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Sample records for male albino rats

  1. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  2. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    Nabil M Ibrahim; Esam A Eweis; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Yasmin E Abdel-Mobdy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods: Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results: The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat’s blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions: It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.

  3. PROTECTION ROLE OF CALCIUM THERAPY IN IRRADIATED MALE ALBINO RATS

    Free oxygen radicals and insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of radiation syndrome. The trace elements are functioning as co-factors in antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant system and trace elements have been investigated in many different studies including tissue repair processes but this study deal with radiation injury in male albino rats.The study was carried out to investigate the beneficial role of the used metallo element as radio-protector due to its ability for chelating free radicals produced by ionizing radiation. The efficacy of daily oral treatment of rats with calcium glubionate (daily 6 mg/kg body wt) for 6 successive days to control many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation when these rats subjected to 6 Gy whole body gamma ray were studied. The activity of catalase (CAT) and levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were determined. In addition, CAT activity and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and MDA in liver, kidney and spleen tissues of control, calcium treated, irradiated and protected rat groups were evaluated. Samples were collected from animals 24 hours after end of the Ca- glubionate treatment or exposure to gamma radiation. The data obtained revealed that, radiation exposure caused significant alterations in all tissues and serum biochemistry. On the contrary, neutralization was occurred in these biochemical aspects in protected animal groups due to Ca-glubionate treatment. In conclusion, Ca-glubionate could protect rats against biochemical alterations associated with gamma ray oxidative stress. These effects were explained in the light of the presumed different mechanisms of Ca-glubionate

  4. STUDIES ON INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)

    Levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. The present investigation refers to biochemical and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic powder toward CCl4-induced toxicity in adult male albino rats. CCl4 intoxication was attempted using a dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight.Pre-treatment with levanox (one capsule/ kg of rat body weight, each capsule contains 100 mg catechu, 7.5 mg dandelion, 75 mg termiric 2% curcumin, 17.5 mg silymarin, 100 mg lecithin) was more effective than garlic powder (100mg/kg of rat body weight) in reducing CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by its higher potency in reducing elevation of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in serum. Serum of control rats and those treated with levanox or garlic or CCl4 produced 13 types of proteins, differing in the molecular weight (MW) and densities, while those of levanox + garlic or garlic +CCl4 produced 14 bands differing in the MW and densities. The similarity index at the epigenetic level was also studied using the primers under study. The control sample produced one amplified DNA fragment with Rf of 0.73 and a molecular size (MS) of 67 base pair (bp) . Using the same primers, no amplified DNA fragment with the same MS was produced in the sample taken from levanox + garlic treated group.OPA-2 primer of sequence 5?- AGA TGC AGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band with MS of 292 bp and Rf of 0.46 . However, the same primer produced one amplified DNA characteristic band with a molecular size of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.In the control sample, OPA-4 primer of sequence 5? - ACG CAC AAC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band of MS of 299 bp and Rf of 0.43. The same primer produced one amplified characteristic DNA band with MS of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.Dual treatment with levanox and garlic powder resulted in a

  5. Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat

    T Thirumalai; S Viviyan Therasa; EK Elumalai; E David

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats. Methods: Hypoglycemic activity of Brassica juncea (seeds) aqueous extract at a dose of 250, 350 and 450 mg/kg body weight was evaluated. Adult male Swiss albino rats of six numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated. Results: The serum insulin levels were recorded a significant depletion in all groups, short term as well as long term diabetic animals, when compared to that of normal animals. A significant dosage dependent augmenting effect of the seed extract on the serum insulin was recorded in both short term as well as long term groups. Conclusions: The aqueous seed extract of Brassica juncea has potent hypoglycemic activity in male albino rat.

  6. Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats

    Abdallah, Inas Z. A.

    2002-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame). Male rats were administe...

  7. Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats

    Natarajan, A.; K. Syed Zameer Ahmed; Sundaresan, S.; A. Sivaraj; Devi, K; B Senthil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile a...

  8. Citrus aurantifolia impairs fertility facilitators and indices in male albino wistar rats

    Uduak Akpan Okon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645

  9. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on reproductive function of male albino rats

    ArtiSharma; PramodKumarVerma; V.RDixit

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on spermatogenesis in albino rats. Methods: Male albino rats were fed with a 50 % ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruit at 100 mg·kg-l·day-1, 200 mg·kg-l·day-1 and 300 mg·kg-1·day-1 for 60 days. Fertility test was performed after 60 days of treatment. Sperm motility and density were observed in the cauda epididymis. Biochemical and histological analyses of the blood and reproductive organs were done. Recovery of fertility was followed to evaluate the reversibility of drug action. Results: S. anacardium fruit extract administration resulted in spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. Thes perm motility and density was reduced significantly. The RBC and WBC counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit, blood sugar and urea were found to be within the normal range in the whole blood. The protein, cholesterol and glycogen in the testes and the fructose in the seminal vesicle were significantly decreased after the treatment. The fruit extract feeding caused marked reduction in the number of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids.The number of mature Leydig cells was also decreased and degenerating cells increased proportionately. Conclusion:S. anacardium fruit extract causes spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5: 121-124)

  10. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    Surender Singh; Vinod Nair; Yogendra K Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried o...

  11. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  12. Contraceptive effect of Curcuma longa (L.) in male albino rat

    PurohitAshok; BhagatMeenakshi

    2004-01-01

    Aim:To study the contraceptive effect of the crude extracts of Curcuma longa in male albino rats.Methods:Rats were fed orally with Curcuma longa aqueous and 70% alcoholic extract for 60 days (500 mg·kg-1·day-1).Results:A reduction in sperm motility and density was observed in both the treated groups.Conclusion:Curcuma longa may have affected the androgen synthesis either by inhibiting the Leydig cell function or the hypothalamus pituitary axis and as a result,spermatogenesis is arrested.(Asian J Androl 2004 Mar;6:71-74)

  13. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn

    Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan; Raghunath Totaram Mahajan; Mahajan, Arun Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of ID based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil (ENO) fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significa...

  14. The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  15. Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats

    The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

  16. Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats

    A. Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile and also prevented a decrease in body weight. Histological observation demonstrated significant fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates in pancreas of diabetic rats. But, supplementation with Catharanthus roseus to diabetic rats significantly reduced the fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates.

  17. Traffic Noise: A Silent Killer of Male Gamate of Albino Rats

    Purushottam Pramanik , Snehangshu Biswas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to one control group and two experimental groups. Both the experimental groups were exposed to traffic noise having intensity 80 dB to 90 dB at the rate of 5 hr daily and control group was not exposed. First experimental group was exposed to traffic noise for 30 days and second group for 60 days. Testicular weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular protein level and testicular cholesterol level were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired ‘t’ test. Result: Contribution of testis to body weight, testicular protein level and sperm count were low but testicular cholesterol level was more in traffic noise exposed rats than unexposed counterpart. Traffic noise exposure also increased percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm. Conclusion: Traffic noise adversely affect male gamete and such effect may be due to noise-induced suppression of testosterone synthesis.

  18. Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats

    Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

    High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  19. Antioxidant activity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) in male albino rats exposed to gamma irradiation

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential benefits of dietary supplementation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) as antioxidant against γ- rays-induced biochemical changes in male albino rats by estimating some of the components of antioxidant defense in the; liver glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), serum aspartate amino transferase,(AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into four groups as Control group, group 2 received diet supplemented with 10% of eggplant (Solanum melongnea) fruit for 21 successive days , group 3: irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), group 4 received eggplant for 21 successive days then exposed to 6.5 Gy. All animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Rats exposed to γ-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT activities, and lipid abnormalities .Noticeable drop in liver GSH content and SOD activity associated with increase of MDA was recorded. Treatment with dietary eggplant for 21 days before irradiation significantly abolished radiation induced elevations in MDA and significantly elevates hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. The levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated and noticeable improvement in the lipid profile levels

  20. 6-gingerol ameliorates gentamicin induced renal cortex oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats.

    Hegazy, Ahmed M S; Mosaed, Mohammed M; Elshafey, Saad H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-06-01

    Ginger or Zingiber officinale which is used in traditional medicine has been found to possess antioxidant effect that can control the generation of free radicals. Free radicals are the causes of renal cell degeneration that leads to renal failure in case of gentamicin induced toxicity. This study was done to evaluate the possible protective effects of 6-gingerol as natural antioxidant on gentamicin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and were randomly divided into four groups, control group; 6-gingerol treated group; gentamicin treated group and protected group (given simultaneous 6-gingerol and gentamicin). At the end of the study, blood samples were drawn for biochemical study. Kidney sections were processed for histological, and immunohistochemical examination for caspase-3 to detect apoptosis and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) to detect oxidative damage. Gentamicin treated rats revealed a highly significant increase in renal function tests, tubular dilatation with marked vacuolar degeneration and desquamation of cells, interstitial hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Immunohistochemically, gentamicin treated rats showed a strong positive immunoreaction for caspase-3 and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47). Protected rats showed more or less normal biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical pictures. In conclusion, co-administration of 6-gingerol during gentamicin 'therapy' has a significant reno-protective effect in a rat model of gentamicin-induced renal damage. It is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections. PMID:27036327

  1. Stable Cesium Toxicity and Effect of Prussian Blue in Growing Male Albino Rats

    The present study was carried out to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride (CsCl) on growing male albino rats and to evaluate the therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) administration for modification of the chemical toxicity. The experiments were performed on 32 growing male albino rats, (Rattus Rattus), divided into control group and three groups administered a daily dose of CsCl or PB or both. The results revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride caused a significant decrease in the Hb concentration, Ht %, serum folic acid, vitamin B12, potassium levels and body weight gain, with significant increase in WBC's count, serum urea and creatinine. No effect was observed on the other studied parameters including: RBCs count, liver functions, blood glucose, phosphokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase. On the other hand, PB caused a significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that it can be one of the therapeutic agents that might provide a protection against toxicological effects

  2. THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE AND FENUGREEK SEED POWDER ON ENHANCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVELS IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS

    Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats

  3. Possible Outcome of Fenugreek Seeds Powder Administration on the Fertility of Female and Male Albino Rat

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval

  4. Haematological And Biochemical Changes Induced By Amaranth Impact On Male Albino Rats

    Shadia Ali Radwan; Ahmed Riad El-Sayed; Mohammed Salah Al-Shinnawy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was performed to study the effect of daily administration (interperitoneal injection of synthetic coloring agent amaranth at dose 50 mg /kg b.w. /day for two periods (7 and 21 days, using male albino rats. The effects of amaranth on growth, haematological and some biochemical parameters were examined throughout the study. The results revealed that amaranth treatment cause a marked change in treated groups when compared with control. They showed a significant decrease in percentage of body weight change, RBCs count, Hb concentration and HCT value, while, they recorded a significant increase in WBCs, serum activity of AST and ALP, in addition to serum urea and creatinine levels in treated rats. But ALT and bilirubin showed insignificant changes throughout the experiment.

  5. Some Neuro hormonal Effects of ruta chalepensis in adult male albino rats

    Oral sub-chronic administrations of Ruta chalepensis extract equivalent to 3.0 g/kg body weight were given to male albino rats daily for four weeks (0.5 ml solution/100 g/ rat). The data revealed significant increases in tyrosine, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in all tested brain areas throughout most of the experimental intervals. Significant increases of serum leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were also observed while serum prolactin was decreased significantly. It could be also concluded from the present results that treatment with Ruta chalepensis extract significantly increased catecholamine content. This observation may be in part due to an increase in its synthesis through an increase of the peripheral availability of tyrosine for brain synthesis of catecholamine and/or a decrease in its release

  6. Therapeutic effects of Cassia angustifolia in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay conducted in male albino rats

    Haidry, Muhammad Tahir; Malik, Arif

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L.) in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein (TP) in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride conce...

  7. Nigella sativa oil Ameliorates ionizing Radiation induced cellular injury in Male Albino Rats

    Nigella sativa (NS), commonly known as black seed, is a plant spices in which thymoquinone is the main active ingredient isolated from the black seeds. The seeds of Nigella sativa are used in herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases. The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of NS against gamma radiation induced nephrotoxicity and inflammatory changes in male albino rats. Twenty four albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy), treated group (rats treated with 0.2 ml/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks), and treated irradiated group (animals treated with 0.2 mL/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy). The obtained results revealed that the administration of Nigella sativa oil to irradiated rats significantly ameliorated the changes induced in kidney antioxidant system; catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as reduced glutathione concentration. Also, NS oil restored the kidney function indices (urea and creatinine) near normal level when compared with their equivalent values in irradiated rats. In addition, the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activities were markedly improved compared to the corresponding values of irradiated group. The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of ischemic renal injury in irradiated group, while in treated- irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture with or without focal degeneration. In conclusion, NS acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorates the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological study and also NS oil might provide substantial protection against

  8. Therapeutic Efficacy of Ginger, Cisplatin and Radiation on Chemically-Induced Cancer in Male Albino Rats

    This study aimed to investigate the in vivo effect of dietary supplementation with ginger to evaluate its therapeutic effect against lung and kidney cancer and in combination with cisplatin as chemotherapy and radiotherapy in male albino rats. 54 male albino rats were divided into nine groups of 6 animals each, all animals were allowed to food and water ad libitum . Group I was treated with 0.5 ml saline, orlly for 12 consecutive weeks serve as con - trol group Group II injected with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ); all groups were injected with NDMA + CCl4 for 6 weeks. Group III were given ginger for 6 consecutive weeks (200 mg/kg, b.wt./day). Group IV animals received cisplatin, group V irradiated with 2 Gy, group VI treated with ginger then irradiated, group VII treated with ginger then injected with cisplatin, group VIII injected with cisplatin then irradiated and group IX treated with ginger and cisplatin then irradiated. Antioxidant status in both kidney and lung tissues were estimated by determining the activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD); as well as the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO). In parallel to histopathological investigations of lung and kidney tissues. In addition, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) level, advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), urea, creatinine and uric acid. Remarkable disturbances were observed in the levels of all tested parameters in NDMA + CCl4 group. On the other hand, rats injected with the cancer agents then treated with cisplatin+radiation showed moderate improvements in the studied parameters while, treatment with ginger + cisplatin + radiation ameliorated the levels of the disturbed bio

  9. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CURCUMA AMADA (MANGO - GINGER IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    Kumari Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. has morphological resemblance with ginger, but imparts mango flavour. According to Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems , the biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. Hence curcuma amada aqueous extract for analgesic activity was evaluated in pain animal models. Pain is a most common complaint of many medical conditions, and pain control is one of t he most important therapeutic priorities. Curcuma Amada suppresses the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. However there is no scientific data suggestive of its analgesic activity. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate its role in central a nd peripheral models of pain. OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats, the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines . The aqueous extract of curcuma amada was used.4x2 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity was assessed with the help of following screening methods . Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid . Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer . Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C . Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULT S: Aqueous extract of curcuma amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to control group (Gum acacia. In Tail flick test and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain (reaction time. In Tail im mersion test the test drug significantly (P < 0.001 reduces pain at 30 min when compared to control group at 60 min of oral administration. CONCLUSION : The present findings indicate that

  10. Effect of salvia Egyptiaca extract on cholinergic system in adult male albino rats

    The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract, equivalent to 2 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks, caused significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in whole blood and in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rat nearly all over the experimental period. Treatment with Salvia aegyptiaca extract also resulted in significant increase in acetylcholine content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus' nearly throughout the whole experimental period. It could be concluded from the present results that the extract of Salvia aegyptiaca caused an increase in acetylcholine content and this increase may be due to the decrease in the activity of acetylcholine esterase enzyme which play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

  11. Effect of granulosis virus (virotecto) as bioinsecticide on some biochemical changes in male albino rats

    The objective of this study to determine the biochemical response of granulosis virus in male albino rats fed with potato treated with granulosis virus (0.15 g/Kg) against potato tuber moth in stores .It was carried out by evaluating the effect of daily feeding on treated potato for 5 weeks followed by withdrawal period for 10 days fed with normal diet on some biochemical and histological changes in kidney of male rats. A trail consists of 3 groups each one contain 18 rats, the first group fed on normal basal diet and served as control, the second group fed with 50% normal potato and 50% basal diet (potato group) and the third group fed with 50% basal diet and 50% potato treated with granulosis virus (virus group) through the experimental period. The obtained data revealed a significant reduction in final body weight and organs weight in both normal and treated potato groups. Sera collected at 2 and 5 weeks post feeding and at the end of withdrawal period, recorded significant disorders in some tested parameters. In addition, histological examination of kidney tissue showed different disorders in normal and treated groups.

  12. Possible Role of Humoral Immunity on Liver Dysfunction in Male Albino Rats

    Fifty male albino rats were used in this study to correlate liver function after curcumin or/and malathion intake with the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM). The rats were divided into four groups, the first was the control group, the second was given malathion in drinking water (200 ppm), the third was administrated curcumin orally (70 mg/kg b.w.) 5 times /week while the fourth group received both malathion and curcumin with the same previous concentrations. Liver state was evaluated every 10 days by estimating prothrombine time (P.T.) and concentration (PC) and albumin level from blood taken from the retroorbital vein of 5 rats of the malathion group. After 40 days when there is prolongation of P.T. and hypoalbuminemia, ten rats from each group were decapitated. Liver enzymes, total protein, glucose, insulin, IgG and IgM were estimated. The data revealed that there is an increase of liver enzymes, glucose, insulin, and immunoglobulins (IgG) and (IgM) in malathion group and positive correlation between liver enzymes and immunoglobulins. These results denoted that the increase of immunoglobulins after malathion intake had no beneficial effects on the prognosis of liver condition, on the contrary, it may worsen liver state if there is some element of auto immunity, as well as the study proved that turmeric has the potential to improve the toxic effects of Malathion, whether on the functions of the liver or immune globulins.

  13. Physiological and biochemical studies on the effect of septilin on irradiated male albino rats

    The present study has been initiated to evaluate the radioprotective effect of septilin against whole body gamma radiation and identifying the mechanism whereby septilin extract could protect against radiation toxicity. Irradiation induced significant increase in the serum enzymes of liver ASAT, ALAT, ALP, GGT activities and total bilirubin level when rats exposed to both gamma irradiation doses while direct bilirubin level rise when rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation only. There was a significant increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol with significant decrease in HDL cholesterol. Besides, it produced high levels of liver malondialdehyde, nitric oxide while serum nitric oxide rise when rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation only with significant decrease in total glutathione in liver and liver superoxide dismutase activity. Irradiation induced significant decrease in WBCs, RBCs, Hb, PCV, platelets count and blood indices.Septilin manifested good melioration in the radiation-induced changes in the studied parameters and histopathological changes. Hence, it could be concluded that septilin plays a beneficial radioprotective role against radiation hazard in male albino rats.

  14. Protective Role Of Fresh Pomegranate Against Oxidative Damage In Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    Twenty four male albino rats, body weight 100-130 g, were used to evaluate the protective role of fresh pomegranate fruit intake for 30 days on the damage induced by single dose of 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group (1): control, group (2): irradiated with 6 Gy, group (3): pomegranate for 30 days and group (4): pomegranate for 30 days followed by 6 Gy whole body irradiation. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed after 12 hours fasting then sera were separated for the determination of sugar, total antioxidant, lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. Results showed that gamma radiation caused significant decline (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant, total protein, albumin, HDL-C and blood glucose with significant elevation (P<0.05) in other hepato-renal markers in addition to serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. These changes were significantly attenuated in irradiated animals pre-treated with whole fresh pomegranate fruit leading to the conclusion that pre-intake of pomegranate fruit had a radio- protective effect. This protection of this whole fruit may be due to the increased total antioxidant level leading to free radical scavenging

  15. Neuroprotective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium toxicity in male albino rats.

    El-Tarras, Adel El-Sayed; Attia, Hossam Fouad; Soliman, Mohammed Mohamed; El Awady, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Amin, Adnan Abelghani

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium toxicity can disturb brain chemistry leading to depression, anxiety, and weakened immunity. Cadmium disturbs the neurotransmitter dopamine, resulting in low energy, lack of motivation, and depression, which are predisposing factors for violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the brain of 40 male albino rats after exposure to cadmium chloride (Cd) toxicity. The rats were separated into either the control group, the Cd group, the GSE group, or the GSE and Cd mixture (treated) group. The cerebrum showed evidence of degeneration of some nerve fibers and cells. Fibrosis, vacuolations, and congestion in the blood vessels were demonstrated. Satelletosis was located in the capsular cells. Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was strongly positive in the Cd group and decreased in the treated group. These histopathological changes were decreased in the brain tissue of the treated group, but a few blood vessels still had evidence of congestion. Cadmium administration increased the level of MDA and decreased MAO-A, acetylcholinesterase, and glutathione reductase (GR), while the treatment with GSE affected the alterations in these parameters. In addition, cadmium downregulated the mRNA expression levels of GST and GPx, while GSE treatment normalized the transcript levels. The expression of both dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter was downregulated in the rats administered cadmium and the addition of GSE normalized the expression of these aggression associated genes. PMID:27271977

  16. Antioxidant activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace toward gamma irradiation hazards in male albino rats

    The present study aims to evaluate the anti oxidative activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male Swiss albino rats were orally administered by lycopene (1.2 mg/rat/day) using suitable stomach tube 7 days before exposure to a sublethal single dose (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) levels in plasma, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood were determined, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase activity (GGT) were investigated 7 and 15 days post-irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in plasma levels of MDA, serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, as well as significant reduction in GSH content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood. Administration of lycopene by using suitable stomach tube pre-irradiation has significantly ameliorated the radiation-induced disturbances in all the investigated parameters

  17. In Vivo Internal Decontamination of 134Cs and 60Co from Male Albino Rats

    The Present work aimed to evaluate the therapeutic role of prussian blue (PB), vermiculite and calcium trisodium salt of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as internal de contaminants of radio-active cesium and/ or cobalt in adult male albino rats. Radionuclides were given as a single doses; 60Co was introduced orally, subcutaneously or intraperitoneally (ip) while 134Cs was taken orally or in combination with ip injection of 60Co. The de contaminants were supplied daily for three weeks immediately after 60Co or 134Cs intake; oral dose of PB + vermiculite treated the oral 134Cs group, oral and subcutaneous 60Co groups and combined 60Co and 134Cs groups. Rats receiving ip dose of 60Co were treated with daily ip dose of DTPA while the three de contaminants were added to the combined 60Co and 134Cs groups.Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrite percentage (Ht), red blood cells count (RBC's), as well as liver function tests (total bilirubine, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/ G ratio, alanine transaminase (ALT), spartic transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)) were analyzed in all groups. The data obtained revealed that internal contamination by radioactive materials causes a significant decrease in the RBC's counts, Hb concentration, haematocrit value, serum total proteins and albumin. On the other hand, the therapeutic agents caused a significant amelioration in the changes produced by internal contamination with variable degree. Thus, it could be concluded that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against internal contamination hazards

  18. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    Surender Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males.

  19. Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats

    Inas Z.A. Abdallah

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame. Male rats were administered saccharin (50 mg/kg b.w. or aspartame (100 mg/kg b.w. daily by intragastric gavage for 14 weeks. The results revealed that both saccharin and aspartame provoked highly significant reduction in body weight gain %. Saccharin exerted highly significant reduction in haemoglobin (Hb level, haematocrit (Hct% and red blood cel s (RBCs count, while aspartame induced insignificant changes in al haematological parameters. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity levels were significantly increased with saccharin and aspartame. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels in serum showed slightly insignificant increase by saccharim administration, while aspartame caused a significant rise in ALP. Blood glucose level of rats given saccharin significantly dropped, while aspartame caused a significant elevation in blood glucose level. Liver glycogen content of rats given saccharin significantly increased, while aspartame caused a significant reduction in liver glycogen content. Microscopic examination of liver sections showed lymphocytic and macrophages infiltration of the portal traid in rats administered saccharin, while aspartame group showed no histopathological changes except slight hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes. Urinary bladder sections of rats administered saccharin revealed proliferation of the mucosal epithelial cel s into papil ary invaginated projections with highly vascularized connective tissue core and mononuclear inflammatory

  20. Differential effects of alprazolam and clonazepam on the immune system and blood vessels of non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats

    Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A.G.; Atta, Amal H.

    2011-01-01

    Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative cont...

  1. Effects of Carbaryl and Deltamethrin Pesticides on Some Pituitary Hormones of Male Albino Rats

    This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 10''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 10th day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis

  2. Short term toxicity of strawberry flavor and carmoisine color in male albino rats

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with oral administrations of the strawberry flavor and carmoisine color. The tested materials were given to the animals in their drinking water. Biochemical parameters were determined in liver, kidney and brain DNA and RNA contents.Sera was used for liver and kidney functions, lipid profile and thyroid hormones estimation. Histopathological, histochemical and cytophotometric studies were performed in liver and kidney tissues. Equal weights of flavoring and coloring agents were mixed at 0.1% w/v with drinking water. Forty adult male albino rats were assigned to four equal groups, two groups were served as controls and the remaining two groups received standard diet and water containing the tested materials for three and six week. There were no deaths and all the studied parameters were affected in a time dependent manner. Liver DNA contents were significantly decreased, kidney DNA contents tended to increase and brain DNA contents were significantly increased only after 6 weeks of treatment. RNA contents were significantly decreased in liver and brain

  3. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  4. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng in male albino rats

    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg was used as standard while normal saline (0.9% was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour Spreng possess diuretic activities.

  5. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF N-ACETYLCYSTIENE AGAINST TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES MODULATED IMMUNE RESPONSES IN MALE ALBINO RATS

    Mohamed Mohamed Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC against orally administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 for 3 months on male albino rats were examined. Adult male albino rats were given saline as a control group, TiO2 (1200 mg kg-1 BW, NAC (100 mg kg-1 BW and co-treatment of NAC and TiO2 as a protective group for 3 months. Blood was assayed for serum changes in GPT, GOT, lipid profiles, cytokines and immunoglobulins profiles. Moreover, spleen was examined for alterations in cytokines expression and histopathology. Administration of TiO2 significantly increased serum levels of GPT, GOT and increased lipid profiles. Administration of NAC to TiO2 rats improved significant changes induced by TiO2 alone. There were an increase in IL-1β and IL-6 secretion in TiO2 administered rats which is normalized by NAC administration. TiO2 administration down regulated IL-8 and IL-10 secretion, while co-administration of rats by NAC together with TiO2 normalized that down regulation. Moreover, TiO2 induced toxicity in spleen that accompanied by a decrease in IgA, IgG and IgM that are normalized by NAC administration. Finally, TiO2 up-regulated IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-β expression in spleen and NAC administration together with TiO2 normalized cytokines expression. In conclusion, present findings confirmed the protective effect of NAC on TiO2 induced alteration in immune responses in male albino rats.

  6. Nigella sativa oil for the control of irradiation induced disorders in serum protein components of male albino rats

    The effect of whole body gamma irradiation at the dose level 7 Gy delivered as shot dose or cumulative doses, on the electrophoretic pattern of serum protein components, was studied in male albino rats subjected to Nigella sativa treatment. Sodium dodecyl sulphate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of serum proteins of irradiated rats showed significant increases in percentages of some fractions of high molecular weights. Administration of nigella sativa oil before radiation exposure resulted in detectable radioprotective effect. Radiation protection effect exerted by nigella sativa oil prior to cumulative doses was more pronounced than that in case of one shot dose

  7. Role of Vitamin C As A Potent Antioxidant in Acute Radiation Induced Liver Disease (RILD) Among Male Albino Rats

    Recent studies demonstrated the role of vitamin C as antioxidant in alleviating organ damage caused by gamma irradiation. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of vitamin C on liver biochemical functions such as serum ALT, AST, albumin and bilirubin after experimental liver damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats irradiated with gamma radiation were used as a model of liver injury terminating with necro inflammatory activity and acute hepatitis. Forty male albino rats were classified into 6 groups (G0-G5). G0 included 8 male albino rats that were divided to 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). Both subgroups were exposed to gamma irradiation with 6 Gy as a single dose. The first subgroup was left for 3 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected while in the second subgroup, 2 rats were died and the remaining 2 rats were left for 6 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected. G1 was the negative control while in the rest groups, the whole body of rats was exposed to gamma irradiation of dose 8 Gy divided to 2 doses (4 Gy/one dose) at one week interval in between. G2 included 12 albino rats divided into 3 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). The whole body of albino rats of G2 was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one day, two days and four days after last dose of irradiation. G3 also included 8 rats that were divided into 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that were divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one week for one subgroup and 2 weeks for other subgroup after last dose of irradiation. The rest 2 groups (4 rats/group) were exposed to 8Gy gamma irradiation divided as before, but the rats in one group were orally supplemented with low dose of vitamin C. G4 and the others were supplemented with high dose of vitamin C for 2 weeks starting after last dose of irradiation (G5) then serum

  8. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    Aliyu, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Sani; Inuwa, Hajiya M.; Sallau, Abdullahi B.; Abbas, Olagunju; Aimola, Idowu A.; Habila, Nathan; Uche, Ndidi S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups of five rats each were administered distilled water, Acacia honey (20%), sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg body weight), Acacia honey, and sodium arsenite daily for one week. They were sacrificed anesthetically using 60 mg/kg sodium pentothal. The tissues were used for the assessment of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities, protein content and lipid peroxidation. Sodium arsenite significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase activities with simultaneous induction of lipid peroxidation. Administration of Acacia honey significantly increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities with concomitant suppression of lipid peroxidation as evident by the decrease in malondialdehyde level. From the results obtained, Acacia honey mitigates sodium arsenite induced-oxidative stress in male Wistar albino rats, which suggest that it may attenuate oxidative stress implicated in chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:24368942

  9. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  10. The therapeutic effect of curcumin in male albino rats and its putative mechanisms on cerebral microvascular flow.

    Xia, Jie; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Qi-Mei; Zheng, Zheng; Han, Zhong-Mou

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of curcumin on hypertension and its putative mechanisms in the cerebral microcirculation. The surgical preparation was made to generate a cranial window for observation of the capillary network in the cerebral cortex region. Digital image processing, intravital videomicroscopy, and laser Doppler flow meter were used in this investigation. The number of open capillaries, arterial blood pressure, red cell velocity, microvascular diameter, circulating endothelial cells, relative blood flow and frequency were determined. Control rats showed severe dysfunction in the microcirculation with increased blood pressure. In curcumin treated mice, the blood pressure significantly reduced compared to their respective controls. Curcumin significantly increased blood velocity and LDF flow in hypertensive and normotensive rats. Curcumin significantly altered the circulating endothelial cells and open capillaries number in the male albino rats. Our results suggested that the curcumin exerts its therapeutic effect in male albino rats by regulating vasomotion function, increasing blood perfusion, releasing the peripheral resistance and opening efficiently capillaries. Taking all these data together, it is concluded that the curcumin might be useful in the regulation of the cerebral microcirculatory function and hypertension. PMID:27017961

  11. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn.

    Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of ID based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil (ENO fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P< 0.01 along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis- and agrave;-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of beta-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 125-128

  12. Protective Effect of Zanthoxylum nitidum Bark in Chemical and Stress Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Male Albino Rats

    K. Zaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb. DC (Rutaceae, called Tez-mui or Tejamool in Assamese, is a large prickly shrub occurring in North-Eastern India and its roots are used traditionally for several medicinal purposes. In the present study, the aqueous extract from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum nitidum (ZNA was evaluated for its protective effects on gastric mucosal lesions in male Wistar albino rats against acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, ethanol and water immersion restraint stress induced gastric mucosal damage. In each model, ZNA was administered orally to rats at the doses of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 body weight, prior to chemical or stress challenge, followed by determination of ulcer index. Ranitidine hydrochloride at the dose of 35 mg kg-1, p.o. served as the reference drug. The test extract exhibited dose dependent and significant amelioration of gastric mucosal lesions in chemical (ASA and ethanol as well as in stress-induced ulcers in male Wistar albino rats, thus confirming its antiulcer potential.

  13. Improving Hematological and Biochemical Disorders Induced by Administration of Repeated Used Frying Oil in Male Albino Rats

    The present study was performed on 100 male albino rats arranged into 5 equal groups to evaluate the effect of adding Lettuce and/for cabbage to rat diet on some hematological and biochemical disorders induced by administration of repeated used frying oil in the diet of rats for one and two months. The results indicated that used frying oil caused significant decrease in hemoglobin (Hb), Haematocrit (Hct), Red blood corpuscles (RBCs), Vitamin (B12) and Folic acid with significant increase in total leukocitic count, (WBCs) Platelets body weight, Aspartate amino transferase (AST) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT). The disturbances in the tested parameters were almost improved by vegetables intake denoting the beneficial effect of adding fresh green vegetables to fried food on blood picture and intestinal absorption

  14. ABHRAK BHASMA MEDIATED ALTERATIONS IN LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN MALE ALBINO RATS DURING CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED TOXICITY

    Teli Parashuram

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abhrak bhasma, an Ayurvedic drug used against many diseases including hepatitis. In present study various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg body wt were tested for hepatoprotective efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidney functions in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 to the normal rat increased serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin indicated acute damage. Abhrak bhasma treatment counteracted the action of CCl4 on liver and kidney functions. With the administration of increasing doses of abhrak bhasma all activities were dropped progressively and significantly at 40 mg dose as compared with silicate control. Conjugation metabolism and excretion of bilirubin were improved with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent protection of all metabolic steps in bilirubin metabolism. Also CCl4 induced acute toxicity increased serum urea and creatinine content, which was progressively controlled by increasing abhrak bhasma doses. The findings of this study indicated that abhrak bhasma exert dose dependent protective effects in liver and kidneys functions against CCl4 induced toxicity in albino rat.

  15. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment. PMID:16357948

  16. Synergistic Effects of Squalene and Omega-3 on Lipid Peroxidation and some Antioxidants in Gamma-Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    The present study aims to investigate the synergistic effects of squalene and omega-3 as an antioxidant in protection against oxidative stress which induced by gamma- irradiated in male albino rats. The experimental animals, male albino rats (n=48) weighing (120-150 g) were divided into 4 groups: control, gamma irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy, oral administration with 0.4 ml/kg b. wt from squalene and omega-3 for 30 days and oral administration with 0.4 ml/kg b. wt from squalene and omega-3 for 30 days and irradiated with a single dose level (6 Gy). Animals were sacrificed on the 3rd and 7th day post irradiation. Biochemical analysis was carried out on blood glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (MDA). Also lipid profile: plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were assayed. Exposure to gamma radiation at dose level 6 Gy elevated significantly lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decline in level of blood glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and catalase activity (CAT) also, a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and decrease in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). Combined supplementation of squalene and omega-3 significantly prevented the elevation of (MDA) and decline in antioxidant parameters after radiation and ameliorates plasma lipid profile. The results indicated that the combination of aqualene and omega-3 has a protective role, antioxidant effect and antilipidemic effect against gamma radiation in exposed rats

  17. Antioxidant Activity of Cabbage and/or Carrot Against Oxidative Stress Induced by Gamma Irradiation in Male Albino Rats

    Several studies indicated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against diseases, and populations that consume such diets have higher plasma antioxidants and exhibit lower risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Vegetable is considered major dietary source of fibers and antioxidants such as polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids that can protect against different dietary disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of cabbage and/or carrot against oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in male albino rats. Chemical composition and phenolic contents in cabbage and carrot were determined. Male albino rats were exposed to 5 Gy (single dose with rate 0.46 Gy/min) of whole body gamma irradiation. Thirty five rats were randomly divided into five groups as follow: group 1: control (rats fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks), group 2: irradiated (rats were exposed to whole gamma irradiation and fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks) and groups 3, 4 and 5: irradiated rats fed on balanced diet and received cabbage 15%, carrot 15% and a combination of cabbage and carrot, respectively. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cabbage and/or carrot diet significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum level of glucose and liver function parameters; serum aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and albumin. In addition, significant improvements were observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), was observed. The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) associated with remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were observed. Accordingly, it could be concluded that consumption of cabbage and/or carrot

  18. The Use of Statin Substitutes to Improve the Lipid Profile in Liver Dysfunctional Male Albino Rats

    More attention has been drawn to different strategies for prevention of cardiovascular associated with liver dysfunction. The aim of the present study is to compare between statin and free fat- milk supplemented with multivitamins in hyperlipidaemic male rats with or without liver dysfunction induced by CCl4. The animals were allocated to 7 equal experimental groups (16 rats each): control group, hypercholesterolemic group, hypercholestero-lemic-statin group, hypercholesterolemic-free fat milk-multivitamins group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4 group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4-statin group, and hypercholesterolemic-CCl4- fat-free milk-multivita-mins group. After one month half of the rats of each group were decapitated and the rest of the animals were decapitated after two months. Lipid profile, relative liver weight, liver function, CPK and LDH were determined. The effectiveness of statin drug in the management of blood lipids was confirmed without improving or worsening liver functions. Meanwhile, this effectiveness worsened in hypercholesterolemic rats treated with CCl4 as compared to hypercholesterolemic group. Administration of fat-free milk with multivitamins, as an alternative remedy for statin drug, has improved lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats and it revealed no changes in liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemic rats with liver dysfunction indicating the favorable use of them as hypolipotropic agent without affecting liver metabolism

  19. Effects of radiation and maze performance on brain contents of norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in male albino rat

    The objectives of the present study are dealing with the normal patterns of the occurrence of norepinephrine (N E) and 5 - hydroxytryptamine (5-H T) in different brain regions of albino rat and to determine the changes in brain levels of both substances when the rat was subjected to various effects

  20. Aphrodisiac potentials of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) stem in male albino rats

    M. T. Yakubu; M. A. Akanji; A. T. Oladiji

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the aphrodisiac potential of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Rubiaceae) stem in male albino rats. Methods: The aqueous stem extract of the plant was screened for phytochemical constituents. Male rats were orally dosed with 18 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight,respectively, of the extract at 24 h intervals and their sexual behavior parameters and serum testosterone concentration were evaluated at days 1, 3 and 5. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids and saponins while anthraquinones and flavonoids are weakly present. All the doses resulted in significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and significantly prolonged the ejaculatory latency (P < 0.05) and reduced mount and intromission latency (P < 0.05). There was also a significant increase in serum testosterone concentrations in all the groups in a manner suggestive of dose-dependence (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem increased the blood testosterone concentrations and this may be the mechanism responsible for its aphrodisiac effects and various masculine behaviors. It may be used to modify impaired sexual functions in animals, especially those arising from hypotestosteronemia.

  1. Some toxic manifestations in male albino rats following an acute intraperitoneal injection of the mycotoxins ochratoxim A

    This study deals with the preparation and microbiology of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OA) that was extracted from Aspergillus niger and injected intraperitoneally to male albino rats at a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (1/5 LD50). Its effect was followed after 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 hours and 7 days. Body weight gain, organs body weights ratio and some hematological and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results revealed significant decrease in body weight gain of treated rats in addition to an alteration in the relative weights of some selected organs. The data revealed dramatic decrease in RBCs count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit value and platelets number, where WBCs count was significantly increased. Moreover, significant increases of serum ALT, AST, ALP and total and direct bilirubin were observed indicating changes in liver function. Total protein and albumin were significantly decreased. Kidney function of treated rats, as determined by alterations in creatinine and blood urea levels, was affected. Also, profound decline in serum testosterone level was observed as performed by radioimmunoassay technique

  2. The Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Gentamicin-Induced Renal Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats

    Bushra H. El-Zawahry and Effat M. Abu El Kheir

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generation of free radicals in the renal cortex plays an important role in the pathogenesis of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Curcumin, the yellow curry pigment isolated from turmeric, has been confirmed to have a strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging actions. In the present study, we investigated the possible protective effect of curcumin against gentamicin-induced nephropathy in male albino rats. Methods: Thirty two male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Gr.: (Gr.I control, injected i.p with 1cc isotonic saline solution/day for 8 wks; (Gr.II received 200 mg/kg/day curcumin (Cur. orally, suspended in normal saline, for 8 wks ; (Gr.III injected I.p by 100 mg/kg/day gentamicin (Gen. for 8 days followed by 1cc saline I.p thereafter; (Gr.IV (Cur./Gen. received 200 mg/kg/day Cur. for one week before starting Gen injection (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days during which Cur. was received concurrently with Gen then Cur administration was continued thereafter throughout the rest of the study (6 wks. Body weight was recorded weekly. Renal function was evaluated by measuring the 24 h. urine output, the concentrations of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine clearance. Also, kidney weight and the parameters of oxidative stress: reduced glutathione (GSH, thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX were measured in kidney tissue. Results: The Kidney weight, plasma creatinine, BUN and 24 h urine output were significantly increased while the body weight and creatinine clearance were significantly decreased (P < 0.0005, in rats treated with Gen. as compared to control. While Cur. could significantly normalize the previous parameters. In addition Gen. caused oxidative stress in kidney as seen by significant increase in TBARS level, and significant decrease of catalase, GSH, SOD and GPX activities (P < 0.0005, However, Cur

  3. Protective Role of Carnitine against the Harmful Biological Effects of Paracetamol and Radiation Exposure in Male Albino Rats

    L-carnitine, a natural component of mammalian tissue, is a necessary factor in the utilization of long-chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of L-carnitine on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by paracetamol, γ-radiation, and paracetamol + γ-radiation. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1-Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2-Carnitine group: rats received L-carnitine (0.5 ml/Kg body weight) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3-Paracetamol group: rats received paracetamol (50 mg/kg body) via intraperi-toneal injection during 21 days, 4- Carnitine + Paracetamol group: rats received L-carnitine in parallel to paracetamol treatment, 5- Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 6- Carnitine + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation with 7Gy, 7- Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation, 8- Carnitine + Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine parallel to paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation.The results demonstrated that rats receiving paracetamol, as well as whole body gamma irradiated rats and rats receiving paracetamol and irradiated showed a significant increase of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity indicating liver injury. A significant increase of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels was recorded also indicating kidney damage. Alteration in liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant increase in the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide

  4. physiological,molecular and radiometric studies on treatment of induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats

    levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. the present investigation included physiological, radiometric and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic tablets toward CCl4 - induced toxicity in adult male albion rats ( Rattus norvegicus).CCl4 intoxication, at oral dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight, led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP, CK and LDH. CCl4 caused an elevation of serum triglycerides with no effect on serum total cholesterol. it also increased serum creatinine and urea levels . these biochemical results were in coincidence with the liver and kidneys histopathological alterations . using radioimmunoassay, it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased while that of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) was significantly increased due to CCl4 treatment

  5. The Protective Efficacy Of Extract Of Hibiscus Sabdariffa (Karkade) Calyces Against Alcohol Toxicity In Male Albino Rats

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS), Malvacea family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its benefit effect on some physiological parameters as blood picture, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, liver and kidney functions, electrolytes and antioxidant capacity is mentioned in several recent studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in protecting from alcohol toxicity in rats. Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: group 1 received water orally for 30 days, group 2 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) for 30 days, both group 3 and group 4 received Hibiscus sabdariffa (100 mg/kg/day) orally for 30 days and then group 4 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) orally for another 30 days. Serum hepatic markers (aspartate and alanine minotransferases; AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were increased significantly by alcohol abuse with no observed improvement in treatment with HS. Significant reduction in total protein and albumin was observed in alcohol abuse which improved with HS treatment and showed significant increase as compared with both control and alcohol treated groups. Serum kidney markers (urea, creatinine and uric acid) were increased in alcohol abuse and only creatinine and uric acid nearly returned to normal levels with HS treatment while urea level remains high. Serum glucose was increased significantly in alcohol abuse and significantly decreased in group 3 (HS treated) and group 4 (HS + ethanol). Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherogenic index were increased significantly while HDL-C was significantly reduced in alcohol abuse. HS treatment resulted in significant increase in HDL-C and therefore decreased atherogenic index in both group 3 and group 4 which indicated protective effect of HS for coronary heart diseases. These results lead to the

  6. Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas Modulates Radiation-induced Oxidative damage in Liver and kidney of Male Albino Rats

    Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas, one of the major vegetable crops consumed worldwide, is rich in phytochemicals, which displayed antioxidant activities. This work aims at assessing the radio-protective properties of sweet potato tubers on liver and kidney tissues. Male albino rats were whole body exposed to 0.5 Gy day after day for a period of 20 days. Animal received orally prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers (100 mg kg/body weight), one week before irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure. The results demonstrated that irradiation of rats induced a significant increase in lipid peroxides level measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concomitant with a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in liver and kidney tissues. Administration of a freshly prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers to rats, one week pre-irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure has significantly of ameliorated the oxidative stress in both tissues. The significant amelioration in oxidative stress was substantiated by improvement of liver and kidney enzymes Treatment of rats with sweet potato has significantly reduced the increase in serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, serum creatinine and urea levels. Furthermore, hyperglycemia and alteration in lipid profile manifested by a significant increase in triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), were improved in sweet potato-treated irradiated rats compared to those only irradiated. According to the results obtained in the present study, it could be concluded that sweet potato through its antioxidant activities could protect cellular membrane from radiation induced oxidative damage in animals and preserve the

  7. Evaluation of acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg;: a bi-herbal formula in male Wistar albino rats

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu; Jane A. Emerue

    2014-01-01

    The acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg; (UF) - A commercial bi-herbal formula prepared with Alstonia boonei and Xylopia aethiopica in male Wistar albino rats was evaluated. There was no mortality in rats administered 2000 mg/kg body weight (BW) of UF in an acute toxicity study. A significant (p and #8804;0.05) increase in daily consumption of feed and fluid intake in experimental rats after 28 days was recorded followed by a progressive increase in BW of rats administered ...

  8. Beta-glucan ameliorates gamma-rays induced oxidative injury in male Swiss albino rats

    1,3-beta-D-Glucan is a natural polysaccharide derived from the cell walls of bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevsiae with immunoenhancing and potent antioxidant effects. This study investigated the pathways through which beta-glucan gavage treatment (50mg/kg) exerts its effect on radiation-induced oxidative damage in male rats. Beta-glucan was given orally to male rats; 3 hours post gamma-irradiation at dose 5Gy, for 10 and 20 days post-irradiation level were assayed, being remarkable indicators in cell oxidative stress. Results pointed out that irradiation at 5Gy significantly depressed all blood parameters, such as erythrocytes count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrit value (Hct), total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, blood glutathione (GSH) level and conversely elevated level of serum ascorbyl radical (AsR), product of lipid peroxidation (MDA melanodialdehyde), triglycerides and cholesterol. Total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, RBCs, Hb, Hct, blood GSH and serum MDA of irradiated animals receiving beta-glucan administration were exhibited significant differences compared to the irradiated group. Marrow count and the percentage of viability and spleenocytes viability were also significantly decreased. Beta-glucan treatment accelerates recovery of cell damage induced by ionizing irradiation through its potential immune-enhancing activity and free radical scavenging ability that is partially mediated through stimulation of immunohaematological system thus could play a role in regulating irradiation complications

  9. Hepatic and Gonadal Dysfunction Induced by Chloropyrifos in Protein Malnourished Male Albino Rats

    Malnutrition seems to be a common problem in most of the developing communities especially among the labour level,specifically child labour. In spite of the great awareness of the dangerous use of insecticides, yet several hundred types of these chemicals are still widely used. The present study was conducted to investigate the harmful effect of malnutrition and /or exposure to organophosphorus insecticide (chloropyrifos) with different doses (low dose; 30 mg/kg body weight/day and high dose; 60 mg/kg body weight/day) on liver and testis function in male rats. The results showed significant decrease in body weight, haemoglobin, serum total protein, albumin and testosterone level. On the other hand, liver enzyme activities (ALT and AST) and ferritin concentration recorded significant elevation after treatment with chloropyrifos

  10. Role of carnitine in ameliorating the lead and / or irradiation induced toxicity in male albino rats

    This work: aimed to investigate the protective effect of carnitine (3-hydroxy-4-N-trimethyl amino butyric acid) on the contents of total protein, albumin, glucose and lipid peroxides as malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum, in addition to liver glycogen and lipid peroxides content 1, 2, 4 weeks after exposure of rats to a collective dose of 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation and / or lead treatment. Adult male rats received lead (50 mg/kg body weight) and / or exposed to fractionated dose (4 Gy) of gamma irradiation delivered as 0.5 Gy twice weekly for four weeks. Results of the present study revealed that fractionated whole body gamma irradiation and / or lead administration induced cellular damage manifested by a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin, and a significant increase in serum glucose and MDA content as well as significant increase in liver glycogen and MDA. Administration of carnitine (200 mg/kg b.wt.) before lead and / or gamma irradiation, has significantly ameliorated the observed changes, indicating the prophylactic action of carnitine on lead and / or irradiation toxicity

  11. Effects of lithium chloride on testicular steroidogenic and gametogenic functions in mature male albino rats

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of lithium, on steroidogenic and gametogenic functions of testis in the rat. Adult male rats of Wistar strain were injected with lithium chloride at the dose of 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, and 0.4 mg/100 g body weight/day for 21 days. All the treated animals along with the vehicle treated controls were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injections. Testicular steroidogenic activity was evaluated by measuring the activities of two steroidogenic key enzymes, Δ5-3β hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase (Δ5 -3β-HSD) and 17β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β -HSD). Gametogenic capacity was determined by counting the number of germ cells at stage VII of seminiferous cycle. Plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Administration of lithium chloride at a dose of 0.1 mg/100g body wt. for 21 days led to insignificant changes of plasma FSH, LH, PRL and T along with unaltered activities of testicular Δ5 -3β-HSD, 17 β-HSD activities and gametogenesis

  12. The ameliorative effect of grape seed extract(GSE) on sodium borate-inducing kidney injury of male albino rats

    Borax (sod-borate) is a toxic compound that is implicated daily to environmental pollutant, so occupational exposure leading to adverse effects on functions of some organs causing their damage as nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and testicular atrophy . In particularly, kidney is the most organ that is affected by borax exposure due to continuous exposure with slow rate of excretion leading to accumulation in the renal tissue. Supplementation with high potent antioxidant grape seed extract may alleviate the worse damage effects induced in the kidney as a result of continual exposure of borax in our daily life. The current study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract on renal injury of male albino rats intoxicated with sod-borate. Twenty eight male albino rats were classified to 4 groups(GI and II and III and IV).GI served as a control, group GII was a group intoxicated with sod-borate for 45 days, where as rats in GIII supplemented with GSE beside sod-borate for 45 days , GIV was a group supplemented with GSE only. Serum and kidney samples were collected for biochemical, histopathological and DNA examinations. Significant elevation in the levels of blood urea and creatinine in GII were observed when compared to control group(GI). Significant decline were prominent in biochemical kidney functions when intoxicated group supplemented with GSE(GIII) , where as non significant changes were observed between control group and group supplemented with GSE only (GIV). Significant increase in both cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 was observed in group intoxicated with sod-borate(GII) when compared to control rats(GI). Oral supplementation with high potent antioxidant GSE (GIII) caused alleviation in the kidney injury leading to the reduction of both pro-inflammatory mediator cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. DNA% fragment migration showed that worse significant migration of DNA fragements were observed in toxicated group(GII) followed by increase in

  13. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10th LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-tr...

  14. Amelioration of some biochemical parameters in irradiated male albino rats by garlic

    Garlic extract has various medical effects on the treatment of many diseases as hypertension, atherosclerosis, inflammation and diabetes. The alteration of the biochemical parameters in blood serum of irradiated rats may play an important role in determining the pathogenesis of radiation exposure. Many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by reactive free radicals. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of garlic against gamma irradiation (5Gy) induced biochemical disorders in rats. Samples were collected at 1, 7 and 14 days post-irradiation. Lipid peroxide content (malondialdehyde), cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, fatty acids, glucose, insulin, glycogen, haemoglobin, ferritin andiron were estimated.Garlic was orally administered to rats (100 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days before exposure to single dose of gamma irradiation at dose level 5 Gy. The data revealed significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxide, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fatty acids, insulin, glucose and iron accompanied with significant decrease in the levels of HDL-cholesterol, glycogen, haemoglobin and ferritin due to radiation exposure. Administration of garlic alone to the rats caused nonsignificant changes in the estimated parameters indicating its safe use, but the treatment with garlic to rats before radiation exposure ameliorated the changes induced by gamma irradiation and tended to normalize their levels.It could be concluded that garlic administration may has a beneficial role in restoring the biochemical disorders induced by 5 Gy gamma irradiation

  15. The disposition and metabolism of 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane in male Wistar albino rats

    The present study was designed to investigate 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane (TOX) distribution, excretion and metabolism. The experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats after a single administration of TOX at doses of 40 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The exhaled air proved to be the main route of 14C elimination, mainly as 14CO2. During the first 12 h following the administration of 40 mg/kg of TOX the exhalation of 14CO2 was monophasic, with a half-life of 3.5 h. After the administration of 400 mg/kg, TOX was eliminated mainly as 14CO2 with the exhaled air (77%) and unchanged TOX (8%). About 3% of 14C was excreted in the urine as unchanged 1,3,5-trioxane. With regards to TOX elimination from blood plasma for the lower dose, a biphasic process was observed, with half-lives of 4.5 and 72 h. The amount of 14C bound by the erythrocytes was minute compared with the amount in blood plasma. When the higher dose of TOX was administered the efficiency of 14C binding to the erythrocytes was found to be 10 times higher than the respective value for blood plasma. Among the examined tissues the highest concentration of TOX-derived radioactivity was detected in the liver while the lowest was in fat tissue and brain. A subsequent decay of radioactivity occurred in the tissues. The results of the present study indicate that TOX belongs to the group of compounds, which are rapidly eliminated from the organism; hence TOX should not be expected to accumulate within the tissues. The data obtained confirm the assumed pattern of metabolic transformation, according to which 1,3,5-trioxane undergoes enzymatic transformation to formaldehyde, with carbon dioxide and water being the final products. (orig.)

  16. The potent effects of ginseng root extract and memantine on cognitive dysfunction in male albino rats.

    Al-Hazmi, Mansour A; Rawi, Sayed M; Arafa, Nadia Ms; Wagas, Abeer; Montasser, Ayat Os

    2015-06-01

    The study determined the maximum intraperitoneal (ip) scopolamine dose inducing memory impairment in rats (2 mg/kg) compared to 0.5 or 1 mg/kg dose. The effect reflected by significant increase from normal in the latency time required for rats to find the hidden platform in water maze task and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. The dose-related histopathological effect via the hemorrhage, vacuolation and gliosis in cortex and hippocampus is assessed. Then the study investigated the potency of Panax ginseng root extract on scopolamine cognitive dysfunction rat model compared to memantine hydrochloride as reference Food and Drug Administration approved. Ginseng extract was administered at dose 100 or 200 mg/kg/day and memantine at 20 mg/kg/day orally for 2 weeks. All treatments showed improvement in the water maze task, however, ginseng (200 mg/kg) group acquired the advantage without statistical difference control. Scopolamine (2 mg/kg ip) group showed significant increase in AChE reactivity and glutamate level and reduced monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin) and γ-aminobutyric acid contents in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Ginseng extract in a dose-dependent manner appears effective as memantine and can improve memory impairment through the retrieved homeostasis via neurotransmitter levels and AChE activities in rat brain areas with partial effect on the histological feature of the brain tissue. PMID:23406953

  17. Effect of Carbonated Beverage Intake on Blood Gases and Some Biochemical Parameters in Male Albino Rats

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of carbonated beverage (colourless or black coloured drinks) on arterial blood gases, kidney function, bone mineral density (BMD), glucose and insulin. The rats were divided into three groups; ten rats per each group. Group (I) used as control, group (II) rats supplemented with colourless carbonated beverage (10 ml /100 ml water) and group (III) rats supplemented with black coloured carbonated beverage (10 ml /100 ml water) for three months. The arterial blood gases were evaluated by measuring ph PO2, , PCO2, , H+ a nd HCO3-. Rats receiving the coloured drinks showed high significant increase in ph while PO2 showed very high significant decrease in both groups. PCO2 showed high significant decrease in groups (II) and (III) while H+ showed high significant decrease in group (III) only. HCO3- showed high significant increase in group III. All these changes were related to carbonic acid dissolved in water and the increased ph lead to alkalinity of the blood and it is inversely proportional to the number of hydrogen ions (H+). Non-significant changes were observed in sodium ions while potassium ions showed significant increase in group (II) and high significant increase in group (III). The level of urea showed high and very high significant increase in groups (II) and (III), respectively. Creatinine level showed non-significant increase in group (III). The histopathology changes were observed in kidney tissues in rats of groups (II) and (III). From these results, it appears that black coloured beverage can increase the risk of kidney problems more than colourless beverages. Ca+ and inorganic phosphorous levels showed non- significant change except Ca ions showed a significant decrease in rats of group (III). The acidity of carbonated beverage leads to weak bones by promoting the loss of calcium. The decrease of bone mineral density was more pronounced in some parts of femur of rats receiving black colour carbonated

  18. Evaluation of the radioprotective Effect of the co-oral Administration of Vitamin B12 with Vitamin c on some Haematological and Biochemical Alterations in Male Albino Rats

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of co-oral administration of vitamin B12 with vitamin C against radiation induced haematological and biochemical alterations in male albino rats. Male albino rats were divided into six groups (n=8). Group 1: rats were kept as control, Group 2; rats received orally vita-min B12 (2000μgkg-1). Group 3; rats received Vitamin B12 with Vitamin C (500mgkg-1). Group 4; rats whole body exposed to 7Gy of gamma rays. Group 5; rats received vitamin B12 for 21 successive days before irradiation. Group 6; rats received Vitamin B12 with Vitamin C for 21 successive days before irradiation. Animals were sacrificed the third day post irradiation. The oral administration of Vitamin B12 with or with-out Vitamin C enhanced the recovery from radiation-induced haemopoietic injury and some biochemical changes demonstrated by a significant increase (p0.05>) of WBCs, RBCs and Platelets count, Hb content, Hct%, serum erythropoietin and iron levels and a significant reduction (p0.05>) of serum homocysteine level (Hcy), creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities compared to their respective values in irradiated rats. Improvement of oxidative stress in heart and spleen tissues denoted by a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (MDA) and a significant increase in glutathione (GSH) content was recorded also. The co-oral administration of vitamin B12 with vitamin C has no effect on the prophylactic efficacy of vitamin B12

  19. Effect of salvia a Egyptiaca extract on serotoninergic system and cortisol in adult male albino rats

    The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract with a dose of 2 g/kg body weight (0.5 ml solution /rat) for 4 weeks resulted in significant increases in tryptophan, serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in all tested brain areas, almost allover the experimental period. Also, it caused significant decrease in serum cortisol level. According to the obtained results, it could be concluded that the extract of Salvia egyptiaca may affect GABA-benzodiazepine receptors, that eventually inhibit the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) which consequently caused decrease in serum cortisol level. The low level of cortisol inhibits the tryptophan pyrrolase activity resulting in an increase of the peripheral availability of tryptophan for 5-HT synthesis in brain. Accordingly, 5-HT content as well as its metabolite 5-HIAA were increased

  20. Beneficial use of continuous administration of crataegus oxycantha in irradiated male albino rats

    Exposure to ionizing radiation has become frequent with its vast applications in diagnosis, treatment and industry rather than possible environmental pollution with radiation. The animals of this study were allocated into three groups, control group, irradiated group (5 Gy one shot) and hawthorn treated post-irradiation group. Exposure to radiation was implicated with hematological suppression in all hematological parameters tested red blood cells count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrit percentage (HCT) and white blood cells count (WBCs). Radiation exposure caused alteration of lipid metabolism leading to increased total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) and decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL). In addition, liver enzymes were also elevated, while serum albumin was diminished referring to liver dysfunction. The male reproductive hormone (testosterone) was severely inhibited along with glutathione. Administration of extraction of Crategous oxinatha (hawthorn) with a dose of 500 g/kg b.w. orally for consecutive 15 days post-irradiation showed significant ameliorating effects on both hematological and biochemical parameters leading to the suggestion of using hawthorn as food additive in relatively high amount

  1. Influence of Monosodium Glutamate on Radiation-Induced Biochemical Alterations in Male Albino Rats

    The consumption of foods and beverages containing additives has intensely increased over the past decades. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the main flavor enhancer that can be consumed in high concentrations. Also, human exposure to ionizing radiation (RAD) has become inevitable with its vast application in diagnosis and industry. Humans are frequently exposed to RAD and MSG from various food additives, therapeutic treatments and the environment. Although the use of additives and exposure to RAD in therapeutic treatments are believed to be relatively safe, their combined effects remain unclear. The present study proposed to investigate neurotoxic potentials of exposure to MSG and/or RAD on oxidative stress, neurotransmitters disturbance and metabolic disorders in the rat’s brain tissue. MSG was supplemented daily by gavages to rats at a dose of 450 mg/Kg bwt/day (equivalent to 5 g/day human consumption) for 7 days pre- and 21 days post-exposure to whole body gamma rays at doses of 2 Gy/week up to a total dose of 8 Gy. Exposure to MSG and/or RAD -induced oxidative stress, neurotransmitters disturbance and metabolic disorders. Oxidative stress was manifested by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione content. The administration of MSG daily during exposure to gamma radiation has potentiated oxidative stress regarding each single treatment. MSG-exposure induced a highly significant decrease of serotonin (P<0.01) and a slight non significant increase (P>0.05) of aspartic and glutamic acids levels while in RAD- group the decrease of serotonin and the increase of amino acids were very highly significant (P<0.001). MSG + RAD-exposure had potentiated the decrease of serotonin and produced an additive effect on the increase of neurotransmitters amino acids. MSG as well as RAD-exposure increased (P<0.05) glucose and insulin levels with

  2. Salvia aegyptiaca as a Potential Herb for Ameliorating the Acute Toxicity Induced by Fenvalerate in Adult Male Albino Rats

    After fen valerate and/or Salvia aegyptiaca administration to male albino rats, fenvalerate caused a reduction in liver enzymes activity in liver homogenate with a percent change recording -24.1, -21.94 and-30.46 %, after 7 days, for ALT, AST and ALP, respectively .. Moreover, it increased the total protein and albumin at the same period. On day 7, fenvalerate increased the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP by 351. 24, 164.60 and 119.78%, respectively. On the contrary, fenvalerate reduced the serum levels of total protein and albumin. Significant increase was observed in both creatinine (58.62%) and blood urea (47.41 %) after 7 days, whereas, serum T3 and T4 recorded a percentage change of -3.0.18 and -51.45%, respectively. An increase in GABA content in 7 brain areas was noticed after daily oral administration of fenvalerate, showing that GABA content in 'the cortex was the most affected recording, 191.43% change from control on the 7th day. Daily oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight of Salvia aegyptiaca extract alone or after fenvalerate caused a gradual decrease in ALT, AST and ALP enzyme activity as well as in total protein and albumin content in both liver homogenate and serum, on the 7th day. Salvia extract decreased serum creatinine and blood urea throughout the experimental period. No statistically significant changes in T3 and T4 levels were observed in animals that received salvia extract alone. On the other hand, salvia improved T3 and T4 levels after it was delivered post fenvalerate administration, bringing the hormonal levels near to that of control. Moreover, salvia extract caused a significant decrease in GABA content throughout the experimental period. However, animals that received combined treatment (fenvalerate + salvia) showed that salvia reduced the elevation that occurred in GABA content as a result of fenvalerate administration in all brain areas under investigation. From the current investigation, it could be recommended that, the

  3. Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on The Toxicity and Distribution of 14C-Carbon Tetrachloride in Adult Male Albino Rats

    The present study was conducted to investigate the possibility of whether the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) has a protective and therapeutic effect on the toxicity and distribution of 14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (cerebellum, striatum, cerebral cortex) of adult male albino rats for determination of distribution of 14C-CCl4 and monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5- HT)) and also estimation of serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of 14C-CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of counted 14C in all tested brain areas all over the experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 1'4C-CCl4 injection resulted in a significant reduction (P14C in tested areas. The maximum reduction was observed in cerebral cortex on 1st day (-40.91%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4 . The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period. This may be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. Data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4 .

  4. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extracton lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats

    Sailaja, K.V.; Shivaranjani, V. Leela; Poornima, H.; Rahamathulla, S.B.Md.; Devi, K. Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at a dos...

  5. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extract on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats

    K. Lakshmi Devi; Poornima, H.; Rahamathulla, S.B.Md.; Sailaja, K.V.; Shivaranjani, V. Leela

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at...

  6. The effect of sodium valproate on the biochemical parameters of reproductive function in male albino Wistar rats

    Vijay P.; Yeshwanth R; Bairy K

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on intratesticular testosterone and lactic dehydrogenase level in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were treated with sodium valproate and sacrificed at the end of the 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week, after the last exposure to sodium valproate. The testes were removed, weighed and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P< 0.001) reduced...

  7. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia on N-nitrosodiethylamine (diethylnitrosamine induced liver cancer in male Wister albino rats

    R Jayaprakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is a disease that evokes wide spread fear among people and is one of the leading causes of deaths in the world. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN is a known carcinogen in rodent liver. DENs reported to undergo metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 enzymes to form reactive electrophiles that cause oxidative stress leading to cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (EETC in N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN induced liver cancer in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity was assessed by the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO, enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Result: A significant levels of LPO was increased as the enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants values were decreased in liver cancer bearing animals. Conclusions: The administration of EETC to cancer bearing animals reverted the LPO levels, enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants to near normal

  8. The Modulatory Role of Echinacea Purpurea in Gamma Radiation Induced Physiological and Histological Changes in the Liver and Testis of Male Albino Rats

    Echinaceae purpurea (EP) is one of the most popular herbal medicines used for many years as a panacea for a variety of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the modulator role of Echinacea purpurea (EP) in some radiation-induced biological damage. Male albino rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 3 Gy delivered as a single shot dose. EP was administered to rats (50 mg/kg body weight) via gavages during four weeks either pre- or post-irradiation. Histological investigations in the liver of irradiated rats revealed degeneration of portal vein area, necrotic hepatic cells and pyknotic nuclei, vacuolated cytoplasm. Testis tissues showed necrotic spermatogenic, degenerated interstitial cells and severe atrophid spermatogonia. The histopathological changes in both tissues were associated with severe oxidative stress denoted by an increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level and a decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities as well as glutathione (GSH) content. Alteration in serum lipid profile, glucose level, transaminase activities and testosterone level were also recorded. Administration of EP to rats either pre- or post-irradiation has significantly attenuated radiation-induced oxidative stress which was associated with significant regeneration of liver and testis tissues. It could be concluded that EP may act as a prophylactic as well as a therapeutic agent, however, its role was more pronounced when administered before irradiation which could be attributed to its free radicals scavenging activities.

  9. Efficiency of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace as antioxidant against gamma irradiation hazards in male albino rats

    Nowadays, increasing attention has been given to the roles of free radicals generated through oxidative stres. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidative role lycopene extracted from tomato processing wastes or pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male rats were adminstered lycopene by a daily intragastric gavage(0.24mg/rat/day) or supplemented in a standard casein diet (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) reduced ghutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) were determined in liver homogenate, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). asparate aminotransferase (AST), toral protein, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio were investigated 2 and 13 days post irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in MDA, ALT,AST, albumin levels and A/G ratio. Meanwhile, radiation exposure caused significant reduction in weight gain, SOD activity, GSH, total protein and globulin levels

  10. The immunological and histopathological changes of Tramadol, Tramadol/Acetaminophen and Acetaminophen in male Albino rats "Comparative study"

    Hanan Mostafa Rabei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol is a synthetic opioid analgesic. It is commonly prescribed for moderate to severe pain, becoming abused more popular among teens in most countries. Paracetamol as anti-inflammatory drugs (acetaminophen (APAP is widely used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. Meanwhile, tramadol/acetaminophen (tramacet is effective in acute or chronic moderate-to-moderately severe pain. In comparative study, the current investigation threw the light on the effect of over doses of tramadol and/or APAP on the immune function and hepatocytes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Material and methods: Treated rats received oral doses of each drug for 15 consecutive days and after last treatment, they kept three days later for withdrawal studies. The rats were divided into four treatment groups, in the first group, rats received saline and used as control. The second, third and fourth groups treated with tramadol (45 mg/kg, tramadol/APAP (45/450 mg/kg, APAP (450 mg/kg respectively, once a-day at the first week and ending with 90, 90/900, 900 mg/kg at the second week. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the first, second weeks and three days of last treatment. Results: Daily doses of tramadol and /or APAP exposure in rats decreased the cellularity of spleen. Moreover, phagocytic and killing of S. aureus by PMN and macrophage cells caused a highly significant decrease in treated groups. IFN- was reduced in a statistically different treated group of rats. Serum IL-10 was unaffected by any of the treatment regimens but increased only in tramadol/APAP treated rats. Spleen histology exhibited mild pathological alteration with different injures between treated groups. Splenic white pulp accompanied by ill deformed which reflected the reduction of white pulp zones, thickened vasculature in the splenic net work, fibrous trabeculae become prominent feature, where splenic red pulp occupied large areas of the splenic network with predominant edema and megakaryocytes. On

  11. Evaluation of acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg;: a bi-herbal formula in male Wistar albino rats

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg; (UF - A commercial bi-herbal formula prepared with Alstonia boonei and Xylopia aethiopica in male Wistar albino rats was evaluated. There was no mortality in rats administered 2000 mg/kg body weight (BW of UF in an acute toxicity study. A significant (p and #8804;0.05 increase in daily consumption of feed and fluid intake in experimental rats after 28 days was recorded followed by a progressive increase in BW of rats administered 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW of UF in a dose-dependent manner. Alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, triacylglycerides and creatinine increased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in rats treated with UF, whereas urea and fasting blood sugar decreased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in a dose-dependent manner when compared with control. There was a marginal decrease in serum calcium ion and phosphate ion following the administration of UF when compared with control. Packed cell volume and hemoglobin decreased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in rats treated with UF, whereas white blood cell increased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in a dose-dependent manner when compared with control. Histological examination of the liver, kidney, heart and lungs showed normal architecture in control group, whereas hepatocytes of rats treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW of UF were characterized by slight periportal fatty change, marked change and ballooning degeneration. Heart muscle of rats treated with 200mg/kg BW of UF showed slight inflammation while histological examination of the lungs showed areas of interstitium damage and diffuse alveolar damage in rats treated with UF. In conclusion, indiscriminate administration of UF could be of public health concern and long-term exposure may cause a significant potential health risk. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 970-977

  12. Role of Omega 3 fatty acids on radiation-induced oxidative and structural damage in different tissues of male albino rats

    Omega-3 fatty acids play a critical role in the development and function of the reproductive and central nervous systems. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels associated with histopathologic changes induced by gamma irradiation in the testis and brain of male albino rats. Rats were whole body exposed to radiation at a single dose of 3 Gy. Omega-3 fatty acids (0.4 gm/kg b wt/day) were given to rats, by gavages, for 15 consecutive days before irradiation and for 15 days after irradiation. Rats were sacrificed one and 15 days post irradiation .Biochemical analysis of testis and cerebral cortex samples showed that irradiation induced a significant increase in xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) and a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT).Histological examination of testis and cerebral cortex tissues showed spermatogonia degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis in the testis and neurons cell bodies with ill defined and even ruptured cell membrane and damaged blood capillaries in the cerebral cortex. Omega-3 administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the levels of MDA, and XO, and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with amelioration of the histological injury markers in both testis and cerebral cortex. It could be postulated that omega-3 fatty acids as a multi-functional dietary supplement could exert a modulatory role in radiation- induced testis and cerebral cortex biochemical and histological changes through its antioxidant properties.

  13. Effects of Aging and Anti-Aging Hormones on The Kidney, The Thyroid Functions and The Histology of The Testis of Male Albino Rats

    Shadia Ali Radwan; Samia Mohamed Sakr; Mohamed Salah Al-Shinnawy and Enas Saleh Abdel-Bakey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aging and anti-aging hormones on the kidney, the thyroid and the testis of aged male albino rats from the physiological and histological points of view. Material & Methods Thirty five male rats were used in the present study. They were allocated into five groups. The first group (5months old served as control group and the other remaining groups are (18 months old. The second group 1 ml/kg b.w. corn oil intramuscular injection through a period of two weeks .The third group received 2mg/kg b.w. of melatonin hormone orally daily for two weeks. The fourth group received 0.57 mg/kg b.w. of testosterone hormone via intramuscular injection through two weeks. The fifth group received the same dose of both hormones (Melatonin & Testosterone for two weeks. Some biochemical parameters of the kidney, the thyroid and histological structure of the testis were examined. Results The untreated aged group showed insignificant change in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones levels. The melatonin treated group showed significant decrease in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones. The testosterone treated group showed highly significant increase in urea, T3 and T4 hormones and highly significant decrease in creatinine level. Whereas, fifth group showed significant decrease in urea accompanied with a highly significant decrease in creatinine and highly significant increase in T3 with a significant increase in T4. The histological changes induced by aging and anti-aging hormones included intertubular haemorrhage, odematous areas present between the seminiferous tubules. The interstitial tissue was degenerated. The degenerated seminiferous tubules revealed maturation arrest in late-stage spermatides. Conclusion In conclusion, aging and anti-aging hormones administration into adult male rats exerts a clear effect on the kidney and

  14. Effect Of The ORGANOCHLORINE Insecticide Endrin On Some Amino Acids And Thyroid Hormones In Male Albino Rats

    Oral administration of single doses of organo chlorine insecticide endrin to rats at levels of 10, 30 and 50 % of the LD50 each for 2, 4, 6 and 8 days was employed to evaluate its dose dependent and toxic effect on triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) levels and some amino acids contents.Treatment with 10% LD50 of endrin did not induce any significant change in serum T3 or T4 level in male rats along the experimental period. Endrin induced significant increases in T3 and T4 levels at doses of 30 and 50% on days 2 and 4. At the same doses, endrin induced significant decreases in T3 and T4 levels on day 6. On day 8, the dose 30% resulted in a decrease in T4 level, and the dose 50% decreased the levels of T3 and T4.. Endrin resulted in significant alterations in amino acids contents and the most effect was noticed on days 6 and 8 at the three selected doses.

  15. Phenolic Profiling and Evaluation of Contraceptive Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Salsola imbricata Forssk. in Male Albino Rats

    Naglaa Gamil Shehab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reported researches dealing with either composition or bioactivity of Salsola imbricata are limited. This study was conducted aiming to investigate the phenolic composition of the plant and evaluate its efficacy as male contraceptive. Polyphenols, namely, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed by RP-HPLC in the hydrolysed methanol extract using two different wavelengths, 280 and 330 nm. The efficiency of different solvents in extracting the plant phenolics was assessed via spectrophotometric determination of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Acute toxicity study was carried out on the ethanolic extract to ascertain its safety prior to biological evaluation. The contraceptive effect was assessed, in male rats, by oral administration of the extract at two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b. wt., over a period of 65 days. HPLC analyses allowed the identification and quantification of a total of 13 and 8 components in the hydrolysed-methanol extract; the overall phenolic composition was dominated by quercitrin (12.692% followed by coumaric acid (4.251%. Prolonged oral administration of the ethanolic extract caused slight reduction in the testis weight only. A significant decrease in the sperm count was observed (P<0.01 in the two treated groups while significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility was only observed in the high dose group. Morphological abnormalities were observed in sperms of treated animals. No distinct change in serum FSH, LH, and testosterone concentration was recorded. The histopathological findings supported to a high extent these results. The male contraceptive activity of Salsola imbricata could be ascribed to its phenolic components, especially quercitrin.

  16. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a sing...

  17. Carbamate Toxicity and Protective effect of vit. A and vit. E on some biochemicalaspects of male albino rats

    Samir, A.M. Zaahkouk* ; Eman, G.E. Helal

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of daily oral administration of carbamate (1/10 L.D50 on rats for 30 successive days were studied. The male rats were divided into five groups (control, control + oil, carbamate, carbamate + vit. A and carbamate + vit. E. Each group (except control and control + oil was daily administrated carbamate (0.012 mg/kg B.wt.. Two groups of carbamate ­ intoxicated animals provided with vit. A (700 mg/kg.B.wt or vit. E (10 mg/kg.B.wt. Poisoning symptoms were recorded, e.g. unbalanse, diarrhea, have poor health and posterior limbs rigidity. Haematological parameters showed a significant decrease in red blood corpuscles (R.B.Cs, white blood corpuscles (W.B.Cs count, Haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit value in groups treated with carbamate, and an improvement in these values was observed in groups treated with the anti-oxidants (vit. A and vit. E. Total lipids cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, glucose, LDH, AST, ALT, adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured in serum. Total proteins, total lipids, of tissues (liver, heart, muscle and kidney were investigated. The present study declare that, carbamate induced a significant elevetion in serum LDH, glucose. total lipids,cholesterol, AST, ALT, adrenaline and noradrenaline. On the other hand, causes a significant reduction in total proteins and albumin. The total lipids and total proteins of the tissue were recorded highly significant decrease in the group treated with carbamate only. From another point of view, antioxidant ameliorated the effect of carbamate on tissues. So, it is clear that administration of vit. E or vit. A. reduced the effect of carbamate on biochemical alteration to various extent. The antioxidant property of vitamin A and vitamin E seem to be responsible for the observed protection against carbamate intoxication.

  18. An experimental study on effect of antioxidant vitamin E in stress and alcohol induced changes in male fertility in albino rats.

    Sanghishetti Vijay Prasad, Nayak BB, Ghongane BB, Raul AR, Vijay Kumar AN, Mutalik MM, Kapure NL.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical and Psychological stresses are believed to reduce sexual functions, resulting fromneurotransmission changes in various erectile response pathways and reduced blood flow in genital organs.Intake of alcohol depends on numerous genetic and environmental factors. Stress has long been thought to influence the alcohol drinking in humans. Forced swimming in laboratory animals has been widely used as a model of stress to study the physiological changes and the capacity of the organism in response to stress. Aim: 1. To assess the effect of forced swimming stress on seminal fluid profile, Serum testosterone level, Testicular lipid peroxidation levels. 2. To assess the effect of Vitamin E on stress induced changes. Method: Adult male albino rats weighing 200 – 220 g, aged 12-15 weeks were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into four groups of 6 animals each. Group1 (control received distilled water, Group 2 (Forced Swimming Stress received distilled water Group 3: subjected to Forced Swimming stress with 20% alcohol intake p.o. Group 4: Swimming stress with 20% alcohol treated with Vitamin E(200mg/kg/day orally. The following parameters were studied in all groups 1. Body weight. 2. Sperm count Motility and Life /death Ratio (SLDR. 3. Serum Testosterone 4. Testicular Malondialdehyde level (MDA. Results: Forced swimming stress caused loss in body wt, reduction in sperm count, motility and SLDR in sperm analysis, reduction in serum testosterone and increase testicular MDA levels compared to control. All the changes were statistically significant. When alcohol was added along with forced swimming it caused further loss in body wt, sperm count, motility and SLDR, serum testosterone level and slightly further increase in MDA levels. These observations were also statistically significant. In case of group IV in which Vitamin E was administered long with stress with alcohol it showed a trend of reversal phenomenon of

  19. Role Of Ginkgo BILOBA Extract In Ameliorating The Toxicity And Distribution Of 14C-Carbon Tetrachloride In Some Brain Areas Of Adult Male Albino Rats

    The present study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) on distribution of14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (hippocampus, brain stem and hypothalamus) and its toxicity using the determination of monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT)) as well as estimation of serum nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of14C-CCl4 (1 ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of 14C amount in all tested brain areas during experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 14C-CCl4 treatment resulted in a significant reduction (P14C amount in areas under investigation. The maximum reduction was recorded in hypothalamus on 3rd day (-49.28%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4. The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period, which might be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. The data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4.

  20. Effect of vitamin D on atorvastatin induced blood sugar changes in Wistar albino rats

    Arunkumar, R; Vinayak Meti; A. Ruckmani; Shobita Devi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Statins are hypocholestrolemic agents used in atherosclerotic vascular disorders. They act by inhibiting hepatic hypoxanthine methyl glutaryl CoA reductase enzyme. They are reported to cause hyperglycemia as an important adverse event. This study was conducted to investigate atorvastatin induced blood sugar changes in Wistar, albino, male rats and the influence of vitamin D on the blood sugar changes. Methods: Forty, 12 weeks old male, Wistar albino rats, were selected and rand...

  1. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via dr...

  2. Squalene Modulates Radiation-Induced Structural, Ultrastructural And Biochemical Changes In Cardiac Muscles Of Male Albino Rats

    The failing heart represents an enormous clinical problem and is a major cause of death throughout the world. Hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress have been shown to contribute to heart failure. Squalene is a remarkable bioactive substance that belongs to a class of antioxidants called isoprenoids, which neutralize the harmful effect of excessive free radicals production in the body.The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of squalene against oxidative cardiac muscle damage induced by gamma irradiation.Rats were treated daily by gavage with 0.4 ml/kg squalene for 42 days before whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy and continued until animals were sacrificed 3 days post irradiation.Histological examination of cardiac muscles sections by using light and electron microscopes showed that exposure of rats to ionizing radiation has provoked a severe architecture damage such as necrotic nuclei, nuclei located at the periphery, alteration in chromatin distribution, ruptured cell and mitochondrial membranes, cristae of mitochondria disappeared, sticking mitochondria and ruptured myofibers. Structural and ultra-structural changes were associated with severe oxidative stress. Significant increase of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) (MDA) along with reduction in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalse (CAT), and glutathione content (GSH), were recorded.Treatment of rats with squalene has significantly attenuated the radiation-induced oxidative damage and histopathological changes in cardiac muscle which was substantiated by a significant amelioration in the activity of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Furthermore, administration of squalene to rats has adjusted the radiation-induced increase in plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Based on these results, it

  3. Possible protective and curative role of thiamine pyrophosphate against radiation induced biochemical and histological changes in male albino rats

    The present study has been performed to investigate the possible curative and protective role of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) in minimizing the radiation-induced changes in certain biochemical and histological parameters in the liver and kidney of rats. The activity of liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and g-glutamyl transferase (g-GT) as well as kidney creatinine and urea concentrations were measured. In addition, histological changes in the liver and kidney tissues were examined.The results obtained revealed that whole body g-irradiation of rats at 5 Gy (single dose) induced significant increase in the activity of liver g-GT, ALT and AST and also significant increase in the concentration of creatinine and urea in the kidney at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks post-irradiation. Exposure to radiation induced also distortion in the architecture pattern of the liver as well as degenerative changes of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney.The intraperitoneal administration of TPP at a concentration of 2mg/Kg body weight to unirradiated rats for 5 consecutive days did not induce any significant changes in biochemical and histological parameters studied at all the experimental periods. TPP given to rats for 5 consecutive days either before or after irradiation ameliorated the intensity of changes induced due to radiation exposure. Accordingly, it was concluded that TPP could exert a beneficial protective and curative role against some radiation-induced biochemical and histological disorders in liver and kidney. Extrapolation of the results obtained in the present study to patients who need such treatments and undergoing radiotherapy requires further investigations

  4. The Interaction Between Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (Captopril and Heat Stress in The Male Albino rats. 2-Tissue Analysis

    Talaat E.I. Abd-Rabo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Daily exposure to heat stress causes sustained elevation of blood pressure in rats. It is known that the renin-angiotensin system is activated during episodes of behavioral stress, and the purpose of this work was to assess the action of captopril in the development of stress induced hypertension in rats. Animals were divided into four groups. The first group served as a control, while the other groups were subjected to heat stress of 40C and high hamidity of 80% for 10 successive days. The second group was served as heat stress, while the third and the fourth groups were received low and high doses of captopril (0.7 & 1.4 mg/kg. b.wt., respectively. After 10 days of treatment, half of animals from each group were decapitated and brain, liver, muscle, heart and kidney were separated and analysed. The other half of animals were left for another 10 days without any additional treatment for recovery.The results revealed a significant decrease in total protein of liver, heart, kidney, total lipids of heart, muscle and brain and total cholesterol of liver. On the other hand, insignificant change was noticed in muscle and brain total protein. Similarly, AST and ALT activities were also within the normal values for all the organs examined.Results exhibited that renin-angiotensin system may be important in the development of stress-induced hypertension in rats.

  5. Evaluation of silymarin and / or ginger effect on induced hepatotoxicity by carbon tetrachloride in male albino rats

    Hassan H. A.* and EL-Gendy A. M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Liver disease appears to be increase. Part of this increase may be due to our frequent contact with chemicals and other environmental pollutants. The amount of medicne consumed has increased greatly which could be danger to the liver. The hepatoprotective flavonoid, silymarin (7.56 mg/Kg b. wt. and ginger (Zingiber officinale (1% of diet for 4 weeks were used to ameliorate the liver injury in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCL4 , single acute dose 4 ml/ Kg b. wt. of 50% v/v CCL4 in olive oil, subcutaneous. The obtained results showed that CCL4 decreased serum and liver total protein and albumin. Also reduced glutathione content. The antioxidant enzymes; glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity decreased in the liver of CCL4 toxicity group. On the other hand, CCL4 toxicity increased serum and liver bilirubin, total lipid and total cholestertol levels. In addition, liver function (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver lipid peroxidation content showed significant increase in the CCL4 treated group. Previous parameters turned back to normal values in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats after treating with silymarin and/ or ginger for one month. Meanwhile, the most interesting effect was induced by a combination of silymarin and ginger. Hence, the present findings will provide a potential scope for future use of ginger for the treatment of liver disorders.

  6. Extract Against Toxic Sodium The Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Nitrites and Gamma Irradiation Induced Histological Changes in Intestine and Urinary Bladder of Male Albino Rats

    Proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract) possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation exposure and toxic sodium nitrites induced oxidative stress on the intestine and urinary bladder histologically and also to evaluate the possible protective role of proanthocyanidins. Seventy adult male albino rats, each weighing 95-105 g were used and divided into 7 groups as follows: The first group represents the control group. The second experimental group were exposed to 7 Gy gamma-rays as a single dose and sacrificed on the 7th day. The third experimental group received by a stomach tube daily 50 mg/kg b.wt of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The fourth experimental group received proanthocyanidins, Grape seed extracts (antioxidant) (100 mg/kg) body wt.) daily for seven days before irradiation and the continued for 14 days post irradiation. The fifth group of animals received grape seed extract after being exposed to gamma radiation for two weeks, while the sixth experimental group received the same antioxidant for seven days before and after received sodium nitrite (50 mg/kg) daily for 4 weeks. Finally, the seventh experimental groups was treated with the same antioxidant in same dose and time after received sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed on the end of each experimental duration. The results revealed that both gamma-radiation and sodium nitrite induced different histological changes in the intestine and urinary bladder of irradiated and sodium nitrite received animals. The effect of gamma radiation exposure showed marked degeneration of intestinal villi, vaculation in the lining epithelium cells and karyolytic nuclei. In addition, using sodium nitrite lead to necrosis of intestinal glandular cells. The effect of gamma radiation on urinary bladder was presented by, hyperplasia and vaculation of mucosal epithelium, congestion of blood capillaries. Rats from nitrite

  7. Exploring the Potential Role of Chemopreventive Agent, Hesperetin Conjugated Pegylated Gold Nanoparticles in Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    Gokuladhas, Krishnan; Jayakumar, Subramaniyan; Rajan, Balan; Elamaran, Ramasamy; Pramila, Chengalvarayan Subramani; Gopikrishnan, Mani; Tamilarasi, Sasivarman; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2016-04-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and is still one of the leading causes of death world wide, due to food additives, alcohol, fungal toxins, air, toxic industrial chemicals, and water pollutants. Chemopreventive drugs play a potential role in liver cancer treatment. Obviously in the production of anticancer drugs, the factors like poor solubility, bioavailability, biocompatibility, limited chemical stability, large amount of dose etc., plays a major role. Against this backdrop, the idea of designing the chemopreventive nature of bio flavanoid hesperetin (HP) drug conjugated with pegylated gold nanoparticles to increasing the solubility, improve bioavailability and enhance the targeting capabilities of the drug during diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male wistar albino rats. The dose fixation studies and the toxicity of pure HP and HP conjugated gold nanoparticles (Au-mPEG(5000)-S-HP) were analysed. After concluded the dose fixation and toxicity studies the experimental design were segregated in six groups for the anticancer analysis of DEN induced HCC for 16 weeks. After the experimental period the body weight, relative liver weight, number of nodules and size of nodules, the levels of tumor markers like CEA, AFP and the level of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. The administration of DEN to rats resulted in increased relative liver weight and serum marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. The levels of lipid peroxides elevated (in both serum and tissue) with subsequent decrease in the final body weight and tissue antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidise, and glutathione reductase. HP supplementation (20 mg/kg b.wt) significantly attenuated these alterations, thereby showing potent anticancer effect in liver cancer and the

  8. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Neurotransmitters Level in the Brain of Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    The omega-3 fatty acids are essential dietary nutrients, and one of their important roles is providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for growth and function of nervous tissue. Reduced level of DHA in the brain induce dramatic changes in brain function including changes in size of neurons as well as changes in learning and memory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids on γ-radiation-induced physiological changes in the brain cerebral hemispheres. Omega-3 fatty acids was supplemented daily by gavages to rats at a dose of 400 mg/ kg body wt for 7 days pre- and 21 days post-exposure to whole body fractionated gamma rays at doses of 2 Gy/week up to a total dose of 8 Gy. The results demonstrated that whole body γ-irradiation induced oxidative stress, de - creased the main polyunsaturated fatty acids; DHA and EPA, and induced neurotransmitters alteration in brain tissues. Oxidative stress was manifested by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Oxidative stress was accompanied by alterations in the level of the neurotransmitters manifested by a significant increase of glutamic and aspartic and a significant decrease of serotonin (5-HT) levels in brain cerebral hemispheres. Rats receiving fish oil 7 days before and 21 days after exposure to γ-radiation showed significant improvement in the levels of EPA and DHA associated with significant amelioration of oxidative stress and neurotransmitters alteration. It is concluded that fish oil protect the brain from radiation-induced physiological changes by protecting brain cellular membranes through counteracting the decrease of omega-3 fatty acids and minimizing oxidative stress

  9. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extracton lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats.

    Sailaja, K V; Shivaranjani, V Leela; Poornima, H; Rahamathulla, S B Md; Devi, K Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at a dose of 85 mg/kg body weight for two consecutive days intraperitoneally at an interval of 24 h. ISO induced myocardial infarction (MI) was confirmed by disturbances in serum lipid profile, heart tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum total cholesterol (32.60 %), triglycerides (41.30 %), very low density lipoproteins (81.81 %), low density lipoproteins (84%) and phospholipids (38.88 %) and a significant decrease in the levels of high density lipoproteins (33.33 %) in the ISO control group when compared to normal controls. Additionally, there is a significant decrease in the levels of heart tissue antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and depletion of reduced glutathione, which indicates enhanced lipid peroxidation(172 %). Pretreatment with extract significantly showed a protective effect against ISO altered lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. The present study showed therapeutic effect of TTFAEt on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in experimental rats. PMID:26417233

  10. Histological Studies on Skeletal Muscles of Albino Rats under the Effect of Atorvastatin

    Hassan S. A. El Dawi ,Gamal S. Elgharabawy ,Ezz El-Dein El Sharkawy,

    2013-01-01

    Introduction:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on the structure of skeletal muscles in male albino rats and the possibility of recovery of any changes in the muscles. Drug used: Atorvastatin (Lipitor 20mg) tablets.The daily single oral dose was 1.6 mg /kg body weight. Experimental animals: Twenty five adult local strain male albino rats with average weight of 160 gm were chosen, divided into five equal groups and fed on ordinary rat diet: Group I (co...

  11. Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

    Total of 24 adult male albino rats were randomly assigned as treated and untreated control groups. Treated group supplemented with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for 5 and 9 weeks. The results revealed that rats supplemented with water hyacinth (as a source of heavy metals) for 5 weeks induced significantly increase in RBCs, WBCs counts, hemoglobin content, Heinz bodies percentage and cell number/size ratio. At the same time liver cell size had a significant decrease under the same treatment. The ninth weeks of the experimental period showed a significant rise of Heinz bodies, globulin level, ALT level, liver cellular aspects (DNA, cell number and cell number/size ratio). A significant decrease of WBCs counts, A/G ratio and cell size were illustrated.The histological examination of treated rats liver showed chronic venous congestion with infiltration of the portal tract by chronic inflammatory cells and necrosis of hepatocyte cells consequently after 5 and 9 weeks of treatment

  12. The Albino Rat Following Oral Administration Of A-Chlorohydrin

    Fouad A.F.Ali*, Ali A.Abdel Rahman* and Ashraf M.Moustafa

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatment of female rats with a chlorohydrin caused reversible uterine and ovarian changes. Uterine changes took longer time to recover compared with that of ovarian changes. These results support the possibility that this drug could be a functional female sterilant as it was known as a male sterilant.

  13. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were ad...

  14. Lead acetate toxicity on glucose level and liver enzymes ameliorated by camel's milk in wistar albino rat

    Draid, Marwan M.; Mujahed O. Bushwereb; Shadia G. Ramadan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work was conducted to investigate the effects of lead acetate intoxication on glucose and liver functions in albino rats, and the possible effectiveness of using camel milk to protect against lead induced toxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six, the first was a control group, the second received orally lead acetate in water as (2 ml saline containing 5 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) and the third received the same ...

  15. Hepatotoxicity of ingested uranium in albino wistar rats

    Uranium exhibits both radiotoxic and chemotoxic properties. Common route of contamination is ingestion through drinking water. Uranium is mainly nephrotoxic and is also hepatotoxic to mammals including humans. The dose range at which it affects organs still remains in predicament. To study the effect of ingested uranium on enzymatic and histopathological changes of liver in albino wistar rats. Uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UN) solutions were prepared at different concentrations in distilled water for administration. Healthy male and female albino wistar rats weighing 120±20 g were randomly divided into six groups, each group with five animals. Group 1 was the control. All the five treatment groups (group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5 and group 6) were orally administered with 0.156, 0.625, 2.5, 10 and 40 mg/kg/day of UN for 28 days duration. Blood samples collected on 29th day were analyzed for γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). In addition, histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed. Significant reduction by 61 and 46 % in GGT levels in female rats of groups 4 and 5 respectively while in male rats, increase of 55, 52 and 40 % in groups 3, 4 and 5 respectively were observed compared to control. In females, ALP levels were decreased by 38 % in group 2 and 29 % in group 4 while no changes were observed in males of control and test groups. SGPT level was decreased by 22 % in group 6 in females but increased by 29 and 35 % in groups 2 and 6 respectively in males, compared to control. In females, 25 % increase in SGOT levels in group 4 was observed, but decreased in group 5 and 6 by 26 and 22 % respectively. A 27 % increase in SGOT level in males was recorded in group 2 compared to control. No histopathological changes were observed in liver tissues of test groups or the control. Uranium causes dose-independent changes in key marker

  16. the Early Effects of Gamma radiation on the diurnal changes of Some Biochemical Parameters and the Role of α-lipoic acid as an Antioxidant in Male Albino rats

    In mammals most of the physiological and behavioral systems such as sleep-wake cycle, cardiovascular activity, endocrine system, blood pressure, body temperature and hepatic metabolism are regulated by the circadian clock. The aim of the present work was to investigate the disturbances induced after gamma irradiation on the metabolic diurnal rhythm and the role of α-alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in preventing/or decreasing these disorders in rat. Male Swiss albino rats were divided into 4 groups, one of which served as a normal control group, the second group was exposed to a single whole body gamma radiation dose of 6Gy, the third group was treated by gavage with ALA 100 mg/kg/day for 20 days and the fourth one was orally administered with ALA 100 mg/kg/day for 20 days before whole body gamma radiation at a dose of 6Gy. Rats were irradiated at 10 am and sacrificed at 11 am, 12 pm, 1 pm and 2 pm and then the biochemical analyses were performed. The results showed a significant increase in the level of lipid peroxidation products (MDA) at all time intervals. A significant increase was recorded also in the amount of free radicals at 11 am and 2 pm, and pyruvic acid level at 12 pm and 2 pm. A significant reduction of glutathione level (GSH) was recorded at 12 pm, 1 pm and 2 pm in the liver of the irradiated rats. Furthermore, a significant increase was registered in blood glucose level and blood aminotransferase activities (AST, ALT) in irradiated rats. Administration of ALA has significantly attenuated the radiation induced oxidative damage. It could be concluded that the biochemical changes induced by whole body gamma irradiation of rats are dependent on the circadian cycle. Further investigations are necessary to understand these complicated relations.

  17. Modulatory effects of Crataeva nurvala bark against testosterone and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced oxidative damage in prostate of male albino rats

    Dugganaboyana Guru Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antioxidant properties of Crataeva nurvala bark contains a variety of the bioactive phytochemical constituents in medicinal plants which include flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, anthracene derivatives, and essential oils. Components from Crataeva nurvala bark have been accounted to play an important role in scavenging free radicals generated by mutagens and carcinogens. Androgens are the key factors in either the initiation or progression of prostate cancer by inducing oxidative stress. In the present set of investigations, the antioxidative potential of Crataeva nurvala bark extract against androgen-mediated oxidative stress in male Wistar rats has been studied. Materials and Methods: Oxidative damage in prostate was induced in rats by the injection of testosterone (100 mg/kg body weight [bw] for 3 days followed by injection of chemical carcinogen N-Methyl N-Nitroso Urea (50 mg/kg bw for 1 week. The oxidative damage in prostate-induced rats were treated with the ethanolic extract of Crataeva nurvala bark (150 mg/kg bw and testosterone injection (2 mg/ kg bw was also continued through the experimental period of 4 months. The prostate tissue was dissected out for biochemical analysis of lipid peroxidation and enzymic-antioxidants viz. catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione reductase; the non-enzymic antioxidants viz. reduced glutathione, and Vitamin C. Results: The results revealed that testosterone administration induced the oxidative stress in rat prostate; however, in drug (150 mg/kg bw supplemented groups, a significant protective effect of Crataeva nurvala bark against testosterone-induced oxidative injury was recorded. Conclusion: Hence, the study reveals that constituents present in Crataeva nurvala bark impart protection against androgen-induced oxidative injury in prostate.

  18. Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Functional and Structural Disorders in Urogenital System of Male Albino Rats Induced by Whole Body Gamma Irradiation

    Pumpkin seeds have long been used for health benefits and the seed oil has been shown to contain active beneficial components that may protect from oxidative stress. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the modulator role of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) supplementation on gamma radiation induced changes in certain biochemical and histological abnormalities in both kidney and testes tissues. Male rats received 5Gy whole body gamma-irradiation delivered as 1 Gy day after day to result in a cumulative dose of 5 Gy. PSO was orally administered to rats (20mg/Kg body weight) for 20 consecutive days before irradiation and during the period of irradiation. On days seven and twenty one after the last irradiation dose, rats were sacrificed. Biochemical analysis in the serum revealed that PSO supplementation diminished the radiation-induced increase in the level of urea, creatinine , follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Significant amelioration of the radiation-induced decreases in calcium (Ca+2), potassium (K+) and testosterone levels were also recorded. PSO administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the level of lipid peroxides measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and the content of glutathione (GSH). Histological observations of photomicrographs of kidney sections of irradiated rats showed amorphoid glomeruli, renal sclerosis and high content of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, hemorrhage in glomeruli, ruptured proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Examination of testis tissues showed disappearance of seminiferous tubules, ruptured tunica albuginea, and degeneration of interstitial cells. PSO supplementation has obviously improved the radiation-induced histopathological changes in both tissues. It could be concluded that PSO can be used as a useful adjunct for maintaining the

  19. QUANTITATIVE AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE ADRENAL MEDULLA IN POST NATAL PERIOD OF ALBINO RAT

    Wagieh k.Baiomy; Abdel-mawgood Anas; Mamdooh Ghaly; Ashraf M. Moustafa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present work was based on the evaluation of histological, histochemical, and quantitative study on the adrenal medulla of the white albino rat in the different post natal age period. Material and methods:Sixty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were classified to 4 main groups as follows: - Group one : One week old albino rats. - Group two: One month old albino rats. - Group three: Three months old albino rats. - Group four: Senile rats. Three main parameters were performed in this study, the first was the study of the morphological changes in the adrenal medulla in the different postnatal age groups. The second was concerned with the histochemical studies while the last parameter was the quantitative studies on the gland volume as well as its cellular count. These three parameters were performed by using different staining techniques. Results: The results showed that medullary cells in the early age groups were arranged in non-differentiated groups and become more differentiated in the older age groups. Both reticular and elastic fibers in the older age groups showed a definite increase especially at the region of corticomedullary zone. The different types of chromaffin cells were more observed at the old age groups. The concentration of ascorbic acid granules was more marked in the senile group. The quantitative changes were in the form of increased medullary volume especially in the old age. The number of chromaffin cells as well as the concentration of ascorbic acid contents was more noticed in the old age group. Conclusions: The differentiation of both divisions of the adrenal gland was not noticed in the early age groups. Cellular and fibrous differentiations were more seen in older age groups which may reflects an idea about the degree of gland maturation

  20. Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes

    Shayakhmetova Ganna M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2 mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I - control (intact animals, II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days. Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (-53% and methionine (+133%. The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure.

  1. The brainstem efferent acoustic chiasm in pigmented and albino rats.

    Reuss, Stefan; Closhen-Gabrisch, Stefanie; Closhen, Christina

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether structural peculiarities in the brain-efferent pathway to the organ of Corti may underlie functional differences in hearing between pigmented and albino individuals of the same mammalian species. Pigmented Brown-Norway rats and albino Wistar rats received unilateral injections of an aqueous solution of the retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold (FG) into the scala tympani of the cochlea to identify olivocochlear neurons (OCN) in the brainstem superior olivary complex. After five days, brains were perfusion-fixed and brainstem sections were cut and analyzed with respect to retrogradely labeled neurons. Intrinsic neurons of the lateral system were located exclusively in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO) in both groups. Shell neurons surrounding the LSO and in periolivary regions, which made up only 5-8% of all OCN, were more often contralaterally located in albino than in pigmented animals. A striking difference was observed in the laterality of neurons of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, which provided more than one third of all OCN. These neurons, located in the rostral periolivary region and in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, were observed contralateral to 45% in pigmented and to 68% in albino animals. Our study, the first to compare the origin of the olivocochlear bundle in pigmented and albino rats, provides evidence for differences in the crossing pattern of the olivocochlear pathway. These were found predominantly in the MOC system providing the direct efferent innervation of cochlear outer hair cells. Our findings may account for the alterations in auditory perception observed in albino mammals including man. PMID:26657095

  2. Antioxidant Effect of Caffeic Acid on Oxytetracycline Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats

    Jayanthi, R.; Subash, P.

    2010-01-01

    Caffeic acid is a well-known phenolic compound widely present in plant kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of caffeic acid (CA) against oxytetracycline (OXT) induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino Wistar rats. A total of 30 rats weighing 150–170 g were randomly divided into five groups of six rats in each group. Oral administration of OXT (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 15 days produced hepatic damage as manifested by a significant increase in serum...

  3. Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure on Histology and DNA Content of the Brain Cortex and Hypothalamus of Young and Adult Male Albino Rats

    Concerns have been raised regarding the potential adverse effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) arising from mobile phone. The present study investigates the effect of the daily exposure of adult and young rats to EMR for 1 hour (at a frequency of 900 MHz, a power density of 0.02 mW/cm2 and an average specific absorption rate of 1.165 W/kg) on the DNA content and tissue architecture of the cortex and hypothalamus of the rat brain. Both young and adult rats were sacrificed at two intervals, after 4 months of daily EMR exposure and after 1 month of stopping the exposure. The present results showed a significant increase in the DNA intensity of young and adult rats in both areas after 4 months of daily EMR exposure. However, decreased DNA content around the normal level was observed after one month of stopping the exposure. Light microscopic examination of irradiated rats revealed edema, vacuolation, necrosis and proliferated glial cells. Stopping EMR exposure showed mild amelioration in the structural damage of the cerebral cortex of young animals, however, most drastic changes still persisted in the other animals. In conclusion, these data may confirm the neurotoxic risks arising from the extensive use of mobile phones that may alter the brain histology and impair its function

  4. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial Activity of Propolis Ethanolic Extract and Its Improving Role of Biochemical Changes Induced by Carbon tetrachloride in Male Albino Rats

    Propolis (bee glue) is a sticky substance that is collected from plants by honeybees. Due to biological and pharmacological activities, it has been extensively used in folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition, the antimicrobial activity and possible protective effects of ethanolic extract of propolis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced biological damages in rats. The studied rats were allotted to four equal groups (6 rats each) : Group 1 served as control and was given the vehicle (Tween 80 dissolved in distilled water, 1:100 ) orally for 21 consecutive days after which they were sacrificed , group 2 treated orally with ethanolic extract of popolis (100μg/rat) for 21 successive days, group 3 ( CCl4 - treated group) administered orally with a single dose (0.5 ml/kg body weight) of carbon tetrachloride (mixed with an equal volume of olive oil) and group 4 (protected group) was treated with propolis extract (100μg/rat) for 21 successive days, after one hour of the last dose of the treatment, a single dose of CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) was given. Then all animals were sacrificed, 24 hr post experimental design period for each group. Our results revealed that, fourteen compounds were identified by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC- MS analysis). Propolis ethanolic extract inhibited the growth of six from the tested microorganisms including bacteria and fungi at 5 mg/ml against E. coli and B. subtilis and 20 mg/ml against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Penicillium italicum and Candida albicans, while it has no effect on A. fumigatus and Syncephalstrum racemasum. In experimental animals, Leucocytic counts and platelets, in addition, AST, ALT, CK and LDH were significantly increased, meanwhile, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) level was decreased in CCl4 treated rats (group 3) compared to the control (group 1). Protection with ethanolic extract of propolis to rats received CCl4 (group 4) ameliorated the

  5. Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

  6. Comparison of anti-inflammatory activity of nigella sativa and diclofenac sodium in albino rats

    Background: Nigella sativa or Kalonji is a naturally occurring plant in Pakistan and other countries which possesses a wide range of medicinal properties, the anti-inflammatory property being one of these. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds with that of diclofenac sodium in albino rats. Method: This laboratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore. The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent formalin in a dose of 50 meu was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. Increase in paw diameter, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Results: Nigella sativa seeds extract caused significant (p<0.05) reduction in the paw inflammatory response in albino rats. The effect was longer in duration than the effect caused by diclofenac sodium; however, the extract was comparatively less potent than diclofenac sodium. The extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the total or differential leukocyte counts. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possesses potent anti-inflammatory effect, in albino rats however, this effect is comparatively less but prolonged than that produced by diclofenac sodium. (author)

  7. EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SWEET CORN SILK ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERTHYROIDISM IN SWISS ALBINO RATS

    Thoudam Bhaigyabati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant materials have been used as medicine for a wide variety of human ailments due to increase in cost of treatment, side effects of several allopathic drugs and development of resistance to currently used drugs for infectious diseases. In the present study, hyperthyroidism was induced to male Swiss albino rats orally using thyroxine for 14 days. The impact of methanolic extract of sweet corn silk in different concentrations (200, 300 & 400mg/kg for 21 days was assessed in these animals. The serum was analyzed for thyroid hormone level and lipid profile before and during the experiment. Results showed that 400mg/kg concentration of methanolic extract has the highest effectiveness which is equal to that of standard drug to revert the hyperthyroid condition in Swiss albino rats and were confirmed with the histopathological study of the thyroid gland.

  8. Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Heavy Metal (Nickel II and ChromiumVI) Induced Alteration of Serum Lipid Profile in Male Albino Rats

    Kusal K. Das; Dhundasi, Salim A; Swastika N. Das; Amrita Das Gupta

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effect of simultaneous oral treatment of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum) on heavy metal (nickel II and chromium VI) induced changes in serum lipid profile. Nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) level as well as decrease in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Simultaneous garl...

  9. Radiological and physiological studies on the role of some therapeutic agents used for internal decontamination of radionuclides from male albino rats

    With the earths increasing nuclear arsenal and the growing use of nuclear energy, the possibility of radiological accidents involving release of radioactive materials, internal contamination may consequently occurs via inhalation, ingestion or absorption of radioisotopes.Therefore, the present work was oriented to deal with four topics related to the internal decontamination of two of the most widely used isotopes, namely 134Cs and 60Co from contaminated rats:-In vitro study aimed to select agents that can strongly bind the two metal ions and elucidate the best conditions and the factors affecting this binding. The tested agents were bentonite, vermiculite and Prussian blue (PB). The sorption capacity of PB and vermiculite for both metal ions was high and equivalent to more than 1011 Bq 137Cs or 60Co per gram sorbent. As bentonite has lower capacity to both isotopes, further in vivo experiments were performed with PB and vermiculite.-In vivo studies, via 5 groups of rats, devoted to investigate the kinetics of excretion of 134Cs and/or 60Co from contaminated rats. The biological half lives of excretion, excretion stages for both isotopes and the effect of route of entry on the excretion were estimated.-In vivo studies aimed to investigate the effectiveness of PB + vermiculite and CaDTPA as therapeutic agents for accelerating the elimination of 134Cs and/or 60Co from contaminated rats. The study was performed via 6 groups of rats given different regimes of therapy. The results showed the high efficiency of PB + vermiculite for accelerating elimination of 134Cs and orally administrated 60Co while CaDTPA succeeded in accelerating intraperitoneally administrated 60Co. The study proved that oral administration of PB + vermiculite and injection with CaDTPA at the same time is very effective in accelerating elimination of both contaminants simultaneously.-The physiological studies aimed to evaluate the hazardous effects of 134Cs and/or 60Co incorporation and any side

  10. Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies of Paracetamol Infusion in Albino Wistar Rats

    Anurag Payasi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sub-acute toxicity of paracetamol infusion in albino wistar rats (male and female at different dose levels, ranging from 16 to 66 mg/kg body weight. No mortality was seen in any of the treatment groups during the course of study. Various physiological, hematological as well as biochemical parameters were studied and found not to be changed significantly, indicating that paracetamol infusion is non toxic even at higher dose level in wistar rats. Overall safety and tolerability profile of paracetamol infusion is proved good and does not appear to carry risk of serious adverse effects.

  11. Contraceptive efficacy of Plumbago zeylanica root extract (50% etoh) in male albino rats with special emphasis on testicular cell population dynamics

    Purohit, Ashok; Vyas, Surendra Kumar; Vyas, Keshav Bihari

    2008-01-01

    The administration of Plumbago zeylanica root (50% EtOH) extract to |intact rats at the dose of 150 mg/kg [body weight for 60 days caused arrest of spermatogenesis. The diameter of seminiferous tubules and Leydig cell nuclei were reduced. The production of spermatocytes (primary and secondary) and spermatids were significantly reduced (P£ 0.001; 83.57%, 89.69% and 69.47% respectively). The total number of immature and mature Leydig cells was significantly decreased (P£ 0.001; 68.62% and 71.14...

  12. Evaluation of antidiabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum in male Wistar albino rats

    Salwe, Kartik J.; Sachdev, Devender O.; Bahurupi, Yogesh; Kumarappan, Manimekalai

    2015-01-01

    Background: We investigated anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin induced diabetic Wister rats were used in this study consisting of seven groups of six animals each. Groups (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, (3) leaves extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (4) leaves extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (5) fruit peel extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, ...

  13. Oral toxicity of Madhuca butyracea Macb. saponins to albino rats.

    Lalitha, T; Vishwanatha, S; Venkataraman, L V

    1990-07-01

    Saponins, isolated from M. butyracea, were assessed for their acute and subacute oral toxicity in albino rats. Acute doses of saponins caused mortalities and LD50 and LD90 values were 330 and 430 mg/kg body wt respectively. Severe diarrhoea, restlessness and histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney. Diets containing saponins at 0,250,500 and 1000 ppm for 14 weeks did not affect food intake, growth or organ weights, but induced mild histological changes in liver and kidney and altered the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol and proteins, particularly in female rats. PMID:2272650

  14. Effect of noise stress on cardiovascular system in adult male albino rat: implication of stress hormones, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    Said, Mona A; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2016-07-01

    Noise pollution has been realized as an environmental stressor associated with modern life style that affects our health without being consciously aware of it. The present study investigated the effect of acute, chronic intermittent and chronic continuous exposure to noise of intensity 80-100 dB on heart rate and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Noise stress causes significant increase in heart rate, mean systemic arterial blood pressure as well as significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, endothelin-1, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and these values are significantly more worse in chronic continuous exposure to noise than acute or chronic intermittent exposure. These findings suggest that noise stress has many adverse effects on cardiovascular system via increasing plasma levels of stress hormones, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have major implication in the management of adverse cardiovascular reactions of people subjected to daily noise stress. PMID:27174896

  15. Combined Effect of heat stress and radiation exposure on levels of testosterone lactate dehydrogenase, total lipids and cholesterol in blood plasma and testicular tissue of male albino rats

    Hyperthermia and radiotherapy are used as relatively successful modalities in the treatment of some diseases. This work aims to gain a better understanding about the testicular physiological changes caused by a combined stress of heat and gamma radiation. Rats were divided into four groups : 1.Control, 2.Irradiated at a dose level 6 Gy, 3.Exposed to heat tress for one, 3, 5 and 7 days and group 4 exposed to heat tress as group 3 followed by irradiation directly at the end of heat treatment. Plasma levels of testosterone, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total lipids and total cholesterol, as well as, testicular content of total lipids and total cholesterol were detected. Results showed that irradiation (6 Gy) induced significant decreases (P<0.001) in plasma testosterone level, whereas, it elevated significantly the plasma levels of LDH activity and total cholesterol. The heat stress caused significant declines in plasma testosterone , LDH (after 1, 3 and 5 days) and total lipids, but not testicular content of total lipids. Conversely, it increased the rectal temperature and both, plasma and testicular tissue content of total cholesterol levels. The whole-body gamma irradiation direcrly post heat stress intervals boosted the heat stress effect on all the examined parameters. Hence it could be concluded that exposure to whole-body gamma irradiation in high ambient temperatures diminished the testicular function by decreasing the sexual hormone testosterone although its precursor cholesterol increased in both plasma and testicular tissue. This combined treatment seemed to block the mechanism of testosterone formation in testicular tissue, and in turn, decresed its levels in plasma. Further investigations are needed to study such combined effect of heat stress andirradiation on the testicular potency and the testicular function

  16. Attenuation of the Disruptive Effect induced by the Insecticide Fenvalerate on Total Monoamine Content and Testosterone Level in Adult Male Albino Rats Using Salvia aegyptiaca Extract

    Administration of fenvalerate (90 mg/kg) to rats resulted in a significant decrease in dopamine (OA) content in most of brain areas under investigation. Its content in pons + medulla oblongata was the most affected recording - 62.98 %, on day 7, compared to control. Furthermore, norepinephrine (NE) content gradually decreased in different brain areas showing its maximal decrease in cerebellum with percentage change -64.89% on day 7. Serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) showed maximal significant decrease, in the cortex with percentage differences -78.33 and -72.61%, respectively. Similarly, fen valerate resulted in a gradual decrease in serum testosterone level recording its maximal effect (-46. 58 %) at the end of the experimental period. On the other hand, administration of Salvia aegyptiaca (2 g/kg) caused a significant increase in monoamine contents (DA, NE, 5-HT and 5- HlAA) in most of the brain areas under investigation, throughout the experimental period. Moreover, Salvia extract administration resulted in a significant elevation in serum testosterone level, one day after administration, recording its maximal effect (55.75%) on day 7. Animals that received the combined treatment (Salvia extract one hour after fen valerate administration) showed that monoamine contents in most of the brain areas were more or less near to the control values. Furthermore, no significant change was noticed in serum testosterone level throughout the experiment in the combined treatment. From the present study, it can be concluded that Salvia aegyptiaca extract seems to be potentially promising for attenuating the disruption that occurred in monoamine and testosterone levels. This could highly recommend Salvia aegyptiaca to be a potential herb for further studies in the future for extracting compounds of medical use

  17. [Thoracic duct valves in man and albino rat].

    Petrenko, V M; Kruglov, S V

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the number, structure and position of valves along the whole length of thoracic duct in man and albino rat. The study was performed using the material obtained from 30 human corpses of men and women aged 17 to 60 years with no history of cardiovascular pathology and from 60 outbred albino rats of both sexes aged 5 to 12 months. Material was fixed in 10% neutral formalin. Anterior wall of thoracic duct was longitudinally dissected. Thoracic duct of 30 rats was stained with gallocyanin-chrome alum, in the remaining animals it was studied after its injection with blue Gerota's mass. In most cases, the valves consisted of two semilunar cusps. Thoracic duct was found to contain on the average 14.7+/-0.2 valves in man and 11.9+/-0.2 valves in rat. Most of all valves were found in the upper (anterior) 1/3 of the thoracic duct, least--in its middle part. This seems to be determined by anatomo-topographic features of the different parts of thoracic duct. PMID:15839250

  18. Biochemical Effects of Energy Drinks Alone or in Combination with Alcohol in Normal Albino Rats

    Emmanuel Ike Ugwuja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the biochemical effects of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol in normal albino rats. Methods: Twenty male albino rats weighing 160-180g were assigned into groups A-E of four rats per group. Group A and B rats were given low and high doses of ED, respectively, groups C and D were administered low and high doses of EDmA, respectively while group E rats were given distilled water and served as control. The treatment lasted for 30 days after which the animals were killed and their blood collected for laboratory analyses using standard methods. Results: There were no significant differences in body weight, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration with either administration of ED or EDmA in comparison to the control. Energy drink alone or EDmA has significant effects on total white blood cell count, plasma potassium, calcium, renal functions, liver enzymes and plasma triglycerides, with EDmA having more effects than ED alone, except for body weight where the energy drink alone has higher effect. Conclusion: Consumption of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol is associated with significant alterations in some biochemical parameters. Caution should be exercised while consuming either of them. Public health education is urgently needed to correct the wrong impression already formed by the unsuspecting consumers, especially the youths.

  19. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  20. COMBINED EFFECT OF WATER CONTAMINATION WITH COBALT AND NICKEL ON METABOLISM OF ALBINO (WISTAR) RATS

    Z. Kechrid, F. Dahdouh, R. M. Djabar, N. Bouzerna

    2006-01-01

    The contamination of water by metal compounds is a worldwide environmental problem. Concentration of metals is widely related to biochemical values, which are used in diseases diagnosis due to environmental toxicity. The sub-chronic combined effects of nickel and cobalt on body weight gain and biochemical parameters were determined and compared with those of Ni (2+) or Co (2+) alone in 6 weeks male albino (Wistar) rats. Animals were given drinking solutions of NiSO4 6H2O [Ni (II) cation, LD50...

  1. Erythropoietin-Like Effects of Dihydroartemisinin in Wistar Albino Rats

    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day and 7-day oral Dihydroartemisinin (DHA treatments with 5 dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin on the blood and six vital organs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The dosages of DHA tested on 5 test adult Wistar albino rats (weight = 106-140 grams were 1, 2, 60 or 80 mg Kg-1 rat weight of DHA by oral intubation for 5 or 7 days. Four rats of similar weight which served as controls in each experiment were given distilled water equivalents of the administered doses of DHA. Another group of 5 test rats and four control rats (weight 75-90 gms were given 1 mg kg-1 rat weight of DHA or distilled water for 5 or 7 days and were allowed to rest for one week after which the treatment was repeated. Results: The findings of the study showed that Dihydroartemisinin (DHA had erythropoietin-like properties. In the study DHA produced dose, repetition and time dependent statistically significant increases in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: This result suggested that the administered DHA inhibited its own stimulated statistically significant increases in the PCV and the WBC of the treated rats through an inhibitory (negative feed-back effect. The structure and composition of the blood cell types like the presence of large numbers of reticlocytes and left-shifted neutrophils in the blood samples of 5-day DHA -treated rats but not in those of 7-day DHA treated rats indicated that new haemopoiesis was actively going on in the first 5 days of DHA treatment but had slowed down

  2. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats

    Ashok Iyyaswamy; Sheeladevi Rathinasamy

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  3. The protective role of damsissa (Ambroosia Maritima) against gamma irradiation in albino rats

    The present work was directed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with damsissa (Ambrosia maritima) for thirty consecutive days pre- irradiation exposure in controlling the post-irradiation hazards in irradiated rats. Male albino rats (Spraue Dowley strain) weighing about 120+- 10 g were used and blood samples were collected from tails of animals thirty days after treatment with damsissa and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysis such as liver functions, kidney function and lipid profile. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant decrease in the contents of total proteins accompanied by significant increase of urea level as recorded on the 7th days post irradiation. Data obtained in this study revealed that whole body gamma irradiation induced significant elevation in all tested blood lipid functions. There was significant increase of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) whole alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed statistical significant decrease as compared with the control group. Damisissa (Ambrosia maritima) treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of damsissa may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  4. Biochemical Effects Of Ribavirin (Antiviral And Ddb (Hepato Protective Drugs In Albino Rats

    Soliman S. Ibrahim, Amr Shalaby and Mahmoud Rabeh

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been designed to through spot light on the efficiency of these two drugs in treatment of hepatitis patients. Cortisol, antigliadin (1gG , total protein (TP albumin (ALB , Iron (Fe , alanine aminotransferase (ALT , aspartic aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were determined in serum of normal mature male and female albino rats that injected intraperitoneally day after day with 1mg/kg body weight of each drug separately for 3 months. The cortisol level and ALP showed significant increase in each of ribavirin or DDB treated animals, while the IgG concentration in ribavirin treated animals increased significantly, but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animals. On the other hand both ribavirin and DDB treated male and female rats showed significant decrease in the ALT in serum while serum AST elicited non significant decrease in each of ribavirin and DDB treated male and female. With respect to serum TP and ALB levels the result showed significant decrease in ribavirin and non significant decrease in DDB treated male and female rats. Furthermore, the serum Fe level in ribavirin treated male and female rats increased significantly but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animal.

  5. Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis

    Anbalagan, T

    2009-01-01

    A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with...

  6. Impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome in albino rats

    R.S. Al-Naemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulative reports documented that oxidative stress is implicated in many human and animal diseases. However, the reports concerning the effect of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome are limited and scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome and to assess the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and E on oxidative stress parameters in blood and placental tissue samples in experimental pregnant animals model exposed to oxidative stress. Wister Albino rats were used in this work to investigate the effects of oxidative stress exposure (addition of H2O2 to the drinking water on pregnancy outcome. Rats were divided into 5 groups, as follows: Group I (included 7 normal pregnant rats which served as control group. Group II (exposed to 1 % H2O2 included 7 pregnant rats, the rats were allowed to become pregnant and received (1% H2O2 in drinking water from day 7th till the day 19th of pregnancy. Group III (exposed to 3% H2O2 included 8 pregnant rats. Same as group 2, but the rats were exposed to a higher concentration of H2O2 (3% in drinking water. Group IV (included 8 pregnant rats. Pregnant rats received vitamins C and E without induction of oxidative stress. Group V (included 8 pregnant rats.induction of oxidative stress by 1% H2O2 with vitamins supplementation in the pregnant rats. Serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC, serum and placental tissue oxidative stress biomarker; 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-Isoprostane were measured using specific ELISA kits. Also placental tissues of pregnant rats were isolated and put directly in 10% formalin prepared for histopathological examination. Results revealed a significant decrease in the median values of the body weight and total serum antioxidants capacity (TAC in groups II and III of rats compared with the control group. A significant higher median value of TAC obtained in the groups IV and V when compared with the control group. Significant higher

  7. Effect of Some Antioxidants on the Physical Fitness of Albino Rats

    In recent years, more attention has been paid for searching of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in either medicinal practice or as food raw materials. The aim of the present research is to assess the effect of several well-known products used as antioxidants, on body weight, haemopoesis, endocrine system and lipid profile in normal albino rats. Thirty male adult albino rats were equally arranged into 5 groups, the first group was served as control and the others received special treatments where taurine (2% in drinking water), tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w. orally), hawthorn extract (50 mg/100 g b.w. orally) and coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg b.w. orally) were given for two months. Body weight was regularly recorded twice a week and at the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) content, reticulocytic count, white blood cell count (WBCs) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were estimated in blood, while, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), Testosterone, and corticosterone hormones besides lipid profile were estimated in the serum. The results denoted that although there is a slight improvement in the parameters tested, it does not deserve the coast of the regular use of these antioxidants and further investigations still needed

  8. Effect of Some Food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products) of Young Albino RatsI- Liver and Kidney Functions

    Eman G.E. Helal * Samir A.M. Zaahkouk

    2000-01-01

    Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll) and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow), food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect m...

  9. Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-Induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Abu El-Saad, Abdelaziz S.; Mahmoud, Hamada M.

    2009-01-01

    The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6) in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1) treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) throughout treatment a...

  10. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Induced Diabetic Keratopathy in Albino Rat

    Zickri, Maha Baligh; Ahmad, Nagwa Abdel Wahab; Maadawi, Zeinab Mohamad El; Mohamady, Yasmin Kamal; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prevalent disorder. Diabetic keratopathy is a well-known ocular complication secondary to type 2 DM. Topical insulin application did not affect apoptosis and necrosis levels in corneal epithelium. Autologous cell transplantation is not a viable option for diabetic patients with bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency. The present study aimed at assessing the possible effect of hemopoeitic stem cell (HSC) therapy on induced diabetic keratopathy in albino rat. Methods and Results: Fifteen male albino rats were divided into control group of 2 rats, diabetic group of 8 rats receiving single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). 3 animals were sacrificed 6 weeks following confirmation of diabetes to confirm keratopathy and 5 rats were sacrificed 4 weeks following confirmation of keratopathy. SC therapy group included 5 rats injected with HSCs 6 weeks following confirmation of diabetes and sacrificed 4 weeks following SC therapy. Cord blood collection, stem cells isolation and labeling were performed. Eye specimens were subjected to histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, morphometric and statistical studies. In diabetic group, the central cornea showed multiple cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and dark nuclei, focal epithelial discontinuity, reduced corneal thickness and less number of layers of corneal and conjunctival epithelia. In stem cell therapy group, few cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and dark nuclei were found in the corneal and conjunctival epithelia with more number of epithelial layers. Conclusions: A definite ameliorating effect of HSC therapy was detected on diabetic keratopathy. The therapeutic cells were effective in limiting corneal epithelial changes. PMID:24298355

  11. Effect of cow urine on wound healing property in Wister Albino Rats

    V.P. Tikare.,Paniraj K.L and Swetha R

    Full Text Available The wound healing activity of cow urine was studied in Wistar albino rats. The efficacy of wound healing property was evaluated by excision wound model. The parameter studied was the rate of wound contraction. The studies on excision wound healing revealed that all the groups showed decreased wound area from day to day. On day 4th, the external application of urine showed significant increase in wound healing in male and female rats compared to all other groups. However, on 14th post wounding day, Group I and VIII animals showed 0 % and 0.40.4 % of healing was left, which may be due to normal immunity of the animals. Where as nitrofurazone treated animals showed 0 % and 0.50.3 % healing .The study revealed that the cow urine on external application to the wound, hastened the wound healing process. [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000: 317-321

  12. Effect of co-administration of voglibose and vildagliptin on diabetic albino rats

    Umashanker PD Keshri

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Vildagliptin and voglibose are effective in lowering blood glucose level in albino diabetic rats but their combination has potentiating effect. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1533-1538

  13. HAIR GROWTH POTENTIAL OF EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN. PLANT EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATS

    Bhaiji Amrita; Patil Umesh Kumar; Dave Suchi; Jain Arvind; Sahoo Himanshu Bhusan

    2012-01-01

    Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae) is traditionally used for its hair growth promoting activity in rural community of Indian sub-continent. Studies were therefore carried out to evaluate petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous base and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats for thirty days. The time required for hair growth initiation and completion ...

  14. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE IN DEXAMETHASONE INDUCED INSULIN RESISTANCE IN ALBINO RATS

    Hemanth Kumar V, Nagendra Nayak IM , Shobha V Huilgol, Saeed M Yendigeri , Narendar K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gymnema sylvestre plant was widely used for medicinal purpose. The plant leaves were traditionally used to treat diabetes. Aim: To determine the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf aqueous extract against dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Materials and M...

  15. Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in Wistar albino rats

    Shatavisa Mukherjee; Sukanta Sen; Arunava Biswas; Tapan Kumar Barman; Santanu Kumar Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into f...

  16. The protective effect of L-tryptophan versus alpha lipoic acid against L-arginine-induced experimental acute pancreatitis in albino rats

    Lamia M. Farghaly* , Nagwan A. Sabak ** and Naglaa A. El-sherbeny

    2007-01-01

    Aim of the study: This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effects of L- treptophan "a precursor of melatonin" and alpha lipoic acid against L- arginine-induced experimental acute pancreatitis in albino rats. Methods: Fourty adult male albino rats (200- 250g) were randomized into 4 groups (n= 10). Group I, the control group was given 0.9% saline intraperitoneally (i.p). Group II, was given 500 mg/100g L-arginine (i.p) as a single dose to induce acute pancreatitis. Group...

  17. Micronuclei frequency in albino rats exposed to high natural radiation

    Genotoxicity and DNA damage endpoints are used to evaluate results in the context of cell survival. Genotoxicity in mammalian cells is monitored mostly by using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The score of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used as a biomarker and also as a bio-dosimeter of radiation exposure. In the present study the effect of natural radiation on albino rats has been investigated, to find out if there is any increase in MN frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Animals at the age of 2-3 weeks were exposed to natural radiation, at the dose of 10.38 μGyh-1 for a period of 6 months. A parallel control set was also maintained (0.12 μGy h-1'). Blood samples were collected from both test (exposed to natural radiation) and control rats. Lymphocyte culture was done following 'microculture techniques' for 72 h. Cytochalasin B, at a concentration of 6.0 μg/ml, was added to the lymphocyte cultures at 44 h to block cytokinesis. The frequency of MN was evaluated by scoring a total of 1000 binucleated (BN) cells from one slide. The frequency of MN among the rats exposed to natural radiation was found to be 1.83±0.05 per 1000 BN cells and in the control it was 1.82±0.07 per 1000 BN cells. No statistically significant difference in the MN frequencies of exposed and control groups (p>0.05) was seen. The lower MN frequency in natural radiation exposed rats could be an indication of adaptive response. (author)

  18. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF VIRGIN OLIVE OIL ( OLEA EUROPEA L.) AGAINST OXIDATIVE DAMAGE INDUCED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE IN RAT ALBINOS WISTAR

    Necib, Youcef; Bahi, Ahlem; Zerizer, Sakina; Abdennour, Cherif; Boulakoud, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage), mercuric chloride (0....

  19. Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L.) Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

    Youcef Necib; Ahlem Bahi; Sakina Zerizer; Cherif Abdennour; Mohamed Salah Boulakoud

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage), mercuric chloride (0....

  20. Effects of Junk Foods on Brain Neurotransmitters (Dopamine and Serotonin) and some Biochemical Parameters in Albino Rats

    Nutritional Habits have changed significantly and junk foods have become widely popular, in recent years. The present study aimed to shed the light on the effect of potato chips and / or ketchup consumption on some biochemical parameters. Sixty four male and female albino rats were used in the study. Animals were maintained on 0.25 g potato chips/ rat and / or 0.125 g ketchup / rat, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Potato chips showed the lowest body wt gain in the male rats after 4 weeks but, ketchup modulated this negative effect of the potato chips in the group of male animals fed on potato chips plus ketchup. Potato chips significantly decreased brain serotonin, liver glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in both sexes; brain dopamine, serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, α2- and β1-globulins in the females and serum thyroxine (T4) in the male rats. Ketchup apparently affected serum T4 and A / G ratio in both sexes, brain dopamine and liver GSH in the males in addition to brain serotonin, serum total globulins and ?1-globulin in the female rats. Potato chips plus ketchup significantly changed T4, dopamine, GSH, CAT, α1 and α2-globulins in both sexes; serotonin and β1-globulin in the male rats, total proteins and albumin in the females. It could be concluded that potato chips consumption might induce numerous adverse effects in various body organs

  1. Influence of pesticides on thyroid gland activity in male rats

    The plasma levels of T3, T4 and TSH were determined following daily administrations of 1/10 LD50 of metacide (organophoshosphorus) or methavine (carbamate or metoxuron (herbicide) pesticides in male albino rats for 45 days. At the end of the experiment, significant increase of body weights were observed in rats treated with metacide or metoxuron while methavine led to significant decreased TSH secretion. Metoxuron caused significant decrease in both T3 and T4 levels in plasma and metacide increased T3 and increased T4 levels in plasma of male rats

  2. Possible Protective Effect Of Quercetin Against 1,4-Dioxane And Gamma Radiation Induced Oxidative Stress In Male Albino Rats Key words: Quercetin, 1,4-Dioxane, Irradiated rats

    Quercetin, a bioflavonoid, is frequently found in consumed foods including apples, berries, onion, tea and vegetables. Quercetin has many beneficial effects on human health including cardiovascular protection, anti-cancer activity, cataract prevention, anti-viral activity and anti inflammatory effects. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the radio-protective properties of quercetin in gamma irradiated rat and the toxic effect of administration of 1,4-dioxane as well as the efficacy of quercetin as one of the most important antioxidant flavonoid in diet. At the 3rd and 10th days after the last dose of dioxane injection (one month) and radiation exposure (6 Gy, fractionated), the biochemical analysis in the serum showed significant elevation in lipid peroxide content (MDA), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) accompanied by significant depletion in glutathione (GSH). Also, the results showed significant increase in the level of DNA fragmentation in liver tissues of rats. Supplementation of quercetin to rats before and during exposure to gamma radiation and/or administration of 1,4-dioxane induced significant amelioration in the levels of all studied parameters. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that quercetin might provide a protection against oxidative stress and metabolic disorders induced by gamma irradiation and 1,4-dioxane.

  3. Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis

    T. Anbalagan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with seaweed diet evidenced theiractive participation on the metabolism of the experimental subject. These findings w ere well correlated w ithhistological observation in the liver and intestine shows the hepatocyte appearance and deposited fat and fociat necrosis is also seen in photomicrographs.

  4. Evaluation of Carrot Pomace (Daucus carota L. as Hypocholesterolemic and Hypolipidemic Agent on Albino Rats

    Abd El-Moneim M.R. AFIFY

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the attenuating influence of dietary carrot pomace powder (CaPP on hypercholesterolemia and various oxidative stress-associated with biochemical parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty two male albino rats weighing 110±10 g were divided into four groups, the first group received the basal diet only and served as (negative control, the second group received the hypercholesterolemic diet and served as positive control, the other groups received hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 10%, 20% CaPP for six weeks. The obtained results revealed that groups supplemented with 10% and 20% CaPP significantly decrease total lipid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, liver enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase compared to positive and negative groups. Organs weight, body weight gain significantly decreased compared with positive control. Moreover dietary carrot pomace powder can used to reduce the body weight and reducing hypercholesterolemic complications. In addition, dietary carrot pomace powder serves to improve the blood picture and to reduce the blood glucose level in hypercholesterolemic rats and could use in obese people for body loss. Data of kidney function (Urea record an increase in CaPP 20% level (26.9±2.96 but this increase was non significant with the negative control group (26.6±3.1.

  5. Effectiveness of grape seed extract on gamma radiation-induced hazards in albino rats

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential

  6. Garlic and alpha lipoic supplementation enhance the immune system of albino rats and alleviate implications of pesticides mixtures

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Darwish, Nevine S.; Shokry, Dina A; El-Aal, Aly GE Abd; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, Abd-Alhamed; Ziada, Reem M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate age dependent immune-system response versus exposure to different doses of mixture of (chlorpyrifos, profenofose, and fenitrothion) and/or combined with 60 and 250 mg kg-1 alpha lipoic acid and garlic, respectively. 120 males of albino rats were divided to two groups according to age; weaning group (2 months age and 60-80 gm.), adult (6 months and 180-200 gm). Each age was divided into 6 subgroups treated orally for 3 months , G1 (control), G2 high dose (HDPM) ...

  7. Effects of Crude Extract of Ageratum Conyzoides, Moringa Oleifera and Zanthoxylum Zanthoxyloides on Serum Lipid Profile in Albino Rats

    OYEWOLE O.I.; ADEBAYO A.G.; OGUNSAKIN S.M

    2012-01-01

    Ageratum conyzoides, Moringa oleifera and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides are among medicinal plants commonly used in African folk medicine as remedies for the treatments of high blood pressure and heart related diseases. This study was carried out to compare the effects of Ageratum conyzoides, Moringa oleifera and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides extracts on serum lipid profile in albino rats. Thirty five albino rats were grouped into seven each containing five rats. Control rats (Group 1) received dis...

  8. Histological and Physiological Alterations Induced by Thermal Neutron Fluxes in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    This work was performed to investigate the biological effects of different thermal neutron fluxes (0.27x108, 0.52X108, 1.089X108, 2.16X108 and 4.32X108) on liver and kidney of male mice using neutron irradiation cell with Ra-Be(α,n) 3 mCi neutron source Leybold (55930). Exposed to various fluxes of thermal neutron induced a dramatic alterations in hepatic and renal functions as indicated by biochemical estimation of several parameters (bilirubin, SGT, and alkaline phosphate .Urea , total protein, and albumin) and confirmed by histological examinations Thermal neutron exposure induces marked increase in the serum activities of total bilirubin, alanine amino transaminase (ALT or GPT), and alkaline phosphate, whereas, urea, total protein and albumin showed marked decline as compared to control group. The physiological changes induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. Histopathological results revealed mild to severe type of necrosis, and degenerative changes in liver and kidney of male mice exposed to thermal neutron fluxes. Also it was found that the histopathological alterations induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. It was found that exposed to thermal neutron fluxes irradiation plays prominent role in the development of the physiological alterations in male Swiss albino mice. The Former up normalities as a result of the sequence events followed interaction of radiation with the former biological mater (liver and kidney) of male Swiss albino mice, which are, physical, physicochemical, chemical, and biological stages.

  9. EFFECT OF AMLODIPINE ON ORAL GLUCOSE INDUCED GLYCEMIC CHANGES IN NORMAL ALBINO RATS

    Dr. Sushma V. Naidu et al

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of amlodipine on blood glucose levels through oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic albino Rats and the magnitude of its effect on basal v/s glucose induced glycemic value compared to control.Methods: Rats were divided into control and test groups to study the effect of glucose induced glycemic changes in normal rats following oral administration of amlodipine. The control group received 1 ml of distilled water everyday, test group received amlo...

  10. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress

  11. Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

  12. EFFECT OF IMIDACLOPRID ON THE BIOCHEMICAL CONTENTS OF KIDNEYS IN MALE SWISS ALBINO MICE

    M. NAGA PRASANNA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F of male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus albinus were orally administered withvaried doses (0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg bw/mouse of imidacloprid; they showed significant decreasein protein, DNA and RNA content in the kidneys of all the treated groups of mice throughout the experimentalperiod (on day 1, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 30 of treatment when compared with controls. It is clear from the results thatthe insecticide caused marked disturbance in the metabolism of protein, DNA and RNA.

  13. The acute lethal dose 50 (LD50) of caffeine in albino rats.

    Adamson, Richard H

    2016-10-01

    An acute LD50 is a statistically derived amount of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of the animals when given by a specified route as a single dose and the animals observed for a specified time period. Although conducting routine acute toxicity testing in rodents has been criticized, it can serve useful functions and also have practical implications. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) will reflect the acute toxicity of a substance and may require workers to wear protective gear, if appropriate, based on the LD50. There is no information in the scientific published literature which calculates a mean LD50 and standard deviation for caffeine administered orally to rats, using studies performed under good laboratory practice (GLP) or equivalent. This report does that and should be useful to manufacturers, packagers, transporters and regulators of this material. Using data from studies that are reproducible and reliable, the most accurate estimate of the acute LD50 of caffeine administered orally in male albino rats is hereby reported to be 367/mg/kg. PMID:27461039

  14. ANTI IMPLANTATION AND PREGNANCY INTERRUPTION ACTIVITY OF JAPAKUSUMA (HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS IN ALBINO RATS

    Kashinath Hadimur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in population has affected many socio-economic conditions of people by increasing crimes, illiteracy, destructive activities, diseases, improper food and shelter. Thus to control this population and limit the family size at a personal level and at a national level, modern contraceptive methods and medicines were introduced long back. There are many new contraceptives available now, but they have various side effects. Some traditional practitioners used to dispense oral contraceptives mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Such as 1 Pippali (Piper longum, Vidanga (Emblica ribes and Tankana (Sodii Biboras. 2 Talisapatra (Taxus baccata and Gairika (Hematite with cold water and 3 Kanji bhavita Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis. An experimental study on above mentioned 1 and 2 formulations has proved its efficacy as temporary contraceptive medicine. To evaluate the permanent or long term temporary contraceptive effect of Japakusuma, an attempt was made in this study. Study was conducted by Choudary and Khanna method on 18 female, 36 male (for mating albino rats. Japakusuma, Propylene glycol, Ovral L formed the materials. Single dose was administered on proestrous stage of rat oestrous cycle and observed for anti-implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Test drug showed significant anti implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Thus showing the temporary contraceptive activity of Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis.

  15. COMBINED EFFECT OF WATER CONTAMINATION WITH COBALT AND NICKEL ON METABOLISM OF ALBINO (WISTAR RATS

    Z. Kechrid, F. Dahdouh, R. M. Djabar, N. Bouzerna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of water by metal compounds is a worldwide environmental problem. Concentration of metals is widely related to biochemical values, which are used in diseases diagnosis due to environmental toxicity. The sub-chronic combined effects of nickel and cobalt on body weight gain and biochemical parameters were determined and compared with those of Ni (2+ or Co (2+ alone in 6 weeks male albino (Wistar rats. Animals were given drinking solutions of NiSO4 6H2O [Ni (II cation, LD50/2] or CoSO4 6H2O [Co (II cation, LD50/2]. For the combined treatment (Ni + Co, the rats received both Ni (II cation (LD 50/2 and CO (II cation (LD50/2. Nickel and cobalt treatment decreased body weight gain. The nickel sulphate increased also the glucose level. The two heavy elements produced hepatic and renal damage, characterized by increased activity of alanine and aspartate transaminases (GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase. However lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH was decreased. In addition, serum urea, serum creatinine, serum total protein and serum bilurebin concentrations were significantly elevated. In general the combined effect of Ni-Co was slightly less toxic than nickel or cobalt alone, suggesting antagonism between these toxicants.

  16. A comparative study on the susceptibility of male and female albino mice to Trypanosoma brucei brucei

    A.A. Turay, G.O. Nwobu, G.R.A. Okogun, C.U. Igwe, K. Adeyeye, K.E. Aghatise, H.O. Okpal & Y.M. Tatfeng

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Trypanosomiasis has remained a major set-back in the development oflivestock farming in tropical Africa. Thus the need for ascertaining the trypanotolerant levels ofdomestic animal breeds and possible improvement on them cannot be over-emphasised.Methods: Level of trypanotolerance in animals was compared between sexes using albino mice infectedwith a Nigerian strain of Trypanosoma brucei brucei at a 50% mouse lethal dose (MLD50.Results: The male mice showed unrestrained parasite growth with a prepatent period (PP of two daysand a mean survival period (MSP of six days corresponding to a gradual decrease in packed cellvolume (PCV, body weight, diet response and white blood cells (WBC count to the time of death.Their female counterparts showed a PP of three days and MSP of ten days with a similar PCV gradientbut a refractory WBC count. There was no significant difference in the differential leucocytes countin both sexes. However, the eosinophils count was significantly higher in the infected animals. It wasfound that female albino mice exercised more parasite restraint than their male counterparts.Interpretation & conclusion: The result suggests that the female animals may be more trypanotoleranthence may be more useful in protein production in trypanosomiasis endemic areas. However, furtherresearch using large domestic breeds like goats and sheep may be required to confirm the hypothesis.

  17. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice. PMID:26823062

  18. Effect of imatinib on the biochemical parameters of the reproductive function in male Swiss albino mice

    A M Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001 reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia.

  19. Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of Plumbago rosea leaves in female albino rats

    Sheeja E; Joshi S; Jain D

    2009-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the effect of petroleum ether (60-80), chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Plumbago rosea leaves on the estrous cycle and to identify the estrogenic activity of active acetone and ethanol extracts in female albino rats. Methods : Plant extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at two dose levels: 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The effective acetone and ethanol extracts were further studied on estrogenic activity in rats. Histologica...

  20. Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of Plumbago rosea leaves in female albino rats

    Sheeja, E.; Joshi, S.B.; D. C. Jain

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of petroleum ether (60–80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Plumbago rosea leaves on the estrous cycle and to identify the estrogenic activity of active acetone and ethanol extracts in female albino rats. Methods: Plant extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at two dose levels: 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The effective acetone and ethanol extracts were further studied on estrogenic activity in rats. Histological ...

  1. Toxicity assessment of ethanol extract of Solanum villosum (Mill) on wistar albino rats.

    Venkatesh R; Kalaivani K; Vidya R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential toxicity of ethanol extract of the medicinal plant Solanum villosum (Mill). Methods: Ethanol extract of S. villosum administered orally at ranges of doses 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg/bw to assess its impact on biochemical indices of Wistar albino rats. Hematological profile, biochemical assays, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation assays were compared between control and experimental animals. An acute toxicity test was performed in rats at different co...

  2. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ROLE OF SODIUM SELENITE AGAINST OXIDATIVE DAMAGE INDUCED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE IN RAT ALBINOS WISTAR

    Youcef Necib; Ahlem Bahi; Sakina Zerizer; Cherif Abdennour; Mohamed Salah Boulakoud

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was undertaken, to evaluate the protective effect of sodium selenite against mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in experimental rats. Female Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: sodium selenite (1mg/ kg b.w; ip), mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg body weight i.p) and combination of sodium selenite and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobar...

  3. Effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression in male albino Rattus norvegicus

    Tabassum Imrana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 g. The effect of O. sanctum and C. sinensis was evaluated for anxiety and depression using elevated plus maze (EPM test, open field test (OFT, forced swim test (FST, and tail suspension test (TST. Result : Restraint stress (3 h/day for six consecutive days induced a significant reduction in both the percentage number of entries and time spent in open arms in EPM, and these changes were reversed with post-treatment of aqueous extract of O. sanctum and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg for 6 days. Restraint stress-induced (a increased latency and (b decreased ambulation and rearing were also reversed by O. sanctum and C. sinensis in OFT. A significant increase in immobility period was observed in FST and TST after restraint stress. O. sanctum and C. sinensis significantly reduced the immobility times of rats in FST and TST. Conclusion : O. sanctum and C. sinensis possess anxiolytic and antidepressant activities.

  4. Physiological Effect Of Peri winkle (C.roseus On Diabetic Albino Rat

    Eman G.E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab*, Atef M. moussa** and Anwaar A. Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major health problem worldwide in recent time. Asia and Africa are the most viable areas where the disease is feared to raise 2–3 folds. Many herbal products have been recommended for the treatment of DM in ancient literature of Ayurveda in India and other worldwide.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Catharanthus rosea (C.roseus on diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic C.roseus treated groups. After thirty days of treatment all rats of each group were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid and protein profiles, liver and kidney functions, blood picture and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. Pancreatic samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with heamatoxylin and eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the islets of Langerhans.Results: The obtained results showed that the diabetic rats were diagnosed by laboratory assessment to body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia, significant increase in liver and kidney functions, lipid and protein profiles and decreased liver glycogen content. While, C.roseus treatment led to a significant improvement in these parameters except liver function. Microscopically there was definite vaculation, degeneration, karyolysis and pyknosis of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of C.roseus treatment of this study greatly improves such cellular changes.Conclusion: It was recommended that the use of the water extract of C. roseus levies as a hypoglycemic agent may offer a new hope to the diabetics in future. It

  5. Intrathecal Ketorolac Injection in Albino Rats;Pharmacological and Histological study

    Tarek A. Atia, **Mostafa I. Shalaby, ***Nemat M. Al-Baz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ketorolac tromethamine is a potent injectable non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID. Ketorolac provides successful analgesia after intrathecal or epidural injection. It is frequently used to manage post-operative pain, cancer pain, and arthritis either intrathecally, or intramuscular. However, its long term administration could induce renal toxicity and/or gastro-intestinal ulceration. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to assess the analgesic potency of ketorolac after intrathecal injection. Also, we aimed to study the histological effect of ketorolac on the spinal cord and the duodenum after treatment in an animal model. Methods: 40 adult male albino rats, weighing 250-350 gm, were used and divided into 4 groups, 10 rats each. Group S (control received 10l normal saline intrathecally, group K50 received 50g ketorolac intrathecally, group K50 + omeprazole (proton pump inhibitor received 50g ketorolac intrathecally plus 0.2 mg omeprazole orally, and finally, group K100 received 100g ketorolac intrathecally. All animals were treated for four successive days. Result: The rat tail flick latency was longer in K50, K50 + omeprazole, and K100 groups when compared to normal control (P = 0.002. Also, the hind-paw withdrawal latency was longer in treated groups when compared to those of the control group (P = 0.0001. Moreover, K50 group showed decreased phase II response by 61%, K50 + omeprazole group showed decreased phase II by 62%, while K100 group showed decreased it by 76%. Histological examination revealed no changes in the spinal cord of all treated animals. Also, examination of the duodenum showed normal duodenal mucosa in group K50 and those of group K50 + omeprazole. On the other hand, cellular infiltration as well as destruction of the mucous acini have been noticed in the duodenum of K100 group. Conclusion: Ketorolac could be a good alternative drug used intrathecally to manage pain.

  6. Acute Effect of Fansidar and Antioxidant Vitamin C Co- administration on Serum Lipid profile of Wistar Albino Rats

    Dasofunjo Kayode

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of the lipid profile of fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C co-administration in albino wistar rats.Methodology: Thirty (30 Wistar albino rats ranging from 175-200g were randomly assigned into six (6 study groups of five (5 rats each Viz: I, II, III, IV, V and VI of ten rats per group. Group I served as male control group. Group II served as female control group. Group III served as male fansidar alone treated group. Group IV served as female fansidar alone treated group. Group V served as male fansidar and Vitamin C treated group while group VI served as female fansidar and vitamin C treated group. Each rat was housed in a wooden cage. The animal room was ventilated and kept at room temperature and relative humidity of 29°c and 40-70% respectively with 12 hours natural light-dark cycle and were allowed free access to food and water ad libitum. Good hygiene was maintained by constant cleaning and removal of faeces and spilled from cages daily. Rats in all groups were weighed daily and sacrificed 24hours after the experimental periods of 14 days of oral administration and the serum were collected for lipid profile determination. Results: The body weight parameters of both male and female albino rats, showed significant increase (P<0.05 in both the control groups and fansidar + Vitamin C treated group when compared with their initial weights while the group treated with fansidar alone, showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in weight when compared with the initial weight for both genders. Likewise, the fansidar treated groups showed a significant increase (P<0.05 in serum cholesterol when compared with the control while the fansidar + Vitamin C treated group showed no significant difference in total serum cholesterol when compared with the control. The group treated with fansidar alone showed a significant decrease in serum HDL when compared with the control while the group treated with fansidar + Vitamin C showed a significant

  7. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 10th weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  8. Microscopic Studies Of The Effect Of Some Food Additives On The Kidney Of Albino Rat

    Abd El-Tawab M. Ismail - Ashraf M.Moustafa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently the use of synthetic food coloring additives was increased and the levels of human exposure to such agents are very broad, thus feeding over long periods may continually possess potential hazards to the human health. Also most of the food colors tested in the conventional toxicity experiments showed toxic effects at very high level of intake i.e. 1-5 % in the diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological and histochemical effects of some of these substances (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow on the liver of adult albino rats. The study included three main parts: A. Histological studies on the liver under the effect of (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow substances. Using paraffin sections, which were stained with Hx & Eosin, Masson Trichrome B. Evaluation of histochemical activity of both alkaline phosphates enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes on the renal tissue. C. Statistical evaluation using image analyzer to detect glomerular area, area percentage of collagen fibers distribution and optical density of both alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in glomerulus and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity in renal tubules. Seventy adult male albino rats were used. Nitrate and sunset yellow were given orally through a gastric tube in dose of 1 mg / kg / b.w. daily. The animals were classified into seven groups. 1. Group I (Control group 2. Group II: The animals were given sodium nitrate in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt for one month. 3. Group III: The animals were given sun set yellow in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/day for one month. 4. Group IV: The animals were given sodium nitrate and sunset yellow for one month in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/for each drug in a separate manner. 5. Group V: The animals were given sodium nitrate similar to the previous dose as group II for one month and left 2 weeks without oral intubations. 6. Group VI: The animals were given sun set yellow No 6 in a dose and route of administrations as group III for one

  9. Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestockin Wistar Albino Rat

    A.H. Ahmad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102

  10. Effect of Aloe vera extract on some physiological parameters in diabetic albino rats

    Eman G.E. Helal; **Mohamad H.A. Hasan;***Ashraf M. Mustafa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract from Aloe vera on thirty adult male albino rats were divided into three groups, the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg / kg B.wt. and served as diabetic group and the third was injected with alloxan and treated with Aloe vera water extract ( 0.5 ml / 100 g B.wt. . After thirty days of treatment half of each group were scarified and the other one were left for 15 days without any additional treatment as a recovery period . The results revealed highly significant decrease ( p> 0.01 in blood glucose, and highly significant increase in both liver glycogen content and serum insulin level in the diabetic group treated with aqueos extract of A. vera when compared with the diabetic untreated group. It seems, therefore that water extract of A. vera results in a definite hypoglycemic, hyperinsulinemic effect. On the other hand, a significant increase of body weight gain and liver glycogen content was achieved. The results of this study clarify the role of Aloe vera active as antidiabetic plant and suggest a relationship between drenching. A. vera extract and insulin production which needs further investigation

  11. Hepatoprotection: A Hallmark of Citrullus colocynthis L. against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats

    Suresh Kumar Bansal; Ramesh Chandra Saxena; Arshed Iqbal Dar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the in-vivo hepatoprotective effect of the ethanolic extracts of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Animal Model: Swiss Albino rats of either sex were used, divided into six groups with six in each group. Group 1-Normal control: The animals were maintained under normal control, which were given distilled water only. Group 2-Induction of hepatotoxicity: The animals received par...

  12. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats

    Sachdev, Devender O.; Gosavi, Devesh D.; Kartik J Salwe

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantl...

  13. Inhibition of pathogenic bacterial growth on excision wound by green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles leads to accelerated wound healing activity in Wistar Albino rats.

    Sankar, Renu; Baskaran, Athmanathan; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2015-07-01

    An impaired wound healing is one of the major health related problem in diabetic and non-diabetic patients around the globe. The pathogenic bacteria play a predominant role in delayed wound healing, owing to interaction in the wound area. In our previous work we developed green chemistry mediated copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract. In the present study we make an attempt to evaluate the anti-bacterial, and wound healing activity of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles in male Wistar Albino rats. The agar well diffusion assay revealed copper oxide nanoparticles have substantial inhibition activity against human pathogenic strains such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, which were responsible for delayed wound healing process. Furthermore, the analyses results of wound closure, histopathology and protein profiling confirmed that the F. religiosa leaf extract tailored copper oxide nanoparticles have enhanced wound healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. PMID:26194977

  14. Studies On The Effect of Selenium And Vitamin (E) on Irradiated Male rats

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the protective role of intraperitoneally administered selenium and/or vitamin E on γ- radiation induced injury in adult male albino rats. Male albino rats(120-140 gm), were divided into the following groups:1- Control group: consisted of 10 rats. 2- Irradiated group: consisted of 10 rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 (Gy). 3- Injected -irradiated group: consisted of 90 rats intraperitoneally administered with selenium (Na2SeO3) at a dose level of 0.2 mg/Kg body weight or with vitamin E (di-αtocopheryl acetate) at a dose level of 10 mg/kg body weight or with combined dose of selenium and vitamin E (0.2 mg/Kg body weight + 10 mg/Kg body weight)

  15. CARDIOMETABOLIC PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS IN DIABETIC ALBINO RATS

    Waleed S. Mohamed, 1 Ashraf M. Mostafa, 2 Abdel Hamid A. Serwah, 3

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim of the study: DM represents an important independent risk factor for the development of and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD, increasing the risk by 2 to 4 times. According to WHO data, more than 75% of patients with DM die due to vascular accidents. This study investigated the effects of some plants used in Saudi Arabia and some other Arab countries as antidiabetic agents and explores its metabolic effects. Material and Methods: One hundred fifty adult male Albino Rats were divided into six experimental groups each consist of twenty five rats. The first group was considered as a control group. The rest of groups were affected by induction of experimental diabetes by subcutaneous injection of Alloxan. The second group consisted of diabetic rats without any treatment. The third group was treated by the aqueous extract of mixture contains Foenugreek, Nigella sativa and Termis seeds. The fourth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds (100 mg / kg of body weight, while the fifth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Foenugreek seeds (100 mg / kg of body weight. The sixth one was treated with the aqueous extract of Termis seeds (100 mg/kg body weight. After four weeks of treatment, different biochemical parameters were performed including estimation of blood sugar level and serum insulin level. Pancreatic and liver samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both Heamatoxylin and Eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of the Langerhans. Results: The usage of the mixture or each plant alone corrected the glucose level and insulin level. Microscopically there was definite decrease in the number and diameter of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of medicinal plants in

  16. Genotoxic and histotoxic effects of air pollutants at a benzene station on albino rats

    Mohamed Abousalem; Amer Elgerwi; Abdel Baset El-Mashad

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to explore the hazardous effects of occupational exposure to air pollutants arising from benzene stations. Methods: A total of 48 albino rats were divided into three groups each of sixteen animals. Groups-I and II were kept at a benzene station for 60 and 120 days, respectively; while group-III was kept as a control under normal laboratory conditions. At the end of the experiment, animals were sacrificed and bone marrow samples were taken to investigate ...

  17. Histopathological effects of pesticide-cholopyrifos on kidney in albino rats

    Rekha; Sunanda Raina; Sajad Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Histopathological lesions have been widely used as biomarkers for health evaluation of organism exposed to pollutants and can be used as warning symptoms for organism health. There are few reports regarding histomorphological changes in kidney following pesticide chlorpyrifos exposure which has prompted us to undertake this study. Methods: The present study was conducted on 45 inbred adult Wistar albino rats of either sex, weighing 145 – 165 gms. These animals were randomly d...

  18. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of Basella alba in albino rats.

    Das, Saibal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjib; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate possible hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Basella alba in comparison with silymarin in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Six groups of six albino rats each received orally for 6 weeks, vehicle, paracetamol (2 g/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus silymarin (50 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (60 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (80 mg/kg/day) and paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (100 mg/kg/day). Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by comparing serum bilirubin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, proteins, alkaline phosphatase and liver histopathology. Results were represented as mean ± SEM. One-way ANOVA was done followed by post hoc Tukey's test with a highly significance level of P alba 100 mg/kg/day orally had significant hepatoprotective effect in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The results were well comparable and even in some respects superior to standard drug silymarin. PMID:25347929

  19. Histopathological and Biochemical Toxic Effect of Amiodarone on Thyroid Gland in Albino Rat

    Ola A. El Sayed*, Safaa E. Gawish

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Amiodarone AMD (Cordarone was a benzofuran derivative, used in management of angina and refractory ventricular arrhythmia. Its effect on the thyroid gland structure and function was investigated in this study. Material and Methods: Fifty adult male albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The first group was consisted of 10 rats which served as control, received distilled water orally (1ml. The second group was consisted of 20 rats used as therapeutic dose treated group, received 40 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone while the third group was consisted of 20 rats used as a toxic dose treated group which received 60 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone orally daily for three months. Body weight of animals was determined. Serum concentration of tri-iodothyonine (T3, thyroxine (T4, thyrotrophin (TSH, interleukin 6 (IL6, tumour marker P53 and tissue residue for amiodarone in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart was determined. Results: Specimens from thyroid gland were taken and prepared for light and electron microscope examination. Highly significant decrease in body weight (P<0.001 were observed in both therapeutic and toxic doses treated groups in comparison to the control one. A very highly significant increase (P<0.001 of serum (T4 & T3 with Concomitant suppression of (TSH (P<0.001. Serum levels of IL6 and P53 showed also a very highly significant increase (P<0.001. Amiodarone concentration in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart showed significant increase in therapeutic dose treated group and highly significant increase in toxic dose treated group. Histopathological examination of thyroid gland of therapeutic dose treated group by light microscope showed marked evidence of thyotoxicosis in the form of microcystic follicular changes and peripheral scalloping, cellular degeneration with scanty cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei appeared. These changes became more severe in toxic dose treated group in the form of

  20. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

    Poonam Lodhi; Neeraj Tandan; Neera Singh; Divyansh Kumar; Monu Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE) in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw) of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate...

  1. Harmful effect of protein difficiency on lipids, glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in female albino rats

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the harmful effect of protein deficient diet on some biochemical activities in serum of female rats. Protein malnutrition is a well known socioeconomic problem in different parts of the world. Many studies were investigated on the biological parameters following protein malnutrition in human and experimental animals. Forty albino female rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group (10 rats) fed 18% protein diet and served as normal control and the other two groups, each contains 15 rats, fed 5% protein for 21 and 45 days, respectively, and served as malnourished groups. The results showed significant decrease in total body weight, serum glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in the third group as well as decrease in the total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations that compared to normal control rats

  2. Modulation of antioxidant and phosphatase enzymes by beta-carotene against gamma radiation induced testicular disorders in albino rats

    Beta-carotene is a group of plant compounds called carotenoids. It is a precursor for vitamin A and an important antioxidant. This study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of β-carotene against gamma radiation induced disorders in the testis of male albino rats, it included 4 groups: control group, treated group; animals of this group received a daily oral dose of β-carotene (30 mg/kg body wt) for 1 week, irradiated group; animals of this group were subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy, and treated-irradiated group; animals received a daily oral dose of β-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) for 1 week before exposure to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy. 6 animals of each group were autopsied at 1, 3 and 5 days after β-carotene treatment and/ or irradiation. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase in testis homogenate. In irradiated animals there was a highly significant decrease in testis alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity. On the other hand, significant increase in acid phosphatase activity was observed. Treatment with β-carotene before irradiation causes significant increase in alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity and significant decrease in acid phosphatase activity compared to the irradiated group. The results of the present study indicated that β-carotene ameliorated oxidative stress and the loss of cellular antioxidants and suggest that β-carotene may reduce the radiation damage in testis of male albino rats

  3. Efficacy of oat bran (Avena sativa L. in comparison with atorvastatin in treatment of hypercholesterolemia in albino rat liver

    Maisaa M. AL-Rawi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study deals with the effect of oat bran (Avena sativa L. in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in comparison with a hypocholesterolemic drug, atorvastatin, on hypercholesterolemic liver in male albino rats. Material and Methods: For this purpose four groups of rats (each containing 6 rats were used. The first group was used as a control, the second was cholesterol-fed group with cholesterol (0.5% w/w for 6 weeks. The third group was oats-fed hypercholesterolemic rats on oat supplemented diet (20% w/w for 4 weeks and the forth group was atorvastatin-treated hypercholesterolemic rats orally at a dose of 0.18 mg/Kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Results: The biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum LDL-C and a significant decrease in HDL-C level. In addition the activity of AST was increased in cholesterol-fed rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with oat soluble fiber or atorvastatin drug improved the above mentioned parameters. The histopathological examination of liver sections of cholesterol-fed group showed accumulation of lipid. Hepatocytes showed ballooning degeneration and manifested clear necrotic signs. Inflammatory cellular infiltration was found around the blood vessels, mild fibrosis near the portal blood vessels. However, liver impairment was reduced markedly in the liver of oat soluble fiber fed rats rather than atorvastatin drug treated rats. Conclusion: The present study, however, confirms that the cereal grain oat may have potent beneficial health effects in reducing LDL cholesterol and should be included in the prudent diet of individuals with hyperlipidemia.

  4. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    Shelat, Vishal G.; Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy; Hatim A. Al-Abbadi; Qahwaji, Dina; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K; Sobhy, Hanan M.; Hilal, Mohammad Abu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB) is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet.Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g) of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups...

  5. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy; Hatim A. Al-Abbadi; Dina Qahwaji; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K; Shelat, Vishal G.; Sobhy, Hanan M.; Mohammad Abu Hilal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB) is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g) of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four group...

  6. EFFECTS OF SOME ANTIDIABETIC MEDICINAL PLANTS ON PANCREAS AND LIVER OF DIABETIC ALBINO RATS

    Ashraf M. Mostafa, 1 Abdel Hamid A. Serwah, 2 Waleed S. Mohamed, 3

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim of the study- Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. More than 400 traditional medicinal plants have been recorded for helping in controlling such disease. This study investigated effects of some plants used in Saudi Arabia and some other Arab countries as antidiabetic agents. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty adult male Albino rats were divided into six experimental groups each consist of twenty five rats. The first group was considered as a control group. The rest of groups were affected by induction of experimental diabetes by subcutaneous injection of Alloxan. The second group consisted of diabetic rats without any treatment. The third group was treated by the aqueous extract of mixture contains Foenugreek, Nigella and Termis seeds. The fourth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds, while the fifth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Foenugreek seeds.The sixth one was treated with the aqueous extract of Termis seeds with the administered dose of the plant extracts (100 mg/kg body weight.After four weeks of treatment, different biochemical parameters were performed including estimation of blood sugar level and serum insulin level. Pancreatic and liver samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both heamatoxylin and eosin as well as a special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of Langerhans. Results: The usage of the mixture or each plant alone corrected the glucose level and insulin level. Microscopically there was definite decrease in the number and diameter of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of medicinal plants in the different groups of this study greatly improved such cellular changes and the level of blood

  7. Protective effect of zinc aspartate against acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in albino rats

    Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required in humans and animals for many physiological functions, including antioxidant functions. The evidence to date indicates that zinc is an important element that links antioxidant system and tissue damage. Acetaminophen (AP), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic, produces hepatocyte and renal tubular necrosis in human and animals following overdose. In human, AP is one of the most common causes of acute liver failure as a result of accidental or deliberate overdose. Moreover, the initial event in AP toxicity is a toxic metabolic injury with the release of free radicals and subsequent cellular death by necrosis and apoptosis. This study was designed to evaluate the potential protective role of zinc aspartate in case of acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in rats. A total number of 32 adult male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups: group I (control group), group II (zinc aspartate treated group), group III (acetaminophen treated group; by a single oral dose of 750 mg/kg body weight) and group IV acetaminophen plus zinc treated group; (zinc aspartate was intraperitoneally given one hour after acetaminophen administration in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight). Serum levels of: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, xanthine oxidase (XO), glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were assessed in all groups. The results of this study showed that treatment with acetaminophen alone (group III) produced a significant increase in serum levels of the liver enzymes and direct bilirubin. Moreover, in the same group there was a significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine compared to the control group. In addition, there was a significant increase in XO and MDA and a significant decrease in GSH and NO level. Injection of rats with zinc aspartate after acetaminophen treatment could produce a

  8. Camel's Milk Protects against Aluminum Chloride-Induced Toxicity in the Liver and Kidney of White Albino Rats

    Fahaid Al-Hashem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3 is commonly used in daily life but it can be potentially toxic. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of camel' milk against aluminum-induced biochemical alterations and oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of white albino rats. Approach: White albino male rats (230-250 g were divided into three groups of 10 rats: a control group treated with normal saline, the AlCl3-treated group and the camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group. The AlCl3 treated group received 0.5 mg kg-1 of AlCl3 orally. The camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group was fed 1 mL of fresh camel's milk 10 minutes prior to the administration of oral AlCl3. All rats were treated every day for 30 days. Liver and kidney biochemical serum parameters were analyzed. Lipid peroxidation, as determined by the tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and hydrogen peroxide (HP, and the oxidative stress status, as measured by glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity, were evaluated in the kidney and liver of treated rats. Results: Data showed that the oral administration of AlCl3 resulted in statistically significant increases in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, cholesterol and triglycerides; the total amount of protein and albumin were also significantly decreased. However, these parameters were within normal levels in the rats given camel's milk prior to AlCl3. Additionally, oral administration of AlCl3 induced lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney, which was indicated by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation biomarkers (TBARS and HP and a significant decrease in the activities of GSH, SOD and CAT. In all rats treated with camel's milk before being given AlCl3, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress

  9. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL FOOD COLOUR AND SWEETENER IN ADULT MALE ALBINO MICE

    This study aims to investigate the effect of aspartame (artificial sweetener) and sunset yellow (artificial colour) on monoamines content in different brain areas of the adult male albino mice (cerebellum, brain stem, striatum, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex), and also on testosterone level in serum.The present study showed that the daily intraperitoneal injection of aspartame with dose of 200 mg/kg caused significant increase in monoamines content and testosterone level at most experimental periods. The elevation of monoamines content may be due to increase in phenylalanine concentration which leading to increase the synthesis of monoamines. The elevation of testosterone level may be due to the increment of DA content in hypothalamus which led to increase the release of LHRH. On the other hand, the daily intraperitoneal injection of sunset yellow with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg caused significant decrease in monoamines content and non-significant change in serum testosterone level at most experimental periods. The decrement in monoamines content may be due to the decrease in its uptake by the neurotransmitters or decrease in its synthesis

  10. Effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia on functions of peritoneal macrophages isolated from CCl4 intoxicated male albino mice

    Sharma Gauri D; Sengupta Mahuya; Chakraborty Biswajit

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals for supporting the immune system or fighting infections is based on centuries-old tradition. Macrophages are involved at all the stages of an immune response. The present study focuses on the immunostimulant properties of Tinospora cordifolia extract that are exerted on circulating macrophages isolated from CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) intoxicated male albino mice. Methods Apart from damaging the liver system, carbon tetrach...

  11. Effect of cassava based diet on some heamatological parameters in albino rats fed petroleum contaminated diet

    A O Adegoke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain the effect of a cassava based diet (gari on crude oil heamato-toxicity in albino rats by feeding diet contaminated with various concentrations of crude oil mixed with 20% gari to determine the protective effect of gari. The haematological parameters haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count (WBC(Total and differential were monitored in the animals. Gari feeding at 20% caused insignificant dose dependent decrease in Hb and PCV but significant dose dependent white blood cell count in gari fed albino rats compared with Petroleum fed albino rats (P<0.05. Dose dependent decrease in Hb, PCV and white blood cell count was also observed in petroleum fed rats compared with their controls (P<0.05.  The study showed that ingestion of petroleum contaminated diet caused decreased haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count, an indicator of possible blood damage but supplementation of the diet with 20% gari decreased the haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count observed in petroleum fed albino rats. This study showed that feeding on gari diet did not reverse the damage caused by crude petroleum as evidenced by insignificant differences in Hb and PCV concentrations possibly as result of cyanide present in the gari.Industrial relevanceCassava is a staple food in human diets in over 80 countries (Gomez, et al 1988. Gari a starchy food prepared from cassava (Manihot utilisima tubers is one of the most popular staple foods of the people of the rain forest belt of West Africa. Gari contains mainly starch-20% amylase and 70% amylopectin having lost the soluble carbohydrates. Crude petroleum is capable of eliciting haemolytic toxicity of the blood cells in conditions of long- exposure causing decrease haemoglobin, white cell count and PCV levels. The study was carried out to see the effect of gari, a staple food on haemolytic toxicity caused by crude

  12. Wound healing property of paroxetine in immunosuppressed albino rats

    Dwajani S; Ranjana Gurumurthy

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the wound healing activity of Paroxetine in different wound models in wistar rats and to study its effects on dexamethasone suppressed wound healing. Methods: For assessment of wound healing activity, excision and incision wound models were used. Group I was assigned as control, orally, Group II received Paroxetine, i.p, Group III received Dexamethasone intramuscularly (i.m) and Group IV received Dexamethasone i.m and Paroxetine, i....

  13. Modulation Of Acrylamide-Induced Biochemical Alterations In Albino Rats

    Acrylamide (ACR) is an industrial neurotoxic chemical that has been recently found in carbohydrate rich foods cooked at high temperature. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the protective effects of rosemary extract against ACR-induced toxicity in rats. The experimental rats were divided into four groups included a control group, a group treated orally with rosemary extract by supercritical fluid extractor (150 mg/kg/day) for 14 days, a group treated orally with ACR (50 mg/kg/day) for 14 days and a group treated orally with rosemary extract + acrylamide for 14 days. The results indicated that treatment with ACR alone resulted in a significant decrease in the haematological parameters, triglycerides, insulin, creatine kinase and choline esterase while the concentrations of urea, creatinine, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were increased. Treatment with rosemary extract during ACR treatment reduced the effects induced by ACR. It could be concluded that rosemary extract exhibited a protective action against ACR-induced biochemical alterations in rats. For this reason, rosemary is recommended to be used in cooked food due to its palatable taste and prophylactic effect.

  14. TRACE ELEMENT AND LIGHT MICROSCOPIC STUDIES ON TESTIS OF ALBINO RATS TREATED WITH SILDENAFIL CITRATE (CAVERTA

    K.V.P. Suriyakumari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caverta (Sildenafil citrate, an oral therapy for Erectile Dysfunction (ED, being the citrate salt of Sildenafil, is a selective inhibitor of cGMP- specific phosphodiestrase type (PDE5. Aim: To study the drug- induced (i changes in the trace element content of Testis and (ii changes in the histoarchitecture of Testis of the experimental Albino rats. Materials and Methods: For the present study, totally 48 animals were selected on weight basis and divided into 8 groups (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7 and S8 with six animals in each group. Control animals (S1 were fed with conductivity water while the experimental animals (S2, S3, S4 and S5 were treated with a single dose of Caverta (@ 1µg/g body weight. Control animals were sacrificed at zero hour while the experimental animals (S2, S3, S4 and S5 were sacrificed after 1 hour, 2½ hours, 4 hours and 24 hours of drug administration respectively S6, S7 and S8 group of animals were fed with a single dose of the chosen drug (@ 1µg/g body weight daily for all the 15, 30 and 45 days respectively. These animals were sacrificed after 4 hours of the last dosage. Vertical ventral midline incision was made in the abdominal wall to collect the left and right Testes. Results: The spectral analysis indicates that the long term Caverta treatment of Albino rats results in the accumulation of Iron and Copper levels accompanied by a depletion of Nickel levels in the Testis. The histological studies indicate that long term exposure of Testis to Caverta leads to distorted histoarchitecture of the seminiferous tubules, interstitial space dilation and separation of Spermatogenic cells. Conclusion: Long term Sildenafil Citrate (Caverta treatment of Albino rats will bring in adverse effects and will completely alter the histoarchitecture of the Testis.

  15. EVALUATION OF ANTINOCICEPITVE ACTION OF PENTAZOCINE IN COMPARISION WITH MORPHINE IN ALBINO RATS

    Manikanta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the antinociceptive effect of pentazocine in three graded doses (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg and its combination with morphine at sub-analgesic doses, and comparing their effect with analgesic dose of morphine (1mg/kg by tail flick method in albino rats. MATERIALS & METHODS: Tail flick method using analgesiometer and tail immersion test by hot water bath was selected for evaluating antinociceptive action of pentazocine and standard drug morphine. RESULTS: Pentazocine in the doses of 6mg/kg, 12 mg/kg intra peritoneal (i.p and morphine 1mg/kg i.p, produced significant antinociceptive effect in comparison to control by tail flick test and tail immersion test. Pentazocine 3 mg/kg, i.p and morphine 0.1 mg/kg, i.p had not produced significant antinociceptive action when given alone, but combination (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg treatment produced significant antinociceptive effect in comparison to control. CONCLUSION: Pentazocine in the doses of 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg and their combination in low doses (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg demonstrated significant antinociceptive activity in albino rats. Combination in low doses (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg showed comparable antinociceptive activity with pentazocine 6 mg/kg in albino rats. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: One way ANOVA and multiple comparison test (LSD was applied only to MPE% at 60 min.

  16. Effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on histological characteristics of parotid gland of albino rat

    Background: The current study was carried out to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism on the histological structure of parotid salivary gland of the rat. Methods: Twenty male albino rats, weighing between 130-150 grams, were used which were divided into two groups; control group (A) and an experimental group (B), each containing 10 animals. Group B was rendered hypothyroid by giving methimazole (MMI) as 0.02% solution in drinking water daily for 3 weeks. On day 22 parotid and thyroid glands were removed, weighed and processed for light microscopy. Salivary gland was fixed in Bouin's solution, H and E and Toluidine blue stains were used for histological examination. Serum T /sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Results: In group A, serum concentration of T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH was 12.58+-3.05 mu g/ml, 4.72 +- 1.20 macro g/dl, and 0.25 +- 0.24 macro IU/ml respectively, where as in group B it was 2.14+-1.83 mu g/ml, 1.04 +- 0.44 macro g/dl and 1.44+-0.20 mu U/ml respectively. When differences between T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH of the groups were compared, the p-value was <0.000, <0.000, and <0.000 respectively. Mean thyroid weight significantly increased in group B (44.1 0+-1.66 mg) when compared to that in group A (33.70+-1.56 mg). These findings established the occurrence of hypothyroid state in the experimental group. There was a statistically significant reduction in the parotid gland weight in the animals of the experimental group (38.30 +- 1.15 mg) when compared to the control group (39.60 +- 0.84 mg), (p<0.01). With light microscopy, group A showed a normal structure of parotid salivary gland, whereas multiple histological changes were observed in parotrid gland of the experimental group. Number of mast cells in parotid gland was also significantly higher (p<0.017) in group B (3.70 +- 1.11/mm/sup 2/) than in group A (2.25 +- 1.34/mm/sup 2/). Conclusion: The level of T/sub 3/ T/sub 4/ decreased and that of TSH increased

  17. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

    Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Ganiyu Adeosun; Abdul-Waheed Ademosun; Gassal Raheem; Godwin Avwioro

    2010-01-01

    Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD 50 ; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of...

  18. Effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of bone collagen in albino rats

    The effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of collagen in bone was studied in young female albino rats after a single injection of 3H-proline. Both specific and total radioactivities of hydroxyproline in the total collagen of the bone were found to decrease in the protein-deficient animals, indicating decreased rate of collagen synthesis. In the urine the amount of hydroxyproline excreted and total radioactivity of 3H-hydroxyproline were greatly decreased. The results of the present investigation therefore clearly indicate decreased synthesis and catabolism of collagen in bones of protein deficient animals compared to controls. (auth.)

  19. Protective role of ginkgo Biloba extract against gamma radiation and alcohol induced liver damage in albino rats

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves that promotes vasodilatation and improves blood flow through arteries, veins and capillaries and has antioxidant properties as a tree radical scavenger. This study was designed to evaluate the protective efficacy of EGb 761 against gamma radiation and/ or alcohol induced disorders in the liver of male albino rats. EGb 761 was given orally at a dose level of 100 mg/ kg body wt for 4 days, absolute alcohol was administered orally at a dose level of 1ml/ rat for 4 days and the dose of gamma radiation was 6.5 Gy. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA). reduced glutathion (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in the liver tissue. In irradiated and/ or alcoholic animal groups, there was a highly significant decrease in liver NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD. On the other hand, significant increase in MDA content was observed. Treatment with EGb 761 before irradiation and/or alcohol causes significant increase in NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD and significant decrease in MDA content compared to the irradiated and/ or alcoholic groups. Based on these observations, one could conclude that pre-treatment of rats with EGb 761 could partly protect liver from gamma rays and/ or absolute alcohol injurious and this protection may be induced, at least partly, through antioxidant mechanisms

  20. Sub-chronic toxicity and heavy metal toxicity study on Kappaphycus alvarezii in albino rats

    AbiramiRG; KowsalyaS

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of Kappaphycus alvarezii methanolic extracts in albino rats. Methods: Sub-chronic toxicity was tested with a single dose of intraperitonal administration of the extract as per the OECD guidelines in the experimental group rats and the control group rats was fed with standard diet and water ad libitum. Mortality, behaviour changes, clinical signs and symptoms, food intake, body weight and any abnormalities of the visceral organs were observed. Results: The results revealed that the algal extract resulted in neither mortality nor any abnormalities. The Most of the serum biochemical parameters and hematological values were similar in control and experimental groups, histopathological examination of the vital organs like liver, kidney, spleen, brain and heart revealed no obvious abnormality in the control group and Kappaphycus alvarezii treated group. Conclusion: It may be concluded that Kappaphycus alvarezii rich in nutrient and nutraceutial potentials and also safety food for human consumption.

  1. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  2. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim : This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods : Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results : Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion : No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  3. Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on fertility in pregnant female albino rats

    Lilaram; R Nazeer Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (C. bonducella) on fertility in female Wistar albino rats. Methods: Pregnant rats were randomized into two groups containing eight animals in each group. Control group rats were orally administered with 1 mL/100 g b.wt of distilled water while rats in second group received 300 mg/kg of the seed extract from gestation day 1-7, once daily. The animals were sacrificed twenty four hours after the last dose on gestation day 12. Results:A significant reduction in implantation index and a contrasting significant increase in resorption index, pre-implantation and post-implantation loss was recorded in the seed extract treated rats. Progesterone level declined significantly in rats treated with seed extract. Ovary revealed degenerated corpora lutea in treated rats. The embryos were noticed with craniofacial deformities in extract treated group. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study suggest that the seeds of C. bonducella possess antifertility activity probably due to its antiprogesterogenic hormonal properties that can modulate the reproductive function of the experimental rats.

  4. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cochlospermum Planchonii Rhizome on Some Kidney and Liver Functional Indicies of Albino Rats

    Nafiu, MO; M.A. Akanji; M T Yakubu

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii Hook. Ef. x Planch rhizome was investigated for its toxic effects in albino rats using some liver and kidney functional indices as ‘markers’. Thirty six albino rats weighing 200.08 ± 10.21 were randomly assinged into six groups (A–F) of six animals each. Animals in groups A–E were orally administered on daily basis with 1 ml of the extract corresponding to 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 days while those in the control gro...

  5. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) roots on the sexual behavior of male rats

    JianFeng Cao; PengYing Zhang; ChengWei Xu; TaoTao Huang; YunGui Bai; KaoShan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into ...

  6. Effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on sodium valporate induced cytogenetic and testicular alterations in albino rats

    Sakr, Saber A.; Zowail, Mohamed E.; Marzouk, Amera M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiepileptic drug, sodium valporate (SVP) in albino rats and the effect of saffron aqueous extracts. Treating rats with SVP caused a significant increase in the chromosomal aberrations either structural or numerical and decreased the mitotic index. Besides, animals administered SVP showed DNA damage appeared in the single strand breaks (comet assay). Testis of SVP-treated rats showed many histopathological ch...

  7. Caffeine and Aspirin Protecting Albino Rats A gainst Biochemical and Histological Disorders Induced by Whole Body Gamma Irradiation

    Caffeine is an alkaloid (purine derivative) that contains flavonoids, where as aspirin, natural component of mammalian tissue ( acetylsalicylic acid) is one of the most commonly used non steroidal anti - inflammatory , and it is a necessary factor in the utilization of long - chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore, it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. Th e objective of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of caffeine (1,3,7 - trimethyl xanthine) 80 mg/kg b.wt. a nd aspirin ( acetylsalicylic acid) in the amelioration of the physiological and histological changes in stomach and intestine of rats exposed to gamma irradiation . Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1 - Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2 - Caffeine group: rats received caffeine ( 80 ml/Kg body weight )via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days, 3 - Aspirin group: rats received aspirin (150 mg / kg body) via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days , 4 - Caffeine + Aspirin group: rats received caffeine a nd aspirin treatment, 5 - Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated at 8 Gy , 6 - Caffeine + Radiation group: rats received caffeine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation at 8 Gy, 7 - Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received aspirin during 21 days before w hole body gamma irradiation , 8 - Caffeine + Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received caffeine parallel to aspirin for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 24 hrs post irradiation. The results demonstrated that rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation showed a significant increase in alanine amino transferase (AL ) , aspartate amino transferase ( AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease in total protein indicating liver injury. A significant increase in urea, creatinine, Na+,and K+ were recorded indicating kidney damage. Alteration of liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant

  8. Hematological and Biochemical Evaluation of Teucrium Polium in Albino Rats

    Khaled Al-Kubaisy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effect of acute (24 h and subacute (3 weeks treatment of the Teucrium polium decoction on liver and kidney functions and hematological parameters in rats. The toxicity study with this decoction did not produce mortality. No marked adverse alterations were observed in hematological and biochemical parameters during acute toxicity. In the subacute toxicity studies, red blood cells counts, Hemoglobin (Hb and Packed Cell Volume (PVC insignificantly decreased. However, other blood indices, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC were not changed. There was significant (p<0.001 increase in white blood cells. Serum glucose level change was insignificant, while the level of serum cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly (p<0.001 reduced. The Activity of Serum Transaminases (ALT and AST showed non significant changes, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were found non significant changes. In conclusion the statistical analysis of our results indicates that treatment with T. polium did not cause any attension that might suggest the presence of pathological damage at the dose investigation.

  9. Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats

    Saber Abdelruhman Sakr; Mohamed El-said Zoil; Samraa Samy El-shafey

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods: Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results: Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions:The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components.

  10. Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats

    Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

  11. Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in Wistar albino rats

    Shatavisa Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into five groups. Four groups were subjected to chronic mild stress induced by using various stressors randomly scheduled in a week and continued for a period of 3 weeks. The stressed rodents were subjected to sertraline treatment for 9 weeks in different human therapeutic doses extrapolated to animal doses. Behavioral changes were monitored, assessed, and evaluated throughout the treatment phase with the help of tests such as locomotor activity test, forced swim test, tail suspension test, antianxiety test, and sucrose preference test (SPT. Results: All tests except SPT, demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 reduction in depressive-like activity in the stressed rodents by the mid-treatment phase, followed by an abrupt onset of the depressive state by the end of the treatment phase. SPT showed a significant (P < 0.05 increase in sucrose consumption throughout the treatment phase. Conclusion: Behavioral changes following chronic sertraline administration conferred gradual remission of depression state on initial treatment phase, followed by a reversal of effect on chronic use.

  12. HAIR GROWTH POTENTIAL OF EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN. PLANT EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATS

    Bhaiji Amrita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae is traditionally used for its hair growth promoting activity in rural community of Indian sub-continent. Studies were therefore carried out to evaluate petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous base and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats for thirty days. The time required for hair growth initiation and completion was significantly (P < 0.01 reduced. Minoxidil 2% solution applied topically served as positive control. The treatment was successful in bringing 73% of hair follicles in anagenic phase by application of 5% methanolic extract as comparable to standard. Bioactivity guided fractionation was carried out of methanolic extract and was fractionated as aqueous and non-aqueous extract and screened pharmacologically. Water insoluble methanolic extract was found to be more potent and reduced the hair growth initiation and completion time significantly (P < 0.01 as comparable to standard. It holds the promise of potent alternative for minoxidil.Keywords:

  13. Vitamin D3 May Ameliorate the Ketoconazole Induced Adrenal Injury: Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies on Albino Rats

    Ketoconazole (KZ) is used widely for treating the superficial, systemic fungal activities and hyperandrogenemic states. Its uses are limited by its deleterious effect on histological structure and function of the adrenal cortex. This study investigates whether vitamin D3 supplement can ameliorate the morphological changes induced by KZ. Thirty four adult male albino rats were randomized into control group (Group I) which was subdivided into: control 1 (n=7) and control 2 (n=7): In control 1, rats were intraperitoneal (I.P) injected once with 1 ml of polyethylene glycol-400 for 15 consecutive days and control 2 rats were injected I.P with (1 μg/kg) of vitamin D3 for the same period. Group II (n=10): rats were I.P injected with KZ (10 mg/100 g of body weight) once daily for 15 days; Group III (n=10): rats were I.P concomitantly injected with KZ and vitamin D3 similar doses to animals in groups II and control 2 respectively. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma ACTH, corticosterone and aldosterone levels. The right adrenal specimens sections were stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin and Masson Trichrome for histological studies and treated with Bax, Ubiquitin and vitamin D receptors for immunohistochemical studies. KZ induced adrenal cortical morphological changes in forms of disturbed adrenocorticocyte cytological architecture, nuclear changes, and intracellular lipid accumulation. KZ also increased adrenal Bax and Ub but decreased the vitamin D receptors immunopositive staining expression, in addition to increased plasma ACTH as well as decreased corticosterone and aldosterone levels. These changes were ameliorated by supplementing with vitamin D3

  14. The Side Effects Of The Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID Ketoprofen On Histological And Ultrastructural Aspects Of The Kidneys Of Albino Rats

    Amina M. Farag Allah

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the effect of the therapeutic dose of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ketoprofen on the microscopic structure of the kidney of the albino rat. The present study also sheds light on the risk of using over-dosage either by mistake or in an unwise attempt at quick relieving the body pain. The intramuscular therapeutic dose of ketoprofen to albino rat was calculated and was found to equal 13.5 mg /kg body weight. Fifty adult male albino rats, Rattus norvegicus were used in the present study. The rats were equally allocated to five groups, each of 10 rats. Rats of the first group were kept as control. Rats of the second & third groups were injected daily with the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen for four and eight successive weeks respectively. Rats of the fourth & fifth groups were injected daily with double the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen for four and eight successive weeks respectively. In rats given the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen daily for four weeks and sacrificed 24 hours after the last dose, light microscope examination showed that Malpighian corpuscles and the kidney tubules revealed signs of degeneration. In rats given the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen daily for eight weeks the histological changes were in progression. A few numbers of glomeruli were increasingly congested and shrunken into dense masses of unrecognized structural details. The luminal borders of the cells lining the proximal convoluted tubules together with their microvilli were damaged. The electron micrographs of ultrathin sections of kidneys of rats given the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen daily for eight weeks showed that the glomerular capillaries were disorganized and occasionally their lining endothelium showed degeneration. The podocytes showed deteriorated and rarefied cytoplasm; and their primary processes were fragmented. Also, the foot processes appeared occasionally broad. In some cells of proximal convoluted tubules the

  15. HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Kanakasabapathi Devaki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional medicinal plant P.edulis was tested for its hypoglycemic effect in Wistar albino rats. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in overnight fasted normal as well as in alloxan induced diabetic rats (150 mg/kg, of alloxan, i.p. with the administration of 100,200,300,400 mg/kg of b.wt of P.edulis. The blood sample withdrawn at 0, 60, 120, 180 min of glucose administration from the retro orbital sinus by capillary puncture indicated the hypoglycemic nature of the P.edulis leaf extract and identified the most effective dose as 200mg/kg b.wt.

  16. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE IN DEXAMETHASONE INDUCED INSULIN RESISTANCE IN ALBINO RATS

    Hemanth Kumar V, Nagendra Nayak IM , Shobha V Huilgol, Saeed M Yendigeri , Narendar K

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gymnema sylvestre plant was widely used for medicinal purpose. The plant leaves were traditionally used to treat diabetes. Aim: To determine the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf aqueous extract against dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into five groups. Normal control and diabetic control group received gum acacia (2% orally for 12days, and normal saline (i.p., dexamethasone (8mg/kg/i.p. from day 7- day12 respectively. Two test groups (Gymnema sylvestre leaf aqueous extract 2 and 4gm/kg/p.o./12days and standard control received metformin (2gm/kg/p.o./12 days. The two test groups, standard control group received dexamethasone (8mg/kg/i.p from day 7- day 12 respectively. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity was estimated by measuring serum glucose, insulin, lipid levels and histopathological evaluation of liver tissue. Results were analyzed by using one way ANOVA followed by Scheffe’s multiple comparison test. Results: Treatment with aqueous extract of Gymnema sylvestre (2 and 4gm/kg/p.o significantly (p<0.01 altered the elevated glucose, lipid, insulin levels and also improved the histopathology of liver in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance rats. Conclusion: Treatment with aqueous extract of Gymnema sylvestre improved the altered glucose, insulin and lipid profile in insulin resistance rats.

  17. Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats

    R. Narmadha

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746

  18. GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) EXTRACT AFFECTS THE FREE AMINO ACID LEVEL IN THE GONADS OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    Srivastava S; Pathak P. H.

    2012-01-01

    Effect of Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae) (Raw Garlic Extract (RGE)) was studied on free amino acids (FAA) level in female albino rats. The garlic extract was tested in three different doses 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight daily as low, medium and high dose respectively for a period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The significant (P

  19. Protective Effect Of Avocado Oil Against Biochemical And Histological Changes In Whole Body Gamma Irradiation In Albino Rats

    Avocado oil, extracted from the pulp of the fruit, is rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, linolenic, oleic acids and the monounsaturated fatty acid. It also contains B-sitosterol, B-carotene, lecithin, minerals and vitamins A, C, D and E. Avocado oil lowers the blood levels of serum lipids and has antioxidant properties as a free radical scavenger. Male albino rats were divided into 5 groups. 1- Control group: rats not subjected to any treatment, 2- Avocado treated group: rats received avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3- Irradiated group: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 4- Avocado + irradiated group: rats received avocado oil for 21 days then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation with 7 Gy and 5- Radiation + avocado group: rats were exposed to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then received avocado oil for 21 days. Avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) was given to rats, receiving a standard diet, for 21 days before exposure to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then the treatment was continued for 10 days after irradiation. Several investigations were carried out such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), lipid profile and blood sugar. High significant increase in MDA was observed and treatment with avocado before irradiation caused significant increase in GSH, CAT and SOD and significant decrease in MDA as compared to the irradiated groups. The results also showed that treatment with avocado oil significantly diminished the radiation-induced alterations observed in the levels of lipid profile and glucose. The results demonstrated that whole body gamma irradiated rats showed significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose. By studying the lipid profile, significant increases in cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C levels were recorded while significant decrease was

  20. Hazardous effects of fried potato chips on the development of retina in albino rats

    Hassan I El-Sayyad; Saber A Sakr; Gamal M Badawy; Hanaa S Afify

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hazardous effects of fried potato chips upon the retina of two developmental stages of the albino rats aged 7 and 14 days from parturition. Methods: Pregnant rats were arranged into two groups: control pregnant rats and consequently their delivered newborns until reaching 7 and 14 days old from parturition and fried potato chips group in which pregnant rats at the 6th day of gestation maintained on diet formed of fried potato chips supplied from the market mixed with standard diet at a concentration of 50% per each till 7 and 14 post-partum. Three fold integrated approaches were adopted, namely, histological, ultrastructural and proteomic analysis. Results: Histological examination of the retina of the experimental offsprings revealed many histopathological changes, including massive degeneration, vacuolization and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer, as well as general reduction in retinal size. At the ultrastructural level, the retina of experimental offsprings exhibited number of deformities, including ill differentiated and degenerated nuclear layer, malformed and vacuolated pigment epithelium with vesiculated and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, degenerated outer segment of photoreceptors, as well as swollen choriocapillaris and loss of neuronal cells. Proteomic analysis of retina of the two experimental developmental stages showed variations in the expressed proteins as a result of intoxication which illustrated the adverse toxic effects of fried potato chips upon the retina. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the effect of fried potato chips on the development of retina in rats may be due to the presence of acrylamide or its metabolite.

  1. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats

    Patel, Kaksha J.; Ashwin K. Panchasara; Manish J Barvaliya; Purohit, Bhargav M.; Seema N Baxi; Vadgama, Vishal K.; Tripathi, C.B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 gr...

  2. Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L. Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

    Youcef Necib

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage, mercuric chloride (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of virgin olive oil and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 2 weeks of experimental period. Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of virgin olive oil resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by virgin olive oil supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of virgin olive oil. The results clearly demonstrate that virgin olive oil treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a

  3. The Role Of Melatonin In Aluminium Induced Genotoxicity In Female Albino Rats

    Zeinab E. Hanafy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work, In spite of the wide range of use of aluminium. With the increasing awareness of possible health hazards associated with their use, more attention have been focused on their biological and biochemical activity. Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant in under cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown. Aluminium is known to have genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects. Melatonin reduces the free radical generation and metal detoxification .This study was planned to determine the effects of melatonin on aluminium induced toxicity in the chromosomes of bone marrow cell . Material and Methods ,Forty female albino rats were used in the present work for the chromosomal analysis. Four groups of adult female albino rats were used in the following way: Group -I, control group; Group-II,50 mg /kg b.wt aluminium orally; Group-III, 50g / kg b.wt melatonin orally and Group- IV, 50 mg /kg b.wt aluminium orally (am +50 g / kg b.wt melatonin orally(pm. Doses were given 30 days. All animals were sacrificed and the bone marrow of femur bones was taken for subsequent cytogenetic studies. The results, Aluminium treatment induced a significant increase in the structural as well as numerical chromosomal aberrations . The frequency of chromosomal aberrations showed significant decrease when rats treated with melatonin and aluminium .In conclusion, the results indicated that melatonin showed a significant improvement of genetic damages induced by aluminium

  4. Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

    H. Saikia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and to compare it with a standard hypolipidaemic drug simvastatin. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (100-200 g were randomized into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The groups were treated as follows: Group A: normal diet (ND; Group B: HFD (vanaspati ghee + coconut oil mixture in ratio of 3:2 at 10 ml/kg/day; Group C: HFD+ AEBSL (100 mg/kg/day; Group D: HFD + AEBSL (200 mg/kg/day; Group E: HFD + simvastatin (1.8 mg/kg/day. Lipid profile was estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. AEBSL showed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL levels and significant (p<0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in hypercholesteromic rats (Group C and Group D. AEBSL 200 mg/kg/day found to be more effective than AEBSL 100 mg/kg/day. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01 and increases the percentage of protection AEBSL treated animals. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves have excellent lipid lowering potentiality.

  5. The Vitamine D3 Analogue (1α Hydroxyvitamin D3) Aggravates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity In Albino Rats

    Provitamin D, cholecalciferol, undergoes hydroxylation at the 25 and the 1α position in the liver and the kidney, respectively, before it turns into a hormonally active form regulating calcium homeostasis. The main purpose of the present study is to assess the potential of the 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 analogue to aggravate the ability of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to cause hepatotoxicity in albino rats. For this purpose, four groups of male albino rats, each of five, were used as follow: control group (G 1) received no treatment, CCl4 treated group (G 2) received CCl4 at a dose of 0.2 ml/100 g body weight in sunflower oil (1/1) v/v ratio two times per week for three weeks subcutaneously, 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 treated group (G 3) received a total dose of 5 ng/g body weight of 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 dissolved in propyl alcohol divided into six doses each given twice weekly for three weeks via the subcutaneous route, and CCl4 + 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 treated group (G 4) received the same dose of CCl4 and 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 concomitantly as previously described. Liver tissues from sacrificed animals were fixed in 10% formalin before sectioning and stained with eosin and hematoxyline then were examined histopathologically. Sera from control and treated animals were separated from blood and examined for ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase and LDH levels. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G, bilirubin, creatinine, phosphorous and Ca levels were also monitored. Data from the present study showed that administration of 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 aggravated CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as evidenced by the exacerbation of the rise in serum ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase levels. The analogue, however, had no effect on serum liver enzymes in CCl4 untreated rats. Though, CCl4 caused significant impairment of kidney function as shown by the rise in serum creatinine and urea levels which were differentially affected by the analogue. In conclusion, the 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 compound

  6. Effects of estrogen on hyperglycemia and liver dysfunction in diabetic male rats

    Ahmed, Marwa A; Hassanein, Khaled M A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible beneficial effect of estrogen (17β-estradiol E2) on hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and liver dysfunctions in STZ-induced diabetic rats. A total of 40 albino male rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group (I), a diabetic group (II), a group given 17β estradiol (E2) for 15 days (III), and a diabetic group given E2 for 30 days (IV). Diabetes was induced in the rats by 65 mg/kg streptozosin (STZ) via an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. E2 was ...

  7. Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Supplementation Alters the Glycogen Deposition in Liver and Protein Metabolism in Gonads of Female Albino Rats

    Sashank Srivastava; P. H. Pathak

    2012-01-01

    Garlic is an ayurvedic herb that has been extensively used as medication and as the taste enhancer of the food. The present investigation was undertaken to provide data on the efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) extract on glycogen deposition and protein metabolism in female albino rats that may further explore medicinal potential of garlic. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, ...

  8. Comparison of the efficacy of sitagliptin with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats

    Paul Mathai; Nagendra Nayak; Mamtha Rao; Nitasha Bhat, G. M.; K. Vinodraj; N Chandralekha; D Rajesh; T. K. Chethan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sitagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase type 4 inhibitor. This study was done to assess the insulin-sensitizing effect of sitagliptin on Wistar albino rats by means of surrogate measures. Methods: There were four groups of six rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received sitagliptin 100 mg/kg orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 d...

  9. Comparison of the efficacy of liraglutide with pioglitazone on dexamethasone induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia and hyperglycaemia in albino rats

    Vinodraj, K.; Nagendra Nayak, I. M.; Rao, J. Vikram; Mathai, Paul; N Chandralekha; Nitasha, B.; D. Rajesh; T. K. Chethan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of liraglutide with pioglitazone for prevention of dexamethasone induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in Albino rats. Materials and Methods: There were four groups of six rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received liraglutide 1.8 mg/kg subcutaneously 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days...

  10. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats.

    Sachdev, Devender O; Gosavi, Devesh D; Salwe, Kartik J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantly lowers the level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C in diabetic rats. No toxicity was observed even when cow urine was given 32 times of the study dose in acute toxicity and no significant changes were seen when it was used chronically, which suggests that cow urine is having a very high therapeutic index. This study supports the traditional use of GoA in diabetes and is having a high therapeutic index and is safe for chronic use. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Gomutra ark. PMID:23284212

  11. Correction of glutathione metabolism in the liver of albino rats affected by low radiation doses

    The levels of total glutathione GSH, GSSG and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were studied in the liver of adult albino rats subjected to 3-fold external γ-irradiation throughout 2 weeks at the overall dose of 0.75 Gy after 15 h, 2 and 5 days from the last irradiation. Some animals were injected intraperitoneally with the pantothenate containing complex > 3 times on days 1-3 before the irradiation. The radiation related decrease of GSH, GSH/GSSG and the total glutathione level was prevented by the prophylactic administration of the complex and probably at the expense of the activation of the G-SH biosynthesis and/or transport in the liver by the CoA biosynthetic precursor. (author)

  12. Antispermatogenic activity of Morinda lucida extract in male rats

    Yinusa Raji; Olumide S. Akinsomisoye; Toyin M. Salman

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of Morinda lucida Benth (Rubiaceae) on the reproductive activity of male albino rats.respectively. The control rats received the vehicle. All the treated rats had corresponding recovery groups. At the end of each experimental period, animals were killed and organ weights, sperm characteristics, serum testosterone levels,histology of the testes and fertility were assessed. Results: Morinda lucida leaf extract did not cause any changes in body and somatic organ weights, but significantly increased the testis weight (P < 0.05). The sperm motility and viability, and the epididymal sperm counts of rats treated for 13 weeks were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Sperm morphological abnormalities and serum testosterone levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05). There were various degrees of damage to the seminiferous tubules. The extract reduced the fertility of the treated rats by reducing the litter size. Reversal of these changes, however, occurred after a period of time. Conclusion: The extract of Morinda lucida has reversible antispermatogenic properties.

  13. Comparative gastroprotective effects of natural honey, nigella sativa and cimetidine against acetylsalicylic acid Induced gastric ulcer in albino rats

    Natural honey (NH) and Nigella sativa (NS) seeds have been in use as a natural remedy for over thousands of years in various parts of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of NS (Nigella sativa) and NH (natural honey) on acetylsalicylic acid induced gastric ulcer in an experimental model with comparison to Cimetidine (CD). The study was conducted on 100 male albino rats, divided into 5 groups, with 20 animals in each group. Group A was used as a control and treated with Gum Tragacanth (GT). Eighty animals of the other groups were given acetylsalicylic acid (0.2 gm/kg body weight for 3 days) to produce ulcers by gavage. Two animals from each group were sacrificed for the detection of gastric ulcers. The remaining 72 animals were equally divided in four groups (B, C, D and E). The rats in group B, C and D were given NS, NH, and CD respectively while those in E were kept as such. No gastric lesions were seen in control group A while all the animals in group E revealed gastric ulcers. The animals of group B, C and D showed healing effects in 15/18 (83%), 14/18 (78%) and 17/18 (94%) animals grossly; 13/18 (72%), 14/18 (78%) and 16/18 (89%) rats showed recovery on microscopic examination respectively. The healing effects were almost the same in all three groups therefore, the statistical difference was not significant among them (p =0.40 and 0.65) while significant from group E (p=0.0000075, 0.0000016 and 0.0000012 respectively). NS and NH are equally effective in healing of gastric ulcer similar to cimetidine. Further broad spectrum studies as well as clinical trials should be conducted before the use of these products as routine medicines. (author)

  14. Cardioprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck Peel on Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide Induced Cardiotoxicity in Albino Rats

    Samir Baniya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (CGO peel extract in rats. Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck peel extract was evaluated for protection against cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg body wt., i.p. and doxorubicin (15 mg/kg body wt., i.p. induced cardiotoxicity in male albino rats. Biomarkers like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG and creatinine kinase (CK-MB along with heart weight index and antioxidant enzymes was considered to determine the cardioprotective property. Histopathological study was also carried out on heart of experimental animals. The CGO peel extract was found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids, saponins, phenolic compounds and tannin as chemical constituents. Cyclophosphamide (CYP and doxorubicin (DOX treated groups exhibited significant increase in LDH, ALT, AST, ALP, TC, TG and CK-MB level and decrease in catalase (CAT, superoxide dimutase (SOD when compared to control group. Pretreatment with different doses of CGO significantly reduced the serum biomarkers and increased the tissue antioxidant level when compared to DOX and CYP alone treated groups. Moreover, treatment with CGO also improved CYP induced changes in histopathology of heart which may be due to its antioxidant property. The Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck exerted protective effect against CYP and DOX induced cardiotoxicity in rats, which may be due its lipid lowering and antioxidant properties. These findings might be helpful to understand the beneficial effects of CGO extract against myocardial injury although further study is needed to confirm its mechanism.

  15. THE USE OF CASSAVA ROOT MEAL AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CORN IN DIETS FOR ALBINO RATS

    Thomas Nii NARKU NORTEY

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to determine if partial replacement of maize with cassava root meal (CRM in diets for albino rats will have an effect on performance, organ characteristics and blood parameters. Twenty five Sprague Dawley albino rats (F344 strain, initial body weight (216 ± 8g were randomly assigned to five treatments (T1 to T5 in a completely randomized (CRD arrangement. T1 was the control and contained zero CRM. T2 and T3 contained 30% CRM, while T4 and T5 contained 45% CRM. These levels of inclusion represented 50 and 75% replacement of corn in the diets respectively. T2 and T4 had 0.15% methionine (Met while T3 and T5 had 0.3% Met. The rats were each fed a single diet for 28d. Average daily feed intake (ADFI of rats on T1 was lower (P 0.05 in average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion efficiency (FCE. Similarly there were no differences (P>0.05 in carcass, viscera and other internal organ weights. Results of this trial indicate that albino rats can tolerate diets with added CRM (45% of the diet with no adverse effects on growth and internal organ characteristics. Future work will need to look at the possibility of using CRM at similar or higher levels in diets for growing pigs.

  16. EFFECT OF AMLODIPINE ON ORAL GLUCOSE INDUCED GLYCEMIC CHANGES IN NORMAL ALBINO RATS

    Dr. Sushma V. Naidu et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of amlodipine on blood glucose levels through oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic albino Rats and the magnitude of its effect on basal v/s glucose induced glycemic value compared to control.Methods: Rats were divided into control and test groups to study the effect of glucose induced glycemic changes in normal rats following oral administration of amlodipine. The control group received 1 ml of distilled water everyday, test group received amlodipine everyday in the dose of 1.5 mg/Kg BW for 3 days.On the third day, 2 hours after drug administration both groups were administered oral glucose in the dose of 0.6 gm/Kg BW. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 60 and 150 minutes after glucose administration by rat tail snipping method using ACCUCHEK glucometer.Results: The mean CBG of Test group is significantly higher(P<0.001 at all times of the glucose challenge i.e. 0, 60, 150 minutes from the time of glucose administration compared to control group. The optimal hyperglycemia was seen at 60 minutes which is 32.76% higher than the control group, followed by 0 minutes (29.41% and 150 minutes (7.92%. Conclusion: Amlodipine worsens glycaemic control in normal rats at all hours of glucose challenge. Extending this to human beings, whether with impaired glucose tolerance or overt diabetes mellitus, it is suggested to limit the use of amlodipine to situations unless absolutely necessary since it induces hyperglycaemia even in normoglycaemic rats by a postulated mechanism of inhibition of both basal and glucose induced insulin secretion significantly.

  17. Hypolipidemic effect of triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis on female albino rats

    Eman G.E. Helal,Fatma Ahmed Eid and Amira M. Salah EL-Din Ahmed El

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia, hyperlipoproteinemia or dyslipidemia is the presence of elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and / or lipoproteins in the blood. Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities are extremely common in the general population and are regarded as a highly modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease due to the influence of cholesterol, one of the most clinically relevant lipid substances in atheroscterosis. Aim of the work: This study aimed to evaluate the possible treatment and protective effect of triphala on hyperlipidemic rats. Material and methods: Six groups (5rat/group of female albino rats (Rattus albinus were used. The 1st group used as control, in the 2nd group hyperlipidemia (25% fat & 2% cholesterol was induced for 3 weeks only then sacrified , the 3rd group was hyperlipidemic rats for 3 weeks then left for other 3 weeks without any additional treatment as a recovery period, the 4th group served as hyperlipidemic group for 3 weeks then treated with triphala for another 3 weeks (25 mg/100 gm b. wt., the 5th group was hyperlipidemic (25% fat & 2% cholesterol for 6 weeks and the 6th group served as hyperlipidemic rats for 6 weeks, and at the same time given triphala (25 mg/100 gm b. wt. by oral administration. Results: The biochemical parameters showed highly significant increase in the body weight, serum glucose, ASAT, ALAT, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin and total lipids in liver .Many histopathological and histochemical changes were detected in liver tissue of the hyperlipidemic rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with triphala ameliorated the biochemical parameters, histological and histochemical results. Conclusion: It is recommended to use triphala in diets for hyperlipidemic patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

  18. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Erythropoietin and Melatonin on Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Male Rats

    Nasser Ahmadiasl; Shokofeh Banaei; Alireza Alihemmati; Behzad Baradaran; Ehsan Azimian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) is an important cause of renal dysfunction. It contributes to the development of acute renal failure (ARF). The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of erythropoietin (EPO) and melatonin (MEL), which are known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents, in IR-induced renal injury in rats. Methods: Male Wistar Albino rats were unilaterally nephrectomized and subjected to 45 min of renal pedicle occlusion followed by 24 ...

  19. Effect of Some Food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products of Young Albino RatsI- Liver and Kidney Functions

    Eman G. E. Helal(1 Samir A.M.Zaahkouk

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow, food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect might explain hyperactivity of children that was claimed associated with consumption of food colorants. The study revealed that administration of both natural and synthetic food colorants (permitted dose significantly increases serum AST and serum urea. All colorants with the exception of sun-set yellow significantly increase serum total bilirubin. While, chlorophyll, fast-green and sun-set yellow were significantly increase serum ALT. Some of the colorants used have a retard destructive effect on some vital organ functions, which extends even after the recovery period. Therefore, large quantities and /or long periods of colorants administration should not be used as additive in man's diet or as a drink. Hence, these colorants should restrictly be used in nutritional therapy. And more caring must be done prevent our children to eat or drink these colorants with much amounts or for long period.

  20. The protective and/or curative effect of serotonin on sex hormones in gamma irradiated albino rats

    Studies were carried out to investigate the efficacy of serotonin as a potential radioprotector and/or therapeutic agent. Irradiation of male albino rats was applied in single doses at 6.5 and 10 Gy levels. The effect was traced on FSH, LH, PrL and testosterone in blood and testicular tissue. The data obtained revealed marked and significant protection both serum and testicular tissue for the lower dose level of 6.5 Gy. Serotonin proved to exert nonsignificant control of hormonal changes due to the higher dose level of 10 Gy. Serotonin administered after radiation exposure, showed partial curative role for changes in LH, whereas it failed to exert any significant therapeutic role on changes in FSH, PrL and tester one induced by either of the two applied dose levels. It could be concluded that serotonin played only a good role as radioprotector on all investigated hormones in serum and testis at the radiation dose level 6.5 Gy. 8 figs., 8 tabs

  1. Effect of aspirin and prostaglandins on the carbohydrate metabolism in albino rats.: glucose oxidation through different pathways and glycolytic enzymes

    The effect of chronic and acute doses of aspirin and prostaglandins F2α and E2 individually on the oxidation of glucose through Embden Meyerhof-TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathways and some key glycolytic enzymes of liver were studied in male albino rats. Studies were extended to find the combined effect of PGF2α and E2 with an acute dose of aspirin. There was increased utilisation of both 1-14C glucose and 6-14C glucose on aspirin treatment. However, the metabolism through the EM-TCA pathway was more pronounced as shown by a reduced ratio of 14CO2 from 1-14C and 6-14C glucose. Two hepatic key glycolytic enzymes viz. hexokinase and pyruvate kinase were increased due to aspirin treatment. Withdrawal of aspirin corrected the above impaired carbohydrate metabolism in liver. Prostaglandin F2α also caused a reduction in the utilisation of 1-14C glucose, while PGE2 recorded an increase in the utilisation of both 1-14C and 6-14C glucose when compared to controls, indicating that different members of prostaglandins could affect metabolisms and differently. Administration of the PGs and aspirin together showed an increase in the utilisation of 6-14C glucose. (auth.)

  2. Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of Plumbago rosea leaves in female albino rats

    Sheeja E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the effect of petroleum ether (60-80, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Plumbago rosea leaves on the estrous cycle and to identify the estrogenic activity of active acetone and ethanol extracts in female albino rats. Methods : Plant extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at two dose levels: 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The effective acetone and ethanol extracts were further studied on estrogenic activity in rats. Histological studies of the uterus were carried out to confirm their estrogenic activity. Results : The acetone and ethanol extracts were most effective in interrupting the normal estrous cycle of the rats (P< 0.05, < 0.01, < 0.001. These later exhibited prolonged diestrous stage of the estrous cycle with consequent temporary inhibition of ovulation. The antiovulatory activity was reversible on discontinuation of treatment. Both the extracts showed significant estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Conclusion : The acetone and ethanolic extracts of P. rosea leaves have an antifertility activity.

  3. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions of carbamazepine and glibenclamide in healthy albino Wistar rats

    S Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To find out the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interaction of carbamazepine, a protype drug used to treat painful diabetic neuropathy with glibenclamide in healthy albino Wistar rats following single and multiple dosage treatment. Materials and Methods: Therapeutic doses (TD of glibenclamide and TD of carbamazepine were administered to the animals. The blood glucose levels were estimated by GOD/POD method and the plasma glibenclamide concentrations were estimated by a sensitive RP HPLC method to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Results: In single dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations of rats treated with both carbamazepine and glibenclamide were significantly increased when compared with glibenclamide alone treated rats and the mechanism behind this interaction may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport of glibenclamide by carbamazepine, but in multiple dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations were reduced and it may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport and induction of CYP2C9, the enzyme through which glibenclamide is metabolised. Conclusions: In the present study there is a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between carbamazepine and glibenclamide was observed. The possible interaction involves both P-gp and CYP enzymes. To investigate this type of interactions pre-clinically are helpful to avoid drug-drug interactions in clinical situation.

  4. Radioprotective role of vitamin E and urea in irradiated albino rats

    In control rats, the levels of glycogen and pyruvic acid in the forebrain were 217 ± 8 to 226 ± 8 and 17.70 ± 0.60 to l8.00 ± 0.62 μ g/g fresh tissue, respectively. Whole body gamma irradiation at the dose of 7 Gy caused a significant increase in the level of glycogen in the forebrain of albino rats. This increase was about 29%, 47%, 38% and 24% on the 1 st, 3 rd, 7 th and 10 th days post irradiation, respectively. As for pyruvic acid content, a temporary significant increase by about 19% on the 3 rd day post irradiation was observed, while a decrease of 32% and 28% was recorded on the 7th and 10th days after irradiation, respectively. The treatment of rats with intraperitoneal injection of either vitamin E at a concentration of 10 mg/100 g animal body weight, or with urea at 200 mg/100 g body weight pre-irradiation reduced the changes induced by whole body gamma irradiation. 1 tab

  5. Toxicity assessment of ethanol extract of Solanum villosum (Mill on wistar albino rats.

    Venkatesh R

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the potential toxicity of ethanol extract of the medicinal plant Solanum villosum (Mill. Methods: Ethanol extract of S. villosum administered orally at ranges of doses 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg/bw to assess its impact on biochemical indices of Wistar albino rats. Hematological profile, biochemical assays, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation assays were compared between control and experimental animals. An acute toxicity test was performed in rats at different concentration of ethanol extract of S. villosum in order to establish the approximate oral lethal dose (LD 50. Results: No mortality occurred during the two weeks experimental period, in both control and experimental groups. The changes in biochemical parameters were statistically insignificant at p<0.05 levels. The treated rats showed that very less toxic symptoms only after 800 mg/kg/bw. These observations were supported by hematological and liver function markers. Conclusions: The medicinal plant Solanum villosum can be administered orally at a dose range of 200 mg/kg/bw was very effective and without any side effects. Ethanol extract of S. villosum is not toxic and therefore it may be used safely in clinical trials. It is the first documented report about the plant Solanum villosum (Mill in the toxicity assessment study.

  6. MORPHOLOGY OF THE SPLEEN IN ADULT ALBINO RATS AFTER WHOLE-BODY EXPOSURE TO LOW-LEVEL OF TOLUENE

    Vladimir N. Voloshin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ that is highly sensitive to different chemicals. Toluene is an aromatic hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent and can be considered as a potential immunotoxin. Aims and Objects: We aimed to investigate the organometry and histology of spleen from rats exposed to toluene. Materials and Methods: The toxicity of toluene was evaluated in male albino rats (6/group via whole-body exposure. The animals were exposed to target concentrations of 0 (air control and 133 parts per million (ppm of toluene in air for 5 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 2 month. The animals were weighted and decapitated at different time points (one, seven, sixteen, thirty one and sixty one day post-exposure. The weight, length, width and thickness of the spleen were measured. It was studied absolute and relative weight of the spleen. Histological examination of the spleen was made by light microscope. Results: Statistically significant difference between the mean of body weight from the control and experimental animals was observed seven days after last exposure to toluene. Thus, the body weight of animals exposed to toluene was 254.17 g, that was 7.18% (p = 0.048 below control data. The histological findings showed increased area of the white pulp of spleen from rats exposed to toluene had increases compared to that from the control. The numbers of siderophages were higher in the spleen from rats exposed to toluene. The relative area of germinal centre in the structure of the splenic lymph follicles of rats exposed to toluene increased. We found that in the first and second experimental groups of animals the indication was at the level 10.86% and 10.26% respectively. These are 24.11% (p = 0.002 and 26.04% (p <0.001 above control data, respectively. Inhalation exposures to toluene vapor at 133 ppm produces hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue of the rat spleen. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that whole-body exposures to low

  7. Structural And Histochemical Changes Of Albino Rat Kidney Under The Effect Of Injectable Contraceptive

    Mamdouh A. Ghali

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of safe and effective method for fertility control still under continuous search. So, discovery of structures having long duration of action which made administration by injection was an attractive alternative to oral contraceptives. Medroxyprogesterone acetate emerged from this early work as promising injectable long ­ acting contraceptive with minimal risk. This work was planned to evaluate the structural and histochemical changes induced by injectable contraceptive Depo-provera (MPA, on the kidney of adult female Albino rats as well as testing the degree of reversibility of changes that may develop after the arrest of its use. Thirty adult female Albino rats were used in this work and divided into three equal groups. Group I was used as a control, group II was intramuscularly injected with MPA 4 times (2.7 mg / rat every 3 oestrus cycles and sacrificed one day after arrest of the injection, while , group III the animals were injected with MPA by the same dose and sacrificed 30 days after arrest of the injection. The abdominal aorta was exposed and Indian ink injection was injected to study the renal vascular changes. The animals were sacrificed, the kidney was dissected and paraffin sections were prepared and stained by haematoxylin and eosin and PAS technique to study the microscopic structure and the distribution of PAS+ve materials respectively. Frozen sections were prepared and stained by both Gomori and Nachla's techniques to study the activity of acid phosphatase enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme respectively. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using Student's t.test. The injected groups showed atrophy of tubular epithelium, dilatation of tubular lumina. All recovery groups were nearly similar to normal state except PAS+ve material of renal tubules which were nearly similar to injected groups. The treated groups showed significant increase in vascular distribution and PAS+ve materials. While, non

  8. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam

    Ahmed M.A Abd El-Mawla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. Objective: The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. Results: A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001 in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the 1 st and 3 rd groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001 in the 2 nd group when compared with the 4 th control group. Conclusion: This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs.

  9. Antidiarrheal activity and Phytochemical profile of the ethanolic leaf extract of Leonotis nepetifolia (Lion's ear) in Wistar albino rats

    Ndukui James Gakunga; Godfrey Kateregga; Larry Fred Sembajwe; John Kateregga

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Leonotis nepetifolia in wistar albino rats. Methods: This study was done in February 2013. The ethanolic leaf extract of L. nepetifolia was evaluated for its antidiarrheal activity. A total of sixty rats were used in the study. At first, thirty rats in five groups of six animals were orally dosed with the extract at dose rates of 225mg/kg, 450mg/kg, 900mg/kg body weight respectively...

  10. Effects of isosaline extracts of tetrapleura tetrapetra and olax subscorpioides on certain biochemical parameters of albino rats.

    Olagunju, J A; Oyedapo, O O; Onasanya, B A; Osoba, O O; Adebanjo, O O; Eweje, O; Shodeinde, A B

    2000-01-01

    The effects of isosaline extracts of Tetrapleura tetrapetra and Olax subscorpioides were investigated in albino rats. The treatment of rats with these extracts resulted in an increase in the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, liver aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. The extract of Tetrapleura tetrapetra caused a significant increase in blood glucose and liver glycogen levels while the extract of Olax subscorpioides caused a slight reduction but not statistically significant in the levels of blood glucose and liver glycogen. Both extracts exhibited a significant reduction of protein in the livers of treated rats. PMID:21214460

  11. Evaluation of genotoxic potential of Hypericum triquetrifolium extract in somatic and germ cells of male albino mice

    Bushra M. A. Mohammed,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypericum triquetrifolium aqueous extract were studied for the first time for its toxic and the possible clastogenic effects in vivo on the bone marrow and spermatozoa cells of Swiss albino mice. The lethal dose of the aqueous extract was considered to be 10.33 g/kg of the body weight, injected subcutaneously. The doses which were chosen for treatments were 2, 1, and 0.25 g/kg. H. triquetrifolium extract induce statistically significant increases in the average numbers of micronucleus(MN at the dose 2 g/kg and chromosome aberrations at the doses 2 and 1 g/kg ,the majority of aberrations observed were chromatid breaks, centromeric breaks, acentric fragments. The extract was found to inhibit mitotic index (MI in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover the plant extract showed a significant induction of sperm abnormalities in all concentrations used comparing with the untreated animals. The most frequent types of sperm abnormalities of the treated groups were; amorphous, pseudo-droplet defect, bent mid piece defect and corkscrew mid piece defect. However, the lowest dose 0.25 g/kg body weight was the most effective one which markedly increased the corkscrew midpiece defect. The results indicated that the mixture of the compounds found in the aqueous extract caused cytotoxicity and induced different cytogenetic effects in both somatic and germ cells of male albino mice.

  12. Vertebral muscles of the back and tail of the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus).

    Brink, E E; Pfaff, D W

    1980-01-01

    The dorsal and ventral vertebral muscles of the back and the tail of the albino Norway rat are described and discussed. These muscles were analyzed because they are undoubtably used during the sexual posturing, lordosis, of the female rat, as well as participating in a variety of other behaviors. The muscles are described by region (thoracic-lumbar or sacrocaudal), and the classifications of Vallois are followed where possible. Of the epaxial (dorsal) muscles, the three longitudinal systems of muscles, the transversospinalis, the longissimus, and the iliocostalis systems, can be identified in the albino rat. Muscles of the transversospinalis system are fused in the lumbar region, distinct and specialized in the thoracic region, and form the tail muscle extensor caudae medialis caudally. The iliocostalis system of the lumbar region is fused with one component of the lumbar longissimus system to form lateral longissimus. Anteriorly, iliocostalis thoracis and cervicis represent the iliocostalis system. The lumbar longissimus system is represented by the longissimus component of lateral longissimus, medial longissimus, and a short-fiber component. Longissimus dorsi is the anterior continuation of the longissimus portion of the lateral longissimus. The short-fiber component also continues into the thoracic region, where it becomes difficult to separate out from longissimus dorsi. Medial longissimus represents the excursion into the lumbar region of the long, tendinous, tailbase-tail muscle, longissimus caudae; the caudal portion of this muscle is extensor caudae lateralis. The remaining dorsal muscle described is the tail muscle, abductor caudae dorsalis. The hyposomal (ventral) muscles described are quadratus lumborum and the intertransversarii, present in the lumbar region; the muslces iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus and coccygeus which arise from the medial face of the pelvis and insert onto the proximal tail; the long, tendinous, tail muscles, flexor caudae brevis and

  13. Protection of radiation-induced DNA damage in albino rats by Zingiber Montanum extract

    The tropical ginger, Zingiber montanum (J. König) A. Dietr, has potentials in scavenging free radicals and affording protection from radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations. The present investigation aims at determining antioxidant and radioprotective properties of the rhizome extract. Sulphur free radical, DPPH and superoxide scavenging assays were carried out for assessing antioxidant activities. Radiation-induced (500 cGy) DNA damage in pBR322 in vitro could be significantly reduced upto 71% (P < 0.05) by treatment with 60% ethanol extract (20 μg). Acute toxicity of the 60% ethanol extract was determined and suitable injectable dose was selected for intra-peritoneal administration in albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). The LD50 of extract calculated for 72 hrs was found to be 2.9 g/kg, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of rhizome extract was 1.3 g/kg. Rhizome extract (0.5 g/kg) in 60% ethanol was intra-peritoneally injected to albino rats and exposed to 100, 300 and 500 cGy. Radioprotective effect of the extract was determined by alkaline single cell comet assay. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) of comet DNA (68%) and length (61%)in rat bone marrow cells was observed at a radiation dose of 500 cGy. The results demonstrate that tropical ginger possess free radical scavenging properties and can protect bone marrow cells from radiation-induced DNA damages. The results on radiation induced DNA damage using plasmid pBR322 DNA obviously justify that the extract at a low dose can protect DNA from undergoing strand breakage due to gamma radiation exposure. Versatility of Zingiber montanum in different chemical assays in terms of its radical scavenging potential shows that this non-conventional food plant as a lot of potential in maintaining human health through dietary supplementation as nutraceutical. This candidate plant also can possibly be a promising candidate in clinical radiotherapy perhaps as a substitute of or the well-know radioprotector amifostine. (author)

  14. Effects of ciprofloxacin and zinc chloride in adult albino rat and pre-natal conceptus

    Background: Administration of quinolone therapy is controversial during growing age as stated by earlier authors. The flouroquinolones are currently not indicated for young children because of arthropathy and adverse effect as new born shown by studies. However the effects of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ on prenatal conceptus have remained undocumented. The present study was designed to compare the effects on conceptus after maternal ingestion of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ using Wastar albino rats. Methods: Ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ was administrated to pregnant female albino rats. Ciprofloxacin with a dose of 20 mg/Kg bodyweight and ZnCl/sub 2/ 120 micro g/100 gm bodyweight two times therapeutic dose for 10 days (from day 8-18 of pregnancy). Each animal was weighted on day 1, day 8 and day 18 of pregnancy. Abortion resulted on day 18th of pregnancy. Each group of pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation by over dose of either anaesthesia, abdomen opened, uterus and both cornua containing conceptus identified, removed, there weight recorded, crown rump length was measured and was compared with similar value of control animals. The results were statistically analysed to find out the significance. Results: The ciprofloxacin induces a mordanting effect as obviated by increased basophilia. Our study reveals that ciprofloxacin administered in maternal, decreased maternal body weight to 38.4+-0.9 gm. However simultaneous ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained the body weight to 41.4+-0.7 gm, while ZnCl/sub 2/ increased the body weight to 46.5+-2.25 gm. The body weight and Crown Rump length (CR Length) in conceptus decreased by 4.52+-0.10 gm and 3.06+-0.09 Cm respectively. That ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ administration maintained the body weight and CR length by 5.46+-0.09 gm and 3.79+-0.13 Cm respectively. That ZnCl/sub 2/ administration increased the body weight and CR length by 6.71+-0.05 gm and 4.15+-0.08 Cm respectively. Conclusion: Prenatal administration

  15. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    Rafaat Mohamed Elsanhoty; Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods:The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results: The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r:0.743;P Conclusions:The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage.

  16. Possible Hepatoprotective Effects of Lacidipine in Irradiated DOCA-Salt Hypertensive Albino Rats

    Sahar Mohamed Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium channel blockers are increasingly used for the treatment of hypertension. Hypertension is an important risk factor for liver damage and several other circulatory abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of lacidipine in a irradiation-induced hepatocellular damage model in Deoxyc Orticosterone Acetate (DOCA-salt-induced hypertensive model in rats. In this study, animals were divided into five groups as follows: control (Group 1, hypertensive (Group 2, irradiated (Group 3, irradiated and hypertensive (Group 4 and irradiated, hypertensive and lacidipine-treated (Group 5. At the end of the experiment, the livers were removed and its homogenates were biochemically examined. Significant differences were found between values of all groups (p<0.05. Group 3 and particularly Group 4 showed significant increase in lipid peroxidation and Nitric Oxide (NO and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α with a significant reduction in serum level of alanine amine transferase (ALT enzyme and in superoxide dismutase in red blood cells lysates. Lacidipine-treated group (5 showed a significant reduction in elevated systolic blood pressure together with a great protection of ALT and SOD enzymes from the destructive effects of irradiation and hypertension. Additionally, this CCB reduces hepatic NO and serum TNF-α levels that were increased in groups (2,3,4. The present study suggests that lacidipine has some important protective effects on liver of hypertensive irradiated albino rats.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats

    P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg/celecoxib @ 10mg/kg (in case of COX–2 assay on 7th day of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days. All groups of lotus seed extracts were revealed anti-inflammatory activity in Carragenin induced inflammation as well as in COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay. While comparing all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed extracts, exhibited more pronounced inhibition than other groups. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 157-159

  18. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD 50 ; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD 50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

  19. Hepatoprotective Role of Sodium Selenite Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

    Youcef Necib

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken, to evaluate the protective effect of sodium selenite against mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in experimental rats. Female Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: sodium selenite (1mg/ kg b.w; ip, mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of sodium selenite and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 10 days experimental period. Results: Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of sodium selenite resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH -Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by sodium selenite supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of sodium selenite. Conclusion: The results clearly demonstrate that sodium selenite treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

  20. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation

    Mishra, Arun K.; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with s...

  1. ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL ANESTHETIC ACTIVITY OF LIGNOCAINE BY SIMULTANEOUS ADMINISTRATION OF POTASSIUM CHANNEL AGONISTS NICORANDIL IN ALBINO RATS

    Lakkol Kiran J; Umakant Patil N; Kallappa Shivashankaramurthy G; VinodKumar C.S

    2013-01-01

    There are reports about a possible weak local anaesthetic activity of nicorandil, a potassium channel agonist (PCA). In addition, modification of local anesthetic activity of lignocaine by PCA is not clearly defined. The objective of the present study is to evaluate local anesthetic activity of nicorandil and to evaluate the influence of nicorandil on the efficacy and duration of local anesthesia by lignocaine. A total number of 84 albino rats of either sex were divided into 14 groups of 6 an...

  2. Effect of fruit extract of Fragaria vesca L. on experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in albino rats

    Lalit Kanodia; Mondita Borgohain; Swranamoni Das

    2011-01-01

    Aim : Ulcerative colitis and Crohn′s disease are chronic recurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of unknown origin. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key factor in the pathogenesis and perpetuation of the mucosal damage in IBD. Materials and Methods : Ethanolic extract of Fragaria vesca (EFFV) fruits was prepared by percolation method and subjected to oral toxicity testing using OECD guidelines. Albino rats were pretreated orally for 5 days with 3% gum acacia in control, EFFV 500 mg...

  3. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA) SEED EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Anand M. Ingale; Vijaya Rajendran; Venkata BharatKumar Pinnelli

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peptic ulcer disease is a common condition of present day life, and its incidence is markedly increasing. The available drugs for the treatment are associated with adverse effects. Hence, there is a need for newer and better treatment for the same. Objectives: To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Vitis Vinifera (seed) by Water Immersion stress induced gastric ulcer model in Wistar albino rats using two doses (100, 200mg/kg body weight.) Methods: The antiu...

  4. High Fiber Diet Effect On Haemopoietic And Endocrine System In Irradiated Male Rats

    Wheat bran was mixed with standard rat diet in order to assess the role of high fiber diet on the damage induced by 4 Gy gamma irradiation in male rats. Immediately after exposure to irradiation, the male albino rats were fed on diet containing 10% wheat bran ad libitum. After 15 days, the rats were decapitated then blood picture, levels of calcium, glucose, folic acid, vitamin B12 , triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), testosterone and insulin hormones were determined. The results denoted that wheat bran had an improvement effect on the radiation damage on blood picture, calcium level, vitamin B12 , folic acid and testosterone hormone, which most probably due to the effect of the high antioxidant action of wheat bran that might improve the gastro intestinal metabolism.

  5. Utilization of greenable albino mutation lines of thermosensitive genie male sterile rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp indica)

    Two greenable albino mutation lines W24 and W27 induced by 60Co gamma rays treatment on seeds of a thermosensitive genie male sterile (TGMS) rice c.v 2177S were investigated on their usefulness in two-line hybrid rice. The leaf color of W24 and W27 was similar and could be expressed in different temperature conditions. The first three leaves of W24 and W27 were ablinotic at extending, but changed into green after the fourth leaf extended. The greenable leaf area were about 40% for the first leaf and 90% for the third leaf. No significant differences were detected in morphoagronomic characters and styler extrusion rate between the mutation line and 2177S, which suggested that the mutation leaf color may be a useful marker in eliminating contamination of selfed seeds in two-line hybrid rice

  6. Histopathological Effects of Varied Fluoride Concentration on Cerebrum in Albino Rats

    Sajad Hamid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorides have been a cause of concern for scientists and environmentalists for the long because of their harmful effects on the human and animal life but the problem was highlighted during the twentieth century because of great increase in the human population and industrialization. Since fluorides accumulate in calcified and hard tissues of the body such as bone and teeth and can be detected easily in these tissues, so most of the previous studies focused on the effects of fluorides on these tissues. However, during the past decade researchers all over the world have felt that there is a need to study the effects of fluorides on various other tissues of the body including CNS as fluoride intake for prolonged period is known to cause abnormal behavioural pattern, grave implications for Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, Attention deficit disorder and reduced I.Q in children as the fluorides are known to cross blood brain barrier. Hence the present study has thrown light on the involvement of brain in chronic fluoride toxicity. The target organ of studied was cerebrum. In the Study, albino rats were exposed to 30 or 100 ppm fluoride (asNaF in drinking water for 3 months. Rats exposed to 30 ppm fluoride did not show any notable alterations in brain histology, whereas rats exposed to 100 ppm fluoride showed significant neurodegenerative changes in lhe motor cortex.Changes included decrease in size and number of neurons in all the regions, signs of chromatolysis and gliosis in the motor cortex. These histological changes suggest a toxic effect of high-fluoride intake & on chronic use. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2012; 1(1.000: 30-34

  7. The Protective Effect of Vitamin C on Irradiated Testes of Albino Rat

    Lotfy Sayed*, Esam Eldin Abdel Hady*, Hosam Eldin Hussin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased exposure to radiation in medicine or industries increases the hazards of radiation on various organs of the human body. The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of anti oxidant (vitamin C against the effect of radiation on rat testes. Thirty adult albino rats were divided into three groups, each contained ten rats .The first group (G.1 was exposed to 415 r (G.1' or 622 r (G.1" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week. The second group (G.2 was exposed to 415 r (G.2' or 622 r (G.2" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week, in addition to vitamin C equivalent to 86.9 mg./liter orally for the two sub groups for the same period . The third group (G.3 was a control group. The examined testes of G.1 showed damaged germinal epithelium with remaining some layers of spermatogonia. There was no affection of spermatocytes, mature sperms, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, the lumen contained little sperms and debris of germ cells (G.1' .While for (G.1" there was marked damage of the seminiferous tubules with irregular outline, destruction of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids with pyknotic type of nuclear degeneration and the lumen was devoid of mature sperms. The examined testes of the (G.2 showed evidence of almost complete recovery for G .2' and marked recovery for G.2" It is concluded that anti oxidants were essential to patients exposed to x-ray , to guard against its hazards.

  8. Effect of curcuma longa L. on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats.

    Eman G.E. Helal , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab and Ghada A. Zedan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Curcuma longa has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agent. The present investigation aimed at examining the possible potential protective effect of curcuma against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline ( 120mg/kg for three consecutive days resulting in steatosis and c curcuma treated group; which was treated with curcuma ( 0.4 % of diet for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group and c drug protection group; which received curcuma for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10 % formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine while HDL cholesterol and A/G ratio were significantly decreased compared to control group. Histopathological changes were detected in liver tissue of fatty liver rats. The treatment with curcuma ameliorated the biochemical parameters and histological changes. The pre-treatment with curcuma before the induction of fatty liver also ameliorated the results but they did not turn back to the normal values. Conclusion: It is recommend to using curcuma as diet additive for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

  9. Effects of intraperitoneally injected silver nanoparticles on histological structures and blood parameters in the albino rat

    Sarhan OM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Osama Mohamed M Sarhan,1,2 Rehab M Hussein31Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Fayoum University, Al Fayoum, Egypt; 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute dosing with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs and identify potential ultrastructural alterations in the liver and kidney and their effect on blood parameters in the albino rat.Methods: Twenty rats were used to assess the acute effects of AgNPs. Rats in the treatment group were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 mL of distilled water containing AgNPs at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg body weight followed by a second injection after 48 hours. Control rats received two 0.5 mL doses of distilled water only. After 3 days, blood samples were collected, and the rat kidneys and livers were extracted and processed for electron microscopy to investigate for hematologic and histopathologic alterations.Results: Renal tubules showed swollen epithelium with cytoplasmic vacuolization, thickening of the basement membrane, and destruction of some mitochondrial cristae. Podocytes showed elongation and swelling of their primary and secondary processes. The basement membrane of the capillary tufts became thicker. The hepatic tissue showed narrowing of the sinusoids, swollen hepatocytes with hypertrophied nucleoli, and accumulation of fat globules in the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The hepatic sinusoids showed hypertrophied endothelial and Kupffer. Destructed cristae of some mitochondria, endosomes, and larger lysosomes filled with Ag-NPs were also observed in the Kupffer cells. Significant increases were observed in white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, granulocytes, and hemoglobin. There was a significant increase in serum creatinine, urea, and aspartate and alanine aminotransferases

  10. ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTILIPIDEMIC ASSESSMENT OF SOYA BEAN OIL ON LIPID PROFILE AND GLUCOSE LEVEL IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MALE WISTER RATS.

    Ukpanukpong, Richard Undigweundeye; Akinola, Franklin Folasele

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Experimental studies in alloxan-induced diabetic animals have demonstrated several abnormalities upon induction such as physiological, biochemical and histological alterations. In this present study, the influences of graded doses of soya bean oil supplementation for 4weeks on some biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats were determined. Methodology: Sixty (60) male albino rats weighing about 240-260g were divided into 6 experimental groups of 10 rats per group viz...

  11. Effect of Monthly Injectable Contraceptive (Mesigyna) on the Uterus of Adult Female Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    Abeer M. Hassan, Magda M. Naim, Somaya H. Mahmoud, Fouad M. Badr

    2006-01-01

    Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and experimental). The control group (n=8) received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle (castor oil & benzyl benzoate) once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days. Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12) received IM injection of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna), once ...

  12. Effect of forced swim stress on wistar albino rats in various behavioral parameters

    Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters cognition, learning memory and emotional responses, causing mental disorders like depression and anxiety and stress in rats. Methods: The experiment was carried out with 12 healthy albino Wistar female rats weighing about 150-180gms. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of six animals each. Group – I (control, Group – II (Stressed Group. Group –II rats are placed in plastic tanks for 45minutes for15 days. Temperature of water was maintained at 20˚C. During stress phase, the animals will be trained for forced swim test, behavioral changes observed by open field apparatus for emotions, and eight arm maze for memory & leaning, elevated plus maze for anxiety. Results: Forced swim stress causes to a significant change (p<0.05 on cognitive functions: motivation, learning and memory. Forced swim stress is the factor damaging the hippocampus causes repeated immobilization and produce atrophy of dendrites of pyramidal neurons and neuroendocrinological disturbances, controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Repeated stress in the form of forced swimming activates the free radical processes leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation in many tissues. Conclusion: This study reveals the effect of repeated forced swim stress causes wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. The earlier findings have reported

  13. Stimulatory Effects of Dihydroartemisinin on the Leucocyte Population of Wistar Albino Rats

    U. A. Utoh-Nedosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Five dosages of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA which included 1mg kg-1; a repeated dose of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1 were administered orally to albino rats for 5 days. The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin treatment significantly elevated the total white cell count (pApproach: By increasing the population of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes (which engage in chemo tactic response; microbial killing; microbial ingestion and antibody production in the blood, dihydroartemisinin demonstrated that it stimulates increase in their population and uses them as part of its own arsenals of warfare against endoparasites (like malaria parasites and pathogens. Results: The results of this study show that dihydroartemisinin stimulated a lot of new white blood cell production by haemopoetic sites of the body The increases in the total white blood cell count; the percentage neutrophils count and the percentage lymphocyte counts were significant at pConclusion: The results of the study suggest that the phagocytic and immunological activities of the body’s white blood cell population are important components of the efficacious Plasmodium Schizonticidal actions of Dihydroartemisinin in malaria treatment.

  14. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA GUMMI GUTTA (LINN IN PARACETAMOL INTOXICATED WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Thamizh Selvam N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Garcinia gummi gutta fruit in the selective in vivo model system using Wistar albino rats. The experiment was comprised of five groups such as Healthy control, Disease control (Paracetamol treated, Positive control (Silymarin treated, test groups G. gutta lower dose(250mg/kg b.wt and higher dose (500 mg/kg b.wt. The study period was 10 days and the biochemical profile including SGOT, ALKP, Total protein and antioxidant enzymes Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase and Glutathione reductase levels were evaluated in blood and tissue samples (liver, kidney, heart of all the experimental animals. The study proved that there was a significant improvement of antioxidant enzyme levels in the G. gutta treated groups as compared to the control groups and the efficacy was found to be dose dependent. The study proved the antioxidant activity of G. gutta extract and further study on characterization of phytoconstituents is under progress for harnessing G. gutta as a drug formulation.

  15. Hypoglycaemic and Antioxidant Activity of SPHAG - a Poly Herbal Formulation in Alloxan Induced Wistar Albino Rats

    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest challenges among the developing and developed countries. The use of herbal medicine is steadily growing in the management of various diseases all over the world. The present study has been taken up on a poly herbal formulation -SPHAG, a combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre for its hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activity in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. The four groups containing 6 animals in each group, like Healthy Control, Disease Control, SPHAG lower dose(250 mg/kg.b.wt. and SPHAG higher dose (500 mg/kg.b.wt. were maintained. The oral administration of SPHAG had showed significant reduction in the glucose level and HbA1C level when compared with Disease Control. Biochemical parameters comprising of liver function and renal function tests had shown improved health status in SPHAG treated groups over Disease Control group. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase levels in blood and tissues including liver, kidney and heart were found to be decreased in the Disease control group. SPHAG treated animals showed significant improvement on the antioxidant enzyme levels and the efficacy is found to be dose dependent. Thus, the present study has demonstrated hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of SPHAG in the experimental animals. The synergistic contribution of major phyto-constituents of SPHAG i.e. flavonoids and phenols are expected for its biopotency and efficacy.

  16. Effect of Solanine on Arthritis Symptoms in Postmenopausal Female Albino Rats

    Solanine is a toxic compound produced in nightshades family as potato,tomato and eggplant when exposed to light.The current study was carried out on 18 female postmenopausal albino rats to investigate the effect of solanine on the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.Animals were classified into 3 groups feeding on balanced diet only (GI) or replaced by two third with small pieces of diseased potatoes for 2 and 4 weeks (GII,GIII) respectively . Serum levels of arthritic bio markers were investigated as the estimation of erythrocytes sedimentation rate ( ESR) , C-Reactive Protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA),Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),Interleukin-6( IL-6) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in all groups. There was a significant positive increase in the levels of ESR, CRP , MDA , TNF-α, IL-6 , and IgG among different groups depending on potatoes intake. There was positive correlation between the serum levels of CRP and TNF-α ,Il-6 and IgG.However, a non significantly positive correlation between serum level of CRP and the level of MDA was observed. The data of the present study showed that old age and postmenopausal suffering from arthritis and joint swollen must eliminat or avoid the nightshades plants to alleviate the joint pain and also decrease the destruction of the tissues

  17. ANTIANXIETY EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF TYLOPHORA INDICA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Shyamjith Manikkoth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pathological anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders in humans. Anxiolytic drugs, mostly belonging to the benzodiazepine (BDZ group and serotonergic groups are widely used to treat anxiety. However the clinical uses of these established drugs are associated with lot of adverse effects. Therefore the development of new agent possessing anxiolytic effect with minimal or no adverse effects would be of great importance in the treatment of anxiety related disorders. Very high importance is given to the phytoconstituents by the scientific community for a new anxiolytic agent which is devoid of side effects/ minimal adverse effects. In this research work the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica (300 mg/kg body weight was administered oral for ten days to Wistar albino rats for screening its anxiolytic effect by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM and Light Dark Arena (LDA test. The results of our study demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica has significant anxiolytic activity in EPM and LDA models of anxiety.

  18. GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF PONGAMIA PINNATA STEM BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Khumanthem Deepak Singh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn, belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is one of the fast growing, glabrous, deciduous tree and has recently gained importance as a commercial source of alkaloids like kaempferol, karanjin. Methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata was subjected to phytochemical screening. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by oral administration of various noxious chemicals including Ethanol, Indomethacin, Pylorus ligation and Cold restraint stress. In pharmacological screening, the effect of methanolic extract of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn was evaluated in Wistar Albino Rats of either sex(150-200g for Antiulcer activity at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg(p.o and the effect was compared with Omeprazole(10mg/kg p.o as standard drug. The extract decreased the ulcer index thereby increasing the percentage ulcer protection. Thus from the study and literature, it can be concluded that Pongamia pinnata Linn have potent antiulcer activity.

  19. Hematological and histopathological changes in female albino rats after gamma irradiation and /or piper nigrum treatment

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of whole body gamma irradiation, at dose level of 6.0 Gy (single dose), and or daily treatment with P. nigrum (black pepper) at doses of 160 and 320 mg/kg body weight up to 36, 71 and 99 days on some hematological aspects as well as histopathological changes in lung, kidney and brain tissues of female albino rats. The results revealed that whole body gamma irradiation significantly elevated the values of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and hematocrit percentage (HC %) but hemoglobin level was significantly decreased. These changes were ameliorated after treatment with P. nigrum. Non-significant changes were obtained regarding the effect of both doses of P. nigrum on red and white blood cell counts throughout the three time intervals. However, a dose of 160 mg/kg body weight of P. nigrum significantly reduced the hemoglobin contents throughput the experimental period. Histopathological examination revealed that lung, kidney and brain tissues showed marked to moderate pathological changes after irradiation and/or P.nigrum treatments. However, treatment with P. nigrum showed positive effect against the harmful effects of gamma irradiation, concerning kidney and brain. Although no malignant transformation could be detected, the resultant marked alveolar inflammation, bronchial wall hyperplasia and reactive astrocytic proliferation are important pathological changes that should be considered as pre-neoplastic changes

  20. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae, commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods : The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001 inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim.

  1. EFFICACY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED NEPHROLITHIASIS IN ALBINO RATS

    Prathibhakumari P.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is the third most common disorder of the urinary system with high recurrence rate. Clinical treatment of lithiasis is costly and can cause harmful side effects and hence nowadays phytotherapy have higher clinical significance in kidney stone management. Aim of the study is to investigate the antilithiatic property of the methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (MEAP in experimentally induced nephrolithiatic rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar albino rats by administering the dose of 0.75% ethylene glycol for a period of 28 days. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups. Group I served as normal control. Group II received standard antilithiatic drug and group III as the lithiatic control. Group IV and V indicated as preventive regime, received 400mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight MEAP and group VI, VII, VIII and IX indicated curative regime of which VI and IX received 400mg/kg extract and VII and VIII at 200mg/kg body weight of MEAP. At the end of the experimental period, serum (creatinine, blood urea, BUN, uric acid urine (protein, calcium and phosphorus and kidney (calcium and phosphorus were analyzed. All the elevated biochemical parameters in EG received group were declined in the MEAP treated groups at dosage of 200 and 400mg/kg. Urinary protein, phosphorus and calcium also declined in both MEAP treatment groups than the lithiatic groups. Serum creatinine declined significantly in high dose received group than its low dose in both post and co treatment groups. A dose dependent effect was observed in all the serum parameters except BUN. Kidney phosphorus and calcium of preventive regime which received MEAP at a high dose of 400mg/kg showed a clear dose dependent effect than the curative regimes. The result of the present study suggests the usefulness of MEAP against nephrolithiasis.

  2. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    Haggag, Mohammad El-Sayed Yassin El-Sayed; Elsanhoty, Rafaat Mohamed; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r: 0.743; P<0.001) and between blood MDA and liver MDA (r: 0.897; P<0.001). The results showed also negative correlations between blood MDA on one hand and SOD, GPx, vitamin E and TAC on the other hand. Conclusions The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage. PMID:24144131

  3. Histopathological effects of pesticide-cholopyrifos on kidney in albino rats

    Rekha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histopathological lesions have been widely used as biomarkers for health evaluation of organism exposed to pollutants and can be used as warning symptoms for organism health. There are few reports regarding histomorphological changes in kidney following pesticide chlorpyrifos exposure which has prompted us to undertake this study. Methods: The present study was conducted on 45 inbred adult Wistar albino rats of either sex, weighing 145 – 165 gms. These animals were randomly divided into 3 groups A, B, C. Oral Chlorpyrifos was given to the experimental groups B and C in dose of 5 mg/kg body weight and 10 mg/kg body weight respectively. Group A served as control and was left as such. 3 animals from each group were sacrificed after 1 week, 2nd week, 4th week, 6th week and 8th week of initiation of experiment to see the histological changes in the kidney architecture. Results: Group A shows no histological alterations. Group B – No histological alterations in the kidney after 1 week. From 2 weeks-8 there was shrinkage of glomerulus at initial stages of treatment, tubular dilation, glomerular hypercellularity, hypertrophy of tubular epithelium, degeneration of renal tubules, deposition of eosin positive substance in the glomerulus and renal tubules. There were infiltration of lymphocytes in the interstitium and increased vascularity in the form of dilated vessels fibrosis and interstitial oedema. All these changes were suggestive of glomerulonephritis, acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis leading to acute renal failure progressing to chronic renal failure with increasing duration. In Group C – the Kidneys of 1 week Chlorpyrifos treated rats exhibited shrunken glomeruli and hypertrophy of renal tubular epithelium. From 2nd week- 8thweek, the changes seen were more pronounced than Group B Conclusion: The present study showed that significant histomorphological changes were caused in the kidneys of rats administered with

  4. Lactogenic Study of the Effect of Ethyl-acetate Fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae) Seed on Serum Prolactin Level in Lactating Albino Rats

    I G Bako; M. S. Abubakar; M.A. Mabrouk; Mohammed, A

    2014-01-01

    Lactogenic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed was evaluated on serum prolactin and milk production in lactating albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were grouped randomly at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n = 6). The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline), metoclopramide (5 mg/kg) and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg) respectively from day 3-17 of lactat...

  5. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer. PMID:26877094

  6. Effects of dietary creatine supplementation for 8 weeks on neuromuscular coordination and learning in male albino mouse following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult.

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Akbar, Atif; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-05-01

    Creatine monohydrate (Cr) is a dietary supplement known to improve cognitive functions and has positive therapeutic results under various clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2 % Cr supplementation on learning, memory formation, neuromuscular coordination, exploratory and locomotory in male albino mice following hypoxic ischemic insult. At postnatal day, 10 male albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8 % hypoxia for 25 min. On postnatal day 20, male mice were separated from the litter and divided into two groups on the basis of special diet supplementation. One group was supplemented with 2 % Cr in diet while the other group was raised on ordinary rodent chow for 8 weeks. Behavioral observations were made during rota rod, open field and Morris water maze test for both treatments. It was observed that supplementation with 2 % Cr for 8 weeks following neonatal brain damage resulted in enhanced muscular strength, neuromuscular coordination and improved body weight. In Morris water maze test, it was observed that Cr supplementation significantly improved mean swimming speed and mice on 2 % Cr diet covered more distance but the spatial memory was not improved significantly following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). Open field parameters and percentage of infarct volume remained unaffected following Cr supplementation. We concluded that 2 % dietary Cr supplementation has a potential to improve the muscle strength and body weight in male albino mice following (HIE) and should be considered for the treatment of neurological ailments. PMID:25511980

  7. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

    Roop J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of

  8. Memory-enhancing effects of the leptin hormone in Wistar albino rats: sex and generation differences

    KARAKAŞ, Alper; COŞKUN, Hamit; KIZILKAYA, Fevziye Umut

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue that informs the brain about the fat stores of the body. In this study, we examined the effects of timed leptin injections on spatial memory performances of adult and juvenile male and female Wistar rats with the Morris water maze test. We applied the injections and conducted the training trials for 4 days. On the fifth day after leptin injections, the experiments were performed. The activities were recorded and analyzed with the Noldus Ethovisio...

  9. Antifertility effects of methanolic pod extract of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth in male rats

    R.S.Gupta; J.B.S.Kachhawa; R.Chaudhary

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the antifertility activity of the methanolic pod extract of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth in male albino rats. Methods: The methanolic pod extract of Albizzia lebbeck was administrated orally for 60 days at 50, 100 and 200 mg·kg-1·day-1 to male albino rats. Sperm motility and density in cauda epididymides were assessed.Biochemical and histological analysis were performed in blood samples and reproductive organs. Results: A. lebbeck pod extract brought about a significant decrease in the weights of testis, seminal vesicles, epdidymis and ventral prostate. The sperm motility and density were significantly reduced. There was a marked reduction in the numbers of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. The Sertoli cell count as well as its cross sectional surface area were significantly decreased. The Leydig cell nuclear area and the number of mature Leydig cells were also significantly decreased. The protein, glycogen and cholesterol content of the testis, the fructose in the seminal vesicles and protein in the epididymis were significantly decreased. The RBC and WBC counts, haemoglobin,haematocrit and blood sugar were within the normal range. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of A. lebbeck pods causes spermatogenic arrest in male albino rats.

  10. Effect Of Colchicine On The Histology Of Spleen And Testis Of Albino Rats

    Nabila A. R. Abdel Motaal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the effect of colchicine administration on the histology of spleen and testis of albino rat. Colchicine was given in a daily dose of 3mg/kg body weight for five days. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 4 and 7 days following treatment. Histopathological studies of the spleen and testis were undertaken. Histological examination of spleen showed that colchicine caused histopathological changes in spleen manifested by massive haemorrhage, highly expanded red pulps accompanied by reduced white pulps with multi small degenerated areas, disturbed architecture, degenerated areas wer occupied by the hemorrhagic areas, prominent haemosiderin deposition, increased number of megakaryocytes in red pulp and subcapsular edema. These histopathological changes depend on the duration of colchicine intake. Histological examination of the testis one, four and seven days post treatment with colchicine showed dilatation and congestion of interstitial blood vessels, moderate degeneration of spermatogoneal cells, debris of spermatozoa could be detected in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. The testis also suffered from interstitial edema with signs of fatty degeneration and degeneration of spermatogoneal cells lining some seminferous tubules. Complete destruction with hypocellularity in the spermatogenic layers in some seminiferous tubules and others contained only the debris of germ cells and disturbed nuclei of spermatogoneal cells with appearance of giant cells with highly reduced number of Leydig cells which contained pyknotic nuclei were also noticed in some examined sections. These results indicate that colchicine is considered as a toxic drug to the spleen and testis at double therapeutic doses as indicated by the histological changes.

  11. Effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and nigella sativa (kalonji) on serum lipids in albino rats - an experimental study

    To compare effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and Nigella sativa on serum lipids in albino rats. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pathology Department of Postgraduate Medical Institute, for 12 weeks. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trials. Material and Methods: Seventy two albino rats were selected and randomly divided into six groups of twelve animals with equal number of male and female in each. Fourteen days after acclimatization to the environment and basal diet, fasting blood samples (zero week) were collected by heart puncture under ether anesthesia and experimental diets were started which were continued for 12 weeks. All parameters were measured using enzymatic colorimetric methods. Results: Estimations of serum lipids showed increase in total cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) levels but fall in LDL-c concentrations in groups fed on canola oil diet. On the other hand, even atherogenic supplemented groups had decrease in cardio-protective HDL-c and raised LDL-c; although statistically non-significant. Thus canola oil diets were not hyperlipidaemic and prevented adiposity. Nigella sativa (NS) diets significantly decreased serum total cholesterol and LDL-c while HDL-c was raised but non-significantly. Thus Nigella sativa prevented deposition of lipids in tissues, thus preventing tendency to obesity and atherogenesis by decreasing LDL-c in serum. Conclusion: Nigella sativa produces antilipidaemic and anti-obesity effects by decreasing low density lipoprotein cholesterol level which is statistically significant in two out of the three groups fed on Ns; it also increased high density cholesterol which was however non-significant in comparison with Canola oil alone. (author)

  12. The protective effect of L-tryptophan versus alpha lipoic acid against L-arginine-induced experimental acute pancreatitis in albino rats

    Lamia M. Farghaly* , Nagwan A. Sabak ** and Naglaa A. El-sherbeny

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effects of L- treptophan "a precursor of melatonin" and alpha lipoic acid against L- arginine-induced experimental acute pancreatitis in albino rats. Methods: Fourty adult male albino rats (200- 250g were randomized into 4 groups (n= 10. Group I, the control group was given 0.9% saline intraperitoneally (i.p. Group II, was given 500 mg/100g L-arginine (i.p as a single dose to induce acute pancreatitis. Group III: was given 250mg/kg L-tryptophan (i.p 30 min prior to L- arginine injection. Group IV: was given 50mg/kg alpha lipioc acid(i.p 30 min prior to L-arginine. Before scarifice, blood samples were obtained from all groups to assay serum amylase and interleukin 6. Animals were sacrificed after 6 hours. For the histopathological study, pancreatic tissue was prepared for histological (H&E, PAS histochemical ( Tween stain for lipases and immunohistochemical ( Bax stain for apoptosis techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were done to assess the degree of acinar cells affection Results: It was revealed that serum amylase and interleukin 6 in group II rose rapidly. Microscopically, severe acinar cells degeneration, interstitial edema, diffuse bleeding and inflammatory infiltration were demonstrated. These changes were markedly improved with the administration of both L- tryptophan and alpha lipoic acid. Conclusion: It was concluded that both L- tryptophan & alpha lipoic acid reduced the effects of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis with better protection achieved by L-tryptophan administration.

  13. Effect of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed on reproduction of male rats

    Yinusa Raji; Ahmed Kolade Oloyo; Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed (RCE) on male rats reproductive functions. Methods: Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were gavaged with 0.2 mL of 2.5 % tween 80 (RCE vehicle; control) or 20 mg/(kg.d) and 40 mg/(kg.d) of RCE, respectively, for 30 days, and group 4 was also gavaged with 40 mg/(kg·d) of RCE, but was allowed a recovery periold of 30 days.Five untreated female rats were cohabited with male rats in each group from day 25 of RCE treatment for 5 days,except group 4, where cohabitation began on day 25 of the recovery period. All male rats were sacrificed 24 h after the experiments. The female rats were laparatomized on day 19 of pregnancy and the number and weight of litters were recorded. Results: There was a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the weight of the reproductive organs,sperm functions and serum levels of testosterone in RCE treated rats. There was disorganization in the cytoarchitecture of the testes, disruption of the seminiferous tubules and erosion of the germinal epithelium. The number and weight of litters of rats in groups 2 and 4 decreased significantly (P < 0.05) but no changes were observed in group 3. RCE caused no changes in liver, kidney, heart or body weights in male rats. Conclusion: RCE has a reversible negative impact on male reproductive functions, which appears to be mediated via gonadal disruption in testosterone secretion.

  14. Effect of aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii rhizome on some kidney and liver functional indicies of albino rats.

    Nafiu, Mo; Akanji, M A; Yakubu, M T

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii Hook. Ef. x Planch rhizome was investigated for its toxic effects in albino rats using some liver and kidney functional indices as 'markers'. Thirty six albino rats weighing 200.08 ± 10.21 were randomly assinged into six groups (A-F) of six animals each. Animals in groups A-E were orally administered on daily basis with 1 ml of the extract corresponding to 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 days while those in the control group received orally 1 ml of distilled water. Rats in all the groups were sacrificed 24 hours after the completion of their respective doses. The extract significantly (P0.05) with the control value. There was no effect (P>0.05) on the acid phosphatase activity of the tissues and serum of the animals. The extract also reduced the urea, albumin and creatinine content in the serum of the animals. The alterations in the biochemical parameters by the aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchoni may have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the liver and kidney of the animals. Therefore, the 50 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchoni rhizome may not be completley safe as an oral remedy. PMID:22238479

  15. Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats: A newer model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents, namely silymarin

    Sengupta Parama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: This study was conducted to establish olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in Wistar albino rats as a newer model to screen putative hepatoprotective agents namely silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups, namely vehicle control group (CG, olanzapine-treated group (OZ, and olanzapine plus silymarin (OZS treated groups. Both the OZ and OZS groups were treated with the same dose of intraperitoneal olanzapine for 6 weeks and group OZS additionally received oral silymarin. Baseline and terminal hepatic enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, and ALP were measured in all three groups. Results: Histopathological examination of livers of both OZ and OZS groups showed degenerative changes, whereas those of control group showed normal architecture. Liver enzyme levels showed statistically significant rise in comparison to the control group as well as the respective base line values in both the test groups, but the differences in the rise of liver enzymes between the two test groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in rats can be used as a model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents and in our setting silymarin has failed to provide any hepatoprotection.

  16. Comparative study on the effect of Gliclazide and two Antidiabetic plants used in Folk Medicine on Albino Rat's fetuses

    Ibrahim G. Ibrahim*, Boshra El-Salkh**, Nagwa Shawki

    2002-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the adverse effects of gliclazide and two antidiabetic plants extracts on 15 &18 days fetuses of albino rat (Rattus norvegicus). The two antidiabetic plants extracts were aquatic extract of Aremisia herba alba (shih-balady) and alcoholic extract of Salix babylonica L. leaves (Om-Ashoor) which is known by salicin. The doses used were 4 mg / kg (Katsumata, and kastumata 1990) for the gliclazide drug (diamicron), 450 mg/kg for Artemisia herba alba (Al-Wai...

  17. Phytochemical and anti-ulcer investigations of the whole plant extract of Neregamia alata wight & Arn. in albino rat model

    M Purushothaman; R. Dhanapal; Balakrishnan, M.; Srinivasan, S; C. Anbarasu; Sriram, R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the chemical constituents and anti-ulcer profile of the methanolic extract of Neregamia alata Wight & Arn. (MENA) whole plant in albino rats. The phytochemical examination of methanolic extract of whole plant of Neregamia alata was performed by the standard methods. MENA at the doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight orally was administered to evaluate anti-ulcer activity by using pyloric ligation (PL) and hypothermic-restraint stress (HR...

  18. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats. PMID:26546224

  19. GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM EXTRACT AFFECTS THE FREE AMINO ACID LEVEL IN THE GONADS OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    Srivastava S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae (Raw Garlic Extract (RGE was studied on free amino acids (FAA level in female albino rats. The garlic extract was tested in three different doses 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight daily as low, medium and high dose respectively for a period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The significant (P<0.01 increase in Free amino acid (FAA level was observed when rats were fed with low and medium dose but when rats were fed with 4ml/kg body weight of garlic extract there was a not significant increase in Free Amino Acid (FAA level was observed.

  20. Evaluation of Pergularia daemia and metformin in the treatment of PCOS in testosterone propionate induced albino wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus

    R. POORNIMA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the effect of metformin and the combined activity of P. daemia and metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS induced rats. Female albino wistar rats (150- 180 g were injected with Testosterone propionate (TP for the development PCOS. The PCOS induced rats were divided into two groups, one were treated with metformin and the other were treated with the combination of metformin and Pergularia daemia extract over a period of 15 days. The vaginal smear and histological studies proved the combined efficacy of metformin and the P. daemia extract by restoring the estrous cycle and re-establishment of the ovarian morphology. The biochemical and hormonal assays also confirms the same. Thus we conclude that the combined activity of metfromin and P. daemia extract is an effective medicine in treating PCOS than metformin alone.

  1. Antioxidant Evaluation of Methanolic Extract of Black Nightshades Ripe Fruits against Technical and Formulated Parathion-Induced Damage in Albino Rats

    Parathion in technical or formulated form at a sub-lethal dose of 1/20 LD50 was applied orally or dermally at 2-day interval for three months to determine its effect on RNA, DNA and protein content as well as RNA ase and DNA ase activity in different organs liver, brain and kidneys of adult male albino rats. Also, serum GOT, GPT and ALP activity as well as serum total soluble protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin and uric acid content were determined in adult male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). In addition, the present studies were undertaken to investigate different biological activities of the above parameters of black nightshades (Solanum nigrum L) methanolic extract. Two kinds of experimental works were taken off (antioxidants and protective). The results showed that technical and formulated parathion increased RNA and protein content but the content of DNA was insignificantly decreased in all rat organs tissue (liver, brain and kidneys) relative to control. The activity of RNA ase was also stimulated. In case of liver and kidney functions the present data observed that serum GOT, GPT and ALP activity was stimulated but total soluble protein, albumin and globulin content was decreased but the urea, uric acid and bilirubin content of serum was increased. Also, liver lipid peroxidation was elevated significantly either by technical or formulated parathion (ingested orally or induced dermally). It should be noted that formulated parathion ingested orally was the most effective, but the technical one had the lowest toxicity. The results of the present studies showed that crude methanolic extract of black nightshades ripe fruits has a strong antioxidant activity as showed by DPPH, nitric oxide scavenging, total reducing power, Fenton's reaction and total antioxidant capacity assay. Finally the the methanolic extract of the present medicinal plant observed a valuable influence as a protective agent in vivo in serum, liver, brain and kidneys damage of parathion

  2.  The Effect of Amantadine on Clomipramine Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Male Rats

    K Kumar Eswar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: Several studies have reported that Clomipramine has the ability to suppress male rat sexual behavior. Literature indicatesthat the activation of brain D2 receptors causes facilitation of penile erection, and a number of reports have indicated dopamine’s involvement in sexual function. Hence this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Amantadine, a dopamine agonists on the Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction. Methods: The study subjects involved a total of 48 males and 48 females, 4 months old Sprague-Dawley albino rats, all housed in a group of six males and females separately in plexi glass cages in an acclimatized colony room (25±0.50C maintained on a 12/12 hr light/dark cycle. The male rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 male rats each. Group I served as controls. Group II, III, and IV were treated with Amantadine (9 mg/kg body weight, p.o 30 min, prior to the treatment with 13.5 mg/kg, 27 mg/Kg and 54 mg/Kg bodyweight p.o of Clomipramine respectively for 60 days. The control group received vehicle 1 ml/kg p.o. The sexual behavior of the male rats was observed to determine the following parameters: mount latency, intromission latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory pause, and intromission frequency. As well as the sexual behavior; serum testosterone and histopathology of the testes were also investigated in this study. Results: The results indicate that Amantadine in all aspects failed to antagonize Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction in male rats. Even the sexual competence of male rats treated with 1/2 therapeutic dose (TD of Clomipramine failed to regain their sexual competence in the presence of Amantadine. Testicular damage and decline in testosterone levels continued in the presence of Amantadine. Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that Amantadine could not be a safe antidote to antagonize Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction.

  3. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    Olakunle James Onaolapo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  4. Studies on the hypolipidemic effects of Coconut oil when blended with Tiger nut oil and fed to albino rats

    El-Anany, A. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend a reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intake as a means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and CVD. The main objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of feeding blended oils consisting of coconut oil (CNO with different proportions of Tiger nut oil (TNO on serum lipid levels in Albino rats. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of the blended oils. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with coconut oil at the volume ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 25:75, 10:90 and 0:100. Fifty-six male albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 8 rats each according to the oil type. The blended oils were fed to rats for a period of up to 10 weeks. Total cholesterol (T-Ch, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch, and triglycerides (TG, were determined. The atherogenic Index (AI was calculated. The results showed that non-significant changes in all nutritional parameters were observed between the control group and the rats fed with the tested oils. The results also indicate that coconut oil had 86% saturated fatty acids. On TNO contains 66% oleic acid. Therefore, blending coconut oil with tiger nut oil can reduce the proportions of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in CNO. The rats that were fed blended oils showed significantly reduced levels of serum cholesterol as compared to those fed CNO. The HDL levels were marginally enhanced in the rats that were fed blended oils. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were controlled when TNO/CNO proportions varied between 25/75 and 70/30. This was reflected in the calculation of the atherogenic index. Similar changes were observed with serum triglyceride levels.

    La hiperlipidemia

  5. Effect of Zingiber officinale on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats

    Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M. Moussa Sharaf**

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver causes were markedly increased in Egyptian people throughout last years. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds. Ginger is a natural dietary rhizome with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger treated group; which was treated with ginger water extract (125 mg/kg for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120 mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger protective group; which received ginger for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment

  6. Effect of Cichorium intybus L. on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats.

    Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M.Moussa Sharaf**

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatty liver is now one of the most common diseases in Egypt. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds.The current investigation was carried out to examine the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days resulting in steatosis and c chicory treated group; which was treated with chicory water extract (70 mg/kg for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days and c drug protection group; which received chicory for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment with chicory ameliorated most of the evaluated biochemical parameters and improved the

  7. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  8. Protective effect of Genistein against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats

    Fahad Ali; Rahul; Falaq Naz; Smita Jyoti; Yasir Hasan Siddique

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we studied the effect of Genistein against the hepatotoxicity induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA). NDEA is present in almost all kinds of food stuff and has been reported to be a hepatocarcinogen. The male rats were exposed to NDEA (0.1 mg/mL) dissolved in drinking water separately and along with 25, 50, 100 mg/mL of Genistein for 21 days. The activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in blood serum. Lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, micronucleus frequency and DNA damage (Comet assay) were performed on rat hepatocytes. The results of the study reveal that the treatment of NDEA along with Genistein showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the levels of blood serum enzymes i.e., SGOT, SGPT, ALP and LDH (Po0.05). The HE staining of histological sections of the liver also revealed a protective effect of Genistein. A significant dose-dependent reduction in the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content was observed in rats exposed to NDEA (0.1 mg/mL) along with Genistein (Po0.05). The results obtained for the comet assay in rat hepatocytes showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the mean tail length (Po0.05). Thus the present study supports the hepatoprotective role of Genistein.

  9. Effect of heat stress on histopathological alterations in kidneys of albino rats

    Sabah S.A. Al-Tekrity

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat stress was studied over two months (July and August by using thirty adult male rats. The animals were divided into six groups (five animals per each group and tested for 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days, under controlled condition (45±5°C. The clinical observation indicated significant decrease in activity and body weight associated with oligourea and hypophagia. All these signs were prominent after five days of the experiment. The kidneys of rats under heat stress showed degenerated glomeruli began at 7th day of the study and widening of the capsular space. Atrophy of some glomeruli was also noticed. With prolong exposure to heat changes in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules were prominent when compared with normal rats’ kidneys.

  10. Hazardous Effects of Potato Chips and Ketchup (fast food) Consumption on Albino Rats

    Nowadays, it is easy and common to eat unhealthy food with poor nutritional value, low micro nutrients and high content of calories which may called junk or fast food. The present study aimed to shed the light on the hazardous effects of long term consumption of potato chips and ketchup as a model of the most popular fast food toppings or garnishing accessories. Eighty male and female rats were divided into four equal groups, each of ten rats. For four weeks, the animals were fed on basal diet (group 1), basal diet supplemented with 2 g of potato chips (group 2), basal diet supplemented with 1 g ketchup (group 3) while group 4 was supplemented with 2 g potato chips + 1 g ketchup beside their basal diet. The mortality was recorded in all treated groups but reached the maximum rate in males of group 4. The toxicological symptoms like tremors, dermatitis with general hair loss from the body, especially on the face region and eye bulge, were found in almost treated groups. The red blood cells count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) were significantly decreased in group 2 (supplemented with potato chips) and group 4 (supplemented with both potato chips + ketchup) as compared with control one. Significant reductions in white blood cells count (WBC) were observed in rats of groups 2 and 4 except in females of group 2. Lipid profile was affected seriously, especially in rats of group 2 (supplemented with potato chips), whereas significant increases were recorded in TC, TG, LDL-C and atherogenic index, and significant reduction in HDL-C, especially in males, was recorded. The testosterone level was significantly reduced in all treated groups as compared to control group. The estradiol level was significantly increased in groups 2 and 4 as compared to group 3 and controls. In all parameters, the males were more seriously affected than females which may be related to gender differences in body composition, estrogen levels, growth rate, differences in food

  11. Dried Fruit Extract of Sumac (Rhus coriaria L) Protects Albino Rats from Adverse Effects of Whole Body gamma-Radiation

    The Antioxidant effect of Sumac; Rhus coriaria L. against whole body gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative damage in lung and liver tissues was investigated in albino rats. To achieve the ultimate goal of this study, 48 adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12 animals each. Group I: Control group. Group II: Irradiated with a single dose of 5Gy gamma-rays. Group III: Fed with sumac orally (300 mg/ kg body wt/ day) for 10 days. Group IV: Fed sumac (300 mg/ kg body wt) for 3 days pre-irradiation and 7 days after-radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed 1 and 7 days after a single exposure to ?-rays. The animals exposed to gamma radiation recorded significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total nitrate oxide (NO) levels in both lung and liver tissues. Also the results revealed, significant decrease in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), in lung and liver tissues. Moreover, a significant increase in plasma glucose accompanied with a significant decrease in insulin level was observed in irradiated rats. Administration of sumac for 10 days to rats prior and post gamma irradiation improved the tested parameters except glucose. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicated that sumac could increase the antioxidant defence mechanism in rat and there by protects the animals from radiation-induced organs toxicity but it may increase the blood sugar, therefore in diabetic patient be considered

  12. Características ultraestruturais do segmento abdominal da aorta de rato albino = Mural features of the abdominal aortic segment of albino rat

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar as peculiaridades ultraestruturais da parede da aorta de rato. Foram utilizados sete ratos albinos, adultos jovens, dos quais foram coletados fragmentos da aorta abdominal infra-renal. Após a coleta, os segmentosvasculares foram fixados e encaminhados para a rotina de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e varredura. As lamelas elásticas aparecem interpostas às fibras musculares lisas, sendo essa disposição principalmente notada na túnica média da parede vascular. Entre asfibras musculares lisas e as lamelas elásticas, observa-se um inter-relacionamento aparentemente estreito, feito por conexão e ancoramento entre ambos os elementos murais por meio de lamelas de colágeno. A túnica íntima da aorta abdominal do rato mostraalgumas peculiaridades ultraestruturais marcantes, tais como a interrupção, em certos locais da parede, de continuidade da lâmina elástica interna, interrupção acompanhada por poros endoteliais, de certa extensão, suprajacentes à falha na estrutura elástica intimal. Este padrão de constituição mural, com destaque aos ancoramentos elástico-musculares, via o colágeno, parece garantir propriedades fundamentais da parede vascular, concernentes à hemodinâmica, tal como o cisalhamento, normalmente notado entre os estratos superpostosda parede vascular, bem como a contratilidade e a visco-elasticidade da parede arterial.The objective of the present research was to investigate the ultrastructural peculiarities of the aortic wall of the rat. Seven young adult rats were used, from which fragments of theinfrarenal abdominal aorta were collected. After collection, the vascular segments were fixed and sent for analysis by scanning electron microscope. The elastic lamellae appear interposed with smooth muscular fibers; this pattern was verified mainly at the medial layer structure. Among the mural elements a well defined interrelationship was established through

  13. Does rosmarinic acid treatment have protective role against sepsis-induced oxidative damage in Wistar Albino rats?

    Bacanlı, M; Aydın, S; Taner, G; Göktaş, H G; Şahin, T; Başaran, A A; Başaran, N

    2016-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species are believed to be involved in the development of sepsis. Plant-derived phenolic compounds are thought to be possible therapeutic agents against sepsis because of their antioxidant properties. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound commonly found in various plants, which has many biological activities including antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RA on sepsis-induced DNA damage in the lymphocytes and liver and kidney cells of Wistar albino rats by alkaline comet assay with and without formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase protein. The oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and total glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver and kidney tissues and an inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) level in plasma were also evaluated. It is found that DNA damage in the lymphocytes, livers, and kidneys of the RA-treated rats was significantly lower than that in the sepsis-induced rats. RA treatment also decreased the MDA levels and increased the GSH levels and SOD and GSH-Px activities in the livers and kidneys of the sepsis-induced rats. Plasma TNF-α level was found to be decreased in the RA-treated rats. It seems that RA might have a role in the attenuation of sepsis-induced oxidative damage not only by decreasing the DNA damage but also by increasing the antioxidant status and DNA repair capacity of the animals. PMID:26429925

  14. Garlic (Allium sativum Extract Supplementation Alters the Glycogen Deposition in Liver and Protein Metabolism in Gonads of Female Albino Rats

    Sashank Srivastava

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is an ayurvedic herb that has been extensively used as medication and as the taste enhancer of the food. The present investigation was undertaken to provide data on the efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. extract on glycogen deposition and protein metabolism in female albino rats that may further explore medicinal potential of garlic. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight as low, medium and high dose respectively and given orally for the period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days daily to the rats of group B, C and D as stated above. The significant (P<0.01 & P<0.05 increase in glycogen and protein level was observed when rats were fed with low and medium dose but when rats were fed with high dose of garlic extract there was significant (P<0.01 decrease in glycogen level and a not significant decrease in protein level was observed.

  15. Lactogenic Study of the Effect of Ethyl-acetate Fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae Seed on Serum Prolactin Level in Lactating Albino Rats

    I.G. Bako

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactogenic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed was evaluated on serum prolactin and milk production in lactating albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were grouped randomly at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n = 6. The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline, metoclopramide (5 mg/kg and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. Milk yield for rats were estimated by pup weight and weight gain. The animals were then euthanized on the day 18 and serum prolactin was analyzed using prolactin kit. The prolactin level of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa howed a significant increase (p<0.01 when compared to control group. Pup weight gain was also significantly higher (p<0.05 than the control group. This can be deduced that ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seed has lactogenic activity because it increases serum prolactin level and milk production in lactating female albino rats. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seed stimulate prolactin synthesis; release and milk production in albino rats and it is affordable and safe for consumption.

  16. HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF COCCINIA GRANDIS ROOT EXTRACT AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATIC OXIDATIVE STRESS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Moideen K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Coccinia grandis root extract against paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress in wistar albino rats. The ethanolic extracts of Coccinia grandis (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg were administered orally to the animals and hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (750mg/kg. The extracts were administered orally by suspending in 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose solution. Silymarin (25mg/kg was given as reference standard. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis roots produced a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SGOT, SGPT, SALP, Total bilirubin and Direct bilirubin and it also produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in Total protein when compared to paracetamol treated group indicating hepatoprotective action. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis root produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in SOD, CAT and GSH activity when compared to paracetamol treated group and it also produced significant (P<0.01 increase in activity of Px and GPx at 400mg/kg dose, indicating antioxidant activity. But it produced less significant in Px at 200mg/kg dose and it showed no significant activity in GPx at 200mg/kg dose. The histopathological study of liver section of rat treated with ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis (200 and 400 mg/kg showed mild hepatocyte degeneration. It was concluded from the result that ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats.

  17. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock roots on the sexual behavior of male rats

    JianFeng Cao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control were administered 10 mL⁄kg body weight distilled water (vehicle, group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra, while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3. Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Results Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.

  18. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of Punica granatum in alloxan-induced non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus albino rats

    Swarnamoni Das; Sarajita Barman

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Punica granatum L., (Family: Punicaceae) is used in Indian Unani medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the present study was done to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy Wistar albino rats (100-150 g) were divided into four groups of six animals each. Groups A and B received normal saline [(10 ml/kg/day/per oral (p.o.)]; group C ...

  19. Comparison of the efficacy of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats

    G M Nitasha Bhat; Nagendra Nayak; Vinodraj, K.; N Chandralekha; Paul Mathai; J Cherian

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of cardamom with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats. There were four groups of 6 rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received cardamom suspension 1 g/kg/10 mL of 2% gum acacia orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administrati...

  20. EFFECT OF TOPICAL PHENYTOIN CREAM ON LINEAR INCISIONAL WOUND HEALING IN ALBINO RATS

    MORTEZA JARRAHI ; ABBAS ALI VAFAEI

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of phenytoin cream on linear incisional wound healing was investigated. Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to a linear 3cm incision made over the skin of the back. The animals were randomly divided into 3 experimental, control, cold cream and treatment groups. Control group did not receive any drug or cold cream. Cold cream group received topical cold cream once a day from the beginning of experiments until the day that wounds were closed. Treatment group were treated topically by 1% phenytoin cream at the same time. For computation of the percentage of wound healing, the area of the wound were measured at the beginning of experiments and the next 2,4,6,8,10,12,14 and 16 days. The percentage of the healing wounds were calculated by Walker formula after measurement of the wound area. Results showed that there weren’t statistically significant differences between treatment and cold cream animals (P>0.05 in most of the days. It is concluded that phenytoin has possibly no significant effect on the rate of wound closing in acute wound model of incision in rat. Therefore further study is required for detection of the role of phenytoin on wound healing and the related parameters in various kinds of experimental wound models.

  1. Lactogenic study of the ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn seed on pituitary prolactin level of lactating albino rats

    I G Bako; A M Mabrouk; S.M. Abubakar; Mohammed, A

    2013-01-01

    Summary. The effect of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed on pituitary prolactin and milk production was evaluated in albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were randomly grouped at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n=6). The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline), metoclopramide (5mg/kg) and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200mg/kg) respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. ...

  2. Impairment of adrenal Gland in albino rat embryo in response to polytrin contamination and/or whole body gamma irradiation

    In the present work, investigations have been carried out in view of evaluation of the biological hazard exerted on adrenal gland of albino rat embryos subjected to the pesticide polytrin and whole body gamma irradiation either individually or in succession. Histological and histochemical studies showed in general, vacuolation, karyolysis, pyknotic nuclei and increased signs of necrosis in adrenal tissue exposed to irradiation. Pesticide treatment resulted in severe degeneration in between zona glomerulosa and fasciculata accompanied by intercellular degeneration. Combined effect of polytrin together with gamma irradiation showed to exert more intensive degeneration in tissue cells with affected chromatin material as compared with the effect of either polytrin or irradiation when applied individually. The histochemical investigations revealed decreased alkaline phosphatase activity in all treated groups. 14 figs

  3. Influence of teak (Tectona grandis; family: Verbenaceae) seed protein on some enzymes and liver lipids of albino rats.

    Laskar, S; Ghosh-Majumdar, S; Basak, B; Maity, C R

    1985-09-01

    The influence of protein, isolated from teak (Tectona grandis) seed upon albino rats with respect to some of their serum, liver and intestinal enzymes and liver lipids has been studied. The protein in question contains aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, lysine, phenylalanine, histidine and arginine as determined by amino acid analyser. After feeding experiment an increase in body weight including the liver weight was noted in the test animals due to excess protein in the diet. A marked increase was observed in G.O.T., G.P.T. and total lipid of liver, whereas G.O.T. and G.P.T. of serum were decreased. The observed increased concentration of lipid in liver may be due to excess addition of protein in diet. The overall observation is an indication of probable fatty infiltration in liver of test animals. PMID:4070763

  4. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaf and Stem Bark of Calophyllum inophyllum on Albino Wistar Rats

    Mirza Danish Baig

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to conduct phytochemical screening, perform acute oral toxicity effect and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extracts of leaf and stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum on albino Wistar rats. Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma techniques were applied to determine anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts. Extracts were administered orally. Acute oral toxicity studies were conducted using the OECD guidelines 423 Annexure – 2d. The results indicate the mortality was not observed during the toxicity studies and maximum safe does was determined. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extracts showed significant dose dependent effect (200 mg/kg b.w and 400 mg/kg b.w on both acute and chronic models of inflammation i.e., carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma respectively. Additionally, Calophyllum inophyllum leaves extract showed more activity compared to Calophyllum inophyllum stem bark extract.

  5. Effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia on functions of peritoneal macrophages isolated from CCl4 intoxicated male albino mice

    Sharma Gauri D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals for supporting the immune system or fighting infections is based on centuries-old tradition. Macrophages are involved at all the stages of an immune response. The present study focuses on the immunostimulant properties of Tinospora cordifolia extract that are exerted on circulating macrophages isolated from CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight intoxicated male albino mice. Methods Apart from damaging the liver system, carbon tetrachloride also inhibits macrophage functions thus, creating an immunocompromised state, as is evident from the present study. Such cell functions include cell morphology, adhesion property, phagocytosis, enzyme release (myeloperoxidase or MPO, nitric oxide (NO release, intracellular survival of ingested bacteria and DNA fragmentation in peritoneal macrophages isolated from these immunocompromised mice. T. cordifolia extract was tested for acute toxicity at the given dose (150 mg/kg body weight by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay. Results The number of morphologically altered macrophages was increased in mice exposed to CCl4. Administration of CCl4 (i.p. also reduced the phagocytosis, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release properties of circulating macrophages of mice. The DNA fragmentation of peritoneal macrophages was observed to be higher in CCl4 intoxicated mice. The bacterial killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages was also adversely affected by CCl4. However oral administration of aqueous fraction of Tinospora cordifolia stem parts at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight (in vivo in CCl4 exposed mice ameliorated the effect of CCl4, as the percentage of morphologically altered macrophages, phagocytosis activity, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release, DNA fragmentation and intracellular killing capacity of CCl4 intoxicated peritoneal macrophages came closer to those of the control group. No acute toxicity was identified in oral administration of the aqueous

  6. Study On The Effect Of Cooking Of Some Food Proteins By Short-Term Radiation (Microwave) On The Functions Of The Liver And Kidney In Albino Rats

    Five groups of albino male rats, every group consist of seven rats, were used to study the effect of microwave proteins on liver, kidney functions and blood parameters. Control group was fed on 10% casein. The 2nd one was fed on 10% protein from microwave chicken. The 3rd one was fed on 10% protein from boiled chicken. The 4th one was fed on 10% protein from microwave kidney beans. The 5th one was fed on 10% protein from boiled kidney beans. The time of experiment was seven weeks. The biochemical parameters included (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, total lipids, triglyceride, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, creatinin, uric acid and amino acids). The group of rats fed on microwave chicken showed more increase in cholesterol level than the group fed on boiled chicken. The group fed on microwave kidney beans showed decrease in cholesterol level. The group fed on microwave chicken showed decrease in HDL and increase in LDL. The highest activity of SGOT was shown in group fed on microwave kidney beans followed by the group fed on microwave chicken. The groups fed on boiled kidney beans and boiled chicken proteins showed significant increase in SGPT activity. The group fed on boiled kidney beans have the highest activity of ALP enzyme; but the group fed on microwave chicken showed increase in the activity of ALP enzyme compared to the control group. The feeding of microwave chicken leads to increase in creatinine and uric acid levels in comparison to the control group. Microwave cooking leads to little increase in all amino acids in comparison to the control group

  7. Biochemical studies on gamma irradiated male rats fed on whey protein concentrate

    This study carried out to investigate the possible role of whey protein protein concentrate in ameliorating some biochemical disorders induced in gamma irradiated male rats. Forty eight male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1 fed on normal diet during experimental period. Group 2 where the diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate instead of soybean protein . Group 3 rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation with single dose of 5 Gy and fed on the normal diet. Group 4 rate exposed to 5 Gy then fed on diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate, the rats were decapitated after two and four weeks post irradiation. Exposure to whole body irradiation caused significant elevation of serum ALT, AST, glucose, urea, creatinine and total triiodothyronine with significant decrease in total protein, albumin and thyroxin. Irradiated rats fed on whey protein concentrate revealed significant improvement of some biochemical parameters. It could be conclude that whey protein concentrate may be considered as a useful protein source for reducing radiation injury via metabolic pathway.

  8. THE INFLUENCE AN EXOGENOUS ENZYMES-PROBIOTICS COMPLEX ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF ALBINO RATS FED DIETS CONTAINING UP TO 60% RICE BRAN

    M. BOATENG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying levels of rice bran supplemented with Xzyme™ (an exogenous enzyme-probiotic complex on the growth performance and carcass traits of albino rats. Thirty weanling albino rats with average initial liveweight of 66.9±0.3g were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial design (3 levels of rice bran [20, 40 and 60%] by 2 levels [0 and 250mg/kg of diet] of the Xzyme™. There were 5 rats on each treatment which were housed individually in plastic cages. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and their growth performance monitored for 28 days, after which the rats were slaughtered to collect carcass data.The mean values for total feed intake, weekly feed intake and daily weight gain were similar (P>0.05 for all the various dietary treatments. The addition of the Xzyme™ led to an improvement (P>0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR at each level of the rice bran. Both feed cost and feed cost per 100g weight gain values decreased as the level of RB increased despite the extra cost of the added Xzyme™. The carcass characteristics of the albino rats on all the six dietary treatments were similar (P>0.05. The results suggest that albino rats and probably other mono-gastric livestock species can be fed diets containing 60% rice bran plus Xzyme™ without any adverse effect on health, growth performance and carcass characteristics.

  9. Modification of the Mus musculus albino rats parasitological profile induced by low x-ray radiation dose

    Ionizing radiations can induce alterations on the immunological response. In order to observe the effects of X-Rays in the susceptibility to intestinal worms infestation, feces of 40 Albino Swiss mice (20 males and 20 females) receiving weekly X-Rays doses of 500 mGy, were collected once per week, so as was collected fecal material of an equal group o mice non-irradiated, for comparison. The results of the coprologic examination revealed the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides, eggs mainly in the irradiated females, having the irradiated group a proportional rate of 30:1, as compared with the non-irradiated group. Eggs of Syphacia obveolata was also found, with a rate of 13:1 as compared with the non-irradiated, and also here with a prevalence among the irradiated females. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos

    Pankaj G. Jain; Savita D. Patil; HASWANI, Nitin G.; Girase, Manoj V.; Surana, Sanjay J.

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to th...

  11. EVALUATION OF GASTRIC ANTIULCEROGENIC ACTION OF PLANTAIN BANANA ( MUSA SAPIENTUM VAR. PARADISIACA IN ASPIRIN PLUS PYLORUS LIGATED ALBINO RATS

    K.R. Tandel* and B.K. Shah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the effect of unripe dried banana powder in experimentally induced gastric ulcers and effect on gastric acid secretion. To evaluate the antiulcerogenic effect of plantain banana of Gujarat as a part of evaluation of impact of biological variables on this activity. Materials and methods: Total of 24 albino rats of either sex weighing between 150-250 gm were randomly divided into 4 groups. Each group has 6 no. of rats. The first group received placebo (distilled water, the second, third & forth group received 0.5gm/kg, 1gm/kg and 2mg/kg of banana powder respectively. Banana powder was given as suspension at fixed time (3 times in a day for two days and animals were kept for fasting for another 48hrs. On 5th day, the animals were sacrificed after 7 hrs and stomach were removed for examination and gastric juice samples were collected to analyze volume and acidity.Results: Orally administered banana powder in the dose of 2gm/kg caused a statistically significant decrease in aspirin with pyloric ligation induced ulcers in rats without significantly decrease in secretary activity.Conclusion: It can be concluded from these results that vegetable plantain banana has antiulcerogenic and mucosal protective actions, but it has no antisecretory activity.

  12. Screening of Isolated Fractions of Dendrophthoe falcata Methanol Stem Extract for Its Effects on Reproductive Functions of Male Rats

    J. B. S. Kachhawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In our previous study methanol crude extract of Dendrophthoe falcata Ettingsh (family-Loranthaceae, stem showed contraceptive like activities in male albino rats. In the present study proven fertile male rats were treated with different isolated fractions (Chloroform: Methanol of D. falcata stem at 50 mg/rat/day for 60 days. On day 61th the animals were autopsied, testes and accessory sex organs i.e. epididymides, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate were dissected out and weighed. Sperm dynamics and serum testosterone level were assessed; also testicular histological studies were done. The sperm motility and density were significantly reduced in all the treatment groups. Testosterone levels were declined significantly. Evaluations of testicular cell dynamics and histological studies suggest disrupt or inhibited spermatogenesis.

  13. Labeling of apigenin with 131I and bioactivity of 131I-apigenin in male and female rats

    Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), one of the most common flavonoids, has been shown to possess a variety of biological activities including tumor growth inhibition and chemopreventation. In the present study, apigenin was labeled with 131I using iodogen method and investigated of its bioactivity. Radiolabeling yield is 98±0.2%, as determined by radio thin layer chromatography (RTLC), electrophoresis and radio high performance liquid chromatography (RHPLC). Besides, structure analysis of synthesized cold iodoapigenin complex were assessed with LCMS/ MS and 1H-NMR. Results of in vitro study indicated a high stability (3 hours) in human serum. Biodistrubition studies are performed in male and female albino Wistar rats. Biodistribution data related to the male rats showed significant uptake in the small intestine. The female rats biodistribution results indicated that the uptake of 131I-apigenin was high in the intestine and uterus. (author)

  14. Comparison of radiosensitivity of rat parotid and submandibular glands after different radiation schedules

    Coppes, RP; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the radiosensitivity of rat parotid and submandibular gland functioning after local single dose, conventional fractionated and accelerated fractionated irradiation. Methods: The salivary glands of male albino Wistar rats were locally irradiated with a single do

  15. Estimation of the novel antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects of silymarin in Albino rats and mice

    Mohamed; Mahmoud; Amin; Mahmoud; Soliman; Arbid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the other pharmacological actions of silymarin in Albino rats and mice such as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects. Methods: Rats were injected intramuscularly with pyrogenic dose of brewer’s yeast for the antipyretic test of silymarin. Another group of rats injected with 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan solution in saline at the subplanter area of the right hind paw for the anti-inflammatory test of silymarin. Another group of mice tested by hot plate method for determination of antinociceptive effect of silymarin. Hyperlipidemia was induced using high fat diet for 2 months to estimate the antihyperlipidemic activity of silymarin. Results: Silymarin showed a significant antipyretic effect of both doses(50 and 100 mg/kg) compared with control untreated group. Moreover, silymarin elucidated a significant anti-inflammatory effect of both doses reflected on the decrease of the rat paw edema every hour interval for 4 h after administration in comparison with control positive group. By the same taken, both doses of silymarine revealed a significant antinociceptive action in hot plate method at 30 and 60 min post administration. Besides, it lowered significantly the serum levels of prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta after 2 h of silymarin administration in carrageenan induced rat paw edema besides the significant decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and significantly elevated high density lipoprotein after 2 weeks of silymarin administration. Conclusions: These outcomes delivered a new vision into the possible pharmacological mechanisms by which silymarin advances antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects.

  16. Evaluation of genotoxic potential of Hypericum triquetrifolium extract in somatic and germ cells of male albino mice

    Bushra M. A. Mohammed,; Sarbast K. Q. Kheravii

    2011-01-01

    Hypericum triquetrifolium aqueous extract were studied for the first time for its toxic and the possible clastogenic effects in vivo on the bone marrow and spermatozoa cells of Swiss albino mice. The lethal dose of the aqueous extract was considered to be 10.33 g/kg of the body weight, injected subcutaneously. The doses which were chosen for treatments were 2, 1, and 0.25 g/kg. H. triquetrifolium extract induce statistically significant increases in the average...

  17. Antihyperglycemic, Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Enzymes Effect of Strobilanthes crispus Juice in Normal and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male and Female Rats

    N.A. Norfarizan-Hanoon; R. Asmah; M.Y. Rokiah; O. Fauziah; H. Faridah

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Strobilanthes crispus juice on glucose, lipid profile, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic male and female albino Sprague-Dawley rats. This study was conducted on normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic male and female Sprague-Dawley rats fed with basal diet and S. crispus juice with different doses 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mL k-1 b.wt. for 30 days. The results showed that signif...

  18. EFFECT OF AN ISOLATED COMPPOUND (AS-1 FROM THE LEAVES OF Amaranthus spinosus L. ON ASPIRIN INDUCED GASTRIC ULCER IN ALBINO RATS

    DEBIPRASAD GHOSH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effect of AS-1, a compound isolated from the leaves of Amaranthus spinosus L., was studied on aspirin induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Method: Gastric ulcer was produced in rats by aspirin and effect of AS-1 was studied. Result: Result showed that the compound could decrease ulcer index in rats induced by aspirin. The compound produced gastric anti secretory effect by decreasing gastric volume and acidity. It further increased gastric mucin which showed gastric cytoprotective effect. Results were comparable to that of ranitidine, a standard anti ulcer drug. Conclusion: AS-1 thus provides a scientific rationale for the use as anti gastric ulcer drug.

  19. Histological Evaluation of Radioprotection by Silymarin and Brassica Oleracea Extract on Eye of Albino Rat

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of two different antioxidant agents (an ethanolic seed extract of cabbage Brassica oleraceaand silymarin) on irradiated rat eye tissues. Silymarin, known for its potent antioxidant activity, was used as a reference. Rats were divided into 6 groups; group I contained control rats, group II rats received gamma radiation (6 Gy) in three fractionated doses for 3 consecutive days, group III rats received silymarin orally through the experiment , group IV rats received ethanolic extract of brassica seeds orally through the experiment, group V rats received silymarin one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation, and group VI rats received brassica extract one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation . The histological study revealed that ethanolic extract of brassica seeds alleviated the manifestations of radiation injury in the eye tissues as compared with the untreated animals and also with those who received the silymarin.

  20. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats

    Al-Rejaie Salim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins

  1. Inhibitory Response of Raphanus sativus on Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats

    Chaturvedi, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, inhibitory effect of the methanol extract of Raphanus sativus root on lipid peroxidation has been carried out in normal rats. Graded doses of methanol extract of root of the plant (40, 80 and 120 mg kg−1 body weight) were administered orally for 15 days to experimental treated rats. Distilled water was administered to experimental control rats. At the end of experiment, rats were killed by decapitation after ether anesthesia. Blood and liver were collected to measure thi...

  2. Acute and subacute oral toxicity study on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed in albino rats

    Raphael Chukwuma Ekeanyanwu; Obioma Uzoma Njoku

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed on the haematology, histopathology and liver profile of Wistar albino rats. Methods:Toxicity study was investigated on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia in rats administered different concentrations orally for 28 d using standard laboratory procedures. Results:The LD50 of the flavonoid rich fraction was found to be above 5 000 mg/kg body weight in mice observed for 48 h. After the Day 14, biochemical markers of liver injury such as serum alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase decreased significantly (P0.05). There was non-significant (P>0.05) effect observed across the groups in the levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine. The result of histological examination showed various degrees of peribiliary hepatitis after the Day 14 which fizzled out after the Day 28. Conclusions:The result therefore suggests that the seed extract is potentially safe.

  3. KETAMINE AS A SINGLE GENERAL ANESTHETIC AGENT FOR ORAL SURGICAL PROCEDURES IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS- AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Rajesh H*, Rejeesh EP and Rao Sudarshanram Narayan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally induced periodontitis forms the basis for trials of novel drugs and therapeutics. Ketamine, an N- amino-D- aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist is considered to be safe dissociative anesthetic agent. But, the literature on the use of Ketamine as an effective general anesthetic is conflicting. We had to determine, safe and effective dose range of intra-peritoneal Ketamine hydrochloride injection in Wistar albino rats for the placement of ligatures in the oral cavity. 50 rats of the age group (greater than 4 months and weight of160g-350g were selected for the study from the Department of Pharmacology, Yenepoya University, and Mangalore. Intraperitonial injection was administered using Tuberculin syringe. The optimal dose for each animal was tabulated and log dose was calculated. Nonlinear regression analysis was done. 95% confidence limit and ED50 was calculated from the graph was 101.9mg/kg (68.1-152.6mg/kg correlation coefficient was 0.4946.  Profound and effective anesthesia was obtained at a dose of 60mg/kg-275mg/kg. The dose range of Ketamine alone from 60-275mg/kg i.p.route produced profound reproducible anesthesia. Minor oral surgical procedures could be carried out without discomfort. Mortality and morbidity due to anesthesia was low.

  4. Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Acetone Extract of Sida alba L. (Malvaceae Against Alcohol Induced Liver Damage in albinos Wistar Rats

    K. Konaté

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba. (Malvaceae an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally hepatics affections in albinos Wistar rats. Animals were treated by gavage during 28 days with different doses of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida alba. (75, 100, 150 mg/kg suspended in 35% ethanol. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethano l for 28 days results an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum as compared with rats which received water (control water. However, administrations of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05. This study revealed that Sida alba presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of affection hepatics.

  5. [Age-dependent changes of morphometric and histochemical characteristics of neurocytes in different ganglia of albino rats].

    Rumiantseva, T A

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain the normative data on the age-dependent transformation of morphometric and histochemical characteristics of neurocytes in different ganglia in albino rats. Cell cross-sectional area, activities of cholinesterase (demonstrated with thioacetic acid method) monoamine oxidase (demonstrated with Glenner method) were measured in neurocytes of stellate, spinal, trigeminal and gastric ganglia in rats aged 2 to 360 days. Measurements were made with the help of "Bioscan" videoanalyzer. Informational analysis was used for the evaluation of the degree of maturation of neurocyte systems. General features, age- and organ-related peculiarities of morphometric and enzyme-histochemical characteristics were established for neurocytes of different ganglia, as well as a heterochronism of their definitive state attainment. The time of stabilization for neurocytes of stellate and I thoracic spinal ganglia was the age of 60 days, for those of trigeminal ganglion and intramural gastric ganglia -90 and 120 days, respectively. By this time, neurocyte systems turned from a determined state into a probabilistic-determined one, this transformation being considered as a population stabilization. PMID:15359692

  6. Comparative study on the effect of Gliclazide and two Antidiabetic plants used in Folk Medicine on Albino Rat's fetuses

    Ibrahim G. Ibrahim*, Boshra El-Salkh**, Nagwa Shawki

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the adverse effects of gliclazide and two antidiabetic plants extracts on 15 &18 days fetuses of albino rat (Rattus norvegicus. The two antidiabetic plants extracts were aquatic extract of Aremisia herba alba (shih-balady and alcoholic extract of Salix babylonica L. leaves (Om-Ashoor which is known by salicin. The doses used were 4 mg / kg (Katsumata, and kastumata 1990 for the gliclazide drug (diamicron, 450 mg/kg for Artemisia herba alba (Al-Waili, 1986 and 1.5 gm/kg for salicin. Pregnant rats were given orally the applied does level every other day from the onset of gestation till the 15th or to the 18th day. The pregnant rats were divided into control group (G1; diabetic pregnant female rats (G2; Artemisia treated group (G3; salicin treated group (G4 and glicalzide treated group (G5. Fetuses showed diminution of size. Crown-rump lentght while the number of embryos increased in case of salicin treatment and decreased in case of gliclazide treatment due to increased resorption rate. The endoskeleton system of fetuses obtained from pregnant diabetic mothers (G2 showed normal ossification in all fetuses with enlarged skeleton. Some fetuses of Artemisia treated group showed major enoskeletal anomalies in the from of incomplete ossification of the skull bones, or missing in some skull bones, and also missing of caudal vertebrae. Salicin treated group fetuses showed lack in ossification of the nasal, frontal and complete absence of parietal bone. While gliclazide treated group fetuses showed moderate ossification of nasal and frontal bones. On the other hand parietal bone exhibited complete missing.

  7. Protective role of Triphala, an Indian traditional herbal formulation, against the nephrotoxic effects of bromobenzene in Wistar albino rats

    Udhaya Lavinya Baskaran; Sherry Joseph Martin; Rasool Mahaboobkhan; Sabina Evan Prince

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the nephroprotective and antioxidant properties of Triphala against bromobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in female Wistar albino rats. METHODS:Animals were divided into ifve groups of six rats and treated as fol ows:Group I was a normal control and received no treatment, Group II received only bromobenzene (10 mmol/kg), Groups III and IV received bromobenzene and Triphala (250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively), Group V received Triphala alone (500 mg/kg), and Group VI received bromobenzene and silymarin (100 mg/kg). Antioxidant status and serum kidney functional markers were analyzed. RESULTS:Bromobenzene treatment resulted in signiifcant (P<0.05) decreases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase as wel as total reduced glutathione. There was a signiifcant (P<0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation in kidney tissue homogenates. There were signiifcant (P<0.05) reductions in the levels of serum total protein and albumin as wel as signiifcant (P<0.05) increases in serum creatinine, urea and uric acid. The oral administration of two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) of Triphala in bromobenzene-treated rats normalized the tested parameters. The histopathological examinations of kidney sections of the experimental rats support the biochemical observations. CONCLUSION:Triphala treatment al eviated the nephrotoxic effects of bromobenzene by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reducing the levels of lipid peroxidation and kidney functional markers.

  8. A study of anti-hyperlipidemia, hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of emblica officinalis (amla) in high fat fed albino rats

    Jeevangi Santoshkumar, Manjunath S, Sakhare Pranavkumar M

    2013-01-01

    : Emblica Officinalis (Amla), belonging to the genus, Phyllanthus emblica is widely used for medicinal purpose. Its fruits have been used traditionally as a hypolipidemic. Objectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of Emblica officinalis in high fat fed albino rats. Materials and Methods: For study of anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic activity. 5 groups of 6 animals in each received normal saline, E. Officina...

  9. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain of alloxan diabetic albino rats: Presence of an inhibitor of this enzyme activity in the cerebral extract

    Ahmed, Nayeemunnisa; Tarannum, Suraiya

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim: Ischemic manifestations and cerebral dysfunction have been demonstrated in diabetes. However, the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced cerebral dysfunction still remains to be elucidated. Hence, the present study was initiated. Materials and Methods: Type-2 diabetes was induced in albino rats (280–300g) with alloxan monohydrate (40 mg/Kg i.v.,) and the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata of the brain were used 48 h after alloxan injection for modulations in acetylcholin...

  10. The Protective Role of Aegle Marmelos on Aspirin–Induced Gastro-Duodenal Ulceration in Albino Rat Model: A Possible Involvement of Antioxidants

    Das, Shyamal K.; Chandan Roy

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Gastro duodenal ulcer is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Several Indian medicinal plants have been traditionally and extensively used to prevent different diseases. In the present research studies, Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (AM), family: Rutaceae) which are also called as Bilva in ancient Sanskrit was used as a herbal drug and its antioxidative role in aspirin- induced gastroduodenal ulceration in albino rat was evaluated using essential biochemical parameter...

  11. Effect of Terminalia Chebula (Haritaki on Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase in Paracetemol induced liver damage in Wister Albino Rats

    Tania Yeasmin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver plays a major role in detoxification and excretion of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. Any injury may lead to severe liver damage and impairment of liver function. Harbal plants such as Terminalia chebula (Haritaki may have free radical scavenging activity thereby can be used for the prevention and treatment of liver damage. Objective: To observe the effect of Terminalia chebula on paracetamol induced changes of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in Wister albino rats. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from January to December’ 2013. Total 44 rats with age 90 to 120 days, weighing between 150 to 200 gm were selected. After acclimatization for 14 days, they were divided into base line control (BC, n=11, paracetamol treated control (PC, n=11,Terminalia chebula pretreated and paracetamol treated (TCP-PCT n=11 and paracetamol pretreated and Terminalia chebula treated group (PCP-TCT, n=11. All groups received basal diet for 21 consecutive days. In addition to basal diet, rats of BC received propylene glycol (2ml/kg body weight, orally and PC received single dose of paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on 21st day. Rats of TCP-PCT received Terminalia chebula extract (200 mg/kg body weight, orally for 21 consecutive days and paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on 21st day. Again, rats of PCP-TCT received paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on the 1st day and Terminalia chebula extract (200 mg/kg body weight orally for 21 consecutive days. All rats were sacrificed on 22nd day and then blood samples were collected. For assessment of liver function serum AST and ALT levels were estimated by using standard laboratory kits. The statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni test as applicable. Results: The mean serum AST and ALT levels were

  12. Biochemical histological and histochemical changes induced in pregnant albino rats as affected by SILYMARIN treatment and/or gamma irradiation

    Silymarin is a mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), that has been used in the treatment of liver diseases. Flavonoids are a large group of polycyclic phenols of plant origin that are displaying estrogenic effects. Silybum marianum has been traditionally used in Egypt for its antifertility effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of silymarin administration and / or exposure to gamma radiation in pregnant rats. Silymarin at a dose level 75.6 mg/kg body weight was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 1st to the 20th day of pregnancy while mothers were subjected to gamma radiation (1.5 Gy) as fractionated dose; 0.75 Gy on the 6th day and 0.75 Gy on 12th day of pregnancy. Experimental investigations carried out one day prior to parturition have demonstrated that silymarin intake throughout the whole gestational period induced biochemical, histopathological and histochemical disorders in irradiated mothers. The data obtained revealed that silymarin administration and/or gamma radiation exposure caused significant elevation in levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), the luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol in pregnant rats.Moreover, the histopathological results showed different distortions which varied from hyperemic blood vessels, fibroblasts in the ovary, degenerated uterine glands, erosion in the lining epithelia of the uterus and degenerated epithelial cells, necrosis in trophospongium, necrosis in the giant cells, massive blood in the labyrinth and cytoplasmic vacuolation in the placenta. In addition, the histochemical observations revealed various diminutions in each of the polysaccharides, total protein and DNA content. Conclusively, these findings proved that radiation exposure and/or silymarin intake could exert deleterious effect, therefore, it is recommended that radiation occupational workers especially females have to be careful toward

  13. Chloroquine causes similar electroretinogram modifications, neuronal phospholipidosis and marked impairment of synaptic vesicle transport in Albino and Pigmented Rats

    Retinal toxicity of chloroquine has been known for several years, but the mechanism(s) of toxicity remain controversial; some author support the idea that the binding of chloroquine to melanin pigments in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) play a major toxic role by concentrating the drug in the eye. In our study, 12 albinos Sprague-Dawley (SD) and 12 pigmented Brown Norway (BN) rats were treated orally for 3 months with chloroquine to compare functional and pathological findings. On Flash electroretinograms (ERG) performed in scotopic conditions, similar and progressive (time-dependent) delayed onset and decreased amplitudes of oscillatory potentials (from Day 71) and b-waves (on Day 92) were identified in both BN and SD rats. In both strains, identical morphological changes consisted of neuronal phospholipidosis associated with UV auto-fluorescence without evidence of retinal degeneration and gliosis; the RPE did not show any morphological lesions or autofluorescence. IHC analyses demonstrated a decrease in GABA expression in the inner nuclear layer. In addition, a marked accumulation of synaptic vesicles coupled with a marked disruption of neurofilaments in the optic nerve fibers was identified. In conclusion, ERG observations were very similar to those described in humans. Comparable ERG modifications, histopathology and immunohistochemistry findings were observed in the retina of both rat strains suggesting that melanin pigment is unlikely involved. chloroquine-induced impairment of synaptic vesicle transport, likely related to disruption of neurofilaments was identified and non-previously reported. This new mechanism of toxicity may also be responsible for the burry vision described in humans chronically treated with chloroquine

  14. The effect of ficus carica l. (anjir) leaf extract on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in adult male albino mice

    Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside isolated from Micromonospora purpurea known for its nephrotoxicity. Ficus carica L is known to treat many ailments. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Ficus carica L. (Anjir) leaf extract on renal oxidative stress induced by gentamicin in albino mice. Methods: In this laboratory based experimental study 30 mice were divided into three groups, containing 10 mice each. Group A being the control; groups B and C were experimental and treated with gentamicin 200 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally and, Ficus carica L. leaf extract 400 mg/kg/day orally with gentamicin 200 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally respectively for a period of 8 days. Blood samples were taken 24 hours after completion of the experimental period by cardiac puncture under anesthesia and kidneys of each mouse were taken out for microscopic examination. Results: Gentamicin treatment increased serum urea and creatinine levels (group B). Ficus carica L. leaf extract treated animals showed significant reduction in biochemical markers of kidney functions in group C. The histopathological examination of group A showed normal renal structure which was deranged in group B treated with only gentamicin, whereas, group C exhibited marked improvement in histological structure. Conclusion: Ficus carica L. leaf extract is effective in preventing gentamicin induced functional and structural changes in kidney of albino mice. (author)

  15. Effect of long dose exposure of Podophyllum hexandrum methanol extract on antioxidant defense system and body and organ weight changes of albino rats

    Showkat Ahmad Ganie; Bilal Ahmad Zargar; Akbar Masood; Mohmmad Afzal Zargar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of long dose administration of methanol rhizome extract of Podophyllum hexandrum and hydrogen peroxide on lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes, antioxidant enzyme status of rat liver, kidney, lung and brain tissue and body weight and organ weight changes of albino rats. Methods: The body and organ weight was monitored with digital scale balance and lipid peroxidation of RBC ghost membrane was monitored by measuring malonaldehyde (MDA). Antioxidant enzymes were assayed by standard procedures. Results: Our study showed that administration of H2O2 (0.1%) in drinking water of the rats for 25 weeks increased the malondialdehyde levels in erythrocytes of all the rats. However, rats receiving Podophyllum hexandrum extract and α- tocopherol had lower MDA levels in a dose dependent manner, which indicates decreased lipid peroxidation in these rats. Our results also showed decrease in the activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione levels in different organs of H2O2 treated rats. Rats receiving methanolic extract of Podophyllum hexandrum at the concentration of 5, 10 and 15mg% for 25 weeks increased the activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione levels in different organs of the rats indicates the protective effect of the plant in combating oxidative stress undergone by the rats. No significant variation (P< 0.05) in the organ weights between the control and the treated groups was observed after 25 weeks of treatment. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study presents strong evidence of the nontoxic effect of the methanol extract of Podophyllumhexandrum. The findings also demonstrate that Podophyllum hexandrum methanol extract increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes and decreased lipid peroxidation in albino rats and explained the extensive utilization of the plant in traditional medicine.

  16. Effect of the Aqueous Root Extract of Urena lobata (Linn on the Liver of Albino Rat

    I.Y. Mshelia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the aqueous root extract of urena lobata on the rat liver was investigated using a total of (25 adult Wister rats of both sexes that were randomly divided into five groups of five rats each. Group I served as the control, while rats in groups II-IV where administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively for 28 days. Rats in group V were administered 300 mg/kg of the extract for 28 days and allowed to stay for 14 days post treatment to observe for reversibility, persistence or delayed occurrence of toxic effects. At the end of the experimental period the animals were sacrificed and liver weight taken and fixed for routine histological examinations. Administration of the extract to rats had no effects on liver and body weights but the extract caused a decrease in albumin level and increases in the levels of Aspartate Transaminases (AST, Alanine Transaminases (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP. Histopathological assessment of the liver revealed mild to severe interstitial hemorrhage, mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis, congestion and edema in the liver of the treated rats while withdrawal of the extract for 14 days showed a slight degree of recovery in the rats. This findings suggest that the biochemical and morphological organization of the liver can significantly be altered with continues and increase use of the extract, but further studies on the long term effect of the extract and a prolonged recovery period is recommended in further studies.

  17. Ação da domperidona sobre a prenhez da rata albina Effects of Domperidone on Pregnant Albino Rats Pregnancy

    Arykerne Chamon do Carmo

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar os efeitos do uso crônico do fármaco anti-emético domperidona durante toda a prenhez da rata albina. Métodos: foram utilizadas 50 ratas albinas prenhes distribuídas ao acaso em cinco grupos: GI - sem nenhum tratamento (controle I; GII - recebeu água (controle II, GIII, GIV e GV foram tratadas, respectivamente, com 2, 6 e 12 mg/kg de peso corporal por dia de domperidona, com doses fracionadas de 4 em 4 horas, por gavagem, sempre em 1 ml de água destilada, desde o dia zero até o 20º dia de prenhez. O ganho de peso das matrizes foi avaliado no dia zero e no 7º, 14º e 20º dia de prenhez, sendo que no 20º dia todos os animais foram sacrificados. A seguir foram anotados os seguintes parâmetros: número de sítios de implantação, de placentas e de fetos, pesos das placentas e dos fetos, malformações e mortalidade materna e fetal. Resultados: considerando as variáveis apreciadas, o fármaco influiu somente sobre a mortalidade fetal, sendo respectivamente de 14, 26 e 32 óbitos intra-uterinos entre 74, 60 e 57 crias, considerando os grupos III, IV e V. Conclusões: embora os resultados da experimentação animal não possam ser diretamente levados para a clínica humana, este trabalho alerta para os cuidados na prescrição de domperidona durante o período gestacional.Purpose: the aim of the present work was to study the chronic action of the antiemetic domperidone on the pregnancy of albino rats. Methods: fifty albino, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups: GI (control I = intact rats; GII (control II = rats receiving the drug vehicle (distilled water by gavage at the same schedule of the experimental groups; rats in groups GIII, GIV and GV were treated with domperidone by gavage, 2, 6 and 12 mg/kg per day, respectively, divided into 4 daily doses, always in 1 ml of distilled water, from time zero up to the 20th day of pregnancy. The evolution of body weight gain was followed throughout and

  18. ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF SIMVASTATIN ALONE (THERAPEUTIC DOSE) AND COMBINATION OF SIMVASTATIN AND GLIPIZIDE (SUB THERAPEUTIC DOSES) ON ALLOXAN INDUCED HYPERGLYCEMIA IN ALBINO RATS

    V.S. Harish Kumar*, N.R. Sindhu, Rajashri S. Patil and Umakant Patil

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate anti-hyperglycemic activity of simvastatin alone and the combination of sub therapeutic doses of simvastatin and glipizide. Hyperglycemia was induced experimentally in albino rats by subcutaneous injection of alloxan in a dose of 175 mg/kg body weight. After 72 hours of alloxan treatment, rats showing hyperglycemia (blood glucose level of 400 mg/dl and above) were included in the study. They were divided into four groups of 6 animals each (n=24). Ora...

  19. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats

    Suresh Arumugam; Senthil Velan Selvaraj; Suresh Velayutham; Senthil Kumar Natesan; Karthikeyan Palaniswamy

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the antiulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats. Materials and Methods : Gastric lesions were induced in rats by oral administration of absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) and stress induced by water immersion. The antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) was compared with standard drugs. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice...

  20. The Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Aloe. Vera Aqueous Extract in Fructose-Fed Male Rats

    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Aloe Vera extract is used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-bradikinin agent in laboratory animals. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the ant-nociceptive effect of A. Vera aqueous extract in fructose-fed male rats. Methods: Forty-five Wistar-Albino male rats were equally and randomly divided into five groups including sham operated and four test groups. Sham operated group consumed tap water and the test groups consumed fructoseenriched water. Test groups 2, 3 and 4 additionally received, 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of A. Vera extract, respectively, whereas the other test group received distilled water daily. Tail flick reaction time, serum glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that tail flick reaction time significantly increased in test group 3 which received 200 mg/kg A. Vera extract comparing with that of sham operated group. However, OGTT and serum glucose value were significantly increased in all fructose-fed male rats comparing with those of sham operated group. Discussion: These results indicated that A. Vera aqueous extract can affect tail flick reaction time in fructose-fed male rats. Further studies are required to show the exact mechanism of anti-nociceptive effect of A. Vera extract.

  1. Saffron Aqueous Extract Inhibits the Chemically-induced Gastric Cancer Progression in the Wistar Albino Rat

    S. Zahra Bathaie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Gastric cancer is the first and second leading cause of cancer related death in Iranian men and women, respectively. Gastric cancer management is based on the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, for the first time, the beneficial effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract (SAE on the 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG-induced gastric cancer in rat was investigated. Materials and Methods: MNNG was used to induce gastric cancer and then, different concentrations of SAE were administered to rats. After sacrificing, the stomach tissue was investigated by both pathologist and flow cytometry, and several biochemical parameters was determined in the plasma (or serum and stomach of rats. Results: Pathologic data indicated the induction of cancer at different stages from hyperplasia to adenoma in rats; and the inhibition of cancer progression in the gastric tissue by SAE administration; so that, 20% of cancerous rats treated with higher doses of SAE was completely normal at the end of experiment and there was no rat with adenoma in the SAE treated groups. In addition, the results of the flow cytometry/ propidium iodide staining showed that the apoptosis/proliferation ratio was increased due to the SAE treatment of cancerous rats. Moreover, the significantly increased serum LDH and decreased plasma antioxidant activity due to cancer induction fell backwards after treatment of rats with SAE. But changes in the other parameters (Ca2+, tyrosine kinase activity and carcino-embryonic antigen were not significant. Conclusion: SAE inhibits the progression of gastric cancer in rats, in a dose dependent manner.

  2. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation.

    Mishra, Arun K; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and α-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue. PMID:23008814

  3. ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL ANESTHETIC ACTIVITY OF LIGNOCAINE BY SIMULTANEOUS ADMINISTRATION OF POTASSIUM CHANNEL AGONISTS NICORANDIL IN ALBINO RATS

    Lakkol Kiran J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There are reports about a possible weak local anaesthetic activity of nicorandil, a potassium channel agonist (PCA. In addition, modification of local anesthetic activity of lignocaine by PCA is not clearly defined. The objective of the present study is to evaluate local anesthetic activity of nicorandil and to evaluate the influence of nicorandil on the efficacy and duration of local anesthesia by lignocaine. A total number of 84 albino rats of either sex were divided into 14 groups of 6 animals each. Two methods, sciatic nerve blockade and tail clip method were applied for the study. Control group received 0.2ml normal saline, whereas the study group received 0.2ml of 1% drug solution (lignocaine or nicorandil combined with 0.9% sodium chloride. The results showed weak local anaesthetic activity with the higher dosages of nicorandil (10 mg/kg, 100mg/kg. Combination of nicorandil (1mg/kg, 10mg/kg and 100mg/kg and lignocaine (5mg/kg yielded synergistic results like decreased onset latency and prolonged reaction time. To conclude unquestionably there are multiple mechanisms involved for causation of local anesthetic effect by drugs like lignocaine. PCAs like nicorandil will influence the activity of these drugs as observed in the present study. Mechanism of this may be complex. Nicorandil may increase the plasma membrane permeability to potassium causing hyper polarization and moves the membrane potential away from the threshold required to generate an action potential.

  4. A comparative study on chronic administration of Go Ghrita (cow ghee) and Avika Ghrita (ewe ghee) in albino rats.

    Shukla, Dipali J; Vyas, Hitesh A; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B

    2012-07-01

    Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya. PMID:23723655

  5. EFFECT OF VIMLIV ON LIPID PEROXIDES AND ANTIOXIDANTS IN ETHANOL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTER RATS

    M. Samundeeswari and M. Rajadurai*

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of vimliv in ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The liver toxicity was induced by the administration of ethanol to the animals at dose of 3 g/kg orally for 35 days. During the period of vimliv was co-administered to the rats at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg for 35 days. The levels of lipidperoxidative products significantly increased and the levels of antioxidants decreased in ethanol induced rats. Co-ad...

  6. Evaluation of neuroprotective effect of flupirtine in brain of albino rats

    Elango P

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: This study represents the neuroprotective characteristics of flupiritne against the excitotoxicity induced by NMDA in an in vivo rat models. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 135-141

  7. Effect of Topical Application of Silymarin (Silybum marianum on Excision Wound Healing in Albino Rats

    Naghmeh Ghannadian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Silymarin, an extract from Silybum marianum, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. However, there is no scientific report on wound healing activity of the silymarin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical administration of silymarin on excision wound healing in rats. Excision wounds were made on the back of rats. Rats were divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Vehicle and treatment groups received polyethylene glycol and silymarin dissolved in polyethylene glycol, respectively. The control group did not receive any treatment. The wound tissues were removed on 5th, 10th and 15th day for histopathological analysis and total collagen determination by hydroxyproline assay. Results showed that silymarin increased epithelialization and decreased inflammation but did not have any effect on percentage of wound contraction, collagenization and hydroxyproline levels. It was concluded that silymarin can significantly stimulate epithelialization and reduce inflammation in full-thickness wounds in rats.

  8. Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats

    Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg and vehicle (control were administered orally to rats (n = 6 animals per group for 3 weeks. Mating behavior parameters in male rats was monitored in first week and third week week of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment, the mating performance, hormonal analysis, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio were also evaluated. Results: The polyherbal formulation showed a significant increase in mating behavior as well as mating performance, serum hormonal levels, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio with dose-dependent relationship as compared to vehicle control. But the dose of 600 mg/kg of polyherbal formulation assumes closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. Conclusion: The results of the study strongly suggest that the polyherbal formulations have a good aphrodisiac activity on rats in the above experimental models, which may be an alternative weapon for various sexual dysfunctions in future.

  9. Evaluation of neuroprotective effect of flupirtine in brain of albino rats

    Elango P; Darling Chellathai; Saravana Babu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Flupirtine (FP) is found to antagonize both glutamate and N methyl, D aspartate (NMDA) and the current study was undertaken to elucidate a possible neuroprotective role of flupirtine against NMDA induced neurotoxicity in experimental rat model. Methods: Excitotoxicty was produced in rat and it is counteracted by flupirtine. The animals were grouped as Group 1 (vehicle treated), Group 2 (received NMDA+vehicle), Group 3 (received FP+NMDA only), and Group 4 (received FP+vehicle) a...

  10. Effect of Antioxidant Mineral Elements Supplementation in the Treatment of Hypertension in Albino Rats

    Muhammad, S. A.; Bilbis, L. S.; Saidu, Y.; Adamu, Y

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blo...

  11. Antiobesity, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Achyranthes aspera seed saponins in high cholesterol fed albino rats

    Khan, Naveed; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Reich, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numerous herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of different diseases. Achyranthes aspera, Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae), popularly known as Charchitta or Pitpapra, is commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of fever, malaria, dysentery, asthma, arterial hypertension, pneumonia, and diabetes. The root extract is well reputed for its insect molting hormonal activity. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of saponins from Achyranthes aspera seeds on the serum lipid profile of albino rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Material and methods Hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of these saponins were tested as described previously. To determine the mechanism underlying the observed effects, serum antioxidant status was assessed according to ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), superoxide dismutase and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays in saponin-treated hyperlipidemic animals. Liver enzyme levels were determined to reveal any possible hepatotoxicity. Results Four-week oral administration of A. aspera seed saponins produced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease of total cholesterol, total triglycerides and LDL-C and a significant increase of HDL-C level in hyperlipidemic rats. Treatment with A. aspera seed saponins also showed a significant (p < 0.01) improvement of serum antioxidant status in tested animals. No significant hepatotoxicity was produced by such treatment as the serum liver enzyme activity remained unaltered. Conclusions Saponins from A. aspera seeds possess antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties which might lead to improvement of serum lipid profile and blood antioxidant status. Our findings support the folkloric use of this indigenous plant in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, its exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. PMID:26788089

  12. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF Solanum Pubescens LINN ON CCL4 INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS

    M.Pushpalatha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract of Solanum pubescens Linn was evaluated for hepato protective and antioxidant activities in rats. The plant extract (500mg/kg/day showed a remarkable hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as judged from the serum marker enzymes and antioxidant levels in liver tissues. CCl4 induced a significant rise in aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, LPO with a reduction of total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, and reduced glutathione (GSH. Treatment of rats with plant extract (500 mg/kg significantly (P<0.01 altered serum marker enzymes and antioxidant levels to near normal against CCl4 - treated rats. The activity of the extract at dose of 500 mg/kg was comparable to the standard drug, Silymarin (50 mg/kg, p.o.. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotective activity of plant.

  13. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT PARTS OF BAUHUNIA PURPUREA LINN. PLANT IN STZ-INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    A. K. Brahmachari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to study the comparative phytochemical profiles and hypoglycemic effects of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Barks (BPBE and leaves ethanolic extracts (BPLE in albino wistar rats to validate their ethno medical use in hyperglycemia as well as to explore the better option. Phytochemicals in ethanolic extracts were analyzed by standard natural product chemistry methods. Diabetes was developed in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin @ 60mg/ Kg bw. Diabetic albino wister rats (n=3 of either sex (150-200gm bw were orally fed with the extracts once daily for 4 weeks. Glibenclamide @ 0.5mg/Kg bw was used as a positive control for comparison. Fasting blood glucose level at 0, 14th and 28th day and hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin on 28th day of experiment were analyzed. Our results show that the extracts contain alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins and phenolics. Rats treated with plant extracts show better glucose modulation, decreased hemoglobin glycosylation and improved hemoglobin concentration as compared to diabetic control. The hypoglycemic effect of only BPBE at 420 mgkg-1 on 14th and 28th day is comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (P>0.01. The bark extract has been observed to be more potent hypoglycemic agent than leave extract.

  14. Radioprotective role of vitamin E and urea in irradiated albino rats

    The present study evaluates the action of vitamin E and urea as chemical radioprotectors for controlling the radiation induced changes in creatine and creatinine levels in the forebrain of female rats subjected to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The levels of creating and creatinine in the forebrain of normal control rats were±704±22 to±724±23 and 11.053 0.119 to 11.553 0.127 /g fresh tissue; respectively. The applied radiation dose caused a significant increase in the creating level of about 15%, 18%, 13% and 41% on the first,third,seventh and tenth days post irradiation; respectively. At the same post irradiation days, the level of creatinine generally increased, but not to the same extent as creatine. The treatment of rats either with vitamin E or with urea pre radiation exposure caused a remarkable recovery in both creatine and creatinine levels in the forebrain of irradiated rats.The results are discussed in the high of discussed in the high of available literatures. 2 tab

  15. Nardostachys Jatamansi root extract protects of radiation induced glycogen depletion in Albino Wistar rats

    Exposure to ionizing radiation cause variety of pathological processes in irradiated cells. The killing action of ionizing radiation is mainly mediated through the free radicals generated from the radiolysis of cellular water. In the present study, protective effects of Nardostachys Jatamansi root extract (NJE) on radiation induced depletion of glycogen in rats exposed to 3 Gy whole body electron beam irradiation (EBR) was investigated. EBR was performed at Microtron centre, Mangalore University. Treatment of rats with NJE at a dosage of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw respectively once daily for 15 days before, after and both before and after irradiation was done. The liver, kidney and muscle was separated and used for the estimation of total glycogen content using standard procedures and also for the histochemical localization of glycogen by PAS staining method. The data was analyzed by paired t test and Kruskal Wallis test. P<0.05 was the level of significance. The irradiated rats exhibited significant decline (p=0.000) in the level of total glycogen content in the tissues of liver, kidney and muscle whereas, a nonsignificant variation was recorded in rats treated with NJE. This study indicated that treatment with NJE both before and after irradiation for 15 consecutive days provided significant protection against irradiation induced depletion of glycogen. (author)

  16. Low-Dose Aspirin Treatment Alleviates Gamma Irradiation Impaired Fertility in Female Albino Rats

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), the extensively prescribed analgesic, can improve female fertility by suppressing the prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis and modulating the uterine circulation. Aspirin has also been found to exhibit a protective ability on the radiation induced oxidative stress. Thus the present work aims to investigate the effect of oral low-dose Aspirin treatment on the radiation induced female reproductive disturbance. Adult female rats were used in the current experiment. All rat group treatments started at the onset of the proestrus phase and terminated at the diestrus encompassing 2 complete estrus cycles. Subsequently, the rats were divided into 4 equal groups: Group 1-Control: female rats receiving distilled water via an oral gavage; Group 2- Irradiation: female rats subjected to 6 Gy gamma rays at the proestrus cycle and receiving distilled water; Group 3-Aspirin: rats orally administered a daily dose of 7mg/kg body weight aspirin dissolved in distilled water via an oral gavage and Group 4- Irradiation + Aspirin: female rats irradiated as group 2 and receiving aspirin treatment. A number of rats from each experimental group were allowed to mate following every treatment to serve as Control mated (Subgroup 1), Irradiated mated (Subgroup 2), Aspirin administered mated (Subgroup 3) and Irradiated + Aspirin treated mated (Subgroup 4). At the assigned day of the second estrus cycle completion, blood was collected from Groups 1-4 for subsequent hormonal assay, lipid peroxides and glutathione (GSH) estimation whereas Subgroups 1-4 were carefully monitored for reproduction and infertility rates. Results have shown that the 6 Gy γ- irradiation of the rats at the proestrus cycle (Group 2) caused a decrease in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) levels associated with a drastic increase in the progesterone levels in addition to the significant

  17. Modification of the Mus musculus albino rats parasitological profile induced by low x-ray radiation dose; Modificacao do perfil parasitologico de camundongos albinos Mus musculus causada por raios X em baixa dosagem

    Medeiros, P.L.; Veloso, L.F.; Motta, M.A. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    1994-12-31

    Ionizing radiations can induce alterations on the immunological response. In order to observe the effects of X-Rays in the susceptibility to intestinal worms infestation, feces of 40 Albino Swiss mice (20 males and 20 females) receiving weekly X-Rays doses of 500 mGy, were collected once per week, so as was collected fecal material of an equal group o mice non-irradiated, for comparison. The results of the coprologic examination revealed the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides, eggs mainly in the irradiated females, having the irradiated group a proportional rate of 30:1, as compared with the non-irradiated group. Eggs of Syphacia obveolata was also found, with a rate of 13:1 as compared with the non-irradiated, and also here with a prevalence among the irradiated females. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  18. Protective effects of rosmarinic acid on sepsis-induced DNA damage in the liver of Wistar albino rats

    Hatice Gul Goktas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is an imbalance between pro and anti-inflammatory responses. Sepsis induced multiple organ failure that is associated with mortality is characterized by liver, renal, cardiovascular and pulmonary dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS are believed to be involved in the development of sepsis. Plant polyphenols may act as antioxidants by different mechanisms such as free radical scavenging, metal chelation and protein binding. Data indicates possible beneficial effects of plant derived phenolic compounds against sepsis. Rosmarinic acid (RA (α-O-caffeoyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid is a phenolic compound commonly found in various plants such as Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Origanum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Mentha spicata (spearmint, Perilla frutescens (perilla, Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil and several other medicinal plants. It has been shown that RA has many biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anticancer and actimicrobial and is widely used in cosmetic and food industry. In the present study, we aimed to determine the protective effects of RA against the oxidative DNA damage induced by sepsis in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups; sham, sepsis induced, RA-treated, RA treated and sepsis induced groups. Wistar rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation puncture. The liver tissues were carefully dissected from their attachments and totally excised. The concentrations of the hepatic tissue cells were adjusted to approximately 2 x 106 cells/ml. Standard and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg modified comet assay described by Singh et al were used. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of tail length, tail intensity and tail moment between the sham group and the RA-treated groups (p>0.05. The DNA damage was found significantly higher in the sepsis-induced group compared to the sham group (p0.05, and the DNA damage

  19. Effect of Monthly Injectable Contraceptive (Mesigyna on the Uterus of Adult Female Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    Abeer M. Hassan, Magda M. Naim, Somaya H. Mahmoud, Fouad M. Badr

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and experimental. The control group (n=8 received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle (castor oil & benzyl benzoate once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days. Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12 received IM injection of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna, once every 5 days for 6 times, and were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injection. Experimental group 2; E2 (n=12 were injected as in group E1 then left for 15 days. Uterine tissue was used for various techniques; histological (H&E & Masson's trichrome and immunohistochemical (staining of progesterone receptors, using Labeled-Streptavidin method. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were done to assess the degree of uterine affection. Quantitative measurements (optical density, color area percentage, line distance & cells count were performed using the image analyzer. Mesigyna injection showed increased endometrial folding (91.6% of the animals with decreased endometrial thickness. Luminal epithelium showed proliferation with pseudostratification of its nuclei (75% of animals, necrotic changes (31.3% of animals, hyperplasia (epithelial tufting; in 25% of animals and desquamation (8.3%of animals. Increased gland size and stromal hypercellularity were also observed. Polymorphonuclear cellular infiltration in both endometrium and myometrium, Vascular congestion and increased myometrial thickness were respectively seen in 83.33%, 63.5 %, 83.5% of E1 group animals. Mesigyna also caused reduction in the amount of collagen fibers. Immunostaining revealed decreased number and optical density of progesterone receptors in nuclei of surface epithelium, glandular epithelium and stromal cells while they were increased in nuclei of smooth muscle fibers. Image analysis

  20. IN VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM ROXB. STEM BARK ON ALBINO RATS

    Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are believed to be an important source of new chemical substance with potential therapeutic applicability. Several plant species traditionally used as anti-inflammatory.This research work is carryout for the anti-inflammatory activity of Pterocarpus marsupium roxb. Stem bark extracts using Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Ibuprofen 60mg/kg p.o. was kept as standard. The research was carried out in Wister strain weighing 150-200gm. The Methanol (100mg/Kg and Aqueous extract (100mg/Kg has exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Flavonoids present in stem bark may be responsible for anti-inflammatory activity. However, it needs isolation, structural elucidation and screening of above active principles to pin point activity of drug.

  1. ANTIDIARRHOEL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF VERNONIA CINEREA (L. LESS ON FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    Panday Ganesh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the objectives of investigating antidiarrhoel activity of Vernonia cinerea whole plant (Family-Compositae, collected from tarai region of Uttarakhand. The plant extracts were obtained via cold extraction method. For the purpose of evaluating antidiarrhoel efficacy of methanolic extract of the plant, rats were used as test animal. The time of onset of first wet faeces increased significantly and dose dependently by the extract. It was excellent at higher doses (100 & 200 mg/kg body wt., orally. It indicated reduction in peristaltic movement of gastro intestinal tract of animals. The antidiarrhoel activity was further confirmed by its significant and dose dependent decrease in number of wet faeces and number of total faeces in comparison to rats used as control.

  2. Studies of cell physiological aspects following hormonal and ionizing radiation treatments of albino rat

    The results revealed that the final , slaughter and carcass weight were significantly decreased under the effect of the three modes of gamma irradiation while the specific radioactivity of the femur was increased in the internally irradiated rate and combined internal and external gamma-irradiation . insulin treatment increased body water, protein , ash and specific radioactivity of femur of internally irradiated rate. External irradiation decreased both of RBCs count and blood hemoglobin content and increased WBCs count, while the combined mode of irradiation caused an increase of WBCs and blood Hb. content. Insulin treatment caused a decrease of blood Hb. in externally irradiated rats while an increase was detected in the externally and internally irradiated rats . External and combined internal with external irradiation caused an increase of serum globulins and a decrease of serum albumin and A/G ratio

  3. ANTI ULCER EFFECT OF BASELLA ALBA LEAF EXTRACT IN ASPIRIN INDUCED ALBINO RATS

    P. Venkatalakshmi et al

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the anti ulcer effect of Basella alba in aspirin induced ulcerated rats. Aspirin induced ulcer was revealed by increased ulcer index, decreased gastric pH, increase in the levels of pepsin, Thio barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Lipid hydroperoxides and decrease in the levels of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. Treatment with the plant extract brought back the altered parameters to normal.

  4. ANTI ULCER EFFECT OF BASELLA ALBA LEAF EXTRACT IN ASPIRIN INDUCED ALBINO RATS

    P. Venkatalakshmi et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the anti ulcer effect of Basella alba in aspirin induced ulcerated rats. Aspirin induced ulcer was revealed by increased ulcer index, decreased gastric pH, increase in the levels of pepsin, Thio barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS. Lipid hydroperoxides and decrease in the levels of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. Treatment with the plant extract brought back the altered parameters to normal.

  5. Effect of forced swim stress on wistar albino rats in various behavioral parameters

    Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters co...

  6. Male Rat Susceptibility for Liver and Kidney Injury

    Sarkawt H. Hamad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study of this paper was designed to investigate male rat susceptibility to liver injury. A combination of two experimental animal models (Lead acetate for tissue injury (80 mg / L and castration had been used on twenty male rats, they were divided into two groups sham (n = 10; castrated (n = 10. Results revealed that, liver weight reduced significantly (P < 0.05 in sham group in comparison with castrated rats, but kidney weight changed slightly. Also, serum aminotransferase (AST was significantly higher in sham versus castrated rats. Neither alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP nor malondialdehyde (MDA changed. In conclusion, the absence of male sex hormone would delay tissue injury of male rat organs especially liver organ.

  7. Assessment of Hypolipidaemic Effect of Leptadenia Hastata Leaves in Albino Rats

    Muhammad Yalwa Gwarzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effect of Leptadenia hastata leaves on serum lipid profile and glucose in experimentally-induced hyperlipidemic Wistar rats. Sixteen adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups of four rats each. Group 1 was the hyperlipidemic group (positive control, Group 2 was the hyperlipidemic supplemented with L. hastata leaves group, Group 3 was the normolipidemic supplemented with L. hastata leaves group and Group 4 normal group fed on normal diet (negative control. The changes in the serum lipid profile and glucose were monitored after three weeks. The result of the serum lipid analysis showed a significant (p<0.05 reduction in the serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with concurrent significant (p<0.05 increase in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol in hyperlipidemic group treated with L. hastata leaves (group 2 compared with the hyperlipidemic group (group 1. Serum glucose level was also significantly higher in hyperlipidemic group (p<0.05 compared with other three groups. The result of this study suggests possible hypolipidemic effect of L. hastata leaves.

  8. Hepatoprotective activity of Ocimum sanctum alcoholic leaf extract against paracetamol-induced liver damage in Albino rats

    Kingshuk Lahon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of reliable hepatoprotective drugs in modern medicine to prevent and treat drug-induced liver damage. Leaves of Sacred/Holy Basil, i.e. Green Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum, belonging to family Lamiaceae are used traditionally for their hepatoprotective effect. We wanted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Ocimum sanctum and observe whether synergistic hepatoprotection exists with silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats (150-200 g were divided into five groups. Groups A and B were normal and experimental controls, respectively. Groups C, D and E received the alcoholic extract of Ocimum Sanctum leaves (OSE 200 mg/kg BW/day, silymarin 100 mg/kg BW/day and OSE 100 mg/kg BW/day + silymarin 50 mg/kg BW/day p.o., respectively, for 10 days. Hepatotoxicity was induced in Groups B, C, D and E on the eighth day with paracetamol 2 g/kg BW/day. The hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by performing an assay of the serum proteins, albumin globulin ratio, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases and liver histopathology. The assay results were presented as mean and standard error of mean (SEM for each group. The study group was compared with the control group by one-way ANOVA, followed by Bonferoni′s test. A P-value of <0.01 was considered significant. Results: In groups C, D and E, liver enzymes and albumin globulin ratio were significantly (P < 0.01 closer to normal than in group B. Reduction in sinusoidal congestion, cloudy swelling and fatty changes and regenerative areas of the liver were observed on histopathological examination in groups C, D and E, whereas group B showed only hepatic necrosis. Conclusion: The Ocimum sanctum alcoholic leaf extract shows significant hepatoprotective activity and synergism with silymarin.

  9. Absence epileptic activity changing effects of non-adenosine nucleoside inosine, guanosine and uridine in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    Kovács, Z; Kékesi, K A; Dobolyi, Á; Lakatos, R; Juhász, G

    2015-08-01

    Adenosine (Ado) and non-adenosine (non-Ado) nucleosides such as inosine (Ino), guanosine (Guo) and uridine (Urd) may have regionally different roles in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system (CNS) such as epilepsy. It was demonstrated previously that Ino and Guo decreased quinolinic acid (QA)-induced seizures and Urd reduced penicillin-, bicuculline- and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. It has also been demonstrated that Ino and Urd may exert their effects through GABAergic system by altering the function of GABA(A) type of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAA receptors) whereas Guo decreases glutamate-induced excitability through glutamatergic system, which systems (GABAergic and glutamatergic) are involved in pathomechanisms of absence epilepsy. Thus, we hypothesized that Ino and Guo, similarly to the previously described effect of Urd, might also decrease absence epileptic activity. We investigated in the present study whether intraperitoneal (i.p.) application of Ino (500 and 1000mg/kg), Guo (20 and 50mg/kg), Urd (500 and 1000mg/kg), GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (1 and 3mg/kg), GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (2 and 4mg/kg), non-selective Ado receptor antagonist theophylline (5 and 10mg/kg) and non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo (a,d) cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801, 0.0625 and 0.1250mg/kg) alone and in combination have modulatory effects on absence epileptic activity in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We found that Guo decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) whereas Ino increased it dose-dependently. We strengthened that Urd can decrease absence epileptic activity. Our results suggest that Guo, Urd and their analogs could be potentially effective drugs for treatment of human absence epilepsy. PMID:26037802

  10. Management of cisplatin toxicity and chromosomal aberration by vitamin E in male rats

    Cisplatin is one of the most active antineoplastic drugs showing a broad therapeutic activity spectrum against different types of human neoplasms. To elvaute the subacute toxicity of the drug and to test the probable preventive effect of vitamin E in rats, forty-eight male albino rats were used in this study. Animals were classified into four groups, control, vitamin E, cisplatin and vitamin E with cisplatin. Vitamin E was administered orally at a dose of 2 mg/rat for two weeks prior to cisplatin intraperitoneal injection (5 mg/kg as a single dose) and then administration of vitamin E which was continued for two another weeks (end of experiment). The changes in body weight, counts of RBC and WBC, lipid peroxide, Na+, K+, chromosomal aberration and aldosterone hormone were recorded. Cisplatin administration caused 57.4% and 60% mortality at 3 and 5 weeks intervals. Regular intake of vitamin E induced significant role against the physiological disorders and chromosomal alterations occurred after cisplatin drug administration. The present study is directed to demonstrate the toxic effect of cisplatin on mortality, body weight, blood cells, aldosterone hormone, lipid peroxidation, Na+, K+, urea, creatinia as well as on chromosomal pattern and the efficacy of vitamin E in modulating cisplatin toxicity

  11. Disposition of citral in male Fischer rats

    The disposition of citral, an essential oil occurring in many foods and fragrances, was studied in male Fischer rats after iv, po, and dermal treatments. The pattern of distribution and elimination was the same after iv or oral exposure. Urine was the major route of elimination of citral-derived radioactivity, followed by feces, 14CO2, and expired volatiles. However, after dermal exposure, relatively less of the material was eliminated in the urine and more in the feces, suggesting a role for first-pass metabolism through the skin. Citral was almost completely absorbed orally; due to its extreme volatility, much of an applied dermal dose was lost. The citral remaining on the skin was fairly well absorbed. No effect of oral dose, from 5 to 500 mg/kg, was detected on disposition. Although the feces was a minor route of excretion, approximately 25% of the administered dose was eliminated via the bile within 4 hr of an iv dose. The metabolism of citral was both rapid and extensive. Within 5 min of an iv dose, no unmetabolized citral could be detected in the blood. Repeated exposure to citral resulted in an increase in biliary elimination, without any significant change in the pattern of urinary, fecal, or exhaled excretion. This suggests that citral may induce at least one pathway of its own metabolism. The rapid metabolism and excretion of this compound suggest that significant bioaccumulation of citral would not occur

  12. Antiulcer effects of aqueous extract and a fraction of phyllanthus embelic fruit on gastric acid secretion and mucosal defence factors in albino rats

    Phyllanthus emblica (Euphorbiaceae) fruit has been empirically used since centuries in folkloric medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders including the gastric ulcers. In the present study, anti-ulcerogenic properties of the fruit, its aqueous extract and a purified fraction were determined in albino rats. Aqueous extract of the fruit protected rats against gastric ulcers induced by indomethacin. Partition of the water extract yielded fractions for which anti-ulcerogenic activity evaluation studies were conducted to find out the most effective fraction. Thin layer chromatography yielded the most purified active fraction, which was found to exert anti-ulcerogenic activity in the chemically induced and stress-induced gastric ulcers in albino rats. In addition, effect of the purified fraction on gastric secretion volume, pH, acid output, ulcer index, mucus secretion and peptic activity revealed it to be the most potent anti-ulcer fraction with efficacy comparable to the reference drug, famotidine. It may be suggested that anti-ulcerogenic activities of P. emblica fruit, Its aqueous extract and the purified fraction could be due to elevation of gastric mucus secretion and inhibition of gastric acid secretion. (author)

  13. Histopathological And Histochemical Studies On The Effect Of Taurine In Preventing Carbon Tetrachloride ­Induced Hepatic InjuryIn The Albino Rat

    Nabila, S. Hassan, Naglaa, F. Abbas And Hafiza, A. Sharaf

    2003-01-01

    Taurine is an amino acid­ like compound, it is found mostly in meat and fish.This study was designed to evaluate the effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) on liver Histopathological & Histochemical changes and the protective role of taurine (2amino-ethanosulfonic acid ) was studied . Fourty two albino rats were divided into seven groups : control, taurine alone (200mg/kg), CCL4 alone, CCL4 plus 50mg/kg of taurine, CCL4 plus 100mg/kg of taurine, CCL4 plus 200mg/kg of taurine (taurine was inje...

  14. Antifertility activity of ethanolic extracts of Plumbago indica and Aerva lanata on albino rats

    Savadi R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract of roots of Plumbago indica and aerial parts of Aerva lanata were evaluated for antifertility activity using anti-implantation, abortificient, and motility of rat spermatozoa (in-vitro models. The anti-implantation effect seems to be depending on the dose as well as the initiation of treatment on specific days of pregnancy. P. indica has showed percentage pre-implantation loss of 40% and 50% against control at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg b/w. Percentage pregnancy failure among treated groups was 60% and 70% at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg b/w, whereas A. lanata has shown pre-implantation loss of 20% and 30% against control at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg b/w, respectively. Percentage pregnancy failure among treated groups was 30% and 40% at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg b/w, respectively. Both P. indica and A. lanata at a concentration of 10% have shown no motility of rat spermatozoa within 60 seconds.

  15. Potassium Dichromate Toxicities: Protective Effect of Methanol Extract of Corchorus olitorius in Albino Rats.

    Akinwumi, Kazeem A; Osifeso, Olabode O; Jubril, Afusat J; Adedoja, Ayobami W; Ogunbiyi, Elizabeth T; Adebo, Fumilayo M; Adesina, Idayat O; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to hexavalent chromate compounds such as other human carcinogens is unavoidable in the developing countries of the world. Research efforts are being directed toward minimizing exposure to them, intercepting their activity in vivo, and/or prophylaxis. The present study therefore evaluates the effect of methanol extract of the leafy vegetable, Corchorus olitorius (MECO), against potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7)-induced toxicities. Negative control animals were fed distilled water, while the positive control rats received 12 mg/kg body weight K2Cr2O7 once a week for 6 weeks. Test rats were exposed daily to 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight MECO alone for 6 weeks and 12 mg/kg body weight of K2Cr2O7 once a week for 6 weeks before sacrifice. The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mPCEs) was monitored in bone marrow cells, while induction of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine levels, and hematological parameters were assessed in the plasma. The phytochemical analysis of MECO was also carried out. K2Cr2O7 significantly (P saponins, anthraquinones, terpenoids, and phenols, and they might be responsible for the protective effect observed in this study. Our results suggest that MECO has a promising potential in the treatment/management of chromate-induced toxicities. PMID:27152977

  16. Sub-acute Toxicity of Aqueous Fruit Pulp Extract of Hunteria umbellata in Albino Wistar Rats.

    Igbe, Ighodaro; Eze, Gerald Ikechi; Ojameruaye, Oghenekevwe

    2013-01-01

    Hunteria umbellata K. Schum (Apocynaceae) is used in herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes, peptic ulcers, piles, yaws, dysmenorrhea, fevers, infertility, and helminthic infections. The present study investigated the in vivo sub-acute toxicity of the aqueous fruit pulp extract of Hunteria umbellata (H. umbellata). Sub-acute toxicity was evaluated after administering daily oral doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of H. umbellata extract, for 28 days to the rats. Anthropometric, biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were assessed using standard procedures. There were significant reductions (p<0.01) in the pattern of weight gain in 200 and 400 mg/kg H. umbellata -treated rats but no significant differences in the organ weight index between control and treated animals. Hematological and biochemical analysis showed no marked differences in any of the parameters examined in either the control or treated groups but there was significant (p<0.05) thrombocytosis. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. H. umbellata led to activation of the reticulo endothelial tissue of the spleen as evidenced by proliferation of the sinus histocytes and activation of the lymphoid aggregates in the lungs, indicating activation of the local immune system of the lungs. H. umbellata fruit pulp is relatively nontoxic in animals but there is increased tendency to cause thrombocytosis on prolonged use. PMID:23955412

  17. Acute Oral Toxicity Studies of Ethanol Leaf Extracts Of Derris Scandens & Pulicaria Wightiana In Albino Rats

    Vidya Sabbani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to find out LD50 and to ascertain the safety of ethanol extracts of leaves of Derris scan dens and Pulicaria wightiana by acute oral toxicity study in female rats as per OECD guideline 425.Methods: Rats were sequentially administered with ethanol leaf extracts of Derris scandens (Ds & Pulicaria wightiana(Pw  in single dosages of 175, 550, and 2000 mg/kg of body weight. All the animals were individually studied for mortality, wellness parameters and body weight for 14 days.Results: No mortality and no significant changes were observed in body weight and wellness parameters at 175, 550 and 2000 mg/kg body wt. doses of both Derris scandens and Pulicaria wightiana , which reveal the safety of these plants  in the doses up to 2000 mg/kg body weight.Conclusion: Conclusively, LD50 value of ethanol extracts of leaves of Derris scandens and Pulicaria wightiana were found to be more than 2000 mg/kg body weight.

  18. Effect of Antioxidant Mineral Elements Supplementation in the Treatment of Hypertension in Albino Rats

    S. A. Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blood pressure as compared with hypertensive control. The result also indicated significant decreased in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, insulin and increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total antioxidant activities, and nitric oxide of the supplemented groups relative to the hypertensive control. The average percentage protection against atherogenesis indicated 47.13 ± 9.60% for all the supplemented groups. The mean arterial blood pressure showed significant positive correlation with glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, insulin resistance and malondialdehyde while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total antioxidant activities showed negative correlation. The result therefore indicated strong relationship between oxidative stress and hypertension and underscores the role of antioxidant minerals in reducing oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance associated with hypertension.

  19. Lactogenic study of the ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn seed on pituitary prolactin level of lactating albino rats

    I G Bako

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The effect of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed on pituitary prolactin and milk production was evaluated in albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were randomly grouped at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n=6. The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline, metoclopramide (5mg/kg and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200mg/kg respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. Milk yield for rats were estimated by pup weight and weight gain. The animals were then euthanized on the day 18 and pituitary prolactin was analyzed using prolactin kit. The prolactin level of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa showed a significant increase (P<0.01 when compared to control group. Pup weight gain was also significantly higher (P<0.05 than the control group. This can be inferred that ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed has lactogenic activity because it increases pituitary prolactin level and milk production in lactating female albino rats. The LD50 of Ethyl-acetate fraction Hibiscus sabdariffa l. was found to be above 5000mg/kg. Industrial relevance. The outstanding advantage of this galactagogue option is that, it is safer, affordable and tolerable, and it is taken as an alternative in preference to anti-psychotic drugs that have side effect of drowsiness and depression. The plant calyces, leaves and seeds are eaten as foods because it contain substantial amount of essential fatty, Tocopherol (Vitamin E, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C, mineral salts calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus. Keywords. Hibiscus sabdariffa; prolactin; lactation; milk; pituitary

  20. Chronic Administration of High Doses of Nandrolone Decanoate on the Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Male Rats

    Shahraki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS are abused by athletes. Objectives The present study was designed to evaluate chronic administration of high doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND on the pituitary-gonadal axis and hematological parameters in normal male rats. Materials and Methods Thirty Wistar-Albino male rats were divided assigned to control (C, placebo (P and test (T groups (n = 10. Group T received 15 mg/kg intramuscular (IM ND for eight weeks. Group P received the same volume of peanut oil, but group C did not receive any agent during the trial period. At the end, animals were anesthetized, killed and blood samples collected from cervical vessels. Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH levels were determined by sensitive rat gonadotropins kit, using ELISA methods. Serum testosterone and hematological parameters were measured by ordinary laboratory methods. Obtained data was analyzed using SPSS 17 by ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests. Results were expressed as Mean ± SD. Statistical difference considered significantly by P < 0.05. Results Serum testosterone, LH, FSH, weight gain, food and water intake in group T were significantly decreased compared to other groups (P < 0.05. In addition erythrocyte, leucocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit in group T were significantly increased compared to those of other groups (P < 0.05. Conclusions Chronic administration of high doses of ND can alter serum FSH, LH and testosterone and hematological parameters in male rats.

  1. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of " Shirishavaleha"-An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats

    Shyamlal Singh Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth, i.e., Twak (Bark and Sara (Heartwood as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.

  2. Bone marrow transplantation for treatment of some radiation induced biochemical disorders in albino rat

    The present investigation has been conducted aiming to study the role played by transplantation of bone marrow cells as a biological treatment for radiation injury to carbohydrate metabolism as shown by changes in: serum glucose level and liver glycogen content as well as protein metabolism as presented by: serum total protein and protein and protein fractions. gamma irradiation caused detectable hyperglycemia parallel by depletion in liver glycogen content. On the other hand, radiation caused decrease in serum albumin, increase in serum protein content, increase in total globulin and consequently a decrease in the albumin/globulin ratio. Transplantation of bone marrow cells to irradiated rats caused restoration of glucose level in serum and glycogen content in liver after one week from transplantation; only partial restoration could be detected for total protein, total globulin, content as well as A/G ratio. 6 fig

  3. Wound Healing Potential of Elaeis guineensis Jacq Leaves in an Infected Albino Rat Model

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance:Elaeis guineensisJacq (Arecaceae is one of the plants that are central to the lives of traditional societies in West Africa. It has been reported as a traditional folkloric medicine for a variety of ailments. The plant leaves are also used in some parts of Africa for wound healing, but there are no scientific reports on any wound healing activity of the plant. Aim of the study:To investigate the effects of E. guineensis leaf on wound healing activity in rats. Methods: A phytochemical screening was done to determine the major phytochemicals in the extract. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was examined using the disk diffusion technique and broth dilution method. The wound healing activity of leaves of E. guineensiswas studied by incorporating the methanolic extract in yellow soft paraffin in concentration of 10% (w/w. Wound healing activity was studied by determining the percentage of wound closure, microbial examination of granulated skin tissue and histological analysis in the control and extract treated groups. Results: Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the extract. The extract showed significant activity against Candida albicans with an MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL. The results show that the E. guineensis extract has potent wound healing capacity, as evident from better wound closure, improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Assessment of granulation tissue every fourth day showed a significant reduction in microbial count. Conclusions: E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting this traditional use.

  4. physiological changes induced by inhalation of unleaded gasoline in adult male albino rats

    air pollution is the most dangerous form of pollution as it can expose a person to about 10.000 times more mass of an environmental pollutant than does food or water gasoline is the primary product of petroleum refining and it perhaps the most widely used energy source in the world. in addition to industrial applications, the ready availability of gasoline to power automotive engines, there are increasing opportunities for occupational and environment exposure to this liquid fuel. with the removal of lead from gasoline and the use of new technologies, it is very important to conduct studies of toxic effects of reformulated gasoline (unleaded gasoline) which will shed the light on this new formula and either it is more or less benefit than the old one. the objective of this work was to asses the health effects of unleaded gasoline refined and used in Egypt

  5. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats

    Roshan Patel; Mahobia, Naveen K.; Ravindra Gendle; Basant Kaushik; Sudarshan K Singh

    2010-01-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytocons...

  6. The role of a certain biological treatment on certain sexual parameters in irradiated male albino rats

    The present work aims at the investigation of the following : - Assessment of radiation induced damage on thyroid gland includes: - Serum triiodothyronine (T-3) hormone. - Serum tetraiodothyronine (T-4) hormone. - Assessment of radiation induced change on testis including: - Serum testosterone. - Histopathological study on testis. - Investigation of the radioprotective role of ''estradiol benzate''estrogen as a female sex hormone on the radiation induced changes in the above mentioned parameters at single and fractionated doses tested either before and after radiation exposure. Also its selected the beneficial dose of estrogen as a protective agent on the parameters selected for the present study in irradiated rate. The result obtained from such a study would anticipate certain incidences which would happen in case of humans.6 tabs.,22 figs.,180 refs

  7. Peripheral blood and bone marrow responses under stress of cypermethrin in albino rats

    Pande Sunita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroids, commercially available pesticides, are greatly in use these days, and thus they carry considerable chances of contaminating various ecosystems. Haematotoxicity of cypermethrin, a broadly used type II pyrethroid, has been assessed in the present study. Selected parameters included determination of total RBC count, haemoglobin concentration (Hb conc., packed cell volume (PCV, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, total leukocyte count (TLC, differential leukocyte count (DLC, along with qualitative analysis of blood and bone marrow. Of these parameters, those showing significant decline following cypermethrin intoxication included total RBC count, Hb conc., PCV, MCV, MCH, whereas non-significant decrease was observed in the case of MCHC. ESR, TLC and DLC, on the other hand, increased significantly following cypermethrin intoxication. Qualitative changes included altered red cell morphology such as microcystosis, appearance of stomatocytes, poikilocytosis, giant platelet formation, etc. in peripheral blood and increased erythroid precursors in bone marrow of treated rats. These parameters were however normalised following twenty-two days of recovery phase

  8. Hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia paniculata against paracetamol induced hepatocellular damage in Wistar albino rats

    Eesha BR; Mohanbabu Amberkar V; Meena Kumari K; Sarath babu; Vijay M; Lalit M; Rajput R

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia paniculata against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. Methods:The plant material was shade dried, powdered and extracted with ethanol. Liv 52 and silymarin were used as standard drugs and 2%gum acacia as a control (vehicle). Alteration in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic damage like AST, ALT, ALP and lipid peroxides were tested, and phytochemical tests were also performed. Results:Paracetamol (2 g/kg) increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransfer (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the lipid peroxides. Treatment of Liv 52, silymarin and ethanolic extract of Terminalia paniculata (200 mg/kg) altered levels of biochemical marker and showed significant hepatoprotective activity. Ethanolic extract revealed the presence of phenolic compound and flavanoids. Our findings suggested that ethanolic bark extract of Terminalia paniculata possessed hepatoprotective activity in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions:Terminalia paniculata possesses hepatoprotective activity. It could be an effective and promising preventive agent against PCT induced hepatotoxicity.

  9. PROSTAGLANDINS AND 5-HT RESPONSE ON GASTRIC SECRETION IN ALBINO RATS

    P.K. Debnath

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins (PGE1 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg dose dependently inhibited gastric secretion in pyloric legated rats model While PGF2 ∝ 0.1, 0.4 and 1mg/kg inhibited gastric acid secretion. Methysergide in the dose 0.05 mg/kg significantly stimulated the gastric secretion. When non-inhibitory dose of PGE1 (0.1 and 5-HT (1.0 mg/kg are injected simultaneously there were potentiation of inhibitory activity on gastric secretary response on volume, acid output, chloride output and pepsin output. The inhibitory activity of both PGE1 (0.4 mg/ kg and 5-HT (5.0 mg/kg including the inhibitory potentiating activity could not be modified by the pretreatment of methysergide (0.05 mg/kg. Similarly stimulatory dose of PGF2 ∝ (0.4 mg/kg and inhibitory dose of PGE1 (0.4 mg/kg administered together inhibitory response of PGE1 (0.4 mg/kg were also not modified by methysergide pretreatment.

  10. Effect of lithium chloride on spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis in mature albino rats: Duration dependent response

    Quantitative evaluation of the different varieties of germ cells at stage VII of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, namely type-A spermatogonia (ASg), preleptotene spermatocytes (pLSc), midpachytene spermatocytes (mPSc) and step 7 spermatids (7 Sd) along with Leydig cell nuclear area (LCNA) and radioimmunoassay of plasma levels of gonadotrophins (FSH and LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T), activities of testicular, Δ5-3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Δ5-3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxyteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) were measured in mature rats of the Wistar strain following treatment with lithium chloride at a dose of 200 ug/100 g body wt/day for 7, 14 and 21 days. A remarkable reduction in plasma levels of FSH, LH, PRL and T along with significant diminution in the activities of testicular Δ5-3β-HSD and 17 β-HSD were observed following lithium treatment for 14 and 21 days. 21 days of treatment also resulted in a marked degree of degeneration of ASg and 7Sd at stage VII but 14 days of treatment did not exhibit any significant effect on testicular gametogenesis. LCNA was decreased after lithium chloride treatment for 14 and 21 days. 7 days of treatment did not exert any notable result in the above parameters

  11. EFFECTS OF PSIDIUM GUAJAVA AQUEOUS EXTRACTS ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE AND SERUM LIPID VARIABLES OF ALBINO RATS

    M. P. SINHA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous extract of leaves on some haematological and serum lipid parameters in rats during a sevenday administration of the doses of 250mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight orally was investigated. The parametersevaluated include serum lipids, red and white blood cell indices. The results show that the extract administeredsignificantly increased (p<0.05 packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, red blood cell, MCH, MCHC,MCV and platelet count t at the dose of 250mg /kg and 500 mg/kg body weight when compared with control.Whereas Psidium guajava the platelet was significantly increased (p<0.05 at 250mg/kg body weight but at500mg/kg body weight the count significanty reduced (p<0.05. Also, the extract significantly increased (p<0.05white blood cell count at all doses administered when compared with control. Moreover, the extract significantlyreduced (p<0.05 total cholesterol concentration, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol concentration in the serumwhile it had no significant effect on serum LDL-cholesterol concentration at all doses administered when comparedwith controls. The results of this study suggest that the extract may have beneficial effect on serum cholesterolconcentration and triglycerides reduction as well as in anemia and immunity dependent disorders.

  12. Aromatized testosterone attenuates contextual generalization of fear in male rats.

    Lynch, Joseph F; Vanderhoof, Tyler; Winiecki, Patrick; Latsko, Maeson S; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2016-08-01

    Generalization is a common symptom of many anxiety disorders, and females are 60% more likely to suffer from an anxiety disorder than males. We have previously demonstrated that female rats display significantly accelerated rates of contextual fear generalization compared to male rats; a process driven, in part, by activation of ERβ. The current study was designed to determine the impact of estrogens on contextual fear generalization in male rats. For experiment 1, adult male rats were gonadectomized (GDX) and implanted with a capsule containing testosterone proprionate, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone proprionate (DHT), or an empty capsule. Treatment with testosterone or estradiol maintained memory precision when rats were tested in a different (neutral) context 1day after training. However, male rats treated with DHT or empty capsules displayed significant levels of fear generalization, exhibiting high levels of fear in the neutral context. In Experiment 2, we used acute injections of gonadal hormones at a time known to elicit fear generalization in female rats (e.g. 24h before testing). Injection treatment followed the same pattern of results seen in Experiment 1. Finally, animals given daily injections of the aromatase inhibitor, Fadrozole, displayed significant fear generalization. These data suggest that testosterone attenuates fear generalization likely through the aromatization testosterone into estradiol as animals treated with the non-aromatizable androgen, DHT, or animals treated with Fadrozole, displayed significant generalized fear. Overall, these results demonstrate a sex-dependent effect of estradiol on the generalization of contextual fear. PMID:27368147

  13. Hepatoprotective activity of extracted anthocyanins fraction of red radish (Raphanus sativus L on albino rats

    Mohammed Habibuddin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigated hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of extracted anthocyanins fraction of red radish for the first time. Methods: Anthocyanins fraction of red radish (Raphanus sativus; AFRS was selectively extracted by employment of polymeric ion-exchange resin. AFRS was evaluated for antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The animals were divided into seven groups of six animals each. Group I (control received vehicle. Group II (drug control received AFRS. Group III (toxicant received CCl4. Group IV, V and VI received AFRS at doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg po, respectively. Group VII (standard received silymarin. Various biochemical parameters like alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin (TB and direct bilirubin (DB levels in serum as well as the glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in the liver were determined. Histopathological changes in the liver were also studied. The activity of AFRS was compared with the reference drug silymarin. Results: The yield of AFRS was found to be 0.084% (w/w. AFRS treated group did not show any significant change in the activity of serum ALT, AST, ALP, TB, DB, MDA and GSH level compared to control group. CCl4 significantly raised the serum level of all biochemical parameters (except GSH in the toxicant group. The pre-treatment of AFRS for seven days had reversed the alteration of biochemical parameters towards normal, and the effects were comparable to standard drug (silymarin 100 mg/kg. The animals received pre-treatment of AFRS showed amelioration in necrotic zones and hepatocellular degeneration. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanins fraction isolated from Raphanus sativus and thus scientifically supports the usage of it as food colorant and also justifies the use of the crude extracts

  14. Wound healing activity of aqueous extract ofCrotalaria verrucosa in Wistar albino rats

    Meena Kumari; Eesha BR; Mohanbabu Amberkar; Sarath babu; Rajshekar; Neelesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the wound healing effect of aqueous extract ofCrotalaria verrucosa (C. verrucosa) in rats.Methods: Three wound models including incision, excision and dead space wounds were used in this study. The parameters studied were breaking strength in incision models, granulation tissue dry weight, breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in dead space wounds, percentage of wound contraction and period of epithelialization in excision wound model.Results: Two doses of the extract with and without dexamethasone showed significant increases in mean hydroxyproline, total protein content and dry weight of granulation tissue but it was higher with dose800 mg/kg comparing with the control. The dexamethasone treated group showed a significant(P<0.001) reduction in the wound breaking strength when compared to control group in incision type of wound model. Coadministration ofC. verrucosa with dexamethasone significantly(P<0.001) increased the breaking strength compared to the dexamethasone treated only group. In excision wound model, the percentage of the wound contraction was significantly(P<0.01)increased by two doses of test extract on all the days except the lower dose which exhibited only on12th,16th days of drug treatment and it also reversed the dexamethasone suppressed wound contraction. It significantly (P<0.001) reduced the time required for epithelialization and reversed the epithelialization delaying effect of dexamethasone (P<0.001).Conclusions:C. verrucosawas found to possess significant wound healing property. This was evident by decrease in the period of epithelialization, increase in the rate of wound contraction, skin breaking strength, and granulation tissue dry weight content. HenceC. verrucosa could be a good wound healing agent.

  15. ACUTE ANTI-INFLAMMATROY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF CLERODENDRUM VISCOSUM BY CARRAGEENIN INDUCED PAW OEDEMA METHOD IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Rao S.N

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an important feature of many diseases. It is the response of a tissue to an injury, infection, irritation of foreign substance. In fact, it is a part of host defense, but when it is severe, it may be far worse than the diseases itself and in extreme condition, it may be too fatal also. There is an increasing demand for the medicinal plants in developing countries like India. Attention has to be given to assess the medicinal value of such plants to explore the potential drugs out of it. The aim of the study was to investigate acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum (EELCV by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Dried powdered leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum were subjected to soxhlet extraction by using 90% ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug were selected (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg p.o. Oral administration of EELCV at doses of 150 and 300mg/kg showed significant (p<0.01 and moderately significant acute anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.05 respectively by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats compared to control.

  16. The protective role of Aegle marmelos on aspirin-induced gastro-duodenal ulceration in albino rat model: A possible involvement of antioxidants

    Shyamal K Das

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Gastro duodenal ulcer is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Several Indian medicinal plants have been traditionally and extensively used to prevent different diseases. In the present research studies, Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (AM, family: Rutaceae which are also called as Bilva in ancient Sanskrit was used as a herbal drug and its antioxidative role in aspirin- induced gastroduodenal ulceration in albino rat was evaluated using essential biochemical parameters. Patients and Methods: Mucosal thickness (MT, ulcer index (UI, different biochemical parameters, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, reduced glutathione (GSH, and lipid peroxidation (LPO were measured in all the groups, to study the possible involvement of antioxidants with gastroduodenal protection. Results: A significant decrease in MT, SOD and CAT activities and GSH level and a significant increase in UI, AST, ALT, and ALP activities and LPO level were observed in aspirin treated stomach and duodenum of albino rats. Conclusions: Pretreatment with AM fruit pulp extract for 14 consecutive days showed the reverse effects of aspirin suggesting gastro-duodenal protective and anti- ulcerogenic properties of AM through its antioxidant mechanism.

  17. Synthesis and study of cholosubstituted 4-aroyl pyrazolines and isoxazolines and their effects on inorganic ions in blood serum in albino rats

    PRITHVISIGH R. RAJPUT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bhoyar AD, Vankhade GN, Rajput PR. 2011. Synthesis and study of cholosubstituted 4-aroyl pyrazolines and isoxazolines and their effects on inorganic ions in blood serum in albino rats. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 118-123. Condensation of 2-substitutied 3,5-dichloroacetophenones (2a-b obtained from the condensation of 2-hydroxy 3,5-dichloro-acetophenone (1 and benzoyl chloride were dissolved in NaOH, on treatment under Baker-Venkatraman transformation in presence of KOH with pyridine gives 1-(2-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorophenyl-3-substituted-1,3-propanediones (3a-b. Then converted into 3-aroyl-6,8-dichloroflavanones (4a-d by using different aromatic aldehyde in ethanol containing little piperidine. The condensation of (4a-d and phenylhydrazinehydrochloride, piperidine in DMF gives 3-(2-hydroxy3,5-dichlorophenyl-4-substitution-1-phenyl-2pyrazolines (5a-d and condensation of (4a-d and hydroxylamine-hydrochloride gives 3-(2-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorophenyl-4-aroyl-5-substituted isoxazolines (6a-d. The above compounds are screened for their activities and have been found to exhibit significant effects on inorganic ions in blood serum in albino rats.

  18. Adolescent voluntary exercise attenuated hippocampal innate immunity responses and depressive-like behaviors following maternal separation stress in male rats.

    Sadeghi, Mahsa; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2016-09-01

    Early life stressful events have detrimental effects on the brain and behavior, which are associated with the development of depression. Immune-inflammatory responses have been reported to contribute in the pathophysiology of depression. Many studies have reported on the beneficial effects of exercise against stress. However, underlying mechanisms through which exercise exerts its effects were poorly studied. Therefore, it applied maternal separation (MS), as a valid animal model of early-life adversity, in rats from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 14 for 180min per day. At PND 28, male Wistar albino rats were subjected to 5 experimental groups; 1) controls 2) MS rats 3) MS rats treated with fluoxetine 5mg/kg to PND 60, 4) MS rats that were subjected to voluntary running wheel (RW) exercise and 5) MS rats that were subjected to mandatory treadmill (TM) exercise until adulthood. At PND 60, depressive-like behaviors were assessed by using forced swimming test (FST), splash test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Our results revealed that depressive-like behaviors following MS stress were associated with an increase in expression of toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr-4) and its main signaling protein, Myd88, in the hippocampal formation. Also, we found that voluntary (and not mandatory) physical exercise during adolescence is protected against depressant effects of early-life stress at least partly through mitigating the innate immune responses in the hippocampus. PMID:27184238

  19. Activation of cell division and nucleic acid synthesis in the corneal epithelium of albino rats by repeated stress

    Adaption to unfavorable factors is accompanied by activation of nucleic acid and protein synthesis in systems responsible for adaption. The authors investigate the possibility of similar changes taking place in structures not actively participating in adaptation. The corneas of the dead male albin rats were preincubated with tritium-uridine for 1.5 hours. The mitotic index, the index of tritium-thymidine-labeled nuclei and the intensity of thymidine labeling were determined. The results indicate that after a single exposure to hypoxia, hyperthermia, and immobilization, mitotic index in the corneal epithelium decreased and DNA synthesis under these circumstances remained stable

  20. Subchronic oral toxicity evaluation of ethanolic whole plant extract of Eleucine indica on haematological and biochemical indices in Wistar albino rats

    Ette Okon Ettebong; PaulAlozie Nwafor

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of ingestion of ethanolic whole plant extract of Eleucine indica on haematological and biochemical parameters of Wistar albino rats. Methods: Subchronic toxicity study was carried out by oral administration of different doses (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight) of the extract on alternate-day basis to different groups of rats for 28 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for haematological and biochemical analyses. Results: Haematological indices were preserved and the extract showed significant (P Conclusions: The results obtained indicated that ingestion of Eleucine indica whole plant extract for a long period of time reduces both bleeding and clotting times, reduces blood sugar and shows no apparent toxic effect on liver and kidneys. The results of this study may be useful as a basis for clinical trials in humans.

  1. Green Tea attenuates some biochemical disorders induced by γ- irradiation in male rats

    While radiation hazards, due to free radical generation, present an enormous challenge for biological and medical safety, green tea extract is a potent scavenger of a variety of free radicals. This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of green tea against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage in the liver and kidney in male rats using vitamin E as a reference drug. Green tea aqueous extract (300 mg/Kg body weighty) or vitamin E (40 mg/ Kg body weighty) were administered to male albino rats via gavages during 21 successive days before whole body exposure to gamma rays (6.5 Gy), from cesium-137 source, and during 7 days after irradiation. The animals were sacrificed the 7th day post-irradiation. The levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), urea, and creatinine, as well as activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased in sera of the irradiated rats. Moreover, radiation induced disturbances in liver and kidney content of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn). Treatment with green tea extract and or vitamin E before and post irradiation were significantly ameliorated the levels of cholesterol, TG, creatinine, and urea, as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and ALP in serum. Also, green tea extract and or vitamin E achieved significant amelioration liver and kidney contents of Ca, Mg and Mn. In conclusion, green tea extract and or vitamin E show a radioprotective impact against ionizing-radiation-induced liver and kidney injury

  2. Comparative toxicology of carfene in male and female rats

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with daily oral administrations of carfene (2.5 mg/kg body weight) for 15 consecutive days on protein level in liver, kidney, brain and spleen tissues of male and female rats after 1, 5, 10 and 15 days of treatment. Evaluation of the trace elements, zinc and copper in serum, revealed that zinc level was decreased significantly while that of copper was increased in both male and female rats compared to controls. The incorporation rate of 14 C-isoleucine for synthesis of protein tended to decrease in liver tissues and increase in brain tissues of rats. Kidney and spleen tissues showed fluctuated changes. It was noticed in the present investigation that the incorporation rate of I4 C-radioactivity in different selected tissues under estimation was more pronounced in male than in female rats

  3. Reproductive Toxicity of Triptolide in Male House Rat, Rattus rattus

    Neena Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P≤0.05 reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy rates were decreased by 100% in untreated cyclic female rats paired with male rats treated with 0.2% triptolide. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.2% triptolide bait in regulating reproductive output of R. rattus.

  4. Possible mechanism for accelerated atherogenesis in male versus female rats

    Dietary fat and cholesterol enter the circulation as chylomicrons. They are removed from the circulation by attachment to lipoprotein lipase located on the endothelial surfaces. As the result of lipoprotein lipase action, chylomicrons are partially hydrolyzed and then reenter the circulation as remnants, which are rapidly cleared by the liver. We investigated the fate of 3H-retinol- and 14C-cholesterol-labeled chylomicrons injected into male and female rats. The disappearance curves of chylomicrons from the circulation were not significantly different in males and females, which suggests that translocation from plasma to endothelium is similar for both sexes. However, in male rats, the dwell time of chylomicrons on the endothelium was significantly prolonged. At 10 and 20 minutes after chylomicron injection, more label was found in the livers of female than male rats. The opposite was true for hearts. Male hearts contained significantly more endothelium-bound chylomicrons when compared with female hearts. This increase in dwell time may allow greater cholesterol deposition in the endothelium of male rats. The more rapid processing of chylomicrons was associated with a 300% greater postheparin lipoprotein lipase in female rats, which suggests a greater enzyme density at chylomicron attachment points on endothelium

  5. Castration increases elimination of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in male rats

    There is a marked sex difference in whole body elimination of PFOA in rats with females (t1/2) 1/2 = 15 days). The authors were interested in determining if the levels of circulating androgens or estrogens modulate PFOA elimination. That is, if castrated males pretreated with estradiol exhibit a female pattern of PFOA elimination and if ovariectomized females pretreated with testosterone exhibit the male pattern. Castration of males greatly increased the elimination of [1-14C]PFOA (9.4 μmol/kg, ip) into both urine and feces, but castration plus estradiol produced no further augmentation. In female rats, neither ovariectomy nor ovariectomy plus testosterone affected the elimination of PFOA. They conclude that a factor produced by the testis, most likely androgens, modulate the elimination of PFOA in the male rat

  6. The effect of Prosopis farcta beans extract on blood biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats

    Dashtban, Mohsen; Sarir, Hadi; Omidi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbals in the treatment of diabetes mellitus is a well-established practice in traditional medicine. The medicinal plant Prosopis farcta has some antioxidant activity, which may be useful in diabetic patients. Since, there is no report on the antidiabetic effect of the P. farcta, this study evaluated antidiabetic activity of P. farcta bean extract (PFE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemia was induced in male albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg body weight [BW]), after which, the animals were randomly allocated into six experimental groups as follows: Group 1: Normal rats (received normal saline), Groups 2 and 3: Normal rats received PFE; (50 and 75 mg/kg BW), Group 4: Diabetic control rats, Group 5: Diabetic rats received PFE (50 mg/kg BW), Group 6: Diabetic rats received PFE (75 mg/kg BW). Three days after induction of diabetes, rats were received an extract of PFE orally for 12 days. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture to determine liver enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL). Results: The administration of PFE (50 and 75 mg/kg) in STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduced the blood glucose levels when compared with the STZ-control group (227.2 ± 12.00 and 259.6 ± 7.03 vs. 454.6 ± 12.66, P < 0.001). PFE in diabetic groups had no significant effect on the levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL, AST, and ALT compare to the STZ-control group. Conclusion: P. farcta could reduce blood glucose in diabetic rats. PMID:27512685

  7. Fertility Regulation in Male Rats by Implemented Tetraazamacrocyclic Compounds of Iron(II: Synthetic, Spectroscopic, and Applied Aspects with Toxicological Screening

    Ashu Chaudhary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifertility and histopathological investigations were carried out on reproductive organs of male albino rats induced by tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of iron(II. The complexes were synthesized by the template condensation of 1,2-diaminoethane, 1,3-diaminopropane with succinic acid and phthalic acid in 2:2 molar ratios which are abbreviated as [Fe(TAMLnOAc] (n=1 or 2 and TAMLn represents tetraazamacrocyclic ligand. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, IR, and electronic spectra.

  8. The Possible Protective Role of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Against Radiation-Induced Certain Biochemical Changes in Albino Rats

    This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil (FEO) against gamma irradiation-induced biochemical changes in male rats. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. was orally administrated at dose level of 250 mg/kg body wt/day for 21 days before irradiation and 7 days post exposure (6.5 Gy single dose). Rats exposed to ionizing radiation exhibited a potential elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels, lipid abnormalities, and an increase in tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metallothioneins (MTs). On the other hand, noticeable drop in liver and kidney glutathione content and serum total protein, albumin and testosterone levels were recorded. Tissue organs displayed some changes in trace element concentrations, which may be due to the radiation ability to induce oxidative stress. The data obtained from rats treated with fennel oil before and after whole body gamma irradiation revealed significant modulation in the biochemical tested parameters and profound improvement in the activity of antioxidant status, glutathione and metallothioneins. The treatment of irradiated rats with fennel oil also appeared to be effective in minimizing the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation as well as changes in essential trace elements in some tissue organs. In addition to its containing many chemical antioxidant constituents such as polyphenols, fennel was found to contain detectable concentrations of essential trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Mn and Ca) which may be involved in multiple biological processes as constituents of enzymes system including superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn, Mn, SODs), oxide reductase, glutathione (GSP, GSH, GST), metallothionein MTs, etc. Overall, it could be concluded that Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil exerts beneficial protective role against radiation

  9. Discharge of lead contamination by natural compounds pectin and chitin:biochemical analysis of DNA, RNA, DNase, RNase and GOT in albino rat as an early bio-marker of lead-toxicity

    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify; Hossam S El-Beltagi

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of different concentrations of lead in drinking water on nucleic acid contents, nuclease activities and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (GOT) in different tissues and reduce toxic effects of lead on environment especially human and rats by using pectin and chitin natural compounds in rat diets. Methods:Male albino rats were divided into eight groups. Groups 1, 4, 5 and 6 were fed on synthetic diet and given deionized water containing 0, 150, 250 and 1 500 μg lead/mL. Groups 2 and 3 were fed on synthetic diet containing 2%apple pectin or 2%grasp shell chitin and served as positive control. Groups 7 and 8 were fed on synthetic diet containing 2%pectin or 2%chitin and drinking water containing 250 μg lead/mL. At the end of the experimental period, animals (6 week) were killed by decapitation. All organs of each rat were dissected out and chilled for determination of DNA, RNA, DNase, RNase and GOT. Results:The data showed that higher lead concentration increased the activity of GOT in all organs. The concentrations of both DNA and RNA were increased with decreasing the activities of DNase and RNase. Adding 2%pectin or chitin with lead concentration 250 μg/mL showed discharge of lead, maintained the amount of nucleic acids and activated the related decomposition enzymes. Conclusions: Pectin or chitin natural compounds have the ability to chelate to lead and subsequently work as active natural compounds to discharge lead contamination.

  10. Alterations in thyroid hormones, lipid peroxidation, glutathione content and protein plasma levels of male rats and their male offspring treated with lead acetate

    Lead is a pervasive environmental pollutant known to induced a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunction in both laboratory animals as well as in human. The present work was directed to study the impact of lead (Pb) contamination on blood levels of thyroid hormones. Lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, total protein, albumin and globulin in male albino rats and whether this impact extends to their offspring growing up in same conditions. Animals were classified into three main groups; 1- control. 2- painter's (fathers). 3- first generation of male rats yielded from Pb-contaminated parents (fathers and mothers). groups 2 and 3 were levels; 100 and 200 mg l, drinking water with lead acetates at two dose levels; 100 and 200 mg l. drinking water for two months. The results revealed that lead contamination induced significant elevations (P4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in both fathers and offspring. Yet, lead significantly increase the plasma lipid peroxidation (P<0.001) with concomitant decreased in glutathione blood content in both fathers and male offspring. The plasma levels of total; protein were significantly increased as a response to the plasma albumin elevations and in turn the albumin / globulin ratio in both fathers and male offspring. Collectively, it was evident that lead high dose (200 mg) dose and the male offspring were highly contaminated than their fathers. The present investigation recommended that urban population ad persons whose work is associated with exposure to lead. Would expected to be at increased risk for lead exposure that will extend to their offspring, and they should be submitted with antioxidants and subjected to periodical medical examinations

  11. Influence of gold nanoparticle tagged snake venom protein toxin NKCT1 on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and EAC induced solid tumor bearing male albino mice.

    Bhowmik, Tanmoy; Saha, Partha Pratim; DasGupta, Anjan Kumar; Gomes, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Earlier the conjugation of gold nanoparticle (GNP) and snake venom protein toxin NKCT1 was reported and primary characterization was performed. In the present communication, further characterizations of GNP-NKCT1 were done with SEM, EDS, XRD and Raman spectra for its physio-chemical nature and bonding. SEM showed the formation of gold nanoparticles, whereas EDS and XRD confirmed 60-90% gold nanoparticles in the solution. Raman shift corresponding to (C=O), (N-H), (C-N) confirmed the proper conjugation of GNP with NKCT1. GNP-NKCT1 showed anticancer effect both in vivo and in vitro in EAC cell and antitumor effect in EAC induced mice. In in vivo studies, GNPNKCT1 increased MST 108.30% and decreased viable EAC cell count 51.39%. Fluorescent micrograph showed signs of apoptosis (membrane blebbing, membrane disruption). Decreased level of IL-10 and low incorporation of BrdU showed decreased proliferation of EAC induced by GNP-NKCT1. With upregulation of Bax, down regulation of Bcl2 and increased expression of caspase 3/9, it was confirmed that GNP-NKCT1 induced caspase dependent apoptosis pathway in EAC cell. In in vitro studies, GNP-NKCT1 increased the late apoptotic stage of cell and arrested cell cycle division at G0/G1 state. GNP-NKCT1 also decreased the tumor volume and tumor weight in EAC induced tumor in male albino mice. It inhibited angiogenesis, which was confirmed by lower percentage of expression of VEGF. This study indicated the capability of gold nanoparticles which enhanced the tumor uptake of NKCT1 and also suggested that GNP-NKCT1 might be a good source for anti-carcinoma and anti-tumor agents. PMID:24827982

  12. Carrot oil as an Antioxidant on some Biochemical and Haematological disorders in Male rats post exposure to γ Radiation

    The present study aims to investigate the biological effects of carrot oil as an antioxidant, our results recorded that blood glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity, total white blood cells count (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit value (Hct%), platelets count (PLT) and serum testosterone were significantly decreased on the 1st and 7th day post-exposure to 7 Gy gamma irradiation, while serum total cholesterol level, triglycerides level and malondialdehyde (MDA) revealed a significant increase on the 1st and 7th days post-irradiation. Oral administration of carrot oil (200 mg/Kg b.w.) for consecutive 3 weeks before exposure to 7 Gy gamma irradiation in male albino rats, the data revealed significant amelioration in the previous parameters, it could be concluded that carrot oil capable of reducing the biological hazards induced by gamma irradiation

  13. Agaricus blazei Murill as an efficient hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats

    Al-Dbass, Abeer M.; Al- Daihan, Sooad K.; Bhat, Ramesa Shafi

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murill is one of the very popular edible medicinal mushrooms. The present study investigated the protective effect of this biologically active mushroom on the tissue peroxidative damage and abnormal antioxidant levels in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. Male albino rats of Sprague–Dawley strain weighting (120–150 g) were categorized into five groups. The first group served as the normal control, the second and the third groups were treated with ...

  14. The effect of hypernatremic state on anesthesia: male Wistar rat

    Heydarpour F, Rostami A, Alipour M, Amini B, Heydarpour P

    2008-01-01

    "nBackground: The function of internal systems can be influenced significantly by hypernatremia, even anesthesia may be affected by this electrolyte imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single anesthetic dose of ketamine in an experimental rat model of chronic hypernatremia. "n"nMethods: Sixty male Wistar rats, weighing 300(±20)g, were allocated randomly to three groups: the control group received drinking water and test groups 1 and 2 r...

  15. Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaf and low doses of gamma radiation alleviated amiodarone-induced lung toxicity in albino rats

    Hasan Hesham F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (MO and/or low doses of gamma radiation (LDR on amiodarone (AMD-induced lung toxicity in rats. AMD administered to female albino rats (100 mg/kg body weight for 10 consecutive days. Rats received methanolic extract of MO (250 mg/kg bwt for 15 successive days and/or were exposed to whole body LDR (0.25Gy on the 1st and 10th days, up to a total dose of 0.5Gy. MO administration induced a significant decrease in serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β levels as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity. Also, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA and hydroxyproline (HYP was significantly decreased in lung tissue. Furthermore, MO significantly increased reduced glutathione (GSH content in lung tissue as compared with AMD. The histopathological investigation of lung tissue revealed the appearance of interstitial pneumonia in rats treated with AMD. The oral administration of MO and/or exposure to LDR reversed the biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by AMD. It can be posited that MO and LDR might have a considerable role in the prevention of lung toxicity induced by AMD.

  16. Fertility, developmental toxicity and teratogenicity in albino rats treated with methanol sub-fraction of Carica papaya seeds

    S Shrivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the status of fertility, developmental stages during gestation and teratological changes, if any, following oral administration of methanol sub-fraction (MSF of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rats. Materials and Methods: The MSF was administered at the doses of 50 mg contraceptive dose (CD, 100 mg (2x CD, 250 mg (5x CD and 500 mg (10x CD/kg body wt/day along with vehicle-treated control using 10 male and 20 female Wistar rats in each group. Necropsies were performed one day before the expected parturition. Status of gravid/non-gravid uterus, the number of corpora lutea in the ovary, implantation status, fetal wellbeing, fetal resorption, fetal body weight, external, visceral and skeletal malformations were recorded. Results: Pregnancies were recorded in vehicle-treated control animals and in the animals treated with 50 mg/kg body wt/day. The animals treated with 2x CD, 5x CD and 10x CD did not get pregnant. The fetuses and the status of the ovary, uterus and implantation, fetal body weight, soft tissues and skeletal structures were recorded normal. Data were comparable to those of control. Conclusion: The results suggest that the test substance had no developmental toxicity and teratogenicity which could affect pregnancy, implantation and gestation.

  17. β-carotene Protects the Physiological Antioxidants Against Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Carcinogenesis in Albino Rats

    Vinayak Patel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of β-carotene on the body growth and physiological antioxidants, male weanling rats were fed with low and high amount of β-carotene before four weeks and after six months of Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1 treatment (0.5 mg kg-1 body wt., on alternate days, total 10 doses, i.p. The results were compared with animals treated with AFB1. The final body weight of AFB1 treated animals was significantly reduced in the normal group (NVE. Plasma vitamin E was reduced significantly in NVE group whereas vitamin C levels decreased significantly in NVE and low β-carotene (LBE fed group. The maximum reduction was found in NVE group. Plasma GSH levels were increased significantly in animals in high β-carotene (HBC fed group. Liver protein showed significant reduction in NVE group. Liver lipid peroxidation was increased significantly in NVE and LBE groups. Liver vitamin A showed dose dependent increased levels in animals fed with high amount of β-carotene. Vitamin E was decreased significantly in NVE group. Liver antioxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase levels were reduced significantly in the treated animals of the NVE group. Results obtained indicated that β-carotene supplementation elevated the levels of vitamin C, glutathione and glutathione related enzymes which act as a free radical scavenger and reduced the toxicity effect of AFB1 in rats.

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of Piper guineense aqueous extract against ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats

    Babatunji E. Oyinloye

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Herbal medicinal products play an important role in the management of liver diseases for the lack of satisfactory liver protective drugs in allopathic medical practices. Searching for hepatoprotective drugs with high efficacy and safety is of great need. Our aim is to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of Piper guineense (P.G. on ethanol induced toxicity in Wistar rats. Methods: In order to assess the hepatoprotective effect of this extract in experimental animals, twenty-four Wistar male albino rats (weighing 150-170 g were divided into four groups. Toxicity was induced by administering 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg b.w by oral gavage for 21 days. Serum triglyceride (TG levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities were monitored. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD and gluthathione-S-transferase (GST activities were determined in the liver. Results: At the end of the experiment, chronic administration of ethanol resulted in enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO with depletion in the levels of GSH as well as reduction in the activities of SOD and GST. TG levels, ALT and AST activities were elevated. This was attenuated by the co-administration of the P.guineense extract by oral gavage (100 or 200 mg/kg b.w. Administration of the plant extract during ethanol exposure inhibited hepatic LPO and ameliorated SOD and GST activities as well as restoring GSH levels significantly. Conclusion: From this study it can be concluded that aqueous extract of P.guineense possess some potent antioxidants which can ameliorate hepatic damage associated with chronic ethanol exposure in rat models. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 71-76

  19. Melatonin improves spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats

    Farrin Babaei-Balderlou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, the spatial navigation memory of rats was evaluated by cross-arm maze. In this study lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in hippocampus. Diabetes caused to significant decrease in alternation percent in the cross-arm maze, as a spatial memory index, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, whereas administration of melatonin prevented the spatial memory deficit in diabetic rats. Also melatonin injection significantly increased the spatial memory in intact animals compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Assessment of hippocampus homogenates indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activities in the diabetic group compared to the control animals, while melatonin administration ameliorated these indices in diabetic rats. In conclusion, diabetes induction leads to debilitation of spatial navigation memory in rats, and the melatonin treatment improves the memory presumably through the reduction of oxidative stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats.

  20. Radioprotective effects of soya and garlic oils in irradiated male rats

    Forty male albino rats were divided equally into four groups, the first group acted as control group, the second group was subjected to 5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation, the third group was injected intraperitoneally daily with soya oil (15 mg/kg b.w. for 14 days) before gamma irradiation and the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally daily with garlic oil (150/kg b.w. for 14 days) before gamma irradiation. Mortality percentage and body weight were recorded. Blood samples were collected one week post-gamma irradiation from all animals for biochemical analysis. Serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol were measured. Total proteins and albumin were measured using photometric methods. Globulin value was calculated by subtraction of albumin from total protein values. The results showed that gamma irradiation with dose level of 5 Gy induced retardation of live body weight and increased the mortality. The data also showed significant increases in TBARS, total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol levels, whereas the levels of total proteins, albumin and globulin were significantly decreased. The soya oil or garlic oil injected pre-irradiation exerted noticeable amelioration in induced radiation changes on body weight, mortality, TBARS, lipid profiles and protein fractions

  1. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    Mingoti G.Z.; Pereira R.N.; Monteiro C.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment) were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group) were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a s...

  2. Bioelement status with oral administration of fish oil methyl ester and diesel fuel in male rats.

    Aksoy, Laçine; Tütüncü, Hakan; Alper, Yasemin; Büyükben, Ahmet

    2012-10-01

    This paper is a study on the effects on the amounts of trace elements in case of possible repeat accidental or environmental exposure with fish oil biodiesel. For this purpose, 35 male Wistar albino rats were used in the study. Rats were divided into five groups. The first group was determined as the control group. The rats in this group were gavaged orally with 250 mg/kg sunflower oil. The rats in the second and third groups were administered by oral gavage of 250 mg/kg (D1) and 500 mg/kg (D2) diesel fuel mixed with equal amounts of sunflower oil, respectively. The rats in the fourth group were administered by oral gavage of 250 mg/kg fish oil biodiesel (F1) and the rats in the fifth group were administered by oral gavage of 500 mg/kg fish oil biodiesel (F2), both mixed with equal amounts of sunflower oil. At the end of the study, bioelement concentrations in the serum and the kidney, lung, and liver tissues were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. It was observed that serum Ca, Mg, and Sr concentrations were significantly (pbiodiesel groups. Kidney Mg concentration was significantly (pdiesel groups. Kidney Mg concentration was significantly (pdiesel groups. Lung Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Na, and Zn concentrations were different significantly higher in the control group than in the other groups. Liver Al concentration was different significantly higher in the control group than in the other groups. Liver Ca concentration was significantly (pbiodiesel groups. Serum and lung tissue bioelements concentrations were lower in diesel and biodiesel groups than in control group. Due to consumption for biochemical reaction of these elements, bioelements concentration could be low in diesel and biodiesel groups. Some trace elements concentrations in the kidney and liver were very high in the diesel groups. High concentration of these elements in the diesel groups might cause toxic effects. Fish oil biodiesel could be chosen as an alternative fuel

  3. Effects of psychostimulants on social interaction in adult male rats

    Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, E.; Hrebíčková, I.; Ševčíková, M.; Nohejlová, K.; Pometlová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2015), s. 776-785. ISSN 0955-8810 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : amphetamine * cocaine * male rats * 3,4 methylenedimethoxyamphetamine * psychostimulants * social behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.148, year: 2014

  4. Effect of glyphosate on reproductive organs in male rat.

    Dai, Pengyuan; Hu, Ping; Tang, Juan; Li, Yansen; Li, Chunmei

    2016-06-01

    Glyphosate as an active ingredient of Roundup(®) which is thought to be one of the most popular herbicide was used worldwide. Many studies have focused on reproductive toxicity on glyphosate-based herbicide, but few evidence exists to imply the male reproductive toxicity of glyphosate alone in vivo. In this study SD rats were Lavaged with glyphosate at doses of 5, 50, 500mg/kg to detect the toxicity of glyphosate on rat testis. Glyphosate significantly decreased the average daily feed intake at dose of 50mg/kg, and the weight of seminal vesicle gland, coagulating gland as well as the total sperm count at dose of 500mg/kg. Immunohistochemistry of androgen receptor (AR) has no difference among all groups. As to testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and oxidative stress parameters, the level of them has no differences amidst all doses. Taken together, we conclude that glyphosate alone has low toxicity on male rats reproductive system. PMID:27286640

  5. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  6. Protective Role of L- Carnitine and Zinc against γ-Radiation induced Cardiac and testicular Disorders in Albino Rats

    L-Carnitine is a dipeptide amino acid necessary for fat metabolism, it provides energy by transporting long-chain fatty acids to mitochondria to act as a fuel and it is considered a powerful antioxidant. In addition, zinc is an essential mineral which helps to increase the secretion of male sex hormones and raises the sperm count, so its combination with L-carnitine is useful for the fertility process. The present study aims to evaluate the potency of L-carnitine and zinc as radio- protective and curative agent pre and after exposure to γ-radiation through biochemical, histological, morphological abnormalities of sperms and DNA damage in the sperms induced by γ-irradiation by comet assay. Animals received L-carnitine (LC) and zinc (Zn) orally at the dose 9.45 mg/100 gm body wt./day for successive 20 days and then exposed to whole body gamma radiation at the dose 4 Gy (1 Gy for 4 days, day after day) on the 7th day from treatment with antioxidant. Histological examinations of heart and testis tissues showed that administration of LC and Zn have attenuated radiation induced damage and improved tissues architecture. Moreover, the observed amelioration in the tissues was accompanied by a remarkable decrease of their lipid peroxide levels (malondialdehyde (MDA)), together with an increase in glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Hormonal determinations of serum testosterone (T), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) which carried out for fertility assessment showed that whole body γ-irradiation of rats induced significant decrease in serum testosterone while FSH and LH were significantly increased as compared with control group. On the other hand, irradiation caused significant elevation in the total number of abnormal head, and / or tail of sperms in comparison to the control rats. The comet assay showed that exposure to γ-radiation induced DNA damage of sperms (tail moment values).

  7. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    G.Z. Mingoti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 ± 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 ± 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004. No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 ± 5.41 vs 127.02 ± 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001. These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.

  8. Vitamin C partially attenuates male reproductive deficits in hyperglycemic rats

    Damasceno Débora C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycemia can impair the male reproductive system in experimental animals and in men during reproductive age. Studies have shown that vitamin C has some good effects on male reproductive system, and therefore vitamin C treatment could attenuate the dysfunctions in this system caused by hyperglycemia. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate whether vitamin C treatment could attenuate reproductive dysfunctions in hyperglycemic male rats. Methods Adult male rats were divided into 3 groups: a normoglycemic (n = 10 and two hyperglycemic (that received a single dose of streptozotocin - 40 mg/kg BW. The two last groups (n = 10 per group were divided into: hyperglycemic control (Hy and hyperglycemic + 150 mg of vitamin C (HyC, by gavage during 30 consecutive days. The normoglycemic and hyperglycemic control groups received the vehicle (water. The first day after the treatment, the rats were anesthetized and killed to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers (TBARS, SOD, GSHt and GSH-Px in the erythrocytes, body and reproductive organ weights, sperm parameters, plasma hormone levels (FSH, LH and testosterone, testicular and epididymal histo-morphometry and histopathology. Results Compared with the normoglycemic animals, hyperglycemic control rats showed reduced weight of the body and reproductive organ but testis weight was maintained. It was also observed reduction of testosterone and LH levels, seminiferous tubular diameter, sperm motility and sperm counts in the epididymis. In addition, there was an increase in morphological abnormalities on spermatozoa as well as in oxidative stress level. Vitamin C reduced the oxidative stress level, diminished the number of abnormal sperm, and increased testosterone and LH levels and seminiferous tubular diameter but did not show improvement of sperm motility in relation to the hyperglycemic control group. Hyperglycemia caused a rearrangement in the epididymal tissue components (stroma

  9. Dose- and time-dependent effects of Garcinia kola seed extract on sexual behaviour and reproductive parameters in male Wistar rats.

    Sewani-Rusike, C R; Ralebona, N; Nkeh-Chungag, B N

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a crude extract of Garcinia kola on male sexual function after subchronic and chronic treatment periods at different sublethal doses. Adult male Wistar rats were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) of a 70% ethanolic extract of G. kola daily for 56 days. Sexual behaviour studies were performed on days 28 and 50. At termination on day 56, organ weights, sperm count, reproductive hormone levels and testicular histology were assessed. Subchronic and chronic treatment of normal male rats with G. kola extract resulted in overall increase in components of libido, erection and ejaculation in treated rats - with lower doses being more efficient than the higher dose. There was a slight reduction in some components of sexual behaviour with prolonged time of treatment. G. kola treatment at all doses resulted in increased testicular weights, increased sperm count with no change in motility and increased serum testosterone levels with no change in gonadotropin levels. Gross testicular histology was not affected by treatment. We conclude that G. kola seed extract possesses potent aphrodisiac activity in male albino rats with resultant increase in sperm count and testosterone levels. PMID:26123866

  10. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups of 10 rats each: Group 1 – control group fed on basal ration, Group 2 – fed on basal ration mixed with EVOO (30%, Group 3 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15%, and Group 4 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15% and EVOO (30%. This feeding regimen was administered for 65 days. Blood samples were collected to analyze serum zinc, vitamin E, and testosterone levels. Histopathological and weight changes in sex organs were evaluated. Results: GMSB diet reduced weight of testis (0.66±0.06 vs. 1.7±0.06, p<0.001, epididymis (0.489±0.03 vs. 0.7±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.04±0.009 vs. 0.68±0.04, p<0.001, and seminal vesicles (0.057±0.01 vs. 0.8±0.04, p<0.001. GMSB diet adversely affected sperm count (406±7.1 vs. 610±7.8, p<0.001, motility (p<0.001, and abnormality (p<0.001. GMSB diet also reduced serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 concentrations. EVOO diet had no detrimental effect. Addition of EVOO to GMSB diet increased the serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 levels and also restored the weights of testis (1.35±0.16 vs. 0.66±0.06, p<0.01, epididymis (0.614±0.13 vs. 0.489±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.291±0.09 vs. 0.04±0.009, p<0.001, seminal vesicle (0.516±0.18 vs. 0.057±0.01, p<0.001 along with sperm count (516±3.1 vs. 406±7.1, p<0.01, motility (p<0.01, and abnormality (p<0.05. Conclusion: EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects of GMSB on reproductive organs in adult male

  11. Linseed Oil as a Protective Agent against Toxicity of C Red No.40 Dye in Albino Rats

    Linseed, the richest known source of botanical lignans, has been shown to have chemo protective effects in animals. Synthetic food colors are mainly an objective to increase attractiveness and palatability of food stuff. Many azo dyes (such as C Rad No.40) are genotoxic in short term tests and carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Two time interval experiments were conducted to determine the effect of C Red No.40 dye on body weight and certain organs (liver-spleen and heart) weights in male rat. In addition, serum lipid fractions, folic acid, haemagglutination inhibition test and histological investigation of liver and hart have been carried out. The beneficial efficiency of linseed supplementation was also investigated. The results obtained revealed that body and organs weight were decreased under the two treatments. Lipid fractions (cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides) were generally increased under the effect of dye addition. The same deleterious effect of dye was appeared on liver and heart under the histological investigations. On the other hand, linseed supplementation exerted noticeable amelioration of dye hazards

  12. Biochemical study on the effect of some antioxidants on apoptosis in irradiated male rats

    Male albino rats were whole body subjected to 2 Gy every other day up to a total dose of 8 Gy. Animals sacrificed on the 8th day after irradiation showed significant decreases in testis/body weight ratio. Biochemical analysis in testicular tissues showed significant decreases in SOD and CAT activities, concomitant with significant increase in XO activity and TBARS contents. Radiation exposure induced also significant increases in testicular DNA fragmentation, significant increases in mitochondrial NO and Ca+2 contents associated with significant decrease in nuclear GSH content. Testicular LDL-C content showed a significant increase which was much higher than its increase in serum, the content of HDL-C increased significantly, contrarily to serum where a significant decrease was recorded. Histological examination through electron microscope revealed apoptosis in testicular tissue. Either allopurinol (50 mg/kg body weight supplied via intra peritoneal injection) or Hesperidine (200 mg/kg body weight supplied orally by gastric intubation) or allopurinol + hesperidine supplied to rats during 7 consecutive days before irradiation or during 7 consecutive days after irradiation resulted in significant decrease of apoptosis associated with significant amelioration in the disequilibrium between antioxidants and oxidants. All treatments have improved the biochemical alteration in testicular tissues as well as mitochondrial and nuclear changes. However, the improvement was significantly higher when allopurinol, or hesperidine or allopurinol + hesperidine were administered pre-irradiation than post-irradiation. According to the results obtained in the current study, it could be concluded that antioxidants supplementation would protect testicular tissues from apoptosis.

  13. Effects of Triclocarban on Intact Immature Male Rat

    Duleba, Antoni J.; Ahmed, Mohamed I.; Sun, Meng; Gao, Allen C.; Villanueva, Jesus; Conley, Alan J.; Turgeon, Judith L.; Benirschke, Kurt; Gee, Nancy A.; Chen, Jiangang; Green, Peter G.; Lasley, Bill L.

    2011-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide) is an antimicrobial agent used widely in various personal hygiene products including soaps. Recently, TCC has been shown to enhance testosterone-induced effects in vitro and to enlarge accessory sex organs in castrated male rats. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of TCC on intact age-matched male rats and on human prostate LNCaP and C4–2B cells. Seven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet or a diet supplemented with TCC (0.25% in diet) for 10 days. Triclocarban induced hyperplasia of accessory sex organs in the absence of significant qualitative histological changes. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were not significantly altered by TCC treatment. In prostate cancer-derived LNCaP and C4–2B cells, TCC potentiated androgen actions via androgen receptor-dependent actions. In conclusion, TCC significantly affects intact male reproductive organs and potentiates androgen effects in prostate cancer cells. PMID:20889956

  14. Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats

    Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo; Subhangkar Nandy; Aswini Kumar Senapati; Sarada Prasad Sarangi; Saroj Kumar Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) were administered...

  15. Effect of Iron-fortified ‘Gari’, Cassava Meal on Serum Iron, Hemoglobin Concentration and Total Iron-binding Capacity in Albino Wistar Rats

    O. Igile Godwin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers were divided into four subsamples; A-C and then mixed with Ferrous Sulphate (FS, Iron (III sulphate (F3 and Ferric Alum (FA, respectively in ratio 1:5000 (0.2 g fortificant kg-1 mash. The samples along with the Control (D were each fermented in a solid state for 24 h and stir-fried to obtain gari granules. The gari samples were fed to rats divided into four groups of five for fourteen days and the serum, then analyzed for serum iron concentration, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and hemoglobin concentration. The results showed significant increase (p-1 and hemoglobin (13.63±2.8 g dL-1 and significantly lower level (55.5±2.2 μmol L-1 of TIBC(p<0.05, indicating a better iron bioavailabilty. The findings suggests that fortification of gari with Ferrous Sulphate (FS had higher bioavailability of iron and therefore hold promise in combating iron deficiency anemia.

  16. Comparison of the efficacy of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats.

    Nitasha Bhat, G M; Nayak, Nagendra; Vinodraj, K; Chandralekha, N; Mathai, Paul; Cherian, J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of cardamom with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats. There were four groups of 6 rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received cardamom suspension 1 g/kg/10 mL of 2% gum acacia orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Third group received pioglitazone 45 mg/kg orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Fourth group did not receive any medication and was considered as normal control. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, blood sugar 2 h after glucose load, liver weight, liver volume were recorded, and histopathological analysis was done. The effects of cardamom were compared with that of pioglitazone. Dexamethasone caused hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. Both pioglitazone and cardamom significantly reduced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia (P cardamom (P Cardamom has comparable efficacy to pioglitazone in preventing dexamethasone-induced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and fasting hyperglycemia. PMID:26317079

  17. Comparison of the efficacy of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats

    G M Nitasha Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of cardamom with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats. There were four groups of 6 rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received cardamom suspension 1 g/kg/10 mL of 2% gum acacia orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Third group received pioglitazone 45 mg/kg orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Fourth group did not receive any medication and was considered as normal control. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, blood sugar 2 h after glucose load, liver weight, liver volume were recorded, and histopathological analysis was done. The effects of cardamom were compared with that of pioglitazone. Dexamethasone caused hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. Both pioglitazone and cardamom significantly reduced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia (P < 0.01. Reduction of blood sugar levels after glucose load was significant with pioglitazone in comparison to cardamom (P < 0.01. Cardamom has comparable efficacy to pioglitazone in preventing dexamethasone-induced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and fasting hyperglycemia.

  18. Efficacy of a traditional unani formulation Jawarish-e-Amla Sada against CCl 4 induced liver toxicity in Albino Wistar rats: Comparison with silymarin treatment

    Sunita Shailajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jawarish-e-Amla Sada (JAS; a polyherbal Unani formulation, is claimed as a potential hepatoprotective agent in traditional Unani medicine treatise. Aims and Objectives: Though, JAS has its composition recorded in ancient Unani texts, there have been minimal attempts to scientifically validate its hepatoprotective potential. The present work is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of JAS in vivo. Materials and Methods: CCl 4 intoxicated Albino Wistar rats were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of JAS (0.7 g/kg and 1.0 g/kg, p.o. and the results were compared with, silymarin. The efficacy was established on the basis of altered levels of biochemical markers and histopathological analysis of the liver tissue. Results and Discussion: Treatment with the aqueous slurry of JAS significantly reduced the level of biochemical markers in CCl 4 intoxicated rats. These findings were well-supported by the histopathological analysis of liver tissue. The effect shown by JAS was found to be at par with silymarin treatment. Conclusion: This study suggests that CCl 4 induced liver damage can be ameliorated by traditional Unani formulation JAS. This justifies the traditional claim of JAS being a hepatoprotective agent.

  19. Testosterone deprivation accelerates cardiac dysfunction in obese male rats.

    Pongkan, Wanpitak; Pintana, Hiranya; Sivasinprasasn, Sivaporn; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-06-01

    Low testosterone level is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular diseases. As obese-insulin-resistant condition could impair cardiac function and that the incidence of obesity is increased in aging men, a condition of testosterone deprivation could aggravate the cardiac dysfunction in obese-insulin-resistant subjects. However, the mechanism underlying this adverse effect is unclear. This study investigated the effects of obesity on metabolic parameters, heart rate variability (HRV), left ventricular (LV) function, and cardiac mitochondrial function in testosterone-deprived rats. Orchiectomized or sham-operated male Wistar rats (n=36per group) were randomly divided into groups and were given either a normal diet (ND, 19.77% of energy fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 57.60% of energy fat) for 12weeks. Metabolic parameters, HRV, LV function, and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined at 4, 8, and 12weeks after starting each feeding program. We found that insulin resistance was observed after 8weeks of the consumption of a HFD in both sham (HFS) and orchiectomized (HFO) rats. Neither the ND sham (NDS) group nor ND orchiectomized (NDO) rats developed insulin resistance. The development of depressed HRV, LV contractile dysfunction, and increased cardiac mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production was observed earlier in orchiectomized (NDO and HFO) rats at week 4, whereas HFS rats exhibited these impairments later at week 8. These findings suggest that testosterone deprivation accelerates the impairment of cardiac autonomic regulation and LV function via increased oxidative stress and impaired cardiac mitochondrial function in obese-orchiectomized male rats. PMID:27000685

  20. Modulation of Tinospora rumphii and Zinc Salt on DNA Damage in Quinoline-Induced Genotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity in Male Albino Mice

    Roger Salvacion Tan; Bajo, Lydia M.

    2014-01-01

    Tinospora rumphii (T. rumphii) is a folkloric medicinal plant that is widely distributed in Asia and Africa. It has been widely used by locals to treat many diseases including jaundice, which is a manifestation of liver damage. We investigated the action of T. rumphii crude extract together with zinc sulphate, a known tumor modulator, on hepatic injuries induced by intraperitoneal (i.p) injections of quinoline on albino mice. The hepatotoxic effect was assessed by bilirubin concentration in t...

  1. Dominant lethals following administration of tritium (THO) to rat males

    Adult rat males were given a single intraperitoneal tritium (THO) injection at 0,01 or 0,001 mCi/g body weight (1/100 or 1/1000 of LDsub(50/30), respectively). Twelve days after treatment each male was mated to 3-5 intact females, and the latter were replaced by fresh ones every 12 following days over a 120-day period. Mated females were killed to score conceptions, corpora lutea, and live and dead embryos. Estimations were made of F1 prenatal death rate (according to Bateman, 1958) and the frequency of induction of dominant lethal mutations (according to Roehrborn, 1970). The results observed indicated paternal exposure to tritium (THO) to produce dominant lethals both in pre- and post-meiotic germ cells in the rat. The extent of the genetic damage studied was found to depend on the amount of activity administered as well as on the time interval between treatment and conception. (author)

  2. Drug Specificity in Drug vs. Food Choice in Male Rats

    Tunstall, Brendan J.; Riley, Anthony L.; Kearns, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Although different classes of drug differ in their mechanisms of reinforcement and effects on behavior, little research has focused on differences in self-administration behaviors maintained by these drugs. Persistent drug choice despite available reinforcement alternatives has been proposed to model behavior relevant to addiction. The present study used a within-subjects procedure, where male rats (Long-Evans, N = 16) were given a choice between cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/inf) and food (a single 45-...

  3. Methamphetamine affects social interaction in adult male rats

    Pometlová, M.; Mikulecká, Anna; Šlamberová, Romana; Schutová, B.; Hrubá, L.; Rokyta, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, Suppl.1 (2007), S77-S77. ISSN 0955-8810. [Biennial Meeting of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society /12./. 31.08.2007-03.09.2007, Tübingen] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) 1A8610; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : metemphetamine * behavior * male rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  4. Studies on curacron food poisoning in male rats

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effect of contaminated food with organophosphorus pesticide curacron for different periods on serum glucose, total protein, free amino acids, glutamic pyruvic and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases in male rats. Radioimmunoassay technique was used the effect of curacron pesticide on serum insulin level in rats for 45 days. It has been found that curacron caused disturbance in in liver functions which were elucidated through the biochemical determination of glutamic oxaloacetic (SGOT) and glutamic pyruvic (SGPT) transaminases and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin of rats fed with daily doses of 71.6 mg curacron/kg for 45 days. The administered dose of curacron showed cumulative physiological effect and caused marked increases in SGOT, SGPT, total protein and serum insulin levels. On the other hand, it caused significant decreases in levels of serum glucose and free amino acids (FAA) as compared with the control ones

  5. Teratogenicity Induced By 13-Cis-Retinoic Acid and/or Gamma Irradiation on Bone of Fetuses and Placenta of Pregnant Albino Rats

    Isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) has revolutionized the management of severe treatment-resistant acne and it has been widely used for a range of dermatological conditions. During pregnancy, high incidence of developmental anomalies were occurred in pregnant rats given isotretinion and/or exposed to gamma irradiation on specific days during organogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of isotretinoin administration and/or exposure to gamma radiation on the placenta of pregnant rats, vertebrae and neural spine of their fetuses. Isotretinoin at the dose level 70 mg/kg was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 11th to 15th days of pregnancy while mothers were subjected to gamma radiation 1.5 Gy as fractionated dose (0.5 Gy/3 times) on the 11th, 12th and 13th day of gestation. The experimental investigations carried out one day prior to parturition (the 20 th day of gestation) have demonstrated that isotretinoin intake from the 11th-15th days of gestation induced embryological, biochemical, histochemical and histopathological disorders in irradiated mothers and their fetuses. The data obtained revealed that isotretinoin administration and/or gamma irradiation caused significant elevation in alkaline phosphatase accompanied by a decline in total protein and DNA in the placenta tissues and vertebrae bone. In addition, histopathological results showed different distortions in the placenta which varied from necrotic nuclei of giant cells, haemorrhage and pyknotic nuclei in trophoblast. Moreover, ill-shaped vertebrae with degenerated osteogenic layers and reduced number of chondrocytes together with severe damage in spine neural arch were viewed. In conclusion, isotretinoin is a serious and powerful drug and should be used with great caution, therefore, it is recommended that radiation workers especially females have to be careful toward isotretinoin intake during pregnancy.

  6. The sensitivity of male rat reproductive organs to monosodium glutamate

    Sitthichai Iamsaard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and sperm acrosome reaction (AR to monosodium L- glutamate (MSG in rats. Materials and methods. Rats were divided into four groups and fed with non-acidic MSG at 0.25, 3 or 6 g/kg body weight for 30 days or without MSG. The morphological changes in the reproductive organs were studied. The plasma testosterone level, epididymal sperm concentration, and sperm AR status were assayed. Results. Compared to the control, no significant changes were discerned in the morphology and weight of the testes, or the histological structures of epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle. In contrast, significant decreases were detected in the weight of the epididymis, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration of rats treated with 6 g/kg body weight of MSG. The weight loss was evident in the seminal vesicle in MSG-administered rats. Moreover, rats treated with MSG 3 and 6 g/kg exhibited partial testicular damage, characterized by sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the seminiferous tubular lumen, and their plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased. In the 6 g/kg MSG group, the sperm concentration was significantly decreased compared with the control or two lower dose MSG groups. In AR assays, there was no statistically significant difference between MSG-rats and normal rats. Conclusion. Testicular morphological changes, testosterone level, and sperm concentration were sensitive to high doses of MSG while the rate of AR was not affected. Therefore, the consumption of high dose MSG must be avoided because it may cause partial infertility in male.

  7. Effect of black pepper (piper nigrum) on body weight and some serum lipid fractions in whole body gamma irradiated albino rats

    Two experiments were conducted to determine effect of sublethal body gamma irradiation (6.0 Gy as a single dose) on body weight and some serum lipid fractions in female and male rats. The beneficial efficacy of intragastric administration of black pepper (in two doses of 160 and 320 mg/kg bw) was also investigated. The results obtained revealed that the sublethal irradiated rats showed a drastic loss in body weight reached 39.5% less than the normal males and significant alterations in serum triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol) levels, 5 weeks post exposure to gamma irradiation in female and male rats. Black pepper showed a beneficial effect on these significant changes in lipid fractions in irradiated female and male rats. Treatment with the two doses of black pepper up to 14 weeks, 5 days/week, showed a slight effect on body gain and fluctuations in the lipid fractions at 5.10 and 14 weeks for both sexes

  8. A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of 'Guduchi ghrita' for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats

    Savrikar, Shriram S.; Dole, Vilas; Ravishankar, B.; Shukla, Vinay J.

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced–swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity. PMID:20814518

  9. Spontaneous Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2) Expression in the Cochlea of Adult Albino Rat and Its Up-Regulation after Cisplatin Treatment.

    Martín-Saldaña, Sergio; Trinidad, Almudena; Ramil, Elvira; Sánchez-López, Antonio J; Coronado, Maria José; Martínez-Martínez, Esther; García, José Miguel; García-Berrocal, José Ramón; Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    We provide evidence for the presence of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in some cellular types of the cochlea of the adult albino rat. Cannabinoids and their receptors are increasingly being studied because of their high potential for clinical use. As a hyperspecialized portion of the peripheral nervous system, study of the expression and function of cannabinoid receptors in the hearing organ is of high interest. Stria vascularis and inner hair cells express CB2 receptor, as well as neurites and cell bodies of the spiral ganglion. Cellular types such as supporting cells and outer hair cells, in which the expression of other types of functional receptors has been reported, do not significantly express CB2 receptors in this study. An up-regulation of CB2 gene expression was detected after an ototoxic event such as cisplatin treatment, probably due to pro-inflammatory events triggered by the drug. That fact suggests promising potential of CB2 receptor as a therapeutic target for new treatments to palliate cisplatin-induced hearing loss and other ototoxic events which triggers inflammatory pathways. PMID:27564061

  10. A study of anti-hyperlipidemia, hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of emblica officinalis (amla in high fat fed albino rats

    Jeevangi Santoshkumar, Manjunath S, Sakhare Pranavkumar M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available : Emblica Officinalis (Amla, belonging to the genus, Phyllanthus emblica is widely used for medicinal purpose. Its fruits have been used traditionally as a hypolipidemic. Objectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of Emblica officinalis in high fat fed albino rats. Materials and Methods: For study of anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic activity. 5 groups of 6 animals in each received normal saline, E. Officinalis powder, high fat diet, High fat diet plus E. Officinalis powder both and Atorvastatin respectively for 8 weeks. Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding animals with high fat diet per orally, consisting of coconut oil and vanaspati ghee, daily ad libitum. At the end of the study, blood samples of the animals were sent for the estimation of the lipid profile and effects of test drug studied by comparing levels of Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and Atherogenic index. The statistical significance between groups was analysed by using one way ANOVA, followed by Dunnet’s multiple comparison test. Results: Fruit of Amla showed significant anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect. All these effects may contribute to its anti-atherogenic activity. Conclusion: Present study revealed the antihyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect of Amla fruit powder and can be safely used in the treatment of mild to moderate cases of hyperlipidemia considering its easy availability, cost effectiveness, and other beneficial effects.

  11. Sugarcane bagasse lignin, and silica gel and magneto-silica as drug vehicles for development of innocuous methotrexate drug against rheumatoid arthritis disease in albino rats

    The present study clarifies co-therapy action of deliveries from their textural changes point of view. Methotrexate (MTX) was immobilized onto biodegradable lignin, silica gel and iron/silica nanocomposite. Loaded-MTX was i.p. injected into albino rats at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg/week for 2.5 months, after which spleen, liver, testes and knee joint tissues were collected for tests. IFN-γ and IL-17A mRNA gene expressions in spleen in all biological samples were determined by RT-PCR. Physicochemical features of drug carriers were monitored by XRD, BET-PSD, SEM and TEM. Drug inflammatory-site targeting was found to be closely related to the physico-features of deliverers. The interlayered lignin of micro- and meso-pore channels directed MTX toward concealed infected cells in liver and testes tissues, while meso-structured silica flacks satisfied by gathering MTX around knee joints. The magneto-silica nanocomposite targeted MTX toward spleen tissue, which is considered as a lively factory for the production of electron rich compounds. - Highlights: • Opening the door to synthesize smart targeted drug deliveries against RA disease • Therapy action of MTX-laden lignin and Fe3O4/SiO2 composite toward RA disease • Procure selective targeted drug deliveries of near 100% curing against RA disease • Revolutionary clinical therapies for RA disease by inventive MTX-delivery models

  12. Sugarcane bagasse lignin, and silica gel and magneto-silica as drug vehicles for development of innocuous methotrexate drug against rheumatoid arthritis disease in albino rats

    Wahba, Sanaa M.R. [Zoology department, Women College, Ain-Shams University,11566 Cairo (Egypt); Darwish, Atef S., E-mail: atef_mouharam@sci.asu.edu.eg [Chemistry department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Shehata, Iman H. [Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abd Elhalem, Sahar S. [Zoology department, Women College, Ain-Shams University,11566 Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-03-01

    The present study clarifies co-therapy action of deliveries from their textural changes point of view. Methotrexate (MTX) was immobilized onto biodegradable lignin, silica gel and iron/silica nanocomposite. Loaded-MTX was i.p. injected into albino rats at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg/week for 2.5 months, after which spleen, liver, testes and knee joint tissues were collected for tests. IFN-γ and IL-17A mRNA gene expressions in spleen in all biological samples were determined by RT-PCR. Physicochemical features of drug carriers were monitored by XRD, BET-PSD, SEM and TEM. Drug inflammatory-site targeting was found to be closely related to the physico-features of deliverers. The interlayered lignin of micro- and meso-pore channels directed MTX toward concealed infected cells in liver and testes tissues, while meso-structured silica flacks satisfied by gathering MTX around knee joints. The magneto-silica nanocomposite targeted MTX toward spleen tissue, which is considered as a lively factory for the production of electron rich compounds. - Highlights: • Opening the door to synthesize smart targeted drug deliveries against RA disease • Therapy action of MTX-laden lignin and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} composite toward RA disease • Procure selective targeted drug deliveries of near 100% curing against RA disease • Revolutionary clinical therapies for RA disease by inventive MTX-delivery models.

  13. Screening of roots of Baliospermum montanum for hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver damage in albino rats

    Wadekar Raju

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to study hepatoprotective activity of alcohol, chloroform and aqueous extract of roots of Baliospermum montanum paracetamol induced liver damage model in rats. Liver damage in rats was produced by paracetamol (2 g/kg, po in tween 80. Alcohol, chloroform, aqueous extracts of roots of the plant was administered to rats daily for seven days. The biochemical parameters were investigated. Histopathological changes in liver were studied. Concurrently silymarin was used as standard hepatoprotective agent. The results indicated that biochemical changes produced by paracetamol were restored to normal by alcohol, chloroform and aqueous extracts. The alcohol and aqueous extract of roots of Baliospermum montanum showed significant hepatoprotective effect whereas chloroform extract showed moderate hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver damage model in rats.

  14. Ameliorative Role of Marjoram Against Ionizing Radiation-Induced Biochemical and Histological Changes in Thyroid Gland in Male Rats

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of marjoram, grey green leaf, against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage in thyroid gland of male albino rats. Marjoram (100 mg/kg/day) was given to rats via gavages for 30 consecutive days prior exposure to irradiation (4.5 Gy) and the last dose of marjoram was administered 24 hr before irradiation. Thyroid gland was taken for histological study and blood samples for biochemical analysis on the 7th and 15 th day post-irradiation. In the irradiated group, the histological observations of thyroid gland sections showed distortion of the thyroid follicles together with apparent swelling of the follicular cells, vacuolated cytoplasm and ill-defined cell boundaries of the follicular epithelium. Biochemical analysis in the blood showed significant decrease in serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Also, a significant decrease was observed in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and blood glutathione (GSH). Treatment with marjoram (100 mg/kg) was found to offer significant protection against gamma radiation induced toxicity in thyroid gland tissues which was evident by improved status of most parameters under investigation. These results suggest that marjoram could increase the antioxidant defence systems of thyroid gland and may protect from adverse effects of whole body gamma radiation.

  15. Evaluation of the synergistic effect of danazol and radiation exposure on some biochemical functions in female albino rats.

    Ramadan, F. L

    2007-01-01

    Background: Radiation generates a variety of free radicals during the exposure of biological tissues through radiolysis of water. These free radicals are highly reactive and cause oxidative damage to biological molecules. The present study was carried out to investigate the synergestic effect of danazol and radiation exposure on certain functional disorders in female rats. Material and methods: Mature female rats weighing about 120-150g were divided into four groups. Group 1: control animals,...

  16. Isolation of Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes from naturally infected laboratory albino rats: experimental infection and treatment in rabbits

    N. A. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and from asymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%, clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching was reported in some rats. Only one species of the trichophyton, T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes was isolated with growth rate (85.71% of samples collected from clinically infected rats, and (28.57% from asymptomatic and from breeding cages, the growth was observed within the 21 days at 25ºC on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. Lacto phenol cotton blue staining slides of T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes revealed both microconidia and macroconidia. Microconidia found in numerous numbers often in dense cluster which were hyaline, smooth walled and predominantly spherical to sub spherical in shape, varying numbers of chlamydoconidia. Spiral hyphae and smooth, thin walled clavate shaped multicelled macroconidia were also present. The study also dealt with experimental infection in rabbits with T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes and treated by two drugs, natural herbal preparation of acidic pomegranate (Punica granatum fruit and synthetic nystatine ointment. The complete recovery of lesions was recorded after 14 days and 21 days of topical application of a pomegranate and nystatine ointment for 5 successive days respectively.

  17. Ceria-containing uncoated and coated hydroxyapatite-based galantamine nanocomposites for formidable treatment of Alzheimer's disease in ovariectomized albino-rat model.

    Wahba, Sanaa M R; Darwish, Atef S; Kamal, Sara M

    2016-08-01

    This paper upraises delivery and therapeutic actions of galantamine drug (GAL) against Alzheimer's disease (AD) in rat brain through attaching GAL to ceria-containing hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp) as well ceria-containing carboxymethyl chitosan-coated hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC) nanocomposites. Physicochemical features of such nanocomposites were analyzed by XRD, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometer, N2-BET, DLS, zeta-potential measurements, SEM, and HR-TEM. Limited interactions were observed in GAL@Ce-HAp with prevailed existence of dispersed negatively charged rod-like particles conjugated with ceria nanodots. On contrary, GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC was well-structured developing aggregates of uncharged tetragonal-shaped particles laden with accession of ceria quantum dots. Such nanocomposites were i.p. injected into ovariectomized AD albino-rats at galantamine dose of 2.5mg/kg/day for one month, then brain tissues were collected for biochemical and histological tests. GAL@Ce-HAp adopted as a promising candidate for AD curativeness, whereas oxidative stress markers were successfully upregulated, degenerated neurons in hippocampal and cerebral tissues were wholly recovered and Aβ-plaques were vanished. Also, optimizable in-vitro release for GAL and nanoceria were displayed from GAL@Ce-HAp, while delayed in-vitro release for those species were developed from GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC. This proof of concept work allow futuristic omnipotency of rod-like hydroxyapatite particles for selective delivery of GAL and nanoceria to AD affected brain areas. PMID:27157738

  18. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats

    S. C. D'cruz; P. P. Mathur

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of piperine on the epididymal antioxidant system of adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered piperine at doses of 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight each day for 30consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the rats were weighed and killed with ether and the epididymis was dissected from the bodies. Sperm collected from the cauda region of the epididymis was used for the assessment of its count, motility and viability. Caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis were separated and homogenized separately to obtain 10 % homogenates. The supernatants were used for the assays of sialic acid,superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation. Results: Body weight of the piperine-treated rats remained unchanged. The weights of the caput,corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis significantly decreased at dose of 100 mg/kg. Epididymal sperm count and motility decreased at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, and sperm viability decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg. Sialic acid levels in the epididymis decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg while significant decrease in the cauda region alone was observed at 10 mg/kg. A significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, along with an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation were observed at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: Piperine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and sialic acid levels in the epididymis and thereby increased reactive oxygen species levels that could damage the epididymal environment and sperm function.

  19. ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTILIPIDEMIC ASSESSMENT OF SOYA BEAN OIL ON LIPID PROFILE AND GLUCOSE LEVEL IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MALE WISTER RATS.

    Ukpanukpong, Richard Undigweundeye

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Experimental studies in alloxan-induced diabetic animals have demonstrated several abnormalities upon induction such as physiological, biochemical and histological alterations. In this present study, the influences of graded doses of soya bean oil supplementation for 4weeks on some biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats were determined. Methodology: Sixty (60 male albino rats weighing about 240-260g were divided into 6 experimental groups of 10 rats per group viz: I, II, III, IV, V and VI. Group I serve as male control, group II serve as diabetes control which were fed with normal rat chow while rats in the test group were fed with graded doses of soya bean oil supplements and water ad libitum for 4weeks, at the end of the supplementation, plasma lipid profile and glucose level were determined. Results: All the diabetic induced rats had significantly higher (p<0.01 Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-C, VLDL-C, but lower HDL-C levels than all the non-diabetic rats. The data obtained after supplementation revealed that soya bean oil significantly reduced the glucose level and ameliorated the lipid profile with attendant decrease in glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, VLDL-C levels, but with a corresponding increases in HDL-C levels respectively when compared to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Conclusion: The observation of significant changes in plasma lipid profile, glucose level might be as a result of supplementation with soybean oil. It is therefore concluded that Soya bean oil possess significant antidiabetic activity that can improve the physiological and biochemical parameters which are abnormally altered due to diabetes mellitus.

  20. Improvement of Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status of Hyperlipidaemic Albino Rats by Gamma-irradiated Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

    Hyper-Lipidemia is a dominant risk factor that contributes to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Safflower is rich in the essential omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds which are known to be effective for the treatment of hyper- lipidemia. This study was performed to examine the efficacy of safflower to ameliorate the induced hyper-lipidemia in rats. The results obtained revealed that rats fed on high fat diet (HFD) significantly induced an increase in lipid profile, glucose and some liver enzymes as well as elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) associated with a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), glutathione (GSH) content and some antioxidant enzymes activity. However, when rats received HFD containing either raw or irradiated safflower (1% w/w), a significant improvement in the above mentioned parameters was seen. In conclusion, safflower supplementation in diet of rats pointed out to a promising role of safflower, a natural product, on antioxidant enzymes, liver function and lipid profile of hyper-lipidemic rats, regardless if it is irradiated or not