 10 semanas con las mezclas de aceites. Se determinó el colesterol total (T-Ch, colesterol en lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL-Ch, colesterol en lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL-Ch, triglicéridos (TG y el índice aterogénico (IA. Los resultados mostraron cambios no significativos en todos los parámetros nutricionales entre el grupo control y las ratas alimentadas con los aceites ensayados. Los resultados también indican que el aceite de coco tiene un 86% de ácidos grasos saturados. TNO por otro lado contiene un 66% de ácido oleico. Por lo tanto, una mezcla de aceite de coco con aceite de chufa reduce la relación de ácidos grasos saturados a insaturados del CNO. Las ratas alimentadas con las mezclas de aceites mostraron niveles significativamente mas bajos de colesterol en suero en comparación con los de CNO. Los niveles de HDL mejoraron ligeramente en las ratas alimentadas con las mezclas de aceites. El colesterol total y colesterol LDL estuvieron controlados cuando las proporciones TNO / CNO variaron entre el 25/75
Parathion in technical or formulated form at a sub-lethal dose of 1/20 LD50 was applied orally or dermally at 2-day interval for three months to determine its effect on RNA, DNA and protein content as well as RNA ase and DNA ase activity in different organs liver, brain and kidneys of adult male albino rats. Also, serum GOT, GPT and ALP activity as well as serum total soluble protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin and uric acid content were determined in adult male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). In addition, the present studies were undertaken to investigate different biological activities of the above parameters of black nightshades (Solanum nigrum L) methanolic extract. Two kinds of experimental works were taken off (antioxidants and protective). The results showed that technical and formulated parathion increased RNA and protein content but the content of DNA was insignificantly decreased in all rat organs tissue (liver, brain and kidneys) relative to control. The activity of RNA ase was also stimulated. In case of liver and kidney functions the present data observed that serum GOT, GPT and ALP activity was stimulated but total soluble protein, albumin and globulin content was decreased but the urea, uric acid and bilirubin content of serum was increased. Also, liver lipid peroxidation was elevated significantly either by technical or formulated parathion (ingested orally or induced dermally). It should be noted that formulated parathion ingested orally was the most effective, but the technical one had the lowest toxicity. The results of the present studies showed that crude methanolic extract of black nightshades ripe fruits has a strong antioxidant activity as showed by DPPH, nitric oxide scavenging, total reducing power, Fenton's reaction and total antioxidant capacity assay. Finally the the methanolic extract of the present medicinal plant observed a valuable influence as a protective agent in vivo in serum, liver, brain and kidneys damage of parathion intoxicated rats represented by improvements the all previous parameters which were disturbed by the both forms of parathion either induced orally or dermally
Full Text Available The reproductive performance of rats given graded levels of the Nigerian Qua-Iboe brent crude oil was investigated in 32 female wistar albino rats. The experiment was divided into three parts, whereby, crude oil was given orally at the dose of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mL, corresponding to Groups A, B and C, respectively, for four weeks, while the untreated group served as control (Group D. Experiment one investigated the effect of the crude oil on the oestrous cycle in rats divided into four groups of four replicates, monitored for four consecutive cycles for regularity of oestrous cycle using vaginal cytology. Three of the four groups were drenched with graded levels of the crude oil while remaining group served as the control. Experiment two investigated the effect of crude oil on gestation, using another set of female Wistar albino rats which were grouped and drenched as in experiment one. Mating was monogamous, while drenching done every other day following mating. The gestation length, litter size, stillbirth and gross malformation of foetuses were monitored. The same group of animals in experiment two was used for experiment three, whereby the animals were drenched prior to mating and until parturition. Results showed irregularity of oestrous cycle in the drenched groups, with significant differences (p<0.05 existing between the experimental group and control group considering stillbirths, conception rates, gestation length and litter size. These findings suggested that exposure to Nigerian Qua-Iboe Brent crude oil affected the reproductive performance of the rats.
Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. The raw matured seeds which have been reported to be used as food and clarifying agent of turbid water caused growth retardation in albino rats and this might have been due to its anti-nutritional contents. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soaking the seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done. Its effect on growth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rats were investigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weights measured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 Chemistry Analyzer. The growth rates of rats fed with the commercial rat pellets, Casilan diet and the processed Moringa seed diet had a range of 80.06±3.54 to 100.98±5.37, 66.70±7.54 to 55.23±7.47 and 52.99±4.15 to 35.47±2.26, respectively. The parameters assayed for the group that received the processed Moringa seed diet are 144.00±16.80 (AST, 41.00±7.05 (ALT, 66.50±8.80 (ALP and 12.45±1.18 (Total Bilirubin. The one-way ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the parameters of all the groups at 95% significance level (pMoringa oleifera seed did not support growth in the animal subjects and also did not pose a threat to the liver. However, it is better to develop more suitable processing methods to improve the seed’s nutritional capabilities.
Nowadays, it is easy and common to eat unhealthy food with poor nutritional value, low micro nutrients and high content of calories which may called junk or fast food. The present study aimed to shed the light on the hazardous effects of long term consumption of potato chips and ketchup as a model of the most popular fast food toppings or garnishing accessories. Eighty male and female rats were divided into four equal groups, each of ten rats. For four weeks, the animals were fed on basal diet (group 1), basal diet supplemented with 2 g of potato chips (group 2), basal diet supplemented with 1 g ketchup (group 3) while group 4 was supplemented with 2 g potato chips + 1 g ketchup beside their basal diet. The mortality was recorded in all treated groups but reached the maximum rate in males of group 4. The toxicological symptoms like tremors, dermatitis with general hair loss from the body, especially on the face region and eye bulge, were found in almost treated groups. The red blood cells count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) were significantly decreased in group 2 (supplemented with potato chips) and group 4 (supplemented with both potato chips + ketchup) as compared with control one. Significant reductions in white blood cells count (WBC) were observed in rats of groups 2 and 4 except in females of group 2. Lipid profile was affected seriously, especially in rats of group 2 (supplemented with potato chips), whereas significant increases were recorded in TC, TG, LDL-C and atherogenic index, and significant reduction in HDL-C, especially in males, was recorded. The testosterone level was significantly reduced in all treated groups as compared to control group. The estradiol level was significantly increased in groups 2 and 4 as compared to group 3 and controls. In all parameters, the males were more seriously affected than females which may be related to gender differences in body composition, estrogen levels, growth rate, differences in food metabolism and toxin elimination, and group 4 was the most dangerously affected group. The present study revealed that potato chips is dangerous for human health and we should decrease our consumption from it as possible and try to return to the home made balanced diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables and avoiding deep fried food.
The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).
The Antioxidant effect of Sumac; Rhus coriaria L. against whole body gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative damage in lung and liver tissues was investigated in albino rats. To achieve the ultimate goal of this study, 48 adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12 animals each. Group I: Control group. Group II: Irradiated with a single dose of 5Gy gamma-rays. Group III: Fed with sumac orally (300 mg/ kg body wt/ day) for 10 days. Group IV: Fed sumac (300 mg/ kg body wt) for 3 days pre-irradiation and 7 days after-radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed 1 and 7 days after a single exposure to ?-rays. The animals exposed to gamma radiation recorded significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total nitrate oxide (NO) levels in both lung and liver tissues. Also the results revealed, significant decrease in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), in lung and liver tissues. Moreover, a significant increase in plasma glucose accompanied with a significant decrease in insulin level was observed in irradiated rats. Administration of sumac for 10 days to rats prior and post gamma irradiation improved the tested parameters except glucose. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicated that sumac could increase the antioxidant defence mechanism in rat and there by protects the animals from radiation-induced organs toxicity but it may increase the blood sugar, therefore in diabetic patient be considered
Sherif E.A. Badr
Full Text Available In this study, the rheological properties of composite flour and their guar meal blends were studied by farinography. The water absorption percent, arrival time, development time, dough stability, mixing tolerance, ash, protein, falling number, baking strength, index of swelling and extensibility were estimated. The effect of feeding guar seeds powder on liver enzymes (GOT and GPT and kidney functions (urea and creatinine of rats were investigated. The results showed that diets with 5% guar seeds powder had the best effect on GOT (17.7 U L-1, GPT (22.2 U L-1, urea (26.0 mg dL-1 and creatinine (0.83 mg dL-1. Histopathological studies were also carried out in the kidney and liver of the albino rats.
Latif Abdul; Ahmad Shamshad; Tajuddin; Qasmi Iqbal
Abstract Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250...
The effect of whole body gamma-irradiation on the levels of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine was studied in the desert rodent, Psammomys obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats, the levels of uric acid in plasma and urine were higher in the animals kept on high protein diets than in those maintained on non-protein ones. Radiation exposure caused a significant increase in uric acid concentration both in plasma and urine of albino rats, whereas in Psammomys obesus obesus, it exerted a significant drop in uric acid concentration in blood paralleling a marked rise in the daily uric acid excretion in the urine, especially with the high radiation level of 1170 r. Creatinine concentrations in plasma and urine of albino rats were higher than the corresponding values in Psammomys obesus obesus. Radiation exposure in general caused an increase in the creatinine concentration in blood and a decrease in its concentration in urine. Plasma creatine was shown to increase due to the effect of radiation exposure. This runs in parallel with the increase in the excretion of creatine in urine. Creatinuria observed in whole body irradiation is obviously caused by a defect in the ability of skeletal muscle to take up creatine from blood. Such abnormality could be the result of direct damage to the muscle caused by incident radiation
Full Text Available Garlic is an ayurvedic herb that has been extensively used as medication and as the taste enhancer of the food. The present investigation was undertaken to provide data on the efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. extract on glycogen deposition and protein metabolism in female albino rats that may further explore medicinal potential of garlic. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight as low, medium and high dose respectively and given orally for the period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days daily to the rats of group B, C and D as stated above. The significant (P<0.01 & P<0.05 increase in glycogen and protein level was observed when rats were fed with low and medium dose but when rats were fed with high dose of garlic extract there was significant (P<0.01 decrease in glycogen level and a not significant decrease in protein level was observed.
Full Text Available Lactogenic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed was evaluated on serum prolactin and milk production in lactating albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were grouped randomly at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n = 6. The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline, metoclopramide (5 mg/kg and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. Milk yield for rats were estimated by pup weight and weight gain. The animals were then euthanized on the day 18 and serum prolactin was analyzed using prolactin kit. The prolactin level of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa howed a significant increase (p<0.01 when compared to control group. Pup weight gain was also significantly higher (p<0.05 than the control group. This can be deduced that ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seed has lactogenic activity because it increases serum prolactin level and milk production in lactating female albino rats. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seed stimulate prolactin synthesis; release and milk production in albino rats and it is affordable and safe for consumption.
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Coccinia grandis root extract against paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress in wistar albino rats. The ethanolic extracts of Coccinia grandis (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg were administered orally to the animals and hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (750mg/kg. The extracts were administered orally by suspending in 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose solution. Silymarin (25mg/kg was given as reference standard. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis roots produced a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SGOT, SGPT, SALP, Total bilirubin and Direct bilirubin and it also produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in Total protein when compared to paracetamol treated group indicating hepatoprotective action. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis root produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in SOD, CAT and GSH activity when compared to paracetamol treated group and it also produced significant (P<0.01 increase in activity of Px and GPx at 400mg/kg dose, indicating antioxidant activity. But it produced less significant in Px at 200mg/kg dose and it showed no significant activity in GPx at 200mg/kg dose. The histopathological study of liver section of rat treated with ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis (200 and 400 mg/kg showed mild hepatocyte degeneration. It was concluded from the result that ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats.
Smitha, K K; Mukkadan, J K
Stress is common for all organisms either in the form of eustress (beneficial) or as distress (harmful). Stress is highly diverse in present world and its effects in organisms are well studied. This study is a comparative effect of stress in the generation of reactive oxygen species in albino Wistar rats, which are seldom reported. Here animals were grouped into four and the test animals of each group were administered with any one of the following stress, namely forced swimming induced stress (FS), and noise induced stress (NS), immobilization stress (IS) and overcrowding stress (OS). After stress administration, serum cortisol was estimated as a bio marker of stress in the albino rats, and the liver homogenate were used to estimate superoxide dismutase (SOD) by using rat Elisa kit in the spectrophotometer. The data were processed with unpaired 't' test. The cortisol levels were found to be increased in a highly significant level (P stress level was found to be maximum in the FS group in comparison with other groups. The mean cortisol level in different stress groups such as FS, NS, IS and OS were found to be 4.15, 3.7, 3.63, 3.62 ? gm/dl respectively. Among all the stressed groups, the SOD level in the FS group were found to be increased in a highly significant level (P < 0.001) in comparison with normal control group. The SOD level in FS group was (30.75 U/mgm. protein) followed by OS (28.96), noise (28.88) and IS (28.77). PMID:25906605
This paper studies the effect of chronic immobilization stress on the kinetics of corneal epithelial cells from the basal layer into higher layers. Experiments were carried out on 49 male rats. The animals were given an intraperitoneal injection of tritium-thymidine and an additional application of 5 microCi of tritium-thymidine was made to its surface because the cornea has no blood supply. The animals were killed and the cornea removed for investigation. Values of the index of labeled nuclei and intensity of thymidine labeling, characterizing DNA synthesis in the corneas of the control and experimental animals showed no significant change compared with their values in a pervious series of experiments. Chronic exposure to stress increased the velocity of vertical migration of the cells from the basal layer toward the outer layers of the cornea
Mohammed Ibrahim, Khaja Zeeya Uddin and Mangamoori Lakshmi Narasu
Aim: To study the Diuretic activity of Boswellia serrata Bark extracts.Methods: Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Ethanol and aqueous extracts of Bark of Boswellia serrata werescreened for Diuretic activity. The extracts were subjected to HPTLC finger printing and phytochemicalscreening to confirm the presence of active constituents. The Diuretic activity was investigated in Albino ratsand was compared with control. Diuretic activity of the plant extracts was evaluated by measurements of variouspa...
Full Text Available To study the effects of ?-carotene on the body growth and physiological antioxidants, male weanling rats were fed with low and high amount of ?-carotene before four weeks and after six months of Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1 treatment (0.5 mg kg-1 body wt., on alternate days, total 10 doses, i.p. The results were compared with animals treated with AFB1. The final body weight of AFB1 treated animals was significantly reduced in the normal group (NVE. Plasma vitamin E was reduced significantly in NVE group whereas vitamin C levels decreased significantly in NVE and low ?-carotene (LBE fed group. The maximum reduction was found in NVE group. Plasma GSH levels were increased significantly in animals in high ?-carotene (HBC fed group. Liver protein showed significant reduction in NVE group. Liver lipid peroxidation was increased significantly in NVE and LBE groups. Liver vitamin A showed dose dependent increased levels in animals fed with high amount of ?-carotene. Vitamin E was decreased significantly in NVE group. Liver antioxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase levels were reduced significantly in the treated animals of the NVE group. Results obtained indicated that ?-carotene supplementation elevated the levels of vitamin C, glutathione and glutathione related enzymes which act as a free radical scavenger and reduced the toxicity effect of AFB1 in rats.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control were administered 10 mL?kg body weight distilled water (vehicle, group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra, while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3. Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Results Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.
Vlk, J; Volín, M; Smetanová, J
The authors studied the effect of repeated elevation of sympathetic activity on the postnatal development of the noradrenaline content of tissues of the albino rat. Between the ages of 15 and 29 days, young rats were forced to swim in water heated to 25 degrees C, 3 X 30 min on weekdays and 1 X 30 min on Saturdays and Sundays. At 30, 45 and 65 days, the noradrenaline content of the tissues was determined spectrofluorometricaLly by the trihydroxyindole method. The noradrenaline content of the heart of trained rats was higher than in the controls in all the given age groups and the size of the absolute difference rose with advancing age. The noradrenaline content of the spleen developed similarly. Repeated exercise did not lead to an increase in the noradrenaline content of skeletal muscle. The results show that the repeated elevation of the activity of sympathetic adrenergic neurones which occurs in young rats during exercise is a long-term factor stimulating the development of sympathetic innervation of the heart and spleen. The development of the neurones innervating skeletal muscle was not stimulated, probably because the activity of these neurones is not increased by stress. PMID:2931735
Rodgers, I S; Baetcke, K. P.
Based on an analysis of recent scientific studies, a Technical Panel of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Risk Assessment Forum recently advised EPA risk assessors against using information on certain male rat renal tubule tumors to assess human risk under conditions specified in a new Forum report. Risk assessment approaches generally assume that chemicals producing tumors in laboratory animals are a potential cancer hazard to humans. For most chemicals, including classical ro...
Sharma Gauri D
Full Text Available Abstract Background The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals for supporting the immune system or fighting infections is based on centuries-old tradition. Macrophages are involved at all the stages of an immune response. The present study focuses on the immunostimulant properties of Tinospora cordifolia extract that are exerted on circulating macrophages isolated from CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight intoxicated male albino mice. Methods Apart from damaging the liver system, carbon tetrachloride also inhibits macrophage functions thus, creating an immunocompromised state, as is evident from the present study. Such cell functions include cell morphology, adhesion property, phagocytosis, enzyme release (myeloperoxidase or MPO, nitric oxide (NO release, intracellular survival of ingested bacteria and DNA fragmentation in peritoneal macrophages isolated from these immunocompromised mice. T. cordifolia extract was tested for acute toxicity at the given dose (150 mg/kg body weight by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay. Results The number of morphologically altered macrophages was increased in mice exposed to CCl4. Administration of CCl4 (i.p. also reduced the phagocytosis, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release properties of circulating macrophages of mice. The DNA fragmentation of peritoneal macrophages was observed to be higher in CCl4 intoxicated mice. The bacterial killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages was also adversely affected by CCl4. However oral administration of aqueous fraction of Tinospora cordifolia stem parts at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight (in vivo in CCl4 exposed mice ameliorated the effect of CCl4, as the percentage of morphologically altered macrophages, phagocytosis activity, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release, DNA fragmentation and intracellular killing capacity of CCl4 intoxicated peritoneal macrophages came closer to those of the control group. No acute toxicity was identified in oral administration of the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. Conclusion From our findings it can be suggested that, polar fractions of Tinospora cordifolia stem parts contain major bioactive compounds, which directly act on peritoneal macrophages and have been found to boost the non-specific host defenses of the immune system. However, the molecular mechanism of this activity of Tinospora cordifolia on immune functions needs to be elucidated.
Semchenko, V V; Stepanov, S S; Nikel', A E; Akulinin, V A
Total short term ischemia of brain was induced experimentally in albino rats (10 min long clamp of heart vascular bundle). Using Golgi Silver nitrate impregnation geometry of pyramidal neurons dendritic tree was studied in sector of hippocampus in norm, postischemic period (d 1.30 and 90) healthy animals and those predisposed to cramps. Significant reduction of dendrite volume, total length, dendrite territory, parameters of dendrite arborization were shown on the background of stable numerical density of neurons in all animals who survived brain ischemia. The extent of reduction, volume and duration of changes of parameters of dendritic tree geometry was higher in animals predisposed to cramps than in high threshold animals without cramps. Possible mechanisms of postischemic neuron "epileptization" were discussed. PMID:11210456
Carbini, L; Lantini, T; Orgiana, G; Scarpa, A L; Padalino, A
Albino rats (Sprague-Dawley) of mean weight 100 g were divided into four groups and given for 7 days a balanced diet. They were then placed in metabolic cages for fifteen days and fed diets containing different quantities of casein: 18% (D18), 36% (D36), 50% (D50) and 72% (D72). The levels of total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase activity, total proteins and urea were determined. The urinary and fecal excretion of calcium were determined on specimens of urine and stool collected every two days. The metabolic balance of nitrogen was also estimated. The results show there is not a linear relationship between a high protein diet and plasma protein levels, but a progressive body calcium loss was observed with the increase of casein in the diet, which confirms what other workers have already suggested. PMID:553535
Full Text Available The present study was carried with the rhizomes of Costus Speciosus Linn, belonging to family Zingiberaceae. It is an erect perennial herb and has recently gained importance as a commercial source of diosgenin and commonly known as “Push Kara“, “Kashmeera”, “Keu” and Kust. In Pharmacological screening the effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of rhizomes of Costus Speciosus Linn was evaluated in Albino rats of either sex (150-200g for diuretic activity at a dose of 250mg/kg. b.w. the effect was compared with furesemide (100mg/kg. b.w. as standard drug in diuretic activity. Both extracts significantly increased the urine output as well as urinary electrolyte concentration. Pet. Ether was found to be least potent. Thus from study and literature, It can concluded that Costus Speciosus Linn have potent diuretic activity.
Volín, M; Vlk, J
Rubidium shifts between the extracellular fluid and cells were studied in the isolated atria of guinea-pig and albino rat hearts. In the young of both species, rubidium transport from the incubation medium to the cells was much slower than in preparations from adult animals. That implies that the efficiency of membrane mechanisms for the transport of Na+ and K+ ions in the atrial tissue increases during postnatal life. This conclusion is further confirmed by the finding that the intracellular potassium concentration in the atrial tissue of the young of both species is lower, and the intracellular sodium concentration higher, than in adult animals. Conversely, the serum potassium concentration in the young is higher, and the serum sodium concentration lower, than in adult individuals. PMID:157489
Mirza Danish Baig
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to conduct phytochemical screening, perform acute oral toxicity effect and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extracts of leaf and stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum on albino Wistar rats. Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma techniques were applied to determine anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts. Extracts were administered orally. Acute oral toxicity studies were conducted using the OECD guidelines 423 Annexure – 2d. The results indicate the mortality was not observed during the toxicity studies and maximum safe does was determined. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extracts showed significant dose dependent effect (200 mg/kg b.w and 400 mg/kg b.w on both acute and chronic models of inflammation i.e., carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma respectively. Additionally, Calophyllum inophyllum leaves extract showed more activity compared to Calophyllum inophyllum stem bark extract.
Laskar, S; Ghosh-Majumdar, S; Basak, B; Maity, C R
The influence of protein, isolated from teak (Tectona grandis) seed upon albino rats with respect to some of their serum, liver and intestinal enzymes and liver lipids has been studied. The protein in question contains aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, lysine, phenylalanine, histidine and arginine as determined by amino acid analyser. After feeding experiment an increase in body weight including the liver weight was noted in the test animals due to excess protein in the diet. A marked increase was observed in G.O.T., G.P.T. and total lipid of liver, whereas G.O.T. and G.P.T. of serum were decreased. The observed increased concentration of lipid in liver may be due to excess addition of protein in diet. The overall observation is an indication of probable fatty infiltration in liver of test animals. PMID:4070763
Mohammed, A.; S M Abubakar; I G Bako; A M Mabrouk
Summary. The effect of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed on pituitary prolactin and milk production was evaluated in albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were randomly grouped at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n=6). The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline), metoclopramide (5mg/kg) and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200mg/kg) respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. ...
Arun Prabhakar Sithara
Full Text Available Background: Antidesma menasu is a folk plant of Euphorbiacae occurring in and around Udupi district in India. It is effectively used in folklore medicine for the management of arthritis, inflammatory bowel disorder and low backache. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the plant in Wistar albino rats. Aqueous extract of leaves of A. menasu were evaluated for possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods:Eddy’s hot plate test and radiant heat test were used for investigation of analgesic effect. Effect of extract on the acute inflammation was investigated on Carrageenan induced paw oedema, and chronic inflammation was investigated on cotton pellet induced granuloma tissue formation test. The test extract was subjected for preliminary phytochemical examination as per standard methodology. Results: The test drug found to inhibit the carrageenan induced paw oedema significantly (p ? 0.05 and there was moderate increase in the latency period in the analgesic test. The results suggest that the test group has high signifi-cant anti-inflammatory potential and there is moderate analgesic activity. The histopathological examination of adrenal cortex, spleen and thymus showed a normal cytoarchitecture comparable with that of normal control group. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of the plant A. menasu revealed the presence of flovanoids, saponins, steroids and phenols. Conclusion: The data obtained supports the traditional folklore therapeutic claim about its anti-inflammatory and anal-gesic activity. Further scientific investigation is required to establish its analgesic and anti-inflammatory property in other experimental models and clinical settings.
Arykerne Chamon do Carmo
Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar os efeitos do uso crônico do fármaco anti-emético domperidona durante toda a prenhez da rata albina. Métodos: foram utilizadas 50 ratas albinas prenhes distribuídas ao acaso em cinco grupos: GI - sem nenhum tratamento (controle I; GII - recebeu água (controle II, GIII, GIV e GV foram tratadas, respectivamente, com 2, 6 e 12 mg/kg de peso corporal por dia de domperidona, com doses fracionadas de 4 em 4 horas, por gavagem, sempre em 1 ml de água destilada, desde o dia zero até o 20º dia de prenhez. O ganho de peso das matrizes foi avaliado no dia zero e no 7º, 14º e 20º dia de prenhez, sendo que no 20º dia todos os animais foram sacrificados. A seguir foram anotados os seguintes parâmetros: número de sítios de implantação, de placentas e de fetos, pesos das placentas e dos fetos, malformações e mortalidade materna e fetal. Resultados: considerando as variáveis apreciadas, o fármaco influiu somente sobre a mortalidade fetal, sendo respectivamente de 14, 26 e 32 óbitos intra-uterinos entre 74, 60 e 57 crias, considerando os grupos III, IV e V. Conclusões: embora os resultados da experimentação animal não possam ser diretamente levados para a clínica humana, este trabalho alerta para os cuidados na prescrição de domperidona durante o período gestacional.Purpose: the aim of the present work was to study the chronic action of the antiemetic domperidone on the pregnancy of albino rats. Methods: fifty albino, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups: GI (control I = intact rats; GII (control II = rats receiving the drug vehicle (distilled water by gavage at the same schedule of the experimental groups; rats in groups GIII, GIV and GV were treated with domperidone by gavage, 2, 6 and 12 mg/kg per day, respectively, divided into 4 daily doses, always in 1 ml of distilled water, from time zero up to the 20th day of pregnancy. The evolution of body weight gain was followed throughout and the animals were sacrificed at term (20th day by deep ether anesthesia. Number of fetuses, placenta and implantation sites, placenta and fetus weight, fetal malformations and maternal and fetal mortality were evaluated. Results: we observed only intrauterine fetal mortality with 14, 26 and 32 in 74, 60 and 57 newborns of the groups III, IV and V, respectively. Conclusion: though the results of animal experimentation cannot directly be transposed to human conditions, this paper calls attention to the need for a safe judgement when prescribing domperidone to a first-trimester pregnant patient in order to reduce her emetic crises.
Arykerne Chamon do, Carmo; Danilo Nagib Salomão, Paulo; Ricardo Martins, Oliveira-Filho; Manuel de Jesus, Simões; Luiz, Kulay Júnior.
Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar os efeitos do uso crônico do fármaco anti-emético domperidona durante toda a prenhez da rata albina. Métodos: foram utilizadas 50 ratas albinas prenhes distribuídas ao acaso em cinco grupos: GI - sem nenhum tratamento (controle I); GII - recebeu água (controle II), GIII, GIV e GV [...] foram tratadas, respectivamente, com 2, 6 e 12 mg/kg de peso corporal por dia de domperidona, com doses fracionadas de 4 em 4 horas, por gavagem, sempre em 1 ml de água destilada, desde o dia zero até o 20º dia de prenhez. O ganho de peso das matrizes foi avaliado no dia zero e no 7º, 14º e 20º dia de prenhez, sendo que no 20º dia todos os animais foram sacrificados. A seguir foram anotados os seguintes parâmetros: número de sítios de implantação, de placentas e de fetos, pesos das placentas e dos fetos, malformações e mortalidade materna e fetal. Resultados: considerando as variáveis apreciadas, o fármaco influiu somente sobre a mortalidade fetal, sendo respectivamente de 14, 26 e 32 óbitos intra-uterinos entre 74, 60 e 57 crias, considerando os grupos III, IV e V. Conclusões: embora os resultados da experimentação animal não possam ser diretamente levados para a clínica humana, este trabalho alerta para os cuidados na prescrição de domperidona durante o período gestacional. Abstract in english Purpose: the aim of the present work was to study the chronic action of the antiemetic domperidone on the pregnancy of albino rats. Methods: fifty albino, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups: GI (control I) = intact rats; GII (control II) = rats receiving the drug vehicle (di [...] stilled water) by gavage at the same schedule of the experimental groups; rats in groups GIII, GIV and GV were treated with domperidone by gavage, 2, 6 and 12 mg/kg per day, respectively, divided into 4 daily doses, always in 1 ml of distilled water, from time zero up to the 20th day of pregnancy. The evolution of body weight gain was followed throughout and the animals were sacrificed at term (20th day) by deep ether anesthesia. Number of fetuses, placenta and implantation sites, placenta and fetus weight, fetal malformations and maternal and fetal mortality were evaluated. Results: we observed only intrauterine fetal mortality with 14, 26 and 32 in 74, 60 and 57 newborns of the groups III, IV and V, respectively. Conclusion: though the results of animal experimentation cannot directly be transposed to human conditions, this paper calls attention to the need for a safe judgement when prescribing domperidone to a first-trimester pregnant patient in order to reduce her emetic crises.
Five groups of albino male rats, every group consist of seven rats, were used to study the effect of microwave proteins on liver, kidney functions and blood parameters. Control group was fed on 10% casein. The 2nd one was fed on 10% protein from microwave chicken. The 3rd one was fed on 10% protein from boiled chicken. The 4th one was fed on 10% protein from microwave kidney beans. The 5th one was fed on 10% protein from boiled kidney beans. The time of experiment was seven weeks. The biochemical parameters included (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, total lipids, triglyceride, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, creatinin, uric acid and amino acids). The group of rats fed on microwave chicken showed more increase in cholesterol level than the group fed on boiled chicken. The group fed on microwave kidney beans showed decrease in cholesterol level. The group fed on microwave chicken showed decrease in HDL and increase in LDL. The highest activity of SGOT was shown in group fed on microwave kidney beans followed by the group fed on microwave chicken. The groups fed on boiled kidney beans and boiled chicken proteins showed significant increase in SGPT activity. The group fed on boiled kidney beans have the highest activity of ALP enzyme; but the group fed on microwave chicken showed increase in the activity of ALP enzyme compared to the control group. The feeding of microwave chicken leads to increase in creatinine and uric acid levels in comparison to the control group. Microwave cooking leads to little increase in all amino acids in comparison to the control group
This study carried out to investigate the possible role of whey protein protein concentrate in ameliorating some biochemical disorders induced in gamma irradiated male rats. Forty eight male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1 fed on normal diet during experimental period. Group 2 where the diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate instead of soybean protein . Group 3 rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation with single dose of 5 Gy and fed on the normal diet. Group 4 rate exposed to 5 Gy then fed on diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate, the rats were decapitated after two and four weeks post irradiation. Exposure to whole body irradiation caused significant elevation of serum ALT, AST, glucose, urea, creatinine and total triiodothyronine with significant decrease in total protein, albumin and thyroxin. Irradiated rats fed on whey protein concentrate revealed significant improvement of some biochemical parameters. It could be conclude that whey protein concentrate may be considered as a useful protein source for reducing radiation injury via metabolic pathway.
K.R. Tandel* and B.K. Shah
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the effect of unripe dried banana powder in experimentally induced gastric ulcers and effect on gastric acid secretion. To evaluate the antiulcerogenic effect of plantain banana of Gujarat as a part of evaluation of impact of biological variables on this activity. Materials and methods: Total of 24 albino rats of either sex weighing between 150-250 gm were randomly divided into 4 groups. Each group has 6 no. of rats. The first group received placebo (distilled water, the second, third & forth group received 0.5gm/kg, 1gm/kg and 2mg/kg of banana powder respectively. Banana powder was given as suspension at fixed time (3 times in a day for two days and animals were kept for fasting for another 48hrs. On 5th day, the animals were sacrificed after 7 hrs and stomach were removed for examination and gastric juice samples were collected to analyze volume and acidity.Results: Orally administered banana powder in the dose of 2gm/kg caused a statistically significant decrease in aspirin with pyloric ligation induced ulcers in rats without significantly decrease in secretary activity.Conclusion: It can be concluded from these results that vegetable plantain banana has antiulcerogenic and mucosal protective actions, but it has no antisecretory activity.
Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying levels of rice bran supplemented with Xzymeâ„¢ (an exogenous enzyme-probiotic complex on the growth performance and carcass traits of albino rats. Thirty weanling albino rats with average initial liveweight of 66.9Â±0.3g were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial design (3 levels of rice bran [20, 40 and 60%] by 2 levels [0 and 250mg/kg of diet] of the Xzymeâ„¢. There were 5 rats on each treatment which were housed individually in plastic cages. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and their growth performance monitored for 28 days, after which the rats were slaughtered to collect carcass data.The mean values for total feed intake, weekly feed intake and daily weight gain were similar (P>0.05 for all the various dietary treatments. The addition of the Xzymeâ„¢ led to an improvement (P>0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR at each level of the rice bran. Both feed cost and feed cost per 100g weight gain values decreased as the level of RB increased despite the extra cost of the added Xzymeâ„¢. The carcass characteristics of the albino rats on all the six dietary treatments were similar (P>0.05. The results suggest that albino rats and probably other mono-gastric livestock species can be fed diets containing 60% rice bran plus Xzymeâ„¢ without any adverse effect on health, growth performance and carcass characteristics.
Sirav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin
During the last several decades, numerous studies have been performed aiming at the question of whether or not exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) influences the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of RFR on the permeability of BBB in male and female Wistar albino rats. Right brain, left brain, cerebellum, and total brain were analyzed separately in the study. Rats were exposed to 0.9 and 1.8 GHz continuous-wave (CW) RFR for 20 min (at SARs of 4.26 mW/kg and 1.46 mW/kg, respectively) while under anesthesia. Control rats were sham-exposed. Disruption of BBB integrity was detected spectrophotometrically using the Evans-blue dye, which has been used as a BBB tracer and is known to be bound to serum albumin. Right brain, left brain, cerebellum, and total brain were evaluated for BBB permeability. In female rats, no albumin extravasation was found in in the brain after RFR exposure. A significant increase in albumin was found in the brains of the RF-exposed male rats when compared to sham-exposed male brains. These results suggest that exposure to 0.9 and 1.8 GHz CW RFR at levels below the international limits can affect the vascular permeability in the brain of male rats. The possible risk of RFR exposure in humans is a major concern for the society. Thus, this topic should be investigated more thoroughly in the future. PMID:22047463
Full Text Available Objective: The Purpose of the Present study was to compare the action of glucose and scopolamine on the cognitive function using digital zero maze apparatus on albino rats. Method: The digital zero mazes was made of ply-wood in which to arms positioned at right angled related to each other .This apparatus is like a digital zero maze digit in appearance. Albino rats were given a free exploration session consisting of 10 minutes in the apparatus 24 prior to testing to allow familition to the testing apparatus. Albino rat was treated with glucose to determine the memory performance in second trials scopolamine was injected and effect was observed. Result: In the present study 2 groups were taken and had given treatment glucose and scopolamine (buscopan.The digital zero maze was design to study animal behavior after supervised training given to the rats the observation glucose and scopolamine were shows that the glucose a have some sought of cognition enhancing activity in experiment animals On the other hand the scopolamine slows down cognition activity of brain. Conclusion: The result shows that glucose enhanced the activity while scopolamine slows down cognition activity of brain.
Mohammad Reza Shahraki
Full Text Available Background: Since liver is a gland which has an important role in drug metabolism, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a single dose and repeated administration of morphine on LFT, blood sugar and fasting insulin resistance index in fructose- fed male rats. Materials and Methods: The experiment was performed on 36 Wistar-Albino male rats, which were divided into a control (A and three tests groups (B, C and D. The control group consumed tap water, but the test groups consumed fructose-enriched water (10%, w/v and received null, single, and repeated doses of morphine, respectively. At the end, animals were anesthetized and blood samples were collected. Liver enzymes, insulin and insulin resistance were measured. Data were analyzed by SPSS-11, using ANOVA and Tukey tests as post hoc test. Results were expressed as mean±SD and Statistical differences were recognized significant by p<0.05. Results: The results showed that all test groups were insulin resistant; alanine aminotransferase (ALT and asparatate aminotransferase (AST activity values in group D significantly increased compared to other groups while its plasma glucose and insulin values showed a significant decrease in comparison to other test groups. Conclusion: It seems that repeated morphine administration can affect liver function test (LFT and fasting Insulin resistance index (FIRI in fructose- fed male rats.
Full Text Available Objective: Preclinical and very limited clinical studies suggest that sildenafil may have therapeutic potential in selected neurological disorders. However, many neurological side effects of sildenafil have been reported. This work aimed to clarify the histopathological effect of sildenafil citrate on the superior colliculus (SC of adult male albino rat. Material and methods: 24 adult male albino rats were used and divided into 4 groups. The first 3 groups were received respectively sildenafil citrate orally at doses 0.25, 0.70 and 1.43mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days while the 4th group was used as control. At end of the treatment, the superior colliculi were undergone light and electron microscopic investigation. Results: In the control group, superficial part of the SC has neural cells and myelinated nerve fibers. With least dose of sildenafil, the superficial part of SC revealed disturbance in neural tissue with dilated capillaries and vacuoles. Some neurons showed deeply stained nuclei shrunken cytoplasm. Some cells showed enlarged mitochondria and dilated endoplasmic reticulum. With medium dose of sildenafil, SC showed more disturbances; stripped myelin sheaths or widely separated myelin lamellae, dilated blood vessels with large vacuoles around them and many neurons with apoptotic criteria. However, maximum dose of sildenafil induced massive destruction of edematous neural tissue; invasion of the surface with massive blood vessels, marked decrease in thickness of myelin sheaths and the neural cells revealed degenerative and apoptotic changes. The mean number and size of cells revealed significantly progressive decrease in all treated rats with increasing doses of the drug. Conclusion: Long-term, daily use of sildenafil can lead to pathological effect in the superior colliculus which may be implicated in visual disturbance and this effect is dose dependent, so neurological effect of sildenafil necessitates further investigations. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000: 175-183
Bheemshetty S. Patil
Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that hyperlipidemia plays a central role in the development of atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Embilica officinalis also known as Amla or Indian Gooseberry acts as antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant. Its active ingredients contains tannins, gallic acid and flavonoids. Aim & Objectives: It was aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis on histopathology of kidney and on biochemical parameters in hyperlipidemic albino Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Extraction of dried fruits of Emblica officinalis was done by Soxhlet apparatus 0 using 99% ethanol at 60 C for 24 hours and also phytochemical analysis was done. Group I served as normal control. Group II was fed with isocaloric diet. Group III was fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Group IV was fed with isocaloric diet for 21 days + Embilica officinalis for 21 days. Group V was fed with hyperlipidemic diet for 21 days+ Embilica officinalis for 21 days. The dose of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis was taken as 100mg/kg body weight daily. Results: Percent body weight gain, kidney weight and nephro-somatic index significantly improved in hyperlipidemic rats treated with Emblica officinalis. There was a significant improvement in serum electrolyte and kidney markers. It was found that there were focal glomerular lesions with thickening of glomerulus in the kidneys of rats on hyperlipidemic diet and normal renal histology of rats on hyperlipidemic diet treated with Emblica officinalis. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Emblica officinalis may be a good, natural therapeutic agent against hyperlipidemic diet induced oxidative damage and nephrotoxicity.
Ibrahim G. Ibrahim*, Boshra El-Salkh**, Nagwa Shawki
Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the adverse effects of gliclazide and two antidiabetic plants extracts on 15 &18 days fetuses of albino rat (Rattus norvegicus. The two antidiabetic plants extracts were aquatic extract of Aremisia herba alba (shih-balady and alcoholic extract of Salix babylonica L. leaves (Om-Ashoor which is known by salicin. The doses used were 4 mg / kg (Katsumata, and kastumata 1990 for the gliclazide drug (diamicron, 450 mg/kg for Artemisia herba alba (Al-Waili, 1986 and 1.5 gm/kg for salicin. Pregnant rats were given orally the applied does level every other day from the onset of gestation till the 15th or to the 18th day. The pregnant rats were divided into control group (G1; diabetic pregnant female rats (G2; Artemisia treated group (G3; salicin treated group (G4 and glicalzide treated group (G5. Fetuses showed diminution of size. Crown-rump lentght while the number of embryos increased in case of salicin treatment and decreased in case of gliclazide treatment due to increased resorption rate. The endoskeleton system of fetuses obtained from pregnant diabetic mothers (G2 showed normal ossification in all fetuses with enlarged skeleton. Some fetuses of Artemisia treated group showed major enoskeletal anomalies in the from of incomplete ossification of the skull bones, or missing in some skull bones, and also missing of caudal vertebrae. Salicin treated group fetuses showed lack in ossification of the nasal, frontal and complete absence of parietal bone. While gliclazide treated group fetuses showed moderate ossification of nasal and frontal bones. On the other hand parietal bone exhibited complete missing.
Rajesh H*, Rejeesh EP and Rao Sudarshanram Narayan
Full Text Available Experimentally induced periodontitis forms the basis for trials of novel drugs and therapeutics. Ketamine, an N- amino-D- aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist is considered to be safe dissociative anesthetic agent. But, the literature on the use of Ketamine as an effective general anesthetic is conflicting. We had to determine, safe and effective dose range of intra-peritoneal Ketamine hydrochloride injection in Wistar albino rats for the placement of ligatures in the oral cavity. 50 rats of the age group (greater than 4 months and weight of160g-350g were selected for the study from the Department of Pharmacology, Yenepoya University, and Mangalore. Intraperitonial injection was administered using Tuberculin syringe. The optimal dose for each animal was tabulated and log dose was calculated. Nonlinear regression analysis was done. 95% confidence limit and ED50 was calculated from the graph was 101.9mg/kg (68.1-152.6mg/kg correlation coefficient was 0.4946. Profound and effective anesthesia was obtained at a dose of 60mg/kg-275mg/kg. The dose range of Ketamine alone from 60-275mg/kg i.p.route produced profound reproducible anesthesia. Minor oral surgical procedures could be carried out without discomfort. Mortality and morbidity due to anesthesia was low.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale), a common part of the diet in many parts of the world, is one of the strongest plant antioxidants that has various pharmacological effects. Accordingly, this study was investigated to clarify the beneficial effect of maternal intake of ginger on radiation-induced maternal and fetal detrimental impacts. Pregnant albino rats were administered ginger tea from gestation day 10 to 14 at a dose rate of 10 ml/kg body weight before being exposed to a single dose of 6 Gy of whole body gamma irradiation at day 15 of gestation, after which they were excised on the 18th day of pregnancy. Maternal ginger pre-treatment before radiation exposure was able to diminish the high levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose, lipids, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) recorded in the serum of irradiated mother rats in addition to restoring the histopathological lesions induced in their aorta and uterus tissues. Moreover, ginger intake was found to reduce the severe deleterious symptoms of radiation-induced fetal mortality rate with increased growth in surviving fetuses and remarkable protection against severe morphological deformities.The present study suggests that ginger is an effective agent for improving the affected maternal biochemical and histological studied parameters and reducing the embryonic injuries induced by gamma irradiation
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba. (Malvaceae an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally hepatics affections in albinos Wistar rats. Animals were treated by gavage during 28 days with different doses of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida alba. (75, 100, 150 mg/kg suspended in 35% ethanol. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethano l for 28 days results an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum as compared with rats which received water (control water. However, administrations of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05. This study revealed that Sida alba presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of affection hepatics.
Kanase, A; Patil, S; Thorat, B
Hepatocurative effects of mandur bhasma were studied in albino rats after induction of acute hepatitis by CCl4 liquid paraffin and CCl4 + liquid param. Recovery of the liver was studied with reference to histological architecture and differential counts of degenerated, recovering and recovered hepatocytes. Alterations in the kidney were also studied histologically. Hepatotoxins were given (s.c.) daily for 11 days. Mandur bhasma was given (po) for 7 days to normal, CCl4, liquid paraffin and CCl4 + liquid paraffin treated rats from day 12 to day 18. There were no spontaneous liver and kidney recoveries within a week after the cessation of the treatments of hepatotoxins. Mandur bhasma treatment showed conspicuous recoveries of liver and kidney within a week and total recoveries were noticed after two weeks. Biochemical alterations in lipid peroxidation, glucose-phosphatase and total proteins were studied during present work. The alterations in the histology and biochemical parameters of liver and kidney show hepatocurative potency of mandur bhasma. PMID:9418377
Islam, Md Ariful; Khatun, Mst Minara; Baek, Byeong-Kirl
The aim of this study was to evaluate transmission of Brucella abortus biotype 1 via sexual intercourse in rats. Male and female virgin Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were experimentally infected intraperitoneally with 1×10(9)colony forming units (CFU) of B. abortus biotype 1, a Korean bovine isolate. At 14 days after infection, infected male rats (n=10) were housed with uninfected female rats (n=10) and infected female rats (n=10) were housed with uninfected male rats (n=10) for a period of one month. During this period all uninfected female rats became pregnant and 6 of 10 infected female rats became pregnant. Serum from two out of 10 female uninfected rats had positive reactions in the Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPAT), Tube Agglutination Test (TAT) or the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA); whereas none of the uninfected male rat had positive reactions in these tests. Using bacteriological culture and AMOS-PCR assay, B. abortus biotype 1 was isolated and identified from two uninfected female rats and all of the uninfected male rats were found negative for B. abortus biotype 1. It was concluded that transmission of B. abortus biotype 1 from infected male to uninfected female rats resulted from sexual intercourse. PMID:23664185
Savrikar, Shriram S.; Dole, Vilas; Ravishankar, B.; Shukla, Vinay J.
This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced–swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and...
This study was conducted to clarify the potential role of lettuce oil against damages induced in rats due to exposure to gamma radiation. Adult male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into 4 groups each of 12 animals. The first group was considered control animals. The second group received, via gavages, lettuce oil (200 mg/Kg body weight) for 3 weeks. The third group was subjected to a single dose of 6.5Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The fourth group received lettuce oil for 3 weeks then was exposed to radiation. Blood samples were collected 1 and 7 days post irradiation. Exposure of rats to gamma irradiation caused a significant increase in the level of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) while a significant decrease was recorded in glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit percentage (Hct%), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelets (PLT), leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone hormone . In rats treated with lettuce oil then exposed to radiation, the results showed an improvement in all previous parameters. It could be concluded that lettuce oil might reduce the biological hazards in rats induced by gamma irradiation
Full Text Available Background & Objective : The Cucurbita pepo is one of plants that are functional in traditional therapy. This plant has antioxidant and skin damage repair properties. This study investigated the effect of Cucurbita pepo nano silver as a new nano-plant composition in wound repair skin in male mice. Materials & Methods: In this investigation, male albino mice were places in 8 groups, each containing 8 animals. Group I – VIII were treated with nano silver (500, 250, and 125 ppm concentrations and different concentrations of extracts [70%, 50%, and 25%] and the control group received a mixture of 25% Cucurbita pepo extract (125 ppm nano silver. The eighth group, as control, was treated with sterile deionizer water after the induction of wound skin. The average diameter of the wounds was measured 28 days after treatment in the control and treatment groups. These data were analyzed using the t-test and ANOVA statistical method. Results: The results of this study showed that ethanol extraction (80% has its highest repair effect 28 days post treatment. The average diameter of the wounds in the control group was 1.16 ±. 0.46 cm, which was decreased to 0 cm and 0.12 ±. 0.23 cm in the ethanol extract (70% of the Cucurbita pepo and component groups, respectively (p value ? 0.01. Conclusion: In this project, nano silver-Cucurbita pepo ethanol extraction for wound repair in albino male mice was more effective than single materials. These findings show that the repair synergic effects are between alcoholic extract and nano silver in this nano composite.
Retinal toxicity of chloroquine has been known for several years, but the mechanism(s) of toxicity remain controversial; some author support the idea that the binding of chloroquine to melanin pigments in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) play a major toxic role by concentrating the drug in the eye. In our study, 12 albinos Sprague-Dawley (SD) and 12 pigmented Brown Norway (BN) rats were treated orally for 3 months with chloroquine to compare functional and pathological findings. On Flash electroretinograms (ERG) performed in scotopic conditions, similar and progressive (time-dependent) delayed onset and decreased amplitudes of oscillatory potentials (from Day 71) and b-waves (on Day 92) were identified in both BN and SD rats. In both strains, identical morphological changes consisted of neuronal phospholipidosis associated with UV auto-fluorescence without evidence of retinal degeneration and gliosis; the RPE did not show any morphological lesions or autofluorescence. IHC analyses demonstrated a decrease in GABA expression in the inner nuclear layer. In addition, a marked accumulation of synaptic vesicles coupled with a marked disruption of neurofilaments in the optic nerve fibers was identified. In conclusion, ERG observations were very similar to those described in humans. Comparable ERG modifications, histopathology and immunohistochemistry findings were observed in the retina of both rat strains suggesting that melanin pigment is unlikely involved. chloroquine-induced impairment of synaptic vesicle transport, likely related to disruption of neurofilaments was identified and non-previously reported. This new mechanism of toxicity may also be responsible for the burry vision described in humans chronically treated with chloroquine
Buwa, S; Patil, S; Kulkarni, P H; Kanase, A
Abhrak bhasma is a commonly used ayurvedic drug against many diseases including hepatitis. It is tested in albino rats using a model of hepatitis induced by a single dose of CCl4 (3 ml/kg body wt). Different doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg body wt) were tested to decide the dose related hepatoprotective efficacy. The centrolobular necrosis induced by single dose of CCl4 was reduced significantly by abhrak bhasma (10 mg) and liver histology was also protected by 20 mg dose. Liver acid lipase activity was lowered, while alkaline and lipoprotein lipase activities were elevated due to treatment of single dose of CCl4. Abhrak bhasma counteracted the action of CCl4 on liver lipolytic enzymes. CCl4 did not alter the kidney histologically. Activities of three lipases of rat kidney (acid, alkaline and lipoprotein lipases) were reduced by CCl4 treatment and were reversed by administration of abhrak bhasma. Acid lipase activity of rat adipose tissue was reduced by CCl4 treatment. On the contrary alkaline, lipoprotein and hormone sensitive lipases were enhanced after 24 hr of administration of CCl4. Acid lipase activity was raised by administration of different doses of abhrak bhasma concurrent with CCl4. Abhrak bhasma treatment along with CCl4 enhanced alkaline lipase activity at 10 and 20 mg dose and later it was reduced at 30 and 40 mg doses and came to normal levels. Lipoprotein and hormone sensitive lipases were reduced by the counteraction of increasing doses of abhrak bhasma. PMID:11883510
Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside isolated from Micromonospora purpurea known for its nephrotoxicity. Ficus carica L is known to treat many ailments. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Ficus carica L. (Anjir) leaf extract on renal oxidative stress induced by gentamicin in albino mice. Methods: In this laboratory based experimental study 30 mice were divided into three groups, containing 10 mice each. Group A being the control; groups B and C were experimental and treated with gentamicin 200 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally and, Ficus carica L. leaf extract 400 mg/kg/day orally with gentamicin 200 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally respectively for a period of 8 days. Blood samples were taken 24 hours after completion of the experimental period by cardiac puncture under anesthesia and kidneys of each mouse were taken out for microscopic examination. Results: Gentamicin treatment increased serum urea and creatinine levels (group B). Ficus carica L. leaf extract treated animals showed significant reduction in biochemical markers of kidney functions in group C. The histopathological examination of group A showed normal renal structure which was deranged in group B treated with only gentamicin, whereas, group C exhibited marked improvement in histological structure. Conclusion: Ficus carica L. leaf extract is effective in preventing gentamicin induced functional and structural changes in kidney of albino mice. (author)
Full Text Available The effects of the aqueous root extract of urena lobata on the rat liver was investigated using a total of (25 adult Wister rats of both sexes that were randomly divided into five groups of five rats each. Group I served as the control, while rats in groups II-IV where administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively for 28 days. Rats in group V were administered 300 mg/kg of the extract for 28 days and allowed to stay for 14 days post treatment to observe for reversibility, persistence or delayed occurrence of toxic effects. At the end of the experimental period the animals were sacrificed and liver weight taken and fixed for routine histological examinations. Administration of the extract to rats had no effects on liver and body weights but the extract caused a decrease in albumin level and increases in the levels of Aspartate Transaminases (AST, Alanine Transaminases (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP. Histopathological assessment of the liver revealed mild to severe interstitial hemorrhage, mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis, congestion and edema in the liver of the treated rats while withdrawal of the extract for 14 days showed a slight degree of recovery in the rats. This findings suggest that the biochemical and morphological organization of the liver can significantly be altered with continues and increase use of the extract, but further studies on the long term effect of the extract and a prolonged recovery period is recommended in further studies.
Dracocephalum moldavica (DM); a medicinal plant with antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties, has been cultivated recently in Egypt. The purpose of this study was to investigate its possible protective effect against radiation induced damage in male albino rats. DM total extract was administered by oral gavages to male albino rats at a dose of 40 mg/kg body wt daily for 2 weeks before whole body gamma irradiation with 6 Gy. Exposure of rats to whole body gamma irradiation induced oxidative stress and biochemical disorders in liver and kidney tissues. Oxidative stress was manifested by significant increase of liver and kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) along with the reduction in glutathione (GSH) contents on the 1st, 3rd and 7th day post- irradiation. Biochemical disorders were evidenced by a significant increase in serum creatinine and uric acid levels, transaminases (ALT and AST) activities, and triglycerides level. A significant decrease in total cholesterol was recorded on the 1st day post irradiation followed by a significant increase on the 3rd and 7th day. DM administration pre-irradiation has significantly attenuated radiation- induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney tissues which was associated with significant improvement of the biochemical disorders. It could be concluded that DM extract through its antioxidant properties and the synergistic relationship of its different constituents may protect the liver and kidney tissues from radiation induced oxidative damage associated with biochemical disorders.
The present study was con male albino rats of 120-150 g to evaluate the toxicity of daily oral administrations of two doses of the organophosphorus pesticide malathion (275 and 343. 75 mg/kg)for 60 days. Body weight and relative weights of thyroid gland, testis, liver and kidneys have been investigated. Also, serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and testosterone hormones were determined using radioimmunoassay. The results revealed significant increases in body weights and liver and kidney relative weights, while significant decreases in the relative weights of thyroid gland and testis were recorded at both dose levels. Significant decreases in the levels of serum triiodothyronine and testosterone as well as significant increase in serum thyroxine were observed
S. Zahra Bathaie
Full Text Available Objective(s: Gastric cancer is the first and second leading cause of cancer related death in Iranian men and women, respectively. Gastric cancer management is based on the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, for the first time, the beneficial effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract (SAE on the 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG-induced gastric cancer in rat was investigated. Materials and Methods: MNNG was used to induce gastric cancer and then, different concentrations of SAE were administered to rats. After sacrificing, the stomach tissue was investigated by both pathologist and flow cytometry, and several biochemical parameters was determined in the plasma (or serum and stomach of rats. Results: Pathologic data indicated the induction of cancer at different stages from hyperplasia to adenoma in rats; and the inhibition of cancer progression in the gastric tissue by SAE administration; so that, 20% of cancerous rats treated with higher doses of SAE was completely normal at the end of experiment and there was no rat with adenoma in the SAE treated groups. In addition, the results of the flow cytometry/ propidium iodide staining showed that the apoptosis/proliferation ratio was increased due to the SAE treatment of cancerous rats. Moreover, the significantly increased serum LDH and decreased plasma antioxidant activity due to cancer induction fell backwards after treatment of rats with SAE. But changes in the other parameters (Ca2+, tyrosine kinase activity and carcino-embryonic antigen were not significant. Conclusion: SAE inhibits the progression of gastric cancer in rats, in a dose dependent manner.
Amal A. A. Ammar and Tamer M. M. Saad
Full Text Available Excessive free radicals are caused by unnatural environmental influences such as air pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke, factories, pesticides, food contaminants and a myriad of other factor that are part of our modern life. Hypercholesterolaemia is directly associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. Cynara scolymus L. (Artichoke grows in Egypt and other countries. It is used as foods and has medicinal properties. Artichoke extracts have been shown to produce various pharmacological effects, such as the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis and low density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation.Aim The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidative activities and radioprotector role of cynara scolymus L. (artichoke against hyperlipidemic induced by gamma- irradiation in male rats. Material and Method Male Swiss albino rats were orally administrated by artichoke (head or leaves (10% mg/rat/day using suitable stomach tube (6weeks, 45 days before exposure to a single dose (6.5 Gy of whole body gamma radiation. Levels of lipids peroxides (MDA, reduced glutathione content (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C were investigated in serum ResultsThe results revealed that gamma radiation led to significant increase in MDA, TC, TG and LDL, Meanwhile, significant decrease in GSH and SOD, but groups administrated with Artichoke (head and leaf before whole body gamma irradiation, artichoke exerted noticeable amelioration against the radiation induced changes in most of the biochemical tested parameters
Kaneda, M; Aoyama, H; Teramoto, S
Heritable oligodactylism in male rats was discovered in Wistar-derived rats. In this study, external and skeletal features of the limb anomalies were examined to clarify the type of oligodactyly. External observation revealed absence and hypoplasia (with respective percentage incidence) in digits II (100, 0), III (87, 13), and IV (23, 1) of the forefeet and in digits II (26, 34), III (34, 11), and V (0, 3) of the hindfeet. Fusion was also observed in digits IV and V in the forefeet (4%) and in digits I and II in the hindfeet (15%). Skeletal examination disclosed absence of all three (proximal, middle, and distal) phalanges in digits II (97%), III (93%), and IV (67%) and of the middle phalanx in digit V (12%) of the forefeet. In the hindfeet, the missing pattern of phalanges in digits II and III was similar to, but less severe than that in the forefeet; the incidence of absence of the three phalanges in digits II and III was 43% and 45%, respectively. Digit V was more affected than that in the forefeet; absence of the middle phalanx was found at 30%. Although no absence was found in the bones proximal to the phalanges, hypoplasia and/or fusion were detected with various degree and incidences among carpi/metacarpi and tarsi/metatarsi. Based on these observations, the types of limb anomalies in this mutant rat were classified as oligodactyly of digits II-V in the forefeet and II, III, and V in the hindfeet with hypoplasia and/or fusion of the carpi/metacarpi and tarsi/metatarsi. PMID:7660325
Vishal Bhat; Arul Amuthan; Barizah Binti Mohamed Rosli; Nur Amirah Binti Khairuddin; Fatin Shahira Binti Md. Isa
Background: Kungiliya vennai and Kalchunna thailam are the two indigenous herbal formulation being used for healing of wounds in siddha medicine. Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluate the wound healing property of topical application of kungiliya vennai (KV) and kalchunna thailam (KT) on excision wound in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: Four groups of eight Sprague dawley female rats in each group were used for the study. Under anesthesia, excision wound of 300mm2 size was crea...
Elango P; Darling Chellathai; Saravana Babu
Background: Flupirtine (FP) is found to antagonize both glutamate and N methyl, D aspartate (NMDA) and the current study was undertaken to elucidate a possible neuroprotective role of flupirtine against NMDA induced neurotoxicity in experimental rat model. Methods: Excitotoxicty was produced in rat and it is counteracted by flupirtine. The animals were grouped as Group 1 (vehicle treated), Group 2 (received NMDA+vehicle), Group 3 (received FP+NMDA only), and Group 4 (received FP+vehicle) a...
Folic acid, a member of the water-soluble vitamin B group, is emerged as an important nutritional factor especially during the course of pregnancy. It is rapidly absorbed from the proximal part of small intestine, distributed to the body tissues, stored in the liver and actively concentrated in the cerebrospinal fluid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency of maternal folic acid supplementation in ameliorating the maternal and fetal detrimental impacts of gamma irradiation. Folic acid, at a dose level of 4 mg/Kg body weight was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 1st to the 20 th day of pregnancy, while mothers were subjected to gamma irradiation at the dose of 3 Gy on day 10 of gestation during the sensitive period of organogenesis. Experimental investigations carried out 1 day prior to parturition have demonstrated that folic acid intake throughout the whole gestational period had significantly diminished the deleterious histopathological disorders in large intestine, liver and uterus of irradiated mothers. Concomitantly, folic acid has been able to enfeeble the hazardous teratological effects of radiation including mainly the fetal intrauterine lethality, developmental delay and prominent morphological deformities. Conclusively, folic acid was found to offer protection during pregnancy against radiation injury, thus was capable of modulating the histopathological impacts of the studied maternal body organs and suppressing the embryonic mortality rates and serious fetal malformations induced by radiation
Ghada, Z A Soliman, Tamer M M Saad,
Full Text Available Introduction: Cynara scolymus L. (Artichoke grows in Egypt and other countries. It is used as foods and has medicinal properties. Artichoke extracts have been shown to produce various pharmacological effects, such as the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis and low density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation. Purpose: To study the effect of Cynara scolymus L. and its extract on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic male rats. Study Design: Eighty male albino rats, Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing (204.0±10 were housed individually in wire-mesh cages. Induction of hyperlipidemia was carried out on all rats except negative control group by addition of cholesterol to the basal diet (2% +0.25 bile salts (taurocholic for 4 weeks. After that the rats were divided into 8 groups (10 rats each, the first (1st and 2nd groups was negative (normal and positive control groups (hyperlipidemic, groups from G 3: G8, they were fed on basal diet supplemented with 2 level of extract (4 & 8 % of either heads, heads, or leaves extract. At the end of the experimental period (6 weeks treatment rats were fasted over night before sacrificing, blood was collected, centrifuged; serum or plasma was stored at - 20 0C until analysis. Lipid profile and triacylglycerol were measured. Results and Discussion: Artichoke extracts (plant, head, and leaves significantly reduced cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C and triacylglycerol. No change was observed with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Heads extract being more powerful. This effect may be due to its content of mono- and di-caffeoylquinic acids, flavonoids and other contents or through inhibition of LDL oxidation. Conclusion: artichoke extract seems to be positively modulate hypercholesterolemia and can provide a protection from cardiovascular diseases.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250, and 500 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 6 once a day for seven days. The female albino rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were determined and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. The probable gastric ulceration and adverse effects of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency; Intromission Latency, Erections; Quick Flips, Long Flips as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The test drug was also found to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Conclusion The results indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of clove produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats, without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Thus, the resultant aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders.
Ezekwesili, C N; Eneh, F U
The pulp of Dacryodes edulis G.Don which is rich in oils is commonly consumed in Nigeria when in season. The effect of diet supplementation with edulis fruit pulp oil on body lipid parameters was evaluated in male Wistar albino rats. D. edulis oil was extracted in n-hexane. The test diet was.compounded using the oil extract (10%), whereas the control animals were kept on control diet formulated with groundnut oil (10%). After six weeks, the animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and blood samples collected through cardiac puncture for the determination of serum lipid profile. Results revealed that D. edulis fruit pulp oil did not cause any significant (p > 0.05) alterations in serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol. The total amount of lipids present in the serum was increased by 33.3%, whereas the quantity of liver lipids decreased by the same factor (33.3%). Insignificant (p > 0.05) increases in the weights (g 100 g(-1) BW) of the liver (2.91 ± 0.17 to 3.38 ± 0.25), kidney (0.36 ± 0.06 to 0.40 ± 0.02) and heart (0.32 ± 0.02 to 0.33 ± 0.04) were observed in the test group. No significant change (p > 0.05) in the average body weight of the test animals was recorded. HPLC analysis of D. edulis oil showed that it contained palmitic acid (48.7%), linoleic acid (28.6%),oleic acid (12.9%), stearic acid (5.0%), lauric acid (2.2%), linolenic acid (1.7%) and myristic acid (0.9%). The peroxide value of the oil was 0.00. Prolonged intake of D. edulis fruit pulp oil may induce adverse effects on the body organs, even though the body lipid profile remains unaltered. PMID:26035940
Full Text Available Ethanol extract of Solanum pubescens Linn was evaluated for hepato protective and antioxidant activities in rats. The plant extract (500mg/kg/day showed a remarkable hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as judged from the serum marker enzymes and antioxidant levels in liver tissues. CCl4 induced a significant rise in aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, LPO with a reduction of total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, and reduced glutathione (GSH. Treatment of rats with plant extract (500 mg/kg significantly (P<0.01 altered serum marker enzymes and antioxidant levels to near normal against CCl4 - treated rats. The activity of the extract at dose of 500 mg/kg was comparable to the standard drug, Silymarin (50 mg/kg, p.o.. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotective activity of plant.
Nkwocha Chinelo; Njoku Obioma Uzoma
Objective: To determine the beneficial effects of the methanol extract of Synsepalum dulcificum on some biochemical parameters. Methods: In this study, rats were orally administered (gavage) with methanol extracts at doses of 0 mg/kg (Group 1, as normal group), 100 mg/kg (Group 2), 200 mg/kg (Group 3) and 500 mg/kg (Group 4) body weight per day for 28 d. Results: Acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract was not toxic to rats up to 5 000 mg/kg. From the results, ...
The present study evaluates the action of vitamin E and urea as chemical radioprotectors for controlling the radiation induced changes in creatine and creatinine levels in the forebrain of female rats subjected to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The levels of creating and creatinine in the forebrain of normal control rats were±704±22 to±724±23 and 11.053 0.119 to 11.553 0.127 /g fresh tissue; respectively. The applied radiation dose caused a significant increase in the creating level of about 15%, 18%, 13% and 41% on the first,third,seventh and tenth days post irradiation; respectively. At the same post irradiation days, the level of creatinine generally increased, but not to the same extent as creatine. The treatment of rats either with vitamin E or with urea pre radiation exposure caused a remarkable recovery in both creatine and creatinine levels in the forebrain of irradiated rats.The results are discussed in the high of discussed in the high of available literatures. 2 tab
Recent experimental evidence suggests that Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), the extensively prescribed analgesic, can improve female fertility by suppressing the prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis and modulating the uterine circulation. Aspirin has also been found to exhibit a protective ability on the radiation induced oxidative stress. Thus the present work aims to investigate the effect of oral low-dose Aspirin treatment on the radiation induced female reproductive disturbance. Adult female rats were used in the current experiment. All rat group treatments started at the onset of the proestrus phase and terminated at the diestrus encompassing 2 complete estrus cycles. Subsequently, the rats were divided into 4 equal groups: Group 1-Control: female rats receiving distilled water via an oral gavage; Group 2- Irradiation: female rats subjected to 6 Gy gamma rays at the proestrus cycle and receiving distilled water; Group 3-Aspirin: rats orally administered a daily dose of 7mg/kg body weight aspirin dissolved in distilled water via an oral gavage and Group 4- Irradiation + Aspirin: female rats irradiated as group 2 and receiving aspirin treatment. A number of rats from each experimental group were allowed to mate following every treatment to serve as Control mated (Subgroup 1), Irradiated mated (Subgroup 2), Aspirin administered mated (Subgroup 3) and Irradiated + Aspirin treated mated (Subgroup 4). At the assigned day of the second estrus cycle completion, blood was collected from Groups 1-4 for subsequent hormonal assay, lipid peroxides and glutathione (GSH) estimation whereas Subgroups 1-4 were carefully monitored for reproduction and infertility rates. Results have shown that the 6 Gy ?- irradiation of the rats at the proestrus cycle (Group 2) caused a decrease in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) levels associated with a drastic increase in the progesterone levels in addition to the significant elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels compared to the related serum control values. The radiation effect was extended to Subgroup 2 that revealed apparent infertility. Moreover, Aspirin oral daily administration caused a remarkable reduction in both FSH and LH hormones alongside with elevated progesterone and PRL levels with no noted E2 level changes (Group 3). However the same treatment accelerated both the fertility and re productivity rates of Subgroup 3. However, the results of the present study revealed the potency of the anti-inflammatory drug Aspirin when administered post radiation exposure (Group 4) in ameliorating the abrupt irradiation induced hormonal imbalance and the significant elevation in serum MDA in addition to its ability in alleviating the radiation induced reproductive disorders (Subgroup 4). In conclusion, oxidative stress caused by radiation exposure of cycling female rats induced marked disturbance in their hormonal balance leading to negative fertility outcomes that has been ameliorated by Aspirin therapy.
Full Text Available Background: Kungiliya vennai and Kalchunna thailam are the two indigenous herbal formulation being used for healing of wounds in siddha medicine. Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluate the wound healing property of topical application of kungiliya vennai (KV and kalchunna thailam (KT on excision wound in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: Four groups of eight Sprague dawley female rats in each group were used for the study. Under anesthesia, excision wound of 300mm2 size was created using scissors. Group 1 served as control with no drugs applied. Group 2, 3 and 4 were applied with mupirocin, KV and KT respectively daily until wound was completely healed. Parameters observed were % wound contraction rate and epithelialization period. Biopsy of wound for histology was taken on day 12 as well as the healed wound was taken after the wound was healed. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test by keeping p<0.05 as statistically significant. Results: Kalchunna thailam has increased wound contraction rate only during initial days, but not statistically significant. Kungiliya vennai treatment has increased vascularity with presence of tissue eosinophils when compared to control rats. There was a regeneration of adnexal skin structures in the Kungiliya vennai treated rats, which is not seen in other groups. The epithelialization period was significantly (p<0.001 hastened in Group 3 (15.83 days and 4 (15.17 days compared to control group (21.33 days. Conclusion: The topical application of kungiliya vennai and kalchunna thailam promoted wound healing in rats. Kungiliya vennai has the additional property of regenerating adnexal structures such as hair follicles, sweat glands and sebaceous glands.
Full Text Available Objective: N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU induces breast cancer in rodents, particularly in rats. This model of breast cancer is very similar to human breast cancer. As a continuation of our recent work, we investigated the expressions of cyclin D1 and p21 in NMU-induced breast cancer of Wistar Albino rats.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, mammary carcinoma was induced in female Wistar Albino rats by a new protocol which included the intraperitoneal injection of NMU (50 mg/kg at 50, 65, and 80 days of the animal’s age. The animals were weighed weekly and palpated in order to record the numbers, location, and size of tumors. Subsequently tumor incidence (TI, latency period (LP, and tumor multiplicity (TM were reported. About four weeks after the tumor size reached 1.5 cm3, rats were sacrificed. Cyclin D1 and p21 expressions in tumors and normal mammary glands from normal rats were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR and Western blot analysis. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS software version 16.0.Results: The efficiency of tumor induction was 65%, LP was 150 days, and a TM of 1.43 ± 0.53 per rat was noted. RT-PCR and Western blot data indicated significant (p<0.05 induction of both cyclin D1 and p21 expressions in rat mammary tumors compared with normal tissue from the control group.Conclusion: These results indicate an efficient mammary tumor induction protocol for this type of rat, which is accompanied by an increase in cyclin D1 and p21 expressions.
A. K. Brahmachari
Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to study the comparative phytochemical profiles and hypoglycemic effects of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Barks (BPBE and leaves ethanolic extracts (BPLE in albino wistar rats to validate their ethno medical use in hyperglycemia as well as to explore the better option. Phytochemicals in ethanolic extracts were analyzed by standard natural product chemistry methods. Diabetes was developed in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin @ 60mg/ Kg bw. Diabetic albino wister rats (n=3 of either sex (150-200gm bw were orally fed with the extracts once daily for 4 weeks. Glibenclamide @ 0.5mg/Kg bw was used as a positive control for comparison. Fasting blood glucose level at 0, 14th and 28th day and hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin on 28th day of experiment were analyzed. Our results show that the extracts contain alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins and phenolics. Rats treated with plant extracts show better glucose modulation, decreased hemoglobin glycosylation and improved hemoglobin concentration as compared to diabetic control. The hypoglycemic effect of only BPBE at 420 mgkg-1 on 14th and 28th day is comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (P>0.01. The bark extract has been observed to be more potent hypoglycemic agent than leave extract.
Shyam S Agrawal
Full Text Available Background: Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be arich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L. were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days.Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animalwere administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days. Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract.Results: Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominentspaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolicextract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control,uggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies.Conclusions: Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of pregnancy, rapid restoration of fertility after withdrawal from treatment and its lipid correcting ability proving further beneficial effects.
Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the objectives of investigating antidiarrhoel activity of Vernonia cinerea whole plant (Family-Compositae, collected from tarai region of Uttarakhand. The plant extracts were obtained via cold extraction method. For the purpose of evaluating antidiarrhoel efficacy of methanolic extract of the plant, rats were used as test animal. The time of onset of first wet faeces increased significantly and dose dependently by the extract. It was excellent at higher doses (100 & 200 mg/kg body wt., orally. It indicated reduction in peristaltic movement of gastro intestinal tract of animals. The antidiarrhoel activity was further confirmed by its significant and dose dependent decrease in number of wet faeces and number of total faeces in comparison to rats used as control.
Deepak Kumar Verma; Masuram Bharat; Deepak Nayak; Tara Shanbhag; Venkatesh Shanbhag; Ravindra Singh Rajput
Background: Areca nut (Areca catechu Linn.) is commonly used for skin ulcers in Indian traditional medicine. Areca nut oil is prepared and is applied topically for burn wound healing. However, scientific study has not been conducted so far. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate burn wound healing activity of Areca catechu. Objective: To evaluate the burn wound healing property of Areca catechu kernel in normal as well as dexamethasone treated rats.Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of...
Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.
Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters co...
Abeer M. Hassan, Magda M. Naim, Somaya H. Mahmoud, Fouad M. Badr
Full Text Available Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and experimental. The control group (n=8 received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle (castor oil & benzyl benzoate once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days. Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12 received IM injection of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna, once every 5 days for 6 times, and were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injection. Experimental group 2; E2 (n=12 were injected as in group E1 then left for 15 days. Uterine tissue was used for various techniques; histological (H&E & Masson's trichrome and immunohistochemical (staining of progesterone receptors, using Labeled-Streptavidin method. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were done to assess the degree of uterine affection. Quantitative measurements (optical density, color area percentage, line distance & cells count were performed using the image analyzer. Mesigyna injection showed increased endometrial folding (91.6% of the animals with decreased endometrial thickness. Luminal epithelium showed proliferation with pseudostratification of its nuclei (75% of animals, necrotic changes (31.3% of animals, hyperplasia (epithelial tufting; in 25% of animals and desquamation (8.3%of animals. Increased gland size and stromal hypercellularity were also observed. Polymorphonuclear cellular infiltration in both endometrium and myometrium, Vascular congestion and increased myometrial thickness were respectively seen in 83.33%, 63.5 %, 83.5% of E1 group animals. Mesigyna also caused reduction in the amount of collagen fibers. Immunostaining revealed decreased number and optical density of progesterone receptors in nuclei of surface epithelium, glandular epithelium and stromal cells while they were increased in nuclei of smooth muscle fibers. Image analysis results confirmed both the histological and the immunohistochemical results. After withdrawal of the drug (group E2, results showed reduction in necrotic changes, endometrial folding, epithelial tufting and hyperplasia. However there was an aggravation of Polymorphonuclear infiltration, vascular congestion and immunohistochemical changes which indicated delayed recovery of these changes in rat uterus under the effect of Mesigyna. In conclusion Mesigyna was found to produce severe histopathological changes which were not completely recovered after 15 days of drug stoppage.
Hatice Gul Goktas
Full Text Available Sepsis is an imbalance between pro and anti-inflammatory responses. Sepsis induced multiple organ failure that is associated with mortality is characterized by liver, renal, cardiovascular and pulmonary dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS are believed to be involved in the development of sepsis. Plant polyphenols may act as antioxidants by different mechanisms such as free radical scavenging, metal chelation and protein binding. Data indicates possible beneficial effects of plant derived phenolic compounds against sepsis. Rosmarinic acid (RA (Î±-O-caffeoyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid is a phenolic compound commonly found in various plants such as Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Origanum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Mentha spicata (spearmint, Perilla frutescens (perilla, Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil and several other medicinal plants. It has been shown that RA has many biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anticancer and actimicrobial and is widely used in cosmetic and food industry. In the present study, we aimed to determine the protective effects of RA against the oxidative DNA damage induced by sepsis in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups; sham, sepsis induced, RA-treated, RA treated and sepsis induced groups. Wistar rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation puncture. The liver tissues were carefully dissected from their attachments and totally excised. The concentrations of the hepatic tissue cells were adjusted to approximately 2 x 106 cells/ml. Standard and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg modified comet assay described by Singh et al were used. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of tail length, tail intensity and tail moment between the sham group and the RA-treated groups (p>0.05. The DNA damage was found significantly higher in the sepsis-induced group compared to the sham group (p0.05, and the DNA damage was found significantly higher in the sepsis-induced group compared to the sham group (p<0.05. RA treatment in the sepsis-induced group was found to decrease the DNA damage significantly (p<0.05. In conclusion, RA might have a role in the prevention of sepsis-induced oxidative damage not only by decreasing the DNA damage but also by increasing DNA repair capacity of the animals.
Modification of the Mus musculus albino rats parasitological profile induced by low x-ray radiation dose; Modificacao do perfil parasitologico de camundongos albinos Mus musculus causada por raios X em baixa dosagem
Medeiros, P.L.; Veloso, L.F.; Motta, M.A. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia
Ionizing radiations can induce alterations on the immunological response. In order to observe the effects of X-Rays in the susceptibility to intestinal worms infestation, feces of 40 Albino Swiss mice (20 males and 20 females) receiving weekly X-Rays doses of 500 mGy, were collected once per week, so as was collected fecal material of an equal group o mice non-irradiated, for comparison. The results of the coprologic examination revealed the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides, eggs mainly in the irradiated females, having the irradiated group a proportional rate of 30:1, as compared with the non-irradiated group. Eggs of Syphacia obveolata was also found, with a rate of 13:1 as compared with the non-irradiated, and also here with a prevalence among the irradiated females. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.
The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of low intensity laser irradiation on the antioxidant defense system in testis of rats as indication of laser hazard. The study included 60 Albino rats weighing between 100-120 g, which was divided into five groups as follows: G1: Rats were used as control group. G2: Rat testes were exposed to He-Ne laser. G3: Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 500 mg/kg serotonin (Sigma, USA) dissolved in saline. G4: Rat testes were exposed to He-Ne laser then animals were injected intraperitoneally with 500 mg/kg serotonin. G5: Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 500 mg/kg serotonin then the testes were exposed to He-Ne laser (1J/cm2). The biochemical analyses were performed at one and eight days post-laser irradiation. The results showed significant increase in the level of lipid peroxide product (malondialdehyde) and significant decrease in the antioxidant defense system (glutathione and glutathione peroxidase) after one and eight days post-laser irradiation of rat testis. Following exposure to He-Ne laser, the total lipids and cholesterol were increased in testis tissue. On the other hand, plasma male sex hormone (testosterone) and lactate dehydrogenase were increased. It is advised to use serotonin as a protector before exposure to He-Ne laser
Kovács, Z; Kékesi, K A; Dobolyi, Á; Lakatos, R; Juhász, G
Adenosine (Ado) and non-adenosine (non-Ado) nucleosides such as inosine (Ino), guanosine (Guo) and uridine (Urd) may have regionally different roles in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system (CNS) such as epilepsy. It was demonstrated previously that Ino and Guo decreased quinolinic acid (QA)-induced seizures and Urd reduced penicillin-, bicuculline- and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. It has also been demonstrated that Ino and Urd may exert their effects through GABAergic system by altering the function of GABA(A) type of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAA receptors) whereas Guo decreases glutamate-induced excitability through glutamatergic system, which systems (GABAergic and glutamatergic) are involved in pathomechanisms of absence epilepsy. Thus, we hypothesized that Ino and Guo, similarly to the previously described effect of Urd, might also decrease absence epileptic activity. We investigated in the present study whether intraperitoneal (i.p.) application of Ino (500 and 1000mg/kg), Guo (20 and 50mg/kg), Urd (500 and 1000mg/kg), GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (1 and 3mg/kg), GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (2 and 4mg/kg), non-selective Ado receptor antagonist theophylline (5 and 10mg/kg) and non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo (a,d) cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801, 0.0625 and 0.1250mg/kg) alone and in combination have modulatory effects on absence epileptic activity in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We found that Guo decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) whereas Ino increased it dose-dependently. We strengthened that Urd can decrease absence epileptic activity. Our results suggest that Guo, Urd and their analogs could be potentially effective drugs for treatment of human absence epilepsy. PMID:26037802
Carbini, L; Dazzi, E; Lantini, T; Padalino, A; Scarpa, A L
Groups of rats were fed a vitamin A free diet for 30, 60 and 90 days. They were then administered orally a single dose of 1,25 microC of retinol-C14. After 3 h, 3, 6 and 12 days from the administration, the incorporation into the different tissues was determined. The results show that the incorporation decreases, on the average, as the experimental period and the intervals after the administration of retinol-C14 grow longer. PMID:582872
Sai Ram, M; Anju, B; Pauline, T; Dipti, P; Kain, A K; Mongia, S S; Sharma, S K; Singh, B; Singh, R; Ilavazhagan, G; Kumar, D; Selvamurthy, W
The effect of Kombucha tea (KT) on oxidative stress induced changes in rats subjected to chromate treatment are reported. KT feeding alone did not show any significant change in malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, but did enhance humoral response and delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) response appreciably over control animals. Chromate treatment significantly enhanced plasma and tissue MDA levels, decreased DTH response considerably, enhanced glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities; however, no change in GSH, superoxide dismutase and antibody titres was noticed. KT feeding completely reversed the chromate-induced changes. These results show that Kombucha tea has potent anti-oxidant and immunopotentiating activities. PMID:10904168
Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Rajoo Nilawatyi; Rathinam Xavier; Lachimanan Yoga Latha; Rajoo Amala
Ethnopharmacological relevance:Elaeis guineensisJacq (Arecaceae) is one of the plants that are central to the lives of traditional societies in West Africa. It has been reported as a traditional folkloric medicine for a variety of ailments. The plant leaves are also used in some parts of Africa for wound healing, but there are no scientific reports on any wound healing activity of the plant. Aim of the study:To investigate the effects of E. guineensis leaf on wound healing activity in rats. M...
Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy
Full Text Available Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups of 10 rats each: Group 1 – control group fed on basal ration, Group 2 – fed on basal ration mixed with EVOO (30%, Group 3 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15%, and Group 4 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15% and EVOO (30%. This feeding regimen was administered for 65 days. Blood samples were collected to analyze serum zinc, vitamin E, and testosterone levels. Histopathological and weight changes in sex organs were evaluated. Results: GMSB diet reduced weight of testis (0.66±0.06 vs. 1.7±0.06, p<0.001, epididymis (0.489±0.03 vs. 0.7±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.04±0.009 vs. 0.68±0.04, p<0.001, and seminal vesicles (0.057±0.01 vs. 0.8±0.04, p<0.001. GMSB diet adversely affected sperm count (406±7.1 vs. 610±7.8, p<0.001, motility (p<0.001, and abnormality (p<0.001. GMSB diet also reduced serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 concentrations. EVOO diet had no detrimental effect. Addition of EVOO to GMSB diet increased the serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 levels and also restored the weights of testis (1.35±0.16 vs. 0.66±0.06, p<0.01, epididymis (0.614±0.13 vs. 0.489±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.291±0.09 vs. 0.04±0.009, p<0.001, seminal vesicle (0.516±0.18 vs. 0.057±0.01, p<0.001 along with sperm count (516±3.1 vs. 406±7.1, p<0.01, motility (p<0.01, and abnormality (p<0.05. Conclusion: EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects of GMSB on reproductive organs in adult male albino rats. This protective action of EVOO justifies its use against the oxidative damage induced by GMSB in reproductive organs.
Hanaa F. Waer, **Seham A. Helmy
Full Text Available Back ground & Aim of the work: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder brings great danger to human health. Low-dose-rate radiation modulates various biological responses including carcinogenesis, immunological responses and diabetes. This study examined the effect of low doses of irradiation on the pathological and ultrastructural progression of type I diabetes in rats inducted by Streptozotocin.Material and Methods: The present study was done on 80 healthy adult albino male rats 9 weeks age, in the weight range from (150–200 gm. Rats were grouped to 4 groups they were cared according to the Guiding Principle in the Care and Use of Animals. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared Streptozotocin (STZ- 45 mg/kg b.w.. Whole body gamma irradiation was performed using Caesium -137. Animals were exposed to fractionated dose levels of 0.5 Gy/week of ?-radiation for 3 and 6 weeks. The body weight, blood glucose and insulin levels were measured after 3 and 6 weeks. Small blocks of pancreatic tissues of different groups were removed and prepared for pathological and ultrastructure examination. Results: An elevated level of glucose and decreased level of insulin in blood were first detected at 3 and 6 weeks of age in the STZ treated rats. There was significant and remarkable tendency of gaining normal levels of both blood glucose and blood insulin by irradiation exposure especially after 6 weeks of irradiation. Both suppression of cell death and cellular injury induced by STZ were also observed by EM examination in 3 week and 6 weeks. Conclusion: The present results indicated that treatment with 0.5 Gy ? rays suppresses progression of type I diabetes in STZ rats
Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of Eugenia jambolana This study was designed to investigate the effect of Eugenia jambolana were screened for phytochemicals and its effect on haematological parameters and lipid profile in normal albino rats were investigated. Twenty four Albino rats weighing between 150-200 kg body weights were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group 1 served as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were administered (50 mg/kg body weight of leaves, stem bark and root bark respectively for 21 days. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins and carbohydrates and quantitative analysis by gravimetric method showed significantly (p0.05 effect on haematological parameters. Aqueous extracts of the root bark significantly (p<0.5 increased TC, TG and LDL-c levels and the stem bark extract significantly (p<0.05 reduced HDL-c compared to the control. All three aqueous extracts significantly (p<0.05 lowered HDL-c/TC ratio, the root bark significantly (p<0.05 increased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio and both aqueous extracts of stem bark and root bark significantly (p<0.05 increased log (TG/HDL-c of treated groups when compared to control.
P. Baranisrinivasan; E.K. Elumalai; Sivakumar, C; S. Viviyan Therasa; David, E.
The leaves of Enicostemma littorale blume (Ens) and Eclipta alba (Ecl) have been used for skin infection, antiviral and antibacterial activity in traditional medicine. The present study is aimed at to evaluate the hepato-protective effect of the aqueous leaf extracts of the above two plants during ethanol induced oxidative stress in albino rats. The aqueous leaf extracts of Enicostemma littorale and Eclipta alba combine (1:1) at dose level of 250 mg kg-1 b.wt. were tested for hepato-protectiv...
The present investigation has been conducted aiming to study the role played by transplantation of bone marrow cells as a biological treatment for radiation injury to carbohydrate metabolism as shown by changes in: serum glucose level and liver glycogen content as well as protein metabolism as presented by: serum total protein and protein and protein fractions. gamma irradiation caused detectable hyperglycemia parallel by depletion in liver glycogen content. On the other hand, radiation caused decrease in serum albumin, increase in serum protein content, increase in total globulin and consequently a decrease in the albumin/globulin ratio. Transplantation of bone marrow cells to irradiated rats caused restoration of glucose level in serum and glycogen content in liver after one week from transplantation; only partial restoration could be detected for total protein, total globulin, content as well as A/G ratio. 6 fig
Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Prajapati, P. K.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.
The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth), i.e., Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity. PMID:22253509
Shyamlal Singh Yadav
Full Text Available The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth, i.e., Twak (Bark and Sara (Heartwood as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.
Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats / Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos
Pankaj G., Jain; Savita D., Patil; Nitin G., Haswani; Manoj V., Girase; Sanjay J., Surana.
Full Text Available As folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, são usados na medicina natural da Índia como um agente hipolipemiante em pacientes obesos. Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com extrato metanólico de M. oleifera (150, 300 e 600 mg/kg, p.o.) e sinvastatina (4 mg/kg, p.o.), juntamente com dieta h [...] iperlipídica por 30 dias. Moringa oleifera e sinvastatina reduziram o colesterol, triacilglicerídeoss, VLDL, LDL e índice aterogênico, mas não aumentaram o HDL em comparação com o grupo controle, com dieta rica em colesterol. O mecanismo de ação do extrato metanólico de Moringa oleifera foi também investigado estimando atividade de HMG CO-A redutase. Moringa oleifera aumentou a excreção fecal de colesterol. Assim, o estudo demonstra que a M. oleifera parece ter efeito hipolipemiante. Abstract in english The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic d [...] iet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control). The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.
Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos
Pankaj G. Jain
Full Text Available The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o. along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control. The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.As folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, são usados na medicina natural da Índia como um agente hipolipemiante em pacientes obesos. Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com extrato metanólico de M. oleifera (150, 300 e 600 mg/kg, p.o. e sinvastatina (4 mg/kg, p.o., juntamente com dieta hiperlipídica por 30 dias. Moringa oleifera e sinvastatina reduziram o colesterol, triacilglicerídeoss, VLDL, LDL e índice aterogênico, mas não aumentaram o HDL em comparação com o grupo controle, com dieta rica em colesterol. O mecanismo de ação do extrato metanólico de Moringa oleifera foi também investigado estimando atividade de HMG CO-A redutase. Moringa oleifera aumentou a excreção fecal de colesterol. Assim, o estudo demonstra que a M. oleifera parece ter efeito hipolipemiante.
Deepak Kumar Verma
Full Text Available Background: Areca nut (Areca catechu Linn. is commonly used for skin ulcers in Indian traditional medicine. Areca nut oil is prepared and is applied topically for burn wound healing. However, scientific study has not been conducted so far. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate burn wound healing activity of Areca catechu. Objective: To evaluate the burn wound healing property of Areca catechu kernel in normal as well as dexamethasone treated rats.Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Areca catechu kernel was prepared and an ointment was made with 2% of this extract. Burn wound was induced by standard procedure. Rats with burn wound model received either vehicle, standard drug or test drug. Two other groups were injected with dexamethasone to delay the wound healing process. The dexamethasone treated groups received either vehicle or test drug topically. Wound contraction rate and period of epithelialization were measured. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The wound contraction rate was significantly increased in Areca catechu treated group in all the days compared to control. Period of epithelialization was faster in the drug treated group than control group. The dexamethasone treated group showed a significant delay in wound healing process when compared to control. Test drug showed a significant reversal in wound contraction rate and epithelialization period in dexamethasone suppressed burn wound healing model.Conclusion: This study has shown the wound healing property of Areca catechu. Further study is required to know the compounds responsible for its wound healing property and to understand the mechanism of action.
Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance:Elaeis guineensisJacq (Arecaceae is one of the plants that are central to the lives of traditional societies in West Africa. It has been reported as a traditional folkloric medicine for a variety of ailments. The plant leaves are also used in some parts of Africa for wound healing, but there are no scientific reports on any wound healing activity of the plant. Aim of the study:To investigate the effects of E. guineensis leaf on wound healing activity in rats. Methods: A phytochemical screening was done to determine the major phytochemicals in the extract. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was examined using the disk diffusion technique and broth dilution method. The wound healing activity of leaves of E. guineensiswas studied by incorporating the methanolic extract in yellow soft paraffin in concentration of 10% (w/w. Wound healing activity was studied by determining the percentage of wound closure, microbial examination of granulated skin tissue and histological analysis in the control and extract treated groups. Results: Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the extract. The extract showed significant activity against Candida albicans with an MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL. The results show that the E. guineensis extract has potent wound healing capacity, as evident from better wound closure, improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Assessment of granulation tissue every fourth day showed a significant reduction in microbial count. Conclusions: E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting this traditional use.
I G Bako
Full Text Available Summary. The effect of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed on pituitary prolactin and milk production was evaluated in albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were randomly grouped at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n=6. The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline, metoclopramide (5mg/kg and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200mg/kg respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. Milk yield for rats were estimated by pup weight and weight gain. The animals were then euthanized on the day 18 and pituitary prolactin was analyzed using prolactin kit. The prolactin level of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa showed a significant increase (P<0.01 when compared to control group. Pup weight gain was also significantly higher (P<0.05 than the control group. This can be inferred that ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed has lactogenic activity because it increases pituitary prolactin level and milk production in lactating female albino rats. The LD50 of Ethyl-acetate fraction Hibiscus sabdariffa l. was found to be above 5000mg/kg. Industrial relevance. The outstanding advantage of this galactagogue option is that, it is safer, affordable and tolerable, and it is taken as an alternative in preference to anti-psychotic drugs that have side effect of drowsiness and depression. The plant calyces, leaves and seeds are eaten as foods because it contain substantial amount of essential fatty, Tocopherol (Vitamin E, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C, mineral salts calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus. Keywords. Hibiscus sabdariffa; prolactin; lactation; milk; pituitary
Noorah S. AL-Sowyan
The present study investigated the effect of 14 days diet, enriched in butter, vitamin E (vit. E) and green tea, on the major regulators of energy expenditure. Leptin is the product OB gene. This 16 KDa protein is produced by mature adipocytes and is secreted in plasma. Its plasma levels are strongly correlated with adipose mass in rodents as well as in humans. Leptin inhibit food intake, reduces body weight and stimulates energy expenditure. In order to evaluate the effect of diet enriched i...
Abeer Fauzi Murad; Shaima Ahmed; Shaima Abead
Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are two important molds that produce Aflatoxin(AF). Humans and animals can be exposed to aflatoxins by consuming foods contaminated with the products of these fungi. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most common mycotoxins found in human foods. In general, acute toxicity by is AFB1 less likely to occur than chronic toxicity. The principal target organ for aflatoxins is liver which may lead to hepatocytes and necrosis and also can be carcinogenic ...
Eman G.E.Helal *, Mohamed M.M. Badawi **,Maha G. Soliman*, Hany Nady Yousef *** , Nadia A. Abdel-Kawi*, Nashwa M. G. Abozaid**
Background: Xenoestrogens are widely used environmental chemicals that have recently been under scrutiny because of their possible role as endocrine disrupters. Among them is digoxin that is commonly used in the treatment of heart failure and atrial dysrhythmias. Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside derived from the foxglove plant, Digitalis lanata and suspected to act as estrogen in living organisms. Aim of the work: The purpose of the current study was to elucidate the sexual hormonal and bioc...
air pollution is the most dangerous form of pollution as it can expose a person to about 10.000 times more mass of an environmental pollutant than does food or water gasoline is the primary product of petroleum refining and it perhaps the most widely used energy source in the world. in addition to industrial applications, the ready availability of gasoline to power automotive engines, there are increasing opportunities for occupational and environment exposure to this liquid fuel. with the removal of lead from gasoline and the use of new technologies, it is very important to conduct studies of toxic effects of reformulated gasoline (unleaded gasoline) which will shed the light on this new formula and either it is more or less benefit than the old one. the objective of this work was to asses the health effects of unleaded gasoline refined and used in Egypt
The present work aims at the investigation of the following : - Assessment of radiation induced damage on thyroid gland includes: - Serum triiodothyronine (T-3) hormone. - Serum tetraiodothyronine (T-4) hormone. - Assessment of radiation induced change on testis including: - Serum testosterone. - Histopathological study on testis. - Investigation of the radioprotective role of ''estradiol benzate''estrogen as a female sex hormone on the radiation induced changes in the above mentioned parameters at single and fractionated doses tested either before and after radiation exposure. Also its selected the beneficial dose of estrogen as a protective agent on the parameters selected for the present study in irradiated rate. The result obtained from such a study would anticipate certain incidences which would happen in case of humans.6 tabs.,22 figs.,180 refs
Shahraki Mohammad Reza; M.J. Palan
This experiment was performed to study the effect of aluminum on FSH, LH and Testosterone hormones in male rat. The experiment was performed on two groups of male rats; test group received 50 mg kg-1 aluminium chloride (ip) for 20 days. Control group received the same volume phosphate buffer at this period. At the end of experiment, animals were anesthetized with Nesdonal (Sodium thiopental) over dose and sacrificed blood samples were collected and the hormones FSH, LH, Testosterone were meas...
Full Text Available Prostaglandins (PGE1 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg dose dependently inhibited gastric secretion in pyloric legated rats model While PGF2 ? 0.1, 0.4 and 1mg/kg inhibited gastric acid secretion. Methysergide in the dose 0.05 mg/kg significantly stimulated the gastric secretion. When non-inhibitory dose of PGE1 (0.1 and 5-HT (1.0 mg/kg are injected simultaneously there were potentiation of inhibitory activity on gastric secretary response on volume, acid output, chloride output and pepsin output. The inhibitory activity of both PGE1 (0.4 mg/ kg and 5-HT (5.0 mg/kg including the inhibitory potentiating activity could not be modified by the pretreatment of methysergide (0.05 mg/kg. Similarly stimulatory dose of PGF2 ? (0.4 mg/kg and inhibitory dose of PGE1 (0.4 mg/kg administered together inhibitory response of PGE1 (0.4 mg/kg were also not modified by methysergide pretreatment.
Guilherme L. Fernandes
Full Text Available Misuse and abuse of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic mefenamic acid among pregnant women in developing coutries constitute a matter of medical concern, mainly as a function of the potentially serious side effects of that drug, notably at the digestive system level. Female rats were treated during the entire pregnancy period (from day 0 up to day 20 with 5, 15, or 45 mg/kg of mefenamic acid (MA once daily, by gavage. Controls received the drug vehicle. We observed that there was a slight yet significant impairment of maternal body weight gain of the animals treated with the two highest doses of MA. Although the drug was proven to exert deleterious effects on kidney and liver metabolic functions, no gross signs of renal or hepatic toxicity were detected in our animals and in their concepts. The digestive effects would be presumably caused by the inhibitory actions of MA on the luminal fluid movement and are accounted for by the observed body weight loss during pregnancy.En los países del tercer mundo, el uso indiscriminado durante el embarazo del fármaco antiinflamatorio no-esteroide, ácido mefenámico, es un tema de preocupación, fundamentalmente, porque este fármaco posee efectos colaterales potencialmente graves, principalmente, a nivel del aparato digestivo. En este trabajo, ratas hembras fueron tratadas durante toda la preñez (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20 de la gestación con 5, 15 o 45 mg/kg de ácido mefenámico (AM, una vez al día. Los controles recibieron el vehículo de la droga. Se observó una discreta, aunque significativa, disminución del ritmo de aumento del peso de las madres tratadas con las dos dosis más altas (15 y 45 mg/kg AM. Si bien hay relatos de que el fármaco puede producir efectos adversos importantes sobre funciones metabólicas hepáticas y renales, no hemos observado señales de toxicidad sobre el hígado o los riñones, tanto de las madres como de sus crías. Los efectos digestivos del AM son inhibición del movimiento del fluído luminal para fuera de la luz del tubo digestivo y por ende, aumento del tránsito intestinal, lo que podría responder por la pérdida de peso corporal materno observada, principalmente, durante el último tercio de la preñez
PRITHVISIGH R. RAJPUT
Full Text Available Bhoyar AD, Vankhade GN, Rajput PR. 2011. Synthesis and study of cholosubstituted 4-aroyl pyrazolines and isoxazolines and their effects on inorganic ions in blood serum in albino rats. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 118-123. Condensation of 2-substitutied 3,5-dichloroacetophenones (2a-b obtained from the condensation of 2-hydroxy 3,5-dichloro-acetophenone (1 and benzoyl chloride were dissolved in NaOH, on treatment under Baker-Venkatraman transformation in presence of KOH with pyridine gives 1-(2-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorophenyl-3-substituted-1,3-propanediones (3a-b. Then converted into 3-aroyl-6,8-dichloroflavanones (4a-d by using different aromatic aldehyde in ethanol containing little piperidine. The condensation of (4a-d and phenylhydrazinehydrochloride, piperidine in DMF gives 3-(2-hydroxy3,5-dichlorophenyl-4-substitution-1-phenyl-?2pyrazolines (5a-d and condensation of (4a-d and hydroxylamine-hydrochloride gives 3-(2-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorophenyl-4-aroyl-5-substituted isoxazolines (6a-d. The above compounds are screened for their activities and have been found to exhibit significant effects on inorganic ions in blood serum in albino rats.
Full Text Available Peptic Ulcers are the most common condition experienced by most of the people due to urbanized lifestyle. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is a herbal drug mentioned for its treatment in the ancient Indian traditional medicine. To compare the Prophylactic and Curative effects of aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus in Drug induced ulcers. Aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of the drug were studied for their ulcer healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. Ninety Wistar albino rats were divided into nine groups with one control, four prophylactic and four curative groups. Ulcers were induced with Indomethacin in a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight twice in a gap of 15 hours. Aqueous extract was given in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight and alcohol in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. It was found that both have potential ulcer healing activity with alcoholic extract marginally better than aqueous extract. It can thus be concluded that Hemidesmus indicus R. Br is a effective drug in peptic ulcers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 243-247
DMAB Dissanayake; Wijesinghe, P S; W.D. Ratnasooriya; Wimalasena, S
Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset) of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively) for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control gr...
Ragy, Merhan Mamdouh
Increasing use of mobile phones in daily life with increasing adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR), emitted from mobile on some physiological processes, cause many concerns about their effects on human health. Therefore, this work was designed to study the effects of exposure to mobile phone emits 900-MHz EMR on the brain, liver and kidney of male albino rats. Thirty male adult rats were randomly divided into four groups (10 each) as follows: control group (rats without exposure to EMR), exposure group (exposed to 900-MHz EMR for 1?h/d for 60?d) and withdrawal group (exposed to 900-MHz electromagnetic wave for 1?h/d for 60?d then left for 30?d without exposure). EMR emitted from mobile phone led to a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and significant decrease total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in brain, liver and kidneys tissues. The sera activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea, creatinine and corticosterone were significantly increased (p?mobile phone might produce impairments in some biochemicals changes and oxidative stress in brain, liver and renal tissue of albino rats. These alterations were corrected by withdrawal. PMID:24712749
The possible biological effects of electromagnetic fields became an attractive public health concern, due to the wide use of mobile phones. Therefore, the present work was designed to study the effect of exposure in male albino rats to electromagnetic radiations(EMR), produced from a cellular tower for mobile telephone, on some redox elements (copper, iron, zinc and manganese), hepatic glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in addition to the stress hormone ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone), serum total proteins and total lipids with evaluation of the possible protective role of the antioxidant Glutathione Enhancer. The rats were arranged into three groups: the control unexposed, the exposed untreated and the exposed treated groups. Both exposed groups were subjected to electromagnetic field at frequency of 900-930 MHz, for 24 h/day for 8 weeks, at the same time the third exposed group was supplied with oral injection of the antioxidant three times/week. Results showed that serum levels of zinc, copper, iron and hepatic tissue contents of reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity and serum total proteins were reduced while serum level of ACTH and manganese were increased in the exposed group compared to control unexposed. Most data of the studied parameters showed improvement after treatment supporting the suggestive protective role of Glutathione Enhancer against the effect of EMR emitted by mobile base station
This Study was designed to investigate the protective effect of oral administration of ellagic acid (EA), a natural polyphenol (50mg/kg body wt) and/or zinc aspartate (ZA) (50mg/kg body wt) against the cellular damage induced by whole body gamma irradiation (6.5Gy as a single dose) in male albino rats. The results of the current study revealed that exposure to ?-radiation exhibited a potential elevation of serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and transferrin; as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metallothioneins (MTs) in liver and kidney. In addition, there were significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, tissues of liver and kidney displayed changes in some trace elements concentrations. Rats treated with EA and/or ZA before and after whole body ?-irradiation revealed significant modulation of the biochemical parameters and improvement in the antioxidant status, which might be effective in minimizing the radiation-induced increase in LPO as well as changes in essential trace elements in liver and kidney tissues reflecting a synergistic effect.
There is a marked sex difference in whole body elimination of PFOA in rats with females (t1/2) 1/2 = 15 days). The authors were interested in determining if the levels of circulating androgens or estrogens modulate PFOA elimination. That is, if castrated males pretreated with estradiol exhibit a female pattern of PFOA elimination and if ovariectomized females pretreated with testosterone exhibit the male pattern. Castration of males greatly increased the elimination of [1-14C]PFOA (9.4 ?mol/kg, ip) into both urine and feces, but castration plus estradiol produced no further augmentation. In female rats, neither ovariectomy nor ovariectomy plus testosterone affected the elimination of PFOA. They conclude that a factor produced by the testis, most likely androgens, modulate the elimination of PFOA in the male rat
While radiation hazards, due to free radical generation, present an enormous challenge for biological and medical safety, green tea extract is a potent scavenger of a variety of free radicals. This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of green tea against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage in the liver and kidney in male rats using vitamin E as a reference drug. Green tea aqueous extract (300 mg/Kg body weighty) or vitamin E (40 mg/ Kg body weighty) were administered to male albino rats via gavages during 21 successive days before whole body exposure to gamma rays (6.5 Gy), from cesium-137 source, and during 7 days after irradiation. The animals were sacrificed the 7th day post-irradiation. The levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), urea, and creatinine, as well as activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased in sera of the irradiated rats. Moreover, radiation induced disturbances in liver and kidney content of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn). Treatment with green tea extract and or vitamin E before and post irradiation were significantly ameliorated the levels of cholesterol, TG, creatinine, and urea, as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and ALP in serum. Also, green tea extract and or vitamin E achieved significant amelioration liver and kidney contents of Ca, Mg and Mn. In conclusion, green tea extract and or vitamin E show a radioprotective impact against ionizing-radiation-induced liver and kidney injury
Full Text Available Aqueous extract of Spondias mombin in different dilutions was employed to assess its impact on male reproductive, haematologic and biochemical indices of male albino rats. A single daily intragastric administration of 8.4, 16.8 and 33.6 mg kg-1 b.w day-1 of the extract for four weeks did not cause any adverse effect on body and organ weights except the weight of the liver that showed a slight increase. There was a marked dose-dependent reduction (p<0.05 in epididymal sperm progressive motility, sperm count, viability (live/dead ratio and a dose-dependent increase (p<0.05 in percentage abnormal spermatozoa. Abnormalities like double heads, double tails, detached heads and broken tails were frequently observed. Epididymal Î±-glucosidase activity was significantly reduced (p<0.05. However, prostatic acid phosphatase activity and citric acid levels and seminal fructose concentrations remained unchanged following Spondias mombin treatment. Blood analysis showed that red cell and white cell counts and haematocrit (Hct levels were in the normal range. Bilirubin, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, urea and protein concentrations were slightly altered by the extract of Spondias mombin. Discontinuation of the extract resulted in full recovery within four weeks of treatment cessation. The results suggest that aqueous extract of the bark of Spondias mombin has reversible antifertility action, the testis and the epididymis probably being the prime sites of action.
This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil (FEO) against gamma irradiation-induced biochemical changes in male rats. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. was orally administrated at dose level of 250 mg/kg body wt/day for 21 days before irradiation and 7 days post exposure (6.5 Gy single dose). Rats exposed to ionizing radiation exhibited a potential elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels, lipid abnormalities, and an increase in tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metallothioneins (MTs). On the other hand, noticeable drop in liver and kidney glutathione content and serum total protein, albumin and testosterone levels were recorded. Tissue organs displayed some changes in trace element concentrations, which may be due to the radiation ability to induce oxidative stress. The data obtained from rats treated with fennel oil before and after whole body gamma irradiation revealed significant modulation in the biochemical tested parameters and profound improvement in the activity of antioxidant status, glutathione and metallothioneins. The treatment of irradiated rats with fennel oil also appeared to be effective in minimizing the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation as well as changes in essential trace elements in some tissue organs. In addition to its containing many chemical antioxidant constituents such as polyphenols, fennel was found to contain detectable concentrations of essential trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Mn and Ca) which may be involved in multiple biological processes as constituents of enzymes system including superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn, Mn, SODs), oxide reductase, glutathione (GSP, GSH, GST), metallothionein MTs, etc. Overall, it could be concluded that Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil exerts beneficial protective role against radiation-induced deleterious biochemical effects related to many organ functions and deteriorated antioxidant defense system.
Elbetieha, Ahmed; Da'as, Sahar Isa
The effects of abamectin pesticide on fertility of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated. Adult male rats were exposed to tap water containing 0, 571, 857, or 1714 ppm abamectin for 6 weeks. Based on fluid consumption, animals received 0, 1.19, 1.87, and 2.13 mg/animal/day abamectin, respectively. Fertility was significantly reduced in male rats ingesting abamectin at all three doses in that the number of females impregnated by them was significantly reduced. The number of viable fetuses was significantly reduced in females mated with males that ingested abamectin at 1.87 or 2.13 mg/animal/day. Significant increases in the total number of resorptions and the number of females with resorptions were observed in females mated with the exposed males at all three concentrations. The body weight gain and water consumption were significantly lower in males that ingested 2.13 mg/animal/day abamectin. Likewise, ingestion of abamectin at all three concentrations caused a significant increase in the weight of testes. Epididymal and testicular sperm counts and daily sperm production were significantly decreased in exposed males. The serum level of testosterone was significantly reduced, whereas the serum level of follicle-stimulating hormone was significantly increased in males that ingested abamectin at a concentration of 2.13 mg/animal/day. Histological evaluation of the testes revealed several abnormalities including infiltration with congested blood vessels with marked hemorrhage and a significant accumulation of connective tissue surrounding the seminiferous tubules. These results strongly suggest the adverse effects of abamectin pesticide on male rat fertility. PMID:12798765
Lead is a pervasive environmental pollutant known to induced a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunction in both laboratory animals as well as in human. The present work was directed to study the impact of lead (Pb) contamination on blood levels of thyroid hormones. Lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, total protein, albumin and globulin in male albino rats and whether this impact extends to their offspring growing up in same conditions. Animals were classified into three main groups; 1- control. 2- painter's (fathers). 3- first generation of male rats yielded from Pb-contaminated parents (fathers and mothers). groups 2 and 3 were levels; 100 and 200 mg l, drinking water with lead acetates at two dose levels; 100 and 200 mg l. drinking water for two months. The results revealed that lead contamination induced significant elevations (P4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in both fathers and offspring. Yet, lead significantly increase the plasma lipid peroxidation (P<0.001) with concomitant decreased in glutathione blood content in both fathers and male offspring. The plasma levels of total; protein were significantly increased as a response to the plasma albumin elevations and in turn the albumin / globulin ratio in both fathers and male offspring. Collectively, it was evident that lead high dose (200 mg) dose and the male offspring were highly contaminated than their fathers. The present investigation recommended that urban population ad persons whose work is associated with exposure to lead. Would expected to be at increased risk for lead exposure that will extend to their offspring, and they should be submitted with antioxidants and subjected to periodical medical examinations
Farrin Babaei-Balderlou; Samad Zare
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 Â± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip) for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of ...
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the status of fertility, developmental stages during gestation and teratological changes, if any, following oral administration of methanol sub-fraction (MSF of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rats. Materials and Methods: The MSF was administered at the doses of 50 mg contraceptive dose (CD, 100 mg (2x CD, 250 mg (5x CD and 500 mg (10x CD/kg body wt/day along with vehicle-treated control using 10 male and 20 female Wistar rats in each group. Necropsies were performed one day before the expected parturition. Status of gravid/non-gravid uterus, the number of corpora lutea in the ovary, implantation status, fetal wellbeing, fetal resorption, fetal body weight, external, visceral and skeletal malformations were recorded. Results: Pregnancies were recorded in vehicle-treated control animals and in the animals treated with 50 mg/kg body wt/day. The animals treated with 2x CD, 5x CD and 10x CD did not get pregnant. The fetuses and the status of the ovary, uterus and implantation, fetal body weight, soft tissues and skeletal structures were recorded normal. Data were comparable to those of control. Conclusion: The results suggest that the test substance had no developmental toxicity and teratogenicity which could affect pregnancy, implantation and gestation.
Graham, Bronwyn M; Milad, Mohammed R
Emerging research has demonstrated that the sex hormone estradiol regulates fear extinction in female rodents and women. Estradiol may also regulate fear extinction in males, given its role in synaptic plasticity in both sexes. Here we report that inhibition of estradiol synthesis during extinction training, via the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole, significantly impairs extinction recall in male rats. This deficit in extinction recall is not due to state-dependent memory formation and is comple...
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 Â± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, the spatial navigation memory of rats was evaluated by cross-arm maze. In this study lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in hippocampus. Diabetes caused to significant decrease in alternation percent in the cross-arm maze, as a spatial memory index, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, whereas administration of melatonin prevented the spatial memory deficit in diabetic rats. Also melatonin injection significantly increased the spatial memory in intact animals compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Assessment of hippocampus homogenates indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activities in the diabetic group compared to the control animals, while melatonin administration ameliorated these indices in diabetic rats. In conclusion, diabetes induction leads to debilitation of spatial navigation memory in rats, and the melatonin treatment improves the memory presumably through the reduction of oxidative stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats.
Babatunji E. Oyinloye
Full Text Available Objective: Herbal medicinal products play an important role in the management of liver diseases for the lack of satisfactory liver protective drugs in allopathic medical practices. Searching for hepatoprotective drugs with high efficacy and safety is of great need. Our aim is to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of Piper guineense (P.G. on ethanol induced toxicity in Wistar rats. Methods: In order to assess the hepatoprotective effect of this extract in experimental animals, twenty-four Wistar male albino rats (weighing 150-170 g were divided into four groups. Toxicity was induced by administering 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg b.w by oral gavage for 21 days. Serum triglyceride (TG levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities were monitored. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD and gluthathione-S-transferase (GST activities were determined in the liver. Results: At the end of the experiment, chronic administration of ethanol resulted in enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO with depletion in the levels of GSH as well as reduction in the activities of SOD and GST. TG levels, ALT and AST activities were elevated. This was attenuated by the co-administration of the P.guineense extract by oral gavage (100 or 200 mg/kg b.w. Administration of the plant extract during ethanol exposure inhibited hepatic LPO and ameliorated SOD and GST activities as well as restoring GSH levels significantly. Conclusion: From this study it can be concluded that aqueous extract of P.guineense possess some potent antioxidants which can ameliorate hepatic damage associated with chronic ethanol exposure in rat models. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 71-76
R. S. Gupta
Full Text Available Benzothiazoline HNC6H4SCÃ¯Â¸Â¹(C6H5CH:C(OHCOOCH3Ã¢Â€Â‰1 prepared by the condensation reaction of aroyl pyruvate and 2-aminothiophenol has been treated with Ph3Sb(OPri2 to yield Ph3Sb[SC6H4NC(C6H5CH:COÃ¯Â¸Â¹COOCH3]Ã¢Â€Â‰2. These compounds have been characterized by elemental analyses and molecular weight determinations. The probable structures of the ligand as well as antimony complex have been tentatively proposed on the basis of IR and NMR (H1 and C13 spectral evidences. Both compounds have been tested for their antifertility activity in male albino rats. The oral administration of compounds 1 and 2 at the dose level of 10 mg/rat/day significantly reduced the weights of testes, epididymides, ventral prostate, and seminal vesicles. The production of preleptotene spermatocytes was decreased by 36.57%; 57.23%, pachytene spermatocytes by 40.06%; 62.01%, and secondary spermatocytes by 52.45%; 63.22%, following the treatment of compounds 1 and 2, respectively. The marked reduction in sperm motility and density resulted in infertility by 100%. Significant (P<.01 alterations were found in biochemical parameters of reproductive organs in treated animals as compared to control group. It is concluded that all these effects may finally impair the fertility of male rats.
Mingoti G.Z.; Pereira R.N.; Monteiro C.M.R.
We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment) were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group) were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a s...
The present study was conducted on male albino rats of 120-150 gm. The effects of organophosphorus pesticides parathion methyl, azinphos methyl and pirimiphos methyl on liver and kidney functions and testosterone hormone were studied on three groups of rats, each group treated with one pesticide with daily oral administrations of 2.5 mg/kg, 2.0 mg/kg and 20.5 mg/kg respectively and fourth group served as control. Blood was collected after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days and two and four weeks recovery periods. The data obtained revealed significant decrease in serum albumin, albumin to globulin ratio (A/G) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) while significant increases in serum creatinine, urea and globulin in all groups of treated rats were recorded. The increases remained higher than the controls even after the recovery periods, which lead to kidney dysfunction. Testosterone level was significantly decreased with no recovery tendency
Full Text Available Introduction: Nanosilver particles are one of the functional grounds in nanotechnology field. These nanoparticles may produce free radicals and destruct different cells. In this study, Nanosilver toxic effects on RBC and WBC numbers in male Rats were studied. Thus, male rats were treated with nanosilver and RBC and WBC were detected. Methods: In this study, RBC was detected in male Wistar rats following exposure to 50, 100, 200 and 400ppm concentration of silver nanoparticles administrated peritoneally. Then, RBC and WBC were collected in rats 3, 8 and 12 days after treatment of nanosilver particles. Numbers of RBC and WBC were compared in treatment and control groups. Results: The study results indicated that dose of 400ppm nanosilver was effective on decrease of RBC and increase of WBC in treatment rats 12 day after treatment. These results were significant (p?0/01. Discussion: The efficiency of 400ppm concentration of nanosilver, RBC decease and WBC increase could be referred to probabale lyses of RBC cell membranes and sever incitement of cellular immune system. The extra investigation is recommended regarding variety of new shapes, sizes and composition of nanosilver.
Bhargava, C; Thakur, M; Yadav, S K
A number of herbal drugs are advocated in the traditional Ayurvedic literature for the improvement of overall sexual function. Young roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. (Fam. Bombacaceae) [correction added after online publication 1 August 2011: the family of Bombax ceiba was incorrectly mentioned as Orchidaceae. It has been corrected to Bombacaceae] also known as Semal Musli are used traditionally in Indian subcontinent as sexual stimulant. Its juice is considered nutritive and restorative tonic. Lyophilised aqueous extract of roots was studied for effect on sexual behaviour and spermatogenesis in male albino rats. Administration of 100 mg Kg(-1) body weight of aqueous extract influenced the five parameters evaluated in vivo. Sexual behaviour analysis in the presence of a female rate, serum testosterone level, anabolic effects, epididymal sperm count and seminal fructose level were the parameters evaluated. In B. ceiba extract-treated animals, a gain in body and sexual organ weights was observed. Mount, intromission and ejaculation frequencies were significantly improved (P 0.05). Seminal fructose content and epididymal sperm count were significantly improved as well. Penile erection index was also higher compared to control group animals. Hesitation time was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), and copulatory rate was doubled in treated animals compared with control group animals. PMID:21806665
Sandal, Suleyman; Tekin, Suat; Seker, Fatma Burcu; Beytur, Ali; Vardi, Nigar; Colak, Cemil; Tapan, Tuba; Yildiz, Sedat; Yilmaz, Bayram
Apelin is a novel bioactive peptide as the endogenous ligand for APJ. Apelin and APJ have also been identified in the testis, hypothalamic nuclei such as arcuate, supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, implicating roles in the control of reproduction. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic central infusion of apelin-13 on LH, FSH and testosterone levels and testis morphology. 21 Wistar-Albino male rats received continuous intracerebroventricular infusion via Alzet osmotic mini pumps filled artificial cerebrospinal fluid (vehicle) or apelin-13 at concentrations of 1 or 10 nmol (10 ?l/h) for seven days. At the last 90 min of the infusion period, the blood samples were collected at 15 min intervals (0-90 min) for LH and FSH analyses. At the last sampling point, the blood samples were analyzed for testosterone levels. Infusion of high dose apelin-13 significantly suppressed LH release compared with the vehicle values at 30, 60 and 75 min (papelin-13 group were statistically lower than the control group (papelin-13 significantly decreased the number of Leydig cells compared with the control and lower dose apelin-13 groups (papelin-13 may play a role in the central regulation and decreases testosterone release by suppressing LH secretion. Thus, antagonists of the apelin receptor may, therefore, be useful for pharmaceuticals in the treatment of infertility. PMID:26149233
M. Kourosh Arami
Full Text Available Hypothermia in nature occurs in hibernating animals. It has applications in medicine in open heart surgery,organ and connective tissue preserving, altitude medicine and geriatrics. Despite the vastness of studies on hypothermia many of its biologic and physiologic effects including endocrine system alterations are still poorly recognized. In this study the effect of hypothermia on renin- angiotensin-aldosterone axis was explored. Ten male wistar albino rats (mean age 5 months were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of chloralhydrat (0.5 m1/100gr body weight. Then animals were placed in hypothermia apparatus . Their body temperature were reduced to 250 C. AngiotensinI(ANGI and aldosterone (ALD levels of serum were measured by radioimmunoassay before and after hypothermia induction and once every 24 hours for three days. Plasma renin activity (PRA was also measured by using the standard formula of angiotensin determinates at two temperatures of 40C and 370C . The results showed that PRA,ANGI and ALD increased significantly immedietly after hypothermia (p<0.03. Later changes were followed as these factors decreased to basal level, except in the case of aldosterone which maintained its increased level significantly for 24 hours (p<0.05. It seems that moderate hypothermia have stimulatory effect on PRA,ANGI and ALD that results of this study confirm it.
Forty male albino rats were divided equally into four groups, the first group acted as control group, the second group was subjected to 5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation, the third group was injected intraperitoneally daily with soya oil (15 mg/kg b.w. for 14 days) before gamma irradiation and the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally daily with garlic oil (150/kg b.w. for 14 days) before gamma irradiation. Mortality percentage and body weight were recorded. Blood samples were collected one week post-gamma irradiation from all animals for biochemical analysis. Serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol were measured. Total proteins and albumin were measured using photometric methods. Globulin value was calculated by subtraction of albumin from total protein values. The results showed that gamma irradiation with dose level of 5 Gy induced retardation of live body weight and increased the mortality. The data also showed significant increases in TBARS, total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol levels, whereas the levels of total proteins, albumin and globulin were significantly decreased. The soya oil or garlic oil injected pre-irradiation exerted noticeable amelioration in induced radiation changes on body weight, mortality, TBARS, lipid profiles and protein fractions
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cisplatin, Platinum co-ordinate complex is a widely used antineaplastic agent for treatment of metastatic tumors. Taurine is an organic acid and an endogenous antioxidant. In this study we investigated the protective effect of taurine as an endogenous antioxidant against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotexicity.Methods: 24 male albino rats (180-220 grams were divided into 4 groups (n=6: (1: saline-treated group (2: cisplatin-treated group (10mg/kg, ip (3: group that received taurine (400mg/kg, ip 1hr before cisplatin (10mg/kg, ip administration (4: taurine (400mg/kg, ip. The animals were killed 7days after treatment and then blood samples were collected.Results: The results of this study indicated that cisplatin significantly increased CRATININ, URE, ALT, AST levels as compared to control group. Moreover, taurine significantly decreased CRATININ, URE, ALT and AST levels compared to cisplatin group.Conclusion: According to this study taurine prevents the incease of Creatinin, BUN, ALT and AST levels assisted by cisplatin, which may be due to its antioxidant properties.Keywords: Cisplatin; Taurine; Hepatoxicity; Nephrotoxicity; Nephrons.
Ekstrak Buah Delima Terstandar Menurunkan Derajat Fibrosis Hati pada Hewan Model Tikus Putih (STANDARDIZED POMEGRANATE FRUIT EXTRACT REDUCES LIVER FIBROSIS DEGREE ON ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS AS AN ANIMAL MODEL
Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of standadized pomegranate fruit extracton liver fibrosis due to biliary obstruction. Liver fibrosis was induced with bile duct ligation (BDLtechnique. Examinations were performed on the expressions of collagen type 1 and the degree ofliver fibrosis. Thirty two male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus, 2.5 month old, weighing 160-190grams were divided into four experimental groups. The first group (P0 consisted of rats whichunderwent laparotomy and treated with 2 ml of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC 0.3%. Three othergroups consisted of rats which underwent laparotomy and bile duct ligation (BDL but receiveddifferent treatments. Group P1 was given carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC 0.3%, P2 was treatedwith standardized pomegranate fruit extract 150 mg/kgBW/po/day within CMC 0.3% , and P3 wasgiven ellagic acid (EA 60 mg/kgBW/po/day of equal volume. Treatments were administered on thesecond day after BDL for 21 days. The livers were excised one day after the last administration.Observations were made on the expressions of collagen type 1 and the degree of liver fibrosis. Theresults showed that standardized pomegranate extract can inhibit the expression of collagen type Isignificantly in the P2 and P3 compared with P1 group (p <0.05. Treatment with standardizedpomegranate fruit extract also significantly suppressed the progression of liver fibrosis comparedto P1, eventhough there was more liver fibrosis compared to P0 (p<0,05. The degree of liverfibrosis was not significantly different between P2 and P3, and between P3 and P1 (p>0,05.The administration of standardized pomegranate fruit extract 150 mg/kgBW/po/day exertedantifibrotic effect by inhibiting the increase the expression of collagen type I and the degree of liverfibrosis.
Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.
Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Okiti, Osume O; Farombi, E Olatunde
The effect of dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) (XA) and vitamin C (VC) against ?-radiation-induced liver and kidney damage was studied in male Wistar rats. XA and VC were given orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg, orally for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed after 1 and 8 weeks of single exposure to radiation. Results showed that all animals in un-irradiated group survived (100%), while 83.3% and 66.7% survived in XA- and VC-treated groups, respectively, and 50% survived in irradiated group. The levels of serum, liver and kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO) were elevated by 88%, 102% and 73% after 1 week of exposure, and by 152%, 221% and 178%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. Treatment with XA and VC significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of LPO in the irradiated animals. Also, ?-radiation caused significant decreases (p<0.05) in the levels of liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), kidney GSH and SOD by 41%, 60%, 81%, 79%, 72% and 58% after 1 week of exposure. Similarly, ?-radiation caused significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) after 8 weeks of exposure. Precisely, ALT and AST levels were increased by 69% and 82%, respectively. These changes were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in irradiated animals treated with XA and VC. These results suggest that XA and VC could increase the antioxidant defence systems in the liver and kidney of irradiated animals, and may protect from adverse effects of whole body radiation. PMID:20570120
L-Carnitine is a dipeptide amino acid necessary for fat metabolism, it provides energy by transporting long-chain fatty acids to mitochondria to act as a fuel and it is considered a powerful antioxidant. In addition, zinc is an essential mineral which helps to increase the secretion of male sex hormones and raises the sperm count, so its combination with L-carnitine is useful for the fertility process. The present study aims to evaluate the potency of L-carnitine and zinc as radio- protective and curative agent pre and after exposure to ?-radiation through biochemical, histological, morphological abnormalities of sperms and DNA damage in the sperms induced by ?-irradiation by comet assay. Animals received L-carnitine (LC) and zinc (Zn) orally at the dose 9.45 mg/100 gm body wt./day for successive 20 days and then exposed to whole body gamma radiation at the dose 4 Gy (1 Gy for 4 days, day after day) on the 7th day from treatment with antioxidant. Histological examinations of heart and testis tissues showed that administration of LC and Zn have attenuated radiation induced damage and improved tissues architecture. Moreover, the observed amelioration in the tissues was accompanied by a remarkable decrease of their lipid peroxide levels (malondialdehyde (MDA)), together with an increase in glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Hormonal determinations of serum testosterone (T), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) which carried out for fertility assessment showed that whole body ?-irradiation of rats induced significant decrease in serum testosterone while FSH and LH were significantly increased as compared with control group. On the other hand, irradiation caused significant elevation in the total number of abnormal head, and / or tail of sperms in comparison to the control rats. The comet assay showed that exposure to ?-radiation induced DNA damage of sperms (tail moment values).
G.Z., Mingoti; R.N., Pereira; C.M.R., Monteiro.
Full Text Available We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment) were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fert [...] ility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group) were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 ± 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 ± 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004). No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 ± 5.41 vs 127.02 ± 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001). These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.
Full Text Available We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 ± 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 ± 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004. No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 ± 5.41 vs 127.02 ± 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001. These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.
Held, Heather E.; Pilla, Raffaele; Ciarlone, Geoffrey E.; Landon, Carol S.; Dean, Jay B.
Tonic–clonic seizures typify central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS?OT) in humans and animals exposed to high levels of oxygen, as are encountered during scuba diving. We previously demonstrated that high doses of pseudoephedrine (PSE) decrease the latency to seizure (LS) for CNS?OT in young male rats. This study investigated whether female rats respond similarly to PSE and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). We implanted 60 virgin stock (VS) and 54 former breeder (FB) female rats with radio?teleme...
Absorption, distribution and excretion of 14C-chloroquine after single oral administration in albino and pigmented rats: binding characteristics of chloroquine-related radioactivity to melanin in-vivo.
Ono, Chiho; Yamada, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Makoto
Chloroquine is an antimalarial agent that has been reported to have distinct affinity to melanin. After single oral administration of 14C-chloroquine at a dose of 20mg kg-1 under non-fasting conditions, the absorption, distribution and excretion of 14C-chloroquine-related radioactivity were studied in albino and pigmented rats. The objectives of the study were to investigate differences in the disposition of chloroquine between albino and pigmented rats and to define its in-vivo binding characteristics to melanin-containing ocular tissues. Extensive uptake of radioactivity into tissues was indicated by higher concentrations in most tissues compared with serum and there was no quantitative differences in the distribution of radioactivity found between albino and pigmented rats except for melanin-containing tissues, such as the uveal tract of the eye and perhaps hair follicles. There was selective and strong binding of drug-related compounds to these tissues in pigmented rats. The uveal tract concentrations reached the maximum value of 158.42 +/- 7.86 micrograms equiv g-1 (mean+/-s.e.) at 1 week and decreased very slowly with a terminal half life of 4476 h (187 day). The uveal tract concentrations at 24 weeks were still high (67.75 +/- 6.19 micrograms equiv g-1). The AUC for uveal tract was 842.3 mg.h g-1. A relatively high concentration was still determined in the uveal tract even at 48 weeks after single oral dosing by whole-body autoradiography. The uveal tracts separated from one eye of each rat were extracted with 0.067 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and 1 M HCl-EtOH (30:70) successively. In pigmented rats, almost all radioactivity was released from the tissue with 1 M HCl-EtOH (30:70), indicating that the strong binding by melanin was reversible, and that hydrophobic or electrostatic interaction would play a critical role in the binding of chloroquine and its metabolites with the melanin-containing ocular tissues. Approximately 70% of the radioactivity given was recovered in urine and faeces up to 144 h after dosing both in pigmented and albino rats. The excretion pattern in pigmented rats was similar to that seen in albino rats. PMID:14738591
Linseed, the richest known source of botanical lignans, has been shown to have chemo protective effects in animals. Synthetic food colors are mainly an objective to increase attractiveness and palatability of food stuff. Many azo dyes (such as C Rad No.40) are genotoxic in short term tests and carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Two time interval experiments were conducted to determine the effect of C Red No.40 dye on body weight and certain organs (liver-spleen and heart) weights in male rat. In addition, serum lipid fractions, folic acid, haemagglutination inhibition test and histological investigation of liver and hart have been carried out. The beneficial efficiency of linseed supplementation was also investigated. The results obtained revealed that body and organs weight were decreased under the two treatments. Lipid fractions (cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides) were generally increased under the effect of dye addition. The same deleterious effect of dye was appeared on liver and heart under the histological investigations. On the other hand, linseed supplementation exerted noticeable amelioration of dye hazards
Saad Abdulrahman Hussain
Full Text Available Objective: Nimodipine is a calcium channel blocker that inhibits calcium ion transfer into cells. It has greater effects on cerebral arteries due to high lipophilicity and used for cerebral hemorrhage. In this study it was aimed to investigate the dose-dependent effect of nimodipine on the testicular tissue of male rats. Methods: Twenty four male rats were allocated into four groups (6 rats in each; first group served as control, the others received 20, 40, 80 mg/kg/day of nimodipine, respectively, for 30 days. At day 31, the animals were sacrificed, the testicular tissues were removed, and sperm was collected from epididymis and prepared for analysis. Results: Significant and dose-dependent decrease in sperm count and motility associated with morphological changes were reported in addition to progressive damage in the epididymis and testicular tissue architecture of treated animals compared to controls. Conclusion: Nimodipine decreases sperms count and activity in a dose-dependent pattern, associated with disarrangement testicular structural elements of male rats; this confirms the class effect of calcium channel blockers in this respect. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(1: 17-22
El-Wahab, Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abd; Moram, Gehan Salah El-Deen
The objective of the present work was to evaluate the broadest toxic effect of some synthetic additives of colorants and/or flavors on different body organs and metabolic aspects in rats. A number of chemical food color and flavor additives are routinely added during processing to improve the aesthetic appearance of the dietary items. However, many of them are toxic after prolonged use. In this experiment, a total of 100 male albino rats of Spargue Dawley strain were divided into 10 groups: G(1) was fed basal diet and served as control, G(2): basal diet + Brilliant blue (blue dye, No. 2, 124 mg/kg diet), G(3): basal diet + carmoisine (red dye, No. 3, 70 mg/kg diet), G(4): basal diet + tartrazine (yellow dye, FD & C yellow No. 5, 75 mg/kg diet), G(5): basal diet + trans-anethole (4.5 g/kg diet) G(6): basal diet + propylene glycol (0.25 g/kg diet), G(7): basal diet + vanillin(1.25 g/kg diet), G(8): basal diet + Brilliant blue + propylene glycol, G(9): basal diet + carmoisine + trans-anethole, G(10): basal diet + tartrazine + vanillin for 42 successive days. All food colorants mixed with or without flavor additives induced a significant decrease in body weight, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count. Also there was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content; glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities in both blood and liver compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were observed in all test groups when compared to control group. Finally, it is advisable to limit the uses of these food colorants and/or food flavor additives especially those used by children. PMID:22317828
Male albino rats were whole body subjected to 2 Gy every other day up to a total dose of 8 Gy. Animals sacrificed on the 8th day after irradiation showed significant decreases in testis/body weight ratio. Biochemical analysis in testicular tissues showed significant decreases in SOD and CAT activities, concomitant with significant increase in XO activity and TBARS contents. Radiation exposure induced also significant increases in testicular DNA fragmentation, significant increases in mitochondrial NO and Ca+2 contents associated with significant decrease in nuclear GSH content. Testicular LDL-C content showed a significant increase which was much higher than its increase in serum, the content of HDL-C increased significantly, contrarily to serum where a significant decrease was recorded. Histological examination through electron microscope revealed apoptosis in testicular tissue. Either allopurinol (50 mg/kg body weight supplied via intra peritoneal injection) or Hesperidine (200 mg/kg body weight supplied orally by gastric intubation) or allopurinol + hesperidine supplied to rats during 7 consecutive days before irradiation or during 7 consecutive days after irradiation resulted in significant decrease of apoptosis associated with significant amelioration in the disequilibrium between antioxidants and oxidants. All treatments have improved the biochemical alteration in testicular tissues as well as mitochondrial and nuclear changes. However, the improvement was significantly higher when allopurinol, or hesperidine or allopurinol + hesperidine were administered pre-irradiation than post-irradiation. According to the results obtained in the current study, it could be concluded that antioxidants supplementation would protect testicular tissues from apoptosis.
N. A. Issa; I. K. Zangana
The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and from asymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%), clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching was rep...
M. Naeem Rabeh; E. Marwa Ibrahim
The methanolic extract of beet (Beta vulgaris L.) root waste was investigated for its possible antihypercholesterolemic in cholesterol rich diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in male adult albino rats and its antioxidant potential. Different in vitro assays used for determining antioxidant potential of extracts of pulp wastes were: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. Thirty five adult male albino rats were randomly divided into two m...
Thomas, J; McLean, J H
Studies in female rats indicate that estrogen reduction has both pro- and anticonvulsant effects on seizures, but that the respective effects are limited to specific types of seizures at selected doses of picrotoxin. This study was conducted to see if testosterone reduction had parallel effects on seizure susceptibility in males. Male rats were given castration or sham operations and allowed 3 weeks to recover. The latencies to myoclonic, focal, akinetic, and generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures were scored in independent groups of sham-operated or castrated males after injection with picrotoxin (3.5-7.5 mg/kg). The results showed that castrated males had significantly shorter latencies to GTC seizures than sham-operated males at the 3.5 mg/kg and 5.5 mg/kg doses of picrotoxin. There were no significant differences in the latencies to myoclonic, focal, or akinetic seizures between the two surgical groups. The findings suggest that, unlike endogenous estrogen, endogenous testosterone exerts only an anticonvulsant effect and that the effect is limited to GTC seizures. PMID:1896499
Aboul-Fotouh, Gihan Ibrahim; Zickri, Maha Baligh; Metwally, Hala Gabr; Ibrahim, Ihab Refaat; Kamar, Samaa Samir; Sakr, Wael
Background and Objectives Amiodarone (AM), a class 3 antiarrhythmic drug, has been associated with variety of adverse effects, the most serious of which is pulmonary toxicity. Ator (A) is a statin, known for their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. Recent studies provide evidence of potential therapeutic effect of statins on lung injury. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) have shown great promise in the repair of various tissues. The present study aimed at investigating and comparing the possible therapeutic effect of A and ADSCs on AM induced lung injury in albino rats. Methods and Results 34 adult male albino rats were divided into 5 groups: control group (Gp I), A group (Gp II) received 10 mg/kg of A orally 6 days (d)/week (w) for 4 weeks (ws), AM group (Gp III) received 30 mg/kg of AM orally 6 d/w for 4 ws, AM&A group (Gp IV) received AM for 4ws then A for other 4 ws and AM&SCs group (Gp V) received AM for 4 ws then injected with 0.5 ml ADSCs on 2 successive days intravenously (IV). Histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical and morphometric studies were performed. Group III displayed bronchiolitis obliterans, thickened interalveolar septa (IAS) and thickened vascular wall which were proven morphometrically. Increased area% of collagen fibers and apoptotic changes were recorded. All findings regressed on A administration and ADSCs therapy. Conclusion Ator proved a definite ameliorating effect on the degenerative, inflammatory, apoptotic and fibrotic changes induced by AM. ADSCs administration denoted more remarkable therapeutic effect compared to A. PMID:26634065
O. Igile Godwin
Full Text Available The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers were divided into four subsamples; A-C and then mixed with Ferrous Sulphate (FS, Iron (III sulphate (F3 and Ferric Alum (FA, respectively in ratio 1:5000 (0.2 g fortificant kg-1 mash. The samples along with the Control (D were each fermented in a solid state for 24 h and stir-fried to obtain gari granules. The gari samples were fed to rats divided into four groups of five for fourteen days and the serum, then analyzed for serum iron concentration, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and hemoglobin concentration. The results showed significant increase (p-1 and hemoglobin (13.63±2.8 g dL-1 and significantly lower level (55.5±2.2 ?mol L-1 of TIBC(p<0.05, indicating a better iron bioavailabilty. The findings suggests that fortification of gari with Ferrous Sulphate (FS had higher bioavailability of iron and therefore hold promise in combating iron deficiency anemia.
Kovács, Zsolt; Kékesi, Katalin A; Juhász, Gábor; Dobolyi, Arpád
We showed previously that the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) was increased after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), inosine (Ino) and muscimol alone whereas i.p. guanosine (Guo), uridine (Urd), bicuculline, theophylline and (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801) alone decreased the SWD number in Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. These drugs may exert their effects on absence epileptic activity mainly via proinflammatory cytokines-evoked increase in cortical excitability (such as LPS), GABAergic system (LPS, Ino, Urd, muscimol and bicuculline), glutamatergic system (LPS, Guo and MK-801) and adenosinergic system (LPS, Ino, Guo, Urd and theophylline). Both GABAergic system and glutamatergic system are involved in the pathomechanism of absence epilepsy, the LPS-evoked increase in absence epileptic activity and the pro- or antiepileptic effects of non-adenosine (non-Ado) nucleosides Ino, Guo and Urd. Moreover, Ino, Guo and Urd have modulatory effects on inflammatory processes. Thus, we investigated whether Ino, Guo and Urd have also modulatory influence on LPS-evoked increase in SWD number using two different concentrations of each nucleoside in WAG/Rij rats. We demonstrated that Ino dose-dependently aggravated whereas Guo and Urd attenuated the LPS-evoked increase in SWD number. Our results suggest that different nucleosides have diverse effects on LPS-induced changes in absence epileptic activity. PMID:26365718
Full Text Available Background: Jawarish-e-Amla Sada (JAS; a polyherbal Unani formulation, is claimed as a potential hepatoprotective agent in traditional Unani medicine treatise. Aims and Objectives: Though, JAS has its composition recorded in ancient Unani texts, there have been minimal attempts to scientifically validate its hepatoprotective potential. The present work is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of JAS in vivo. Materials and Methods: CCl 4 intoxicated Albino Wistar rats were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of JAS (0.7 g/kg and 1.0 g/kg, p.o. and the results were compared with, silymarin. The efficacy was established on the basis of altered levels of biochemical markers and histopathological analysis of the liver tissue. Results and Discussion: Treatment with the aqueous slurry of JAS significantly reduced the level of biochemical markers in CCl 4 intoxicated rats. These findings were well-supported by the histopathological analysis of liver tissue. The effect shown by JAS was found to be at par with silymarin treatment. Conclusion: This study suggests that CCl 4 induced liver damage can be ameliorated by traditional Unani formulation JAS. This justifies the traditional claim of JAS being a hepatoprotective agent.
Adult rat males were given a single intraperitoneal tritium (THO) injection at 0,01 or 0,001 mCi/g body weight (1/100 or 1/1000 of LDsub(50/30), respectively). Twelve days after treatment each male was mated to 3-5 intact females, and the latter were replaced by fresh ones every 12 following days over a 120-day period. Mated females were killed to score conceptions, corpora lutea, and live and dead embryos. Estimations were made of F1 prenatal death rate (according to Bateman, 1958) and the frequency of induction of dominant lethal mutations (according to Roehrborn, 1970). The results observed indicated paternal exposure to tritium (THO) to produce dominant lethals both in pre- and post-meiotic germ cells in the rat. The extent of the genetic damage studied was found to depend on the amount of activity administered as well as on the time interval between treatment and conception. (author)
Recently, based on a female rat model of human exposure, we have reported that low-level chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) has an injurious effect on the skeleton. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether the exposure may also affect bone metabolism in a male rat model and to estimate the gender-related differences in the bone effect of Cd. Young male Wistar rats received drinking water containing 0, 1, 5, or 50 mg Cd/l for 12 months. The bone effect of Cd was evaluated using bone densitometry and biochemical markers of bone turnover. Renal handling of calcium (Ca) and phosphate, and serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, calcitonin, and parathormone were estimated as well. At treatment with 1 mg Cd/l, corresponding to the low environmental exposure in non-Cd-polluted areas, the bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) at the femur and lumbar spine (L1-L5) and the total skeleton BMD did not differ compared to control. However, from the 6th month of the exposure, the Z score BMD indicated osteopenia in some animals and after 12 months the bone resorption very clearly tended to an increase. The rats' exposure corresponding to human moderate (5 mg Cd/l) and especially relatively high (50 mg Cd/l) exposure dose- and duration-dependently disturbed the processes of bone turnover and bone mass accumulation leading to formation of less dense than normal bone tissue. The effects were accompanied by changes in the serum concentration of calciotropic hormones and disorders in Ca and phosphate metabolism. It can be concluded that low environmental exposure to Cd may be only a subtle risk factor for skeletal demineralization in men. The results together with our previous findings based on an analogous model using female rats give clear evidence that males are less vulnerable to the bone effects of Cd compared to females
Pometlová, M.; Mikulecká, Anna; Šlamberová, Romana; Schutová, B.; Hrubá, L.; Rokyta, R.
Ro?. 18, Suppl.1 (2007), S77-S77. ISSN 0955-8810. [Biennial Meeting of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society /12./. 31.08.2007-03.09.2007, Tübingen] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) 1A8610; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : metemphetamine * behavior * male rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology
Spivey, Jaclyn M.; Colorado, Rene A.; Conejo-Jimenez, Nelida; Gonzalez-Pardo, Hector; GONZALEZ-LIMA, F.
The juvenile brain undergoes marked maturational changes accompanied by major sex hormone changes. In particular, sex differences in neural substrates could underlie male-specific dysfunction in behavioral responses related to the prefrontal cortex. Sex differences in regional metabolic capacity of the cerebral cortex were investigated in juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats. At 6 weeks of age the brains were processed for quantitative histochemistry of cytochrome oxidase, a rate limiting enzyme in c...
Wood, Ruth I.; Vertelkina, Nina V.; Antzoulatos, Eleni
Testosterone and other anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are reinforcing in animals, as determined by conditioned place preference or self-administration. Most drugs of abuse produce subjective effects on mood and perception that initiate and maintain drug taking. Whether AAS have similar effects is not known. Food-restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9) were tested for their ability to discriminate an injection of testosterone from the ?-cyclodextrin vehicle using a standard two-lever ope...
The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effect of contaminated food with organophosphorus pesticide curacron for different periods on serum glucose, total protein, free amino acids, glutamic pyruvic and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases in male rats. Radioimmunoassay technique was used the effect of curacron pesticide on serum insulin level in rats for 45 days. It has been found that curacron caused disturbance in in liver functions which were elucidated through the biochemical determination of glutamic oxaloacetic (SGOT) and glutamic pyruvic (SGPT) transaminases and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin of rats fed with daily doses of 71.6 mg curacron/kg for 45 days. The administered dose of curacron showed cumulative physiological effect and caused marked increases in SGOT, SGPT, total protein and serum insulin levels. On the other hand, it caused significant decreases in levels of serum glucose and free amino acids (FAA) as compared with the control ones
Mohammad Reza Sahraki
Full Text Available Background: Since Urtica dioica is a traditional treatment plant and is used for antihypertensive, antilipidemic and antidiabetic agents, this survey was carried out to evaluate the effect of Urtica dioica decoction on serum glucose and lipid profile in diabetic male rats induced by stereptozotocin (STZ. Materials and Methods: This experiment was performed on 30 Wistar-Albino male rats, weighing 200-250 g, which were divided in sham control (A, diabetic control (B and diabetic test groups (C randomly (N=10. Type I diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg. Test group received 0.40-0.60 ml of Urtica dioica decoction for a month by gavages, control group (B received the same volume of distill water. Group (A did not receive any agent during the experiment period. Finally, animals were anesthetized, sacrificed and blood samples were collected from the cervical vein. Then, serum glucose and lipid profiles were measured by ordinary methods. Data were analyzed by SPSS-11, using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean±SD, and statistical difference was considered significant by p<0.05.Results: Results in the present study showed that fasting blood glucose (FBS, total cholesterol (TCho, triglyceride (TG, LDL, food and water intake were significantly decreased in group C compared with those of group B, but body weight gain was significantly increased compared with that of control group (B.Conclusion: These results indicated that Urtica dioica decoction caused decreased FBS and improved serum lipids in diabetic male rats. Some more studies have shown the same mechanism.
Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of seeds of Vigna mungo (AEVM (fabaceae against rifampicin-induced liver and kidney damage in rats. Settings and Design: Albino rats of either sex (200-250 g were selected and divided in to eight groups of six animals in each. Four groups for hepatoprotective activity and four groups for nephroprotective activity. Group 1 was normal control, group 2 was positive control, group 3 was treated with standard drug, group 4 was treated with AEVM. Similarly it was done for nephroprotective activity. The results are evidenced on the basis of physical, biochemical, histological, and functional parameters. Materials and Methods: Drugs used are rifampicin, silymarin, diagnostic kits (SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and BIT for hepatoprotective activity. BUN, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid for nephroprotective activity. Seed powder of Vigna mungo was extracted with water. Preliminary phytochemical tests were done to identify the phytoconstituents. The hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of the AEVM were assessed in rifampicin-induced hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic rats. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by "Tukey-Kramer" multiple comparison tests. Results: The AEVM showed the presence of amino acids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, proteins, phytic acid, total phenolic compounds, saponins, and tannins. Rifampicin produced significant changes in physical (increased liver weight, decreased body weight, biochemical (increase in serum glutathione pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total bilirubin (BIT level, increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid level, histological (damage to hepatocytes, nephrons, and f