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Testicular Antifertility Action of Cassia angustifolia in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study describes the reproductive effect of leaves aqueous extract of Cassia angustifolia on male albino rats. The adult male rat received 1 ml of C. angustifolia extract at a dose level 50 mg/rat /day and 100 mg /rat/day for 45 days orally. The result showed that the body weight of all days exhibit did not any significance loss but in treatment I and II, the weights of reproductive organ like testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased significantly when compared to control. Sperm motility and sperm count were reduced significantly abnormalities of sperm were observed and resulted in reduction of male fertility. Germ cells populations were noticed. ie, spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, round spermatid and spermatid, Surface areas of sertoli cells nuclear area were decreased. There were various degrees of damage of the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion C.angustifolia leaves extract administration arrests the spermatogenesis in male rats.

Dhanapal. R; Babitha. J; Kandeepan. S; Murugaian. P

2013-01-01

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Effects Of Orally Fed Diazinon On Some Biochemical Parameters Of Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Background:The current investigation was carried out to study the effect of orally administration of diazinon insecticide on some biochemical blood indices on male albino rats. Material and methods: The organophosphorus insecticide , diazinon was orally administrated at a dose (100mg/kg body weight=1/3LD50) , daily for 10 days (short ­term) and 20 days (long ­term) to adult male albino rats . Results: The results revealed the following: 1- Diazinon led to an increase in rat blood serum glucose& T3 (short and long ­term); AST,ALT, and T4 (long-term). 2- Diazinon reduced the serum content of total cholesterol and protein in short­term treated rats. 3- Treatment of rats with diazinon did not alter activity of AST, ALT and T4 level at short ­term period .In addition ; ALP serum levels were not altered in both short and long ­term treated rats

Mohammed Salah Ab.Ab.AL-Shinnawy

2008-01-01

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Effect of Green and Black Teas on Immobilization Induced Stress in Male Wistar Albino Rats  

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The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of green and black teas to modulate restraint stress-induced oxidative changes in male Wistar albino rats. Repeated immobilization for 4 h daily for five consecutive days per week (for 2 and 4 weeks) was used as a test model. Repeated imm...

Salim S. Al-Rejaie

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Evaluation of contraceptive activity of methanol extract of Dendrophthoe falcata stem in male albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the contraceptive efficacy of methanol extract of Dendrophthoe falcata Ettingsh (family-Loranthaceae), stem in male albino rats as reported in folk remedies. Adult proven fertile male rats were gavaged methanol extract of D. falcata stem at 50, 100 and 200mg/rat/day for 60 days. The activity was compared with standard drug, i.e. Lonidamine. On day 61 the animals were autopsied and the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were dissected out and weighed. Sperm motility and density and serum testosterone level were assessed. The sperm motility and density were significantly reduced. The histoarchitecture of testes revealed degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules, arrest of spermatogenesis at the stage of round spermatid. Serum testosterone levels were decreased significantly in all treatment groups. It is concluded that D. falcata methanol stem extract showed a significant effect on fertility in male rats as reported in folk remedies.

Gupta RS; Kachhawa JB

2007-05-01

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Evaluation of contraceptive activity of methanol extract of Dendrophthoe falcata stem in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the contraceptive efficacy of methanol extract of Dendrophthoe falcata Ettingsh (family-Loranthaceae), stem in male albino rats as reported in folk remedies. Adult proven fertile male rats were gavaged methanol extract of D. falcata stem at 50, 100 and 200mg/rat/day for 60 days. The activity was compared with standard drug, i.e. Lonidamine. On day 61 the animals were autopsied and the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were dissected out and weighed. Sperm motility and density and serum testosterone level were assessed. The sperm motility and density were significantly reduced. The histoarchitecture of testes revealed degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules, arrest of spermatogenesis at the stage of round spermatid. Serum testosterone levels were decreased significantly in all treatment groups. It is concluded that D. falcata methanol stem extract showed a significant effect on fertility in male rats as reported in folk remedies. PMID:17446020

Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S

2007-02-27

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6. Reproductive toxicity of Capparis aphylla (Roth.) in male albino rats  

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Full Text Available The present study reflects the effect of ethanolic extract of Capparis aphylla (Roth.) on male reproduction and fertility in adult albino rat. The result revealed that the administration of whole plant ethanolic extract of C. aphylla manifested an antifertility effect on male reproductive system. The complete loss of fertility is attributed to decline in epididymal sperm counts and motility as well as origin of bi- and multinucleate giant cells in the ad luminal compartment of the testis was observed. The administration of ethanolic extract at varied doses led to alteration in both the histoarchitecture of testis, mainly caput epididymis and erratic spermatogenesis have been documented. The data revealed that functional sterility could be induced in male rats by whole plant ethanolic extract treatment, which promises to be a potential male contraceptive.

P. Revathi; B. Vani; I. Sarathchandiran; B. Kadalmani; K. Prakash Shyam; K. Palnivel

2010-01-01

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Effect Of Some Aflatoxins On A Lymphatic Organ (Spleen) Of Male Albino Rats (Histopathological Study)  

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Full Text Available Background:The present study was planned to compare between two kinds of aflatoxins ( AFB2 and AF Mix) on spleen of male albino rats. Fifty young male albino rats ,each weighing 50g, were fed on diets containing aflatoxins at concentration of 1.0 ppm either of AFB2 or AF mix. for 2, 4, 6 weeks followed by a withdrawal period of 2 weeks. Material and Methods:- Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the 1st group of 10 rats was fed on the standard diet. The 2nd and the 3rd groups of 20 rats each were maintained on the standard diet plus either AFB2 or AF mix. respectively. Ten animals from the latter 2 groups as withdrawal period. Pieces of spleen were subjected to histological procedures and the obtained sections (6 µm thick) were stained with the haematoxylin and eosin, also, mercuric bromophenol blue stain for total protein were used in this study. Results:- Marked histopathological alterations were observed in the studied sections under the influence of AFB2 and AF mix. It was found that AFB2 induced more alterations. The most common changes were lymphocytic degeneration, fatty changes with numerous hemorrhagic areas.The two weeks withdrawal period showed a partial recovery of the developed changes. Conclusion:- This study indicated that AFB2 has a toxic effect on spleen than the equivalent level of AF mix. .Great caution must be followed to prevent the possible contamination of our food with such mycotoxins.

Nahed Ahmed Omar

2012-01-01

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Gonadotoxicity Evaluation of Oral Administration of Zidolam in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Aim. Zidolam is an antiretroviral combination therapy consisting of zidovudine and lamivudine for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. The objective of this research is to investigate the relationship between oral administration of zidolam and fertility in adult male albino rats.Material and Methods. Fifteen male albino rats with body weight (bwt) of 150 – 220 gm were used for the 2-phase study. Solution of the drug in sterile water was administered via oral cannula to 5 male rats each at daily dose of 1.29 mg/100 gm bwt respectively for 21 days during phase I. Phase II was a recovery study involving 5 male rats exposed to dose regimen as in phase I, and sacrificed after 21-day withdrawal of treatment. The control group of 5 male rats was given sterile water ad-libitum during the period. Results. Zidolam caused significant decrease (P< 0.05) in the progressive sperm motility, sperm count, testosterone and viability of the animals while there was no significant change in the pH of the semen and all these factors may impair fertility. Discontinuation of the drug use caused restoration of the depressed values in the recovery group. The results suggested that Zidolam could induce reversible changes in all the parameters under investigation in the treated animals. Conclusion. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that the use of antiretroviral drugs could have deleterious effects on spermatogenesis hence cause sperm alterations which can lead to infertility even in normal subjects as the wistar rats used for the experiment were HIV –free.

Ifabunmi Oduyemi Osonuga; Odusoga Adeleke Osonuga; AA Osonuga

2010-01-01

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Impact of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) and Ethanol Interaction on Antioxidant Defense System in the Adult Male Albino Rats  

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The interactive effects of Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA) and Ethanol Consumption on the antioxidant defense system in testis tissue of rats were studied in the present research work. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each. Control rats were administered normal saline o...

T.G. Sivasankaran; R. Udayakumar; K. Panjamurthy; V. Albert Singh

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Lead Intoxication On Protein Fractions, Testicular Tissues And Ameliorative Effect Of ANTOX On Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead (heavy metal) was given as lead acetate for two groups of adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus) in drinking water at dose level of 100 mg/litre for 3 and 6 weeks to evaluate its toxic effects on protein and its fractions by using electrophoresis technique, serum testosterone using radioimmunoassay and histological investigation of the testis of male rats.Administration of 100 mg/L lead acetate in drinking water for 3 and 6 weeks induced fluctuated changes in serum total proteins, protein fractions and significant decrease in serum testosterone hormone.Histopathological examination showed cellular changes and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules after 3 and 6 weeks of administration of lead acetate.The treatment of rats with antox (10 mg/kg) during the experimental period caused improvement in protein fraction and testosterone level, and the testes sections appeared more or less normal.

2010-01-01

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The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

2008-01-01

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Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

2009-01-01

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Biochemical evaluation of low dose methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate fungicide on male albino rats  

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Full Text Available Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate (carbendazim) is one of the synthetic fungicides that controlled organisms that caused plant diseases of different types. It is widely used as a preservative in leather, paint, textile, fruits and papermaking industry. It is also used as an anticancer drug in chemical medicine. In the present study low concentrations of carbendazim was administered at 5, 10, 25 and 50mM doses intradermally to male albino rats. At the end of 6 hr, 12hr and 24hr duration, blood samples were collected from the animal for the analysis of biochemical and haematological parameters. Carbendazim caused an increase of cholesterol, uric acid, glucose and creatinine while serum phosphorous content was decreased. However, mean hemoglobin, WBC, E, and platelet counts increased and total RBC, N and L counts decreased. These results indicated that low dose level carbendazim contributed to toxicological effects in the rat tissues.Keywords: Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate; Fungicide; Rat tissues

V. Muthuviveganandavel; P. Muthuraman; S. Muthu; K. Srikumar

2011-01-01

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THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE AND FENUGREEK SEED POWDER ON ENHANCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVELS IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats

2008-01-01

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ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MELATONIN AGAINST GAMMA OR ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION HAZARDS IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation has been widely reported to damage organisms by attacking proteins, nucleic acids and lipids in cells. However, low dose irradiation has become the focus of research in radiobiology in recent years. This study was undertaken to analyze changes in blood levels of immunoreactive aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), total antioxidant capacity, protein and albumin levels in male albino rats exposed to ultraviolet-type C (UV-C) or low dose of gamma radiation. The role of melatonin, as an antioxidant agent, in restoring the serum levels of the selected biochemical parameters after irradiation was studied in male rats exposed to the two types of radiation. Gamma irradiation as a single dose of 2 Gy resulted in significant decreases in serum total protein, albumin, total antioxidant capacity and serum PIIINP level in male rats as compared to control. One hour ultraviolet irradiation/day for 3 weeks resulted in significant increase in serum total protein and significant decreases in PIIINP and total antioxidant capacity as compared to control.Statistical analysis revealed that intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg melatonin/kg body weight after UV or gamma irradiation restored the levels of the selected serum biochemical parameters as compared to control rats

2008-01-01

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Effect of salvia Egyptiaca extract on cholinergic system in adult male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract, equivalent to 2 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks, caused significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in whole blood and in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rat nearly all over the experimental period. Treatment with Salvia aegyptiaca extract also resulted in significant increase in acetylcholine content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus' nearly throughout the whole experimental period. It could be concluded from the present results that the extract of Salvia aegyptiaca caused an increase in acetylcholine content and this increase may be due to the decrease in the activity of acetylcholine esterase enzyme which play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

2004-01-01

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Possible Role of Humoral Immunity on Liver Dysfunction in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty male albino rats were used in this study to correlate liver function after curcumin or/and malathion intake with the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM). The rats were divided into four groups, the first was the control group, the second was given malathion in drinking water (200 ppm), the third was administrated curcumin orally (70 mg/kg b.w.) 5 times /week while the fourth group received both malathion and curcumin with the same previous concentrations. Liver state was evaluated every 10 days by estimating prothrombine time (P.T.) and concentration (PC) and albumin level from blood taken from the retroorbital vein of 5 rats of the malathion group. After 40 days when there is prolongation of P.T. and hypoalbuminemia, ten rats from each group were decapitated. Liver enzymes, total protein, glucose, insulin, IgG and IgM were estimated. The data revealed that there is an increase of liver enzymes, glucose, insulin, and immunoglobulins (IgG) and (IgM) in malathion group and positive correlation between liver enzymes and immunoglobulins. These results denoted that the increase of immunoglobulins after malathion intake had no beneficial effects on the prognosis of liver condition, on the contrary, it may worsen liver state if there is some element of auto immunity, as well as the study proved that turmeric has the potential to improve the toxic effects of Malathion, whether on the functions of the liver or immune globulins.

2011-01-01

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Ameliorative effect of Costus pictus D. Don rhizome on mitochondrial enzymes in male albino rats  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the ameliorative effect of Costus pictus D. Don. rhizome on mitochondrial enzymes in alcohol induced free radical toxicity male albino rats. Liver damage was induced in Wistar rats (150-200g) by administering alcohol (0.7ml/kg, orally) once daily for 7 days. CP (50mg/kg, orally) was given for 21 days. After 21 days treatment the selected enzymes such as Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were assayed in the liver tissue. The activities of SDH, G-6-PDH, MDH and GDH were decreased and LDH activity was increased in alcohol treated rats, but with Costus pictus rhizome treatment in alcohol treated rats these mitochondrial enzymes restored to normal levels. These results suggest that mitochondrial enzyme activities were increased with Costus pictus rhizome treatment. We conclude that Costus pictus rhizome treatment is beneficial to improve the mitochondrial enzymes activities during alcohol induced free radical stress.

V Maruthappan; K SakthiSree

2010-01-01

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Histological and ultrastructural changes in the adult male albino rat testes following chronic crude garlic consumption.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several studies have presented Garlic (Allium sativum) as a restoring agent for testicular cells after exposure to different types of toxins, however, others have shown that it modified spermatogenesis and might have spermicidal effects. This work has been to assess the positive or negative effect of chronic crude garlic consumption on rat testes using light and transmission electron microscopy with reference to plasma testosterone and LH levels. Forty albino male rats were divided into group A (control) and group B (treated rats). Group B was further subdivided into B1, B2, and B3 subgroups which were administer crude garlic as 20% of their daily food for two, three and four months, respectively. The current study has been the first, to the best of our knowledge, to describe the apoptotic effect of chronic crude garlic consumption targeting Sertoli cells, germ cells and peritubular tissue including interstitial Leydig cells and myoid cells. This might be better explained by inflammatory than degenerative changes in the peritubular tissue and Leydig cells leading to a decrease in testosterone level. Consequently, Sertoli cells degenerate due to a decrease in testosterone and detachment from the basal lamina. Germ cells, which are completely dependent upon Sertoli cells and testosterone to complete there spermatogenesis will be affected. Testicular apoptosis with disruption in spermatogenesis following chronic crude garlic consumption could be correlated with two possible theories; being an anti-hypercholesterolemic agent, it might inhibit steroidogenesis resulting in a decrease in testosterone level and being one of the famous phytoestrogens it possibly has direct estrogen-like actions on adult male rat testes.

Abdelmalik SW

2011-03-01

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Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum on lipid peroxidation, nucleic acids and protein against restraint stress in male albino rats  

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Full Text Available Effect of restraint stress on brain oxidative stress parameters and their modulation by Ocimum sanctum Linn(OS) were evaluated in male albino rats. Rats were subjected to restraint / immobilization stress 3h/day for 6consecutive days. Post administration of aqueous extract of OS (100 mg/kg for 6 consecutive days) wasgiven following restraint stress. MDA a marker of lipid peroxidation, nucleic acids and proteins wereestimated in cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. Exposure to restraint stress caused a significantelevation in the rate of lipid peroxidation, reduction in nucleic acids and proteins as compared to control in allthree regions of brain of male albino rats. Post treatment of aqueous extract of OS prevented the stressinduced changes in these biochemical parameters. The results of the study indicate the protective nature ofOS on different regions of brain against the detrimental effect of restraint stress.

I Tabassum; ZN Siddiqui; SJ Rizvi

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. RESULTS: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males.

Singh S; Nair V; Gupta YK

2012-01-01

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Effect of methanolic extract of Dendrophthoe falcata stem on reproductive function of male albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In spite of the considerable development in contraceptive technology, search for male antifertility agents in plants continues to be a potential area of investigation. Many plants have been known to possess antifertility activity, but limited attempts have been made to scientifically evaluate these claims. Hence the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifertility and reproductive toxicity potential of Dendrophthoe falcata (Loranthaceae) in male Wistar rats. An oral 70% methanolic extract of stem of D. falcata at a dose level of 100 mg/kg wt/day fed to male albino rats for 60 days did not decrease body weight, while the testes and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the seminal vesicles and ventral prostate also showed a significant reduction (P < 0.01). Treated animals showed a notable depression of spermatogenesis. As a result of 100 mg/kg extract feeding, the preleptotene spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, step-19 spermatids and the mature Leydig cells decreased by 74.36%, 80.03%, 79.87%, 32.37%, respectively. At this dose Leydig cell nuclear area and cytoplasmic area, as well as the cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells, were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) when compared to controls. The reduced sperm count and motility resulted in 100% negative fertility at 100 mg/kg dose level. A significant fall in the total protein and sialic acid content in the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate, as well as in the glycogen content of testes was also observed. The level of serum protein, cholesterol, billirubin, SGOT, SGPT, blood urea, and hematological indices were unaltered. In conclusion, Dendrophthoe falcata brought about the inhibition of spermatogenesis.

Gupta RS; Kachhawa JB; Sharma A

2007-01-01

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Effect of methanolic extract of Dendrophthoe falcata stem on reproductive function of male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of the considerable development in contraceptive technology, search for male antifertility agents in plants continues to be a potential area of investigation. Many plants have been known to possess antifertility activity, but limited attempts have been made to scientifically evaluate these claims. Hence the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifertility and reproductive toxicity potential of Dendrophthoe falcata (Loranthaceae) in male Wistar rats. An oral 70% methanolic extract of stem of D. falcata at a dose level of 100 mg/kg wt/day fed to male albino rats for 60 days did not decrease body weight, while the testes and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the seminal vesicles and ventral prostate also showed a significant reduction (P < 0.01). Treated animals showed a notable depression of spermatogenesis. As a result of 100 mg/kg extract feeding, the preleptotene spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, step-19 spermatids and the mature Leydig cells decreased by 74.36%, 80.03%, 79.87%, 32.37%, respectively. At this dose Leydig cell nuclear area and cytoplasmic area, as well as the cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells, were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) when compared to controls. The reduced sperm count and motility resulted in 100% negative fertility at 100 mg/kg dose level. A significant fall in the total protein and sialic acid content in the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate, as well as in the glycogen content of testes was also observed. The level of serum protein, cholesterol, billirubin, SGOT, SGPT, blood urea, and hematological indices were unaltered. In conclusion, Dendrophthoe falcata brought about the inhibition of spermatogenesis. PMID:18285304

Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S; Sharma, A

2007-01-01

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CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CASSIA AURICULATA LINN., PETAL EXTRACT ON ISOPROTERENOL INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Protective effect of Cassia auriculata Linn., floral extract was examined against Isoproterenol induced Myocardial infarction in male albino rats. The oral administration of aqueous extract of Cassia auriculata, afforded protection against Isoproterenol induced alterations in Cholesterol, LDL, HDL, TG, Protein, AST, ALT, LDH, Catalase and GPx. The protective effect was further supported by the histological observations. The results clearly demonstrate that Cassia auriculata flowers have potent cardioprotective effect.

P. Venkatalakshmi

2012-01-01

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Short term toxicity of strawberry flavor and carmoisine color in male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with oral administrations of the strawberry flavor and carmoisine color. The tested materials were given to the animals in their drinking water. Biochemical parameters were determined in liver, kidney and brain DNA and RNA contents.Sera was used for liver and kidney functions, lipid profile and thyroid hormones estimation. Histopathological, histochemical and cytophotometric studies were performed in liver and kidney tissues. Equal weights of flavoring and coloring agents were mixed at 0.1% w/v with drinking water. Forty adult male albino rats were assigned to four equal groups, two groups were served as controls and the remaining two groups received standard diet and water containing the tested materials for three and six week. There were no deaths and all the studied parameters were affected in a time dependent manner. Liver DNA contents were significantly decreased, kidney DNA contents tended to increase and brain DNA contents were significantly increased only after 6 weeks of treatment. RNA contents were significantly decreased in liver and brain

2003-01-01

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Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

2010-03-01

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Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities.

Patel R; Mahobia NK; Gendle R; Kaushik B; Singh SK

2010-03-01

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Studies on antifertility effect of pawpaw seeds (Carica papaya) on the gonads of male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preliminary studies on the antifertility effect of pawpaw seeds (Carica papaya) on the gonads of male albino (Wistar) rats was investigated. An oral dose of crude ripe pawpaw seeds at 100 mg/kg body weight and 50 mg/kg body weight were administered orally for 8 weeks. Histological observations at a high dose of 100 mg/kg body weight showed degeneration of the germinal epithelium and germ cells, a reduction in the number of Leydig cells and the presence of vacuoles in the tubules. At a low dose of 50 mg/kg body weight little effect was observed. However, there was disorganization in some of the seminiferous tubules while others appeared normal. Leydig cells also appeared normal compared with the controls. At a high dose the epididymis showed many empty tubules containing degenerated spermatozoa and cell debris in the lumen. The epithelium appeared normal compared with the controls. At a low dose a milder effect was observed. The epithelial tissue appeared normal. A possible mechanism of action is discussed. PMID:10353163

Udoh, P; Kehinde, A

1999-05-01

29

Effect of Green and Black Teas on Immobilization Induced Stress in Male Wistar Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of green and black teas to modulate restraint stress-induced oxidative changes in male Wistar albino rats. Repeated immobilization for 4 h daily for five consecutive days per week (for 2 and 4 weeks) was used as a test model. Repeated immobilization stress significantly decreased glutathione (GSH), RNA and total protein levels, while malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were elevated in brain and liver tissues. Daily drinking of green or black tea only attenuated the RNA decrease and the MDA increase in stressed groups in liver tissues. Green tea group attenuated the decrease in GSH and RNA and the increase in MDA induced by immobilization stress in brain tissues. However, black tea only attenuated the increase in brain MDA in stressed animals. The effect of green tea on restraint stress was higher in brain than liver. In conclusion, the present results revealed that the antioxidative effect of green tea during immobilization stress was higher, possibly attributed to the presence of relatively higher concentrations of flavonoids than in black tea.

Salim S. Al-Rejaie

2009-01-01

30

Antispermatogenic effect of embelin, a plant benzoquinone, on male albino rats in vivo and in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Embelin, the active principle of the seeds of Embelia ribes Burm, has been isolated and the purity established. Daily subcutaneous administration of the compound at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight to male albino rats for 15 or 30 days revealed an inhibition of: a) epididymal motile sperm count, b) fertility parameters such as pregnancy attainment and litter size, and c) the activities of the enzymes of glycolysis and energy metabolism. These changes were reversible, as seen after 15 and 30 days of recovery. Addition of embelin to epididymal sperm suspensions caused a dose- and duration-dependent inhibition of spermatozoal motility and the activities of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism. Light and scanning electron microscopy showed that both in vivo and in vitro treatment with the drug causes profound morphological changes in spermatozoa such as: a) decapitation of the spermatozoal head, b) discontinuity of the outer membranous sheath in the mid-piece and the tail region, and c) alteration in the shape of the cytoplasmic droplet in the tail.

Gupta S; Sanyal SN; Kanwar U

1989-03-01

31

Antispermatogenic effect of embelin, a plant benzoquinone, on male albino rats in vivo and in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Embelin, the active principle of the seeds of Embelia ribes Burm, has been isolated and the purity established. Daily subcutaneous administration of the compound at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight to male albino rats for 15 or 30 days revealed an inhibition of: a) epididymal motile sperm count, b) fertility parameters such as pregnancy attainment and litter size, and c) the activities of the enzymes of glycolysis and energy metabolism. These changes were reversible, as seen after 15 and 30 days of recovery. Addition of embelin to epididymal sperm suspensions caused a dose- and duration-dependent inhibition of spermatozoal motility and the activities of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism. Light and scanning electron microscopy showed that both in vivo and in vitro treatment with the drug causes profound morphological changes in spermatozoa such as: a) decapitation of the spermatozoal head, b) discontinuity of the outer membranous sheath in the mid-piece and the tail region, and c) alteration in the shape of the cytoplasmic droplet in the tail. PMID:2714091

Gupta, S; Sanyal, S N; Kanwar, U

1989-03-01

32

Grape Seed Extract (Vitisvinifera) Alleviate Neurotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity Induced by Lead Acetate in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Grape seed extracts (GSE) are very potent antioxidant and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities, including an antioxidant property, and has been suggested to be of use in treatment of several diseases. The present study has been undertaken to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of GSE against lead-induced neuro and hepatotoxicity in rat. Male albino rats were divided into six groups: the 1st group, rats were injected daily with saline vehicle and served as negative control, the 2nd group (positive control group), the rats were injected (i.p.) with subacute dose (100 mg/kg b·w/day) of lead acetate (LA). The 3rd group (protective group), the rats were injected (i.p.) with LA (100 mg/kg b·w/day) for 7 days after treatment with GSE (100 mg/kg b·w/day) for 3 weeks. The 4th, 5th and 6th groups (therapeutics groups), rats were injected (i.p.) with subacut dose (100 mg/kg b·w/day) of lead acetate for 7 days, then treated with GSE (100 mg/kg b·w/day) for one, two and three weeks, respectively. The level of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindol acetic acid (5-HIAA) were evaluated in brain regions (cerebellum, brainstem, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus). The result indicated that the administration of subacute dose of LA (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) induce a significant decrease in NE, DA, 5-HT and 5-HIAA content in all tested brain regions. Also the obtained data showed significant increase in liver enzymes: serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level in group 2 (positive control). There is an improvement in neurotransmitters content. Also the obtained data showed significant in- crease in liver enzymes of protective (G3) and therapeutics groups (G4, G5 and G6) which received GSE compared with animal group that received lead acetate (G2). This is may be the presence of proanthocyanidins and procyanidins which have antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The result suggests that grape seed extract may prevent lead-induced neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity.

Abeer M. Waggas

2012-01-01

33

Protective Role of Mint oil (MO) Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The whole body exposure to high doses of gamma radiation resulted in alterations in the biological functions of vital organs in the body. This study is divided in two main parts: Part I - A preliminary study designed to determine the optimal dose of mint oil (MO) which delayed the onset of mortality and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the irradiated group. Male albino rats were assorted into two main groups. 1-Animals of this group were exposed to whole body (8 Gy) gamma irradiation. 2-Animals of this group were subdivided into 4 subgroups that received four different concentrations of mint essential oil (100, 150, 200, 250 ?1/animal/ day) for three consecutive days before irradiation. All animals were observed during 30 days for signs of radiation sickness, body weight change and mortality. The results revealed that pretreatment of rats with different doses of the MO prior to exposure to 8 Gy of gamma radiation resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in the survival time up to 200 ?1/kg b. wt., where the highest number of survival (80%) was observed 30 days post irradiation, when compared with the 8 Gy irradiated control (33.5%). The optimum protection against irradiation was observed at a dose 200 ?1/kg b. wt. and was used for the further investigations. The 2nd part intended to investigate the radio-protective effects of MO on some biochemical and haematological parameters. For this purpose, Swiss albino rats were selected and assorted into 4 groups. Animals in Group I control: animals without any treatment. Group II mint oil (MO): rats were administered orally MO once daily at a dose of 200 ?1for 3 consecutive days. Group III, Irradiated (IRR): animals were exposed to a single dose of 6 Gy gamma radiations. Group IV Rats were treated with MO (as in Group-II), and exposed to 6 Gy after half an hour of the last administration of MO. Animals of each group were sacrificed 1, 7 and 28 days post-irradiation for biochemical estimation in blood , liver, kidney and testis. Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in haemoglobin, hematocrite values, and erythrocytes and leucocytes counts. Significant decreases in serum EPO level, GSH content and ALP was observed in all specimens. Meanwhile, the values of MDA, serum acid phosphatase were significantly higher in irradiated rats as compared to control group. In MO pretreated irradiated animals, a significant increase was observed in blood constituents, EPO (erythropoietin) level, GSH content and ALP level in testes, liver and blood accompanied with remarkable decrease in the values of MDA, serum acid phosphatase. The results show that MO could exert a radioprotective effect by antioxidant activity, and might stimulate cellular regeneration, that may be attributed to the synergistic effects of its constituents.

2012-01-01

34

Studies on fate and toxicity of nanoalumina in male albino rats: lethality, bioaccumulation and genotoxicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study is to follow-up the distribution, lethality percentile doses (LDs) and bioaccumulation of aluminium oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3-NPs, average diameter 9.83 ± 1.61 nm) in some tissues of male albino rats, and to evaluate its genotoxicity to the brain tissues, during acute and sublethal experiments. The LDs of Al2O3-NPs, including median lethal dose (LD50), were estimated after intraperitoneal injection. The computed LD50 at 24 and 48 h were 15.10 and 12.88 g/kg body weight (b.w.), respectively. For acute experiments, the bioaccumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, liver, kidneys, intestine and spleen was estimated after 48 h of injection with a single acute dose (3.9, 6.4 and 8.5 g/kg b.w.), while for sublethal experiments it was after 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days of injection with 1.3 g/kg b.w. once in 2 days. Multi-way analysis of variance affirmed that Al uptake, in acute experiments, was significantly affected by the injected doses, organs (brain, liver, kidneys, intestine and spleen) and their interactions, while for sublethal experiments an altogether effect based on time (1, 3, 7, 14, 28 days), doses (0 and 1.3 g), organs and their interactions was reported. In addition, Al accumulated in the brain, liver, kidney, intestine and spleen of rats administered with Al2O3-NPs were significantly higher than the corresponding controls, during acute and sublethal experiments. The uptake of Al by the spleen of rats injected with acute doses was greater than that accumulated by kidney>brain>intestine>liver, whereas the brain of rats injected with sublethal dose accumulated lesser amount of Al followed by the kidney

Morsy GM; Abou El-Ala KS; Ali AA

2013-10-01

35

Nigella sativa oil for the control of irradiation induced disorders in serum protein components of male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of whole body gamma irradiation at the dose level 7 Gy delivered as shot dose or cumulative doses, on the electrophoretic pattern of serum protein components, was studied in male albino rats subjected to Nigella sativa treatment. Sodium dodecyl sulphate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of serum proteins of irradiated rats showed significant increases in percentages of some fractions of high molecular weights. Administration of nigella sativa oil before radiation exposure resulted in detectable radioprotective effect. Radiation protection effect exerted by nigella sativa oil prior to cumulative doses was more pronounced than that in case of one shot dose.

2000-01-01

36

Protective effects of selenium against potassium dichromate-induced hematotoxicity in female and male Wistar albino rats Effets protecteurs du sélénium contre l’hématotoxicité induite par le dichromate de potassium chez les rats femelles et mâles albinos Wistar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) is a potent pollutant for human and animal health. The purpose of the current work is to compare the effect of K2Cr2O7 using variations in the dose, route of administration and duration of exposure in male and female Wistar albino rats and to research...

Adjroud Ounassa

37

Lethality, accumulation and toxicokinetics of aluminum in some tissues of male albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present work, the lethality percentiles including median lethal doses (LD50), accumulation, distribution and toxicokinetics of aluminum in the liver, kidney, intestine, brain and serum of male albino rats, following a single oral administration were studied throughout 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The estimated LD50 at 24 h was 3.45 g Al/kg body weight (b.wt.). The utilized dose of Al was 1/50 LD50 (0.07 g Al/kg b.wt.). Aluminum residues, in Al-treated rats, were significantly decreased in response to the experimental periods and were negatively correlated with time. In addition, the hepatic, renal, intestinal, brain and serum Al contents were significantly higher than the corresponding controls at all experimental periods, except the brain that showed significant depletion when compared with its corresponding control after 28 days. Kinetically, the highest average of Al area under concentration - time curves (AUCtotal, ?g/g day) and area under moment concentration - time curves (AUMCtotal, µg/g day(2)) recorded in the brain followed by kidney, serum, intestine and liver. The longest elimination half-life time (t 1/2, day) and the mean residence time (MRT, day) were recorded in the brain followed by the liver, kidney, serum and intestine. On the other hand, the slowest clearance rates (Cls, L/day) of Al, in order, were recorded in brain, kidney, serum, intestine and the liver. The elimination rate constant (Lz, day(-) (1)) of Al from the brain was less than that in the intestine and serum was less than that in the liver and kidney. The computed maximum concentrations (C max) of Al in the intestine > kidney > serum > brain > liver were recorded after 3, 3.8, 2.2, 5.4 and 3.8 days, respectively. The computed starting concentration (C 0, ?g) of Al in serum was higher than its level in the intestine followed by the brain, kidney and liver.

Rawy SM; Morsy GM; Elshibani MM

2013-04-01

38

Hormonal Profile And Histopathological Study On The Influence Of Silymarin On Both Female And Male Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Silymarin is a mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum [L] Gaertn ). Extracts of S. marianum have been used in the treatment of liver diseases for more than 2000 years. Flavonoids are a large group of polycyclic phenols of plant origin. Flavonoids displaying estrogenic effects (phytoestrogen). Phytoestrogens show an estrogenic activity owing to the structural similarity with the estrogen skeleton ,mimicking natural estrogens, it binds to estrogen receptor and modulates its activity . These effects cause complex changes inducing a shift in an overall hormonal balance of the individual. Long term intake of feeds with a higher content of phytoestrogens can induce transient or permanent infertility. Silybum marianum leaves have been traditionally used in Egypt for their antifertility effects .Also, the antifertility property of silybum marianum leaves was investigated in female albino rats. This property highlights the impotance to clarify the role of silymarin (420mg /day ) a human therapeutic dose on both female and male albino rats. Silymarin (151.2 mg/kg BW) prevented pregnancy in adult female albino rats on days 1-5 post coitum. In female rats the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) displayed marked increase, while the luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol remained within normal levels. These results showed a distinct increase in number and size of ovarian growing follicles while the effect of silymarin on the uterine wall was in the form of hypertrophy of endometrial epithelium, also increase in the number of uterine glands. Ovaries taken from females treated with silymarin for one and two months contained a large number of growing follicles. In male rats treated with silymarin (151.2 mg/kg BW) for one month, testosterone and LH were increased significantly, meanwhile estradiol not changed. Testes of rats treated with silymarin for one month showed well developed spermatogenesis with lot of sperms. The epididymis of the same group contained a heavy number of sperms. While rats treated with silymarin for two months displayed significant decrease in serum testosterone levels, while LH and estradiol not changed. These rats displayed some tubules contained well developed spermatogenic layer and normal leyding cells, others appeared moderated by affected. The epididymis contained less number of sperms. These results indicated that silymarin (151.2mg /kgBW) a dose equivalent to human therapeutic dose (420mg/ day) prevented pregnancy in female rats and caused some histological changes in the ovary and uterus, while it has biological benefits for male rats during short treatment.

Enas A.M.Khalil

2003-01-01

39

Effect of Carica papaya bark extract on oxidative stress parameters in testes of male albino rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Summary: Carica papaya bark has contraceptive benefits when given at a high dose in male rats the mechanism at which it achieves this is yet to be fully understood. Forty male Wistar rats were used for the study....

T O Kusemiju; O E Yama; A O Okanlawon

40

Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment.

Roy RK; Thakur M; Dixit VK

2008-08-01

 
 
 
 
41

Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. PMID:18478241

Roy, R K; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, V K

2008-05-14

42

PRUSSIAN BLUE, VERMICULITE AND DTPA EFFECTS ON 134Cs AND 60Co DECONTAMINATION OF MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was carried out to evaluate the therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB), vermiculite (verm.) and calcium Trisodium salt of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) on internal decontamination of radio-active cesium and/ or cobalt from albino rats and to investigate the side effects of these compounds as well as radiation hazards of these radioactive materials.Adult male albino rats were divided into 15 groups (each of 6 rats);group 1: control, groups (2) - (4) were given PB + vermiculite oral and/or intraperitoneal DTPA. Another five groups of rats were given only a single dose of Co60 and/or Cs134 for three weeks. Groups (10) - (15) were given a single dose of Co60 and/or Cs134 with daily dose of therapeutic agents.Biochemical parameters included blood glucose, renal function (serum urea concentrations and creatinine), creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and some minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous) were investigated. The data obtained revealed that internal contamination by radioactive materials causes a significant increase in serum urea, creatinine concentration, glucose, CPK and LDH activities. In addition, a significant decreased in serum inorganic phosphorous was recorded and non-significant changes were recorded sodium, potassium and calcium levels. The treatment by different therapeutic agents had non-significant effects on the same parameters.On the other hand, the therapeutic agents caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by internal contamination with variable degrees.

2007-01-01

43

Improving Hematological and Biochemical Disorders Induced by Administration of Repeated Used Frying Oil in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was performed on 100 male albino rats arranged into 5 equal groups to evaluate the effect of adding Lettuce and/for cabbage to rat diet on some hematological and biochemical disorders induced by administration of repeated used frying oil in the diet of rats for one and two months. The results indicated that used frying oil caused significant decrease in hemoglobin (Hb), Haematocrit (Hct), Red blood corpuscles (RBCs), Vitamin (B12) and Folic acid with significant increase in total leukocitic count, (WBCs) Platelets body weight, Aspartate amino transferase (AST) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT). The disturbances in the tested parameters were almost improved by vegetables intake denoting the beneficial effect of adding fresh green vegetables to fried food on blood picture and intestinal absorption

2009-01-01

44

Impact of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) and Ethanol Interaction on Antioxidant Defense System in the Adult Male Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The interactive effects of Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA) and Ethanol Consumption on the antioxidant defense system in testis tissue of rats were studied in the present research work. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each. Control rats were administered normal saline orally. While experimental animals were fed Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA) (1 ?g gm-1) and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 Body weight) and sacrificed. A significant depletion of GSH content in testis was observed. This combination was found to be decreased Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) activity in testis. Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive Substrate (TBARS) and Catalase (CAT) Activity were observed to be increased in testis. In contrast, Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) activity was decreased in testis. The results are discussed in detail.

T.G. Sivasankaran; R. Udayakumar; K. Panjamurthy; V. Albert Singh

2007-01-01

45

ANTI-FERTILITY ACTIVITY OF WHOLE PLANT EXTRACT OF SARCOSTEMMA SECAMONE (L) BENNET ON MALE ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anti-fertility effect of ethanol extract of whole plant extract of Sarcostemma secamone was observed in male albino rats. The relative weight of the testes and epididymis were decreased. The epididymal sperm count, motility and sperm abnormality were reduced significantly in treated rats. There was an increase in serum protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine and the activity of liver marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and ALP) levels of control and treated rats. The activities of serum antioxidants (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST and GRD) in plant extract treated rats were decreased. The results of the hormonal assay showed that increased serum levels of FSH and estrogen but decreased in the serum levels of LH and testosterone compared to control. The results of fertility test indicated that the treated adult male rats reduced the number of female’s impregnation. In addition, the number of implantations and the number of viable featuses were also decreased. The results of the present study concluded that, ethanol extract of whole plant of Sarcostemma secamone inhibited sperm concentration, motility and testosterone which might result in a male fertility.

Thanga Krishna Kumari S; Sakthidevi G; Muthukumaraswamy S; Mohan VR

2012-01-01

46

Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ficus asperifolia on Cardiac Enzymes and Lipid Profile in Male Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Ficus asperifolia on cardiac enzymes and lipid profile in albino rats was checked in this study. Ficus asperifolia is a highly medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of ailments ranging from wound healing to diabetes. This plant is used without the knowledge of its toxic potentials. This research therefore checks the cardiotoxicity of this plant. Sixty male albino rats were divided into 4 groups. The first group was administered with distilled water while the second, third and fourth groups were treated with 400, 800 and 1200 mg kg-1 b.wt. doses of the extract, respectively. The rats were sacrificed 24 h after treatment for 1, 7 and 14 days. Their serum was obtained and used for the analysis of the concentrations of Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, Low Density Lipoprotein, High Density Lipoprotein and Creatine Kinase activity. Alanine Aminotrasferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase activities were also assayed in the serum and heart homogenate. The result obtained revealed a significant decrease (pFicus asperifolia leaf extract possesses hypolipidemic properties but may be detrimental to heart cells at the doses tested.

B.P. Omoniwa; C.D. Luka; O. Soji-Omoniwa

2013-01-01

47

ALBINO RATS SKIN TUMOUR;  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was designed to see the effect of 13-cis retinoic acid (CRA) on albino rats skin tumourinitiation by dimethylbenze (a) anthracene (DMBA) and promotion by 12-" o" tetra decanoyl-phorbol. 13acetate (TPA). Skin tumour was initiated by 20 µ-g/2.0 ml DMBA twice a week in one group of rats. In another group of rats tumour promoter TPA was applied in a dose of 2 µ/0.2ml, after the application of initiator(DMBA) in the same dose twice a week. This study was continued for 20 weeks. In another groups of rats13-cis retinoic acid (CRC) was applied before the application of initiator (DMBA) and promoter (TPA).Topical application of CRA resulted in 80% tumour inhibition when given before the DMBA and 70% whengiven before TPA. The results indicate that vitamin "A" (CRA) inhibits both stages of tumour initiation andpromotion.

Syed Mulazim Hussain Bukhari

1998-01-01

48

Protective effect of L-methionine on blood reduced glutathione, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and some haematological parameters in gamma-irradiated albino male rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Gamma-irradiation of the whole body of male albino rats at single dose levels (100, 300 and 600 rad) significantly decreased blood reduced, glutathione (GSH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-P D H). activity, glutathione stability, red blood cell (R B C s) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and packed cell volume % (P C V %). The reduction in the above cited criteria was dose and time dependent. Intravenous injection of l methionine at a single dose of 50 mg/kg body weight prior to irradiation of male albino rats significantly bypassed the radiation affect

1995-01-01

49

Synergistic Effects of Squalene and Omega-3 on Lipid Peroxidation and some Antioxidants in Gamma-Irradiated Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present study aims to investigate the synergistic effects of squalene and omega-3 as an antioxidant in protection against oxidative stress which induced by gamma- irradiated in male albino rats. The experimental animals, male albino rats (n=48) weighing (120-150 g) were divided into 4 groups: control, gamma irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy, oral administration with 0.4 ml/kg b. wt from squalene and omega-3 for 30 days and oral administration with 0.4 ml/kg b. wt from squalene and omega-3 for 30 days and irradiated with a single dose level (6 Gy). Animals were sacrificed on the 3rd and 7th day post irradiation. Biochemical analysis was carried out on blood glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (MDA). Also lipid profile: plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were assayed. Exposure to gamma radiation at dose level 6 Gy elevated significantly lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decline in level of blood glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and catalase activity (CAT) also, a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and decrease in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). Combined supplementation of squalene and omega-3 significantly prevented the elevation of (MDA) and decline in antioxidant parameters after radiation and ameliorates plasma lipid profile. The results indicated that the combination of aqualene and omega-3 has a protective role, antioxidant effect and antilipidemic effect against gamma radiation in exposed rats

2011-01-01

50

Protective effect of L-ascorbic acid on nickel induced pulmonary nitrosative stress in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nickel sulfate stimulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and increases serum nitric oxide concentration by overproduction of reactive nitrogen species due to nitrosative stress. The present study was undertaken to assess possible protective role of L-ascorbic acid as an antioxidant against nickel induced pulmonary nitrosative stress in male albino rats. We studied the effect of the simultaneous treatment with L-ascorbic acid (50 mg/100 g b. wt.; orally) and nickel sulfate (2.0 mg/100 g b. wt.; i.p.) on nitric oxide synthesis by quantitative evaluation of serum i-NOS activities, serum and lung nitric oxide, L-ascorbic acid and protein concentrations of Wistar strain male albino rats. We have further studied histopathological changes in lung tissue after nickel sulfate treatment along with simultaneous exposure of L-ascorbic acid. Nickel sulfate treatment significantly increased the serum i-NOS activity, serum and pulmonary nitric oxide concentration and decreased body weight, pulmonary somatic index, serum and lung L-ascorbic acid and protein concentration as compared to their respective controls. Histopathological changes induced by nickel sulfate showed loss of normal alveolar architecture, inflammation of bronchioles, infiltration of inflammatory cells and patchy congestion of alveolar blood vessels. The simultaneous administration of L-ascorbic acid and nickel sulfate significantly improved all the above biochemical parameters along with histopathology of lung tissues of rats receiving nickel sulfate alone. The study clearly showed a protective role of L-ascorbic acid against nickel induced nitrosative stress in lung tissues. PMID:23463385

Hattiwale, Shaheenkousar H; Saha, Sikha; Yendigeri, Saeed M; Jargar, Jameel G; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Kusal K

2013-03-06

51

Protective effect of L-ascorbic acid on nickel induced pulmonary nitrosative stress in male albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nickel sulfate stimulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and increases serum nitric oxide concentration by overproduction of reactive nitrogen species due to nitrosative stress. The present study was undertaken to assess possible protective role of L-ascorbic acid as an antioxidant against nickel induced pulmonary nitrosative stress in male albino rats. We studied the effect of the simultaneous treatment with L-ascorbic acid (50 mg/100 g b. wt.; orally) and nickel sulfate (2.0 mg/100 g b. wt.; i.p.) on nitric oxide synthesis by quantitative evaluation of serum i-NOS activities, serum and lung nitric oxide, L-ascorbic acid and protein concentrations of Wistar strain male albino rats. We have further studied histopathological changes in lung tissue after nickel sulfate treatment along with simultaneous exposure of L-ascorbic acid. Nickel sulfate treatment significantly increased the serum i-NOS activity, serum and pulmonary nitric oxide concentration and decreased body weight, pulmonary somatic index, serum and lung L-ascorbic acid and protein concentration as compared to their respective controls. Histopathological changes induced by nickel sulfate showed loss of normal alveolar architecture, inflammation of bronchioles, infiltration of inflammatory cells and patchy congestion of alveolar blood vessels. The simultaneous administration of L-ascorbic acid and nickel sulfate significantly improved all the above biochemical parameters along with histopathology of lung tissues of rats receiving nickel sulfate alone. The study clearly showed a protective role of L-ascorbic acid against nickel induced nitrosative stress in lung tissues.

Hattiwale SH; Saha S; Yendigeri SM; Jargar JG; Dhundasi SA; Das KK

2013-04-01

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Evaluation of the possible protective role of quercetin on letrozole-induced testicular injury in male albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to appraise the possible adverse effects of quercetin against the aromatase inhibitor letrozole-induced developmental toxicity potential in male Wistar rats. METHODS: Control male albino rats were received vehicles used for flavonoids and vehicle used for letrozole. The rats in the first experimental group received letrozole at 0.04?mg/kg body weight (bwt) for 3 months. The second experimental group was treated with the flavonoid quercetin by gavage at a dose of 50?mg/kg bwt for 10 consecutive days after letrozole administration. RESULTS: Major treatment-related effects of letrozole included a dose-dependent increase in hormone levels and lipid peroxidation following exposure to 0. 04?mg/kg letrozole; and severe abnormalities with severe cellular deformation and disorganization in both spermatogenic and interstitial cells. The seminiferous tubules of the testes of the animals given quercetin and letrozole exhibited a rather normal appearance and the measured hormone levels were restored to nearly the normal levels. CONCLUSION: Exposure doses of letrozole that are equal to the daily recommended human dose has toxic effects on the spermatogenic lineage in rats, while simultaneous treatment of quercetin and letrozole could prevent the deleterious effects on testicular tissue caused by letrozole administration.

Selim ME; Aleisa NA; Daghestani MH

2013-05-01

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Effect of bisphenol-A on insulin signal transduction and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle of adult male albino rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The estrogenic monomer bisphenol-A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical used in the production of epoxy resins, plastic food and beverage containers, leading to ubiquitous human exposure. Environmentally relevant doses of BPA have profound effects on mice endocrine pancreas. It increases pancreatic insulin content and favors postprandial hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in male mice. Skeletal muscle plays a crucial role in maintaining systemic glucose metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the possible effects of BPA on insulin-signaling molecules and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle of male rat. Adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Group I: control (vehicle treated) and groups II and III were administered with BPA orally (20 and 200 mg/kg bw/day, respectively). Although there was no change in the levels of insulin receptor (IR), Akt (protein kinase B) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) messenger RNA, BPA significantly decreased the IR, Akt and GLUT4 protein levels (both plasma membrane and cytosolic fraction) of the gastrocnemius muscle. There was an increase in serum insulin and decrease in serum testosterone levels but fasting blood glucose level remained unaltered. In conclusion, BPA has adverse effects on phosphorylation of Akt, GLUT4 translocation and (14)C-glucose oxidation.

Indumathi D; Jayashree S; Selvaraj J; Sathish S; Mayilvanan C; Akilavalli N; Balasubramanian K

2013-09-01

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Effect of bisphenol-A on insulin signal transduction and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle of adult male albino rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The estrogenic monomer bisphenol-A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical used in the production of epoxy resins, plastic food and beverage containers, leading to ubiquitous human exposure. Environmentally relevant doses of BPA have profound effects on mice endocrine pancreas. It increases pancreatic insulin content and favors postprandial hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in male mice. Skeletal muscle plays a crucial role in maintaining systemic glucose metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the possible effects of BPA on insulin-signaling molecules and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle of male rat. Adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Group I: control (vehicle treated) and groups II and III were administered with BPA orally (20 and 200 mg/kg bw/day, respectively). Although there was no change in the levels of insulin receptor (IR), Akt (protein kinase B) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) messenger RNA, BPA significantly decreased the IR, Akt and GLUT4 protein levels (both plasma membrane and cytosolic fraction) of the gastrocnemius muscle. There was an increase in serum insulin and decrease in serum testosterone levels but fasting blood glucose level remained unaltered. In conclusion, BPA has adverse effects on phosphorylation of Akt, GLUT4 translocation and (14)C-glucose oxidation. PMID:23424204

Indumathi, D; Jayashree, S; Selvaraj, J; Sathish, S; Mayilvanan, C; Akilavalli, N; Balasubramanian, K

2013-02-19

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Antioxidant Activity of Cabbage and/or Carrot Against Oxidative Stress Induced by Gamma Irradiation in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several studies indicated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against diseases, and populations that consume such diets have higher plasma antioxidants and exhibit lower risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Vegetable is considered major dietary source of fibers and antioxidants such as polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids that can protect against different dietary disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of cabbage and/or carrot against oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in male albino rats. Chemical composition and phenolic contents in cabbage and carrot were determined. Male albino rats were exposed to 5 Gy (single dose with rate 0.46 Gy/min) of whole body gamma irradiation. Thirty five rats were randomly divided into five groups as follow: group 1: control (rats fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks), group 2: irradiated (rats were exposed to whole gamma irradiation and fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks) and groups 3, 4 and 5: irradiated rats fed on balanced diet and received cabbage 15%, carrot 15% and a combination of cabbage and carrot, respectively. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cabbage and/or carrot diet significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum level of glucose and liver function parameters; serum aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and albumin. In addition, significant improvements were observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), was observed. The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) associated with remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were observed. Accordingly, it could be concluded that consumption of cabbage and/or carrot could modulate the oxidative stress and protect against chronic diseases caused by radiation exposure and that may be due to the antioxidant activity of both cabbage and carrot

2011-01-01

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Effect of textile waste water on the spermatogenesis of male albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Textile waste water released from dyeing and printing industries situated in Sanganer, Jaipur (India), brought about inhibition of spermatogenesis in male rats. Water analysis showed the presence of heavy metals at more than permissible limits. Oral administration of waste water to the rats at the dose level of 26.6 ml kg(-1) body wt. significantly reduced the weights of testes, epididymides and seminal vesicle. Treated animals showed a notable depression of various stages of spermatogenesis. The production of spermatids was inhibited by 70.8% in waste-water-treated rats. The populations of spermatogonia, preleptotene spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes were decreased by 67.2, 71.1 and 73.2%, respectively. The total number of Sertoli cells was affected after waste water treatment. Reduced sperm count and motility resulted in treated groups. A significant fall in the content of various biochemical parameters of reproductive tissues was observed after water treatment.

Gupta RS; Sharma R; Chaudhary R; Yadav RK; Khan TI

2003-05-01

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Effect of textile waste water on the spermatogenesis of male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Textile waste water released from dyeing and printing industries situated in Sanganer, Jaipur (India), brought about inhibition of spermatogenesis in male rats. Water analysis showed the presence of heavy metals at more than permissible limits. Oral administration of waste water to the rats at the dose level of 26.6 ml kg(-1) body wt. significantly reduced the weights of testes, epididymides and seminal vesicle. Treated animals showed a notable depression of various stages of spermatogenesis. The production of spermatids was inhibited by 70.8% in waste-water-treated rats. The populations of spermatogonia, preleptotene spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes were decreased by 67.2, 71.1 and 73.2%, respectively. The total number of Sertoli cells was affected after waste water treatment. Reduced sperm count and motility resulted in treated groups. A significant fall in the content of various biochemical parameters of reproductive tissues was observed after water treatment. PMID:12794938

Gupta, R S; Sharma, Rakhi; Chaudhary, Rakesh; Yadav, Rajesh Kumar; Khan, T I

58

ADULT ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The average number and size of motor units were assessed by investigating the components of motorunits supplied by Tibial Nerve in adult albino rats. The motor neurons forming the Tibial Nervelocalized by HRP technique extended from the caudal part of L3 to S1 segments of the spinal cord.The motoneurons forming the Tibial Nerve (TN) which are distributed mainly in the Posterolateraland Post-Posterolateral groups with few of them are also distributed in the central groups. The average somaldiameter of motoneurons ranged between 12 and 63 m. The motor end-plates on skeletal myofibers ofmuscles supplied by Tibial Nerve were localized by using bromo-indigo and urea-silver technique. The totalof 826 motor units with the size of 137 of the muscles innervated by Tibial Nerve have been observed in thepresent study.

Abdul Jabbar

2001-01-01

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Antifertility Effects of Ethanolic Root Bark Extract of Chrysophyllum albidum in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Summary: The present study was conducted to investigate the antifertility activity of the ethanol root bark extract of Chrysophyllum albidum on sperm parameter and hormonal levels in rats. Eighteen male rats were divided into three groups of six animals each. The first group (A) received distilled water and served as control. The second and third group (B & C) of animals were administered the ethanol root bark extract daily at 100mg/kg body weight and 200mg/kg decrease in the caudal epididymal sperm count, motility and sperm morphology was observed compared with the control. Serum gonadotrophins and testosterone were measured and C. albidum extract also caused a dose related significant reduction (p<0.05) of serum testosterone, Luteinizing hormones and FSH concentrations in all treatment groups as compared to the control. The result showed that ethanol extract of the root bark of C. albidum suppresses the hormonal levels and sperm production in rats and deserves to be further investigated as a potential male contraceptive agent. Industrial relevance: The unique advantages of this antifertility option is that they are safer, reliable, affordable, long-lasting, acceptable and can be taken without consulting a health worker in comparison to pharmaceutical drugs that are expensive and have negative side effect. Keywords: Chrysophyllum albidum; Infertility; testosterone; gonadotrophin; testis

A C Onyeka; A U Aligwekwe; T S Olawuyi; A A Nwakanma; E C Kalu; A W Oyeyemi

2012-01-01

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Daily Dose effect of Valerian root extract on some Neurotransmitter contents in different Brain areas of male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the daily effect of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L .) root extract on epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) , and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in different brain areas (cerebellum , pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rats .The daily intraperitoneal ( i.p.) injection of 300 mg/kg body wt valerian for 30 days caused a significant increase in epinephrine ( E ) content in pons plus medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex , hypothalamus and in midbrain . Norepinephrine (NE ) content was significantly increased in all brain areas tested except in cerebellum and cerebral cortex . Dopamine (DA) content was significantly increased in all tested brain areas except in cerebral cortex and hippocampus . moreover , there was also a significant increase in serotonin (5-HT ) and 5-hydroxyindol acetic acid (5-HIAA) contents in all tested brain areas . However, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content was significantly decreased in all tested brain areas . After the extract withdrawal, the increase in ( E, NE, DA , 5-HT ) contents and the decrease in GABA content persisted in pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , midbrain and hippocampus , and this might be due to regional differences toward the effect. The increase in E, NE, DA , 5-HT and 5-HIAA contents, at the same time the decrease in GABA content in the different brain areas of albino rats may be due to the presence of both valepotriates and valerenic acid in the extract which mediated the GABA ergic mechanisms including the inhibition of GABA metabolism and the increase in GABA synthesis and release , although agonized the GABAA receptors which led to the inhibit of the neurotransmitter release. Valerian root extract may be useful as a herbal medicine having sedative effect and it is safe. (author)

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Some toxic manifestations in male albino rats following an acute intraperitoneal injection of the mycotoxins ochratoxim A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study deals with the preparation and microbiology of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OA) that was extracted from Aspergillus niger and injected intraperitoneally to male albino rats at a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (1/5 LD50). Its effect was followed after 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 hours and 7 days. Body weight gain, organs body weights ratio and some hematological and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results revealed significant decrease in body weight gain of treated rats in addition to an alteration in the relative weights of some selected organs. The data revealed dramatic decrease in RBCs count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit value and platelets number, where WBCs count was significantly increased. Moreover, significant increases of serum ALT, AST, ALP and total and direct bilirubin were observed indicating changes in liver function. Total protein and albumin were significantly decreased. Kidney function of treated rats, as determined by alterations in creatinine and blood urea levels, was affected. Also, profound decline in serum testosterone level was observed as performed by radioimmunoassay technique.

2005-01-01

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Protective Role of Carnitine against the Harmful Biological Effects of Paracetamol and Radiation Exposure in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] L-carnitine, a natural component of mammalian tissue, is a necessary factor in the utilization of long-chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of L-carnitine on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by paracetamol, ?-radiation, and paracetamol + ?-radiation. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1-Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2-Carnitine group: rats received L-carnitine (0.5 ml/Kg body weight) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3-Paracetamol group: rats received paracetamol (50 mg/kg body) via intraperi-toneal injection during 21 days, 4- Carnitine + Paracetamol group: rats received L-carnitine in parallel to paracetamol treatment, 5- Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 6- Carnitine + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation with 7Gy, 7- Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation, 8- Carnitine + Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine parallel to paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation.The results demonstrated that rats receiving paracetamol, as well as whole body gamma irradiated rats and rats receiving paracetamol and irradiated showed a significant increase of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity indicating liver injury. A significant increase of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels was recorded also indicating kidney damage. Alteration in liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant increase in the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities indicating oxidative stress. The administration of L-carnitine resulted in significant improvement of hepatic and renal function tests associated with the reduction of oxidative stress. It could be concluded that L-carnitine might modulate paracetamol and ?-radiation induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity possibly through its antioxidant properties

2012-01-01

63

Effect of aflatoxin ingestion on total body water (T OH3 - space), total body solids A KD on some physiological and reproductive characteristics of male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This investigation aimed to study the effects of aflatoxins B1+G1 mixture mainly on total body water (TBW) and on total body solids (TBS) of male albino rats. Some blood components and some reproductive characteristic were also taken into consideration. Two groups, each of 8 male rats were fed the same ration. Rats of one group had been individually ingested daily with a dose of 22 ?g B1 plus 22 ?g G1 for 15 successive weeks. The obtained results showed that aflatoxin administration caused: 1- A decrease in final body weight (FBW), TBW (P

1992-01-01

64

Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas Modulates Radiation-induced Oxidative damage in Liver and kidney of Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas, one of the major vegetable crops consumed worldwide, is rich in phytochemicals, which displayed antioxidant activities. This work aims at assessing the radio-protective properties of sweet potato tubers on liver and kidney tissues. Male albino rats were whole body exposed to 0.5 Gy day after day for a period of 20 days. Animal received orally prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers (100 mg kg/body weight), one week before irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure. The results demonstrated that irradiation of rats induced a significant increase in lipid peroxides level measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concomitant with a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in liver and kidney tissues. Administration of a freshly prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers to rats, one week pre-irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure has significantly of ameliorated the oxidative stress in both tissues. The significant amelioration in oxidative stress was substantiated by improvement of liver and kidney enzymes Treatment of rats with sweet potato has significantly reduced the increase in serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, serum creatinine and urea levels. Furthermore, hyperglycemia and alteration in lipid profile manifested by a significant increase in triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), were improved in sweet potato-treated irradiated rats compared to those only irradiated. According to the results obtained in the present study, it could be concluded that sweet potato through its antioxidant activities could protect cellular membrane from radiation induced oxidative damage in animals and preserve the integrity of tissue functions.

2010-01-01

65

Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ficus asperifolia on Cardiac Enzymes and Lipid Profile in Male Albino Rats  

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The effect of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Ficus asperifolia on cardiac enzymes and lipid profile in albino rats was checked in this study. Ficus asperifolia is a highly medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of ailments ranging from ...

B.P. Omoniwa; C.D. Luka; O. Soji-Omoniwa

66

Effects of lithium chloride on testicular steroidogenic and gametogenic functions in mature male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of lithium, on steroidogenic and gametogenic functions of testis in the rat. Adult male rats of Wistar strain were injected with lithium chloride at the dose of 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, and 0.4 mg/100 g body weight/day for 21 days. All the treated animals along with the vehicle treated controls were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injections. Testicular steroidogenic activity was evaluated by measuring the activities of two steroidogenic key enzymes, ?5-3? hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase (?5 -3?-HSD) and 17? hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17? -HSD). Gametogenic capacity was determined by counting the number of germ cells at stage VII of seminiferous cycle. Plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Administration of lithium chloride at a dose of 0.1 mg/100g body wt. for 21 days led to insignificant changes of plasma FSH, LH, PRL and T along with unaltered activities of testicular ?5 -3?-HSD, 17 ?-HSD activities and gametogenesis

1990-01-01

67

Effects of lithium chloride on testicular steroidogenic and gametogenic functions in mature male albino rats  

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The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of lithium, on steroidogenic and gametogenic functions of testis in the rat. Adult male rats of Wistar strain were injected with lithium chloride at the dose of 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, and 0.4 mg/100 g body weight/day for 21 days. All the treated animals along with the vehicle treated controls were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injections. Testicular steroidogenic activity was evaluated by measuring the activities of two steroidogenic key enzymes, {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta} hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase ({Delta}{sup 5} -3{beta}-HSD) and 17{beta} hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17{beta} -HSD). Gametogenic capacity was determined by counting the number of germ cells at stage VII of seminiferous cycle. Plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Administration of lithium chloride at a dose of 0.1 mg/100g body wt. for 21 days led to insignificant changes of plasma FSH, LH, PRL and T along with unaltered activities of testicular {Delta}5 -3{beta}-HSD, 17 {beta}-HSD activities and gametogenesis.

Ghosh, D.; Chaudhuri, A.; Biswas, N.M.; Ghosh, P.K. (Calcutta Univ. (India))

1990-01-01

68

protective effect of certain vitamins against radiation-induced biochemical and histological changes in kidney of male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation is a potent mutagenic and carcinogenic agent due to the liberation of free radicals. It is, therefore, essential to search for radioprotective measures. Some antioxidant cocktails are considered as free radical scavengers, which ameliorate the effects of ionizing radiation. The antioxidant action of some vitamins including vitamins E, A and C beside selenium (selenium vit) can designate them as radio-protective agents. Fifty five male Swiss albino rats were divided into 4 groups, the first one served as control. Rats of the second group were exposed to 7 Gy of whole body gamma irradiation. Rats of the third group were subjected to daily oral administration of selenium vit (0.45 g/kg body weight) for 15 days. The fourth group of animals received the same dose of selenium vit followed by radiation exposure.The protective effect of selenium vit was monitored by studying the serum levels of sodium (Na), potassium (K), urea and creatinine.The results showed that whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 7 Gy (single dose) induced significant elevations in the levels of K, urea and creatinine after 3 and 10 days post-irradiation exposure. Conversely, the level of serum Na showed significant depletion. The histopathological results showed different distortion in the renal corpuscles and renal convoluted tubular epithelial cells. These distortions varied from swelling, vacillation to necrosis and complete degeneration of the epithelial cells of the proximal and distal tubules. The kidney glomeruli were shrunken and obvious lesions in the fine structure of the renal tissue were detected such as swelling and cristalysis of the mitochondria. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) exhibited various degrees of damage dilatation, fragmentation, degranulation and destruction. Lysosomes were abundant and destruction of the brush border was evident. The nuclei showed irregular nuclear membrane besides clumped marginal chromatin.

2005-01-01

69

COMPARATIVE APHRODISIAC ACTIVITY PROFILE OF MILK AND AQUEOUS DECOCTION OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS WILLD. IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Asparagus racemosus is classified in Ayurveda, the ancient Hindu system of medicine, as Vajikaran because of their positive in?uence on sexual performance in humans. A traditional belief regarding mode of administration of Asparagus racemosus is still unrevealed. According to this conviction Ksheerpaka (milk decoction) of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) is therapeutically more potent than any other form of dosage. In present study Aphrodisiac activity was tested to validate cited traditional claim regarding potentiality of milk decoction of A.  racemosus. Milk and aqueous decoction of roots of A. racemosus, were studied for aphrodisiac activity in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Six measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. 200 mg/ kg body weight of milk decoction showed a signi?cant difference in the sexual behavior of animals as re?ected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency, and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the milk decoction of A. racemosus. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection. Present results provide evidence that the milk decoction of A. racemosus not only useful in overall sexual performance but may also be helpful in erectile dysfunction. Therefore, the traditional belief that Ksheerpaka (milk decoction) of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) is more potent adaptogenic than any other form of dosage may be valid.

Rajesh Garg; V B Gupta

2010-01-01

70

Serotonin exerting protection of serum lipid pattern in male albino rat subjected to shot or intermittent whole body gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Certain cancer patients are subjected to varying levels of intermittent radiation delivered in certain cases as whole body exposure. Effective control of many haematological complications built up during radiation treatment would necessarily contribute to up-grading of cancer radiotherapy. In the present study, the effect of either shot or intermittent whole body gamma irradiation at cumulative dose levels up to 6 and 10 Gy, have been evaluated on the levels of total lipids and lipid fractions in blood serum of male albino rats. The pharmacological role of serotonin and its potential radioprotective capacity have been assessed on the serum lipid pattern. The results indicated generally significant increases in the levels of blood lipid fractions especially HDL-cholesterol. On the other hand, the level of LDL-cholesterol recorded a significant decrease on the third day post either shot or cumulative dose levels at 6 or 10 Gy and also post 4 successive doses of serotonin administration. The only exceptions were recorded in the case of LDL-cholesterol post administration of single dose of serotonin and serotonin prior to shot dose levels of 6 or 10 Gy. 2 tabs

1995-01-01

71

The Histological Effect of Hunger Stress on the Stomach in Male Albino Rats: A Study of Light Microscope  

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Full Text Available Emotional changes can influence feeding behavior. Feed intake is the cornerstone of animal productivity. The consequences of inadequate intake include inhibited growth, delayed puberty, infertility, reduced milk production and lowered resistance to parasites and disease. In this study, the histological changes observed in male albino rats’ stomach mucosa which was exposed to hunger were examined. Pieces from stomach were taken in the 1st-5th days following last feeding. These tissue specimens were fixed by using 10% neutral formalin which was compressed. After routine tissue checks, the tissue pieces were sunk into paraffin wax and some blocks were prepared. With the aim to examine histological structures of the pieces taken, they were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E). An increase in the number of blood cells taken part in stomach tissue was observed in the first 24 h. At the end of the 3rd day of hunger, necrosis of fundic glands, especially the base of fundus and mild congestion of mucosal blood vessels were observed. A widening in glandular epithelium lumen was seen after 2 days. A tendency to slim was observed in mucosa layer of the surface and glandular lumen during hunger. In the stomach mucosa, structural changes were caused by hunger. It was found that these changes were in direct proportion with hunger duration.

Maisa M. Al-Qudah

2011-01-01

72

Effect of Bifendate (DDB) On Normal and Diseased Liver of Adult Male Albino Rats: An Experimental Study.  

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Full Text Available Background: Fructus Schizandrae Sinensis bail, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to lower the elevated serum level of liver enzymes of patients suffering from chronic active hepatitis. A synthetic derivative compound of Schisandrian, Dimethyl Diphenyl Bicarboxylate (DDB) is now used widely in clinical fields as a hepatoprotective drug. Thus it is important to know whether DDB has a beneficial effect on damaged liver or not. Objective: To evaluate the protective effect of DDB on induced liver tissue injury in rats. Design: Experimental study. Setting: National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute. The study was conducted from October (2004) to February (2005). Materials and methods: 120 male albino rats aged 6-8 weeks, weight 150-200g were grouped in six groups, 20 rats per group. Group 1 received food and water only, group 2 received food, water and DDB intragastric 6mg/kg daily for 12 weeks, group 3 received 20% ethanol instead of water, group 4 received 20% ethanol instead of water plus DDB, group 5 received thioacetamide (TAA) in a dose of 200mg/kg body weight intraperitoneal injection, group 6 received thioacetamide plus DDB at the same dose of the above group. At the end of the trial, blood samples were taken from all groups for biochemical analysis. Liver tissue excised from each rat was fixed in 10% neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin, and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, as well as Masson's trichome stain, for evaluation of hepatic injury and/or fibrosis. Results: Statistical elevation of serum hepatic enzymes was noticed in rats received alcohol, Thioacetamide and alcohol + DDB (groups III, V and IV respectively) compared to the corresponding control (P= 0.000). On the other hand, administration of DDB to TAA treated group (group VI) induced significant improvement of liver function tests compared to other groups (P= 0.000). Histopathologically, the control livers showed normal lobular architecture without any pathological changes. Liver sections of animals administered alcohol, TAA respectively showed chronic inflammatory reaction, fat accumulation, hepatic parenchymal necrosis and/or hepatic fibrosis. Administration of DDB resulted in improvement of the pathological changes induced by TAA (group VI), but not that induced by alcohol (group IV). Conclusion: Our results revealed that DDB has antitoxic effect against TAA and ameliorates the dangerous effect on the liver parenchyma, while it has no beneficial effect on alcoholic liver disease.

Ehsan H.Hassan *, Nabil Abdel Mageed ** Nagwa AbdelWahaab

2005-01-01

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The potent effects of ginseng root extract and memantine on cognitive dysfunction in male albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study determined the maximum intraperitoneal (ip) scopolamine dose inducing memory impairment in rats (2 mg/kg) compared to 0.5 or 1 mg/kg dose. The effect reflected by significant increase from normal in the latency time required for rats to find the hidden platform in water maze task and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. The dose-related histopathological effect via the hemorrhage, vacuolation and gliosis in cortex and hippocampus is assessed. Then the study investigated the potency of Panax ginseng root extract on scopolamine cognitive dysfunction rat model compared to memantine hydrochloride as reference Food and Drug Administration approved. Ginseng extract was administered at dose 100 or 200 mg/kg/day and memantine at 20 mg/kg/day orally for 2 weeks. All treatments showed improvement in the water maze task, however, ginseng (200 mg/kg) group acquired the advantage without statistical difference control. Scopolamine (2 mg/kg ip) group showed significant increase in AChE reactivity and glutamate level and reduced monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin) and ?-aminobutyric acid contents in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Ginseng extract in a dose-dependent manner appears effective as memantine and can improve memory impairment through the retrieved homeostasis via neurotransmitter levels and AChE activities in rat brain areas with partial effect on the histological feature of the brain tissue.

Al-Hazmi MA; Rawi SM; Arafa NM; Wagas A; Montasser AO

2013-02-01

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The potent effects of ginseng root extract and memantine on cognitive dysfunction in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study determined the maximum intraperitoneal (ip) scopolamine dose inducing memory impairment in rats (2 mg/kg) compared to 0.5 or 1 mg/kg dose. The effect reflected by significant increase from normal in the latency time required for rats to find the hidden platform in water maze task and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. The dose-related histopathological effect via the hemorrhage, vacuolation and gliosis in cortex and hippocampus is assessed. Then the study investigated the potency of Panax ginseng root extract on scopolamine cognitive dysfunction rat model compared to memantine hydrochloride as reference Food and Drug Administration approved. Ginseng extract was administered at dose 100 or 200 mg/kg/day and memantine at 20 mg/kg/day orally for 2 weeks. All treatments showed improvement in the water maze task, however, ginseng (200 mg/kg) group acquired the advantage without statistical difference control. Scopolamine (2 mg/kg ip) group showed significant increase in AChE reactivity and glutamate level and reduced monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin) and ?-aminobutyric acid contents in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Ginseng extract in a dose-dependent manner appears effective as memantine and can improve memory impairment through the retrieved homeostasis via neurotransmitter levels and AChE activities in rat brain areas with partial effect on the histological feature of the brain tissue. PMID:23406953

Al-Hazmi, Mansour A; Rawi, Sayed M; Arafa, Nadia Ms; Wagas, Abeer; Montasser, Ayat Os

2013-02-13

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Effect of Carbonated Beverage Intake on Blood Gases and Some Biochemical Parameters in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of carbonated beverage (colourless or black coloured drinks) on arterial blood gases, kidney function, bone mineral density (BMD), glucose and insulin. The rats were divided into three groups; ten rats per each group. Group (I) used as control, group (II) rats supplemented with colourless carbonated beverage (10 ml /100 ml water) and group (III) rats supplemented with black coloured carbonated beverage (10 ml /100 ml water) for three months. The arterial blood gases were evaluated by measuring ph PO2, , PCO2, , H+ a nd HCO3-. Rats receiving the coloured drinks showed high significant increase in ph while PO2 showed very high significant decrease in both groups. PCO2 showed high significant decrease in groups (II) and (III) while H+ showed high significant decrease in group (III) only. HCO3- showed high significant increase in group III. All these changes were related to carbonic acid dissolved in water and the increased ph lead to alkalinity of the blood and it is inversely proportional to the number of hydrogen ions (H+). Non-significant changes were observed in sodium ions while potassium ions showed significant increase in group (II) and high significant increase in group (III). The level of urea showed high and very high significant increase in groups (II) and (III), respectively. Creatinine level showed non-significant increase in group (III). The histopathology changes were observed in kidney tissues in rats of groups (II) and (III). From these results, it appears that black coloured beverage can increase the risk of kidney problems more than colourless beverages. Ca+ and inorganic phosphorous levels showed non- significant change except Ca ions showed a significant decrease in rats of group (III). The acidity of carbonated beverage leads to weak bones by promoting the loss of calcium. The decrease of bone mineral density was more pronounced in some parts of femur of rats receiving black colour carbonated beverage than rats receiving colourless carbonated beverage. The black colour beverages have caffeine which may be the reason for decreasing bone mineral density. Very high significant increase was recorded in glucose level in groups (II) and (III) while insulin was decreased significantly in group (II), and very high significant decrease in group (III) was observed which lead to diabetes mellitus. It could be concluded that carbonic acid found in carbonated beverages may lead to the alkalinity of the blood which reflect metabolic problem. Cola beverages can increase the risk of kidney problems more than non-cola sodas. Cola beverages consumption may have adverse effects on bone mineral density and furthermore, cola beverages consumption is a significant risk factor for devolving of metabolic syndrome such as insulin resistance that might result in diabetes

2012-01-01

76

The disposition and metabolism of 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane in male Wistar albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was designed to investigate 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane (TOX) distribution, excretion and metabolism. The experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats after a single administration of TOX at doses of 40 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The exhaled air proved to be the main route of 14C elimination, mainly as 14CO2. During the first 12 h following the administration of 40 mg/kg of TOX the exhalation of 14CO2 was monophasic, with a half-life of 3.5 h. After the administration of 400 mg/kg, TOX was eliminated mainly as 14CO2 with the exhaled air (77%) and unchanged TOX (8%). About 3% of 14C was excreted in the urine as unchanged 1,3,5-trioxane. With regards to TOX elimination from blood plasma for the lower dose, a biphasic process was observed, with half-lives of 4.5 and 72 h. The amount of 14C bound by the erythrocytes was minute compared with the amount in blood plasma. When the higher dose of TOX was administered the efficiency of 14C binding to the erythrocytes was found to be 10 times higher than the respective value for blood plasma. Among the examined tissues the highest concentration of TOX-derived radioactivity was detected in the liver while the lowest was in fat tissue and brain. A subsequent decay of radioactivity occurred in the tissues. The results of the present study indicate that TOX belongs to the group of compounds, which are rapidly eliminated from the organism; hence TOX should not be expected to accumulate within the tissues. The data obtained confirm the assumed pattern of metabolic transformation, according to which 1,3,5-trioxane undergoes enzymatic transformation to formaldehyde, with carbon dioxide and water being the final products. (orig.)

1998-01-01

77

Effect of salvia a Egyptiaca extract on serotoninergic system and cortisol in adult male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract with a dose of 2 g/kg body weight (0.5 ml solution /rat) for 4 weeks resulted in significant increases in tryptophan, serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in all tested brain areas, almost allover the experimental period. Also, it caused significant decrease in serum cortisol level. According to the obtained results, it could be concluded that the extract of Salvia egyptiaca may affect GABA-benzodiazepine receptors, that eventually inhibit the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) which consequently caused decrease in serum cortisol level. The low level of cortisol inhibits the tryptophan pyrrolase activity resulting in an increase of the peripheral availability of tryptophan for 5-HT synthesis in brain. Accordingly, 5-HT content as well as its metabolite 5-HIAA were increased

2004-01-01

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Protective effects of selenium against potassium dichromate-induced hematotoxicity in female and male Wistar albino rats Effets protecteurs du sélénium contre l’hématotoxicité induite par le dichromate de potassium chez les rats femelles et mâles albinos Wistar  

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Full Text Available Objective: Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) is a potent pollutant for human and animal health. The purpose of the current work is to compare the effect of K2Cr2O7 using variations in the dose, route of administration and duration of exposure in male and female Wistar albino rats and to research the interaction of chromium and selenium with a special focus on hematopoiesis. Materials and methods: K2Cr2O7 was subcutaneously administered alone (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) or K2Cr2O7 (10 mg/kg) in association with selenium (0.3 mg/kg) was administered to female Wistar albino rats. Male rats received in their drinking water K2Cr2O7 (30 mg/L/day) alone or in association with Se (0.3 mg/L/day) for 20 consecutive days. The hematological parameters were evaluated on days 3, 6 and 21 after subcutaneous (sc.) treatment in female rats and on days 10 and 20 after oral administration in male rats. Results: K2Cr2O7? induced during the first three days a significant (p  Objectif : Le dichromate de potassium (K2Cr2O7) est un polluant potentiellement néfaste pour la santé humaine et animale. Cette étude a été entreprise afin de rechercher une éventuelle interaction entre le K2Cr2O7 et le sélénium (Se) sur l’hématopoïèse chez les rats albinos Wistar mâles et femelles. Matériel et Méthodes : Le K2Cr2O7 est administré seul (10, 50 et 100 mg/kg) par voie sous-cutanée (sc) ou en association (10 mg/kg) avec le sélénium (0,3 mg/kg). Les rats mâles reçoivent dans l’eau de boisson le K2Cr2O7 (30 mg/L/jour) seul ou en association avec le sélénium (0,3 mg/L/jour) pendant 20 jours consécutifs. Les variations des paramètres hématologiques sont évaluées au 3e, 6e et 21e jour chez les rattes et au 10e et 20e jour chez les mâles. Résultats : Les résultats montrent que le chrome engendre dès le 3e jour après son administration par voie sc chez la femelle une diminution notable et dose-dépendante (p < 0,05) du nombre d’érythrocytes, du taux d’hématocrite, du nombre de plaquettes sanguines, de leucocytes, de lymphocytes et une augmentation dose-dépendante du nombre de granulocytes et de monocytes. Le chrome administré par voie orale diminue le nombre de leucocytes et de lymphocytes dès le 10e jour du traitement et augmente celui des monocytes et des granulocytes 20 jours plus tard. La présence du sélénium par voie sous-cutanée contrebalance les effets hématotoxiques du chrome chez la ratte. Conclusion : Ces résultats suggèrent que le sélénium a un rôle protecteur contre l’hématotoxicité induite par le chrome administré par voie sc chez la ratte Wistar.

Adjroud Ounassa

2010-01-01

79

Beneficial use of continuous administration of crataegus oxycantha in irradiated male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Exposure to ionizing radiation has become frequent with its vast applications in diagnosis, treatment and industry rather than possible environmental pollution with radiation. The animals of this study were allocated into three groups, control group, irradiated group (5 Gy one shot) and hawthorn treated post-irradiation group. Exposure to radiation was implicated with hematological suppression in all hematological parameters tested red blood cells count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrit percentage (HCT) and white blood cells count (WBCs). Radiation exposure caused alteration of lipid metabolism leading to increased total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) and decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL). In addition, liver enzymes were also elevated, while serum albumin was diminished referring to liver dysfunction. The male reproductive hormone (testosterone) was severely inhibited along with glutathione. Administration of extraction of Crategous oxinatha (hawthorn) with a dose of 500 g/kg b.w. orally for consecutive 15 days post-irradiation showed significant ameliorating effects on both hematological and biochemical parameters leading to the suggestion of using hawthorn as food additive in relatively high amount

2011-01-01

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Acute toxicity, biochemical and haematological study of Aframomum melegueta seed oil in male Wistar albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/AIM: Aframomum melegueta is a popular medicinal plant in Nigeria believed to have many agents acting in different ways to bring about human health benefits. This study aimed to determine the acute toxicity, identify some phytochemicals known to be present in this plant and the possible effects on lipid profile, haematological indices and biomarker of prostate and cardiac dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty four Wistar rats (284-326g) were used in four groups of six animals. Group 1 (control) received normal saline; group 2, 3 and 4, received intraperitoneal injection of 27.39, 54.77 and 82.16mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively for 7 days. Haematological and biochemical parameters were measured. RESULTS: Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids and steroids were identified in this plant extract. The LD50 was 273.86mg/kg body weight. PSA decreased significantly in group 2. Testosterone increased significantly in all the test groups compared to the control. Cardiac troponin I (0ng/dl) was recorded for the test groups while the control had 1.69±0.12ng/dl. Lipid profile results showed increase in HDL and decrease in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Haemoglobin (Hb) and Red Blood Cells count (RBC) decreased significantly in group 4. White blood cells count (WBC), Mean Cell Volume (MCV), Mean Cell Haemoglobin (MCH) and Mean Cell Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) did not change significantly. CONCLUSION: Aframomum melegueta seed oil has the potential of ameliorating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and cardiac dysfunction as indicated by testosterone, PSA, lipid profile and troponin I levels. The LD50 of 273.86mg/kg body weight is indicative of mild toxicity. The lower than normal Hb, RBC confirms the possibility of toxicity.

Akpanabiatu MI; Ekpo ND; Ufot UF; Udoh NM; Akpan EJ; Etuk EU

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
81

Salvia aegyptiaca as a Potential Herb for Ameliorating the Acute Toxicity Induced by Fenvalerate in Adult Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After fen valerate and/or Salvia aegyptiaca administration to male albino rats, fenvalerate caused a reduction in liver enzymes activity in liver homogenate with a percent change recording -24.1, -21.94 and-30.46 %, after 7 days, for ALT, AST and ALP, respectively .. Moreover, it increased the total protein and albumin at the same period. On day 7, fenvalerate increased the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP by 351. 24, 164.60 and 119.78%, respectively. On the contrary, fenvalerate reduced the serum levels of total protein and albumin. Significant increase was observed in both creatinine (58.62%) and blood urea (47.41 %) after 7 days, whereas, serum T3 and T4 recorded a percentage change of -3.0.18 and -51.45%, respectively. An increase in GABA content in 7 brain areas was noticed after daily oral administration of fenvalerate, showing that GABA content in 'the cortex was the most affected recording, 191.43% change from control on the 7th day. Daily oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight of Salvia aegyptiaca extract alone or after fenvalerate caused a gradual decrease in ALT, AST and ALP enzyme activity as well as in total protein and albumin content in both liver homogenate and serum, on the 7th day. Salvia extract decreased serum creatinine and blood urea throughout the experimental period. No statistically significant changes in T3 and T4 levels were observed in animals that received salvia extract alone. On the other hand, salvia improved T3 and T4 levels after it was delivered post fenvalerate administration, bringing the hormonal levels near to that of control. Moreover, salvia extract caused a significant decrease in GABA content throughout the experimental period. However, animals that received combined treatment (fenvalerate + salvia) showed that salvia reduced the elevation that occurred in GABA content as a result of fenvalerate administration in all brain areas under investigation. From the current investigation, it could be recommended that, the duration of exposure as well as the given dose have to be planned carefully if salvia has to be taken as a potential herb for treatment. Further studies have to be undertaken to better elucidate the mode of action of salvia and to extract compounds with potential drug treatment

2007-01-01

82

Effect of deltamethrin on the release of catecholamines and its related effect on some sex hormones in adult male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oral administration of 1/5 LD50 of deltamethrin for 15 days resulted in an increase in Na+ and Ca++ ions concentrations, whereas it resulted in significant decreases in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamin (DA) contents in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pans + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of adult male albino rats at most time intervals. Deltamethrin also resulted in significant decreases of serum leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels in adult male albino rats. It could be concluded from the present results that deltamethrin resulted in significant increases in Na+ and Ca++ ions concentration. This observation might be due, in part, to an increase of the intracellular Na+ flow through its binding to Na+ ions channels and prolonging the opening time. Also, deltamethrin may stimulate the activity of protein kinase C/phosphoinositide that results in an increase of the intracellular concentrations ofinositol I, 4, 5-triphosphate (IPS) and free Ca++ ions. The increment in intracellular Ca+ ions led to an increase in the release of neurotransmitters by exocytosis, thai eventually decreased the contents of NE and DA in pre-synaptic cells. It is also clear that deltamethrin may act on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. The decrement in DA content in hypothalamus led to decrease in the release of leutinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) which resulted in decreasing in LH and testosterone levels in serum of the treated rats.

2005-01-01

83

Effect of maternal exposure to octylphenol (4-tert-octylphenol) on the growth of the adrenal gland in male albino rats  

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Full Text Available 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) is environmental pollutants that have been shown widespread impact estrogenic and toxic to the cells of mammals in culture. The effects of OP on the reproductive system of adult male vertebrates especially humans are virtually unknown. Thus, in the present investigation, pregnant females of albino rats were orally treated during pregnancy and until 21 days after birth (the period of lactation) with octylphenol (OP) at doses 0 (vehicle: corn oil), 40 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg on the epididymis of male rats at puberty (12 weeks of age). The present result showed that there is non-significant in the number; the size of newborn rats and there increased in mortality rate of newborn rats of the pregnant female treatment with dose low-and high-octylphenol compared to the control group. there is increased in the average body weight and percentage of gain in body weight of male rats from mothers of small treatment (G2, G3) and the control group (G1) for 12 weeks of age. Also, histological results showed that the adrenal gland in the group which was given high dose of octylphenol (G3) show that Severe histological changes in the cortex. When examining medulla and found large areas of necrosis and cell degradation, necrosis and cell death sharply.

Nafisa Mohamed Batarfi

2012-01-01

84

Gonadal Responses to Antipsychotic Drugs: Chlorpromazine and Thioridazine Reversibly Suppress Testicular Functions in Albino Rats  

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This work was undertaken to investigate the individual effects and probable mechanism of action of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (largactil) and thioridazine hydrochloride (melleril) on male reproductive functions, in albino rats. A total of 45 adult male albino Wistar-strain rats were used. Five rat...

Y. Raji; S.O. Ifabunmi; O.S. Akinsomisoye; A.O. Morakinyo; A.K. Oloyo

85

Histological Study Of The Effect Of Zinc Sulphate On The Toxicity Of Aluminium Sulphate In Liver And Kidney Of Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Aluminium (Al) is one of the most abundant and important elements in the environment. In recent years, the production of this metal and its toxicity increased with its discharge into the environment. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Al intake toxicity in liver and kidney tissues of albino rats and the role of zinc as a protective agent against Al toxicity. Fourty five male albino rats were divided into equal three groups. The first group of animals was considered as control. The animals in the second group were given (50mg/kg/day) of Al sulphate orally using gastric tube for 45 day. Third group were given Al sulphate (50mg/kg/day) followed by zinc sulphate (50mg/kg/day) orally as well as samples of liver and kidney tissues were obtained after 15, 30, 45 days of last doses respectively. Paraffin sections (5m) were prepared for histological study stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin. The obtained histological results of the histological study of the second group showed that there were congested blood sinusoids and swelling of some hepatocytes within cytoplasm in which there were vacuoles, fragmented nuclei with some cellular infiltration. Kidney tissue showed shrinkage of some glomeruli and distortion of the tubular epithelial cells. Results in the third group, where zinc sulphate was added, showed amelioration and improvement in both liver and kidney tissues.

Azza M. Gawish

2005-01-01

86

Safety Evaluation of Long Term Treatment of Methanol Sub-Fraction of Seeds of Carica papaya as a Male Contraceptive with Particular Emphasis on Carcinogenicity in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available A preliminary study to evaluate if long term treatment of Methanol Sub-Fraction (MSF) of the seeds of Carica papaya as a male contraceptive would develop neoplastic lesions in vital organs was carried out in albino rats at 50, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 b.wt. day-1 for a period of 24 months, with a minimum dose being one therapeutic dose. Pre-terminal deaths, 45% in males and 48% in females, well within the acceptance limit, were reported to be age related and not treatment related, resulted due to general/respiratory/gastrointestinal/ urogenital disorders in both males and females of control and treated animals. Skin peeling, withering of fur leaving skin patches were observed in few of the animals after 18 months of treatment. Absence of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymis was evident in all the treated animals. No major structural changes compared to control were evident in the vital organs. Serum testosterone, serum electrolytes, tissue biochemical, hematology and clinical chemistry were comparable to those of control animals, suggesting no adverse effect of the test substance following long term treatment. The results provided evidence that the methanol sub-fraction of the seeds of Carica papaya does not lead any development of neoplastic lesion following life term treatment for 24 months in rats and is safe enough to be permitted for further trials as a male contraceptive.

S. Goyal; B. Manivannan; A.S. Ansari; N.K. Lohiya

2009-01-01

87

Physiological and Biochemical Alterations Induced by Subchronic Administration of Deltamethrin can be Possibly Corrected by Zinc Supplementation in Male Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted aiming to evaluate the possible effect of zinc supplementation as potent antioxidant in counteracting some of the physiological and biochemical alterations induced by subchronic administration of deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid. Deltamethrin (DM) was injected in two doses in male albino rats in presence or absence of zinc. Many physiological and biochemical alteration have been induced by deltamethrin intoxication. Zinc supplementation proved a considerable ability to overcome some but not all of these alterations. The present investigation has also proved the possibility of using the isozyme electrophoretic patterns in testing for xenobiotic intoxication. The rate of gene expression of ALP2 and ALP3 isozymes, but not of ALP1 are stimulated by DM intoxication. In case of ALP3 the rate of gene expression seemed to be dose-dependent.

Emad El-Zayat; Manal El-Halwagy; Mohamed Farid

2005-01-01

88

Evaluation of the protective role of vitamin C in imidacloprid-induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino rats  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the effects of oral administration of imidacloprid for 4 weeks on serum biochemical, oxidative stress, histopathological and ultrastructural alterations were assessed in the liver of male rats. This study also aimed to investigate whether vitamin C could protect against the imidacloprid-induced oxidative stress. Forty-eight male Sprague dawley rats were divided into four groups of 12 animals each. Group 1 served as the control, while groups 2 and 4 were administered with imidacloprid (80 mg/kg body weight) daily by oral gavage for 28 days. In addition to imidacloprid, group 4 also received vitamin C at 10 mg/kg daily by oral gavage for 28 days. Group 3 was maintained as the vitamin C control (dose as above). The serum biochemical assays revealed a significant (P imidacloprid-induced changes.

Soujanya, S.; Lakshman, M.; Kumar, A. Anaad; Reddy, A. Gopala

2013-01-01

89

The effect of sodium valproate on the biochemical parameters of reproductive function in male albino Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on intratesticular testosterone and lactic dehydrogenase level in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were treated with sodium valproate and sacrificed at the end of the 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week, after the last exposure to sodium valproate. The testes were removed, weighed and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P< 0.001) reduced in 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg treated rats. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was significantly (P< 0.001) increased by valproate in a time dependent manner. Conclusion: Valproate causes reversible change in intratesticular testosterone and LDH level.

Vijay P; Yeshwanth R; Bairy K

2008-01-01

90

Spontaneous malignant craniopharyngioma in an albino rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Craniopharyngioma is a rare neoplasm in the rat, and few cases have been described. These lesions are thought to originate from squamous cell remnants of Rathke's pouch, an evagination of primitive stomatodeum. This neoplasm is usually locally invasive, and neither cranial nor extracranial metastases have been described. A spontaneously occurring malignant, metastasizing craniopharyngioma arising from the neurohypophysis was detected in a 2-year-old male albino rat. The infiltrative growth was observed in the wall of the vessels of the circle of Willis, in the perivascular space of Virchow and Robin, in the submeningeal space near the hypothalamus, through the fissura chorioidea, in the medulla oblongata, and along the optic nerve into the periocular region. Metastases were detected in the thalamus and hippocampus. The diagnosis was made on the basis of microscopic, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural findings.

Pace V; Heider K; Persohn E; Schaetti P

1997-03-01

91

Effect of furostanol glycosides from Trigonella foenum-graecum on the reproductive system of male albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Trigonella foenum (TF) has long been used in the traditional Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The objective was to study the anabolic and androgenic activity of the furostanol glycosides fraction of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenu-FG) in immature castrated male Wistar rats. It was also aimed to investigate the effect of Fenu-FG on testicular histology in non-castrated immature rats. The animals (55 ± 5 g) were castrated. The rats were treated with either vehicle, testosterone (10 mg/kg s.c. bi-weekly) or Fenu-FG (10 and 35 mg/kg p.o.) once daily for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, blood was withdrawn, serum testosterone and BUN were measured. Animals were killed and reproductive organs were excised and weighed.Fenu-FG (35 mg/kg p.o.) and testosterone (10 mg/kg, s.c. biweekly) increased the weight of the levator ani muscle as well as body weight. Fenu-FG (10 or 35 mg/kg p.o.) did not change the testosterone level in castrated rats. Histopathological examination of the testis of non-castrated rats treated with Fenu-FG (10, 35 mg/kg p.o.) showed normal architecture of the testis. Fenu-FG (35?mg/kg p.o.) showed anabolic activity without androgenic activity.

Aswar U; Bodhankar SL; Mohan V; Thakurdesai PA

2010-10-01

92

Effect of furostanol glycosides from Trigonella foenum-graecum on the reproductive system of male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trigonella foenum (TF) has long been used in the traditional Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The objective was to study the anabolic and androgenic activity of the furostanol glycosides fraction of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenu-FG) in immature castrated male Wistar rats. It was also aimed to investigate the effect of Fenu-FG on testicular histology in non-castrated immature rats. The animals (55 ± 5 g) were castrated. The rats were treated with either vehicle, testosterone (10 mg/kg s.c. bi-weekly) or Fenu-FG (10 and 35 mg/kg p.o.) once daily for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, blood was withdrawn, serum testosterone and BUN were measured. Animals were killed and reproductive organs were excised and weighed.Fenu-FG (35 mg/kg p.o.) and testosterone (10 mg/kg, s.c. biweekly) increased the weight of the levator ani muscle as well as body weight. Fenu-FG (10 or 35 mg/kg p.o.) did not change the testosterone level in castrated rats. Histopathological examination of the testis of non-castrated rats treated with Fenu-FG (10, 35 mg/kg p.o.) showed normal architecture of the testis. Fenu-FG (35?mg/kg p.o.) showed anabolic activity without androgenic activity. PMID:20878698

Aswar, Urmila; Bodhankar, Subhash Laxman; Mohan, V; Thakurdesai, Prasad Arvind

2010-10-01

93

Aqueous Extract of Thymus Vulgaris-induced Prevention of Kidney Damage in Hypertensive Adult Male Albino Rat: Biochemical and Ultrastructural Study  

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Full Text Available Different metabolic disorders including hypertension cause renal damage. The aim of this study was to study the effect of Thymus Vulgaris (TV) on kidneys of induced hypertensive rats through biochemical and ultrastructure examination. Thirty three adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups 11 animals each (control, untreated and treated). The first (control) group was fed and followed up for 8 weeks by measuring the systolic BP. In the second group, hypertension was induced by ligation of left renal artery to have systolic BP >150 mmHg and was followed up till the end of study. The third group in which hypertension was induced were given TV as 100 mg/kg body weight daily. The surviving 11 rats per each group were weighed again and killed with an overdose of phenobarbital and blood was collected to measure the blood chemistry. Following laparotomy, right kidney was dissected and excised from each rat and divided into 2 parts: one part was immersed in 10% formal saline and prepared for light microscopic examination. The other parts was immersed into 2.5 % glutaraldehyde and prepared for electron microscopic examination using transmission microscopy in faculty of medicine Zagazig university Egypt. A Significant increased was noticed in creatinine and cholesterol in untreated in contrast to control and treated hypertensive rats. There was significant reduction of Blood Pressure (BP) on using TV in contrast to untreated group. In untreated hypertensive group some cortical fields showed scars surrounding obsolete shrinkage glomeruli with inflammatory infiltrates with reciprocal dilatation of their Bowman's capsules. Ultrastructure examination showed thick glomerular endothelium with obliterated endothelial fenestrations. In treated hypertensive group the rat kidneys showed preserved cortical appearance and normal trilaminar structure but with focal thickening. Induced hypertension in rats affected renal tissues with biochemical alterations which all can be improved and/or prevented by using Thymus vulgaris herbal extract.

Osama A. Kensara; Naser A. ElSawy; Eslam A. Header

2012-01-01

94

Efficiency of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace as antioxidant against gamma irradiation hazards in male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nowadays, increasing attention has been given to the roles of free radicals generated through oxidative stres. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidative role lycopene extracted from tomato processing wastes or pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male rats were adminstered lycopene by a daily intragastric gavage(0.24mg/rat/day) or supplemented in a standard casein diet (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) reduced ghutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) were determined in liver homogenate, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). asparate aminotransferase (AST), toral protein, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio were investigated 2 and 13 days post irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in MDA, ALT,AST, albumin levels and A/G ratio. Meanwhile, radiation exposure caused significant reduction in weight gain, SOD activity, GSH, total protein and globulin levels.

2003-01-01

95

The immunological and histopathological changes of Tramadol, Tramadol/Acetaminophen and Acetaminophen in male Albino rats "Comparative study"  

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Full Text Available Tramadol is a synthetic opioid analgesic. It is commonly prescribed for moderate to severe pain, becoming abused more popular among teens in most countries. Paracetamol as anti-inflammatory drugs (acetaminophen) (APAP) is widely used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. Meanwhile, tramadol/acetaminophen (tramacet) is effective in acute or chronic moderate-to-moderately severe pain. In comparative study, the current investigation threw the light on the effect of over doses of tramadol and/or APAP on the immune function and hepatocytes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Material and methods: Treated rats received oral doses of each drug for 15 consecutive days and after last treatment, they kept three days later for withdrawal studies. The rats were divided into four treatment groups, in the first group, rats received saline and used as control. The second, third and fourth groups treated with tramadol (45 mg/kg), tramadol/APAP (45/450 mg/kg), APAP (450 mg/kg) respectively, once a-day at the first week and ending with 90, 90/900, 900 mg/kg at the second week. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the first, second weeks and three days of last treatment. Results: Daily doses of tramadol and /or APAP exposure in rats decreased the cellularity of spleen. Moreover, phagocytic and killing of S. aureus by PMN and macrophage cells caused a highly significant decrease in treated groups. IFN- was reduced in a statistically different treated group of rats. Serum IL-10 was unaffected by any of the treatment regimens but increased only in tramadol/APAP treated rats. Spleen histology exhibited mild pathological alteration with different injures between treated groups. Splenic white pulp accompanied by ill deformed which reflected the reduction of white pulp zones, thickened vasculature in the splenic net work, fibrous trabeculae become prominent feature, where splenic red pulp occupied large areas of the splenic network with predominant edema and megakaryocytes. On the other hand, the effect of tramadol and/or APAP induced DNA alterations of hepatocytes in dose dependent pattern as elucidated by dendrogramatic analysis. Liver histopathological changes of treated groups included vacuolated hepatocytes, dilated sinusoid with proliferated Kupffer cells; atrophied hepatocytes with nuclei reduced in size and darkly stained. Many areas of hepatocytes showed loss of architecture, congested central vein, expanded portal area with edema and inflammatory reaction. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the effect of tramadol/APAP induced anti-inflammatory cytokines than tramadol and APAP alone. Tramadol and/or APAP may display severe pathological consequences of hepatocytes. These hepatic lesions may be caused impairment of the liver function.

Hanan Mostafa Rabei

2011-01-01

96

Bioefficacy of hydromethanolic extract of tuber of Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed Musli) for the management of male infertility in cyproterone acetate-treated albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increase in male sexual dysfunction, and its treatment with conventional aphrodisiac drugs with side effects lead to investigate the spermatogenesis and androgenesis augmentative efficacy of hydromethanolic (40 : 60) extract of root of Chlorophytum borivilianum (family - Liliaceae) against cyproterone acetate-induced subfertility in Wistar strain male albino rat. For this purpose, experimental rats were divided into three treatment groups: vehicle (received distilled water), cyproterone acetate (gastric intubation at 250 mg kg(-1) twice daily for 35 days) and cyproterone acetate plus root extract of C. borivilianum (gastric intubation at 250 mg kg(-1) plus 400 mg kg(-1) with an interval of 20 min twice daily for 35 days). After 35-day treatment, all rats were euthanised. Reproductive deviations towards negative side were investigated by screening the spermatogenic and steroidogenic biosensors. Oxidative stress profile in reproductive organs and sperm pellet was evaluated by biochemical assessment of antioxidative enzyme activities and level of end products of the lipid peroxidation. Apoptosis profile was evaluated by Western blot study, TUNEL assay and DNA fragmentation study of testicular tissues. Evaluation of toxicity profile was included for experimental investigation. After cyproterone acetate treatment, the pituitary-testicular axis was deviated towards the negative side and its tuning system was affected by oxidative stress and apoptosis-mediated process, which reduced the quality of semen and finally led to subfertility. Co-administration of C. borivilianum root extract enhanced male reproductive potentiality and prevented the negative deviations after the treatment with cyproterone acetate by means of increasing oxidative defence and maintaining homeostasis in testicular apoptosis process.

Ray S; Chatterjee K; De D; Ghosh D

2013-08-01

97

Evaluation of the protective role of vitamin C in imidacloprid-induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, the effects of oral administration of imidacloprid for 4 weeks on serum biochemical, oxidative stress, histopathological and ultrastructural alterations were assessed in the liver of male rats. This study also aimed to investigate whether vitamin C could protect against the imidacloprid-induced oxidative stress. Forty-eight male Sprague dawley rats were divided into four groups of 12 animals each. Group 1 served as the control, while groups 2 and 4 were administered with imidacloprid (80 mg/kg body weight) daily by oral gavage for 28 days. In addition to imidacloprid, group 4 also received vitamin C at 10 mg/kg daily by oral gavage for 28 days. Group 3 was maintained as the vitamin C control (dose as above). The serum biochemical assays revealed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase and decrease in total protein in group 2. The tissue biochemical profile revealed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in reduced glutathione concentration in the liver of group 2 animals. Histologically, the liver showed marked dilation, congestion of central vein, portal vein and sinusoidal spaces, vacuolation/fatty change and degenerated hepatocytes. Ultra thin sections of the liver revealed swollen nuclei, varied size and shape of mitochondria, disrupted chromatin and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Co-treatment with vitamin C significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the imidacloprid-induced changes.

Soujanya S; Lakshman M; Kumar AA; Reddy AG

2013-01-01

98

Protective Effect of Phoenix dactylifera-L Extracts against Radiation-Induced Cardio-Toxicity and Some Biochemical Changes in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Antioxidant properties of the date palm fruit; Phoenix dactylifera-L in mitigation of cellular injury following free radicals release by ionizing radiation has been investigated. Forty-eight male albino rats divided equally into 6 groups were used in this study. Group 1 (G.1) acted as control, G.2 received date extract orally (4 ml/ kg/ day) for 21 days, G.3 was exposed to a single dose of gamma irradiation (6 Gy), G.4 received date extract orally at an identical dose and duration to G.2 and irradiation to G.3, G.5 received the daily date extract for 7 days post irradiation and G.6 received the daily date extract for 21 days before and for 7 days after irradiation. Heart tissue was examined histologically and biochemical testing for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was performed for each rat group. Data from the investigation showed that gamma irradiation caused histopathological damage to the heart tissue and disturbances in most parameters related to cardiac function. Administration of date extracts pre-irradiation provided evidence of a potential protective effect against irradiation hazard

2011-01-01

99

Role of Omega 3 fatty acids on radiation-induced oxidative and structural damage in different tissues of male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Omega-3 fatty acids play a critical role in the development and function of the reproductive and central nervous systems. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels associated with histopathologic changes induced by gamma irradiation in the testis and brain of male albino rats. Rats were whole body exposed to radiation at a single dose of 3 Gy. Omega-3 fatty acids (0.4 gm/kg b wt/day) were given to rats, by gavages, for 15 consecutive days before irradiation and for 15 days after irradiation. Rats were sacrificed one and 15 days post irradiation .Biochemical analysis of testis and cerebral cortex samples showed that irradiation induced a significant increase in xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) and a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT).Histological examination of testis and cerebral cortex tissues showed spermatogonia degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis in the testis and neurons cell bodies with ill defined and even ruptured cell membrane and damaged blood capillaries in the cerebral cortex. Omega-3 administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the levels of MDA, and XO, and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with amelioration of the histological injury markers in both testis and cerebral cortex. It could be postulated that omega-3 fatty acids as a multi-functional dietary supplement could exert a modulatory role in radiation- induced testis and cerebral cortex biochemical and histological changes through its antioxidant properties.

2011-01-01

100

Effects of Aging and Anti-Aging Hormones on The Kidney, The Thyroid Functions and The Histology of The Testis of Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aging and anti-aging hormones on the kidney, the thyroid and the testis of aged male albino rats from the physiological and histological points of view. Material & Methods Thirty five male rats were used in the present study. They were allocated into five groups. The first group (5months old) served as control group and the other remaining groups are (18 months old). The second group 1 ml/kg b.w. corn oil intramuscular injection through a period of two weeks .The third group received 2mg/kg b.w. of melatonin hormone orally daily for two weeks. The fourth group received 0.57 mg/kg b.w. of testosterone hormone via intramuscular injection through two weeks. The fifth group received the same dose of both hormones (Melatonin & Testosterone) for two weeks. Some biochemical parameters of the kidney, the thyroid and histological structure of the testis were examined. Results The untreated aged group showed insignificant change in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones levels. The melatonin treated group showed significant decrease in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones. The testosterone treated group showed highly significant increase in urea, T3 and T4 hormones and highly significant decrease in creatinine level. Whereas, fifth group showed significant decrease in urea accompanied with a highly significant decrease in creatinine and highly significant increase in T3 with a significant increase in T4. The histological changes induced by aging and anti-aging hormones included intertubular haemorrhage, odematous areas present between the seminiferous tubules. The interstitial tissue was degenerated. The degenerated seminiferous tubules revealed maturation arrest in late-stage spermatides. Conclusion In conclusion, aging and anti-aging hormones administration into adult male rats exerts a clear effect on the kidney and the thyroid functions and on the testicular structure. On the other hand, amelioration in T3 &T4 serum level was found in anti-aging treated rats compared with untreated aged rats.

Shadia Ali Radwan; Samia Mohamed Sakr; Mohamed Salah Al-Shinnawy and Enas Saleh Abdel-Bakey

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of ginger and orlistat on obesity management, pancreatic lipase and liver peroxisomal catalase enzyme in male albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a disease involving body weight gain. Several synthetic drugs of better efficacy are being introduced in the modern system of medicine. Orlistat is a pharmacological agent promoting weight loss in obese subjects via inhibiting of gastric and pancreatic lipase. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) is one of the most commonly used spices around the world; it has long been used in traditional medicine as a cure for some diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ginger and orlistat on rats fed high fat diet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male Albino rats were either not treated (control), or fed high fat diet, or fed high fat diet with dietary orlistat supplementation (200 mg/kg diet), or fed high fat diet supplemented with 5% ginger powder. After four weeks of treatment, final body weight and food intake were determined. Blood samples were collected, lipid parameters, total bilirubin, pancreatic lipase were determined. Liver peroxisomes were isolated from rat livers and peroxisomal catalase activity was determined. RESULTS: Treatment with both ginger and orlistat had significant effect in reducing body weight, besides, supplementing diet with orlistat increase food intake. Both ginger and orlistat had the ability to reduce lipid profile, ginger had great effect in increasing HDL-cholesterol than orlistat. When compared to the control group, ginger treatment did not alter either total bilirubin or pancreatic lipase activity while orlistat clearly reduced their concentration. Orlistat supplementation induced a significant reduction in peroxisomal catalase level, while ginger has been reported to interfere with enzyme activity increasing its level. CONCLUSIONS: Ginger has a great ability to reduce body weight without inhibiting pancreatic lipase level, or affecting bilirubin concentration, with positive effect on increasing peroxisomal catalase level and HDL-cholesterol.

Mahmoud RH; Elnour WA

2013-01-01

102

An experimental study on effect of antioxidant vitamin E in stress and alcohol induced changes in male fertility in albino rats.  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Physical and Psychological stresses are believed to reduce sexual functions, resulting fromneurotransmission changes in various erectile response pathways and reduced blood flow in genital organs.Intake of alcohol depends on numerous genetic and environmental factors. Stress has long been thought to influence the alcohol drinking in humans. Forced swimming in laboratory animals has been widely used as a model of stress to study the physiological changes and the capacity of the organism in response to stress. Aim: 1. To assess the effect of forced swimming stress on seminal fluid profile, Serum testosterone level, Testicular lipid peroxidation levels. 2. To assess the effect of Vitamin E on stress induced changes. Method: Adult male albino rats weighing 200 – 220 g, aged 12-15 weeks were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into four groups of 6 animals each. Group1 (control) received distilled water, Group 2 (Forced Swimming Stress) received distilled water Group 3: subjected to Forced Swimming stress with 20% alcohol intake p.o. Group 4: Swimming stress with 20% alcohol treated with Vitamin E(200mg/kg/day orally). The following parameters were studied in all groups 1. Body weight. 2. Sperm count Motility and Life /death Ratio (SLDR). 3. Serum Testosterone 4. Testicular Malondialdehyde level (MDA). Results: Forced swimming stress caused loss in body wt, reduction in sperm count, motility and SLDR in sperm analysis, reduction in serum testosterone and increase testicular MDA levels compared to control. All the changes were statistically significant. When alcohol was added along with forced swimming it caused further loss in body wt, sperm count, motility and SLDR, serum testosterone level and slightly further increase in MDA levels. These observations were also statistically significant. In case of group IV in which Vitamin E was administered long with stress with alcohol it showed a trend of reversal phenomenon of stress and alcohol induced change (Group III) exhibited by gain in body wt, increase sperm count, motility and SLDR, serum testosterone and decrease in MDA level. All the results were statically significant except serum testosterone. Conclusion: Force swimming indicates that swimming is an effective model for producing stress in albino rats. The stress induced changes were further accentuated by addition of ethyl alcohol. However Vit E treatment reverses the effect of stress and alcohol.

Sanghishetti Vijay Prasad, Nayak BB, Ghongane BB, Raul AR, Vijay Kumar AN, Mutalik MM, Kapure NL.

2012-01-01

103

THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF ONION OIL (ALLIUM CEPA LINN) AGAINST RADIATION-INDUCED HAZARDS IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation poses a major currently irresolvable risk for human. Onion is a major source of dietary flavonoids. The present investigation was carried out to study the protective effects of treating rats with onion oil (150 mg/kg body weight) for consecutive 3 weeks against damages induced by whole body gamma irradiation (7 Gy). Exposure of rats to gamma irradiation caused a significant increase in levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides as well as activities of AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, uric acid and lipid peroxides. Exposure to gamma rays resulted in an increase in the mentioned parameters accompanied by a decrease in urea, total protein, albumin, glutathione content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. It could be concluded that onion oil capable of reducing the biological hazards induced by gamma irradiation.

2008-01-01

104

Protective effect of ginger against alcohol-induced renal damage and antioxidant enzymes in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, glutathione and uric acid levels were decreased and xanthine oxidase, glutathione-s-transferase activities were increased in alcohol treated (2 g/kg body weight, once daily for 30 days) group. However, treatment with ethanolic extract of ginger (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg body weight, po, once daily for 30 days) these parameters came to normalcy showing the antioxidant effect of ginger. The antioxidant compounds of ginger may modulate the oxidative stress parameters. The biochemical findings were supplemented by histopathological examination of the kidney. Severe congestion and degenerative changes in tubules in alcohol treated rats were restored by ginger extract treatment. The results confirm the renal protective effect of ginger in alcohol treated rats. PMID:20455323

Shanmugam, K R; Ramakrishna, C H; Mallikarjuna, K; Reddy, K Sathyavelu

2010-02-01

105

Evaluation of silymarin and / or ginger effect on induced hepatotoxicity by carbon tetrachloride in male albino rats  

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Full Text Available Liver disease appears to be increase. Part of this increase may be due to our frequent contact with chemicals and other environmental pollutants. The amount of medicne consumed has increased greatly which could be danger to the liver. The hepatoprotective flavonoid, silymarin (7.56 mg/Kg b. wt.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) (1% of diet) for 4 weeks were used to ameliorate the liver injury in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCL4 , single acute dose 4 ml/ Kg b. wt. of 50% v/v CCL4 in olive oil, subcutaneous). The obtained results showed that CCL4 decreased serum and liver total protein and albumin. Also reduced glutathione content. The antioxidant enzymes; glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity decreased in the liver of CCL4 toxicity group. On the other hand, CCL4 toxicity increased serum and liver bilirubin, total lipid and total cholestertol levels. In addition, liver function (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase) and liver lipid peroxidation content showed significant increase in the CCL4 treated group. Previous parameters turned back to normal values in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats after treating with silymarin and/ or ginger for one month. Meanwhile, the most interesting effect was induced by a combination of silymarin and ginger. Hence, the present findings will provide a potential scope for future use of ginger for the treatment of liver disorders.

Hassan H. A.* and EL-Gendy A. M

2003-01-01

106

Extract Against Toxic Sodium The Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Nitrites and Gamma Irradiation Induced Histological Changes in Intestine and Urinary Bladder of Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract) possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation exposure and toxic sodium nitrites induced oxidative stress on the intestine and urinary bladder histologically and also to evaluate the possible protective role of proanthocyanidins. Seventy adult male albino rats, each weighing 95-105 g were used and divided into 7 groups as follows: The first group represents the control group. The second experimental group were exposed to 7 Gy gamma-rays as a single dose and sacrificed on the 7th day. The third experimental group received by a stomach tube daily 50 mg/kg b.wt of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The fourth experimental group received proanthocyanidins, Grape seed extracts (antioxidant) (100 mg/kg) body wt.) daily for seven days before irradiation and the continued for 14 days post irradiation. The fifth group of animals received grape seed extract after being exposed to gamma radiation for two weeks, while the sixth experimental group received the same antioxidant for seven days before and after received sodium nitrite (50 mg/kg) daily for 4 weeks. Finally, the seventh experimental groups was treated with the same antioxidant in same dose and time after received sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed on the end of each experimental duration. The results revealed that both gamma-radiation and sodium nitrite induced different histological changes in the intestine and urinary bladder of irradiated and sodium nitrite received animals. The effect of gamma radiation exposure showed marked degeneration of intestinal villi, vaculation in the lining epithelium cells and karyolytic nuclei. In addition, using sodium nitrite lead to necrosis of intestinal glandular cells. The effect of gamma radiation on urinary bladder was presented by, hyperplasia and vaculation of mucosal epithelium, congestion of blood capillaries. Rats from nitrite group revealed activation of glandular epithelium. The animals were treated with proanthocyanidins, the tissues revealed histological structure almost similar to the control group. This histological observations were performed to evaluate the efficiency of proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract), through its antioxidant properties which might attenuate radiation or nitrite toxicity.

2010-01-01

107

The effect of monosodium glutamate on the cerebellar cortex of male albino rats and the protective role of vitamin C (histological and immunohistochemical study).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a natural constituent of many foods and was reported to have neurotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible toxic effect of MSG on histological and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical features of cerebellar cortex of albino rats and to evaluate the possible protective role of vitamin C against this effect. Thirty rats were divided into 3 equal groups. Group I, control; Group II, treated with 3 g/kg/day of MSG and Group III, received 100 mg/kg/day of vitamin C simultaneously with MSG. After 14 days, cerebellar tissues were obtained and processed to prepare sections stained with H&E, toluidine blue. The GFAP was detected immunohistochemically. Histological examination of group II showed degenerative changes as pyknotic Purkinje and granule cells with areas of degeneration surrounded by inflammatory cells in granular layer. However, group III showed more preserved histological structure of cerebellar cortex. Statistical analysis of area percent of the GFAP immunoreaction among studied groups showed significant increase in group III when compared with group I and group II. However, a non significant increase was detected in group II when compared with group I. In conclusion, MSG has neurotoxic effect leading to degenerative changes in neurons and astrocytes in cerebellar cortex of albino rats and vitamin C supplementation could protect from these changes. Getting more attention to the constituents of food products is recommended and vitamin C could be advised to protect people from food oxidants additives.

Hashem HE; El-Din Safwat MD; Algaidi S

2012-04-01

108

The antioxidative effects of some medicinal plants as hypoglycemic agents on chromosomal aberration and abnormal nucleic acids metabolism produced by diabetes stress in male adult albino rats  

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Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to evaluate the chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells of alloxanized diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of Cleome droserifolia (Sammo), Anastatica hierochuntica (Kafta), Juniperus phoencea (Araar) and Hyphaene thebaica (Doum) as well as their effects on blood glucose, liver and testes total soluble protein, DNA and RNA contents and also nucleases (RNAase and DNAase) activity. The material and Methods: The study was performed in six groups. The first group was the normal healthy control; the second group was rats injected with alloxan (diabetic control). Every one of the other four groups (diabetic rats) was ingested with each of the methanolic extracts of Kafta, Doum, Sammo and Araar (individually). The results: The results of chromosomal analysis showed that, diabetic rats had a highly significant increase of chromosomal aberrations compared to that of normal healthy control. Animals which treated with the four plants methanolic extracts showed significant improvements in the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations. In case of biochemical analysis, blood glucose level was significantly increased but immunoglobulins levels were decreased in diabetic albino rats. Diabetes increased serum total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL but serum HDL was decreased. RNA and DNA as well as inhibited the nucleases (RNAase and DNAase) activity of both organs (liver and testes) tissue. The conclusions: It is concluded that diabetes is much harmful in the animal body, whilst the induction of flavonoids extract (by methanol) of Kafta, Somma, Araar and Doum reduced these harmful of diabetes.

Sherifa H. Salah; Halima S. Abdou; Amal S. Abd El Azeem; E.A. Abdel-Rahim

2011-01-01

109

Cisplatin or carboplatin caused suppression in anti–oxidant enzyme defense system in liver, kidney and testis of male albino rats  

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Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the possible interference of cisplatin or carboplatin on anti-oxidant enzyme defense system in liver, kidney and testis of male rats. Rats were divided into three groups consisting of eight animals in each group. The rats in the first group were served as control and received 0.9% of normal saline only. The rats in the second group were received cisplatin (3 mg/kg body wt) only. The rats in the third group were received carboplatin (10 mg/kg body wt) respectively. Injections were given intra-peritoneally to rats on 1st, 3rd and 5th day of experimentation. On 45th day of experiment, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. GST activity in the cytosol fraction of the tissues were assayed by using 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitro benzene at 340 nm. Catalaseactivities in the tissues were assayed by Chance and Machly method. The levels of lipid peroxidation in the liver, kidney and testes were measured in terms of malondialdehyde content and determined by using the thiobarbituric acid reagent. From the study it may be concluded that male rats treated with platinum compounds causes reduction in activities of antioxidant enzyme system with an increase in products of lipid peroxidation in various tissues of rats which ultimately leads to cellular peroxidation and damage in the tissues.

Kishore Reddy.Y.V; Sreenivasula Reddy.P; Shivalingam.M.R

2010-01-01

110

Effect of meclofenoxate on pentylenetetrazol kindling in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of a single and 5-day treatment of male albino rats with meclofenoxate in a dose of 100 mg/kg on the clonic-tonic convulsions during the kindling phenomenon, induced by multiple injection of a subconvulsive dose (40 mg/kg) pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) were tested. Its effects on convulsions, induced by a single convulsive dose of 100 mg/kg, were investigated for the sake of comparison. Meclofenoxate, introduced in a single dose of 100 mg/kg, lowered the intensity of the convulsions in PTZ-kindled rats. Meclofenoxate treatment for 5 days had an even more pronounced inhibitory effect on PTZ kindling. As regards the convulsions induced by a single injection of a convulsive PTZ dose, meclofenoxate only tends to decrease the percentage of rats with tonic convulsion and the lethality. On the basis of the results of earlier studies, the role of the serotoninergic neurotransmitter system for the observed inhibitory effect of meclofenoxate on PTZ kindling in albino rats is discussed. PMID:3129904

Lazarova, M; Georgiev, V; Markovska, V; Genkova, M; Petkov, V D

1987-01-01

111

Antioxidant Effect of Caffeic Acid on Oxytetracycline Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats  

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Caffeic acid is a well-known phenolic compound widely present in plant kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of caffeic acid (CA) against oxytetracycline (OXT) induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino Wistar rats. A total of 30 rats weighing 150–170 g were ran...

Jayanthi, R.; Subash, P.

112

An Electron Microscopic Study of the Antifertility Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in Male Albino Rats/ Estudio de Microscopía Electrónica del Potencial Antifertilidad del Romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) en Ratas Macho Albinas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar el potencial anti-fertilidad de la hierba de uso común, el romero, en ratas albinas macho utilizando microscopía electrónica como método de investigación. El extracto etanólico del romero se preparó y administró por vía oral a los animales en dos dosis diferentes durante un período de tres meses. Los animales experimentales se sacrificaron y se retiraron sus testículos. Se prepararon secciones para microscopía electrónic (more) a y se observaron los cambios. Los resultados mostraron cambios microscópicos evidentes en los testículos de los animales que recibieron una dosis mayor del medicamento. La mayoría de los túbulos seminíferos se observaron comprimidos, con una membrana basal irregular y carente de células espermatogénicas. El presente trabajo revela una clara evidencia morfológica de una posible anti-fertilidad dependiente de la dosis del romero administrada en las ratas albinas macho. Abstract in english The present work was aimed at studying the antifertility potential of the commonly used herb, rosemary in the male albino rats using electron microscopy as the method of investigation. Ethanolic extract of the rosmary prepared and administered orally in two different doses for a period of three months to the animals. At the end of the experiment animals were sacrificed and testes removed. Sections for the electrone microscopy prepared and changes were observed. The presen (more) t results showed evident microscopic changes in the testis of the animals received higher dose of the drug. Most of the seminiferous tubules were compressed, having irregular basement membrane and devoid of any spermatogenic cells. The present work revealed a clear morphological evidence of the dose dependent antifertility potential of the rosemary in the male albino rats.

El-Din, Rania A. Salah; El-Shahat, Abd El-Rahman; Elmansy, Rasha Ahmed

2012-06-01

113

An Electron Microscopic Study of the Antifertility Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in Male Albino Rats Estudio de Microscopía Electrónica del Potencial Antifertilidad del Romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) en Ratas Macho Albinas  

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Full Text Available The present work was aimed at studying the antifertility potential of the commonly used herb, rosemary in the male albino rats using electron microscopy as the method of investigation. Ethanolic extract of the rosmary prepared and administered orally in two different doses for a period of three months to the animals. At the end of the experiment animals were sacrificed and testes removed. Sections for the electrone microscopy prepared and changes were observed. The present results showed evident microscopic changes in the testis of the animals received higher dose of the drug. Most of the seminiferous tubules were compressed, having irregular basement membrane and devoid of any spermatogenic cells. The present work revealed a clear morphological evidence of the dose dependent antifertility potential of the rosemary in the male albino rats.El trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar el potencial anti-fertilidad de la hierba de uso común, el romero, en ratas albinas macho utilizando microscopía electrónica como método de investigación. El extracto etanólico del romero se preparó y administró por vía oral a los animales en dos dosis diferentes durante un período de tres meses. Los animales experimentales se sacrificaron y se retiraron sus testículos. Se prepararon secciones para microscopía electrónica y se observaron los cambios. Los resultados mostraron cambios microscópicos evidentes en los testículos de los animales que recibieron una dosis mayor del medicamento. La mayoría de los túbulos seminíferos se observaron comprimidos, con una membrana basal irregular y carente de células espermatogénicas. El presente trabajo revela una clara evidencia morfológica de una posible anti-fertilidad dependiente de la dosis del romero administrada en las ratas albinas macho.

Rania A. Salah El-Din; Abd El-Rahman El-Shahat; Rasha Ahmed Elmansy

2012-01-01

114

Correlation of body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus Norvegicus)  

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Full Text Available Relationship between body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) was investigated. Morphometric data such as body weight (BDYWT), tail length (TL), body length from nose to anus (BLNA), body length from nose to tail tip (BLNT), tail circumference (TC), tail diameter (TD), and ear length (EL) were collected from fifty live Albino rats involving 28 females and 22 males. The collected data were evaluated using regression analysis, correlation and independent-sample t-test. There was high significant (P r2) values ranging from 0.264 to 0.81. Regression analysis with high r2 value could be exploited in predicting many morphometric traits with great accuracy with the body weight serving as the explanatory or predictor variable. This research also suggested that male and female Albino rats have very similar morphometric characters as the results of independent-samples t-test showed.

Bruno Ikenna Aguh; Abubakar Yahaya; Ibrahim Ado Saidu; Patrick Oluwagbemiga Ayeku; Alfred Aondover Agba

2013-01-01

115

Effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression in male albino Rattus norvegicus  

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Objective : The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 g). The effect of O. sanc...

Tabassum Imrana; Siddiqui Zeba; Rizvi Shamim

116

Corrective role of Eugenia jambolana on testicular impairment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat: An approach through genomic and proteomic study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was conducted to explore the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of hydro-methanolic (40 : 60) extract of seed of Eugenia jambolana on testicular impairment in diabetic rats. In this respect, biomarkers of oxidative stress, genomics and proteomics in testicular tissue were assessed. Side by side, glycated haemoglobin, serum testosterone, activities of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in serum, epididymal sperm count including reproductive organosomatic indices were evaluated. Results indicate that a significant recovery (P < 0.05) in the levels of these parameters in fraction-treated diabetic group in comparison with diabetic control. A significant recovery was noted (P < 0.05) in the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 gene towards the control after the treatment of said fraction. Histological study also focused a significant recovery (P < 0.05) in the number of different generation of germ cells at stage VII of spermatogenesis in fraction-treated diabetic group. The said fraction treatment to diabetic rat can recover the activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase significantly towards the control (P < 0.05). Finally, it may be concluded that ethyl acetate fraction of seed of E. jambolana has a promiseable remedial effect on diabetes-induced testicular dysfunctions in male rat without inducing any metabolic toxicity.

Ghosh A; Jana K; Ali KM; De D; Chatterjee K; Ghosh D

2013-03-01

117

Effect of dimethoate on amino acids and 14C-isoleucine distribution in blood, liver, kidneys and brain of male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The daily oral administrations of the organophosphorus pesticide dimethoate at the level of 21.5 mg/kg, to male rats for 10, 30 and 45 days, caused significant decrease in the levels of tyrosine and histidine in both brain and liver, while aspartic acid, glycine and proline levels were significantly decreased in brain but increased in liver. Also, levels of phenylalanine, serine and lysine were significantly decreased in liver but increased in brain. Significant increase in the levels of alanine and leucine in brain and liver were observed. l4C-labeled isoleucine was injected subcutaneously at the level of 4.0 ? Ci/100 g twenty four hours after the oral administration of a single dose of 21.5 mg dimethoate / kg. Following the distribution of the labeled isoleucine, it was significantly increased in blood and liver and decreased in kidney and brain

2004-01-01

118

Origins of Albino and Hooded Rats: Implications from Molecular Genetic Analysis across Modern Laboratory Rat Strains  

Science.gov (United States)

Albino and hooded (or piebald) rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H) locus has been mapped to the ?460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the albino mutation and the hooded (h) mutation that we identified by positional cloning approach to investigate possible genetic roots and relationships of albino and hooded rats. All of 117 existing laboratory albino rats shared the same albino missense mutation, indicating they had only one single ancestor. Genetic fine mapping followed by de novo sequencing of BAC inserts covering the H locus revealed that an endogenous retrovirus (ERV) element was inserted into the first intron of the Kit gene where the hooded allele maps. A solitary long terminal repeat (LTR) was found at the same position to the ERV insertion in another allele of the H locus, which causes the so called Irish (hi) phenotype. The ERV and the solitary LTR insertions were completely associated with the hooded and Irish coat patterns, respectively, across all colored rat strains examined. Interestingly, all 117 albino rat strains shared the ERV insertion without any exception, which strongly suggests that the albino mutation had originally occurred in hooded rats.

Kuramoto, Takashi; Nakanishi, Satoshi; Ochiai, Masako; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Voigt, Birger; Serikawa, Tadao

2012-01-01

119

QUANTITATIVE AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE ADRENAL MEDULLA IN POST NATAL PERIOD OF ALBINO RAT  

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Full Text Available Background: The present work was based on the evaluation of histological, histochemical, and quantitative study on the adrenal medulla of the white albino rat in the different post natal age period. Material and methods:Sixty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were classified to 4 main groups as follows: - Group one : One week old albino rats. - Group two: One month old albino rats. - Group three: Three months old albino rats. - Group four: Senile rats. Three main parameters were performed in this study, the first was the study of the morphological changes in the adrenal medulla in the different postnatal age groups. The second was concerned with the histochemical studies while the last parameter was the quantitative studies on the gland volume as well as its cellular count. These three parameters were performed by using different staining techniques. Results: The results showed that medullary cells in the early age groups were arranged in non-differentiated groups and become more differentiated in the older age groups. Both reticular and elastic fibers in the older age groups showed a definite increase especially at the region of corticomedullary zone. The different types of chromaffin cells were more observed at the old age groups. The concentration of ascorbic acid granules was more marked in the senile group. The quantitative changes were in the form of increased medullary volume especially in the old age. The number of chromaffin cells as well as the concentration of ascorbic acid contents was more noticed in the old age group. Conclusions: The differentiation of both divisions of the adrenal gland was not noticed in the early age groups. Cellular and fibrous differentiations were more seen in older age groups which may reflects an idea about the degree of gland maturation

Wagieh k.Baiomy; Abdel-mawgood Anas; Mamdooh Ghaly; Ashraf M. Moustafa

2009-01-01

120

Delayed behavioral effects of beta-casomorphin-7 depend on age and gender of albino rat pups.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Systemic administration of beta-casein heptapeptide beta-casomorphin-7 (YPFPGPI, 1 mg/kg daily) to 10-23-day-old albino rat pups produced delayed anxiolytic effects, which were more pronounced in female than in male rats. Experimental findings confirm our assumption on the important role of nutritional opioids in brain development in newborn mammals.

Dubynin VA; Malinovskaya IV; Ivleva YA; Andreeva LA; Kamenskii AA; Ashmarin IP

2000-11-01

 
 
 
 
121

Delayed behavioral effects of beta-casomorphin-7 depend on age and gender of albino rat pups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Systemic administration of beta-casein heptapeptide beta-casomorphin-7 (YPFPGPI, 1 mg/kg daily) to 10-23-day-old albino rat pups produced delayed anxiolytic effects, which were more pronounced in female than in male rats. Experimental findings confirm our assumption on the important role of nutritional opioids in brain development in newborn mammals. PMID:11182807

Dubynin, V A; Malinovskaya, I V; Ivleva, Y A; Andreeva, L A; Kamenskii, A A; Ashmarin, I P

2000-11-01

122

Abortifacient effect of metoclopramide in female albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Metoclopramide a dopamine receptor antagonist is commonly used to treat nausea and vomiting. Long term use can cause parkinsonism, galactorrhoea and gynaecomastia. As it is lipid soluble, it enters the brain, easily crosses the placental barrier and can affect the fetus. Hence, the present study is designed to assess the risk of metoclopramide in pregnant albino rats. Objectives To study the abortifacient effect of metoclopramide in pregnant albino rats. Methods Eighteen pregnant rats were divided into three groups of six rats each. The abortifacient activities of metoclopramide were studied in the doses of 1mg/kg and 3mg/kg intramuscularly. The treatments were started on the 6th day of pregnancy and continued till the 15th day. Rats were laparotomised on 19th day of pregnancy for evaluation of abortifacient action. In both the horns of the uterus, number of implantation sites, resorption sites, dead and live fetuses were observed. Results The mean percentage of aborted fetus was 17.22 +/= 21.13 33.88 +/= 37.73 after 1mg/kg and 85.21 +/=18.93 after 3mg/kg of metoclopramide. The abortifacient effect of higher dose was significantly larger compared to both control group and low dose group, but there was no significant difference between the mean percentage of abortion in control group and the low dose group of metoclopramide. Conclusion Metoclopramide at 3mg/kg intra muscular has abortifacient effects in female albino rats. PMID:23774405

Shrestha, J M; Shrestha, R; Khanal, K

123

Abortifacient effect of metoclopramide in female albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background Metoclopramide a dopamine receptor antagonist is commonly used to treat nausea and vomiting. Long term use can cause parkinsonism, galactorrhoea and gynaecomastia. As it is lipid soluble, it enters the brain, easily crosses the placental barrier and can affect the fetus. Hence, the present study is designed to assess the risk of metoclopramide in pregnant albino rats. Objectives To study the abortifacient effect of metoclopramide in pregnant albino rats. Methods Eighteen pregnant rats were divided into three groups of six rats each. The abortifacient activities of metoclopramide were studied in the doses of 1mg/kg and 3mg/kg intramuscularly. The treatments were started on the 6th day of pregnancy and continued till the 15th day. Rats were laparotomised on 19th day of pregnancy for evaluation of abortifacient action. In both the horns of the uterus, number of implantation sites, resorption sites, dead and live fetuses were observed. Results The mean percentage of aborted fetus was 17.22 +/= 21.13 33.88 +/= 37.73 after 1mg/kg and 85.21 +/=18.93 after 3mg/kg of metoclopramide. The abortifacient effect of higher dose was significantly larger compared to both control group and low dose group, but there was no significant difference between the mean percentage of abortion in control group and the low dose group of metoclopramide. Conclusion Metoclopramide at 3mg/kg intra muscular has abortifacient effects in female albino rats.

Shrestha JM; Shrestha R; Khanal K

2013-01-01

124

Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial Activity of Propolis Ethanolic Extract and Its Improving Role of Biochemical Changes Induced by Carbon tetrachloride in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Propolis (bee glue) is a sticky substance that is collected from plants by honeybees. Due to biological and pharmacological activities, it has been extensively used in folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition, the antimicrobial activity and possible protective effects of ethanolic extract of propolis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced biological damages in rats. The studied rats were allotted to four equal groups (6 rats each) : Group 1 served as control and was given the vehicle (Tween 80 dissolved in distilled water, 1:100 ) orally for 21 consecutive days after which they were sacrificed , group 2 treated orally with ethanolic extract of popolis (100?g/rat) for 21 successive days, group 3 ( CCl4 - treated group) administered orally with a single dose (0.5 ml/kg body weight) of carbon tetrachloride (mixed with an equal volume of olive oil) and group 4 (protected group) was treated with propolis extract (100?g/rat) for 21 successive days, after one hour of the last dose of the treatment, a single dose of CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) was given. Then all animals were sacrificed, 24 hr post experimental design period for each group. Our results revealed that, fourteen compounds were identified by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC- MS analysis). Propolis ethanolic extract inhibited the growth of six from the tested microorganisms including bacteria and fungi at 5 mg/ml against E. coli and B. subtilis and 20 mg/ml against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Penicillium italicum and Candida albicans, while it has no effect on A. fumigatus and Syncephalstrum racemasum. In experimental animals, Leucocytic counts and platelets, in addition, AST, ALT, CK and LDH were significantly increased, meanwhile, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) level was decreased in CCl4 treated rats (group 3) compared to the control (group 1). Protection with ethanolic extract of propolis to rats received CCl4 (group 4) ameliorated the altered levels of studied parameters as compared to control group. In conclusion, these results suggest that propolis has antimicrobial activity and a protective effect on biological damages induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. More researches are required to isolate and purify the active principle involve in biological activity of propolis to used as a curative agent

2009-01-01

125

Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Heavy Metal (Nickel II and ChromiumVI) Induced Alteration of Serum Lipid Profile in Male Albino Rats  

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We have studied the effect of simultaneous oral treatment of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum) on heavy metal (nickel II and chromium VI) induced changes in serum lipid profile. Nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low density lipoprotein-...

Amrita Das Gupta; Swastika N. Das; Salim A. Dhundasi; Kusal K. Das

126

Histological and Histochemical Studies on the Effects of Methotrexate on the Liver of Adult Male Albino Rat Estudios Histológico e Histoquímico del Efecto del Metotrexato en el Hígado de Rata Macho Albina Adulta  

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Full Text Available Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used in the therapy of various types of malignancy. The present work was designed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes in the liver of albino rat following methotrexate administration. Fifteen adult male albino rats were used in the present work. They were divided into three main groups: Group I was kept without treatment and served as control. Groups II and III were given intraperitoneal injections of normal saline and MTX, respectively, at a dosage of (0.5 mg/Kg) twice weekly for total durations of 3, 6 and 9 weeks. The rats were sacrificed and the livers were excised and processed for histological and histochemical study. Examination of sections of the livers of group III showed mononuclear cell infiltration and an increase in the amount of collagen fibers in the portal tracts. There were focal areas of liver cell necrosis with distortion of the normal hepatic architecture. Moreover, there was a gradual and progressive decrease of glycogen content in the hepatocytes. Furthermore, succinic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity were also decreased. In addition there was an increase in acid phosphatase activities in the degenerated areas and loss of activities in areas of massive cellular necrosis. It was concluded that repeated injections of MTX causes hepatic damage of a definite magnitude. This hepatotoxicity progressed with increasing cumulative doses of methotrexate. The present study provided further evidence to the cytotoxic potency of this antifolateEl metotrexato es ampliamente usado en la terapia de varias enfermedades malignas. El presente trabajo fue diseñado para investigar los cambios histológicos e histoquímicos del hígado de rata albina, después de administrar dicho fármaco. Se usaron 15 ratas albinas, machos, adultas, que fueron divididas en 3 grupos: El grupo I no tuvo tratamiento correspondiendo al control. A los grupos II y III se les administró, por vía intraperitoneal, una solución salina normal y metotrexato, respectivamente, con una dosificación de 0,5 mg por Kg de peso, dos veces por semana, con una duración total de 3, 6 y 9 semanas. Las ratas fueron sacrificadas y los hígados extraídos y procesados para los estudios histológico e histoquímico. El examen de los hígados del grupo III mostró infiltración celular mononuclear y un incremento en la cantidad de fibras colágenas en la vía portal. Hubo áreas focales de necrosis de células hepáticas con distorsión de la arquitectura hepática normal. Además, hubo un gradual y progresivo decrecimiento del contenido de glicógeno en los hepatocitos. La actividad de deshidrogenasa succínica y fosfatas alcalinas también disminuyó, pero sí hubo un aumento de la actividad de las fosfatasas ácidas en las áreas degeneradas y pérdida de actividades en áreas de necrosis celular masiva. En conclusión, inyecciones repetidas de metotrexato causan daño hepático de maginitud definida. Esta hepatotoxicidad progresó a medida que las dosis se fueron acumulando. El presente estudio muestra evidencias claras de la potencia citotóxica de este medicamento.

Mohamed Akram Al-Motabagani

2006-01-01

127

Histological and Histochemical Studies on the Effects of Methotrexate on the Liver of Adult Male Albino Rat/ Estudios Histológico e Histoquímico del Efecto del Metotrexato en el Hígado de Rata Macho Albina Adulta  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El metotrexato es ampliamente usado en la terapia de varias enfermedades malignas. El presente trabajo fue diseñado para investigar los cambios histológicos e histoquímicos del hígado de rata albina, después de administrar dicho fármaco. Se usaron 15 ratas albinas, machos, adultas, que fueron divididas en 3 grupos: El grupo I no tuvo tratamiento correspondiendo al control. A los grupos II y III se les administró, por vía intraperitoneal, una solución salina norma (more) l y metotrexato, respectivamente, con una dosificación de 0,5 mg por Kg de peso, dos veces por semana, con una duración total de 3, 6 y 9 semanas. Las ratas fueron sacrificadas y los hígados extraídos y procesados para los estudios histológico e histoquímico. El examen de los hígados del grupo III mostró infiltración celular mononuclear y un incremento en la cantidad de fibras colágenas en la vía portal. Hubo áreas focales de necrosis de células hepáticas con distorsión de la arquitectura hepática normal. Además, hubo un gradual y progresivo decrecimiento del contenido de glicógeno en los hepatocitos. La actividad de deshidrogenasa succínica y fosfatas alcalinas también disminuyó, pero sí hubo un aumento de la actividad de las fosfatasas ácidas en las áreas degeneradas y pérdida de actividades en áreas de necrosis celular masiva. En conclusión, inyecciones repetidas de metotrexato causan daño hepático de maginitud definida. Esta hepatotoxicidad progresó a medida que las dosis se fueron acumulando. El presente estudio muestra evidencias claras de la potencia citotóxica de este medicamento. Abstract in english Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used in the therapy of various types of malignancy. The present work was designed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes in the liver of albino rat following methotrexate administration. Fifteen adult male albino rats were used in the present work. They were divided into three main groups: Group I was kept without treatment and served as control. Groups II and III were given intraperitoneal injections of normal saline and MT (more) X, respectively, at a dosage of (0.5 mg/Kg) twice weekly for total durations of 3, 6 and 9 weeks. The rats were sacrificed and the livers were excised and processed for histological and histochemical study. Examination of sections of the livers of group III showed mononuclear cell infiltration and an increase in the amount of collagen fibers in the portal tracts. There were focal areas of liver cell necrosis with distortion of the normal hepatic architecture. Moreover, there was a gradual and progressive decrease of glycogen content in the hepatocytes. Furthermore, succinic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity were also decreased. In addition there was an increase in acid phosphatase activities in the degenerated areas and loss of activities in areas of massive cellular necrosis. It was concluded that repeated injections of MTX causes hepatic damage of a definite magnitude. This hepatotoxicity progressed with increasing cumulative doses of methotrexate. The present study provided further evidence to the cytotoxic potency of this antifolate

Al-Motabagani, Mohamed Akram

2006-09-01

128

The disposition of [2,3-14C]-methyl and [2,3-14C]-2-ethylhexyl acrylate in male Wistar albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The disposition of methyl [2,3-14C]-acrylate (MA) and 2-ethylhexyl [2,3-14C]-acrylate (EHA) following intraperitoneal and oral administration to rats has been studied. The 14C found in the tissues was mainly associated with liver, kidneys and lungs. Loss of 14C from these tissues occurred fairly rapidly, excluding the rats given EHA intraperitoneally. Most of the administered acrylates underwent rapid metabolism and excretion with expired air (more than 50% of the dose and urine (10-50% of the dose). Significant differences in the rates of 14C loss from tissues and excretion occurred after intrapritoneal administration of MA and EHA. A possible cumulation of EHA in the organism was suggested.

Sapota A

1988-01-01

129

The disposition of [2,3-14C]-methyl and [2,3-14C]-2-ethylhexyl acrylate in male wistar albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The disposition of methyl [2,3-14C]-acrylate (MA) and 2-ethylhexyl [2,3-14C]-acrylate (EHA) following intraperitoneal and oral administration to rats has been studied. The 14C found in the tissues was mainly associated with liver, kidneys and lungs. Loss of 14C from these tissues occurred fairly rapidly, excluding the rats given EHA intraperitoneally. Most of the administered acrylated underwent rapid metabolism and excretion with expired air (more than 50% of the dose and urine (10-50% of the dose). Significant differences in the rates of 14C loss from tissues and excretion occurred after intrapritoneal administration of MA and EHA. A possible cumulation of EHA in the organism was suggested. (orig.)

1988-01-01

130

Disposition of (2,3-/sup 14/C)-methyl and (2,3-/sup 14/C)-2-ethylhexyl acrylate in male wistar albino rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The disposition of methyl (2,3-/sup 14/C)-acrylate (MA) and 2-ethylhexyl (2,3-/sup 14/C)-acrylate (EHA) following intraperitoneal and oral administration to rats has been studied. The /sup 14/C found in the tissues was mainly associated with liver, kidneys and lungs. Loss of /sup 14/C from these tissues occurred fairly rapidly, excluding the rats given EHA intraperitoneally. Most of the administered acrylated underwent rapid metabolism and excretion with expired air (more than 50% of the dose and urine (10-50% of the dose). Significant differences in the rates of /sup 14/C loss from tissues and excretion occurred after intrapritoneal administration of MA and EHA. A possible cumulation of EHA in the organism was suggested.

Sapota, A.

1988-09-01

131

Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Heavy Metal (Nickel II and ChromiumVI) Induced Alteration of Serum Lipid Profile in Male Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have studied the effect of simultaneous oral treatment of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum) on heavy metal (nickel II and chromium VI) induced changes in serum lipid profile. Nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) level as well as decrease in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Simultaneous garlic administration with nickel sulfate showed improvement in serum LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C and TG level. But in case of potassium dichromate, garlic administration did not show satisfactory improvement in lipid profile except VLDL-C and TG level. The results indicate that garlic (Allium sativum) has some beneficial effect in preventing heavy metal (nickel and chromium VI) induced alteration of lipid profile.

Amrita Das Gupta; Swastika N. Das; Salim A. Dhundasi; Kusal K. Das

2008-01-01

132

Therapeutic Effect of Bacopa monniera Against Aluminum Induced toxicity in Medulla Oblongata of Albino rat  

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In the present study the pro-oxidant activity of aluminum (Al) and the protective role of Bacopa monniera extract (BME) were determined in the medulla oblongata of albino rats. Albino rats were divided into four groups. First group of rats was used as control, second group of rats received...

T. Madhavi; B. Mahitha; K. Mallikarjuna; N. John Sushma

133

Spontaneous choroid plexus carcinoma in an albino rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neoplasms of the choroid plexus are very rare in the rat, and few cases have been described. We report on a spontaneously occurring choroid plexus carcinoma arising from the fourth ventricle in a 2-year-old female albino rat. The infiltrative growth was observed in the adjacent brain parenchyma, in the wall of the vessels of the circle of Willis, in the perivascular space of VIRCHOW and ROBIN and in the leptomeninges. Immunohistochemical investigations demonstrated positive staining for cytokeratin (Lu-5) indicating that choroid plexus tumors in the rat express epithelial differentiation. The diagnosis was made on the basis of microscopical and immunohistochemical findings.

Pace V

1998-06-01

134

EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SWEET CORN SILK ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERTHYROIDISM IN SWISS ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Plant materials have been used as medicine for a wide variety of human ailments due to increase in cost of treatment, side effects of several allopathic drugs and development of resistance to currently used drugs for infectious diseases. In the present study, hyperthyroidism was induced to male Swiss albino rats orally using thyroxine for 14 days. The impact of methanolic extract of sweet corn silk in different concentrations (200, 300 & 400mg/kg) for 21 days was assessed in these animals. The serum was analyzed for thyroid hormone level and lipid profile before and during the experiment. Results showed that 400mg/kg concentration of methanolic extract has the highest effectiveness which is equal to that of standard drug to revert the hyperthyroid condition in Swiss albino rats and were confirmed with the histopathological study of the thyroid gland.

Thoudam Bhaigyabati; Ramya J; K. Usha

2012-01-01

135

Attenuation of the Disruptive Effect induced by the Insecticide Fenvalerate on Total Monoamine Content and Testosterone Level in Adult Male Albino Rats Using Salvia aegyptiaca Extract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Administration of fenvalerate (90 mg/kg) to rats resulted in a significant decrease in dopamine (OA) content in most of brain areas under investigation. Its content in pons + medulla oblongata was the most affected recording - 62.98 %, on day 7, compared to control. Furthermore, norepinephrine (NE) content gradually decreased in different brain areas showing its maximal decrease in cerebellum with percentage change -64.89% on day 7. Serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) showed maximal significant decrease, in the cortex with percentage differences -78.33 and -72.61%, respectively. Similarly, fen valerate resulted in a gradual decrease in serum testosterone level recording its maximal effect (-46. 58 %) at the end of the experimental period. On the other hand, administration of Salvia aegyptiaca (2 g/kg) caused a significant increase in monoamine contents (DA, NE, 5-HT and 5- HlAA) in most of the brain areas under investigation, throughout the experimental period. Moreover, Salvia extract administration resulted in a significant elevation in serum testosterone level, one day after administration, recording its maximal effect (55.75%) on day 7. Animals that received the combined treatment (Salvia extract one hour after fen valerate administration) showed that monoamine contents in most of the brain areas were more or less near to the control values. Furthermore, no significant change was noticed in serum testosterone level throughout the experiment in the combined treatment. From the present study, it can be concluded that Salvia aegyptiaca extract seems to be potentially promising for attenuating the disruption that occurred in monoamine and testosterone levels. This could highly recommend Salvia aegyptiaca to be a potential herb for further studies in the future for extracting compounds of medical use

2008-01-01

136

THE ERYTHROPOIETIC ACTION OF GERMANIUM DIOXIDE : II. THE SOURCE OF THE ERYTHROCYTHEMIA PRODUCED BY GERMANIUM DIOXIDE IN THE ALBINO RAT.  

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A histological comparison of the liver, spleen, bone marrow, circulating young erythrocytes, and differential count in mature male and female albino rats receiving germanium dioxide with their litter controls not receiving this compound was made. It was found that the livers of the test animals in ...

Hammett, Frederick S.; Nowrey, Joseph E.

137

Body and Organ Weight Changes Following Administration of Aqueous Extracts of Ficus exasperata. Vahl on White Albino Rats  

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Administration of aqueous extracts of Ficus exasperata. Vahl at doses 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg-1 body weight to male albino rats resulted in a significant (P=> 0.05) increase in body weight in all test group mean relative kidney and liver weights increased significantly in all ...

Ijeh Ifeoma Irene; C.A. Agbo Chukwunonso

138

Gonadal Responses to Antipsychotic Drugs: Chlorpromazine and Thioridazine Reversibly Suppress Testicular Functions in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This work was undertaken to investigate the individual effects and probable mechanism of action of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (largactil) and thioridazine hydrochloride (melleril) on male reproductive functions, in albino rats. A total of 45 adult male albino Wistar-strain rats were used. Five rats served as the control while the remaining forty rats were divided into four groups, of 10 rats each. Rats in group I were treated with 2.3 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group II received 5.7 mg kg-1 BW of chlorpromazine. Rats in group III, were treated with 1.7 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group IV received 2.3 mg kg-1 BW of thioridazine. Control rats received vehicle of the drugs (i.e. distilled water). Drugs and vehicle were administered orally on a daily basis. Five rats, in each of the four drug-treated groups served as the recovery rats. Sperm characteristics evaluation, serum levels of testosterone and histopathological alterations in the testis were assessed both after four weeks of continuous drug administrations and four weeks of drug withdrawal. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine significantly caused a reduction in the absolute weights of the testis, epididymis and seminal vesicles (p<0.01) at high and low doses. Weight of the prostate gland was also reduced significantly (p<0.05) at the high dose. The epididymal sperm motility, viability (life/death ratio) and counts were significantly reduced (p<0.01) at high dose of chlorpromazine and thioridazine. Moreover, sperm morphological abnormalities were significantly increased (p<0.01) at both doses of the drugs. Reduction in serum levels of testosterone for both drugs was statistically significant (p<0.01). The histopathological alterations observed in the testis includes moderate to severe degeneration of seminiferous tubular epithelium. Fertility and other associated changes were restored within four weeks of cessation of treatment. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine appear to have reversible antifertility actions in male albino rats. These actions were probably mediated within the testis and epididymis.

Y. Raji; S.O. Ifabunmi; O.S. Akinsomisoye; A.O. Morakinyo; A.K. Oloyo

2005-01-01

139

Oral Bioavailability of Simvastatin Novel Formulation in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the single dose oral bioavailability of two formulations of Simvastatin in albino rats. Plasma was analyzed for simvastatin using a sensitive, reproducible, accurate and validated LC-MS/MS method. Pharmacokinetic parameters including AUC0-t, AUC0-?, Cmax, Tmax, and t1/2 were determined from plasma concentration for both formulations. Self-emulsifying Formulation of simvastatin showed a significant improvement in bioavailability (1.5 fold) as compared with the conventional tablets.

Singla.N; Gupta.G.D; Kohli.K; Jain

2009-01-01

140

Renal Lesions Induced by Pyrethroid Inhalation in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of pyrethroid inhalation was studied on the kidney of Albino rats. The results revealed that animals inhaled tetramethrin for 15 days showed a significant increase in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histological examination of the kidney of treated animals indicated marked symptoms of renal tissues impairment. The renal tubules lost their characteristic appearance and their linning epithelial cells appeared with cytoplasmic vacuolation. The glomeruli were degenerated and the renal blood vessels were congested. The intertubular spaces were infiltrated by inflammatory leucocytic cells. The magnitude of these changes was time-dependent, being more prominent after 15 days of treatment.

S. A. Sakr; H. A. Mahran; Y. A. Okdah

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

[Delayed effect of exorphins on learning of albino rat pups  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The delayed effect of food-derived opioid peptides (exorphins) after chronic administration on postnatal days 1-14 on the learning of albino rat pups has been studied. Heptapeptide YPFPGPI (beta-casomorphin-7), pentapeptide YPLDL (rubiscolin-5) and pentapeptide YPISL (exorphin C) improved the development of the conditioned foraging reflex in a complex maze. Hexapeptide PFPGPI lacking the N-terminal tyrosine proved inefficient. Only beta-casomorphin-7 had an effect (negative) on passive avoidance conditioning. The obtained data confirm that exorphins (particularly, milk-derived beta-casomorphins) can have significant and long-term effects on the environmental adaptation of young mammals.

Dubynin VA; Malinovskaia IV; Beliaeva IuA; Stovolosov IS; Bespalova ZhD; Andreeva LA; Kamenski? AA; Miasoedov NF

2008-01-01

142

[Delayed effect of exorphins on learning of albino rat pups].  

Science.gov (United States)

The delayed effect of food-derived opioid peptides (exorphins) after chronic administration on postnatal days 1-14 on the learning of albino rat pups has been studied. Heptapeptide YPFPGPI (beta-casomorphin-7), pentapeptide YPLDL (rubiscolin-5) and pentapeptide YPISL (exorphin C) improved the development of the conditioned foraging reflex in a complex maze. Hexapeptide PFPGPI lacking the N-terminal tyrosine proved inefficient. Only beta-casomorphin-7 had an effect (negative) on passive avoidance conditioning. The obtained data confirm that exorphins (particularly, milk-derived beta-casomorphins) can have significant and long-term effects on the environmental adaptation of young mammals. PMID:18491562

Dubynin, V A; Malinovskaia, I V; Beliaeva, Iu A; Stovolosov, I S; Bespalova, Zh D; Andreeva, L A; Kamenski?, A A; Miasoedov, N F

143

Histopathology of kidney of albino rat poisoned with uranyl nitrate  

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Heavy metals input into the media either terrestrial or aquatic is an important aspect of environmental pollution. Heavy metals are known to produce toxic effects on the different tissues of various terrestrial and aquatic animals. Some of these are highly toxic at even very low concentrations and they alter the cellular architecture of many organs including the kidney. Little has been done on the effect of rare earth metals, particularly that of uranium on the kidney of animals. In the present paper histopathological changes produced by uranium on the kidney of albino rats are discussed.

Goel, K.A.; Garg, V.K.; Garg, V.

1980-01-01

144

Selected neurobehavioural evaluation of Leucas Aspera in wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Leucas Aspera is used in traditional medicine for many ailments. The present study was designed to evaluate the neuro behavioural effects in Wistar albino rats after oral administration of leaves of Leucas Aspera for 28 days. Methods: Wistar albino rats of either sex were treated with the aqueous suspension of dried powdered leaves of L. aspera. Three different groups of animals received L. aspera suspension in doses of 50 mg/kg/day, 100 mg /kg/day or 200mg/kg/day orally for 28 days. The animals were weighed once in a week and the food and water consumption was monitored every day. Behavioural changes in these animals were monitored every week using Rotarod, Actophotometer and William?s maze. Results: A significant increase in body weight, food and water consumption in rats could be recorded after 3rdand 4th week of treatment with 200mg/kg/day L. aspera. However, there were no changes in any of the behavioural responses in L. aspera treated groups compared to control. Conclusions: The unaltered neuro behavioural responses after L. aspera treatment indicate the safe nature of this medicinal plant. The significant increase in food consumption and body weight changes suggest a potential anabolic/ nutraceutical property of L aspera.. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000): 433-437

Kavitha R; Kannan R; Glory Josephine I

2013-01-01

145

TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FICUS VIRENS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the toxic effect of oral administration of methanolic leaf extract of Ficus virens in Wistar albino rats.The phytochemical analysis of the F.virens extract was carried out using high performance thin layer chromatography revealed for the presence of flavonoids, bitter principles, coumarins and absence of alkaloids, anthracene derivatives. Acute oral toxicity study (OECD 423) showed no clinical signs of toxicity and mortality even at dose of 2000-5000 mg/kg in 24 h and 14 day observation period. For repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407) extract was given at dose of 50, 200, and 800 mg/kg and limit dose of 1000mg/kg for 28 days and compared with the control group given with the distilled water. The result showed no significant increase (P>0.05) in biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine) and haematological parameters. No significant decrease in feed consumption and body weight gain, also there were no treatment related gross and histopathological changes. In conclusion, methanolic leaf extract of F. virens did not revealed any clinical signs of toxicity and mortality in both acute and repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study at given dose and duration in Wistar albino rats. LD50 value may be more than 2000 mg/kg, can be classified as category 5 and indicating non-toxic nature of the methanolic leaf extract of Ficus virens.

Pattar Jayashree; N.B Shridhar; Matham Vijaykumar; K Suhasini; Jayakumar; M.L Satyanarayana

2012-01-01

146

The protective role of damsissa (Ambroosia Maritima) against gamma irradiation in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work was directed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with damsissa (Ambrosia maritima) for thirty consecutive days pre- irradiation exposure in controlling the post-irradiation hazards in irradiated rats. Male albino rats (Spraue Dowley strain) weighing about 120+- 10 g were used and blood samples were collected from tails of animals thirty days after treatment with damsissa and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysis such as liver functions, kidney function and lipid profile. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant decrease in the contents of total proteins accompanied by significant increase of urea level as recorded on the 7th days post irradiation. Data obtained in this study revealed that whole body gamma irradiation induced significant elevation in all tested blood lipid functions. There was significant increase of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) whole alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed statistical significant decrease as compared with the control group. Damisissa (Ambrosia maritima) treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of damsissa may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

2003-01-01

147

Biochemical Effects Of Ribavirin (Antiviral) And Ddb (Hepato Protective) Drugs In Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present investigation has been designed to through spot light on the efficiency of these two drugs in treatment of hepatitis patients. Cortisol, antigliadin (1gG) , total protein (TP) albumin (ALB) , Iron (Fe) , alanine aminotransferase (ALT) , aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum of normal mature male and female albino rats that injected intraperitoneally day after day with 1mg/kg body weight of each drug separately for 3 months. The cortisol level and ALP showed significant increase in each of ribavirin or DDB treated animals, while the IgG concentration in ribavirin treated animals increased significantly, but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animals. On the other hand both ribavirin and DDB treated male and female rats showed significant decrease in the ALT in serum while serum AST elicited non significant decrease in each of ribavirin and DDB treated male and female. With respect to serum TP and ALB levels the result showed significant decrease in ribavirin and non significant decrease in DDB treated male and female rats. Furthermore, the serum Fe level in ribavirin treated male and female rats increased significantly but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animal.

Soliman S. Ibrahim, Amr Shalaby and Mahmoud Rabeh

2005-01-01

148

Effect of Hawthorn (Crataegus aronia syn. Azarolus (L)) on platelet function in albino Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the possible antiplatelet effect of aqueous whole-plant C. aronia syn: Azarolus (L) extract using Wistar albino rats as a model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two male albino Wistar rats weighing 200 to 250 g were divided into seven groups with six rats in each group. Group 1 served as the control and received equal volumes of distilled water. Groups 2-6 served as the experimental groups and were given C. aronia extract at doses of 100, 200, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg, while group 7 served as a positive control and was given aspirin (25mg/kg). All the doses were administered orally once a day and the treatment was continued for seven days. In all groups, at the end of the experimental procedure, blood samples were obtained for platelet function measurements, including PFA-100, thromboxane B2 levels, platelet count, and haematocrit. The bleeding time was determined using a modified tail cutting method described previously. RESULTS: The aqueous C. aronia syn. Azarolus (L) extract significantly altered the bleeding time and the closure time, as determined by the PFA-100 and thromboxane B2 levels, suggesting significant platelet function inhibition. These effects were observed with C. aronia doses between 100 - 500 mg/kg, which yielded thromboxane B2 levels of 1,000 mg/kg, whereas the higher dose (2,000 mg/kg) produced opposite effects on these parameters. CONCLUSION: C. aronia syn. Azarolus (L) aqueous extract has antiplatelet effects in Wistar albino rats.

Shatoor AS; Soliman H; Al-Hashem F; Gamal BE; Othman A; El-Menshawy N

2012-07-01

149

Impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome in albino rats  

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Full Text Available Accumulative reports documented that oxidative stress is implicated in many human and animal diseases. However, the reports concerning the effect of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome are limited and scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome and to assess the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and E on oxidative stress parameters in blood and placental tissue samples in experimental pregnant animals model exposed to oxidative stress. Wister Albino rats were used in this work to investigate the effects of oxidative stress exposure (addition of H2O2 to the drinking water) on pregnancy outcome. Rats were divided into 5 groups, as follows: Group I (included 7 normal pregnant rats which served as control group). Group II (exposed to 1 % H2O2) included 7 pregnant rats, the rats were allowed to become pregnant and received (1% H2O2) in drinking water from day 7th till the day 19th of pregnancy. Group III (exposed to 3% H2O2) included 8 pregnant rats. Same as group 2, but the rats were exposed to a higher concentration of H2O2 (3%) in drinking water. Group IV (included 8 pregnant rats). Pregnant rats received vitamins C and E without induction of oxidative stress. Group V (included 8 pregnant rats).induction of oxidative stress by 1% H2O2 with vitamins supplementation in the pregnant rats. Serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC), serum and placental tissue oxidative stress biomarker; 8-iso prostaglandin F2? (8-Isoprostane) were measured using specific ELISA kits. Also placental tissues of pregnant rats were isolated and put directly in 10% formalin prepared for histopathological examination. Results revealed a significant decrease in the median values of the body weight and total serum antioxidants capacity (TAC) in groups II and III of rats compared with the control group. A significant higher median value of TAC obtained in the groups IV and V when compared with the control group. Significant higher levels of serum and tissue Isoprostane observed in both groups II and III compared with control group. Histopathological, oxidative stress induced macroscopically degenerative with microscopical appearance of vasculitis and hemorrhage within decidua. Data of the present study demonstrated that imbalance oxidative stress status in pregnant rats occurred due to exposure to oxidant, which played an important role in the pathogenesis of abnormal pregnancy outcome. In addition antioxidants supplementation (vitamins E and C) were valuable in reducing this stress.

R.S. Al-Naemi; Q.H. Abdullah; S.A. Ibrahim

2012-01-01

150

Effect of Some Antioxidants on the Physical Fitness of Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In recent years, more attention has been paid for searching of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in either medicinal practice or as food raw materials. The aim of the present research is to assess the effect of several well-known products used as antioxidants, on body weight, haemopoesis, endocrine system and lipid profile in normal albino rats. Thirty male adult albino rats were equally arranged into 5 groups, the first group was served as control and the others received special treatments where taurine (2% in drinking water), tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w. orally), hawthorn extract (50 mg/100 g b.w. orally) and coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg b.w. orally) were given for two months. Body weight was regularly recorded twice a week and at the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) content, reticulocytic count, white blood cell count (WBCs) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were estimated in blood, while, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), Testosterone, and corticosterone hormones besides lipid profile were estimated in the serum. The results denoted that although there is a slight improvement in the parameters tested, it does not deserve the coast of the regular use of these antioxidants and further investigations still needed

2011-01-01

151

Effect of cow urine on wound healing property in Wister Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The wound healing activity of cow urine was studied in Wistar albino rats. The efficacy of wound healing property was evaluated by excision wound model. The parameter studied was the rate of wound contraction. The studies on excision wound healing revealed that all the groups showed decreased wound area from day to day. On day 4th, the external application of urine showed significant increase in wound healing in male and female rats compared to all other groups. However, on 14th post wounding day, Group I and VIII animals showed 0 % and 0.40.4 % of healing was left, which may be due to normal immunity of the animals. Where as nitrofurazone treated animals showed 0 % and 0.50.3 % healing .The study revealed that the cow urine on external application to the wound, hastened the wound healing process. [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000): 317-321

Jagadeesh S. Sanganal; Jayakumar.K.; Jayaramu G.M.; V.P. Tikare.,Paniraj K.L and Swetha R

2011-01-01

152

Modulatory Effect of Vitamin C on Genotoxic Effect of Endosulfan in Developing Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The genotoxic effect of endosulfan and the modulatory effect of vitamin C in growing albino rats were studied by bone marrow micronucleus assay. Seven days old male Wistar rats were treated with 3, 6, 9, 12mg/kg Endosulfan orally (10 pups/group),for up to 60 days, at intervals of 24h. For 2 more groups (n=10/group), Endosulfan 9mg/kg and 12mg/kg was administered along with vitamin C (20mg/kg). One more group of rats were treated with cyclophosphamide as positive control. The genotoxic effect was studied by bone marrow micronuclei assay.There was an increase in micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) and a decrease in PCE and P/N ratio in endosulfan treated rats. The effect was similar to the standard mutagen cyclophosphamide. In rats treated with vitamin C and endosulfan, there was an increase in PCE and P/N ratio and decrease in micronuclei in PCE and NCE. This could be due to the antimutagenic effect of vitamin C. Increase in micronuclei in endosulfan treated rats showed genotoxic effect of endosulfan. Decrease in micronuclei in animals treated with both endosulfan and vitamin C, showed antimutagenic effect of vitamin C.

S.D. Manjula; S. Benjamin; K. L. Bairy

2006-01-01

153

A Comparative Study Of Nicotine Effect On The Liver Of Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available We have studied the effect of cigarette smoke inhalation versus subcutanous nicotine injction on the liver of 40 adult male albino rats . Animals were divided into; cigarrete inhalation group and subcutaneous nicotine injection group. Inhalation group was subdivided into 5 subgroups ;three groups inhaled the smoke of two cigarettes three times a day in a closed chamber for 1,2&3 weeks respectively; a group of recovery after inhalation and a control group.The nicotine injection group was also subdivided into 5 subgroups;three groups were injected subcutaneously with 0.1ml of 1% nicotine every two days for 1,2&3 weeks respectively; a group of recovery after injection and a control group.Rats were sacrificed at the determined durations and the liver was subjected for preparation of 6 microns paraffin sections. Microscopic examination of paraffin sections stained with H&E; Masson trichrome and PASwas done and interpreted with the image analyzer. Several histological findings such as degenerative changes in hepatocytes, cellular infiltration, periportal fibrosis, and congestion of both central and portal veins have been noticed. Also, histochemical P.A.S. reaction has showed marked decrease in both groups. The mean optical density (O D) of P A S in hepatocytes of cigarette group was (0.31±0.02), and that of nicotine group was (0.26±0.03), which were significantly lower than that in the control group with mean O.D. (0.54±0.5) and (0.51±0.03) respectively. In conclusion; the inhalation of nicotine in the form of cigarette smoke resulted in deteriorative changes in the liver of the male adult albino rat more than nicotine injected subcutaneously, and these changes was partialy reversed shortly after withdrawal.

Mamdouh A. Ghaly; El Sayed G. Khedr And Ahmed Abdel Aleem

2003-01-01

154

Observations on Chromosomal Aberrations Following the Administration of Methanol Sub-Fraction of Carica papaya Seeds for Contraception in Albino Rats and Rabbits  

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The seed products of Carica papaya have been proven as potential male contraceptives in laboratory animals. In this study, chromosomal aberrations were investigated in spermatogonia of albino rats and rabbits, following oral administration of Methanol Sub-Fraction (MSF) of Carica papaya

A.S. Ansari; S. Shrivastava; S. Goyal; N.K. Lohiya

155

The Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Aloe. Vera Aqueous Extract in Fructose-Fed Male Rats  

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A B S T R A C T Introduction: Aloe Vera extract is used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-bradikinin agent in laboratory animals. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the ant-nociceptive effect of A. Vera aqueous extract in fructose-fed male rats. Methods: Forty-five Wistar-Albino male rats were eq...

Mohammad Reza Shahraki; Hamide Mirshikari; Elham Shahraki

156

Ascorbic Acid Ameliorates Toxic Effects of Chlopyrifos on Testicular Functions of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Chlorpirifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for both agricultural and domestic purposes with attendant human exposures. Many authors have documented the toxic effects of CPF on the central nervous system. This study was designed to study the effect of CPF and the influence of coadministration of ascorbic acid (AA) on the testicular functions of albino rats. Twenty five 2 months old male albino wistar rats were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each (Group A-E). A (control) received vegetable oil, B received 16.3 mg/kg CPF, C received 32.6 mg/kg CPF, D received 16.3 mg/kg CPF + AA 100 mg/kg and E received 32.6 mg/kg CPF + AA 100 mg/kg. Treatment was orally for a duration of 21 days. Thereafter, body weight, serum testosterone, testicular, epididymal and seminal vesicle weight, epididymal sperm concentration, sperm motility and histopathology of the testis, epidydimis and seminal vesicles were determined using standard methods. CPF caused a statistically significant change (p<0.05) in body weight, testicular weight, epididymal weight, sperm concentration, sperm motility and serum testosterone concentration. Seminal vesicle weight was not affected. Histopathological studies revealed reduced sperm reserve, fibrosis and fatty infiltration in the epididymis, seminiferous tubules and seminal vesicles respectively. Co-administration of AA significantly caused improvement in all the parameters measured. It is concluded that CPF caused testicular toxicity by possible oxidative stress which was reversed with co-administration of AA.

Kolawole Victor Olorunshola; L.N. Achie; M.L. Akpomiemie

2011-01-01

157

Histopathological and functional effects of antimony on the renal cortex of growing albino rat  

Science.gov (United States)

Contamination of the environment with antimony compounds may affect human health through the persistent exposure to small doses over a long period. Sixty growing male albino rats, weighing 43-57 grams, utilized in this study. The animals were divided into 3 groups; each of 20 rats: animals of group I served as control, animals of group II received 6 mg/kg body weight antimony trisulfide daily for 8 weeks with drinking water, and those of group III received the same dose by the same route for 12 weeks. The Malpighian renal corpuscles showed distortion, destruction and congestion of glomerular tuft, vacuoles in the glomeruli, peritubular haemorrhage, obliteration of Bowman’s space, and thickening with irregularity of Bowman’s membrane. The proximal convoluted tubules demonstrated patchy loss of their brush border, thickening of the basement membrane with loss of its basal infoldings, disarrangement of the mitochondria, pleomorphic vacuoles in the cytoplasm, apical destruction of the cells, apical migration of the nuclei, and absence of microvilli. On the other hand, peri-tubular hemorrhage, apical vacuolation, small atrophic nuclei, swelling of mitochondria, obliteration of the lumina, destruction of cells, and presence of tissue debris in the lumina, were observed in the distal convoluted tubules. The present work demonstrated the hazardous effect of antimony on the renal function as evidenced by the significant increase of the level of blood urea, serum creatinine, and serum sodium and potassium. In conclusion, this study proposed that continuous oral administration of antimony for 8 and 12 weeks has hazardous toxic effect on the structure and function of the kidney in growing albino rat. Based on the results of the present study, it is recommended to avoid the use of any drinking water contaminated with antimony compounds and forbidden its use in infants and children foods.

Rashedy, Ahmed H; Solimany, Adnan A; Ismail, Ayman K; Wahdan, Mohamed H; Saban, Khalid A

2013-01-01

158

Effect of Costus igneus stem extract on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Costus igneus (stem) and isolated compounds lupeol and stigmasterol on calcium oxalate urolithiasis have been studied in male albino Wistar rats. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and oxalate. The increased deposition of stone-forming constituents in the urine, serum, and kidney homogenate of urolithic rats was significantly (p < 0.05) lowered by treatment using aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. igneus (stem), and isolated compounds lupeol and stigmasterol. The calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the kidney was significantly greater in ethylene glycol-induced urolithic rats. After administration of aqueous and ethanolic extract of C. igneus, the deposition of calcium and oxalate was significantly lowered. Treatment with lupeol and stigmasterol significantly reduced the deposition of calcium and oxalate in the kidney, and also in the blood serum; the lipid profile serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels at 50 and 100 mg/kg were significantly (p < 0.05) lowered in urolithiatic rats. From this study, we conclude that both the treatments with aqueous and ethanolic extract of C. igneus (stem) and isolated compounds lupeol and stigmasterol had an inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate urinary stone. Lupeol and stigmasterol were identified from the stem of C. igneus by high-performance thin layer chromatography technique. The isolated compounds were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and (13)C NMR spectra.

Manjula K; Rajendran K; Eevera T; Kumaran S

2012-10-01

159

Effect of Costus igneus stem extract on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Costus igneus (stem) and isolated compounds lupeol and stigmasterol on calcium oxalate urolithiasis have been studied in male albino Wistar rats. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and oxalate. The increased deposition of stone-forming constituents in the urine, serum, and kidney homogenate of urolithic rats was significantly (p < 0.05) lowered by treatment using aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. igneus (stem), and isolated compounds lupeol and stigmasterol. The calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the kidney was significantly greater in ethylene glycol-induced urolithic rats. After administration of aqueous and ethanolic extract of C. igneus, the deposition of calcium and oxalate was significantly lowered. Treatment with lupeol and stigmasterol significantly reduced the deposition of calcium and oxalate in the kidney, and also in the blood serum; the lipid profile serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels at 50 and 100 mg/kg were significantly (p < 0.05) lowered in urolithiatic rats. From this study, we conclude that both the treatments with aqueous and ethanolic extract of C. igneus (stem) and isolated compounds lupeol and stigmasterol had an inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate urinary stone. Lupeol and stigmasterol were identified from the stem of C. igneus by high-performance thin layer chromatography technique. The isolated compounds were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and (13)C NMR spectra. PMID:22298189

Manjula, K; Rajendran, K; Eevera, T; Kumaran, S

2012-10-01

160

Antioxidant Effect of Caffeic Acid on Oxytetracycline Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Caffeic acid is a well-known phenolic compound widely present in plant kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of caffeic acid (CA) against oxytetracycline (OXT) induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino Wistar rats. A total of 30 rats weighing 150–170 g were randomly divided into five groups of six rats in each group. Oral administration of OXT (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 15 days produced hepatic damage as manifested by a significant increase in serum hepatic markers namely aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bilirubin and increased plasma and hepatic lipid peroxidation indices (TBARS and hydroperoxide). The present finding shows that the levels of enzymatic antioxidants namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased in OXT intoxicated rats. Upon oral administration of caffeic acid (40 mg/kg body weight/day) there were decreased hepatic marker activities, bilirubin and lipid peroxidation and increased enzymatic antioxidants in OXT + Caffeic acid group compared to Normal + OXT group(P < 0.05). Our study suggests that caffeic acid has antioxidant property and hepatoprotective ability against OXT induced toxicity.

Jayanthi, R.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Antidiabetic Activity of Some Herbal Plants in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Albino Rats  

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Aqueous extract of leaves of 3 herbs (Murraya koenigii, MK; Psidium guajava, PG and Catharanthus roseus, CR) were used to test their antidiabetic activity in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic albino rats. MK, PG and CR are given to the STZ induced diabetic rats at the concen...

S.K. Prasad; Alka Kulshreshtha; Taj N. Qureshi

162

Effect of beta-casomorphin-7 on DNA synthesis in cell populations of newborn albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the effect of beta-casomorphin-7 on DNA synthesis in cell populations of newborn albino rats. Intraperitoneal administration of a beta-casein fragment heptapeptide beta-casomorphin-7 (1 mg/kg, 1 or 5 injections) activated proliferative processes in the myocardium and ectodermal and endodermal epithelium of newborn rats. PMID:19023971

Maslennikova, N V; Sazonova, E N; Timoshin, S S

2008-02-01

163

Effect of beta-casomorphin-7 on DNA synthesis in cell populations of newborn albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied the effect of beta-casomorphin-7 on DNA synthesis in cell populations of newborn albino rats. Intraperitoneal administration of a beta-casein fragment heptapeptide beta-casomorphin-7 (1 mg/kg, 1 or 5 injections) activated proliferative processes in the myocardium and ectodermal and endodermal epithelium of newborn rats.

Maslennikova NV; Sazonova EN; Timoshin SS

2008-02-01

164

Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Kalanchoe Pinnata On Serum Creatine Kinase In Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata on the level of cretatine kinase was investigated using albino rats. The extract with ethanol yielded 7.80%. The albino rats were treated with doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight of the extract for seven days. Results showed that there was a slight decrease in physical activities and body weight of all the animals treated with the ethanolic extract compared to the control. There was a significant (P > 0.05) increase in serum creatine kinase activity in albino rats treated with the ethanolic extract than the control. Within the groups treated with the ethanolic extract, Group A (400mg/kg body weight) was significantly (P > 0.05) higher than Group B (200mg/kg body weight). This increase value of creatine kinase activity could encourage the supply of energy needed for muscular contraction.

Chibueze Nwose

2013-01-01

165

Hepatoprotection: A Hallmark of Citrullus colocynthis L. against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats  

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Objective: To demonstrate the in-vivo hepatoprotective effect of the ethanolic extracts of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Animal Model: Swiss Albino rats of either sex were used, divided into six groups w...

Arshed Iqbal Dar; Ramesh Chandra Saxena; Suresh Kumar Bansal

166

Hepatoprotective Activity on Vitex negundo Linn. (Verbenaceae) by using Wistar Albino Rats in Ibuprofen Induced Model  

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Full Text Available The present study was intended to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity on ethanolic extract of leaves of Vitex negundo was determined by using Wistar Albino rats in male sex. The V. negundo Linn. is a natural plant product, in it’s the leaves are used with the added advantage to revert Ibuprofen induced hepatotoxicity. Oral administration of ethanol extract of V. negundo (100 and 300 mg) produced a significant and dose dependent inhibition to the acute hepatotoxic induced rats and various parameters were analyzed, when compared with negative control V. negundo showed that the significant activity in 300 mg/kg/b.wt. They exhibited a significant inhibition of hepatic toxicity by using various marker enzymes and the histopathological analysis. The inhibitory effect of the V. negundo on hepatotoxicity was compared to that of positive control group. The various parameters such glucose, protein, triglycerides, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, ALP, ACP, SGPT, SGOT and histopathological parameters was measured by dissection the rats. A significant index and values were observed in the acute assays; an effective significant alteration in all biochemical and histopathological sections was observed. From these results, concluded that the V. negundo having the potential effectiveness at the dose of 300 mg/kg/b.wt., (pV. negundo having the hepatoprotective activity, which support the hepatic cells protection.

R. Mahalakshmi; P. Rajesh; N. Ramesh; V. Balasubramanian; V. Rajesh Kannan

2010-01-01

167

Effect of Commiphora myrrha extract on some physiological parameters and histological changes in diabetic albino rats  

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Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the antidiabetic activity of Commiphora myrrha (CM) aqueous extract on thirty adult male albino rats, which were divided into two groups; the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg/Kg body weight) and divided into two subgroups the first served as diabetic group, the second treated with (CM) water extract (0.05mg/100 gm bwt). After 30 days of the treatment half of each group was sacrificed and the other half was left for other 15 days without any additional treatment (recovery period). Our results revealed highly significant decrease (p< 0.01) in blood glucose level and highly significant increase in body weight of the diabetic rats with different histological changes in cells of islets of Langerhans. These histological and physiological changes were ameliorated in rats treated with CM. Water extract of CM has a definite hypoglycemic, hyperinsulinimic effect, on the other hand, a significant increase in body weight, cell number and liver glycogen contents were achieved. The results of the present study clarify the role of CM as an active antidiabetic plant and suggest a relationship between drenching CM extract and insulin production. Other of investigations want be done to detect effects of different doses and time intervals of CM in diabetic animals.

Eman G.E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud ** Essam E. El-Badawy

2005-01-01

168

Effect of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Fruit Extract on Sperm Toxicity Induced by Caffeine in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Extracts of Annona spp. have been used for several medicinal purposes such as the management of diabetes and its complications, also as antioxidant and antimutagenic agents. There have been attempts to attenuate toxic effects using medicinal plants. Hence, the mitigating effect of soursop (A. muricata) fruit extract on sperm toxicity induced by caffeine was accessed on the weight of testes and epididymes, epididymal sperm count, motility, viability, semen pH and sperm head abnormality in albino rats as a model. The male rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. The rats were administered with treatments of caffeine and Soursop Fruit Extract (SFE) for 65 days. In conclusion, SFE mitigated the caffeine-induced toxicity on weight of testes and epididymes, sperm motility, sperm count and sperm head abnormality in the mammalian model.

U.B. Ekaluo; E.V. Ikpeme; Y.B. Ibiang; F.O. Omordia

2013-01-01

169

Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis  

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Full Text Available A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with seaweed diet evidenced theiractive participation on the metabolism of the experimental subject. These findings w ere well correlated w ithhistological observation in the liver and intestine shows the hepatocyte appearance and deposited fat and fociat necrosis is also seen in photomicrographs.

T. Anbalagan

2009-01-01

170

Effectiveness of grape seed extract on gamma radiation-induced hazards in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential dietary supplement to minimize the side effects of radiotherapy

2008-01-01

171

Effects of Ballota nigra on glucose and insulin in alloxan-diabetic albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypoglycemic effect of Ballota nigra extract on albino rats was investigated. Alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus was accompanied by several fold increases in plasma glucose. Administration of aqueous extract of B. nigra extract significantly reduced glucose in both healthy and diabetic rats. These results suggest that B. nigra possess hypoglycemic effects in rats and therefore, can be useful for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:17627273

Nusier, Mohamad K; Bataineh, Hameed N; Bataineh, Ziad M; Daradka, Haytham M

2007-08-01

172

Effects of Ballota nigra on glucose and insulin in alloxan-diabetic albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The hypoglycemic effect of Ballota nigra extract on albino rats was investigated. Alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus was accompanied by several fold increases in plasma glucose. Administration of aqueous extract of B. nigra extract significantly reduced glucose in both healthy and diabetic rats. These results suggest that B. nigra possess hypoglycemic effects in rats and therefore, can be useful for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Nusier MK; Bataineh HN; Bataineh ZM; Daradka HM

2007-08-01

173

Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P) glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra), bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®), was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05) increase in HDL- cholesterol (47%) and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%), triglycerides(48%), total cholesterol (39%) and LDL- cholesterol (55%). P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

2012-01-01

174

Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress

1985-01-01

175

COMBINED EFFECT OF WATER CONTAMINATION WITH COBALT AND NICKEL ON METABOLISM OF ALBINO (WISTAR) RATS  

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Full Text Available The contamination of water by metal compounds is a worldwide environmental problem. Concentration of metals is widely related to biochemical values, which are used in diseases diagnosis due to environmental toxicity. The sub-chronic combined effects of nickel and cobalt on body weight gain and biochemical parameters were determined and compared with those of Ni (2+) or Co (2+) alone in 6 weeks male albino (Wistar) rats. Animals were given drinking solutions of NiSO4 6H2O [Ni (II) cation, LD50/2] or CoSO4 6H2O [Co (II) cation, LD50/2]. For the combined treatment (Ni + Co), the rats received both Ni (II) cation (LD 50/2) and CO (II) cation (LD50/2). Nickel and cobalt treatment decreased body weight gain. The nickel sulphate increased also the glucose level. The two heavy elements produced hepatic and renal damage, characterized by increased activity of alanine and aspartate transaminases (GPT, GOT) and alkaline phosphatase. However lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) was decreased. In addition, serum urea, serum creatinine, serum total protein and serum bilurebin concentrations were significantly elevated. In general the combined effect of Ni-Co was slightly less toxic than nickel or cobalt alone, suggesting antagonism between these toxicants.

Z. Kechrid, F. Dahdouh, R. M. Djabar, N. Bouzerna

2006-01-01

176

Effects of gamma radiation on hard dental tissues of albino rats: investigation by light microscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present work aims at studying the effect of gamma radiation on the hard dental tissues. Eighty adult male albino rats with weights of about 250 g were used. The rats were irradiated at 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 Gy whole-body gamma doses. The effects on hard dental tissue samples were investigated after 48 h in histological and ground sections using light microscopy. Areas of acid phosphatase activity were detected using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stains. Observation of histological sections revealed disturbance in predentin thickness and odontoblastic layer as the irradiation dose increased. In cementum, widened cementocytes lacunae were occasionally detected even with low irradiated doses. On the other hand, relatively homogenous enamel was detected with darkened areas in enamel surface at doses over than 0.5 Gy. TRAP-positive cells were detected on the surface of the dentin of irradiated groups as well as cementum surface. Minimal detectable changes were observed in ground sections.

El-Faramawy N; Ameen R; El-Haddad K; El-Zainy M

2013-08-01

177

Effects of gamma radiation on hard dental tissues of albino rats: investigation by light microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work aims at studying the effect of gamma radiation on the hard dental tissues. Eighty adult male albino rats with weights of about 250 g were used. The rats were irradiated at 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 Gy whole-body gamma doses. The effects on hard dental tissue samples were investigated after 48 h in histological and ground sections using light microscopy. Areas of acid phosphatase activity were detected using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stains. Observation of histological sections revealed disturbance in predentin thickness and odontoblastic layer as the irradiation dose increased. In cementum, widened cementocytes lacunae were occasionally detected even with low irradiated doses. On the other hand, relatively homogenous enamel was detected with darkened areas in enamel surface at doses over than 0.5 Gy. TRAP-positive cells were detected on the surface of the dentin of irradiated groups as well as cementum surface. Minimal detectable changes were observed in ground sections. PMID:23591916

El-Faramawy, Nabil; Ameen, Reham; El-Haddad, Khaled; El-Zainy, Medhat

2013-04-17

178

ANTI IMPLANTATION AND PREGNANCY INTERRUPTION ACTIVITY OF JAPAKUSUMA (HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS) IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Increase in population has affected many socio-economic conditions of people by increasing crimes, illiteracy, destructive activities, diseases, improper food and shelter. Thus to control this population and limit the family size at a personal level and at a national level, modern contraceptive methods and medicines were introduced long back. There are many new contraceptives available now, but they have various side effects. Some traditional practitioners used to dispense oral contraceptives mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Such as 1) Pippali (Piper longum), Vidanga (Emblica ribes) and Tankana (Sodii Biboras). 2) Talisapatra (Taxus baccata) and Gairika (Hematite) with cold water and 3) Kanji bhavita Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis). An experimental study on above mentioned 1 and 2 formulations has proved its efficacy as temporary contraceptive medicine. To evaluate the permanent or long term temporary contraceptive effect of Japakusuma, an attempt was made in this study. Study was conducted by Choudary and Khanna method on 18 female, 36 male (for mating) albino rats. Japakusuma, Propylene glycol, Ovral L formed the materials. Single dose was administered on proestrous stage of rat oestrous cycle and observed for anti-implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Test drug showed significant anti implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Thus showing the temporary contraceptive activity of Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis).

Kashinath Hadimur; R.S. Sarashetti; N.D. Lone; V.G. Kanthi; Neelamma Patil

2013-01-01

179

Effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression in male albino Rattus norvegicus  

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Full Text Available Objective : The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 g). The effect of O. sanctum and C. sinensis was evaluated for anxiety and depression using elevated plus maze (EPM) test, open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST). Result : Restraint stress (3 h/day for six consecutive days) induced a significant reduction in both the percentage number of entries and time spent in open arms in EPM, and these changes were reversed with post-treatment of aqueous extract of O. sanctum and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg for 6 days). Restraint stress-induced (a) increased latency and (b) decreased ambulation and rearing were also reversed by O. sanctum and C. sinensis in OFT. A significant increase in immobility period was observed in FST and TST after restraint stress. O. sanctum and C. sinensis significantly reduced the immobility times of rats in FST and TST. Conclusion : O. sanctum and C. sinensis possess anxiolytic and antidepressant activities.

Tabassum Imrana; Siddiqui Zeba; Rizvi Shamim

2010-01-01

180

SCREENING OF ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY OF HINGU (FERULA NARTHEX BIOSS) ON ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Alcohol and Aqueous extracts of Hingu (Resinous exudates of Ferula narthex Bioss) were as tested to screen anti-epileptic effect on albino rats by using MES Method. Results were analyzed using unpaired “t”test, and found that aqueous extract has shown significant (at the level P<0.001) result in controlling Maximal electro-shock induced convulsions.

Gundakalle Mahadev B.; Kulkarni Y.R; Torgal S.S

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Effect of cow urine on wound healing property in Wister Albino Rats  

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The wound healing activity of cow urine was studied in Wistar albino rats. The efficacy of wound healing property was evaluated by excision wound model. The parameter studied was the rate of wound contraction. The studies on excision wound healing revealed that all the groups showed decreased wound ...

Jagadeesh S. Sanganal; Jayakumar.K.; Jayaramu G.M.; V.P. Tikare.,Paniraj K.L and Swetha R

182

RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF LYCOPENE IN GAMMA IRRADIATED ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was designed to explore the radioprotective potential of lycopene in gamma irradiated male rats. Four groups, each of sixteen rats, were assigned as follows: the first was untreated (control group), the second fed on chow diet mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg diet (lycopene group), the third exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated group) and the fourth fed on chow mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg and exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated and treated group). Animals exposed to ionizing radiation experienced decline in their body weights, increased ALT and AST enzymes and decreased serum albumin level. The study also showed decline in hemoglobin, total white blood cells count and blood platelets count. Bone marrow examination revealed profound hypoplasis and reduction of the cellular elements. Histological examination of liver, spleen, testis and intestine showed disruption of normal architecture of these organs. Irradiated and treated animals maintained a more or less steady body weight, and improved serum ALT, AST and albumin in comparison with those irradiated. The results also showed increased hemoglobin, total white blood cells, platelets count and partial improvement of bone marrow cellularity. Lycopene was also capable of partial preservation of normal architecture of liver, spleen, intestine and testis in gamma irradiated group.In conclusion, lycopene seems to be a useful radioprotector probably because of its potent antioxidant property.

2007-01-01

183

An experimental study of the effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract on cutaneous burn wound healing in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies conducted on the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) extract led us to study the effect of topical chamomile extract on burn wound healing in albino rats. Thirty male albino rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Second-degree burning was induced in 20% of whole surface area of animal body by placing the back of animal into boiling water for 8s. Animals of control group received no treatment. Animals of vehicle and treatment groups were treated topically by olive oil and extract dissolved in olive oil twice a day respectively from the first day of burn induction to complete wound healing. The percentage of wound healing was calculated weekly. The results showed that there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between vehicle and treatment groups. So we concluded that the chamomile extract in the form of rubbing oil had a good potential for acceleration of burn wound healing in rats. PMID:18404562

Jarrahi, Morteza

2008-03-20

184

Alteraciones en las características morfométricas del riñón de ratas albinas machos provocadas por la ingestión crónica de etanol desde la adolescencia/ Alterations in the morphometric features of kidney of male albino rats provoked by chronic ingestion of ethanol from the adolescence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se pretendió determinar las variaciones que sobre las características morfométricas del riñón provoca la ingestión crónica de etanol en ratas adolescentes, para lo cual se utilizaron 42 ratas albinas machos de 30 días de nacidas con las cuales se conformaron dos grupos de 21 animales cada uno y con tiempos de tratamiento de tres y cinco meses y con estos, dos subgrupos: experimental y control. A las ratas experimentales se les suministró et (more) anol a dosis de 5 g/kg de peso corporal mediante cánula intraesofágica. A las controles se les administró agua en lugar de etanol, en iguales condiciones. Se emplearon cortes histológicos coloreados con técnica PAS y se estudiaron las porciones contorneadas de los túbulos proximales y distales. Se calculó el área de sección transversal tubular y se midieron los volúmenes nucleares de las células de ambos túbulos. Se comprobó que las ratas experimentales mostraron volúmenes nucleares menores que las controles. El grupo experimental mostró valores de áreas de sección transversal de los túbulos renales mayores que los controles, siendo estos valores superiores en los túbulos proximales en las ratas de cinco meses, y los distales en las ratas de tres meses. Se concluyó que en la muestra estudiada el alcoholismo crónico iniciado en la adolescencia provocó variaciones morfométricas en los túbulos proximales y distales del riñón. Abstract in english Present paper allowed us to determine the variations exerted by the chronic ingestion of ethanol from the adolescence on the kidney morphometric features in 42 male albino rats of 30 days born divided into two groups of 21 animal each and with the treatment times of three and five months and with these 42 animals into two subgroups: one of experimental type and other as control. The experimental rats received ethanol at 5 g/kg doses according to the body weight using an i (more) ntraesophageal cannula. The control ones received water instead of ethanol in similar conditions. We used histological sections stained with PAS technique to study the outlined portions of the proximal and distal tubules. The tubular transversal section area was estimated measuring the nuclear volumes of cells in both tubules. It was demonstrated that the experimental rats showed higher values of the transversal section of renal tubules higher than the control ones, where these values were superior in proximal tubules in the five months old rats and the distal ones in the three months old. We conclude that in study sample the chronic alcoholism started during adolescence provoked morphometric variations in proximal and distal tubules of kidney.

Herrera Batista, Aleida; Puldón Seguí, Giselle; Ruiz Candina, Héctor

2010-06-01

185

Alteraciones en las características morfométricas del riñón de ratas albinas machos provocadas por la ingestión crónica de etanol desde la adolescencia Alterations in the morphometric features of kidney of male albino rats provoked by chronic ingestion of ethanol from the adolescence  

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Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se pretendió determinar las variaciones que sobre las características morfométricas del riñón provoca la ingestión crónica de etanol en ratas adolescentes, para lo cual se utilizaron 42 ratas albinas machos de 30 días de nacidas con las cuales se conformaron dos grupos de 21 animales cada uno y con tiempos de tratamiento de tres y cinco meses y con estos, dos subgrupos: experimental y control. A las ratas experimentales se les suministró etanol a dosis de 5 g/kg de peso corporal mediante cánula intraesofágica. A las controles se les administró agua en lugar de etanol, en iguales condiciones. Se emplearon cortes histológicos coloreados con técnica PAS y se estudiaron las porciones contorneadas de los túbulos proximales y distales. Se calculó el área de sección transversal tubular y se midieron los volúmenes nucleares de las células de ambos túbulos. Se comprobó que las ratas experimentales mostraron volúmenes nucleares menores que las controles. El grupo experimental mostró valores de áreas de sección transversal de los túbulos renales mayores que los controles, siendo estos valores superiores en los túbulos proximales en las ratas de cinco meses, y los distales en las ratas de tres meses. Se concluyó que en la muestra estudiada el alcoholismo crónico iniciado en la adolescencia provocó variaciones morfométricas en los túbulos proximales y distales del riñón.Present paper allowed us to determine the variations exerted by the chronic ingestion of ethanol from the adolescence on the kidney morphometric features in 42 male albino rats of 30 days born divided into two groups of 21 animal each and with the treatment times of three and five months and with these 42 animals into two subgroups: one of experimental type and other as control. The experimental rats received ethanol at 5 g/kg doses according to the body weight using an intraesophageal cannula. The control ones received water instead of ethanol in similar conditions. We used histological sections stained with PAS technique to study the outlined portions of the proximal and distal tubules. The tubular transversal section area was estimated measuring the nuclear volumes of cells in both tubules. It was demonstrated that the experimental rats showed higher values of the transversal section of renal tubules higher than the control ones, where these values were superior in proximal tubules in the five months old rats and the distal ones in the three months old. We conclude that in study sample the chronic alcoholism started during adolescence provoked morphometric variations in proximal and distal tubules of kidney.

Aleida Herrera Batista; Giselle Puldón Seguí; Héctor Ruiz Candina

2010-01-01

186

Physiological Effect Of Peri winkle (C.roseus) On Diabetic Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available Back ground: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem worldwide in recent time. Asia and Africa are the most viable areas where the disease is feared to raise 2–3 folds. Many herbal products have been recommended for the treatment of DM in ancient literature of Ayurveda in India and other worldwide.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Catharanthus rosea (C.roseus) on diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic C.roseus treated groups. After thirty days of treatment all rats of each group were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid and protein profiles, liver and kidney functions, blood picture and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. Pancreatic samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with heamatoxylin and eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the islets of Langerhans.Results: The obtained results showed that the diabetic rats were diagnosed by laboratory assessment to body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia, significant increase in liver and kidney functions, lipid and protein profiles and decreased liver glycogen content. While, C.roseus treatment led to a significant improvement in these parameters except liver function. Microscopically there was definite vaculation, degeneration, karyolysis and pyknosis of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells). The use of C.roseus treatment of this study greatly improves such cellular changes.Conclusion: It was recommended that the use of the water extract of C. roseus levies as a hypoglycemic agent may offer a new hope to the diabetics in future. It's well recommended to use variable doses and different periods of treatment to evaluate the best dose and period

Eman G.E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab*, Atef M. moussa** and Anwaar A. Mohammad

2012-01-01

187

Aqueous fenugreek seed extract ameliorates adriamycin-induced cytotoxicity and testicular alterations in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present work studied the effect of fenugreek seed extracts on cytotoxicity and testicular damage induced by adriamycin (ADR) in albino rats. Administrating animals with ADR caused significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index, and induced DNA damage in bone marrow. Testes of ADR-treated rats showed many histopathological alterations and the number of sperm head abnormalities increased. Moreover, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased and the activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased in the testis. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous seed extracts of fenugreek led to an improvement in the cytogenetic effect and testicular alterations induced by ADR. Lipid peroxidation was reduced and the activities of CAT and SOD were increased. In conclusion, the results indicated that fenugreek seeds ameliorated the cytotoxicity and testicular alterations induced by ADR in albino rats and this may be mediated by its potent antioxidant effects.

Sakr SA; El-Shenawy SM; Al-Shabka AM

2012-01-01

188

Aqueous fenugreek seed extract ameliorates adriamycin-induced cytotoxicity and testicular alterations in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work studied the effect of fenugreek seed extracts on cytotoxicity and testicular damage induced by adriamycin (ADR) in albino rats. Administrating animals with ADR caused significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index, and induced DNA damage in bone marrow. Testes of ADR-treated rats showed many histopathological alterations and the number of sperm head abnormalities increased. Moreover, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased and the activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased in the testis. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous seed extracts of fenugreek led to an improvement in the cytogenetic effect and testicular alterations induced by ADR. Lipid peroxidation was reduced and the activities of CAT and SOD were increased. In conclusion, the results indicated that fenugreek seeds ameliorated the cytotoxicity and testicular alterations induced by ADR in albino rats and this may be mediated by its potent antioxidant effects. PMID:22051850

Sakr, Saber A; El-Shenawy, Salama M; Al-Shabka, Ahmed M

2011-11-03

189

Antioxidative Properties of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Globimetula braunii in Normal Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Globimetula braunii used in Nigerian traditional medicine for managing various diseases was investigated for its antioxidant properties in adult Swiss albino rats. The pulverized plant material was extracted in 80% methanol using Soxhlet apparatus and fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. The crude and ethyl acetate fractions were evaluated for their effects on activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), gluthathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), lipid peroxidation and triacylglycerol levels in rats treated orally with a daily dose of 200 mg kg-1 for 14 days. Results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction caused a significant increase (pin vivo both as an antioxidant and a pro-oxidant in normal albino rats.

J. Okpuzor; H. Ogbunugafor; G.K. Kareem

2009-01-01

190

Preretinal neovascularization induced by experimental retinal vein occlusion in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Retinal ischemia and neovascularization have been demonstrated in several animal models. To determine 1) whether the retinal or preretinal neovascularization can be induced in albino rats by retinal vein occlusion and 2) the type and rate of occurrence on neovascularization, we occluded retinal veins in albino rats by photodynamic thrombosis. After anesthesia, each of 36 rats received an injection of rose bengal photosensitive dye, and their veins underwent argon green laser treatment. Half or all the major retinal veins were occluded in 12 eyes and in 24 eyes, respectively. Ten control rats underwent the same procedures but the laser beam was directed between major retinal vessels. In 46 control eyes, rose bengal dye was seen to have perfused without laser treatment. Retinal detachment developed in most vein occluded eyes within one day of venous occlusion, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. On follow-up at two weeks, only four of 24 eyes (16.7%) had undergone occlusion of all retinal veins showed new preretinal vessels on the optic disc. In these four eyes, severe disturbance of both retinal arterial and venous blood flow was observed, but no other eyes showed such severe combined disturbance. These data suggest that preretinal neovascularization in albino rats can be induced by this minimally traumatic method and that venous occlusion is severe enough to compromise arterial blood flow for a certain threshold period, thus inducing the development of preretinal neovascularization.

Ham DI; Chang K; Chung H

1997-06-01

191

Preretinal neovascularization induced by experimental retinal vein occlusion in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal ischemia and neovascularization have been demonstrated in several animal models. To determine 1) whether the retinal or preretinal neovascularization can be induced in albino rats by retinal vein occlusion and 2) the type and rate of occurrence on neovascularization, we occluded retinal veins in albino rats by photodynamic thrombosis. After anesthesia, each of 36 rats received an injection of rose bengal photosensitive dye, and their veins underwent argon green laser treatment. Half or all the major retinal veins were occluded in 12 eyes and in 24 eyes, respectively. Ten control rats underwent the same procedures but the laser beam was directed between major retinal vessels. In 46 control eyes, rose bengal dye was seen to have perfused without laser treatment. Retinal detachment developed in most vein occluded eyes within one day of venous occlusion, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. On follow-up at two weeks, only four of 24 eyes (16.7%) had undergone occlusion of all retinal veins showed new preretinal vessels on the optic disc. In these four eyes, severe disturbance of both retinal arterial and venous blood flow was observed, but no other eyes showed such severe combined disturbance. These data suggest that preretinal neovascularization in albino rats can be induced by this minimally traumatic method and that venous occlusion is severe enough to compromise arterial blood flow for a certain threshold period, thus inducing the development of preretinal neovascularization. PMID:9283155

Ham, D I; Chang, K; Chung, H

1997-06-01

192

Immunolocalization of laminin during postnatal development of the testis, epididymis and vas deferens of albino rat  

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Full Text Available Background: Disorders of testicular function may have their origins in fetal or early life as a result of abnormal development. Laminin-1 is emerging as the key molecule in early embryonic basement membrane assembly. Accumulating evidence supported the idea that extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and mesenchymal cells might influence Sertoli and spermatogenic cell functions. Aim of the work: detecting the changes in the distribution and prevalence of laminin-1 assembly during postnatal development of the testis, epididymis and vas deferens in albino rats. Materials and methods: Thirty male albino rats were used and divided into six groups (n= 5 each) according to the age (postnatal day). These were one day, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks postnatal. Specimens were fixed and processed, sectioned and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical stain for laminin-1. The area percent of positive laminin immunostaining was measured and results were statistically analyzed. Results: at day one postnatal, the testis was formed of solid un-canalized cords of seminiferous tubules with abundant laminin expression in the cells of the cords. With advancement of development the cords were luminized and the laminin expression declined to involve the basement membrane and the apical portions of the Sertoli cells at the 8th week postnatal. The epididymis at postnatal day one had a small diameter and narrow lumen and laminin expression involved the cytoplasm of the epithelial lining. As development proceeded the expression became confined to the apical portion, the site of stereocilia together with its presence in the basement membranes. The same pattern of changes in laminin expression together with morphological appearance was detected in the vas deferens. Conclusion: The present study was able to demonstrate a change in the distribution as well as the prevalence of laminin-1 immunoreactivity within the testis, epididymis and vas. During the period of postnatal development starting at postnatal day one up to 8 weeks postnatal. This would reflect an essential role for laminin in early postnatal period of development

Dina Helmy Abdel-Kader and Safinaz Salah Eldin Sayed

2013-01-01

193

Microscopic Studies Of The Effect Of Some Food Additives On The Kidney Of Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available Recently the use of synthetic food coloring additives was increased and the levels of human exposure to such agents are very broad, thus feeding over long periods may continually possess potential hazards to the human health. Also most of the food colors tested in the conventional toxicity experiments showed toxic effects at very high level of intake i.e. 1-5 % in the diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological and histochemical effects of some of these substances (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow) on the liver of adult albino rats. The study included three main parts: A. Histological studies on the liver under the effect of (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow) substances. Using paraffin sections, which were stained with Hx & Eosin, Masson Trichrome B. Evaluation of histochemical activity of both alkaline phosphates enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes on the renal tissue. C. Statistical evaluation using image analyzer to detect glomerular area, area percentage of collagen fibers distribution and optical density of both alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in glomerulus and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity in renal tubules. Seventy adult male albino rats were used. Nitrate and sunset yellow were given orally through a gastric tube in dose of 1 mg / kg / b.w. daily. The animals were classified into seven groups. 1. Group I (Control group) 2. Group II: The animals were given sodium nitrate in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt for one month. 3. Group III: The animals were given sun set yellow in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/day for one month. 4. Group IV: The animals were given sodium nitrate and sunset yellow for one month in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/for each drug in a separate manner. 5. Group V: The animals were given sodium nitrate similar to the previous dose as group II for one month and left 2 weeks without oral intubations. 6. Group VI: The animals were given sun set yellow No 6 in a dose and route of administrations as group III for one month and kept without intubations for 2 weeks. 7. Group VII: The animals were given both sodium nitrate & sunset yellow by the same dose and route of administration as in group IV for one month and kept without intubations for 2 weeks.

Abd El-Tawab M. Ismail - Ashraf M.Moustafa

2003-01-01

194

Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestock)in Wistar Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India), was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000): 100-102

A.H. Ahmad; D.S.Rekhe; K.Ravikanth; S.Maini

2009-01-01

195

Impact of sperm retrieival on testis and epididymis: an experimental study using Wistar albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to analyze pathophysiological changes after testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) and microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) procedures. Twenty four mature male Wistar albino rats with a proven breeding history, weighing approximately 200-250 gm were used for the study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups (n?=?6), i.e., control, sham-control, unilateral TESA, and MESA. Using a 22G needle, the aspiration procedures were done in testis or caudal epididymis. At the end of 60 days of survival, blood samples were collected and processed for antisperm antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After euthanasia, testes and epididymides were collected and processed for paraffin embedding. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and TUNEL technique. Serum antisperm antibody titer significantly increased in TESA (P ?

Prithiviraj E; Suresh S; Manivannan M; Prakash S

2013-10-01

196

Impact of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) with Ethanol Modulates on Lipid and Lipoprotein in Testis of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is the pharmacological agent used to treat erectile dysfunction in men, a common problem that in the United State affects between 10 and 30 million men. Because this drug has a vasodilatory effect. Sildenafil citrate and ethanol consumption are used in societies world wide and have been identified as injurious to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Sildenafil citrate and Ethanol consumption on lipid and lipoprotein levels in testis tissue and serum of Albino rats. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each and maximum treated for 45 days as follows, control rats were administered with normal saline orally. Sildenafil citrate (1 ?g gm-1) and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 body weight) was given orally at a single doses (short-term) after 1, 2½, 4 and 24 h were sacrificed and 15, 30 and 45 days daily continuous doses (long-term) of drug and ethanol with a single dosage were given and to be sacrificed after 4 h of the last dosage. Further, the average total body weight gain was significantly higher in 30 days treatment, but 45 days no significant change in the body weight of the rats were observed due to the productive role of Sildenafil citrate and ethanol. This combination was found to be increased serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL levels, whereas the levels of serum HDL was found to be decreased as compared with the control rats. Simultaneously tissue cholesterol and triglycerides significantly (p<0.05) inhibited were found to be the rise in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. Whereas, It is suggested that prolonged exposure to Sildenafil citrate and ethanol administration to rat is found to be increased in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations significantly in an animals.

T.G. Sivasankaran; R. Udayakumar; K. Panjamurthy; V. Albert singh

2007-01-01

197

Liver Regenerative Effect of Phyllanthus amarus Linn. Against Alcohol Induced Liver Cell Injury in Partially Hepatectomised Albino Rats  

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The present study investigates the liver regenerative effect of Phyllathus amarus Linn against alcohol induced liver cell injury in partial hepatectomised albino rats. The oral administration of Phyllanthus amarus extracts increases the activities of thymidine kinase in regenerating ra...

P. Chattopadhyay; S.S. Agrawal; A. Garg

198

Effect of Trans Fatty Acids Consumption on Some Haematological Indices in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of trans fatty acids on haematological indices. This was done by supplementing the diets fed to the albino Wistar rats with different concentrations of thermally oxidized palm oil and margarine as sources of trans fatty acids. Fifty albino Wistar rats were used for this study and were randomly selected into five groups of ten rats. Group 1 rats serving as the control received only the stock diet. Group 2 received 85% rat pellet supplemented with 15% margarine. Group 3 was fed with 75% rat pellet and 25% margarine. The fourth group was fed with 85% rat pellet supplemented with 15% thermally oxidized palm oil. Group 4 was fed with 75% rat pellet supplemented with 25% thermally oxidized palm oil. The feeding experiment lasted for six weeks at the end of which rats were sacrificed for determination of haematological indices. Results showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in Red Blood Cell (RBC) count, White Blood Cell (WBC) and platelet counts, Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) in all test groups. This probably suggests that trans fatty acids may adversely affect the health of an individual and should be reduced in diet.

G.E. Egbung; E.U. Essien; I.J. Atangwho

2009-01-01

199

Antidiabetic Potentiality of the Aqueous-Methanolic Extract of Seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Correlative and Evidence-Based Approach with Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antidiabetic, antioxidative, and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous-methanolic (2?:?3) extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. (family Meliaceae) seed studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Feeding with seed extract (25?mg 0.25?mL distilled water(-1)100?gm b.w.(-1)rat(-1)?day(-1)) for 21 days to diabetic rat lowered the blood glucose level as well as the glycogen level in liver. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, and levels of the products of free radicals like conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles were corrected towards the control after this extract treatment in this model. Furthermore, the seed extract corrected the levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins towards the control level in this experimental diabetic model. The results indicated the potentiality of the extract of S. mahagoni seed for the correction of diabetes and its related complications like oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. The extract may be a good candidate for developing a safety, tolerable, and promising neutraceutical treatment for the management of diabetes.

De D; Chatterjee K; Ali KM; Bera TK; Ghosh D

2011-01-01

200

Age-related retinal function changes in albino and pigmented rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of old age (3 vs. 18 months) on the retinal function of albino (Sprague-Dawley [SD]) and pigmented (Long-Evans [LE]) rats. METHODS: Electroretinograms (ERG) were recorded in both albino (SD; 3 months old n = 16, 18 months old n = 16) and pigmented (LE; 3 months n = 16, 18 months n = 5) rats. Data are analyzed for photoreceptor, ON-bipolar, and retinal ganglion cell (RCG) amplitudes as well as photoreceptor and ON-bipolar cell sensitivities. RESULTS: In the pigmented strain, senescence results in decreased photoreceptor output, but ON-bipolar and retinal ganglion cell amplitudes were preserved, due to a relative increase in ON-bipolar cell sensitivity. In the albino rats, although ageing decreased both photoreceptor and ON-bipolar cell amplitudes, increased photoreceptor sensitivity produced a relative sparing of retinal ganglion cell amplitude. CONCLUSIONS: Both strains show evidence of retinal plasticity with senescence, albeit at different retinal levels. The exact mechanisms underlying sensitivity changes require further investigation. Nevertheless, given the findings of previous human studies, pigmented rats appear to be a more appropriate model for human ageing. Future work using animals to study the effect of ageing need careful consideration in strain selection.

Charng J; Nguyen CT; Bui BV; Vingrys AJ

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Acute and twenty-eight days repeated oral dose toxicity study of besifloxacin in Wistar albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential acute and 28-day repeated oral toxicities of besifloxacin (BAF) in Wistar albino rats. In oral acute and repeated dose study, BAF was administered to both sex of rats, at dose levels of 0, 300, 600, 900 mg/kg/day and 0, 100, 200, 500 mg/kg/day, respectively. In the acute study, total white blood cell (WBC) (male, 43.74%; female, 42.60%) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) (male, 80%; female, 60%) were significantly increase, total protein (TP) (male, 23.24%; 27.80%) was significantly decreased, and significant incidence of pericholangitis (male, 83.33%; female, 75%) was shown in males and females of high-dose groups. In repeated oral dose toxicity study, similar type effects were also observed after serum hematological and serum biochemical analysis, whereas additionally sever hepatic injury and focal ulceration in gastric mucosa also observed in high dose groups of both sexes after histopathological analysis. However these toxic effects of besifloxacin were transient and reversible and no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) were 300 mg/kg/day for acute and 100 mg/kg/day for repeated dose toxicity study, respectively.

Roy B; Nandi U; Das A; Pal TK

2011-07-01

202

Acute and twenty-eight days repeated oral dose toxicity study of besifloxacin in Wistar albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential acute and 28-day repeated oral toxicities of besifloxacin (BAF) in Wistar albino rats. In oral acute and repeated dose study, BAF was administered to both sex of rats, at dose levels of 0, 300, 600, 900 mg/kg/day and 0, 100, 200, 500 mg/kg/day, respectively. In the acute study, total white blood cell (WBC) (male, 43.74%; female, 42.60%) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) (male, 80%; female, 60%) were significantly increase, total protein (TP) (male, 23.24%; 27.80%) was significantly decreased, and significant incidence of pericholangitis (male, 83.33%; female, 75%) was shown in males and females of high-dose groups. In repeated oral dose toxicity study, similar type effects were also observed after serum hematological and serum biochemical analysis, whereas additionally sever hepatic injury and focal ulceration in gastric mucosa also observed in high dose groups of both sexes after histopathological analysis. However these toxic effects of besifloxacin were transient and reversible and no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) were 300 mg/kg/day for acute and 100 mg/kg/day for repeated dose toxicity study, respectively. PMID:21787734

Roy, Bikash; Nandi, Utpal; Das, Anjan; Pal, Tapan Kumar

2011-04-04

203

Effect of polytrin and gamma-Rays on nucleic acids in placenta of albino-Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this experiment 4 groups of pregnant female albino albino rats were used. The first group served as a control. The second group was irradiated with gamma rays (2 Gy) on day 12 of gestation. The third group was treated orally with polytrin on day 7 of gestation (1/100 LD 50). The last group was treated with polytrin as third group, then irradiated with (2 Gy) on day 12 of gestation. In group 2, severe degeneration in maternal and foetal rat placenta and marked loss of DNA in different layers were observed. The placenta of group 3 showed decrease in the content of RNA without loss in DNA content, in group 4 vacillation in different layers accompanied by decrease in DNA and RNA contents was noticed. 4 figs

1994-01-01

204

Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) Calyx Diet and Histopathological Changes in Liver of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) calyx was fermented with and without wood ash. The proximate composition revealed that the sample fermented without wood ash had the highest protein content of 14.7 ? 2.5%. There was a significant decrease (P< 0.05) in the antinutrient content (phytate and tannin) with a reduction of between 1.21-1.32% in tannin and 488.8?3.7-827.3?3.7mg/100g in phytate. The unfermented sample had phytate and tannin of 2143.6 ? 0.8mg/100g and 5.30 ? 1.1% respectively. The effect of calyx diet on the morphology of the liver was investigated in albino rats. The results suggest that in high doses, roselle calyx may have some toxic effects on the liver. There was decrease in growth in albino rats on all the treatments except for the control diet where there was no increase in growth.

A.O. Ojokoh

2006-01-01

205

CARDIOMETABOLIC PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS IN DIABETIC ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Background and aim of the study: DM represents an important independent risk factor for the development of and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD), increasing the risk by 2 to 4 times. According to WHO data, more than 75% of patients with DM die due to vascular accidents. This study investigated the effects of some plants used in Saudi Arabia and some other Arab countries as antidiabetic agents and explores its metabolic effects. Material and Methods: One hundred fifty adult male Albino Rats were divided into six experimental groups each consist of twenty five rats. The first group was considered as a control group. The rest of groups were affected by induction of experimental diabetes by subcutaneous injection of Alloxan. The second group consisted of diabetic rats without any treatment. The third group was treated by the aqueous extract of mixture contains Foenugreek, Nigella sativa and Termis seeds. The fourth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds (100 mg / kg of body weight), while the fifth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Foenugreek seeds (100 mg / kg of body weight). The sixth one was treated with the aqueous extract of Termis seeds (100 mg/kg body weight). After four weeks of treatment, different biochemical parameters were performed including estimation of blood sugar level and serum insulin level. Pancreatic and liver samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both Heamatoxylin and Eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of the Langerhans. Results: The usage of the mixture or each plant alone corrected the glucose level and insulin level. Microscopically there was definite decrease in the number and diameter of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells). The use of medicinal plants in the different groups of this study greatly improved such cellular changes and the level of blood sugar level was corrected. Also, improve dyslipidemia present in diabetic rats. The results showed that the activity of the mixture was better when compared with Nigella, Foenugreek or Termis seeds alone. Conclusions: The water extract of the mixture is the most powerful in amelioration hyperglycemia and most of all damage effects of Alloxan on hematological parameters and lipid profile. Also, it can control most of the metabolic risk factors of CAD in diabetic rats. So it is advised to use the plant mixture as an antidiabetic agent rather than the use of each plant separately. Repeating such study with the use of variable doses may be helpful in better evaluation for the required dose.

Waleed S. Mohamed, 1 Ashraf M. Mostafa, 2 Abdel Hamid A. Serwah, 3

2013-01-01

206

PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

Vadivelan R; Elango K; Suresh B; Ramesh BR

2006-01-01

207

PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.  

Science.gov (United States)

Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier. PMID:22557209

Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R

2006-01-01

208

Histopathological and Biochemical Toxic Effect of Amiodarone on Thyroid Gland in Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available Backgrounds: Amiodarone AMD (Cordarone) was a benzofuran derivative, used in management of angina and refractory ventricular arrhythmia. Its effect on the thyroid gland structure and function was investigated in this study. Material and Methods: Fifty adult male albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The first group was consisted of 10 rats which served as control, received distilled water orally (1ml). The second group was consisted of 20 rats used as therapeutic dose treated group, received 40 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone while the third group was consisted of 20 rats used as a toxic dose treated group which received 60 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone orally daily for three months. Body weight of animals was determined. Serum concentration of tri-iodothyonine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyrotrophin (TSH), interleukin 6 (IL6), tumour marker P53 and tissue residue for amiodarone in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart was determined. Results: Specimens from thyroid gland were taken and prepared for light and electron microscope examination. Highly significant decrease in body weight (P<0.001) were observed in both therapeutic and toxic doses treated groups in comparison to the control one. A very highly significant increase (P<0.001) of serum (T4 & T3) with Concomitant suppression of (TSH) (P<0.001). Serum levels of IL6 and P53 showed also a very highly significant increase (P<0.001). Amiodarone concentration in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart showed significant increase in therapeutic dose treated group and highly significant increase in toxic dose treated group. Histopathological examination of thyroid gland of therapeutic dose treated group by light microscope showed marked evidence of thyotoxicosis in the form of microcystic follicular changes and peripheral scalloping, cellular degeneration with scanty cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei appeared. These changes became more severe in toxic dose treated group in the form of epithelial hyperplasia with atypical nuclear features. Thyroid tissue damage with haemorrhage and necrosis. Electron microscopic examination showed a remarkable cellular changes in the form of dilated rouph endoplasmic reticulum, inclusion lysosomes, dilated Golgi bodies, mitochondrial distension and nuclear degeneration. In both treated groups these changes were dose related.

Ola A. El Sayed*, Safaa E. Gawish

2007-01-01

209

Body and Organ Weight Changes Following Administration of Aqueous Extracts of Ficus exasperata. Vahl on White Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Administration of aqueous extracts of Ficus exasperata. Vahl at doses 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg-1 body weight to male albino rats resulted in a significant (P=> 0.05) increase in body weight in all test group mean relative kidney and liver weights increased significantly in all test groups while spleen weight decreases from 8.4x10-37.9x10-3 to 6.0x10-3 5.5x10-4 in the group receiving the highest dose. Serum alanine, and aspartate aminotransamisase as a well as serum alkaline Phosphatase activity increased in a dose dependent manner all the test groups.

Ijeh Ifeoma Irene; C.A. Agbo Chukwunonso

2006-01-01

210

Hypoglycemic and Antidiabetic Profile of the Aqueous Root Extracts of Leptadenia hastata in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic profile and the hypoglycaemic activity of aqueous root extracts of L. hastata in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats model. Eighty five albino rats were used for this study out of this thirty five were used subjected to experimental diabetes by the use of alloxan at a dose of 160 mg kg-1 body weight. Seven experimental groups of five rats per group (A-G) were used for this study. A standard antidiabetic drug (insulin) group (B) and normal saline group (G) serves as positive control. The blood glucose lowering activity of the extract, insulin and normal saline groups were monitored at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h post extract administration. On the other hand the remaining fifty albino rats were used to determine the acute toxicity and the hypoglycemic activity of the extract. The blood glucose levels of the rats were monitored at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post extract administration. Oral administration of aqueous root extract at 600 and 800 mg kg-1 b.wt have significantly (p-1 b.wt have significantly (pL. hastata aqueous root extracts and underscore its potentials in the management of diabetes mellitus especially following prolonged use in days.

K.A. Sanda; U.K. Sandabe; M.S. Auwal; I. Bulama; T.M. Bashir; F.A. Sanda; I.A. Mairiga

2013-01-01

211

Extra-Bone Marrow Sites of Haemopoeisis: Dihydroartemisinin Effects in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Iron is present in ferritin, the storage form of iron in the tissues; in the respiratory cytochrome enzymes; in hemoglobin of the blood and in the myoglobin of muscle Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) has been shown to interact with heme groups in vivo and in vitro. This study investigated the effects of 5 day and 7day oral dihydroartemisinin treatments on the blood and tissues of the lungs, the heart, the liver, the intestines, the spleen and the kidney of Wistar albino rats. The dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin employed in the study were: A single dosage regimen of 1 mg kg-1; a repeated dosage regimen of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1. Approach: The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin interacted with the hemoglobin of the blood and the myoglobin of muscle to stimulate new haemopoesis in a concentration, repetition and time dependent manner in the tissues of the lungs, liver, spleen, intestine, heart and kidney of Wistar albino rats which was absent in the control rats. Results: Statistically significant increases were observed in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV) (PConclusion: These haemopoetic effects of DHA were greater and of longer duration in 5 day DHA-treatment rats than in those of the 7 day DHA-treatment rats.

Nedosa U. Anastasia; Saleh Mohammed; Nedosa K. Stanislaus; Njoku Goddy; Ikenna K. Onyedibe; P. A. Akah; C. O. Okoli

2012-01-01

212

Impact of sperm retrieival on testis and epididymis: an experimental study using Wistar albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to analyze pathophysiological changes after testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) and microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) procedures. Twenty four mature male Wistar albino rats with a proven breeding history, weighing approximately 200-250 gm were used for the study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups (n?=?6), i.e., control, sham-control, unilateral TESA, and MESA. Using a 22G needle, the aspiration procedures were done in testis or caudal epididymis. At the end of 60 days of survival, blood samples were collected and processed for antisperm antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After euthanasia, testes and epididymides were collected and processed for paraffin embedding. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and TUNEL technique. Serum antisperm antibody titer significantly increased in TESA (P ?

Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Suresh, Sekar; Manivannan, Monica; Prakash, Seppan

2013-06-13

213

Hepatoprotective Effect of Enicostemma littorale blume and Eclipta alba During Ethanol Induced Oxidative Stress in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The leaves of Enicostemma littorale blume (Ens) and Eclipta alba (Ecl) have been used for skin infection, antiviral and antibacterial activity in traditional medicine. The present study is aimed at to evaluate the hepato-protective effect of the aqueous leaf extracts of the above two plants during ethanol induced oxidative stress in albino rats. The aqueous leaf extracts of Enicostemma littorale and Eclipta alba combine (1:1) at dose level of 250 mg kg-1 b.wt. were tested for hepato-protective and antioxidant effects during ethanol induced oxidative stress in liver tissue of wistar male albino rats. The degree of hepatoprotection was assessed by measuring the activity levels of the marker enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Free radicals generated lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and the activity levels of the tissue antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD). The ethanol supplemented rats recorded elevated activity levels of serum AST, ALT and ALP revealing ethanol induced hepatotoxicity. The increased levels of TBARS in liver and decreased activity levels of SOD and CAT in ethanol fed animal’s revealed oxidative stress. The aqueous leaf extracts supplementation of Ens+Ecl in 1:1 produced significant hepatoprotection and antioxidative effect during ethanol induced hepatotoxicity. The study can be concluded that the therapeutic effect of aqueous leaf extracts of Ens+Ecl in 1:1 is not only hepatoprotective but also possess significant antioxidant property.

P. Baranisrinivasan; E.K. Elumalai; C. Sivakumar; S. Viviyan Therasa; E. David

2009-01-01

214

EFFECTS OF SOME ANTIDIABETIC MEDICINAL PLANTS ON PANCREAS AND LIVER OF DIABETIC ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Background and aim of the study- Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. More than 400 traditional medicinal plants have been recorded for helping in controlling such disease. This study investigated effects of some plants used in Saudi Arabia and some other Arab countries as antidiabetic agents. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty adult male Albino rats were divided into six experimental groups each consist of twenty five rats. The first group was considered as a control group. The rest of groups were affected by induction of experimental diabetes by subcutaneous injection of Alloxan. The second group consisted of diabetic rats without any treatment. The third group was treated by the aqueous extract of mixture contains Foenugreek, Nigella and Termis seeds. The fourth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds, while the fifth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Foenugreek seeds.The sixth one was treated with the aqueous extract of Termis seeds with the administered dose of the plant extracts (100 mg/kg body weight).After four weeks of treatment, different biochemical parameters were performed including estimation of blood sugar level and serum insulin level. Pancreatic and liver samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both heamatoxylin and eosin as well as a special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of Langerhans. Results: The usage of the mixture or each plant alone corrected the glucose level and insulin level. Microscopically there was definite decrease in the number and diameter of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells). The use of medicinal plants in the different groups of this study greatly improved such cellular changes and the level of blood sugar level was corrected. The present results showed that the activity of the mixture was the best when compared with Nigella, Foenugreek and Termis seeds. Conclusions: The water extract of the mixture is the most powerful in amelioration hyperglycemia and most of all damage effects of Alloxan on the liver and texture, hematological parameters, and lipid profile. So it is advised to use the plant mixture as an antidiabetic agent rather than the use of each plant separately. Repeating such study with the use of variable doses may be helpful in better evaluation for the required doses.

Ashraf M. Mostafa, 1 Abdel Hamid A. Serwah, 2 Waleed S. Mohamed, 3

2013-01-01

215

Effect of Xylooligosaccharide Enriched Yogurt on Serum Profile in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of Xylooligosaccharide (XO) enriched yogurt in addition to basal diet on serum biochemical profile of albino rats assigned to 5 dietary treatments for a period of 21 days were studied. In all groups of rats (n = 5) serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were observed. The weight gain in rats receiving yogurt was higher than those in control group. XO enriched yogurt showed significant improvement in minerals absorption. There was no significant change in serum cholesterol level of rats fed on yogurt with or without XO enrichment but a fair reduction in serum glucose content was noted. XO as a functional ingredient can be incorporated in formulating dairy products with improved health benefits like lowering glucose levels.

Semee Mumtaz; Salim-ur- Rehman; Nuzhat Huma; Amer Jamil

2009-01-01

216

Effects of Ballota nigra on blood biochemical parameters and insulin in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ingestion of aqueous 70% ethanol extract of Ballota nigra (400 mg/kg body weight for 7 days) by albino rats (n=10) was investigated to study its effects on glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), troponin I (TnI), serum creatine kinase (CK), total protein, total bilirubin and blood urea. Ballota nigra extract caused a significant decrease in blood glucose, total serum cholesterol and CK levels. Blood levels of TnI, AST, ALT, triglycerides, total bilirubin, total protein and blood urea were unchanged. The hypoglycemic effect of Ballota nigra extract on albino rats was further investigated by conducting a glucose tolerance test intraperitoneally (IPGTT). Healthy rats that were fasting for 18 hours followed by administration of a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of the crude extract of Ballota nigra, orally. A significant decrease in blood glucose levels (after 15, 30, and 45 minutes) with a significant increase in serum insulin level (after 15 and 30 minute) was noted. These results suggest that, the crude extract of Ballota nigra have hypoglycemic, insulin-releasing and cholesterol lowering effects in rats.

Nusier MK; Bataineh HN; Bataineh ZM; Daradka HM

2007-08-01

217

Effects of Ballota nigra on blood biochemical parameters and insulin in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ingestion of aqueous 70% ethanol extract of Ballota nigra (400 mg/kg body weight for 7 days) by albino rats (n=10) was investigated to study its effects on glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), troponin I (TnI), serum creatine kinase (CK), total protein, total bilirubin and blood urea. Ballota nigra extract caused a significant decrease in blood glucose, total serum cholesterol and CK levels. Blood levels of TnI, AST, ALT, triglycerides, total bilirubin, total protein and blood urea were unchanged. The hypoglycemic effect of Ballota nigra extract on albino rats was further investigated by conducting a glucose tolerance test intraperitoneally (IPGTT). Healthy rats that were fasting for 18 hours followed by administration of a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of the crude extract of Ballota nigra, orally. A significant decrease in blood glucose levels (after 15, 30, and 45 minutes) with a significant increase in serum insulin level (after 15 and 30 minute) was noted. These results suggest that, the crude extract of Ballota nigra have hypoglycemic, insulin-releasing and cholesterol lowering effects in rats. PMID:17627272

Nusier, Mohamad K; Bataineh, Hameed N; Bataineh, Ziad M; Daradka, Haytham M

2007-08-01

218

Effect of fenugreek seed extract on adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds against hepatotoxicity induced in albino rats by the anticancer drug adriamycin (ADR). Animals were given single dose of ADR (10 mg/kg body weight) and were killed after 2 and 4 weeks. Liver of ADR-treated animals showed histopathological and biochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Moreover, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was increased in ADR-treated rats. The liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) were increased in the sera of treated rats. Moreover, ADR significantly increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous extract of fenugreek (0.4 g/kg body weight) seeds led to an improvement in histological and biochemical alterations induced by ADR. The biochemical results showed that AST and ALT appeared normal together with reduction in the level of MDA (lipid peroxidation marker) and increase in SOD and CAT activities. It was concluded from this study that the aqueous extract fenugreek seeds has a beneficial impact on ADR-induced hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant effect in albino rats.

Sakr SA; Abo-El-Yazid SM

2012-11-01

219

Effect of fenugreek seed extract on adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds against hepatotoxicity induced in albino rats by the anticancer drug adriamycin (ADR). Animals were given single dose of ADR (10 mg/kg body weight) and were killed after 2 and 4 weeks. Liver of ADR-treated animals showed histopathological and biochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Moreover, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was increased in ADR-treated rats. The liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) were increased in the sera of treated rats. Moreover, ADR significantly increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous extract of fenugreek (0.4 g/kg body weight) seeds led to an improvement in histological and biochemical alterations induced by ADR. The biochemical results showed that AST and ALT appeared normal together with reduction in the level of MDA (lipid peroxidation marker) and increase in SOD and CAT activities. It was concluded from this study that the aqueous extract fenugreek seeds has a beneficial impact on ADR-induced hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant effect in albino rats. PMID:22082829

Sakr, Saber A; Abo-El-Yazid, Samah M

2011-11-14

220

Therapeutic Effect of Bacopa monniera Against Aluminum Induced toxicity in Medulla Oblongata of Albino rat  

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Full Text Available In the present study the pro-oxidant activity of aluminum (Al) and the protective role of Bacopa monniera extract (BME) were determined in the medulla oblongata of albino rats. Albino rats were divided into four groups. First group of rats was used as control, second group of rats received oral dose of Aluminum maltolate only, third group of animals received Bacopa monniera extract (BME) and fourth group of animals received concurrently Aluminum maltolate (Al-M) plus Bacopa monniera (BME) extract respectively, for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the medulla oblongata was removed and processed to examine the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS) and antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx). Oxidative stress was promoted in medulla oblongata following Aluminum administration. In contrast, BME extract exerted an antioxidant action which was related with an increase in the levels of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, evidences from light microscopic images clearly demonstrating that Al-M-induced neuronal changes, which were minimized by BME treatment, architecture of medulla oblongata in Al-M+BME treated group was almost similar to the control.

T. Madhavi; B. Mahitha; K. Mallikarjuna; N. John Sushma

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Camel's Milk Protects against Aluminum Chloride-Induced Toxicity in the Liver and Kidney of White Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) is commonly used in daily life but it can be potentially toxic. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of camel' milk against aluminum-induced biochemical alterations and oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of white albino rats. Approach: White albino male rats (230-250 g) were divided into three groups of 10 rats: a control group treated with normal saline, the AlCl3-treated group and the camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group. The AlCl3 treated group received 0.5 mg kg-1 of AlCl3 orally. The camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group was fed 1 mL of fresh camel's milk 10 minutes prior to the administration of oral AlCl3. All rats were treated every day for 30 days. Liver and kidney biochemical serum parameters were analyzed. Lipid peroxidation, as determined by the tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (HP), and the oxidative stress status, as measured by glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, were evaluated in the kidney and liver of treated rats. Results: Data showed that the oral administration of AlCl3 resulted in statistically significant increases in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cholesterol and triglycerides; the total amount of protein and albumin were also significantly decreased. However, these parameters were within normal levels in the rats given camel's milk prior to AlCl3. Additionally, oral administration of AlCl3 induced lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney, which was indicated by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation biomarkers (TBARS and HP) and a significant decrease in the activities of GSH, SOD and CAT. In all rats treated with camel's milk before being given AlCl3, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress parameters were within normal levels. Conclusion: Treatment with camel's milk prior to AlCl3 exposure alleviates AlCl3-associated hazards and protects the kidney and liver from AlCl3 toxicity.

Fahaid Al-Hashem

2009-01-01

222

4. Cisplatin and carboplatin induced changes in oxidative enzyme activity levels in albino rat’s liver  

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Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the possible interference of cisplatin or carboplatin on oxidative enzymes in liver of albino rats. Rats were divided into three groups each consisting of eight animals. Group 1 (Control) received 0.9% of normal saline. Group 2 (Treatment) received cisplatin of 3 mg/kg body weight and Group 3 (Treatment) received carboplatin of 10 mg/kg body weight. Injections were given intra-peritoneally to rats on 1st, 3rd and 5th day of experimentation. On 45th day of experiment, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Succinate dehydrogenases (SDH), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activities in the cytosol fraction were assayed in liver of albino rats. Cisplatin or carboplatin treatment caused significant changes in activity levels of SDH, LDH & G-6-PDH in liver of experimental rats, when compared to control rats. From the study it may be concluded that, hepatic tissue is meeting its energy requirements through alternative pathways. In other words this can be viewed as functional or physiological adaptation of the liver in treated rats, may be due to stress caused by platinum-based anticancer drugs.

Y.V. Kishore Reddy; P. Sreenivasula Reddy; M.R. Shivalingam; B. Appa Rao; K. Sindhura; G. Vasavya Sindhu; M. Vijay Bhaskar Reddy

2010-01-01

223

Pharmacological actions of Pongamia pinnata roots in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pongamia pinnata root has been advocated in Ayurveda for treatment of various inflammatory and infective conditions including ulcers. Sequential petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone and ethanolic extracts of P. pinnata roots when administered in the dose of 50 mg/kg, i.p. in rats was found to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity while pentobarbitone-induced 'sleep time' was reduced by all the extracts except petroleum ether which, however, enhanced it. They were also found to possess antiulcer effects when administered either by i.p. (45 min before) or oral route (45 min before or for 4 days) against restraint-stress or pylorus-ligated gastric ulcers in rats, the maximum protection being afforded by petroleum ether and ethanol extracts. The mechanism of antiulcer effect could either be due to decrease in acid-pepsin secretion and augmentation of mucin secretion as observed with ethanol extract, while petroleum ether extract might be producing the effect by virtue of its anti-stress activity.

Singh RK; Nath G; Acharya SB; Goel RK

1997-08-01

224

Effect of Gamma Radiation on the Albino Rat's Liver and the Possible Protective Role of ?-carotene on the Histological and Ultra Structural Changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Present investigation reports the possible protective effect of ?-carotene against hepatic lesions induced in male albino rats due to gamma-irradiation 48 male albino rats were divided into three main groups; the first served as control (12 animals). Rats of the second group (18 animals) were exposed to a sub-lethal dose of whole body gamma-irradiation and then divided into three equal subgroups. The rats of the third main group (18 animals) received 5 mg/kg body wt of ?-carotene at a daily oral dose for 2 weeks, and were then subjected to whole body gamma-irradiation at sub-lethal single dose level of 6 Gy. This group was then divided into three equal subgroups. The animals were autopsied at three intervals; one week, two weeks and four weeks post irradiation. The obtained data revealed that gamma-irradiation induced different histological changes in the liver of irradiated animals. These changes varied from haemorrhage, congestion in blood vessels, pyknosis and necrosis as well as complete degenerated area in the liver. Electron micrographs recorded swollen mitochondria, fragmented endoplasmic reticulum, distorted nuclei and cell membrane and lipid infiltration in the hepatocytes of irradiated animals. The treatment with ? carotene (5 mg/ kg body wt for two weeks) pre-exposure to radiation attenuated most of these changes. Therefore, the present study has included for the potential use of ?-carotene as a radio protector

2008-01-01

225

Propolis Protection from Toxicity Caused by Aluminium Chloride in Male Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Propolis is a resinous natural hive product derived from plant exudate collected by honey bees and has been extensively used in folk medicine. The present study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of propolis in alleviating the toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl3)on some hematological and biochemical parameters of male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were arranged into 4 equal groups; control group, aluminium group (34 mg AlCl3/kg/day), propolis group (100?g propolis/rat)and aluminium plus propolis group. Rats were orally administered their respective doses daily for 30 days. AlCl3 caused significant decrease in hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrit (Ht), total and differential leucocyte count (TLC) when compared to control. On the other hand, aluminium administration caused a significant increase in urea, uric acid, creatinin, bilirubin, the content of phosphorous, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and asparate aminotransferase (AST) and significant decrease in total protein, albumin, globulin and calcium when compared to control. The administration of propolis alleviated the toxic effect of AlCl3 in experimental rats. It could be concluded thal propolis my afford protection from toxicity caused by aluminium chloride in male albino rats

2012-01-01

226

Toxicological, biochemical and histopathological evaluation of Tridham in Wistar albino rats.  

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Full Text Available Tridham (TD), a polyherbal formulation is assessed for its acute (72 hr) and subacute toxicity (28 days) and also its significance on histological, hematological and biochemical variations in albino wistar rats. Body weight and general behavior of animal was observed throughout the experimental period and at the end of the study period organ weight, haematological and biochemical parameters of blood and urine, as well as kidney and liver histology were evaluated. Results of the studies performed indicated no toxic clinical symptoms or histopathological lesions in both acute and subacute toxicity, which clearly shows that TD extract has high margin of safety.

Ravindran Jaganathan; Vijaya Ravinayagam; Sachdanandam Panchanadham; Shanthi Palanivelu

2012-01-01

227

Effect of Neem oil on the structure and function of the mature female albino rat ovaries  

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Full Text Available Objective: The study was undertaken to observe the effect of Neem oil treatment on the fertility, microscopic structure of ovary and the associated changes in the serum levels of female reproductive hormones in mature female albino rats. Methods:   The animals were divided in different groups as A1 = treated females at low dose (0.6 ml of Neem oil/animal), A2 = treated females at high dose (1.2 ml of Neem oil/animal), A3 = controls for group A1 (corresponding dose of peanut oil) and A4 = controls for A2 (corresponding dose of peanut oil). Animals were kept under observation for a period of six weeks. At the end of this period animals were anesthetized, blood was removed by cardiac puncture and sacrificed. Ovaries were removed and fixed in 10% formol saline for microscopy and methanol for high-performance liquid chromatography purpose. Rresults: Microscopic sections of the ovaries have revealed decrease in the number of mature ovarian follicles. Significant changes in the levels of associated reproductive hormones and presence of higher concentrations of active Neem components in the gonads amongst the treated female rats have also been shown in this study. Cconclusions: From these findings it can be concluded that Neem oil has a dose depended anti-fertility potential in the female albino rats.

Masood Ahmed Shaikh; Syed Naeemulhassan Naqvi; Zahid Ali Kaim Khani

2009-01-01

228

Histomorphological Effect of the Aqueous Root-Bark Extract of Ficus sycomorus (Linn) on the Liver and Kidney of Albino Rats  

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The aqueous root-bark extract of Ficus sycomorus (Linn) was screened for its chemical constituents, median lethal dose and its histomorphological effect on the liver and kidney of albino rats. A total of 114 adult albino rats of both sexes weighing between 150-320 g were used in this study. T...

S.H. Garba; J. Prasad; U.K. Sandabe

229

Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya  

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Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Thomas Idowu; Godwin Avwioro; Luqman Olatubosun; Ganiyu Adeosun

2010-01-01

230

Hepatoprotective potential of Cordia subcordata Lam. against carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the phytoconstituents, acute oral toxicity and hepatoprotective activity of ethanol (90%) extract of Cordia subcordata Lam. (EECS) using CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar albino rats.Methods: The EECS at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg, p.o and the standard drug Liv.52 (40mg/kg, p.o) were administered for 7 days in CCl4 intoxicated rats. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed by using various biochemical parameters like SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP), also total bilirubin and urea along with histopathological studies of liver tissue. The biochemical changes and histopathological studies were observed on 4th and 8th day. Results: EECS at tested doses significantly decrease (P<0.001) the elevated levels of the hepatic enzymes, total bilirubin and urea in a dose dependent manner after 3days whereas it’s subsequent return towards near normal after 7days indicating the recovery of hepatic cells. In the liver sections of the rats treated with EECS extracts for 7 days, the normal cellular architecture was retained as compared to Liv.52, thereby furtherly confirming the potent hepatoprotective effect of EECS.Conclusion: The EECS afforded significant protection against CCl4 induced hepatocellular injury.

Saravana Kumar.A; Gandhimathi.R; Senthil Kumar.K.K; Kusuma Praveen Kumar

2009-01-01

231

Influence of black gram (Vigna mungo) trypsin inhibitory fraction on the hepatic protein catabolism in male albino mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of black gram and black gram trypsin inhibitor on the protein catabolism of male albino mice has been investigated. Group 1 was given autoclaved black gram (control), Group II raw black gram and Group III the autoclaved black gram incorporated with 1% black gram trypsin inhibitor. Blood as well as urinary urea and creatine were found to be elevated in Groups II and III. Increased levels of arginase, ornithine transcarbamylase and transaminases were noted in Groups II and III. The results suggested an enhanced catabolism of proteins evoked by the native black gram trypsin inhibitor.

Kamalakannan V; Sathyamoorthy AV; Motlag DB

1984-01-01

232

Effect of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs on lipolytic activities during CCl4 induced acute hepatic injury in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Daily treatment of CCl4(3 ml/kg body wt) for 7 days induced acute hepatic necrosis in albino rats. Treatment of CCl4 caused significant alterations in the activities of acid lipase, alkaline lipase, lipoprotein lipase of liver, kidney and adipose tissue and hormone sensitive lipase of adipose tissue of albino rat. Administration of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs (kumari asav, kumari kalp, arogyavardhini and tamra bhasma) concomitant with CCl4 counteracted the action of CCl4 on lipolytic enzymes exhibiting hepatoprotection. The possible physiological significance of alterations in lipolytic enzymes during hepatic necrosis induced by CCl4 and hepatoprotection by the above ayurvedic drugs is discussed. PMID:8500840

Patil, S; Kanase, A; Varute, A T

1993-03-01

233

Effect of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs on lipolytic activities during CCl4 induced acute hepatic injury in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Daily treatment of CCl4(3 ml/kg body wt) for 7 days induced acute hepatic necrosis in albino rats. Treatment of CCl4 caused significant alterations in the activities of acid lipase, alkaline lipase, lipoprotein lipase of liver, kidney and adipose tissue and hormone sensitive lipase of adipose tissue of albino rat. Administration of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs (kumari asav, kumari kalp, arogyavardhini and tamra bhasma) concomitant with CCl4 counteracted the action of CCl4 on lipolytic enzymes exhibiting hepatoprotection. The possible physiological significance of alterations in lipolytic enzymes during hepatic necrosis induced by CCl4 and hepatoprotection by the above ayurvedic drugs is discussed.

Patil S; Kanase A; Varute AT

1993-03-01

234

Lactogenic study of the ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn seed on pituitary prolactin level of lactating albino rats  

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Summary. The effect of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed on pituitary prolactin and milk production was evaluated in albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were randomly grouped at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Et...

I G Bako; A M Mabrouk; S M Abubakar; A Mohammed

235

Morphofunctional state of the adrenal glands in albino rats under conditions of toxic stress caused by cadmium salt in winter and summer periods.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the morphology and function of the adrenal glands in male and female albino rats in cadmium intoxication during winter and summer periods (January and July). In animals of the control group, sex-related differences in the total area of the adrenal glands and in the size of their zones were revealed. In females, zones of adrenal gland were larger than in males. In winter months, these differences were most pronounced. Analysis of seasonal differences in the area of the adrenal glands in males revealed no significant differences in winter and summer months. Irrespective of the season and gender, cadmium chloride treatment led to an increase in the size of the adrenal glands. Cadmium salts caused more pronounced functional strain in males in winter months and in females in summer. PMID:22238762

Kotelnikova, S V; Kargina, M V; Kotelnikov, A V

2011-06-01

236

Morphofunctional state of the adrenal glands in albino rats under conditions of toxic stress caused by cadmium salt in winter and summer periods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied the morphology and function of the adrenal glands in male and female albino rats in cadmium intoxication during winter and summer periods (January and July). In animals of the control group, sex-related differences in the total area of the adrenal glands and in the size of their zones were revealed. In females, zones of adrenal gland were larger than in males. In winter months, these differences were most pronounced. Analysis of seasonal differences in the area of the adrenal glands in males revealed no significant differences in winter and summer months. Irrespective of the season and gender, cadmium chloride treatment led to an increase in the size of the adrenal glands. Cadmium salts caused more pronounced functional strain in males in winter months and in females in summer.

Kotelnikova SV; Kargina MV; Kotelnikov AV

2011-06-01

237

Leukocytic Response and Spleen Morphology of Albino Rats Exposed to Graded Levels of Lead Acetate  

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Full Text Available Aim. The study investigated the leukocytic response and spleen morphology of albino rats exposed to graded dose levels of lead acetate. Material and Methods. Four groups of 5 rats received lead acetate treatment per os for 14 days, as follows: group A (0.25 mg/kg body weight), group B (0.50 mg/kg body weight), group C (1.00 mg/kg body weight) and group D (no lead acetate treatment-control). Thereafter, total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count (DLC) and histomorphology of the spleen were assessed. Total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count and histomorphology of rats that received the lead acetate treatment were compared to control rats. Results. Results have shown that the administration of lead acetate to rats led to a significant (p < 0.05) increase in TLC with an increase in the number of lymphocytes (p < 0.05). The number of absolute monocytes and neutrophils in the lead acetate exposed rats were significantly (p < 0.05) low. The microscopic changes from the spleen sections of the lead acetate treated rats suggest immune alteration and splenic damage. Conclusion. Therefore the study confirms the risk of experiencing immunosuppression for humans and other species that may be exposed to lead.

Ikechukwu Reginald Obidike; Wilfred Sunday Ezema; Lawrence Okonkwo Aka; Samuel Chukwuneke Udem; Gladys Chinelo

2010-01-01

238

Effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Amiodarone is a potent antiarrhythmic drug that is used to treat ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The present work studied the effect of amiodarone on the kidney of albino rats and the possible ameliorative role of grapefruit juice. Administration of amiodarone by gastric intubation (18 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), daily for 5 weeks) caused many histological alterations including intertubular leucocytic infiltrations, degeneration of the renal tubules, and atrophy of the glomeruli. Amiodarone caused marked elevation in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histochemical examination of the renal tubules revealed depletion of glycogen and total proteins. Besides, animals administered with amiodarone showed an increase of apoptotic bands as detected by gel electrophoresis. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice (27 ml/kg b.w.) caused an improvement in histological and histochemical appearance of the kidney together with decrease of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Moreover, the apoptosis was decreased. It is concluded from the obtained results that grapefruit juice ameliorates the nephrotoxicity of amiodarone in albino rats and this may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components.

Sakr SA; El-Gamal EM

2013-09-01

239

Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

2008-01-01

240

Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. METHODS: Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. RESULTS: Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components.

Sakr SA; Zoil Mel-S; El-Shafey SS

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS ON ALBINO RAT: A RESEARCH  

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Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the wound healing activity of C.quadrangularis on excision and incision woundmodels in albino rats.Materials and methods: The different extracts of C.quadrangularis are obtained by successive soxhlet extractionwith petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol were subjected to acute toxicity studies. The extracts were screenedfor wound healing properties in the excision and incision wound models in albino rats of either sex under light etheranaesthesia.Results: All the three extracts showed significant increase in wound contraction and formation of scar in incisionwound model. These extracts showed significant increase in the breaking strength of resutured incision wound ascompared to control group(p<0.001). Phytosterol, triterpenes, glycosides, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins andcoumarin have been reported to be present in C.quadrangularis.Conclusion: The result of the present study indicate that methanol extract of C.quadrangularis has more significantwound healing property than the petroleum ether and chloroform extracts in excision and incision wound models.

*1A. Mohanty, 2P.K. Sahu, 1C.Das.

2010-01-01

242

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF ORIGIN (MOOLASTHANA) OF RAKTAVAHA STROTAS IN ALBINO RAT  

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Full Text Available Ayurveda, the science of life, believes in the existence of the things, which are beyond the perception of most intellectual human approach. Strotas [fine network/meshwork of large or small channels (excluding blood vessels and nerves) with micro or macroscopic spaces meant for various types of secretion and excretion of useful and waste product] and its origin is such part of sharir (i.e. body) which is beyond the capacity of human being to prove it practically. They are found in cell-tissue-organ-system and thus occupy the whole body. Origin of Strotas is difficult to show in human being hence, Albino Rat, is selected to prove its existence. Out of 14 strotas (as described by carak), an attempt is made to verify and determine the Origin of Raktavaha Strotas only in Albino Rat. Raktavaha strotas are those micro-macro hollow channels where Rakta Dhatu i.e. blood and its content, are formed, conducted, metabolized and are transformed in to newer substances to meet the need of life.

Vaikos Chandrashekhar Dattatraya; Kamthe Amol Baban

2011-01-01

243

HAIR GROWTH POTENTIAL OF EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN. PLANT EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae) is traditionally used for its hair growth promoting activity in rural community of Indian sub-continent. Studies were therefore carried out to evaluate petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous base and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats for thirty days. The time required for hair growth initiation and completion was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced. Minoxidil 2% solution applied topically served as positive control. The treatment was successful in bringing 73% of hair follicles in anagenic phase by application of 5% methanolic extract as comparable to standard. Bioactivity guided fractionation was carried out of methanolic extract and was fractionated as aqueous and non-aqueous extract and screened pharmacologically. Water insoluble methanolic extract was found to be more potent and reduced the hair growth initiation and completion time significantly (P < 0.01) as comparable to standard. It holds the promise of potent alternative for minoxidil.Keywords:

Bhaiji Amrita; Patil Umesh Kumar; Dave Suchi; Jain Arvind; Sahoo Himanshu Bhusan

2012-01-01

244

Effect of honey intake on serum cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein levels in albino rats and potential benefits on risks of coronary heart disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The beneficial effect of honey has been widely reported particularly in the treatment of wounds and gastrointestinal tract disorders. However there is paucity of reports on its effect on the plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) including cholesterol levels despite common consumption of honey worldwide including, Nigeria. The effect of the widely consumed unrefined Nigeria honey on plasma HDL, VLDL, LDL, TG, cholesterol and cardiovascular risk predictive index (CVPI) was studied using 20 adult male albino rats to ascertain its scientific and clinical relevance. The rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups, the control and honey-fed (test) groups, ten in each group. The rats weighed between 190-200gm at the start of the study. The control group was fed on normal rat (Pfizer-Nigeria) while the test group was fed on normal rat feed and honey (1ml of honey was added to 10ml of drinking water given once every day) for 22 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized with thiopentone sodium and blood collected by cardiac puncture. Serum TG, HDL, VLDL, LDL and total cholesterol in the control and the test groups were determined. The results showed significant increase in the level of plasma TG, HDL, and VLDL in the test group when compared with the control group. In contrast, there were significant decreases in the levels of plasma LDL and total cholesterol in the test when compared with the control group. Computed values of CVPI showed significant increase in the test values compared to that of the control. It is concluded that consumption of unrefined Nigeria honey significantly improved lipid profile and computed cardiovascular disease predictive index in male albino rats.

Alagwu EA; Okwara JE; Nneli RO; Osim EE

2011-01-01

245

HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The traditional medicinal plant P.edulis was tested for its hypoglycemic effect in Wistar albino rats. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in overnight fasted normal as well as in alloxan induced diabetic rats (150 mg/kg, of alloxan, i.p.) with the administration of 100,200,300,400 mg/kg of b.wt of P.edulis. The blood sample withdrawn at 0, 60, 120, 180 min of glucose administration from the retro orbital sinus by capillary puncture indicated the hypoglycemic nature of the P.edulis leaf extract and identified the most effective dose as 200mg/kg b.wt.

Kanakasabapathi Devaki; Uthamaraj Beulah; Govindraj Akila; Martin Sunitha; Velliyur Kanniappan Gopalakrishnan

2011-01-01

246

Anti-inflammatory Activity of the Plant Cannabis sativa (L) Petrolium Ether Extract in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available In this study the plant Cannabis sativa seeds petroleum oil extract was investigatedfor anti- inflammatory activity on albino rats. The inflammation was firstly obtained byusing carrageenan suspension 0.1 ml of 10% saline injected at the sub – plantar region ofthe left limb for inducing a local acute oedema. A decreased in oedema size was reportedafter 24 hours for the rats pretreated with carrageenan30 minutes before injection withsuspension( 4.56, 0.59 and 0.93 for control, 1ml/kg per day and 0.5ml/kg per day groupsgiven C. sativa seed extracts respectively.), compared to Indomethacin standard antiinflammatorydrug which reported a decrease in oedema size diameter to 0.55mm, which

Musa E.M; EL Badwi S.M; Jah Elnabi M.A; Osman E. A; Dahab M. M

2011-01-01

247

Antihepatotoxic Effect of Feronia Limonia Fruit against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Damage in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Feronia limonia Swingle, though mentioned as a high utility medicinal plant in Ayurveda for the treat-ment of liver disorders, but has no scientific investigations. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of extracts of Feronia limonia fruit on albino rat liver, damage induced by single dose of carbon-tetrachloride (1.5 ml/kg, p.o.). The oral administration of extracts (500 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days has shown significant hepatoprotective action. There is reduction in the elevated levels of serum enzymes such SGOT, SGPT, ALP and Serum bilirubin and elevation in level of GSH, GPX,GLY and total protein in Feronia limonia protected rats.

Rucha Upadhyay; Narendra Deo Pandey; Shahid Suhail Narvi; Amita Verma; Bahar Ahmed

2010-01-01

248

Modulatory effect of NONI-Herbal formulation against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in albino rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of NONI-herbal formulation against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in albino wistar rats is summarized in this study. Lithiasis was induced in rats by administering 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days and was manifested by high urinary calcium, phosphate, oxalate, and low urinary magnesium contents. Simultaneous administration of 1ml (1 in 10) NONI formulation orally for 28 days along with ethylene glycol (0.75% v/v) reduced urinary calcium, phosphate, oxalate and elevated urinary magnesium level. It also increased urinary volume thereby reducing the tendency for crystallization. The histopathological studies confirmed the induction as degenerated glomeruli, necrotic tubule and inflammatory cells was observed in section of kidney from animals treated with ethylene glycol.This was reduced; however after treatment with NONI formulation. These observations enable to conclude that NONI is effective against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis.

Verma NK; Patel SS; Saleem TSM; Christina AJM; Chidambaranathan N

2009-01-01

249

Investigation into the nephrotoxicity of Nigerian bonny light crude oil in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of bonny-light crude oil was assessed in adult albino rats. The rats were administered with 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight of the crude oil orally for 7 days. Fluid intake was measured daily, initial and final animal body was recorded. The toxic effects on the kidneys were assessed and histological studies carried out. The results revealed that the kidney cells were damaged; crude oil caused a destruction of the renal reserve capacity. There was a significant increase (p ? 0.05) in creatinine in the high dose group (800mg/kg), and a significant decrease (p ? 0.05) in urea concentration. Histological examination indicates that crude oil induced severe pathologic changes in the forms of necrosis and oedema.

Orisakwe OE; Njan AA; Afonne OJ; Akumka DD; Orish VN; Udemezue OO

2004-09-01

250

Investigation into the Nephrotoxicity of Nigerian Bonny Light Crude Oil in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of bonny-light crude oil was assessed in adult albino rats. The rats were administered with 200, 400, and 800mg/kg body weight of the crude oil orally for 7 days. Fluid intake was measured daily, initial and final animal body was recorded. The toxic effects on the kidneys were assessed and histological studies carried out. The results revealed that the kidney cells were damaged; crude oil caused a destruction of the renal reserve capacity. There was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in creatinine in the high dose group (800mg/kg), and a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in urea concentration. Histological examination indicates that crude oil induced severe pathologic changes in the forms of necrosis and oedema.

O. E. Orisakwe; A. A. Njan; O. J. Afonne; Akumka D. D; V. N. Orish; O. O. Udemezue

2004-01-01

251

Diuretic activity of Linaria ramosissima (wall.) Janch. leaves in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration of the test drug increased the urine volume in a non-significant manner, while it enhanced the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, and potassium significantly, in comparison to the control group. From the present study it can be concluded that the leaves of L. ramosissima have a significant diuretic activity.

Pandya PN; Aghera HB; Ashok BK; Acharya R

2012-10-01

252

Diuretic activity of Linaria ramosissima (wall.) Janch. leaves in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration of the test drug increased the urine volume in a non-significant manner, while it enhanced the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, and potassium significantly, in comparison to the control group. From the present study it can be concluded that the leaves of L. ramosissima have a significant diuretic activity. PMID:23723679

Pandya, Preeti N; Aghera, Hetal B; Ashok, B K; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2012-10-01

253

EVALUATION THE EFFECT OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE (SC OR VIAGRA) ON SENILE ALBINO RAT TESTIS (HISTOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDY)  

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Full Text Available Sildenafil citrate (SC or Viagra) is an oral medication widely used to treat erectile dysfunction and maintains a sufficient erection for satisfactory sexual performance. The side effects of sildenafil citrate have been reported.Aim of the work: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of sildenafil citrate in the therapeutic dose in different regimes. Materials and methods: This study included forty senile male albino rats divided into four equal groups. Group (A) was used as a control group (did not receive any treatment). Group (B) receive the therapeutic dose of Viagra (1.5 mg suspended in 1.5 ml distilled water) orally using a gastric gavage as daily dose for one week. Group (C) received the therapeutic dose of Viagra 3 times / week for two weeks. Group (D) received the therapeutic dose of Viagra each week for 4 weeks. Half of the treated rats of the different groups were sacrificed, other half were sacrificed after two weeks from the last dose as recovery groups (RB, RC and RD). The testes were dissected and blocked in paraffin. Hematoxylin and Eosin (HX&E) and Periodic acid Schiff stain (PAS) were applied and serum testosterone levels in the different groups were evaluated.Results: The present study showed that the therapeutic dose of sildenafil caused several histological findings in the germinal epithelial of the rat testes including degeneration , detachment of the spermatogenic cells especially the primary spermatocytes with addition thickening of the basement membranes of the seminiferous tubules and increased interstitial Leydig cells. The serum testosterone of the treated rats showed increased level of testosterone especially in group D. The recovery rats showed relative improvement of parameter toward normal.Conclusion: Sildenafil produce morphological and histological alterations in the testes.

Ezz-Eldin E-Abdalla*, Zienab M. Gebaly**, Abd-Elghany A.Moustafa*, Ibrahim M. Amr

2012-01-01

254

CURATIVE POTENTIAL OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SCENT LEAF (OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM) ON CISPLATIN INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used for a wide variety of tumors, but is reported to be hepatotoxic. In the current study, the dose dependent and time course curative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (O.G.) on cisplatin induced hepatotoxic rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches was evaluated. Male albino wistar rats weighing between 150-200g were randomly separated into four different groups of eighteen (18) rats per group. Rats in group 1 received no cisplatin. Normal saline was administered intraperitoneally (i.p). The rats in group 2 were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight i.p). Tissue damage was also induced in rats in groups 3 and 4 by a single intraperitoneal-administration of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight). After three days, 2ml/kg body weight of 5% and 10% aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum were administered to rats in groups 3 and 4 respectively, through the oral route using the gavage once daily for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Rats in group 2 were given sterile water in place of the extracts while rats in group 1 were the untreated controls. They were all allowed unlimited access to tap water and growers’ mash. Results showed the extract to cause significant (P? 0.05) dose and time related attenuation in the elevation of serum liver enzyme markers of acute hepatocellular injury (ALT, AST and ALP) and increase in serum protein. Cisplatin treatment caused significant increase (P? 0.05) in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) from 43.03 ± 1.29 to 127.90 ± 0.89 U/L and a decrease (P? 0.05) in serum protein concentration from 93.70 ± 0.61 to 50.43 ± 1.53 g/l. There were considerable decreases (P? 0.05) in body weight and liver weight to body weight ratio in the test animals. However, most of these observed changes were alleviated by prophylactic treatment with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum which was also found to be dose and time dependent (P ? 0.05). The ameliorating effect was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations of liver tissues in the groups treated with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum (5% and 10%). The results from this study indicate that aqueous leaf extracts of O. gratissimum has anti-hepatotoxic action against cisplatin induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Hence the extracts have the potential to be used for the management of hepatopathies and as a therapeutic adjuvant in cisplatin toxicity.

E. M. Arhoghro; C. Ikeh; A.A Uwakwe; K. E. Ekpo; E.O. Anosike

2012-01-01

255

Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are highly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae) which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. (more) The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

Zora, Hasan; Muftuler, Zumrut F. Biber; Demir, Ilknur; Kilcar, Ayfer Yurt; Ichedef, Cigdem; Unak, Perihan

2012-04-01

256

Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are highly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae) which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

Hasan Zora; Zumrut F. Biber Muftuler; Ilknur Demir; Ayfer Yurt Kilcar; Cigdem Ichedef; Perihan Unak

2012-01-01

257

The Side Effects Of The Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID) Ketoprofen On Histological And Ultrastructural Aspects Of The Kidneys Of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present work deals with the effect of the therapeutic dose of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ketoprofen on the microscopic structure of the kidney of the albino rat. The present study also sheds light on the risk of using over-dosage either by mistake or in an unwise attempt at quick relieving the body pain. The intramuscular therapeutic dose of ketoprofen to albino rat was calculated and was found to equal 13.5 mg /kg body weight. Fifty adult male albino rats, Rattus norvegicus were used in the present study. The rats were equally allocated to five groups, each of 10 rats. Rats of the first group were kept as control. Rats of the second & third groups were injected daily with the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen for four and eight successive weeks respectively. Rats of the fourth & fifth groups were injected daily with double the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen for four and eight successive weeks respectively. In rats given the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen daily for four weeks and sacrificed 24 hours after the last dose, light microscope examination showed that Malpighian corpuscles and the kidney tubules revealed signs of degeneration. In rats given the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen daily for eight weeks the histological changes were in progression. A few numbers of glomeruli were increasingly congested and shrunken into dense masses of unrecognized structural details. The luminal borders of the cells lining the proximal convoluted tubules together with their microvilli were damaged. The electron micrographs of ultrathin sections of kidneys of rats given the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen daily for eight weeks showed that the glomerular capillaries were disorganized and occasionally their lining endothelium showed degeneration. The podocytes showed deteriorated and rarefied cytoplasm; and their primary processes were fragmented. Also, the foot processes appeared occasionally broad. In some cells of proximal convoluted tubules the microvilli completely disappeared. Occasionally, these cells gave broad blebs into the tubule lumen which became almost obliterated. The cytoplasm of few cells lining the distal convoluted tubules became moderately rarefied and vacuolated. In animals given double the therapeutic dose for four weeks many kidney glomeruli were fragmented and showed marked congestion and increased mesangium. The parietal walls of Bowman's capsules were damaged. The kidney tubules showed generalized hyalinization. A few numbers of t he tubule lining cells displayed pyknotic nuclei; some nuclei were karyolysed and even vanished. In animals given daily double the therapeutic dose of ketoprofen for eight successive weeks, the glomeruli were sclerotic and necrotic and the kidney tubules showed generalized hyalinization.

Amina M. Farag Allah

2001-01-01

258

[Uptake of retinol-C14 into liver mitochondrial membranes and erythrocyte stroma of albino rats on a vitamin A-free diet  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have determined the incorporation of retinol-C14 into liver mitochondrial membranes and blood cell stroma in albino male Wistar strain rats, fed with a vitamin A deficient diet for 30, 60 and 90 days. At the end of the vitamin A deficient period, rats were kept fasting for 24 hours and then administered orally retinol-C14 (1,25 microC). They were divided into groups and killed after 3 hours, 3, 6, 12 days from the administration of retinol-C14. The incorporation is very high in one-month deficient rats, it decreases as the experimental period and the intervals after the administration of retinol-C14 grow longer.

Dazzi E; Carbini L; Padalino A; Scarpa AL; Lantini T

1978-01-01

259

Evaluation of the Abortifacient Properties of Chloroform Extract of Carica papaya L. Seed in Female Albino Rats  

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This study was carried out to investigate the impact of oral administration of chloroform extract of Carica papaya seed (CPE) on implantation and pregnancy in female albino rats. The study was divided into three experimental sections. Each section was subdivided into 4 groups treated, respect...

Y. Raji; A.O. Morakinyo; O.S. Akinsomisoye; A.K. Oloyo; P.R.C. Esegbue-Peters; Olufadekemi T. Kunle-Alabi

260

Hazardous effects of fried potato chips on the development of retina in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hazardous effects of fried potato chips upon the retina of two developmental stages of the albino rats aged 7 and 14 days from parturition. METHODS: PREGNANT RATS WERE ARRANGED INTO TWO GROUPS: control pregnant rats and consequently their delivered newborns until reaching 7 and 14 days old from parturition and fried potato chips group in which pregnant rats at the 6th day of gestation maintained on diet formed of fried potato chips supplied from the market mixed with standard diet at a concentration of 50% per each till 7 and 14 post-partum. Three fold integrated approaches were adopted, namely, histological, ultrastructural and proteomic analysis. RESULTS: Histological examination of the retina of the experimental offsprings revealed many histopathological changes, including massive degeneration, vacuolization and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer, as well as general reduction in retinal size. At the ultrastructural level, the retina of experimental offsprings exhibited number of deformities, including ill differentiated and degenerated nuclear layer, malformed and vacuolated pigment epithelium with vesiculated and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, degenerated outer segment of photoreceptors, as well as swollen choriocapillaris and loss of neuronal cells. Proteomic analysis of retina of the two experimental developmental stages showed variations in the expressed proteins as a result of intoxication which illustrated the adverse toxic effects of fried potato chips upon the retina. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the effect of fried potato chips on the development of retina in rats may be due to the presence of acrylamide or its metabolite.

El-Sayyad HI; Sakr SA; Badawy GM; Afify HS

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

RAPD assessment of in vivo induced genotoxicity of raw and treated wastewater to albino rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was applied to assess the potential genotoxicity of wastewater to albino rats. Cluster analysis using the Euclidean distance resulted in two clusters; one includes the control rats and the treated wastewater-injected rats (join at a distance of 0.57). The other one includes the rats injected with the raw wastewater (joins the first cluster at a distance of 0.6). Results confirm the ability of both raw and treated wastewater to in vivo induce genotoxic effects to rats. This demonstrates that the treatment process does not remove all mutagens found in raw wastewater completely. Consequently, the reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation poses health and environmental hazard. Therefore, we recommend genotoxicity testing be used to monitor the quality of wastewater effluents, in addition to the traditional tests used. Besides, hazardous chemicals from laboratories should be separated and treated differently. Finally, RAPD test is a reliable one that can be applied to evaluate in vivo genotoxic effects of chemicals. PMID:23417158

Swaileh, K M; Barakat, S O; Hussein, R M

2013-02-17

262

Effects of Aqueous Extract of Mangifera indica L. (Mango) Stem Bark on Haematological Parameters of Normal Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effects of crude aqueous extract of Mangifera indica (Mango) stem bark on body weight and haematological parameters in normal albino rats were investigated. Albino rats of both sexes weighing between 75 g and 125 g were used. At least 14 mL of the test aqueous extract of the plant was administered to each rat in the group for a period of 14 days. Observations showed that the extract of the medicinal plant have some effects on the haematopoietic system manifested by a positive increase in the levels of PCV (haematocrit), erythrocyte, leukocyte, platelet counts and lymphocytes, while the haemoglobin (Hb) and neutrophil levels were decreased. The test plant also caused an increase in the weights of the rats. Therefore, it is not possible that its use can advance any adverse effects on haematological parameters.

Nwinuka, Nwibani M.; Monanu, Michael O.; Nwiloh, Barine I.

2008-01-01

263

Evaluation of genotoxic potential of Hypericum triquetrifolium extract in somatic and germ cells of male albino mice  

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Full Text Available Hypericum triquetrifolium aqueous extract were studied for the first time for its toxic and the possible clastogenic effects in vivo on the bone marrow and spermatozoa cells of Swiss albino mice. The lethal dose of the aqueous extract was considered to be 10.33 g/kg of the body weight, injected subcutaneously. The doses which were chosen for treatments were 2, 1, and 0.25 g/kg. H. triquetrifolium extract induce statistically significant increases in the average numbers of micronucleus(MN) at the dose 2 g/kg and chromosome aberrations at the doses 2 and 1 g/kg ,the majority of aberrations observed were chromatid breaks, centromeric breaks, acentric fragments. The extract was found to inhibit mitotic index (MI) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover the plant extract showed a significant induction of sperm abnormalities in all concentrations used comparing with the untreated animals. The most frequent types of sperm abnormalities of the treated groups were; amorphous, pseudo-droplet defect, bent mid piece defect and corkscrew mid piece defect. However, the lowest dose 0.25 g/kg body weight was the most effective one which markedly increased the corkscrew midpiece defect. The results indicated that the mixture of the compounds found in the aqueous extract caused cytotoxicity and induced different cytogenetic effects in both somatic and germ cells of male albino mice.

Bushra M. A. Mohammed,; Sarbast K. Q. Kheravii

2011-01-01

264

Role of the brain dopaminergic and opioid system in the regulation of "child's" (maternal bonding) behavior of newborn albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Administration of D(2) receptor antagonist clebopride in a dose not affecting locomotor activity was followed by a decrease in maternal bonding behavior of 10-day-old and 15-day-old albino rat pups. D(1) receptor antagonist SCH23390 had a stimulatory effect only on the behavior of 10-day-old newborns. Opioid peptide ?-casomorphin-7 abolished the effect of clebopride in rat pups of the older age group.

Stovolosov IS; Dubynin VA; Kamensky AA

2011-01-01

265

Role of the brain dopaminergic and opioid system in the regulation of "child's" (maternal bonding) behavior of newborn albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Administration of D(2) receptor antagonist clebopride in a dose not affecting locomotor activity was followed by a decrease in maternal bonding behavior of 10-day-old and 15-day-old albino rat pups. D(1) receptor antagonist SCH23390 had a stimulatory effect only on the behavior of 10-day-old newborns. Opioid peptide ?-casomorphin-7 abolished the effect of clebopride in rat pups of the older age group. PMID:21240335

Stovolosov, I S; Dubynin, V A; Kamensky, A A

2011-01-01

266

EVALUATION OF ANTI DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF MARSILEA MINUTA LINN AGAINST ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was design with an aim to evaluate the Ethanolic leaf extract of Marsilea minuta Linn (EEMM). The study was performed on ethanolic extract of MM leaf in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and alloxan-induced diabetes models in albino rats. Three weeks treatment of diabetic animals with EEMM (250 and 500 mg/kg) showed significant check in rise of blood glucose compared to untreated diabetic rats along with improved complete lipid profile. The fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and serum triglyceride content were estimated in both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The fasting blood glucose, cholesterol and serum triglyceride content were found to be significantly reduced (p<0.05) in EEMM treated rats and the extract also showed the potent elevation in the level of serum HDL cholesterol. On the basis of analysis of data obtained during the study, it may be concluded that EEMM leaf is having significant antihyperglycemic potential and can be further fractionated in order to get a responsible constituent for this very action.

S.Madhu; V.Kannabirran; P.Royal Frank; M.Sathish Reddy; N.Gnanasekar

2012-01-01

267

Research: ALTERATIONS IN HEMATOCELLULAR COMPONENTS OF ALBINO RATS DUE TO METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Amaranthus spinosus  

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Full Text Available In today’s scenario people rely on herbal medicines for health care, because the other treatment options available are more expensive and are often associated with serious side effects. Therefore, there should be scientific documentation of information on the safety/toxic risk potentials of plants. Present study is therefore designed to study the hematocellular indices i.e. Red blood cell count (RBC), White blood cell count ( WBC) and Hemoglobin (Hb), following oral administration of methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus at a dose of 250mg/kg body weight in albino rats. The study was carried out by single and daily administration of dose for 5, 7 & 14 days. Results revealed that the RBC and WBC count as well as Hb% was significantly altered due to administration of methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus.

Ankita Srivastava*; Kusum Singh; Tariq Gul; Vinita Ahirwar

2011-01-01

268

Protective Effect of Gingo biloba Extract on Carbendazim-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Carbendazim is a broad spectrum carbamate fungicide used in the control of various fungal pathogens. The present work studied the effect of carbendazim on the liver of albino rats and the possible protective role of Ginko biloba extract (EGB). Liver of carbendazim-treated animals showed histopathological and histochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, and congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Histochemical results showed reduction of carbohydrates and total proteins in hepatic tissues. Moreover, liver function enzymes (ALT, AST) were elevated in sera of carbendazim-treated animals. Coadministration of EGB with Carbendazim improved the hisological and histochemical changes observed in animals treated with carbendazim. In addition, EGB treatment leads to a significant decrease in ALT and AST. According to the present results, it is concluded that EGB can improve the hepatotoxicity of carbendazim and this effect may be attributed to antioxidant properties of Ginko biloba extract.

Faiza A. Mahboub; Hawazen A. Lamfon

2013-01-01

269

INFLUENCE OF HIGH PHYTOESTROGEN DIET ON RAT MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM  

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Full Text Available Aims and Objective: To evaluate the effects of phytoestrogen diet alone and high phytoestrogen diet with rutin and naringin on male reproductive system.Experimental Protocol: A total of 48 adult male wistar albino rats were divided in to 8 groups, each contains 6 rats. Low phytoestrogen diet (LPD) and high phytoestrogen diet (HPD) were administered to the two different groups of rats for 35 days. Rutin and naringin, antioxidants were also given in different doses (5mg/kg, 10/kg) for a period of 35 days along with high phytoestrogen diet in different groups of rats. A sham control group animals fed on commercial pellet diet and vehicle control group animals with 0.1% sod CMC were also maintained until completion of 35 days. On 36th day bilateral orchiectomies were performed for all the animals. The testicular tissue was evaluated for various sperm parameters, biochemical estimations and histological changes.Results: Animals fed on low and high phytoestrogen diets has shown fall in sperm parameters and lipid peroxidation and increase in testicular antioxidant enzymes. Rutin and naringin have not shownany significant effect on sperm parameters. But decrease in lipid peroxidation and increase in antioxidant enzymes was observed. No histological changes were observed.Conclusions: High phytoestrogen diet has reduced all the sperm parameters drastically. Antioxidants have not shown any effect on sperm parameters but amplified the antioxidant enzymes and reducedMDA levels.

Raju B Akondi*

2009-01-01

270

Comparative gastroprotective effects of natural honey, nigella sativa and cimetidine against acetylsalicylic acid Induced gastric ulcer in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural honey (NH) and Nigella sativa (NS) seeds have been in use as a natural remedy for over thousands of years in various parts of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of NS (Nigella sativa) and NH (natural honey) on acetylsalicylic acid induced gastric ulcer in an experimental model with comparison to Cimetidine (CD). The study was conducted on 100 male albino rats, divided into 5 groups, with 20 animals in each group. Group A was used as a control and treated with Gum Tragacanth (GT). Eighty animals of the other groups were given acetylsalicylic acid (0.2 gm/kg body weight for 3 days) to produce ulcers by gavage. Two animals from each group were sacrificed for the detection of gastric ulcers. The remaining 72 animals were equally divided in four groups (B, C, D and E). The rats in group B, C and D were given NS, NH, and CD respectively while those in E were kept as such. No gastric lesions were seen in control group A while all the animals in group E revealed gastric ulcers. The animals of group B, C and D showed healing effects in 15/18 (83%), 14/18 (78%) and 17/18 (94%) animals grossly; 13/18 (72%), 14/18 (78%) and 16/18 (89%) rats showed recovery on microscopic examination respectively. The healing effects were almost the same in all three groups therefore, the statistical difference was not significant among them (p =0.40 and 0.65) while significant from group E (p=0.0000075, 0.0000016 and 0.0000012 respectively). NS and NH are equally effective in healing of gastric ulcer similar to cimetidine. Further broad spectrum studies as well as clinical trials should be conducted before the use of these products as routine medicines. (author)

2011-01-01

271

Antidiabetic Activity of Some Herbal Plants in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Aqueous extract of leaves of 3 herbs (Murraya koenigii, MK; Psidium guajava, PG and Catharanthus roseus, CR) were used to test their antidiabetic activity in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic albino rats. MK, PG and CR are given to the STZ induced diabetic rats at the concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight in different groups of 6 diabetic rats each orally once a day for 15 days. Glibenclamide (GBC) is also given to another group to support the results at the concentration of 3 mg/kg body weight orally once a day for 15 days. Diabetic control received vehicle. Body weight showed significant increase (MK and PG: p<0.05, CR and GBC: p<0.001) after 15 days of treatment with herbal extract when compared with the control. Blood glucose level on 15th day of treatment become significantly low (p<0.001). At the termination of the experiment (on 15th day) the urine glucose and ketone were absent in herbal treated group which was present in the diabetic control. Histological study of the pancreas also assesses the results of body weight and blood glucose level. Islets of diabetic control group were damaged, shrunken in size and infiltration of lymphocytes was observed. While islets of herbal extracts treated rats were comparable to normal rats. Many rounds and elongated islets were evenly distributed through out the cytoplasm. No significant histological alteration was found in glomeruli or any other segment of kidney tubule in STZ induced diabetic rats. In herbal extract treated group no difference was found in kidney tubules when compare with their respective diabetic control. Findings of the present study suggest that the aqueous extract of leaves of MK, PG and CR at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight brings about significant beneficial effects in various physiological/ histological parameters altered during diabetic manifestations and these effects are quite comparable with glibenclamide (a standard drug used to treat diabetes mellitus).

S.K. Prasad; Alka Kulshreshtha; Taj N. Qureshi

2009-01-01

272

Effect of Perilla frutescens Fixed Oil on Experimental Esophagitis in Albino Wistar Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of Perilla frutescens fixed oil on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. A group of rats (n = 6), treated with control vehicle (0.9% NaCl in double distilled water, 3?mL/kg, i.p.) and Perilla frutescens fixed oil (100%) (1, 2, and 3?mL/kg, i.p.), or pantoprazole (30?mg/kg, i.p.), were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 6?h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with fixed oil significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The oil also helped to restore the altered levels of oxidative stress parameters to normal. The present study also makes evident the in vitro antihistaminic and anticholinergic activity of alpha linolenic acid (ALA) (18?:?3, n ? 3) on isolated rat ileum preparation. The lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic, antisecretory (anticholinergic), and antioxidant activity of the oil was attributed for its efficacy in reflux esophagitis.

Arya, Ekta; Saha, Sudipta; Saraf, Shubhini A.; Kaithwas, Gaurav

2013-01-01

273

Hepatoprotective effect of biherbal ethanolic extract against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The combined hepatoprotective effect of Bi-herbal ethanolic extract (BHEE) was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liver function tests and biochemical parameters were estimated using standard kits. Livers were quickly removed and fixed in 10% formalin and subjected to histopathological studies. RESULTS: Ethanolic extract from the leaves of Aerva lanata and leaves of Achyranthes aspera at a dose level of 200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg body weight was administered orally once for 3 days. Substantially elevated serum marker enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, due to paracetamol treatment were restored towards normal. Biochemical parameters like total protein, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea were also restored towards normal levels. In addition, BHEE significantly decreased the liver weight of paracetamol intoxicated rats. Silymarin at a dose level of 25 mg/kg used as a standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. CONCLUSION: The results of this study strongly indicate that BHEE has got a potent hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats.

Anantha KC; Siva RC; Manohar RA

2012-10-01

274

WOUND HEALING POTENTIAL OF ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA BARK EXTRACT ON ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The wound healing activity of topically applied extract of bark of Ziziphus jujuba was evaluated in albino rat by excision wound model for a period of 24 days. In this study, the rats were divided into four groups, each groups continued healing process with 5 and 10% w/w methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba mg/cm2. Test duration was 24 days, wound diameter measurement using digital image analysis on days 0, 8th, 16th , 21st and 24th with biopsy of two rats from each group were taken. The results revealed that treatment with low-dose group of methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba (5%) less shrinkage of wound area and also from the perspective of Histopathological change. In the second and third week, tissue had better organization than most other groups (p<0.01), but the group treated with high doses of methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba (10%) had most wound shrinkage and organization.

Ch. Sampath kumar; Rajender.Arutla; D.Swaroopa; K. Sridhar Rao

2012-01-01

275

Electromagnetic Field Effect on Skeletal Muscles and Skin of Albino Rat Embryos Histological and Histochemical Studies  

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Full Text Available Aim of the work :The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of the electromagnetic field (EMF) on the skeletal muscles and skin of fetuses maternally exposed to EMF. Material and Methods: Pregnant Swiss albino rats were exposed to EMF(50Hz&2mT) 8hours day after day 10 days before pregnancy and 20 days, day after day through pregnancy. Results: Exposure of pregnant rats to the electromagnetic field (EMF)of 50 Hz and 2millitesla(2mT), showed many dystrophic changes in the skeletal muscles and skin of their fetuses .Highly thickened and disturbed epidermal layer was noted with decreased number of hair follicles. Some hemorrhagic areas were noted in the dermis. Highly disturbed skeletal muscle fibers were noted with many deleterious changes in the nuclei of their cells. Altered protein content, polysaccharides and collagen bundles were observed in the muscle fibers and skin of fetuses taken from exposed pregnant rats to EMF. Conclusion: It is clear that EMF has a deleterious effect on skin and skeletal muscles of fetuses maternally exposed to EMF.

Nora Ahmed Obaid Alkaabi

2008-01-01

276

Effect of Perilla frutescens Fixed Oil on Experimental Esophagitis in Albino Wistar Rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of Perilla frutescens fixed oil on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. A group of rats (n = 6), treated with control vehicle (0.9% NaCl in double distilled water, 3?mL/kg, i.p.) and Perilla frutescens fixed oil (100%) (1, 2, and 3?mL/kg, i.p.), or pantoprazole (30?mg/kg, i.p.), were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 6?h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with fixed oil significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The oil also helped to restore the altered levels of oxidative stress parameters to normal. The present study also makes evident the in vitro antihistaminic and anticholinergic activity of alpha linolenic acid (ALA) (18?:?3, n - 3) on isolated rat ileum preparation. The lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic, antisecretory (anticholinergic), and antioxidant activity of the oil was attributed for its efficacy in reflux esophagitis.

Arya E; Saha S; Saraf SA; Kaithwas G

2013-01-01

277

SCREENING OF SEIZURE CONTROL ACTIVITY OF KUSHMANDA FRUIT (Benincasa hispida Thumb) IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of juice and aqueous extract of Benincasa hispida Thumb fruit in Albino Rats.Two drug samples were prepared i.e. Benincasa hispida fruit juice and aqueous extract. MES Model was adopted to observe the seizure control activity of tested drug. Flexion, clonus, recovery time, duration of tonic hind leg extension and onset of stupor were observed. Preliminary Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of Steroids, Alkaloids, Starch, Hexosugars, Monosaccharide’s and Proteins. Swarasa (Juice) at the dose of 0.9 ml/200 gm of rat shows significant protection against the shock induced convulsions (Significant at the level of P<0.05). Aqueous extract at dose 100mg/200 gm of rat shown lesser protection compare to the Swarasa (Significant at the level P<0.05). Nasal and orbital bleeding is observed in control and standard group but it is absent in test groups. The Benincasa hispida fruit juice possesses anticonvulsant activity.

Raghuveer; Rao V. Nageswara

2012-01-01

278

SCREENING OF ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF KUSHMANDA FRUIT (BENINCASA HISPIDA THUMB) IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of juice and aqueous extract of Benincasa hispida Thumb fruit in Albino Rats. Two drug samples were prepared i.e. Benincasa hispida fruit juice and aqueous extract. MES Model was adopted to observe the seizure control activity of tested drug. Flexion, clonus, recovery time, duration of tonic hind leg extension and onset of stupor were observed. Preliminary Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of Steroids, Alkaloids, Starch, Hexosugars, Monosaccharide’s and Proteins. Swarasa (Juice) at the dose of 0.9 ml/200 gm of rat shows significant protection against the shock induced convulsions (Significant at the level of P<0.05). Aqueous extract at dose 100mg/200 gm of rat shown lesser protection compare to the Swarasa (Significant at the level P<0.05). Nasal and orbital bleeding is observed in control and standard group but it is absent in test groups. Study reveals Benincasa hispida fruit juice possesses anticonvulsant activity.

Raghuveer; Santosh B; V. Nageswara Rao; Shinde Mahadev; Kulkarni Yogini

2012-01-01

279

The protective and/or curative effect of serotonin on sex hormones in gamma irradiated albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Studies were carried out to investigate the efficacy of serotonin as a potential radioprotector and/or therapeutic agent. Irradiation of male albino rats was applied in single doses at 6.5 and 10 Gy levels. The effect was traced on FSH, LH, PrL and testosterone in blood and testicular tissue. The data obtained revealed marked and significant protection both serum and testicular tissue for the lower dose level of 6.5 Gy. Serotonin proved to exert nonsignificant control of hormonal changes due to the higher dose level of 10 Gy. Serotonin administered after radiation exposure, showed partial curative role for changes in LH, whereas it failed to exert any significant therapeutic role on changes in FSH, PrL and tester one induced by either of the two applied dose levels. It could be concluded that serotonin played only a good role as radioprotector on all investigated hormones in serum and testis at the radiation dose level 6.5 Gy. 8 figs., 8 tabs

1994-01-01

280

Effect of Some Food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products) of Young Albino RatsI- Liver and Kidney Functions  

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Full Text Available Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll) and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow), food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect might explain hyperactivity of children that was claimed associated with consumption of food colorants. The study revealed that administration of both natural and synthetic food colorants (permitted dose) significantly increases serum AST and serum urea. All colorants with the exception of sun-set yellow significantly increase serum total bilirubin. While, chlorophyll, fast-green and sun-set yellow were significantly increase serum ALT. Some of the colorants used have a retard destructive effect on some vital organ functions, which extends even after the recovery period. Therefore, large quantities and /or long periods of colorants administration should not be used as additive in man's diet or as a drink. Hence, these colorants should restrictly be used in nutritional therapy. And more caring must be done prevent our children to eat or drink these colorants with much amounts or for long period.

Eman G. E. Helal(1) Samir A.M.Zaahkouk

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Structural And Histochemical Changes Of Albino Rat Kidney Under The Effect Of Injectable Contraceptive  

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Full Text Available The choice of safe and effective method for fertility control still under continuous search. So, discovery of structures having long duration of action which made administration by injection was an attractive alternative to oral contraceptives. Medroxyprogesterone acetate emerged from this early work as promising injectable long ­ acting contraceptive with minimal risk. This work was planned to evaluate the structural and histochemical changes induced by injectable contraceptive Depo-provera (MPA), on the kidney of adult female Albino rats as well as testing the degree of reversibility of changes that may develop after the arrest of its use. Thirty adult female Albino rats were used in this work and divided into three equal groups. Group I was used as a control, group II was intramuscularly injected with MPA 4 times (2.7 mg / rat every 3 oestrus cycles) and sacrificed one day after arrest of the injection, while , group III the animals were injected with MPA by the same dose and sacrificed 30 days after arrest of the injection. The abdominal aorta was exposed and Indian ink injection was injected to study the renal vascular changes. The animals were sacrificed, the kidney was dissected and paraffin sections were prepared and stained by haematoxylin and eosin and PAS technique to study the microscopic structure and the distribution of PAS+ve materials respectively. Frozen sections were prepared and stained by both Gomori and Nachla's techniques to study the activity of acid phosphatase enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme respectively. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using Student's t.test. The injected groups showed atrophy of tubular epithelium, dilatation of tubular lumina. All recovery groups were nearly similar to normal state except PAS+ve material of renal tubules which were nearly similar to injected groups. The treated groups showed significant increase in vascular distribution and PAS+ve materials. While, non significant changes were noticed in the activity of acid phosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes. It was concluded that there are reversible structural and histochemical changes in the rat kidney under the effect of MPA. So, the use of MPA could be considered as a safe contraceptive method.

Mamdouh A. Ghali

2006-01-01

282

Role of catecholamines in the hypothermic activity of cannabis in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Role of brain monoamines in the hyprothermic activity of cannabis resin (CI) in albino rats was studied using agents which influence monoamine synthesis, storage, release, reuptake, metabolism and receptor activity and monoaminergic neuronal activity. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol content of resin was estimated to be 17%. Reserpine was used for comparison. CI was given orally in the dose of 50 mg/kg. Nialamide (NM) and alpha-methyl-metatyrosine (MMT) caused slight hyperthermia. p-Chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), alpha-methol-p-tyrosine (MPT), 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine (DHT, icv) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-HD, icv) had no effect on body temperature. alpha-Methyl-dopa (m-Dopa), diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), DDC with l-Dopa, gammabutyrolactone (GBL), phentolamine (PHENT), phenoxybenzamine (PBZ), propranolol (PROP) and imipramine (IMP) produced hypothermia. Hyprothermic activity of CI was potentiated by NM and PCPA, unaffected by DHT and m-Dopa, blocked by MMT, MPT, 6-HD, GBL, PHENT, PROP and chlorpromazine (CPZ), inhibited by DDC, DDC and l-Dopa and PBZ. CI induced hyperthermia in tolerant rats could be reversed to hypothermia by IMP. Reserpine hypothermia was blocked by NM, MPT, 6-HD and CPZ. There was a partial cross tolerance between cannabis and reserpine. Studies indicate that the hypothermic activity of CI similar to that of reserpine is mediated through central catecholamines and not 5-HT, and that noradrenaline is involved and not dopamine. However, the mechanism of action of cannabis and reserpine on noradrenergic neurone seems to be different.

Singh PP; Das PK

1976-11-01

283

Effect of Oilseed Diets on Plasma Lipid Profile in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of fermented melon seed oil (Citrullus lanatus) (Ogiri) and palm kernel oil on the plasma lipid profile of female albino rats were investigated. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups and fed diet composed with fermented melon seed oil, palm kernel oil and control diet for seven weeks. After the feeding trial, plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (p<0.05) than control in palm kernel oil diet while there was no significant difference in high density lipoprotein cholesterol. In contrast, the total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (p<0.5) than control while the low density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the fermented melon seed oil diet. The Ogiri oil diet had significantly reduced LDL/HDL ratio compared with the control while the palm kernel oil diet had a higher LDL/HDL ratio. The result implies that fermented melon seed oil (Ogiri oil) appears to have hypolipidemic effect while dietary intake of palm kernel oil could pose a risk for coronary artery disease on long term basis.

Ajayi, Olubunmi Bolanle; Ajayi, David Dais

2009-01-01

284

ACUTE ANXIOLYTIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SARACA ASOKA BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Anxiety is defined as a psychological state characterized by abnormal cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. Anxiety is normal reaction to stress. However, when it becomes excessive, falls under the classification of an anxiety disorder. Even though Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the major class of compounds used in anxiety; long-term use of the same may cause many adverse psychological and physical effects. In the present study, we have attempted to evaluate the acute anxiolytic effect of ethanolic extract of Saraca asoka Bark (EESAB) in Wistar Albino Rats. The rats weighing 150–200gm were divided into 5 groups containing 6 animals for each dose and were housed for 10 days prior to testing. In this study, control (1% Gum acacia), test drug EESAB (100, 200 & 400mg/ kg) and standard drug Diazepam (1.0mg/kg) were administered orally. One hour after oral administration of the drugs / vehicle, the experiment were conducted by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM). Our results suggest that, behavioral dis-inhibitory effects of EESAB exhibited anxiolytic activity at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg compared to control.

Chandra shekar Rajan

2013-01-01

285

Behavioral effects of microwave reinforcement schedules and variations in microwave intensity on albino rats  

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The objective of this exploratory investigation was to determine the interactive effects of fixed-ratio scheduling of microwave reinforcement in tandem with changes in microwave intensity. Nine albino rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with microwave radiation while living in a Skinner (operant conditioning) Box in which the ambient temperature was about 27.13 degrees F at the beginning of the session. Each rat obtained a 6-sec. exposure of microwave radiation on a fixed-ratio schedule of MW reinforcement, the values of which varied from FR-1 to FR-30. Intensities of MW radiation were 62.5 W, 125 W, 250 W, and 437.5 W. Sessions lasted for 8 to 9 hr. over an approximate 13-mo. period. The effects of the intensity of microwave reinforcement varied as a function of the ratio value of the schedule used. Continuous reinforcement (FR-1) produced the lowest over-all rates, whereas FR-15, and FR-25 produced the highest over-all rates. Relatively higher thermal-behavior rates occurred under 62.5 W than under any of the other MW intensities for FR-1, FR-15, and FR-25, whereas FR-10 and FR-30 ratios produced intermediate rates of thermal responding which were constant for all values of MW intensity. These data are explained in terms of interactive effects between the local satiation or deprivation properties of the MW intensity and the ratio requirements of the schedule of MW reinforcement.

Vitulli, W.F.; Lambert, J.K.; Brown, S.W.; Quinn, J.M.

1987-12-01

286

Analysis of liver enzymes in albino rat under stress of lambda-cyhalothrin and nuvan toxicity  

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Full Text Available Toxicity in humans is a threatening truth and much more than any disease caused by any organism as toxicsubstances are everywhere- in air, in water and in food. Many compounds which are essential to use for humanwelfare are injurious to us in every manner. Some are used as food additives and other daily use materials.However, there are some compounds which are not directly used by humans but indirectly they enter in humanbody and induce injuries. Pesticides are very common in these categories which are used against various pestsfor human welfare but they are also harmful to us via food chain. Liver is the primary site for any toxic substanceand suffered first. Further, liver plays very important role in mammalian metabolism. So that any change in liversystematics will definitely affect complete metabolism of an animal. The toxic effect of lambda-cyhalothrin and nuvanhas been observed in albino rat through liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase(ALT) as they are liver function enzymes and reflects functioning of liver. LD50 of lambda-cyhalothrin and nuvan hasbeen found to be 78mg/kg body weight and 53mg/kg body weight respectively. AST and ALT level in liver hasbeen decreased due to toxic stress induced by these compounds. Effect is more in nuvan treated rats. It issuggested that pyrethroids will be preferred for indoor use instead of nuvan where exposure chances are morefor humans.

A Paliwal; RK Gurjar; HN Sharma

2009-01-01

287

Protective role of Ashwagandharishta and flax seed oil against maximal electroshock induced seizures in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ashwagandharishta, an Ayurvedic classical formulation, is the remedy for Apasmara (epilepsy), Murchha (syncope), Unmada (psychosis), etc. Recent studies in animal models have shown that n-3 PUFAs can raise the threshold of epileptic seizures. The indigenous medicinal plant, called Atasi (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) in Ayurveda, or flax seed, is the best plant source of omega-3 fatty acids. The present study is designed to investigate whether Ashwagandharishta and Atasi taila (flax seed oil) protect against maximal electroshock (MES) seizures in albino rats. Further, a possible protective role of flax seed oil as an adjuvant to Ashwagandharishta in its anticonvulsant activity has also been evaluated in the study. MES seizures were induced for rats and seizure severity was assessed by the duration of hind limb extensor phase. Phenytoin was used as the standard antiepileptic drug for comparison. Both flax seed oil and Ashwagandharishta significantly decreased convulsion phase. Pre-treatment with flax seed oil exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity by decreasing the duration of tonic extensor phase. Contrary to the expectations, pre-treatment with flax seed oil as an adjuvant to Ashwagandharishta failed to decrease the tonic extensor phase; however, it significantly decreased the flexion phase (P < 0.001) and duration of the convulsions (P < 0.05). Both the drugs exhibited an excellent anti-post-ictal depression effect and complete protection against mortality.

Tanna IR; Aghera HB; Ashok BK; Chandola HM

2012-01-01

288

Effect of fenugreek seed extract on carbendaziminhibited spermatogenesis in albino rats  

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Full Text Available Carbendazim is a carbamate fungicide used in control of various fungalpathogens.Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.) is a leguminous plant cultivated inseveral Asian and African countries and its seeds are used as herbal medicine. In the presentwork the effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds on carbendazim-induced testicular toxicityin albino rats was studied. Treating rats with carbendazim induced significant decrease in testisweights, diameters and germinal epithelial heights of the seminiferous tubules. Histologicalresults revealed degeneration of seminiferous tubules and reduction of spermatogenic cells.Moreover, carbendazim caused elevation of testicular malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced theactivity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Animalstreated with carbendazim and fenugreek showed improvement in the histomorphological andhistopathological changes observed in animals treated with carbendazim. In addition fenugreektreatment leads to a significant decrease in the level of MDA and increase in the activity of SODand CAT. It is concluded that fenugreek extract can improve the testicular toxicity ofcarbendazim and this effect may be attributed to its antioxidant properties.

Hawazen A. Lamfon

2012-01-01

289

Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract  

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Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Ganiyu Adeosun; Abdul-Waheed Ademosun; Gassal Raheem; Godwin Avwioro

2010-01-01

290

Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD(50); sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. RESULTS: The acute oral toxicity result, LD(50,) revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. CONCLUSION: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

Oduola T; Bello I; Adeosun G; Ademosun AW; Raheem G; Avwioro G

2010-05-01

291

Investigation of the ex vivo and in vivo iontophoretic delivery of aceclofenac from topical gels in Albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Iontophoresis was used to enhance the delivery of aceclofenac (ACF) from topical gels formulated with various polymers for the purpose of relieving pain and inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gels were formulated from hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), carbopol 934P, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC). The formulations were evaluated for cathodal iontophoretic delivery of ACF through excised rat abdominal skin at three levels of current density of 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 mA/cm(2). The in vivo effectiveness of the drug delivered passively as well as under the influence of iontophoresis at pH 7.4 at a current density of 0.5 mA/cm(2) was also investigated using male Albino rats with carrageenan induced paw edema. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In the ex vivo studies, though it was clear that iontophoresis significantly increased drug permeation through the excised skin from all formulations; the percentage drug permeated from HPMC gels was superior to that from carbopol 934P or NaCMC gels but increased with an increase in the current density only for the former. The steady state flux, permeability coefficient, enhancement factor were significantly greater from HPMC gels than from the gels of the ionic polymers due to the interference of competitive ions. With iontophoresis, the carrageenan induced paw edema was significantly reduced by 61.53% (P < 0.01) for HPMC gels as compared to the control although passive permeation without iontophoresis showed a 54.6% reduction (P < 0.05) at the end of 4 h. CONCLUSION: The results of the study indicate that ACF could be administered topically by using iontophoresis from a suitably formulated gel for effective control of pain and inflammation.

Bhatt B; Koland M; Shama KP

2013-04-01

292

Changes in lysosomal enzymes of peritoneal exudate cells in albino rats and Mastomys natalensis during Plasmodium berghei infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Activities of certain lysosomal enzymes of peritoneal exudate cells were followed during Plasmodium berghei infection in two experimental hosts. In albino rats, where sterile immunity against the infection develops, levels of beta-D-glucuroniodase and acid phosphatase activities were increased several times the normal values. On the other hand, in Mastomys natalensis, which succumbs to infection, levels of both the enzymes decreased considerably. Cathepsin D activity did not change to a significant extent in either host.

Gupta S; Chandra S; Saxena KC

1980-10-01

293

Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group) after oral administration of polar (PF) and non-polar (NPF) fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body (more) weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05) in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02) and follicles in various stages (I-VII) of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05) the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF) and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF) treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively). Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of follicles. This may help elevate the socio-economic status of the country. Thus, the present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of A. indica and M. azedarach seed extracts on reproduction of albino rats.

Roop, J.K.; Dhaliwal, P.K.; Guraya, S.S.

2005-06-01

294

Histopathological Effects of Varied Fluoride Concentration on Cerebrum in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Fluorides have been a cause of concern for scientists and environmentalists for the long because of their harmful effects on the human and animal life but the problem was highlighted during the twentieth century because of great increase in the human population and industrialization. Since fluorides accumulate in calcified and hard tissues of the body such as bone and teeth and can be detected easily in these tissues, so most of the previous studies focused on the effects of fluorides on these tissues. However, during the past decade researchers all over the world have felt that there is a need to study the effects of fluorides on various other tissues of the body including CNS as fluoride intake for prolonged period is known to cause abnormal behavioural pattern, grave implications for Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, Attention deficit disorder and reduced I.Q in children as the fluorides are known to cross blood brain barrier. Hence the present study has thrown light on the involvement of brain in chronic fluoride toxicity. The target organ of studied was cerebrum. In the Study, albino rats were exposed to 30 or 100 ppm fluoride (asNaF) in drinking water for 3 months. Rats exposed to 30 ppm fluoride did not show any notable alterations in brain histology, whereas rats exposed to 100 ppm fluoride showed significant neurodegenerative changes in lhe motor cortex.Changes included decrease in size and number of neurons in all the regions, signs of chromatolysis and gliosis in the motor cortex. These histological changes suggest a toxic effect of high-fluoride intake & on chronic use. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2012; 1(1.000): 30-34

Sajad Hamid; Zaffar Kawoosa; Shahnawaz Hamid; M.A. Mir; Athar Hafiz; Irfan Jan, Fayiza Yaqoob

2012-01-01

295

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREÑADA  

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Full Text Available Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy) the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled as follows. Controls (C), animals treated with the drug vehicle (destilled water); experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3), animals treated with 35, 105 or 315 mg/kg b.w. pyrazinamide by gavage (oral route) once daily up to the term (20th day of pregnancy). Drug or vehicle volume was always 0.5 ml. Body weight gain was followed up every week. At term, upon sacrifice (in excess of anesthesia) and histerectomy, the following parameters have been studied: number of implantations and reabsorptions; intrauterine deaths; number of living foetuses and of placentae; weights of concepts and of placentae; major foetal malformations; maternal mortality index. No significant effects of pyrazinamide on rat pregnancy have been observed regarding the maternal body weight gain, the weights of concepts, the number of implantations and reabsorptions and the weights of placentae and foetuses. Also, no deleterious effects have been noticed regarding major foetal malformations, intrauterine deaths or maternal mortality. With the highest pyrazinamide dosis employed (315 mg/kg b.w.), however, a significant lowered uterine weight was recorded. Although otherwise safe, a high-dose regimen of pyrazinamide during rat pregnancy can induce a slight yet significant reduction of uterine weight.La pyrazinamida es un fármaco muy utilizado para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, pero no hay datos en la literatura respecto a sus potenciales riesgos para la preñez. Debido a esto, en este trabajo tratamos ratas preñadas durante toda la gestación (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20) con 3 dosis de pyrazinamida (35, 105 o 315 mg/kg, una vez al día) para una primera observación sobre los efectos de la pyrazinamida durante la preñez. Las ratas control recibieron el vehículo de la droga (agua destilada). Los resultados mostraron que no hubo alteraciones significativas en cuanto a la evolución del peso corporal de las ratsa madres, al peso de los fetos, al número de implantaciones y reabsorciones, ni tampoco en cuanto a los pesos de placentas y fetos. Además, no se observaron malformaciones fetales mayores, muertes intrauterinas o aumento de la mortalidad materna. El único efecto significativo observado con la dosis de 315 mg/kg de pyrazinamida, fue una reducción del peso uterino

Marisa Pascale Quintino; Manuel de Jesus Simões; Mary Uchiyama Nakamura; Ricardo Martins Oliveira-Filho; Silvia Espiridião; Luiz Kulay Júnior

2003-01-01

296

Effect of Soybean (Glycine max L.) on the Hormonal Milieu of Male Rats  

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Full Text Available Effect of soybean (Glycine max) on serum level of some sex hormones: testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone/interstitial cell stimulating hormone (LH/ICSH), estradiol and prolactin in male rats was investigated. Twenty male albino rats of 12 weeks old with similar body weights were assigned to four groups of 5 rats each and treatment with soybean meal at 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively daily for 8 weeks. Blood samples collected through cardiac puncture were assayed for levels of hormones. There were dose-dependent effects of the soybean meal on the serum concentration of the hormones. The treatment significantly reduced the levels of testosterone and FSH in the serum while it significantly increased the levels of estradiol, LH/ICSH and prolactin. The results show that soybean (Glycine max) had strong capability to disrupt hormonal functions. Hence, its indiscriminate use could increase the risk of infertility in males.

U.B. Ekaluo; P.B. Udoh; E.V. Ikpeme; O. Udensi

2011-01-01

297

Effect of soybean (Glycine max L.) on the hormonal milieu of male rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of soybean (Glycine max) on serum level of some sex hormones: testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone/interstitial cell stimulating hormone (LH/ICSH), estradiol and prolactin in male rats was investigated. Twenty male albino rats of 12 weeks old with similar body weights were assigned to four groups of 5 rats each and treatment with soybean meal at 100, 200 and 300 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively daily for 8 weeks. Blood samples collected through cardiac puncture were assayed for levels of hormones. There were dose-dependent effects of the soybean meal on the serum concentration of the hormones. The treatment significantly reduced the levels of testosterone and FSH in the serum while it significantly increased the levels of estradiol, LH/ICSH and prolactin. The results show that soybean (Glycine max) had strong capability to disrupt hormonal functions. Hence, its indiscriminate use could increase the risk of infertility in males. PMID:22308660

Ekaluo, U B; Udoh, P B; Ikpeme, E V; Udensi, O

2011-07-15

298

Effect of soybean (Glycine max L.) on the hormonal milieu of male rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effect of soybean (Glycine max) on serum level of some sex hormones: testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone/interstitial cell stimulating hormone (LH/ICSH), estradiol and prolactin in male rats was investigated. Twenty male albino rats of 12 weeks old with similar body weights were assigned to four groups of 5 rats each and treatment with soybean meal at 100, 200 and 300 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively daily for 8 weeks. Blood samples collected through cardiac puncture were assayed for levels of hormones. There were dose-dependent effects of the soybean meal on the serum concentration of the hormones. The treatment significantly reduced the levels of testosterone and FSH in the serum while it significantly increased the levels of estradiol, LH/ICSH and prolactin. The results show that soybean (Glycine max) had strong capability to disrupt hormonal functions. Hence, its indiscriminate use could increase the risk of infertility in males.

Ekaluo UB; Udoh PB; Ikpeme EV; Udensi O

2011-07-01

299

Musculotopic organization of the orbicularis oculi within the facial motor nucleus of the albino rat  

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Full Text Available Musculotopic organization of the motor neuron pools innervating the orbicularis oculi within the facial motor nucleus of the albino rat was investigated using retrograde fluorescent tracers – Fast Blue and Diamidino Yellow – and histological techniques. The facial motor nucleus consisted of multipolar motor neurons. It had a rostrocaudal extent of 1.07 ± 0.02 cm and consisted of 5 subnuclei – medial, intermediate, dorsolateral,ventrolateral and suprafacial. Retrograde labelling by exposure of the proximal cut end of the nerve to orbicularis oculi to the tracers ipsilaterally and then bilaterally revealed ipsilateral labelling of scattered neurons in all subdivisions of the facial motor nucleus except the suprafacial. Double labelling of a few neurons were observed indicating the origin of some nerves from the contralateral nucleus also. These results confirm previous studies regarding musculotopic organization of the facial motor nucleus and support the fact that sparing of orbicularis oculi in the upper motor neuron lesions could be attributed to the bilateral innervation at the lower motor neuron level.

Kurup S; Bharihoke V; Sangari SK

2007-01-01

300

Comparative Study of Wound Healing Activity of Topical and Oral Ocimum Sanctum Linn in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Ocimum sanctum, when given orally in one of the studies showed wound healing property. Since majority of the agents tried for wound healing are topical, the present study was planned to compare the oral and topical Ocimum sanctum for wound healing property. Methods: Excision and incision resutured wound models in albino rats were used to study complete epithelisation time, wound contraction, histopathological study and tensile strength of the wounds. Results: The animals were divided into four groups of oral test, control and topical test, control with 6 animals in each group. The time taken for 50% wound contraction and complete eipthelisation by oral Ocimum sanctum, topical Ocimum sanctum was significantly (p<0.001) less compared to oral and topical controls. Histopathological studies showed early inflammatory changes, dense collagen and neovascularisation in wounds treated with oral and topical Ocimum sanctum, compared to respective controls. Mean tensile strength of oral and topical Ocimum sanctum treated wound was significantly great (p<0.001) compared to controls. Interpretation and Conclusion: Oral and topical Ocimum sanctum promoted better granulation tissue, early and complete epithelisation and better tensile strength compared to both controls.

B. Asha; A. Nagabhushan; G.H. Shashikala

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF PONGAMIA PINNATA STEM BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn, belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is one of the fast growing, glabrous, deciduous tree and has recently gained importance as a commercial source of alkaloids like kaempferol, karanjin. Methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata was subjected to phytochemical screening. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by oral administration of various noxious chemicals including Ethanol, Indomethacin, Pylorus ligation and Cold restraint stress. In pharmacological screening, the effect of methanolic extract of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn was evaluated in Wistar Albino Rats of either sex(150-200g) for Antiulcer activity at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg(p.o) and the effect was compared with Omeprazole(10mg/kg p.o) as standard drug. The extract decreased the ulcer index thereby increasing the percentage ulcer protection. Thus from the study and literature, it can be concluded that Pongamia pinnata Linn have potent antiulcer activity.

Khumanthem Deepak Singh; S. Haja Sherief; S. Sengottuvelu; V. Lalitha; T. Sivakumar

2011-01-01

302

Stimulatory Effects of Dihydroartemisinin on the Leucocyte Population of Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Five dosages of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) which included 1mg kg-1; a repeated dose of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1 were administered orally to albino rats for 5 days. The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin treatment significantly elevated the total white cell count (pApproach: By increasing the population of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes (which engage in chemo tactic response; microbial killing; microbial ingestion and antibody production) in the blood, dihydroartemisinin demonstrated that it stimulates increase in their population and uses them as part of its own arsenals of warfare against endoparasites (like malaria parasites) and pathogens. Results: The results of this study show that dihydroartemisinin stimulated a lot of new white blood cell production by haemopoetic sites of the body The increases in the total white blood cell count; the percentage neutrophils count and the percentage lymphocyte counts were significant at pConclusion: The results of the study suggest that the phagocytic and immunological activities of the body?s white blood cell population are important components of the efficacious Plasmodium Schizonticidal actions of Dihydroartemisinin in malaria treatment.

U. A. Utoh-Nedosa; P. A. Akah; C. O. Okoli; T. Ojemudia; I. Nedosa; O. N. Adeyanju; K. S. Nedosa; I. K. Onyedibe; U. A. Utoh-Nedosa; P. A. Akah; C. O. Okoli; T. Ojemudia; I. Nedosa; O. N. Adeyanju; K. S. Nedosa; I. K. Onyedibe

2011-01-01

303

Evaluation of Anticonvulsant Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Vitex nigundo in Swiss Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Vitex-negundo Linn (Verbenaceae), a large aromatic shrub with typical five foliolate leaves pattern has been claimed to possess anticonsulvant activity apart from many medicinal properties. Maximal electroshock seizures (MES) in albino rats were used to study anticonvulsant activity of Vitex-negundo leaf extract. The ethanol leaf extract of Vitex-negundo was administered orally in graded doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg and 2000mg/kg p.o ) in the experimental model and the effects were compared with Diphenylhydantoin in MES method as standard and normal saline as control. The Vitex-negundo in the doses 1000 mg/kg has significant effect and 2000mg/kg p.o showed protection against MES to a highly significant extent. Test drug in the dose (1000 mg/kg, po) showed 60% protection in clonic seizures. It also decreased number and duration of convulsions significantly.These findings suggested that Vitex-negundo possesses anticonvulsant activity against MES induced convulsions. Vitex-negundo may be useful as an adjuvant therapy along with standard anticonvulsants and can possibly lower the requirement of Diphenylhydantoin and other anti convulsant drugs, Ethanol leaf extract of vitex ningundo significantly (P<0.01) decreased the duration of tonic extensor phase in MES-induced seizures. TheVitex-negundo extract showed a maximum inhibition (80% mortality) against MES-induced seizures.Thus, it has been concluded that ethanolic extract of Vitex-negundo possesses anti-epileptic activity.

Dr.Jayasree.T; Miss Arpitha.T; DR.Kavitha.R; Dr.Kishan.PV

2012-01-01

304

Effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in urolithiasis induced wistar albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urolithiasis was induced using ethylene glycol in wistar albino rats, the formation of calcium stones in the kidney results with the damage of antioxidant system. Ethanolic extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb fruit of family Curcurbitaceae was used to treat urolithiasis. On this course, the extract also repairs the changes that happened in the enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of urolithiasis induced rats. The results obtained from the analysis were compared at 5% level of significance using one way ANOVA. The results show that the ethanolic fruit extract has repaired the levels of antioxidants and malondialdehyde to their normal levels. PMID:22736884

Balakrishnan, A; Kokilavani, R; Gurusamy, K; Teepa, K S Ananta; Sathya, M

2011-07-01

305

Effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in urolithiasis induced wistar albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urolithiasis was induced using ethylene glycol in wistar albino rats, the formation of calcium stones in the kidney results with the damage of antioxidant system. Ethanolic extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb fruit of family Curcurbitaceae was used to treat urolithiasis. On this course, the extract also repairs the changes that happened in the enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of urolithiasis induced rats. The results obtained from the analysis were compared at 5% level of significance using one way ANOVA. The results show that the ethanolic fruit extract has repaired the levels of antioxidants and malondialdehyde to their normal levels.

Balakrishnan A; Kokilavani R; Gurusamy K; Teepa KS; Sathya M

2011-07-01

306

Sub-Acute Toxicity Profile of Fixed Dose Combination of Pirotum (Cefpirome-Sulbactam) in Swiss Albino Mice and Wistar Rat  

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Full Text Available The objective of current study was to evaluate deleterious effects of a potential combination of cefpirome, a member of the latest class of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, in combination of ?-lactamase inhibitor, sulbactum. To assess the toxicity profile of fixed dose regimen Pirotum (Cefpirome+Sulbactum in 2:1 ratio), a repeated dose subacute toxicity study was conducted on Swiss albino mice and Wistar rat (male and female). Three different dose levels (30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1) of combination were administered for twenty eight days. Physical parameters, hematological parameters and biochemical parameters related to liver toxicity and nephrotoxicity were evaluated as end point parameters. Findings of present study were also supported by hematological as well as histopathology parameters. Data of current study indicated that Pirotum exerted no deleterious effect on blood, liver and kidney function as no alteration was observed in biochemical parameters at any dose level.

A. Tamta; M. Chaudhary; R. Sehgal

2010-01-01

307

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS/ EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREÑADA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La pyrazinamida es un fármaco muy utilizado para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, pero no hay datos en la literatura respecto a sus potenciales riesgos para la preñez. Debido a esto, en este trabajo tratamos ratas preñadas durante toda la gestación (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20) con 3 dosis de pyrazinamida (35, 105 o 315 mg/kg, una vez al día) para una primera observación sobre los efectos de la pyrazinamida durante la preñez. Las ratas control recibieron el (more) vehículo de la droga (agua destilada). Los resultados mostraron que no hubo alteraciones significativas en cuanto a la evolución del peso corporal de las ratsa madres, al peso de los fetos, al número de implantaciones y reabsorciones, ni tampoco en cuanto a los pesos de placentas y fetos. Además, no se observaron malformaciones fetales mayores, muertes intrauterinas o aumento de la mortalidad materna. El único efecto significativo observado con la dosis de 315 mg/kg de pyrazinamida, fue una reducción del peso uterino Abstract in english Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy) the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 ra (more) ts each and labeled as follows. Controls (C), animals treated with the drug vehicle (destilled water); experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3), animals treated with 35, 105 or 315 mg/kg b.w. pyrazinamide by gavage (oral route) once daily up to the term (20th day of pregnancy). Drug or vehicle volume was always 0.5 ml. Body weight gain was followed up every week. At term, upon sacrifice (in excess of anesthesia) and histerectomy, the following parameters have been studied: number of implantations and reabsorptions; intrauterine deaths; number of living foetuses and of placentae; weights of concepts and of placentae; major foetal malformations; maternal mortality index. No significant effects of pyrazinamide on rat pregnancy have been observed regarding the maternal body weight gain, the weights of concepts, the number of implantations and reabsorptions and the weights of placentae and foetuses. Also, no deleterious effects have been noticed regarding major foetal malformations, intrauterine deaths or maternal mortality. With the highest pyrazinamide dosis employed (315 mg/kg b.w.), however, a significant lowered uterine weight was recorded. Although otherwise safe, a high-dose regimen of pyrazinamide during rat pregnancy can induce a slight yet significant reduction of uterine weight.

Pascale Quintino, Marisa; Simões, Manuel de Jesus; Uchiyama Nakamura, Mary; Martins Oliveira-Filho, Ricardo; Espiridião, Silvia; Kulay Júnior, Luiz

2003-01-01

308

Gari Based Kwashiorkorigenic Diets Compromised Some Renal Functions in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Nigeria is still considered one of the countries with the highest prevalence of protein energy malnutrition. Cassava is a staple food in many parts of Nigeria and it is processed into different forms in different parts of the country, among the commonest of which is gari, which is often consumed by many people without being supplemented explaining partly the prevalent malnutrition. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of gari-based kwashiorkorigenic diet on the renal function which is central to maintenance of homeostasis. We used 24 weanly albino rats divided into two groups. One group was fed with Low Protein Diet (LPD) while the other was fed with normal Commercially Produced Diet (CPD), for 8 weeks. The results showed significant negative effects on both the growth, as shown by the body weight and the kidney size and function in the rats fed with the gari-based low protein diet. The percentage weight change (% + SD) and relative kidney weight for CPD and LPD groups were +340.95+2.63 and 0.51+0.02; -2.03+0.49 and 1.03+0.07, respectively. The Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) (mg dL-1), serum creatinine (mg dL-1) and the BUN/creatinine ratio were found to be 19.1+0.84, 0.81+ 0.11 and 24.47+1.18 in the CPD group but 93.42+6.68, 1.92+0.04 and 24.47+1.18 in the LPD group. Similarly, blood pH tended towards acidity in the test group, 6.80+0.04 compared with the control, 7.40+0.03. Therefore, we concluded that during chronic protein-energy malnutrition due to consumption of poorly supplemented gari-based diet, certain renal functions are compromised.

A.H. Olasore; T.A. Samuel

2010-01-01

309

Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. METHODS: The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. RESULTS: The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r: 0.743; P<0.001) and between blood MDA and liver MDA (r: 0.897; P<0.001). The results showed also negative correlations between blood MDA on one hand and SOD, GPx, vitamin E and TAC on the other hand. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage.

Haggag Mel-S; Elsanhoty RM; Ramadan MF

2014-01-01

310

EFFICACY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED NEPHROLITHIASIS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is the third most common disorder of the urinary system with high recurrence rate. Clinical treatment of lithiasis is costly and can cause harmful side effects and hence nowadays phytotherapy have higher clinical significance in kidney stone management. Aim of the study is to investigate the antilithiatic property of the methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (MEAP) in experimentally induced nephrolithiatic rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar albino rats by administering the dose of 0.75% ethylene glycol for a period of 28 days. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups. Group I served as normal control. Group II received standard antilithiatic drug and group III as the lithiatic control. Group IV and V indicated as preventive regime, received 400mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight MEAP and group VI, VII, VIII and IX indicated curative regime of which VI and IX received 400mg/kg extract and VII and VIII at 200mg/kg body weight of MEAP. At the end of the experimental period, serum (creatinine, blood urea, BUN, uric acid) urine (protein, calcium and phosphorus) and kidney (calcium and phosphorus) were analyzed. All the elevated biochemical parameters in EG received group were declined in the MEAP treated groups at dosage of 200 and 400mg/kg. Urinary protein, phosphorus and calcium also declined in both MEAP treatment groups than the lithiatic groups. Serum creatinine declined significantly in high dose received group than its low dose in both post and co treatment groups. A dose dependent effect was observed in all the serum parameters except BUN. Kidney phosphorus and calcium of preventive regime which received MEAP at a high dose of 400mg/kg showed a clear dose dependent effect than the curative regimes. The result of the present study suggests the usefulness of MEAP against nephrolithiasis.

Prathibhakumari P.V.; G. Prasad

2013-01-01

311

Radio -Protective Role of Zinc Administration Pre-Exposure to Gamma-Irradiation in Male Albino Mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study was performed to evaluate the potency of zinc chloride injected subcutaneously (30 mg/kg b.w.) in male albino mice as a radio-protective agent pre exposure to gamma-irradiation. The investigation of the radio-protective role of zinc chloride was accomplished through measuring the levels of sex hormones, and observation of the chromosomal aberrations and sperm-head abnormalities after exposure to gamma-irradiation. The average of abnormal cells with chromosomal aberration and abnormal sperm % on the 7 th and 21 th days were 32% and 40%, and 14% and 22% respectively in mice exposed to radiation alone compared to 12% and 16%, and 5% and 12% respectively in mice treated with zinc chloride pre-irradiation. Treatment of mice with zinc chloride pre-irradiation induced significant amelioration in FSH and LH hormone levels on the 7 th day only of experimentation period, and showed non-significant amelioration in testosterone level

2004-01-01

312

Changes In Some Haematological And Biochemical Parameters of Albino Rats In Response to Low-energy Diet  

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Full Text Available The effect of low-energy diet (Low protein or low fat-diet) was studied using male albino rats. The experiment was expended to 45 days (30 days treatment and 15 days recovery period). Body weight gain or loss as well as blood samples for blood picture (R.B.CS. W.B.CS count, Hb. concentration, Hct value and erythrocyte indices such as MCV, MCH and MCHC) well recorded Biochemical examination for glucose concentration, total protein, albumin, globulin and A/g ratio. Triglyceride level, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol level, in addition to some hormones such as insulin, Testosterone and Leptin levels were examined at the end of the treatment period and the recovery period. A significant decrease in body weight gain percentage was observed in group fed low protein or Low fat-diet and the body weight improved during and after the recovery period. A significant decrease in R.B.CS, W.B.CS, count and Hb. concentration, and Hct value in treatment period and improved during and after recovery period. Total proteins, albumin and globulin were significantly affected by low protein or low-fat diet treatment in comparison with the control group. These effects were significantly counteracted by balanced diet. A significant decrease in triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were observed in groups received diet containing low-protein or low fat as compared with the control group. The results of the present study showed a significant reduction in (Leptin, insulin and testosterone) level after treatment for 30 days and recovery period for 15 days.

Somaia Z. A. Rashed

2000-01-01

313

Considerações sobre o músculo estriado na desnutrição proteica estudo experimental, em ratos albinos/ Considerations about the striate muscle in protein deprivation: an experimental study in albino rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os efeitos da desnutrição sobre o músculo «gastrccnemius plantaris» de ratos albinos, limitando-se à genitora a dieta em 6,7% de proteínas e aos seus produtos, em 3,2% após o desmame, foram observados em microscopia óptica e eletrônica e comparados com os controles. Os animais, em número de 40, foram distribuídos em grupo hipoproteico e normal, sendo a metade de cada grupo sacrificada aos 15 dias e a restante, após o desmame, aoa 30 dias. Observamos acentuada (more) redução ponderai dos ratos com alimentação bipoproteica, chegando a cerca de 50% em relação aos normais. As fibras do músculo estudado, nos ratos desnutridos, apresentaram importante redução de seus diâmetros. As reações histoquímicas revelaram que tanto as fibras do tipo I como as do tipo II estavam comprometidas, ocorrendo maior redução nas últimas. Fibras do tipo II, de pequena espessura, com aspecto de fibra P (fetal) foram encontradas nos animais subnutridos de 15 dias, denotando retardo na maturação destas fibras. As avaliações em ultramicroscopia não mostraram alterações específicas dia ultra-estrutura muscular, revelando apenas intensa redução do calibre das fibras, quando comparadas às dos ratos normais. Concluímos pela hipoplasia e não atrofia do tecido muscular dos animais submetidos a desnutrição pré e pós-natal. O presente estudo, somado a outros nos quais foram analisados a ponta anterior da medula e o nervo periférico de ratos desnutridos, permite-nos considerar que na privação proteica ocorrem retardo no desenvolvimento e hipoplasia da unidade mootra. Conjecturamos a possibilidade de, na amiotrofía espinhal progressiva da infância (doença de Werdnig-Hoffmann), acontecer também hipoplasia das fibras do tipo II e não atrofia, aventando a hipótese de, nesta doença, haver alterações no metabolismo proteico. Abstract in english The effects of undernutrition on the «gastrocnemius plantaris» muscle of young albino nats were observed with light and electronmicroscopy and were compared with controls. Pregnant rats received a diet containing 6.7% protein and the neonates had a 3.2% protein diet after weaning. A total number of 40 animals were distributed in two groups: one nypoproteic and one control. Half of the animals of each group were killed 15 days after birth and the remaining ones at 30 day (more) s. We could observe important reduction in the weight of the undernourished rats reaching about 50% when compared with the control animals. An important reduction in the diameter of muscle fibers was noted in undernourished rats. Histochemical reactions showed that not only the type I but also the type II fibers were involved, the latter being more severely reduced in size. Type II fibers os small diameter, resembling F (fetal) fiber were found in animals at 15 days indicating a delay in maturation. TJltrastructural evaluation of the muscle did not show specific changes except for a severe reduction in the caliber of fibers when compared with control animals. We concluded that there was hypoplasia and not atrophy of the muscular tissue in animals submitted to pre- and post-natal undernutrition. The present study, associated with others in which the spinal motor cells and peripheral nerves of undernourished rats were analysed, allow us to consider that with protein deprivation there is a delay in the development, a hypoplasia of the motor unit. We think that in infantile progressive spinal amyotrophy (Werdnig-Hoffmann disease) there is possibly hypoplasia and not atrophy of the type II fibers and we postulate that a metabolic proteic problem is involved in this disease.

Nascimento, Osvaldo J. M.; Madi, Kalil; Silva, João Batista Guedes e; Soares Filho, Porphirio J.; Hahn, Myriam D; Couto, Bernardo; Freitas, Marcos R. G.

1990-12-01

314

Considerações sobre o músculo estriado na desnutrição proteica estudo experimental, em ratos albinos Considerations about the striate muscle in protein deprivation: an experimental study in albino rats  

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Full Text Available Os efeitos da desnutrição sobre o músculo «gastrccnemius plantaris» de ratos albinos, limitando-se à genitora a dieta em 6,7% de proteínas e aos seus produtos, em 3,2% após o desmame, foram observados em microscopia óptica e eletrônica e comparados com os controles. Os animais, em número de 40, foram distribuídos em grupo hipoproteico e normal, sendo a metade de cada grupo sacrificada aos 15 dias e a restante, após o desmame, aoa 30 dias. Observamos acentuada redução ponderai dos ratos com alimentação bipoproteica, chegando a cerca de 50% em relação aos normais. As fibras do músculo estudado, nos ratos desnutridos, apresentaram importante redução de seus diâmetros. As reações histoquímicas revelaram que tanto as fibras do tipo I como as do tipo II estavam comprometidas, ocorrendo maior redução nas últimas. Fibras do tipo II, de pequena espessura, com aspecto de fibra P (fetal) foram encontradas nos animais subnutridos de 15 dias, denotando retardo na maturação destas fibras. As avaliações em ultramicroscopia não mostraram alterações específicas dia ultra-estrutura muscular, revelando apenas intensa redução do calibre das fibras, quando comparadas às dos ratos normais. Concluímos pela hipoplasia e não atrofia do tecido muscular dos animais submetidos a desnutrição pré e pós-natal. O presente estudo, somado a outros nos quais foram analisados a ponta anterior da medula e o nervo periférico de ratos desnutridos, permite-nos considerar que na privação proteica ocorrem retardo no desenvolvimento e hipoplasia da unidade mootra. Conjecturamos a possibilidade de, na amiotrofía espinhal progressiva da infância (doença de Werdnig-Hoffmann), acontecer também hipoplasia das fibras do tipo II e não atrofia, aventando a hipótese de, nesta doença, haver alterações no metabolismo proteico.The effects of undernutrition on the «gastrocnemius plantaris» muscle of young albino nats were observed with light and electronmicroscopy and were compared with controls. Pregnant rats received a diet containing 6.7% protein and the neonates had a 3.2% protein diet after weaning. A total number of 40 animals were distributed in two groups: one nypoproteic and one control. Half of the animals of each group were killed 15 days after birth and the remaining ones at 30 days. We could observe important reduction in the weight of the undernourished rats reaching about 50% when compared with the control animals. An important reduction in the diameter of muscle fibers was noted in undernourished rats. Histochemical reactions showed that not only the type I but also the type II fibers were involved, the latter being more severely reduced in size. Type II fibers os small diameter, resembling F (fetal) fiber were found in animals at 15 days indicating a delay in maturation. TJltrastructural evaluation of the muscle did not show specific changes except for a severe reduction in the caliber of fibers when compared with control animals. We concluded that there was hypoplasia and not atrophy of the muscular tissue in animals submitted to pre- and post-natal undernutrition. The present study, associated with others in which the spinal motor cells and peripheral nerves of undernourished rats were analysed, allow us to consider that with protein deprivation there is a delay in the development, a hypoplasia of the motor unit. We think that in infantile progressive spinal amyotrophy (Werdnig-Hoffmann disease) there is possibly hypoplasia and not atrophy of the type II fibers and we postulate that a metabolic proteic problem is involved in this disease.

Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento; Kalil Madi; João Batista Guedes e Silva; Porphirio J. Soares Filho; Myriam D Hahn; Bernardo Couto; Marcos R. G. Freitas

1990-01-01

315

Reproductive Effects Of human Interferon-Alpha-2b Administration on Male Albino Mice Testes.An Experimental Study  

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Full Text Available Background: Recombinant human interferon alpha (rh-IFN-) is used therapeutically in malignant disorders and chronic hepatitis. The phenotypic effects of this drug at the structural levels on testicular tissue were hardly ever addressed. Hence, this work was designed in adult male albino mice to study the phenotypic effects of rh-INF--2b on testicular tissue as well as assessing its effects on serum testosterone and gonadotropins levels. Objective: This research was planned to through light on the effects of interferon-alpha-2b (IFN-alpha-2b) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis of the adult male albino mice. Design: Experimental study. Setting: National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute (NHTMRI). The study was conducted from November (2004) to February (2005). Materials and methods: Thirty sexually mature male mice were divided into three groups (10 mice in each group), namely: the control, the experimental and the recovery groups. Mice in the experimental and recovery groups were administered recombinant human interferon alpha intraperitoneally at a dose of 3000 U / mouse weekly for 12 weeks in a volume of 1.0-microliter isotonic normal saline, then animals in the recovery group were left to recover for a further period of two months. At the end of the experiment, serum concentrations of gonadotropins and testosterone were measured and then all animals were then sacrificed to study histopathologically the possible effects of interferon on the testicular tissue. Results: rh-IFN--2b induced remarkable decline in the serum levels of both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in mice of the experimental group compared to the corresponding control and mice of recovery group. At the same time, testosterone was moderately increased in the experimental group, and then returned to its normal levels within 2 months after cessation of treatment. Histopathologically, in the experimental group, there were focal thickening of the basement membrane, degenerative changes and clumping of the germinal epithelial cells in the center of seminiferous tubules, partial desquamation of the germinal epithelium from basement membrane, reduction in the germ cell height, partial arrest of maturation and increased number of Sertoli cells. Increased number of Leydig's cells and hypervascularity were detected in the interstitial spaces. In the recovery group, there was lessening of the germ cell hypoplasia manifested by restoration of spermatogenic cells and accidental disruption in the basement membrane. Most of the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells restored their polarity, height and maturation. Conclusion: our results suggest that rh-INF--2b temporally affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (HPT), both centrally and peripherally (at the testicular level), through the lessening of FSH, LH, raise of testosterone serum levels and direct phenotypic effect on the testicular tissue.

Nabil Abdel Mageed *, Ehsan Hassan **, Azza Hegazy **, Nagwa M. Abdel

2005-01-01

316

Radiation induced changes in plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen in desert rodent and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of gamma-irradiation on plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen was studied in the desert rodent, psammomy obesus obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats kept on high protein diet, the radiation syndrome resulted in urine retention, while in those kept on non-protein diet, such phenomenon was recorded only with the high radiation level of 1170r. Radiation exposure to 780 and 1170r caused remarkable diuresis in psammomys obesus obesus whereas they induced significant urine retention in albino rats. The levels of plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen were higher in albino rats maintained on high protein diet than in those kept on non-protein diet. Radiation exposure caused an initial drop in plasma total protein nitrogen concentration, concomitant with an initial rise in total urinary nitrogen, radiation exposure of psammomys obesus obesus caused significant increase in the levels of plasma protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen. Psammomys obesus obesus seemed to be more affected by radiation exposure than did the albino rats.

1986-01-01

317

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Passiflora edulis on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Passiflora edulis is traditionally used in folk lore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of P. edulis in Wistar albino rats. Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In subacute study, they were administered with various doses of aqueous extract of P. edulis (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg body weight) to evaluate its toxicity for a period of 7 days. The effect of aqueous extract of P. edulis on organ weight, hematological, renal, and hepatic markers were analyzed. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen with in 24 h of the administration of P. edulis extract. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed with in 72 h. In the subacute study, the extract intake has not changed the hematological parameters such as RBC, WBC, and platelets and it was also found that the plasma level of amino transferases, ALP, urea, uric acid and, creatinine were also not altered by the administration of P. edulis extract throughout the study. The weight of organ was found to be unaltered in all the doses selected. The acute toxicity study reveals that the oral administration of the extract was found to be safe up to the dose level of 2000 mg/kg. The subacute study indicates that the extract is safe on the bone marrow function and it is neither hepatotoxic nor nephrotoxic. This supports the safety use of the aqueous extract of P. edulis in pharmacological studies. PMID:22736906

Devaki, K; Beulah, U; Akila, G; Gopalakrishnan, V K

2012-01-01

318

Glial reaction after facial nerve compression in the facial canal of the albino rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The facial nerve of the albino rat was compressed by inserting a thin nylon thread in the facial canal. After a survival period of 1-60 days, the animal was perfused with Ringer's solution followed by a 2% periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde fixative. Frozen sections from the brain stem containing the facial motor nucleus (FMN) were obtained and stained for OX-42 (against CR3 antigen), OX-18 (against Class I MHC antigen), OX-6 (against Class II MHC antigen) and GFAP (anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein). The first glial reaction in the FMN occurred in the microglia which showed a significant increase in the CR3 immunoreactivity within 24 h after compression. Upregulation of the GFAP was not noticed until 2 days after compression. In each case, the staining reaction was initially light, but increased with time and appeared to peak at 3-4 days for OX-42 and 4-5 days for GFAP. The activated microglia first assumed a perineuronal position but were later displaced by the activated astrocytes. The number of stained microglia was noticeably increased and was most likely the result of proliferation of the resident microglia rather than invasion from the blood stream. The increase in the number of GFAP positive cells was most likely the result of more resident astrocytes being activated, as previous studies have shown the absence of mitotic activity of astrocytes after lesion of the facial nerve. In addition to increased CR3 and GFAP activity there was also an upregulation of Class I MHC antigen in the microglia, as revealed by increased immunostaining against OX-18.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Ruan RS; Leong SK; Yeoh KH

1994-05-01

319

Metabolic response to optic centers to visual stimuli in the albino rat: anatomical and physiological considerations  

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The functional organization of the visual system was studied in the albino rat. Metabolic differences were measured using the /sup 14/C-2-deoxyglucose (DG) autoradiographic technique during visual stimulation of one entire retina in unrestrained animals. All optic centers responded to changes in light intensity but to different degrees. The greatest change occurred in the superior colliculus, less in the lateral geniculate, and considerably less in second-order sites such as layer IV of visual cortex. These optic centers responded in particular to on/off stimuli, but showed no incremental change during pattern reversal or movement of orientation stimuli. Both the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate increased their metabolic rate as the frequency of stimulation increased, but the magnitude was twice as great in the colliculus. The histological pattern of metabolic change in the visual system was not homogenous. In the superior colliculus glucose utilization increased only in stratum griseum superficiale and was greatest in visuotopic regions representing the peripheral portions of the visual field. Similarly, in the lateral geniculate, only the dorsal nucleus showed an increased response to greater stimulus frequencies. Second-order regions of the visual system showed changes in metabolism in response to visual stimulation, but no incremental response specific for type or frequency of stimuli. To label proteins of axoplasmic transport to study the terminal fields of retinal projections /sup 14/C-amino acids were used. This was done to study how the differences in the magnitude of the metabolic response among optic centers were related to the relative quantity of retinofugal projections to these centers.

Toga, A.W.; Collins, R.C.

1981-07-10

320

ROLE OF OCIMUM CANUM IN PREVENTION OF REPERFUSION-INDUCED RENAL ISCHEMIA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Acute renal failure is defined as rapid loss of renal function and has been associated with a high mortality rate. Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury of the kidney is the most prominent cause of intrinsic acute renal failure. Activation of reactive oxygen species is implicated in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study investigated the anti-ischemic effect of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC) against renal I/R injury by its effect on reactive oxygen species. Wistar albino rats were administered different doses of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC) before renal ischemia, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. Serum creatinine, Serum Cystatin C, serum oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured for renal dysfunction. Serum and tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were measured. Renal sections were analyzed for histological grading of renal injury. Hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC) significantly reduced increased creatinine, Cystatin C, serum oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Ocimum canum also increased kidney superoxide dismutase activity, catalase and reduced glutathione levels and reduced the malondialdehyde levels. Hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum reduced histological renal damage. These results suggest that the hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum reduces renal dysfunction and injury caused by renal I/R.

Saiprasanna Behera; S M Babu; Y Roja Ramani; Prasanta Kumar Choudhury; Sudeep Kumar Patra

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Effect of heat stress on histopathological alterations in kidneys of albino rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of heat stress was studied over two months (July and August) by using thirty adult male rats. The animals were divided into six groups (five animals per each group) and tested for 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days, under controlled condition (45±5°C). The clinical observation indicated significant decrease in activity and body weight associated with oligourea and hypophagia. All these signs were prominent after five days of the experiment. The kidneys of rats under heat stress showed degenerated glomeruli began at 7th day of the study and widening of the capsular space. Atrophy of some glomeruli was also noticed. With prolong exposure to heat changes in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules were prominent when compared with normal rats’ kidneys.

Sabah S.A. Al-Tekrity

2011-01-01

322

The protective effect of L-tryptophan versus alpha lipoic acid against L-arginine-induced experimental acute pancreatitis in albino rats  

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Full Text Available Aim of the study: This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effects of L- treptophan "a precursor of melatonin" and alpha lipoic acid against L- arginine-induced experimental acute pancreatitis in albino rats. Methods: Fourty adult male albino rats (200- 250g) were randomized into 4 groups (n= 10). Group I, the control group was given 0.9% saline intraperitoneally (i.p). Group II, was given 500 mg/100g L-arginine (i.p) as a single dose to induce acute pancreatitis. Group III: was given 250mg/kg L-tryptophan (i.p) 30 min prior to L- arginine injection. Group IV: was given 50mg/kg alpha lipioc acid(i.p) 30 min prior to L-arginine. Before scarifice, blood samples were obtained from all groups to assay serum amylase and interleukin 6. Animals were sacrificed after 6 hours. For the histopathological study, pancreatic tissue was prepared for histological (H&E, PAS) histochemical ( Tween stain for lipases) and immunohistochemical ( Bax stain for apoptosis) techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were done to assess the degree of acinar cells affection Results: It was revealed that serum amylase and interleukin 6 in group II rose rapidly. Microscopically, severe acinar cells degeneration, interstitial edema, diffuse bleeding and inflammatory infiltration were demonstrated. These changes were markedly improved with the administration of both L- tryptophan and alpha lipoic acid. Conclusion: It was concluded that both L- tryptophan & alpha lipoic acid reduced the effects of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis with better protection achieved by L-tryptophan administration.

Lamia M. Farghaly* , Nagwan A. Sabak ** and Naglaa A. El-sherbeny

2007-01-01

323

Effect of Zingiber officinale on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats  

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Full Text Available Fatty liver causes were markedly increased in Egyptian people throughout last years. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds. Ginger is a natural dietary rhizome with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger) against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a) control, b) fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg) for three consecutive days and c) ginger treated group; which was treated with ginger water extract (125 mg/kg) for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a) control, b) fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120 mg/kg) for three consecutive days and c) ginger protective group; which received ginger for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days). Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment with ginger ameliorated most of the evaluated biochemical parameters and improved the induced degenerative histopathological changes. The pre-treatment with ginger before the induction of fatty liver gave some protection against factors that experimentally induced fatty liver. Conclusion: Ginger as diet additive is recommend for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M. Moussa Sharaf**

2012-01-01

324

Effect of Cichorium intybus L. on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats.  

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Full Text Available Background: Fatty liver is now one of the most common diseases in Egypt. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds.The current investigation was carried out to examine the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory) against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a) control, b) fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg) for three consecutive days resulting in steatosis and c) chicory treated group; which was treated with chicory water extract (70 mg/kg) for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a) control, b) fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg) for three consecutive days and c) drug protection group; which received chicory for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days). Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment with chicory ameliorated most of the evaluated biochemical parameters and improved the induced degenerative histopathological changes. The pre-treatment with chicory before the induction of fatty liver gave some protection against factors that experimentally induced fatty liver. Conclusion: Chicory as diet additive is recommend for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M.Moussa Sharaf**

2011-01-01

325

Some toxicological studies of Momordica charantia L. on albino rats in normal and alloxan diabetic rats.  

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Momordica charantia L. (MC) (Cucurbitaceae) commonly known as balsam pear, bitter gourd or karela, used in several purposes in traditional medicine is an important medicinal plant. Two sets of experiments were carried out, the first experiment indicated that the LD(50) for MC juice and alcoholic extracts were 91.9 and 362.34 mg/100g b.wt., respectively, of subcutaneously "s.c." injected mice. The toxic signs were recorded within the first 24 h post-injection. The second experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of MC juice and alcoholic extracts on blood glucose and other biochemical parameters in normal and diabetic rats. Both extracts induced a significant decrease in serum glucose levels in normal and diabetic rats. The two extracts did not show any significant effect in urea, creatinine, ALT, AST and AP in normal rat, while in diabetic rats the two extracts caused a significant decrease in serum urea, creatinine, ALT, AST, AP, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Also, these results suggested that MC extracts possesses anti-diabetic, hepato-renal protective and hypolipidemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thus, MC is alternative therapy that has primarily been used for lowering blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:16815658

Abd El Sattar El Batran, Seham; El-Gengaihi, Souad E; El Shabrawy, Osama A

2006-05-26

326

Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats: A newer model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents, namely silymarin  

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Full Text Available Backgrounds: This study was conducted to establish olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in Wistar albino rats as a newer model to screen putative hepatoprotective agents namely silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups, namely vehicle control group (CG), olanzapine-treated group (OZ), and olanzapine plus silymarin (OZS) treated groups. Both the OZ and OZS groups were treated with the same dose of intraperitoneal olanzapine for 6 weeks and group OZS additionally received oral silymarin. Baseline and terminal hepatic enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, and ALP) were measured in all three groups. Results: Histopathological examination of livers of both OZ and OZS groups showed degenerative changes, whereas those of control group showed normal architecture. Liver enzyme levels showed statistically significant rise in comparison to the control group as well as the respective base line values in both the test groups, but the differences in the rise of liver enzymes between the two test groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in rats can be used as a model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents and in our setting silymarin has failed to provide any hepatoprotection.

Sengupta Parama; Bagchi Chiranjib; Sharma Abhishek; Majumdar G; Dutta C; Tripathi Santanu

2010-01-01

327

Quantitative Analysis of Formation of Active Avoidance Behavior in the Hippocampus Coagulated and Intact White Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Unsupervised cluster analysis is proposed for analysis of active avoidance formation in three groups of albino rats: 1) intact; 2) with electrolytic lesions of neocortex over the dorsal hippocampus; and 3) with electrolytic lesions of dorsal hippocampus. The term “behavior vector” has been introduced to assess quantitatively the behavior of rats while learning. The proposed approach enables to assess active avoidance behavior in rats simultaneously by all the test parameters: 1) reaction to the light; 2) reaction to the electric irritation; and 3) inter-trial spontaneous behavior. The animals were grouped by their behavioral resemblance through the learning process. The proposed method facilitates the assessment of learning capacities in animals and paves way for getting additional information concerning correlative relationships between their learning skills and other neuroethological and neurobiological parameters.

Sulkhan N. Tsagareli; Nino G. Archvadze; Otar Tavdishvili

2012-01-01

328

Antioxidant Evaluation of Methanolic Extract of Black Nightshades Ripe Fruits against Technical and Formulated Parathion-Induced Damage in Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parathion in technical or formulated form at a sub-lethal dose of 1/20 LD50 was applied orally or dermally at 2-day interval for three months to determine its effect on RNA, DNA and protein content as well as RNA ase and DNA ase activity in different organs liver, brain and kidneys of adult male albino rats. Also, serum GOT, GPT and ALP activity as well as serum total soluble protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin and uric acid content were determined in adult male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). In addition, the present studies were undertaken to investigate different biological activities of the above parameters of black nightshades (Solanum nigrum L) methanolic extract. Two kinds of experimental works were taken off (antioxidants and protective). The results showed that technical and formulated parathion increased RNA and protein content but the content of DNA was insignificantly decreased in all rat organs tissue (liver, brain and kidneys) relative to control. The activity of RNA ase was also stimulated. In case of liver and kidney functions the present data observed that serum GOT, GPT and ALP activity was stimulated but total soluble protein, albumin and globulin content was decreased but the urea, uric acid and bilirubin content of serum was increased. Also, liver lipid peroxidation was elevated significantly either by technical or formulated parathion (ingested orally or induced dermally). It should be noted that formulated parathion ingested orally was the most effective, but the technical one had the lowest toxicity. The results of the present studies showed that crude methanolic extract of black nightshades ripe fruits has a strong antioxidant activity as showed by DPPH, nitric oxide scavenging, total reducing power, Fenton's reaction and total antioxidant capacity assay. Finally the the methanolic extract of the present medicinal plant observed a valuable influence as a protective agent in vivo in serum, liver, brain and kidneys damage of parathion intoxicated rats represented by improvements the all previous parameters which were disturbed by the both forms of parathion either induced orally or dermally

2009-01-01

329

Hepato-Protective activity of the aqueous extract of launaea intybacea (Jacq) Beauv against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepato-protective activity of aqueous extract of aerial parts of launaea intybacea are evaluated in carbon tetrachloride -induced hepatic injury in albino rats. Silymarin (200mg/kg) was given as reference standard. The hepatic injury of CCl 4 and the hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of launaea intybacea were estimated their liver function tests. The aqueous extract of aerial parts of launaea intybacea have shown very significant hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride -induced hepatic injury in albino rats in reducing serum total bilirubin, SALP, SGPT , SGOT levels and liver homogenates LPO, SOD,CAT, GPX, GST and GSH levels.

Takate.S.B; Pokharkar.R.D; Chopade.V.V; Gite.V.N

2010-01-01

330

 The Effect of Amantadine on Clomipramine Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Male Rats  

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Full Text Available  Objective: Several studies have reported that Clomipramine has the ability to suppress male rat sexual behavior. Literature indicatesthat the activation of brain D2 receptors causes facilitation of penile erection, and a number of reports have indicated dopamine’s involvement in sexual function. Hence this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Amantadine, a dopamine agonists on the Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction. Methods: The study subjects involved a total of 48 males and 48 females, 4 months old Sprague-Dawley albino rats, all housed in a group of six males and females separately in plexi glass cages in an acclimatized colony room (25±0.50C) maintained on a 12/12 hr light/dark cycle. The male rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 male rats each. Group I served as controls. Group II, III, and IV were treated with Amantadine (9 mg/kg body weight, p.o) 30 min, prior to the treatment with 13.5 mg/kg, 27 mg/Kg and 54 mg/Kg bodyweight p.o of Clomipramine respectively for 60 days. The control group received vehicle 1 ml/kg p.o. The sexual behavior of the male rats was observed to determine the following parameters: mount latency, intromission latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory pause, and intromission frequency. As well as the sexual behavior; serum testosterone and histopathology of the testes were also investigated in this study. Results: The results indicate that Amantadine in all aspects failed to antagonize Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction in male rats. Even the sexual competence of male rats treated with 1/2 therapeutic dose (TD) of Clomipramine failed to regain their sexual competence in the presence of Amantadine. Testicular damage and decline in testosterone levels continued in the presence of Amantadine. Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that Amantadine could not be a safe antidote to antagonize Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction.

Sheshadri Shekar Devaangam; B Vivek; C Velmurugan; Ashok Kumar; S Satyanarayana; K Kumar Eswar

2011-01-01

331

Studies on the effects of oestradiol, progesterone and some steroidal contraceptives on the adrenal cortex of albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was carried out on albino rats in order to study the effects of estradiol, progesterone, and some of the different synthetically prepared steroid combinations on the adrenocortical activity. Biochemical determination of adrenocortical alkaline phosphatase activity was carried out in normal female rats, ovariectomized rats, and ovariectomized rats injected with estradiol or progesterone. Also, adrenocortical alkaline phosphatase activity was determined in groups of rats given different contraceptive pills (lyndiol 2.5, lyndiol 5, gyn-anovlar, eugynon, and ovulen) 1 tablet/rat/day for a period of 2 weeks. No pathological findings were detected in rats given contraceptive pills for 2 weeks, but after 6 weeks of treatment, the animals started to die and definite pathological changes were detected mainly in the liver, spleen, and lungs. It was determined that ovariectomy resulted in a decrease in the activity of the adrenal cortex. Progesterone had no effect, but estradiol injection caused a significant increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase of the adrenal cortex to values exceeding that of normal females. There was an increase in the activity of the adrenal cortex with any of the pills. The increase was highest with lyndiol 2.5 and lyndiol 5 and least with ovulen. Histological investigation revealed a similarity between the glands subjected to the effects of oral contraceptives and those stimulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone, mainly in the narrowing or even absence of the zona glomerulosa. PMID:12257875

Zaki, K; Sami, G E; Wassef, S A; Nour, H; Hassan, A A

1973-06-01

332

Bees' Honey Protects the Liver of Male Rats against Melamine Toxicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The protective effect of natural bees' honey to the liver of male albino rats against melamine toxicity was studied. Melamine supplementation at a dose of 20000?ppm in the diet for 28 days induced adverse effects on the liver, decreased serum total protein and increased liver enzyme: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Histological changes of the melamine supplemented group showed necrosis in the hepatic tissues around the central veins of the liver and precipitation of melamine crystals. Treating the male albino rats (that were presupplemented regularly with 20000?ppm melamine) with natural bees' honey at a dose of 2.5?g/kg body weight for 28 days improved both liver functions and increased serum protein. In addition, a positive impact on the shape of the cells after treatment with honey compared to the positive melamine supplemented group was observed. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed that the use of natural bees' honey has the ability to protect the liver of rats against the toxic effects of melamine.

El Rabey HA; Al-Seeni MN; Al-Solamy SM

2013-01-01

333

Hazardous Effects of Potato Chips and Ketchup (fast food) Consumption on Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Nowadays, it is easy and common to eat unhealthy food with poor nutritional value, low micro nutrients and high content of calories which may called junk or fast food. The present study aimed to shed the light on the hazardous effects of long term consumption of potato chips and ketchup as a model of the most popular fast food toppings or garnishing accessories. Eighty male and female rats were divided into four equal groups, each of ten rats. For four weeks, the animals were fed on basal diet (group 1), basal diet supplemented with 2 g of potato chips (group 2), basal diet supplemented with 1 g ketchup (group 3) while group 4 was supplemented with 2 g potato chips + 1 g ketchup beside their basal diet. The mortality was recorded in all treated groups but reached the maximum rate in males of group 4. The toxicological symptoms like tremors, dermatitis with general hair loss from the body, especially on the face region and eye bulge, were found in almost treated groups. The red blood cells count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) were significantly decreased in group 2 (supplemented with potato chips) and group 4 (supplemented with both potato chips + ketchup) as compared with control one. Significant reductions in white blood cells count (WBC) were observed in rats of groups 2 and 4 except in females of group 2. Lipid profile was affected seriously, especially in rats of group 2 (supplemented with potato chips), whereas significant increases were recorded in TC, TG, LDL-C and atherogenic index, and significant reduction in HDL-C, especially in males, was recorded. The testosterone level was significantly reduced in all treated groups as compared to control group. The estradiol level was significantly increased in groups 2 and 4 as compared to group 3 and controls. In all parameters, the males were more seriously affected than females which may be related to gender differences in body composition, estrogen levels, growth rate, differences in food metabolism and toxin elimination, and group 4 was the most dangerously affected group. The present study revealed that potato chips is dangerous for human health and we should decrease our consumption from it as possible and try to return to the home made balanced diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables and avoiding deep fried food.

2011-01-01

334

Liver Regenerative Effect of Phyllanthus amarus Linn. Against Alcohol Induced Liver Cell Injury in Partially Hepatectomised Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study investigates the liver regenerative effect of Phyllathus amarus Linn against alcohol induced liver cell injury in partial hepatectomised albino rats. The oral administration of Phyllanthus amarus extracts increases the activities of thymidine kinase in regenerating rat liver at 24 h. Levels of DNA and protein analysis showed that the increase in thymidine kinase was caused by comparable increase the DNA and protein. Histopathology confirmed the mitosis counts increases to the activity of DNA. These findings suggested that Phyllanthus amarus inducing DNA synthesis by the induction of levels of synthesizing nucleic acid enzymes during liver regeneration. Phyllanthus amarus may be used, as a potential liver regenerative herb in hepatic disorders and seems to be beneficial against alcohol induced liver cell damage.

P. Chattopadhyay; S.S. Agrawal; A. Garg

2006-01-01

335

The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

2010-04-01

336

Some Biochemical Alternations Associated with Oral Contraceptives And Atherosclerosis in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available An excess intake of vitamin D2 can result in mobilization of calcium in the skeleton and increase the serum calcium level. This calcium is taken up by soft tissues such as arteries. The risk of calcium builds up in arteries, a significant component of atherosclerotic plaque. Many researches clarify the relationship between oral contraceptives and atherosclerosis. This study aims to evaluate the changes in some biochemical parameters as well as the histopathological examination of liver and aorta following the administration of hormonal oral contraceptives (O .CS) with different concentrations of estrogen (ethinyle-estradiol) (E.E) and progestogen DL-norgestrel (norethindrone) (NOR.) to the atherosclerotic rats. In addition to this, the study clarifies 92the role of low dose oral contraceptives. 48 adult female albino rats were divided into six comparable groups of 8 animals each. Group I (Gr.1) was considered as control, group II (Gr. II) was intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with vit. D2 350.000 IU /kg B.W., group III (Gr. III) administered O.C (35 g E.E/0.5 mg NOR.), group IV (Gr. IV) received (vit. D2 350.000 I.U vit. D2 /kg B.W plus O.C 35 g E.E/0.5 mg.), group V(Gr.V) received (vit. D2 350.000 I.U/kg B.W. plus O.C 35 g E.E/1mg NOR.), group VI (Gr.VI) received (vit. D2350.000 I.U /kg B.W.plus O.C 70 g E.E/0.5 mg NOR.) daily for an experimental period eight weeks.Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) displayed significant increase in the following groups (higher progestogen concentrations in O.Cs plus vit. D2 treated group, at low-dose O.C plus vit. D2 treated group, at higher estrogen dose within O.C plus vit. D2 treated group, vit. D2 treated,and at low-dose O.C treated group). Serum triglycerides recorded significant increase in group treated with higher estrogen dose within O.C plus vit. D2 treated group, low-dose O.C plus vit. D2 treated group , higher progestogen concentrations in O.Cs plus vit. D2 treated group, vit. D2 treated group,and at low-dose O.C treated group respectively. Serum total cholesterol increased significantly in higher progestogen concentrations in O.Cs plus vit. D2 treated group, at low-dose O.C plus vit. D2 treated group, vit. D2 treated group, low-dose O.C treated group and at higher estrogen dose within O.C plus vit. D2 treated group at 8 weeks in comparison with control. Histopathological studies of livers showed severe at the higher progestogen concentration in O.C plus vit. D2 treated group and at low dose O.C plus vit. D2 treated group .Liver displayed moderate degenerative changes in higher estrogen dose within O.C plus vit. D2 treated group, in vit. D2 treated group and in low dose O.C treated group. Media calcinosis in aorta was more obvious at the higher progestogen concentrations in O.Cs plus vit. D2 treated group. Also it develops at low dose O.C treated group. In conclusion atherosclerosis may develop at low dose O.C due to progestogen content.

E,A. Khalil* and M. H. Affifi

2001-01-01

337

Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on hematology and erythrocyte antioxidant defense system of albino rats exposed to heavy metals (nickel II & chromium VI).  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy metals are stable environmental contaminants, causing various alterations in target tissues. Garlic has some beneficial effect in preventing heavy metal induced various alteration. The objective was to investigate the possible protective role of fresh aqueous homogenate of garlic on hematology, erythrocyte antioxidant defense system in male albino rats treated with NiSO4 and K2Cr2O7. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was untreated control. Group II was given aqueous homogenate of garlic (orally). Group III was administered with nickel sulfate (i.p). Group IV was given NiSO4 and garlic simultaneously. Group V was administered with K2Cr2O7 (i.p). Group VI were treated simultaneously with K2Cr2O7 and garlic. RBC, WBC, platelet count, PCV%, hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly and clotting time increased significantly after nickel treatment. After chromium treatment all the values decreased except clotting time. Increased malondialdehyde and glutathione level after nickel and chromium treatment was observed. Also erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities significantly increased after nickel and chromium treatment. Simultaneous garlic supplementation exhibited protective role to combat nickel toxicity, whereas no such beneficial effects were observed for chromium (VI). Garlic may partially prevent nickel and chromium induced alteration but such ameliorated effects as an antioxidant is only restricted on nickel induced alteration. PMID:23387242

Tikare, Swati N; Yendigeri, Saeed; Gupta, Amrita Das; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Kusal K

338

Response of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine to dietary protein deficiency and/or whole body gamma-irradiation in desert rodent and albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The effect of whole body gamma-irradiation on the levels of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine was studied in the desert rodent, Psammomys obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats, the levels of uric acid in plasma and urine were higher in the animals kept on high protein diets than in those maintained on non-protein ones. Radiation exposure caused a significant increase in uric acid concentration both in plasma and urine of albino rats, whereas in Psammomys obesus obesus, it exerted a significant drop in uric acid concentration in blood paralleling a marked rise in the daily uric acid excretion in the urine, especially with the high radiation level of 1170 r. Creatinine concentrations in plasma and urine of albino rats were higher than the corresponding values in Psammomys obesus obesus. Radiation exposure in general caused an increase in the creatinine concentration in blood and a decrease in its concentration in urine. Plasma creatine was shown to increase due to the effect of radiation exposure. This runs in parallel with the increase in the excretion of creatine in urine. Creatinuria observed in whole body irradiation is obviously caused by a defect in the ability of skeletal muscle to take up creatine from blood. Such abnormality could be the result of direct damage to the muscle caused by incident radiation

1985-01-01

339

Anticataleptic and antiepileptic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens: A study on role of dopaminergic system in epilepsy in albino rats  

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Objective : To assess the anticataleptic and antiepileptic activity of leaves of Mucuna pruriens in albino rats. Materials and Methods : Haloperidol-induced catalepsy (HIC), maximum electro-shock (MES) method, pilocarpine-induced Status epilepticus (PISE) and single-dose effect of M....

Champatisingh D; Sahu P; Pal A; Nanda G

340

Phytochemical Properties and Hypoglycemic Activity of the Aqueous and Fractionated Portions of Acacia nilotica (Fabaceae) Pod Extracts on Blood Glucose Level in Normoglycemic Wistar Albino Rats  

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The phytochemical properties and hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous and fractionated portions of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa) pod extracts on blood glucose level in wistar albino rats was studied. The result of the phytochemical analysis of the aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica...

Mohammed Shaibu Auwal; Sanni Saka; Abdullahi Shuaibu; Ismail Alhaji Mairiga; Kyari Abba Sanda; Amina Ibrahim; Fatima Abba Lawan

 
 
 
 
341

Studies on Vigna mungo L. Effect of Processing on Carbohydrate Fractionation and Influence of Grain Starch on Protein Utilization in Albino Rats  

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The effect of black gram starch on the utilization of casein was also tested in albino rats using PER, digestibility coefficient, biological value and net protein utilization as parameters. Soaking reduced the levels of sugars, starch and oligosaccharides but starch digestibility was improved signif...

Amer Jamil; Lubna Bashir; Hamid Yaqoob

342

Antifertility screening of plants. Part IX. Effect of five indigenous plants on early pregnancy in female albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some indigenous plants reputedly possess antifertility properties when orally administered. Various extracts of some of these plants were used in an investigation to determine antifertility activity using a method which would ultimately detect anti-zygotic, blastocystoxic, anti-implantation or early abortifacient activity in adult female albino rats of proven fertility following successful mating. The rats were laparotomized on Day 10 of pregnancy and the number recorded of implantation sites in both horns of the uterus. Results of the investigation showed that: 1) None of the extracts from stems and leaves of Argemine mexicana Linn, from the seeds of Carica papaya, and from the petroleum ether and aqueous extracts of Mentha arvenis Linn showed encouraging antifertility activity; 2) The alcoholic extracts of Mentha arvenis leaves, Sapindus trifoliatus seeds and the methanol fraction of the alcoholic extract of Sapindus trifoliatus showed 100%, 100% and 80% antifertility activity respectively; 3) the alcoholic extract of Mentha arvenis inhibited implantation in 80% of rats when administered on Days 1-3 of pregnancy suggesting that it mainly acts as an anti-zygotic agent; 4) Thhe Garica papaya seed extracts did not exhibit anti-zygotic, anti-implantation, early abortifacient or antifertility activity; 5) when the methanol fraction of Sapindus trifoliatus was administered orally in rats on pregnancy Day 4-5, it inhibited implantation on 100% of the rats suggesting that it acts mainly as a blastocystoxic agent. PMID:4435895

Bodhankar, S L; Garg, S K; Mathur, V S

1974-06-01

343

Long dose exposure of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in albino rats and effect of Podophyllum hexandrum on oxidative stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The effect of Podophyllum hexandrum methanolic extract and alpha-tocopherol in reducing oxidative stress in male albino rats was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lipid peroxidation was monitored by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) level in different tissues of rats. Activities of free radical scavenging enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) were determined using H2O2 decomposition. RESULTS: Results showed that administration of H2O2 (0.1%) in drinking water of the rats, for 25 weeks, increased the malondialdehyde levels in liver, kidney and lung tissues of all the rats. However, rats receiving Podophyllum hexandrum extract and alpha-tocopherol had lower MDA levels in a dose dependent manner, which indicates decreased lipid peroxidation in these rats. Increase in the catalase activity appears to be a response to H2O2 accumulation. The decrease in the activity of catalase and increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in different organs of the rats receiving Podophyllum hexandrum extract and alpha-tocopherol indicates the protective effect of the plant in combating oxidative stress undergone by the rats. OBJECTIVES: Rhizome of Podophyllum hexandrum have been ethnomedically claimed to possess a wide array of biological activities including anticancer activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To verify the folklore claim, this study was performed in a six Human carcinoma cell lines, Lung (A-549), Prostate (PC-3), Colon (Colo-25), Breast (MCF-7), Neuroblastoma (IMR-32) and CNS (SF-295) MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. RESULTS: Methanol and 70% ethanolic extracts of the rhizome of Podophyllum hexandrum showed highest cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 (Breast) and Colo-25 (Colon) cell line, as determined with sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay. CONCLUSIONS: These findings 1 - showed that Podophyllum hexandrum extract may ameliorate H2O2 induced oxidative stress by decreasing lipid peroxidation via alteration of the antioxidant defense system of the rats. 2 - these data also showed the anticancer activity of the plant extracts on different human cancer cell lines. However, further investigation is needed to assess the molecular mechanisms mediated anticancer activities of this plant.

Ganie SA; Haq E; Hamid A; Masood A; Zargar MA

2011-08-01

344

HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF COCCINIA GRANDIS ROOT EXTRACT AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATIC OXIDATIVE STRESS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Coccinia grandis root extract against paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress in wistar albino rats. The ethanolic extracts of Coccinia grandis (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) were administered orally to the animals and hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (750mg/kg). The extracts were administered orally by suspending in 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose solution. Silymarin (25mg/kg) was given as reference standard. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis roots produced a significant (P<0.01) decrease in SGOT, SGPT, SALP, Total bilirubin and Direct bilirubin and it also produced a significant (P<0.01) increase in Total protein when compared to paracetamol treated group indicating hepatoprotective action. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis root produced a significant (P<0.01) increase in SOD, CAT and GSH activity when compared to paracetamol treated group and it also produced significant (P<0.01) increase in activity of Px and GPx at 400mg/kg dose, indicating antioxidant activity. But it produced less significant in Px at 200mg/kg dose and it showed no significant activity in GPx at 200mg/kg dose. The histopathological study of liver section of rat treated with ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed mild hepatocyte degeneration. It was concluded from the result that ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats.

Moideen K; S Haja Sherief; Sengottuvelu S; T Sivakumar

2011-01-01

345

Light and electron microscopic study of the toxic effect of prolonged lead exposure on the seminiferous tubules of albino rats and the possible protective effect of ascorbic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Lead has been long recognized as an occupational toxicant. Now, lead is considered to be one of the major environmental pollutants which have serious potential threat to human health. Reports of declining male fertility have renewed interest in the role of environmental and occupational exposures in the etiology of human infertility. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present work was to investigate the toxic effect of prolonged exposure to lead on albino rat's seminiferous tubules and the possible protective effect of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) on lead toxicity. METHODS: The study was carried out on 40 adult male albino rats divided into three groups: a control group which comprised three subgroups; negative control which received no treatment and two positive controls receiving an oral daily dose of distilled water or ascorbic acid, respectively. Lead acetate--intoxicated group received lead acetate orally in a dose of 25 mg/kg b.w dissolved in distilled water for 3 months. While the protected group received ascorbic acid orally in a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w daily for 3 months, simultaneously with lead acetate in a similar dose to that of the intoxicated group. By the end of the experimental period, blood samples were collected for estimation of blood lead level. Fresh specimens were taken from the testis and processed for light and electron microscopic examination. RESULTS: Biochemical analysis demonstrated significant increase in the blood lead level in lead intoxicated group compared to the control group, while ascorbic acid--protected group revealed significant decrease in the blood lead level. Light microscopic examination of lead treated group revealed loss of normal architecture of the testicular tissue in the form of thin walled seminiferous tubules with wide lumen and vacuolations in the spermatogenic epithelium mostly separating primary spermatocytes from spermatogonia and surrounding nuclei of Sertoli cells. Apoptotic bodies were found among the basal part of the spermatogenic epithelium. Ultrastructural examination of the same group revealed degenerating cells with cytoplasmic vacuolations, apoptotic cells with heterochromatic nuclei and dense cytoplasm, irregularities in the basal lamina with increased collagen deposition and shrunken myoid cells. Late differentiating spermatids showed deformed head with widening of the subacrosomal space and redundant acrosome, in addition to the abnormalities in the tail of developing sperms. On the other hand, ascorbic acid--protected group showed amelioration of most of the degenerative changes depicted in the lead intoxicated group. CONCLUSION: Lead had an injurious effect on the testis of the exposed animals. Simultaneous administration of ascorbic acid was efficient in preventing most of such toxic effect and decreasing the blood lead level. Therefore, ascorbic acid can be recommended for protection against lead intoxication.

El Shafai A; Zohdy N; El Mulla K; Hassan M; Morad N

2011-04-01

346

Influence of aflatoxin B1 on mRNA levels of acute-phase proteins and oncoproteins in albino rat liver  

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Full Text Available Background: The effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) administration on expression of genes coding for acute-phase proteins, and nuclear protooncogenes c-fos and c-jun, and alpha-fetoprotein gene has been studied in rats. Methods: AFB1 was administered to male Albino Oxford (AO) rats as a single intraperitoneal dose (1 mg/kg body weight). The expression of genes for albumin, cystein protease inhibitor, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, a1-acid glycoprotein and for c-Fos, c-Jun and alpha-fetoprotein in rat liver was measured by Northern hybridization. Results: The mild increase in the levels of mRNA for acute-phase proteins after AFB1 administration was observed during the first 24 hours. The exceptions were the mRNA levels in liver for cystein protease inhibitor, which were 50%, decreased as compared to the control values. In addition, mild increase of the expression of c-fos protooncogene with two peaks were noted at three (1.3 fold) and 72 hours (1.5 fold) after injection AFB1 to rats. The expression of nuclear protooncogene c-jun at 1 hour and 72 hour after acute poisoning was 2.6 fold and 3.7 fold increased as compared to control values, respectively. The mRNA levels in liver for the alpha-fetoprotein reached a maximum at 1 hour after AFB1 injection and it was 1.8 times higher than the levels in the livers of nontreated animals. Conclusion: Single administration of AFB1 induced increased transcription of c-jun and c-fos genes while typical acute-phase response was not found.

Streli? Nataša J.; Magi? Zvonko M.; Truti? Nataša V.; Krtolica Koviljka V.

2009-01-01

347

Acceleration of vertical migration of corneal epithelial cells in albino rats during chronic immobilization stress  

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This paper studies the effect of chronic immobilization stress on the kinetics of corneal epithelial cells from the basal layer into higher layers. Experiments were carried out on 49 male rats. The animals were given an intraperitoneal injection of tritium-thymidine and an additional application of 5 microCi of tritium-thymidine was made to its surface because the cornea has no blood supply. The animals were killed and the cornea removed for investigation. Values of the index of labeled nuclei and intensity of thymidine labeling, characterizing DNA synthesis in the corneas of the control and experimental animals showed no significant change compared with their values in a pervious series of experiments. Chronic exposure to stress increased the velocity of vertical migration of the cells from the basal layer toward the outer layers of the cornea.

Timoshin, S.S.; Berezhnova, N.I.

1986-01-01

348

Evaluation of topical Matricaria chamomilla extract activity on linear incisional wound healing in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this investigation, the effect of Matricaria chamomilla extract on linear incisional wound healing was studied. Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to a linear 3 cm incision made over the skin of the back. The animals were randomly divided into three experimental groups, as control, olive oil, and treatment. Control group did not receive any drug or cold cream. Olive oil group received topical olive oil once a day from beginning of experiments to complete wound closure. Treatment group were treated topically by M. chamomilla extract dissolved in olive oil at the same time. For computing the percentage of wound healing, the area of the wound measured at the beginning of experiments and the next 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 20 days. The percentage of wound healing was calculated by Walker formula after measurement of the wound area. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences between treatment and olive oil animals (p < 0.05) in most of the days. We conclude that the extract of M. chamomilla administered topically has wound healing potential in linear incisional wound model in rats.

Jarrahi M; Vafaei AA; Taherian AA; Miladi H; Rashidi Pour A

2010-05-01

349

Evaluation of topical Matricaria chamomilla extract activity on linear incisional wound healing in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this investigation, the effect of Matricaria chamomilla extract on linear incisional wound healing was studied. Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to a linear 3 cm incision made over the skin of the back. The animals were randomly divided into three experimental groups, as control, olive oil, and treatment. Control group did not receive any drug or cold cream. Olive oil group received topical olive oil once a day from beginning of experiments to complete wound closure. Treatment group were treated topically by M. chamomilla extract dissolved in olive oil at the same time. For computing the percentage of wound healing, the area of the wound measured at the beginning of experiments and the next 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 20 days. The percentage of wound healing was calculated by Walker formula after measurement of the wound area. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences between treatment and olive oil animals (p < 0.05) in most of the days. We conclude that the extract of M. chamomilla administered topically has wound healing potential in linear incisional wound model in rats. PMID:20432150

Jarrahi, Morteza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Taherian, Abbas Ali; Miladi, Hossein; Rashidi Pour, Ali

2010-05-01

350

?-carotene Protects the Physiological Antioxidants Against Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Carcinogenesis in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available To study the effects of ?-carotene on the body growth and physiological antioxidants, male weanling rats were fed with low and high amount of ?-carotene before four weeks and after six months of Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) treatment (0.5 mg kg-1 body wt., on alternate days, total 10 doses, i.p). The results were compared with animals treated with AFB1. The final body weight of AFB1 treated animals was significantly reduced in the normal group (NVE). Plasma vitamin E was reduced significantly in NVE group whereas vitamin C levels decreased significantly in NVE and low ?-carotene (LBE) fed group. The maximum reduction was found in NVE group. Plasma GSH levels were increased significantly in animals in high ?-carotene (HBC) fed group. Liver protein showed significant reduction in NVE group. Liver lipid peroxidation was increased significantly in NVE and LBE groups. Liver vitamin A showed dose dependent increased levels in animals fed with high amount of ?-carotene. Vitamin E was decreased significantly in NVE group. Liver antioxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase levels were reduced significantly in the treated animals of the NVE group. Results obtained indicated that ?-carotene supplementation elevated the levels of vitamin C, glutathione and glutathione related enzymes which act as a free radical scavenger and reduced the toxicity effect of AFB1 in rats.

Vinayak Patel; Suresh Sail

2006-01-01

351

Enhancement of sexual motivation in male rats by yohimbine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yohimbine hydrochloride, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, increased sexual motivation in male rats as evidenced by increased mounting performance in mating tests conducted after genital anesthetization, increased percentage of male rats ejaculating in their first heterosexual encounter, and induction of copulatory behavior in sexually inactive male rats. These observations lead to the suggestion that alpha-adrenoceptors are important modulators of sexual arousal in intact male rats. These results indicate that pharmacological treatment of sexual (libido) dysfunction may be useful. PMID:6474156

Clark, J T; Smith, E R; Davidson, J M

1984-08-24

352

Enhancement of sexual motivation in male rats by yohimbine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Yohimbine hydrochloride, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, increased sexual motivation in male rats as evidenced by increased mounting performance in mating tests conducted after genital anesthetization, increased percentage of male rats ejaculating in their first heterosexual encounter, and induction of copulatory behavior in sexually inactive male rats. These observations lead to the suggestion that alpha-adrenoceptors are important modulators of sexual arousal in intact male rats. These results indicate that pharmacological treatment of sexual (libido) dysfunction may be useful.

Clark JT; Smith ER; Davidson JM

1984-08-01

353

Influence of L-arginine on the Heart Histology and Function Markers of Metabolic Syndrome in Female Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available High blood pressure (a condition associated with vascular constriction) is a major feature of metabolic syndrome (MES). MES, a constellation of metabolic disorders, is prevalently higher in females and was associated with a reduced concentration of a vasodilator molecule, Nitric Oxide (NO). L-arginine (ARG), a precursor of NO may improve MES, warranting this study. Two groups (n = 8) of female Wistar albino rats were (per orally for twenty eight days) exposed to a single dose of 60 mg kg-1 b.wt. of ARG and 3 mL kg-1 b.wt. of distilled water, DW, respectively as treated and control groups. Significant differences in means were separated by student’s t-test (p+) concentration (136.42±1.66 mmol L-1; 6.54%), but a non-significant decrease (p>0.05) in potassium ion (K+) concentration (4.54±0.66 mmol L-1; 14.01%) in the rats’ serum, suggesting improved/reduced blood pressure. ARG treatment in the rats had a significant increase (p-1; 196.43%) in the rats’ serum, indicating adverse influence on high metabolic organs, including the brain. Sodium ion had a significant negative correlation (r = 0.01) with potassium ion, whereas the heart histomorphology revealed degenerations in the ARG-fed rats, apparently confirming the observations and suggestions thereto. Thus, ARG may improve blood pressure in the rats, perhaps at the expense of compromised heart function and histology of the rats. These may be pointing to a new arginine phenomenon, hence warrant follow up.

Anthony C.C. Egbuonu; Ifeoma I. Ijeh; Lawrence U.S. Ezeanyika; Onyechi O. Obidoa

2013-01-01

354

Peritoneal mast cell degranulation differently affected thioglycollate-induced macrophage phenotype and activity in Dark Agouti and Albino Oxford rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Macrophages are heterogeneous population of inflammatory cells and, in response to the microenvironment, become differentially activated. The objective of the study was to explore macrophage effector functions during different inflammatory conditions in two rat strains. MAIN METHODS: We have investigated the effects of in vivo treatment with mast cell-degranulating compound 48/80 and/or thioglycollate on peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis and capacity to secrete hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and nitric oxide (NO) in Dark Agouti (DA) and Albino Oxford (AO) rat strains. Besides, fresh peritoneal cells were examined for the expression of ED1, ED2 and CD86 molecules. KEY FINDINGS: In thioglycollate-elicited macrophages, increased proportion of ED1+ cells was accompanied with elevated phagocytosis of zymosan (DA strain), whereas increased expression level of CD86 molecule on ED2+ macrophages matched elevated secretory capacity for H2O2, TNF-? and NO (AO rats). Although mast cell degranulation induced by compound 48/80 increased the percentages of ED2+ macrophages in both rat strains, the proportion of ED2+ cells expressing CD86 molecule was decreased and increased in DA and AO rats, respectively. Furthermore, in DA strain compound 48/80 diminished macrophage secretion of NO, but stimulated all macrophage functions tested in AO strain. If applied concomitantly, the compound 48/80 additively increased macrophage activity induced by thioglycollate in AO rats. SIGNIFICANCE: Macrophages from DA and AO rat strains show different susceptibility to mediators released from mast cells, suggesting that strain-dependant predisposition(s) toward particular activation pattern is decisive for the macrophage efficacy in response to inflammatory agents.

Stanojevi? S; Kuštrimovi? N; Miti? K; Vuji? V; Aleksi? I; Dimitrijevi? M

2013-08-01

355

EVALUATION OF DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ALCOHOLIC RHIZOMES EXTRACTS OF COSTUS SPECIOSUS LINN IN WISTER ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried with the rhizomes of Costus Speciosus Linn, belonging to family Zingiberaceae. It is an erect perennial herb and has recently gained importance as a commercial source of diosgenin and commonly known as “Push Kara“, “Kashmeera”, “Keu” and Kust. In Pharmacological screening the effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of rhizomes of Costus Speciosus Linn was evaluated in Albino rats of either sex (150-200g) for diuretic activity at a dose of 250mg/kg. b.w. the effect was compared with furesemide (100mg/kg. b.w.) as standard drug in diuretic activity. Both extracts significantly increased the urine output as well as urinary electrolyte concentration. Pet. Ether was found to be least potent. Thus from study and literature, It can concluded that Costus Speciosus Linn have potent diuretic activity.

Dubey Subodh; Verma Vijendra K.; Sahu Amit K.; Jain Amit K; Tiwari Akash

2010-01-01

356

Influence of teak (Tectona grandis; family: Verbenaceae) seed protein on some enzymes and liver lipids of albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of protein, isolated from teak (Tectona grandis) seed upon albino rats with respect to some of their serum, liver and intestinal enzymes and liver lipids has been studied. The protein in question contains aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, lysine, phenylalanine, histidine and arginine as determined by amino acid analyser. After feeding experiment an increase in body weight including the liver weight was noted in the test animals due to excess protein in the diet. A marked increase was observed in G.O.T., G.P.T. and total lipid of liver, whereas G.O.T. and G.P.T. of serum were decreased. The observed increased concentration of lipid in liver may be due to excess addition of protein in diet. The overall observation is an indication of probable fatty infiltration in liver of test animals. PMID:4070763

Laskar, S; Ghosh-Majumdar, S; Basak, B; Maity, C R

1985-09-01

357

Influence of teak (Tectona grandis; family: Verbenaceae) seed protein on some enzymes and liver lipids of albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of protein, isolated from teak (Tectona grandis) seed upon albino rats with respect to some of their serum, liver and intestinal enzymes and liver lipids has been studied. The protein in question contains aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, lysine, phenylalanine, histidine and arginine as determined by amino acid analyser. After feeding experiment an increase in body wei