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1

Testicular Antifertility Action of Cassia angustifolia in Male Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

The present study describes the reproductive effect of leaves aqueous extract of Cassia angustifolia on male albino rats. The adult male rat received 1 ml of C. angustifolia extract at a dose level 50 mg/rat /day and 100 mg /rat/day for 45 days orally. The result showed that the body weight of all days exhibit did not any significance loss but in treatment I and II, the weights of reproductive organ like testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased significantly whe...

Dhanapal. R; Babitha. J; Kandeepan. S; Murugaian. P

2013-01-01

2

Effect of cholesterol diet on reproductive function in male albino rats.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of cholesterol diet (400 mg/kg body weight) for 60 days on gonadal function in albino rats. METHODS The study was conducted in the Animal House Unit at Jordan University of Science and Technology, School of Medicine, Irbid, Jordan between October 2003 and February 2004. Adult male and female albino rats of Sprague Dawley strain were raised under controlled temperature and light. Male rats were divided into: a) con...

Bataineh, Hameed N.; Nusier, Mohamad K.

2005-01-01

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PROTECTION ROLE OF CALCIUM THERAPY IN IRRADIATED MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Free oxygen radicals and insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of radiation syndrome. The trace elements are functioning as co-factors in antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant system and trace elements have been investigated in many different studies including tissue repair processes but this study deal with radiation injury in male albino rats.The study was carried out to investigate the beneficial role of the used metallo element as radio-protector due to its ability for chelating free radicals produced by ionizing radiation. The efficacy of daily oral treatment of rats with calcium glubionate (daily 6 mg/kg body wt) for 6 successive days to control many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation when these rats subjected to 6 Gy whole body gamma ray were studied. The activity of catalase (CAT) and levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were determined. In addition, CAT activity and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and MDA in liver, kidney and spleen tissues of control, calcium treated, irradiated and protected rat groups were evaluated. Samples were collected from animals 24 hours after end of the Ca- glubionate treatment or exposure to gamma radiation. The data obtained revealed that, radiation exposure caused significant alterations in all tissues and serum biochemistry. On the contrary, neutralization was occurred in these biochemical aspects in protected animal grbiochemical aspects in protected animal groups due to Ca-glubionate treatment. In conclusion, Ca-glubionate could protect rats against biochemical alterations associated with gamma ray oxidative stress. These effects were explained in the light of the presumed different mechanisms of Ca-glubionate

4

STUDIES ON INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. The present investigation refers to biochemical and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic powder toward CCl4-induced toxicity in adult male albino rats. CCl4 intoxication was attempted using a dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight.Pre-treatment with levanox (one capsule/ kg of rat body weight, each capsule contains 100 mg catechu, 7.5 mg dandelion, 75 mg termiric 2% curcumin, 17.5 mg silymarin, 100 mg lecithin) was more effective than garlic powder (100mg/kg of rat body weight) in reducing CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by its higher potency in reducing elevation of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in serum. Serum of control rats and those treated with levanox or garlic or CCl4 produced 13 types of proteins, differing in the molecular weight (MW) and densities, while those of levanox + garlic or garlic +CCl4 produced 14 bands differing in the MW and densities. The similarity index at the epigenetic level was also studied using the primers under study. The control sample produced one amplified DNA fragment with Rf of 0.73 and a molecular size (MS) of 67 base pair (bp) . Using the same primers, no amplified DNA fragment with the same MS was produced in the sample taken from levanox + garlic treated group.OPA-2 primer of sequence 5?- AGA TGC AGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band wiGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band with MS of 292 bp and Rf of 0.46 . However, the same primer produced one amplified DNA characteristic band with a molecular size of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.In the control sample, OPA-4 primer of sequence 5? - ACG CAC AAC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band of MS of 299 bp and Rf of 0.43. The same primer produced one amplified characteristic DNA band with MS of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.Dual treatment with levanox and garlic powder resulted in a characteristic protein differing from that of control as revealed through SDS-PAGE and confirmed by RAPD-PCR

5

Traffic Noise: A Silent Killer of Male Gamate of Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to ...

Purushottam Pramanik, Snehangshu Biswas

2012-01-01

6

Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame). Male rats were administe...

Abdallah, Inas Z. A.

2002-01-01

7

Effect Of Boswellia Carterii Birdw On Carbohydrate Metabolism In Diabetic Male Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB) on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period) then were sacrificed. The body weight of each ...

Eman G E Helal, Ashraf M. Mostafa

2005-01-01

8

The Nephrotoxic Impact of Oseltamivir in Male Albino Rats after Repeated Exposure  

OpenAIRE

The effects of oseltamivir administration, effectively against influenza viruses A and B, on some selected parameters of rat kidney function were investigated to evaluate its possible nephrotoxic effects. Eighteen (18) albino male Wistar rats with body weights ranging from 150 - 190 g were divided into three groups, the first group (T1) was treated orally with 1 mg/kg BW as a therapeutic dose of oseltamivir for 7 consecutive days. The second group (T2) was treated with ...

Falah Muosa Kadhim Al-Rekabi

2014-01-01

9

Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile a...

Natarajan, A.; Syed Zameer Ahmed, K.; Sundaresan, S.; Sivaraj, A.; Devi, K.; Senthil Kumar, B.

2012-01-01

10

Citrus aurantifolia impairs fertility facilitators and indices in male albino wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645

Uduak Akpan Okon

2014-06-01

11

SEQUESTRATION PROPERTY OF SPIRULINA AGAINST LEAD INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN MALE ALBINO WISTER RAT RATTUS NORVEGICUS  

OpenAIRE

Lead acetate induces the histological changes in liver and kidney tissues of the male albino Wister rat were observed by light microscopy. The rats were exposed to sublethal concentration of lead acetate 1.896 mg/kg body wt for seven days with parallel untreated control, lead acetate along with spirulina 2mg/Kgbody wt and spirulina 2mg/Kg body wt groups were maintained. Liver and kidney tissue used for histological studies. No pathological changes were observed in the untreated control and sp...

Hemalatha, K.; Pugazhendy, K.; Meenambal, M.; Jayanthi, C.

2013-01-01

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Antispermatogenic Activity of the Benzothiazoline Ligand and Corresponding Organoantimony(V) Derivative in Male Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Triphenylantimony(V) derivative, Ph3Sb(OPri)[SC6H4N:C(CH3)CH2C(O)CH3], 1b, and the corresponding benzothiazoline ligand [1, 2], HNC6H4SC︹(CH3)CH2C(O)CH3, 1a, have been tested for their effects on the reproductive system of male albino rats. The oral administration of both 1a and 1b at the dose level of 10 mg/rat/day produced significant reduction in the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostate. Significant decrease in sperm motility as well as in sper...

Sharma, Pankaj K.; Rehwani, H.; Rai, A. K.; Gupta, R. S.; Singh, Y. P.

2006-01-01

13

Lead Intoxication On Protein Fractions, Testicular Tissues And Ameliorative Effect Of ANTOX On Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead (heavy metal) was given as lead acetate for two groups of adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus) in drinking water at dose level of 100 mg/litre for 3 and 6 weeks to evaluate its toxic effects on protein and its fractions by using electrophoresis technique, serum testosterone using radioimmunoassay and histological investigation of the testis of male rats.Administration of 100 mg/L lead acetate in drinking water for 3 and 6 weeks induced fluctuated changes in serum total proteins, protein fractions and significant decrease in serum testosterone hormone.Histopathological examination showed cellular changes and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules after 3 and 6 weeks of administration of lead acetate.The treatment of rats with antox (10 mg/kg) during the experimental period caused improvement in protein fraction and testosterone level, and the testes sections appeared more or less normal.

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The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 12010 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

15

Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no ecount, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

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Role of antioxidant supplements in adult male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate and determine the protective effect of intraperitoneal administration of trace mineral selenium (Se) and antioxidant vitamins E and pantothenic acid (PA) to male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl pesticide. Four groups of rats were used in this study. The data obtained revealed that methomyl caused disturbances in liver functions, which were elucidated through ALT and AST levels, and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin. Also, the levels of serum total protein, albumin, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and acethylcholinesterase activity were significantly changed from those found in control rats for different periods. Treatment of rats with the antioxidant supplements ameliorated to some extent most of the disturbances in the mentioned biochemical parameter levels. The data concluded that such antioxidants could provide some protection against pesticide-induced toxicity

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Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile and also prevented a decrease in body weight. Histological observation demonstrated significant fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates in pancreas of diabetic rats. But, supplementation with Catharanthus roseus to diabetic rats significantly reduced the fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates.

A. Natarajan

2012-04-01

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Impact of ?-tocopherol on Metronidazole and Tetracycline-induced Alterations in Reproductive Activities of Male Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Antimicrobial drugs have been reported to have adverse effects on male fertility. The present study reports the role of ?- tocopherol on metronidazole and tetracycline induced reproductive alterations in albino rats. Male albino rats (5/group) were treated with 20 mg kg-1 bw day-1 metronidazole or 60 mg kg-1 day-1 tetracycline with or without 15 mg kg-1 bw ?-tocopherol for 8 weeks. The reversibility of effects after 4 weeks recovery period was determined in separate groups of 5 rats. The co...

Raji, Y.; Kunle-alabi, Olufadekemi T.; Olaleye, S. B.; Gbadegesin, M. A.; Awobajo, F. O.; Osonuga, O. A.; Odukanmi, A. O.; Salami, S. A.; Bolarinwa, Adeyombo F.

2007-01-01

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INFLUENCE OF DIETARY FAT ON LEPTIN AND INSULIN IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixty male albino rats were arranged into 5 equal groups which were used in this study to investigate the relation between leptin and insulin hormones under high fat intake and to assess the role of fresh vegetable intake on minimizing dyslipidemia.The results denoted that dietary fat caused significant increase in the levels of blood glucose and leptin hormone with significant decrease in insulin concentration and with prolonged high fat intake, insulin level was increased. However, the increased leptin and glucose indicated that prolonged fatty diet may cause insulin resistance. Addition of green vegetables to the diet normalized to a great extent the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, glucose and insulin

20

Biochemical evaluation of low dose methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate fungicide on male albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate (carbendazim) is one of the synthetic fungicides that controlled organisms that caused plant diseases of different types. It is widely used as a preservative in leather, paint, textile, fruits and papermaking industry. It is also used as an anticancer drug in chemical medicine. In the present study low concentrations of carbendazim was administered at 5, 10, 25 and 50mM doses intradermally to male albino rats. At the end of 6 hr, 12hr and 24hr duratio...

Muthuviveganandavel, V.; Muthuraman, P.; Muthu, S.; Srikumar, K.

2011-01-01

21

Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats  

Science.gov (United States)

High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2 C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

22

Antioxidant activity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) in male albino rats exposed to gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential benefits of dietary supplementation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) as antioxidant against ?- rays-induced biochemical changes in male albino rats by estimating some of the components of antioxidant defense in the; liver glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), serum aspartate amino transferase,(AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into four groups as Control group, group 2 received diet supplemented with 10% of eggplant (Solanum melongnea) fruit for 21 successive days , group 3: irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), group 4 received eggplant for 21 successive days then exposed to 6.5 Gy. All animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Rats exposed to ?-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT activities, and lipid abnormalities .Noticeable drop in liver GSH content and SOD activity associated with increase of MDA was recorded. Treatment with dietary eggplant for 21 days before irradiation significantly abolished radiation induced elevations in MDA and significantly elevates hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. The levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT ias the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated and noticeable improvement in the lipid profile levels

23

Traffic Noise: A Silent Killer of Male Gamate of Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to one control group and two experimental groups. Both the experimental groups were exposed to traffic noise having intensity 80 dB to 90 dB at the rate of 5 hr daily and control group was not exposed. First experimental group was exposed to traffic noise for 30 days and second group for 60 days. Testicular weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular protein level and testicular cholesterol level were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired t test. Result: Contribution of testis to body weight, testicular protein level and sperm count were low but testicular cholesterol level was more in traffic noise exposed rats than unexposed counterpart. Traffic noise exposure also increased percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm. Conclusion: Traffic noise adversely affect male gamete and such effect may be due to noise-induced suppression of testosterone synthesis.

Purushottam Pramanik , Snehangshu Biswas

2012-01-01

24

Stable Cesium Toxicity and Effect of Prussian Blue in Growing Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was carried out to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride (CsCl) on growing male albino rats and to evaluate the therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) administration for modification of the chemical toxicity. The experiments were performed on 32 growing male albino rats, (Rattus Rattus), divided into control group and three groups administered a daily dose of CsCl or PB or both. The results revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride caused a significant decrease in the Hb concentration, Ht %, serum folic acid, vitamin B12, potassium levels and body weight gain, with significant increase in WBC's count, serum urea and creatinine. No effect was observed on the other studied parameters including: RBCs count, liver functions, blood glucose, phosphokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase. On the other hand, PB caused a significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that it can be one of the therapeutic agents that might provide a protection against toxicological effects

25

Possible Outcome of Fenugreek Seeds Powder Administration on the Fertility of Female and Male Albino Rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sectionhological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval

26

THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE AND FENUGREEK SEED POWDER ON ENHANCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVELS IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats

27

PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF N-ACETYLCYSTIENE AGAINST TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES MODULATED IMMUNE RESPONSES IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

OpenAIRE

The protective effects of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) against orally administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) for 3 months on male albino rats were examined. Adult male albino rats were given saline as a control group, TiO2 (1200 mg kg-1 BW), NAC (100 mg kg-1 BW) and co-treatment of NAC and TiO2 as a protective group for 3 months. Blood was assayed for serum changes in GPT, GOT, lipid profiles, cytokines and immunoglobulins profiles. Moreover, spleen was examined for alterations in cytok...

Mohamed Mohamed Soliman; Hossam Fouad Attia; Mohamed Mahmoud Hussein; Esssam Hassan Mohamed; Tamer Ahmed Ismail

2013-01-01

28

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MELATONIN AGAINST GAMMA OR ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION HAZARDS IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation has been widely reported to damage organisms by attacking proteins, nucleic acids and lipids in cells. However, low dose irradiation has become the focus of research in radiobiology in recent years. This study was undertaken to analyze changes in blood levels of immunoreactive aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), total antioxidant capacity, protein and albumin levels in male albino rats exposed to ultraviolet-type C (UV-C) or low dose of gamma radiation. The role of melatonin, as an antioxidant agent, in restoring the serum levels of the selected biochemical parameters after irradiation was studied in male rats exposed to the two types of radiation. Gamma irradiation as a single dose of 2 Gy resulted in significant decreases in serum total protein, albumin, total antioxidant capacity and serum PIIINP level in male rats as compared to control. One hour ultraviolet irradiation/day for 3 weeks resulted in significant increase in serum total protein and significant decreases in PIIINP and total antioxidant capacity as compared to control.Statistical analysis revealed that intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg melatonin/kg body weight after UV or gamma irradiation restored the levels of the selected serum biochemical parameters as compared to control rats

29

Haematological And Biochemical Changes Induced By Amaranth Impact On Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present investigation was performed to study the effect of daily administration (interperitoneal injection of synthetic coloring agent amaranth at dose 50 mg /kg b.w. /day for two periods (7 and 21 days, using male albino rats. The effects of amaranth on growth, haematological and some biochemical parameters were examined throughout the study. The results revealed that amaranth treatment cause a marked change in treated groups when compared with control. They showed a significant decrease in percentage of body weight change, RBCs count, Hb concentration and HCT value, while, they recorded a significant increase in WBCs, serum activity of AST and ALP, in addition to serum urea and creatinine levels in treated rats. But ALT and bilirubin showed insignificant changes throughout the experiment.

Shadia Ali Radwan; Ahmed Riad El-Sayed; Mohammed Salah Al-Shinnawy

2010-09-01

30

Histopathological and biochemical effects of green tea and/or licorice aqueous extracts on thyroid functions in male albino rats intoxicated with dimethylnitrosamine  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objective To investigate histopathological and biochemical effects of green tea and/or licorice aqueous extracts in thyroid functions in male albino rats intoxicated with Dimethylnitrosamine. Methods 40 Male albino rats were divided into two main groups, 20 normal rats and 20 DMN intoxicated rats. Normal rats were subgrouped into 4 equal groups, group A without treatment (controls), group B treated with green tea, group C treated with licorice, group D treated with green tea and lico...

Mohamed U; Bstawi M; Abd, El Mgeed A.; Abdel, Gabbar M.

2009-01-01

31

Grape Seed Extract (Vitisvinifera) Alleviate Neurotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity Induced by Lead Acetate in Male Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Grape seed extracts (GSE) are very potent antioxidant and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities, including an antioxidant property, and has been suggested to be of use in treatment of several diseases. The present study has been undertaken to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of GSE against lead-induced neuro and hepatotoxicity in rat. Male albino rats were divided into six groups: the 1st group, rats were injected daily with saline vehicle and served as negati...

Waggas, Abeer M.

2012-01-01

32

Effect Of Boswellia Carterii Birdw On Carbohydrate Metabolism In Diabetic Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period then were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. It was noticed that B.C.B treatment led to a significant improve in the decreased body weight, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, decreased liver glycogen caused by alloxan. And this improvement was also seen after the recovery period. B.C.B treatment led also to marked improvement in the histopathological degenerative changes in the cells of islets of Langerhans caused by alloxan after both the treated and recovery periods.

Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf M. Mostafa**, Fawzy A. Ashour

2005-09-01

33

Effect of salvia Egyptiaca extract on cholinergic system in adult male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract, equivalent to 2 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks, caused significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in whole blood and in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rat nearly all over the experimental period. Treatment with Salvia aegyptiaca extract also resulted in significant increase in acetylcholine content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus' nearly throughout the whole experimental period. It could be concluded from the present results that the extract of Salvia aegyptiaca caused an increase in acetylcholine content and this increase may be due to the decrease in the activity of acetylcholine esterase enzyme which play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

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Effect of granulosis virus (virotecto) as bioinsecticide on some biochemical changes in male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study to determine the biochemical response of granulosis virus in male albino rats fed with potato treated with granulosis virus (0.15 g/Kg) against potato tuber moth in stores .It was carried out by evaluating the effect of daily feeding on treated potato for 5 weeks followed by withdrawal period for 10 days fed with normal diet on some biochemical and histological changes in kidney of male rats. A trail consists of 3 groups each one contain 18 rats, the first group fed on normal basal diet and served as control, the second group fed with 50% normal potato and 50% basal diet (potato group) and the third group fed with 50% basal diet and 50% potato treated with granulosis virus (virus group) through the experimental period. The obtained data revealed a significant reduction in final body weight and organs weight in both normal and treated potato groups. Sera collected at 2 and 5 weeks post feeding and at the end of withdrawal period, recorded significant disorders in some tested parameters. In addition, histological examination of kidney tissue showed different disorders in normal and treated groups.

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Zinc sulphate and vitamin E alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium sulphate in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of aluminium sulphate and the therapeutic effects of administration of zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination against the toxic effect caused by aluminium (Al) in male albino rats. The animals were divided into five groups: group 1 received distilled water and served as control; group 2 received only aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)); group 3 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) plus zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.); group 4 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (15 mg/kg b.w.); group 5 received aluminium sulphate plus a combination of zinc sulphate and vitamin E in similar doses as above. Doses were administered orally once daily for 45 consecutive days. The results revealed that aluminium sulphate induced significant decrease in body weight gain and testis weight and significant increase in Al level in both serum and testes of male rats. Biochemical analysis showed significant decrease in serum total protein and phospholipids levels, while serum total lipid was significantly elevated post Al treatment. In addition, significant decrease in total protein, phospholipids and cholesterol levels in the testes of Al-treated rats was recorded. The data also showed significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone, leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone and significant increase in the level of serum prolactin in Al-intoxicated rats. Moreover, histological examination showed that aluminium sulphate caused apparent alterations in the testicular structure of the treated animals. Treatment with zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination ameliorated the harmful effects of Al, which was proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the testicular tissues. We can conclude that the tested dose of aluminium sulphate induced toxic effect on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the treatment with zinc sulphate and/or vitamin E alleviated these toxic effects. In some cases, vitamin E exerted a more potent effect, while in other cases, the more potent effect is related to zinc sulphate and the combination of both at most of the recorded data. PMID:23282999

Rawi, Sayed M; Seif Al Nassr, Fatma M

2015-03-01

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Physiological and biochemical studies on the effect of septilin on irradiated male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study has been initiated to evaluate the radioprotective effect of septilin against whole body gamma radiation and identifying the mechanism whereby septilin extract could protect against radiation toxicity. Irradiation induced significant increase in the serum enzymes of liver ASAT, ALAT, ALP, GGT activities and total bilirubin level when rats exposed to both gamma irradiation doses while direct bilirubin level rise when rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation only. There was a significant increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol with significant decrease in HDL cholesterol. Besides, it produced high levels of liver malondialdehyde, nitric oxide while serum nitric oxide rise when rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation only with significant decrease in total glutathione in liver and liver superoxide dismutase activity. Irradiation induced significant decrease in WBCs, RBCs, Hb, PCV, platelets count and blood indices.Septilin manifested good melioration in the radiation-induced changes in the studied parameters and histopathological changes. Hence, it could be concluded that septilin plays a beneficial radioprotective role against radiation hazard in male albino rats.

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1. Antidiabetic efficacy of leaf extracts of Asteracantha longifolia (Linn.) Nees. on alloxan induced diabetics in male albino wistar rats  

OpenAIRE

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia on alloxan induced diabetics in male albino Wistar rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were treated with aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. and its influence on glucose level, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, serum total cholesterol, levels of pancreas enzymatic and non-enzymatic...

Muthulingam, M.

2010-01-01

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Prophylactic Effect Of Rosemary Extract On Hormonal Disturbances In Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to evaluate the prophylactic role of pre-intake of ethanolic extract of rosemary (150 mg/kg/day) against some hormonal disturbances and testis histopathological changes induced by acrylamide (50 mg/kg/day) in adult male albino rats.The animals were divided into four equal groups; the control group, the rosemary group, the acrylamide group and the rosemary + acrylamide group. At the end of the experiment (28 days), the rats were decapitated then blood sera were collected and kept frozen at -20oC until the evaluation of thyroxine (T-4), triiodothyronine (T3), total testosterone, free testosterone and estradiol. The testes tissues were also stained and examined.The results denoted that the mortality rate of acrylamide group was about 47% and toxicological symptoms with significant reduction in T3,T4 , total and free testosterone and pathological changes in testicular tissue were observed. Addition of rosemary prior and during acrylamide intake reduced the mortality rate (20%), decreased the toxicological symptoms induced by acrylamide, increased the thyroid hormones and testosterone and avoid the pathological changes in the testes tissues.It could be concluded that the ethanolic extract of rosemary when introduced prior and during acrylamide intake succeed to a great extent in ameliorating the undesirable effects on testis and male sex hormones and to a moderate extent on thyroid hormones. a moderate extent on thyroid hormones.

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Antifertility Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Feronia elephantum Correa Leaf and Bark on Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effective concentration of ethanol extract of Feronia elephantum leaf and bark on male reproductive system of albino rats. The study was divided into four groups of five animals each. The first group (I received distilled water for a period of 14 days, served as control. The groups II, III and IV of animals were administered the ethanol leaf extract daily at 400mg/kg body weight, bark extract daily at 400 mg/kg body weight and 1:1 ratio of leaf (200mg/kg b.wt and bark (200mg/kg b.wt extract of Feronia elephantum respectively for a period of 14days. Significant decreases in the weight of testis (p<0.05, epididymis (p<0.01 and seminal vesicle (p<0.05 were observed. The results of the hormonal assay showed that, increased serum levels of FSH and estrogen but decreases in the serum levels of LH and testosterone compared to control. The results showed that, Feronia elephantum has effects on male rat reproduction, affecting the sexual behavior and epididymal sperm concentration.

Muthulakshmi A

2013-01-01

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Evaluation of the hepatoprotective activity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves in male albino rats  

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Full Text Available Olive leaf extract is used for centuries in treatment of various medical purposes. This investigation aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves against overdose paracetamol . 18 rats were divided into three groups, control , 0.5 gm/kg B.W. intrapereitoneally (i. p. paracetamol treated group and rats were given 2.5 gm /kg BW i. p. of olive leaf aqueous extract for three consecutive days prior to the administration of paracetamol. The results indicated that treatment with paracetamol caused a marked significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST,serum alanine aminotransferase (ALTand alkaline phosphatase (ALP accompanied by severe congestion of central and hepatic portal veins, vacuolization and ballooning also, a lot of pyknotic nuclei were detected with many small necrotic areas of hepatocytes. Meanwhile group treated by olive leaf extract followed by paracetamol displayed significant reduction in serum (AST,(ALTand (ALPassociated with nearly normal hepatocyte architecture. In conclusion, an aqueous extract of olive leaves has antioxidant property could protect against liver damage occurred by overdose paracetamol in male albino rats.

Enas A. M. Khalil

2004-06-01

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Protective Role Of Fresh Pomegranate Against Oxidative Damage In Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty four male albino rats, body weight 100-130 g, were used to evaluate the protective role of fresh pomegranate fruit intake for 30 days on the damage induced by single dose of 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group (1): control, group (2): irradiated with 6 Gy, group (3): pomegranate for 30 days and group (4): pomegranate for 30 days followed by 6 Gy whole body irradiation. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed after 12 hours fasting then sera were separated for the determination of sugar, total antioxidant, lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. Results showed that gamma radiation caused significant decline (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant, total protein, albumin, HDL-C and blood glucose with significant elevation (P<0.05) in other hepato-renal markers in addition to serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. These changes were significantly attenuated in irradiated animals pre-treated with whole fresh pomegranate fruit leading to the conclusion that pre-intake of pomegranate fruit had a radio- protective effect. This protection of this whole fruit may be due to the increased total antioxidant level leading to free radical scavenging

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A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The roots of Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, and rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides are popular for their aphrodisiac and immunostimulatory properties. The herbs have been traditionally used as Vajikaran Rasayana herbs because of their putative positive influence on sexual performance in humans. Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from the roots of A. racemosus, C. borivilianum, and rhizomes of C. orchioides were studied for sexual behavior effects in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Seven measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extracts had pronounced anabolic effect in treated animals as evidenced by weight gains in the body and reproductive organs. There was a significant variation in the sexual behavior of animals as reflected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency, and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the extracts. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection. The present results, therefore, support the folklore claim for the usefulness of these herbs and provide a scientific basis for their purported traditional usage. PMID:19139984

Thakur, Mayank; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Bhargava, Shilpi; Dixit, Vinod K

2009-12-01

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Enhancement of the Role of Mixed Hypo lipotropic Agents in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty adult male albino rats were used in the present study to assess the effect of using tryptophan or/and hawthorn extract with coenzyme Q 10 in ameliorating the effect of high fat diet (HFD) intake on hyperlipidaemia, hormonal imbalance and body weight. Six animals were served as a control group while the other twenty four rats were supplemented with 20 g butter/100 g standard laboratory diet (HFD) for 8 weeks prior to the experiment. These HFD rats were divided randomly into four equal groups; hyperlipidaemic group, tryptophan and hawthorn groups where animals of the latter two groups were supplemented with 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan and 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract respectively, and mixed group that was daily administrated with a mixture of 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan, 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract and 50 mg/kg B.W. coenzyme Q10. Body weight was recorded twice/week, after 30 days animals were decapitated and sera were collected for determination of total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), testosterone and corticosterone hormones. The data revealed that tryptophan, hawthorn extract alone or mixed with CoQ10 improved the dreadful effects induced by HFD, but the most profit was achieved by mixing these three antioxidants on hyperlipidaemia, tested hormones and body weight.

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Biochemical evaluation of low dose methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate fungicide on male albino rats  

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Full Text Available

Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate (carbendazim is one of the synthetic fungicides that controlled organisms that caused plant diseases of different types. It is widely used as a preservative in leather, paint, textile, fruits and papermaking industry. It is also used as an anticancer drug in chemical medicine. In the present study low concentrations of carbendazim was administered at 5, 10, 25 and 50mM doses intradermally to male albino rats. At the end of 6 hr, 12hr and 24hr duration, blood samples were collected from the animal for the analysis of biochemical and haematological parameters. Carbendazim caused an increase of cholesterol, uric acid, glucose and creatinine while serum phosphorous content was decreased. However, mean hemoglobin, WBC, E, and platelet counts increased and total RBC, N and L counts decreased. These results indicated that low dose level carbendazim contributed to toxicological effects in the rat tissues.

Keywords: Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate; Fungicide; Rat tissues

V. Muthuviveganandavel

2011-04-01

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Role of selenium and vitamin Ein modification of radiation disorders in male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was directed to study the possible radio-protective role of selenium and vitamin E on the level of serum total lipid, cholesterol, triglycerides, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dimutase, catalase and the free T3 and T4 in serum blood against damage induced by free radicals produced by ionizing radiation. Male albino rats (120-140 gm) were subjected to 5 and 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation, selenium (1.5 mg/kg) and vitamin E (10 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneal y to rats daily for one week before exposure to whole body gamma irradiation (5 and 7 Gy). Blood samples were collected from rats for biochemical analysis at time intervals 3, 5 and 7 days post-irradiation. Serum levels of total lipid, cholesterol and triglycerides were assayed and the levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and also the levels of serum free T3 and free T4 concentrations were also measured using Radio-immunoassay technique (RIA). The data showed that irradiation at both dose levels of 5 and 7 Gy caused significant inhibition in the antioxidant enzymes (GSH-Px, SOD and CAT) in plasma in irradiated rats. Also, the data revealed significant elevation in total lipid, cholesterol, triglyceride and 7 levels, which was associated with significant decrease in serum level of free T4 compared to non- irradiated rats during the experimental periods (3, 5, 7 days). Selenium and vitamieriods (3, 5, 7 days). Selenium and vitamin E were injected intraperitoneal y in rats (1.5 mg/kg of and 10 mg/kg, respectively) daily for one week before irradiation exerted marked amelioration of the biochemical changes induced by radiation, which is more pronounced at the dose level 5 Gy

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Protective Role of Mint oil (MO) Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The whole body exposure to high doses of gamma radiation resulted in alterations in the biological functions of vital organs in the body. This study is divided in two main parts: Part I - A preliminary study designed to determine the optimal dose of mint oil (MO) which delayed the onset of mortality and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the irradiated group. Male albino rats were assorted into two main groups. 1-Animals of this group were exposed to whole body (8 Gy) gamma irradiation. 2-Animals of this group were subdivided into 4 subgroups that received four different concentrations of mint essential oil (100, 150, 200, 250 ?1/animal/ day) for three consecutive days before irradiation. All animals were observed during 30 days for signs of radiation sickness, body weight change and mortality. The results revealed that pretreatment of rats with different doses of the MO prior to exposure to 8 Gy of gamma radiation resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in the survival time up to 200 ?1/kg b. wt., where the highest number of survival (80%) was observed 30 days post irradiation, when compared with the 8 Gy irradiated control (33.5%). The optimum protection against irradiation was observed at a dose 200 ?1/kg b. wt. and was used for the further investigations. The 2nd part intended to investigate the radio-protective effects of MO on some biochemical and haematological parameters. For this purpose, Swiss albino rats were selected and assortss albino rats were selected and assorted into 4 groups. Animals in Group I control: animals without any treatment. Group II mint oil (MO): rats were administered orally MO once daily at a dose of 200 ?1for 3 consecutive days. Group III, Irradiated (IRR): animals were exposed to a single dose of 6 Gy gamma radiations. Group IV Rats were treated with MO (as in Group-II), and exposed to 6 Gy after half an hour of the last administration of MO. Animals of each group were sacrificed 1, 7 and 28 days post-irradiation for biochemical estimation in blood , liver, kidney and testis. Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in haemoglobin, hematocrite values, and erythrocytes and leucocytes counts. Significant decreases in serum EPO level, GSH content and ALP was observed in all specimens. Meanwhile, the values of MDA, serum acid phosphatase were significantly higher in irradiated rats as compared to control group. In MO pretreated irradiated animals, a significant increase was observed in blood constituents, EPO (erythropoietin) level, GSH content and ALP level in testes, liver and blood accompanied with remarkable decrease in the values of MDA, serum acid phosphatase. The results show that MO could exert a radioprotective effect by antioxidant activity, and might stimulate cellular regeneration, that may be attributed to the synergistic effects of its constituents.

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Antioxidant activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace toward gamma irradiation hazards in male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study aims to evaluate the anti oxidative activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male Swiss albino rats were orally administered by lycopene (1.2 mg/rat/day) using suitable stomach tube 7 days before exposure to a sublethal single dose (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) levels in plasma, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood were determined, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase activity (GGT) were investigated 7 and 15 days post-irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in plasma levels of MDA, serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, as well as significant reduction in GSH content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood. Administration of lycopene by using suitable stomach tube pre-irradiation has significantly ameliorated the radiation-induced disturbances in all the investigated parameters

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Difference in Leptin Hormone Response to Nutritional Status in Normal Adult Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of 14 days diet, enriched in butter, vitamin E (vit. E and green tea, on the major regulators of energy expenditure. Leptin is the product OB gene. This 16 KDa protein is produced by mature adipocytes and is secreted in plasma. Its plasma levels are strongly correlated with adipose mass in rodents as well as in humans. Leptin inhibit food intake, reduces body weight and stimulates energy expenditure. In order to evaluate the effect of diet enriched in butter, vit. E and green tea on body weight, adipose tissue weight and organs weight, serum lipids, lipoproteins content and serum leptin levels in male albino rats supplemented for 14 days on the previous diet. This study showed that high fat diet significantly increased body weight and adipose tissue weight, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered body weight and adipose tissue weight, kidney and spleen weights didnt show significant changes in all the experimental groups. While liver weight decreased in diet supplemented with high fat diet. Also, the results showed that high fat diet and vit. E supplemented diet induced significant increase in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with significant decrease in HDLc. level as compared to normal control rats. Finally green tea supplemented diet induced significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with insignificant increase in HDLc. level in control rats. On the other hand, high fat supplemented diet significantly increased serum leptin levels in rats compared to control group, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered serum leptin levels at the end of experimental period. In conclusion, improving the biological activity of leptin by diet modification may exist as a practical strategy for the treatment of obesity and related disorders and a diet rich in green tea to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD obesity and also protect the liver against free radicals.

Noorah S. AL-Sowyan

2009-01-01

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Possible Role of Humoral Immunity on Liver Dysfunction in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty male albino rats were used in this study to correlate liver function after curcumin or/and malathion intake with the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM). The rats were divided into four groups, the first was the control group, the second was given malathion in drinking water (200 ppm), the third was administrated curcumin orally (70 mg/kg b.w.) 5 times /week while the fourth group received both malathion and curcumin with the same previous concentrations. Liver state was evaluated every 10 days by estimating prothrombine time (P.T.) and concentration (PC) and albumin level from blood taken from the retroorbital vein of 5 rats of the malathion group. After 40 days when there is prolongation of P.T. and hypoalbuminemia, ten rats from each group were decapitated. Liver enzymes, total protein, glucose, insulin, IgG and IgM were estimated. The data revealed that there is an increase of liver enzymes, glucose, insulin, and immunoglobulins (IgG) and (IgM) in malathion group and positive correlation between liver enzymes and immunoglobulins. These results denoted that the increase of immunoglobulins after malathion intake had no beneficial effects on the prognosis of liver condition, on the contrary, it may worsen liver state if there is some element of auto immunity, as well as the study proved that turmeric has the potential to improve the toxic effects of Malathion, whether on the functions of the liver or immune globulins.r or immune globulins.

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Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame. Male rats were administered saccharin (50 mg/kg b.w. or aspartame (100 mg/kg b.w. daily by intragastric gavage for 14 weeks. The results revealed that both saccharin and aspartame provoked highly significant reduction in body weight gain %. Saccharin exerted highly significant reduction in haemoglobin (Hb level, haematocrit (Hct% and red blood cel s (RBCs count, while aspartame induced insignificant changes in al haematological parameters. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity levels were significantly increased with saccharin and aspartame. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels in serum showed slightly insignificant increase by saccharim administration, while aspartame caused a significant rise in ALP. Blood glucose level of rats given saccharin significantly dropped, while aspartame caused a significant elevation in blood glucose level. Liver glycogen content of rats given saccharin significantly increased, while aspartame caused a significant reduction in liver glycogen content. Microscopic examination of liver sections showed lymphocytic and macrophages infiltration of the portal traid in rats administered saccharin, while aspartame group showed no histopathological changes except slight hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes. Urinary bladder sections of rats administered saccharin revealed proliferation of the mucosal epithelial cel s into papil ary invaginated projections with highly vascularized connective tissue core and mononuclear inflammatory cel s infiltration, while aspartame group showed no histopahtological alterations. It could be recommended that the use of saccharin as an artificial sweetener should be restricted, while aspartame should not be administered to diabetic. When it is necessary to use artificial sweeteners, fresh fruits and vegetables should be ingested as they act as scavengers for the liberated free radicals and help to delay the postprandial rise in blood glucose level.

Inas Z.A. Abdallah

2002-09-01

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Differential effects of alprazolam and clonazepam on the immune system and blood vessels of non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative cont...

Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A. G.; Atta, Amal H.

2011-01-01

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Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

2010-03-01

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Short term toxicity of strawberry flavor and carmoisine color in male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with oral administrations of the strawberry flavor and carmoisine color. The tested materials were given to the animals in their drinking water. Biochemical parameters were determined in liver, kidney and brain DNA and RNA contents.Sera was used for liver and kidney functions, lipid profile and thyroid hormones estimation. Histopathological, histochemical and cytophotometric studies were performed in liver and kidney tissues. Equal weights of flavoring and coloring agents were mixed at 0.1% w/v with drinking water. Forty adult male albino rats were assigned to four equal groups, two groups were served as controls and the remaining two groups received standard diet and water containing the tested materials for three and six week. There were no deaths and all the studied parameters were affected in a time dependent manner. Liver DNA contents were significantly decreased, kidney DNA contents tended to increase and brain DNA contents were significantly increased only after 6 weeks of treatment. RNA contents were significantly decreased in liver and brain

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In Vivo Internal Decontamination of 134Cs and 60Co from Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Present work aimed to evaluate the therapeutic role of prussian blue (PB), vermiculite and calcium trisodium salt of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as internal de contaminants of radio-active cesium and/ or cobalt in adult male albino rats. Radionuclides were given as a single doses; 60Co was introduced orally, subcutaneously or intraperitoneally (ip) while 134Cs was taken orally or in combination with ip injection of 60Co. The de contaminants were supplied daily for three weeks immediately after 60Co or 134Cs intake; oral dose of PB + vermiculite treated the oral 134Cs group, oral and subcutaneous 60Co groups and combined 60Co and 134Cs groups. Rats receiving ip dose of 60Co were treated with daily ip dose of DTPA while the three de contaminants were added to the combined 60Co and 134Cs groups.Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrite percentage (Ht), red blood cells count (RBC's), as well as liver function tests (total bilirubine, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/ G ratio, alanine transaminase (ALT), spartic transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)) were analyzed in all groups. The data obtained revealed that internal contamination by radioactive materials causes a significant decrease in the RBC's counts, Hb concentration, haematocrit value, serum total proteins and albumin. On the other hand, the therapeud albumin. On the other hand, the therapeutic agents caused a significant amelioration in the changes produced by internal contamination with variable degree. Thus, it could be concluded that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against internal contamination hazards

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Acute Effect of Sidr Leaves Extract on some Neurotransmitter Contents in Different Brain Areas of Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The acute i.p. injection of Sidr ( Zizyphus spina-christi) leaves extract ( 100 mg / kg body wt ) caused a significant increase in epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxiindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and a significant decrease in gamm-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in different brain areas (cerebellum , pons plus medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rats. The increase in E, NE, DA, 5-HT, and 5-HIAA content in the different CNS areas of albino rat may be due to the inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin binding which plays an important role in the release of these neurotransmitters, at the same time GABA inhibits the release of these neurotransmitters by increasing the permeability to Cl ions and such effect may be due to the presence of peptide and cyclopeptide alkaloids in the extract. Zizyphus spina-christi leaves may potentially be safe for use as a sedative drug. (author)

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PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF N-ACETYLCYSTIENE AGAINST TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES MODULATED IMMUNE RESPONSES IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The protective effects of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC against orally administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 for 3 months on male albino rats were examined. Adult male albino rats were given saline as a control group, TiO2 (1200 mg kg-1 BW, NAC (100 mg kg-1 BW and co-treatment of NAC and TiO2 as a protective group for 3 months. Blood was assayed for serum changes in GPT, GOT, lipid profiles, cytokines and immunoglobulins profiles. Moreover, spleen was examined for alterations in cytokines expression and histopathology. Administration of TiO2 significantly increased serum levels of GPT, GOT and increased lipid profiles. Administration of NAC to TiO2 rats improved significant changes induced by TiO2 alone. There were an increase in IL-1β and IL-6 secretion in TiO2 administered rats which is normalized by NAC administration. TiO2 administration down regulated IL-8 and IL-10 secretion, while co-administration of rats by NAC together with TiO2 normalized that down regulation. Moreover, TiO2 induced toxicity in spleen that accompanied by a decrease in IgA, IgG and IgM that are normalized by NAC administration. Finally, TiO2 up-regulated IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-β expression in spleen and NAC administration together with TiO2 normalized cytokines expression. In conclusion, present findings confirmed the protective effect of NAC on TiO2 induced alteration in immune responses in male albino rats.

Mohamed Mohamed Soliman

2013-01-01

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Role of Vitamin C As A Potent Antioxidant in Acute Radiation Induced Liver Disease (RILD) Among Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies demonstrated the role of vitamin C as antioxidant in alleviating organ damage caused by gamma irradiation. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of vitamin C on liver biochemical functions such as serum ALT, AST, albumin and bilirubin after experimental liver damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats irradiated with gamma radiation were used as a model of liver injury terminating with necro inflammatory activity and acute hepatitis. Forty male albino rats were classified into 6 groups (G0-G5). G0 included 8 male albino rats that were divided to 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). Both subgroups were exposed to gamma irradiation with 6 Gy as a single dose. The first subgroup was left for 3 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected while in the second subgroup, 2 rats were died and the remaining 2 rats were left for 6 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected. G1 was the negative control while in the rest groups, the whole body of rats was exposed to gamma irradiation of dose 8 Gy divided to 2 doses (4 Gy/one dose) at one week interval in between. G2 included 12 albino rats divided into 3 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). The whole body of albino rats of G2 was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one day, two days and four days after last dose of irradiation. G3 also included 8 rats that were divided into 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exps (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that were divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one week for one subgroup and 2 weeks for other subgroup after last dose of irradiation. The rest 2 groups (4 rats/group) were exposed to 8Gy gamma irradiation divided as before, but the rats in one group were orally supplemented with low dose of vitamin C. G4 and the others were supplemented with high dose of vitamin C for 2 weeks starting after last dose of irradiation (G5) then serum and liver samples were collected. Liver biochemical functions and histopathological examinations were done. The data of the current study showed mild non-significant alteration in the levels of liver biochemical parameters towards the level of baseline particularly when albino rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation as a single dose and left for 3 or 6 weeks for recovery. Exposure to accumulative dose of 8 Gy gamma irradiation caused worse alteration in both biochemical markers associated with obvious damage in hepatocytes causing acute liver injury in histopathological examination especially after 4 days of gamma radiation exposure but when albino rats were orally supplemented with vitamin C, there were significant amelioration and marked regression towards normal position in both biochemical parameters and histopathological pictures, so, the present data revealed that oral dose of vitamin C has trends to support the liver during the acute phase post-gamma irradiation and enhance its spontaneous recovery

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The role of melatonin in radiation induced biochemical disturbances in brain and thyroid gland in adult male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T3) thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body ?-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels were recorded after ?-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of ?-irradiation on serum T3 and T4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. Ht day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by ?-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21

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Hormonal Profile And Histopathological Study On The Influence Of Silymarin On Both Female And Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Silymarin is a mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum [L] Gaertn . Extracts of S. marianum have been used in the treatment of liver diseases for more than 2000 years. Flavonoids are a large group of polycyclic phenols of plant origin. Flavonoids displaying estrogenic effects (phytoestrogen. Phytoestrogens show an estrogenic activity owing to the structural similarity with the estrogen skeleton ,mimicking natural estrogens, it binds to estrogen receptor and modulates its activity . These effects cause complex changes inducing a shift in an overall hormonal balance of the individual. Long term intake of feeds with a higher content of phytoestrogens can induce transient or permanent infertility. Silybum marianum leaves have been traditionally used in Egypt for their antifertility effects .Also, the antifertility property of silybum marianum leaves was investigated in female albino rats. This property highlights the impotance to clarify the role of silymarin (420mg /day a human therapeutic dose on both female and male albino rats. Silymarin (151.2 mg/kg BW prevented pregnancy in adult female albino rats on days 1-5 post coitum. In female rats the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH displayed marked increase, while the luteinizing hormone (LH and estradiol remained within normal levels. These results showed a distinct increase in number and size of ovarian growing follicles while the effect of silymarin on the uterine wall was in the form of hypertrophy of endometrial epithelium, also increase in the number of uterine glands. Ovaries taken from females treated with silymarin for one and two months contained a large number of growing follicles. In male rats treated with silymarin (151.2 mg/kg BW for one month, testosterone and LH were increased significantly, meanwhile estradiol not changed. Testes of rats treated with silymarin for one month showed well developed spermatogenesis with lot of sperms. The epididymis of the same group contained a heavy number of sperms. While rats treated with silymarin for two months displayed significant decrease in serum testosterone levels, while LH and estradiol not changed. These rats displayed some tubules contained well developed spermatogenic layer and normal leyding cells, others appeared moderated by affected. The epididymis contained less number of sperms. These results indicated that silymarin (151.2mg /kgBW a dose equivalent to human therapeutic dose (420mg/ day prevented pregnancy in female rats and caused some histological changes in the ovary and uterus, while it has biological benefits for male rats during short treatment.

Enas A.M.Khalil

2003-12-01

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PRUSSIAN BLUE, VERMICULITE AND DTPA EFFECTS ON 134Cs AND 60Co DECONTAMINATION OF MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was carried out to evaluate the therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB), vermiculite (verm.) and calcium Trisodium salt of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) on internal decontamination of radio-active cesium and/ or cobalt from albino rats and to investigate the side effects of these compounds as well as radiation hazards of these radioactive materials.Adult male albino rats were divided into 15 groups (each of 6 rats);group 1: control, groups (2) - (4) were given PB + vermiculite oral and/or intraperitoneal DTPA. Another five groups of rats were given only a single dose of Co60 and/or Cs134 for three weeks. Groups (10) - (15) were given a single dose of Co60 and/or Cs134 with daily dose of therapeutic agents.Biochemical parameters included blood glucose, renal function (serum urea concentrations and creatinine), creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and some minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous) were investigated. The data obtained revealed that internal contamination by radioactive materials causes a significant increase in serum urea, creatinine concentration, glucose, CPK and LDH activities. In addition, a significant decreased in serum inorganic phosphorous was recorded and non-significant changes were recorded sodium, potassium and calcium levels. The treatment by different therapeutic agents had non-significant effects on the same parameters.On the ott effects on the same parameters.On the other hand, the therapeutic agents caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by internal contamination with variable degrees

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Improving Hematological and Biochemical Disorders Induced by Administration of Repeated Used Frying Oil in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was performed on 100 male albino rats arranged into 5 equal groups to evaluate the effect of adding Lettuce and/for cabbage to rat diet on some hematological and biochemical disorders induced by administration of repeated used frying oil in the diet of rats for one and two months. The results indicated that used frying oil caused significant decrease in hemoglobin (Hb), Haematocrit (Hct), Red blood corpuscles (RBCs), Vitamin (B12) and Folic acid with significant increase in total leukocitic count, (WBCs) Platelets body weight, Aspartate amino transferase (AST) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT). The disturbances in the tested parameters were almost improved by vegetables intake denoting the beneficial effect of adding fresh green vegetables to fried food on blood picture and intestinal absorption

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ANTI-FERTILITY ACTIVITY OF WHOLE PLANT EXTRACT OF SARCOSTEMMA SECAMONE (L BENNET ON MALE ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Anti-fertility effect of ethanol extract of whole plant extract of Sarcostemma secamone was observed in male albino rats. The relative weight of the testes and epididymis were decreased. The epididymal sperm count, motility and sperm abnormality were reduced significantly in treated rats. There was an increase in serum protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine and the activity of liver marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and ALP levels of control and treated rats. The activities of serum antioxidants (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST and GRD in plant extract treated rats were decreased. The results of the hormonal assay showed that increased serum levels of FSH and estrogen but decreased in the serum levels of LH and testosterone compared to control. The results of fertility test indicated that the treated adult male rats reduced the number of females impregnation. In addition, the number of implantations and the number of viable featuses were also decreased. The results of the present study concluded that, ethanol extract of whole plant of Sarcostemma secamone inhibited sperm concentration, motility and testosterone which might result in a male fertility.

Thanga Krishna Kumari S

2012-11-01

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Protective effect of L-methionine on blood reduced glutathione, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and some haematological parameters in gamma-irradiated albino male rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma-irradiation of the whole body of male albino rats at single dose levels (100, 300 and 600 rad) significantly decreased blood reduced, glutathione (GSH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-P D H). activity, glutathione stability, red blood cell (R B C s) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and packed cell volume % (P C V %). The reduction in the above cited criteria was dose and time dependent. Intravenous injection of l methionine at a single dose of 50 mg/kg body weight prior to irradiation of male albino rats significantly bypassed the radiation affect

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ABHRAK BHASMA MEDIATED ALTERATIONS IN LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN MALE ALBINO RATS DURING CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED TOXICITY  

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Full Text Available Abhrak bhasma, an Ayurvedic drug used against many diseases including hepatitis. In present study various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg body wt were tested for hepatoprotective efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidney functions in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 to the normal rat increased serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin indicated acute damage. Abhrak bhasma treatment counteracted the action of CCl4 on liver and kidney functions. With the administration of increasing doses of abhrak bhasma all activities were dropped progressively and significantly at 40 mg dose as compared with silicate control. Conjugation metabolism and excretion of bilirubin were improved with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent protection of all metabolic steps in bilirubin metabolism. Also CCl4 induced acute toxicity increased serum urea and creatinine content, which was progressively controlled by increasing abhrak bhasma doses. The findings of this study indicated that abhrak bhasma exert dose dependent protective effects in liver and kidneys functions against CCl4 induced toxicity in albino rat.

Teli Parashuram

2013-10-01

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Effect of Carica papaya bark extract on oxidative stress parameters in testes of male albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Summary: Carica papaya bark has contraceptive benefits when given at a high dose in male rats the mechanism at which it achieves this is yet to be fully understood. Forty male Wistar rats were used for the study. They were randomized into 8 groups Ia, IIa, IIIa, Ib, IIb, IIIb, IV and V respectively (n=5). Groups Ia-IIIa and Ib-IIIb were treated for 4 and 8 weeks with Carica papaya bark extract at doses 50 and 100 mg ml-1day-1 comparing to 2-5 ml distilled water baseline control. Group IV rats...

Yama, O. E.; Okanlawon, A. O.; Kusemiju, T. O.

2011-01-01

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Synergistic Effects of Squalene and Omega-3 on Lipid Peroxidation and some Antioxidants in Gamma-Irradiated Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study aims to investigate the synergistic effects of squalene and omega-3 as an antioxidant in protection against oxidative stress which induced by gamma- irradiated in male albino rats. The experimental animals, male albino rats (n=48) weighing (120-150 g) were divided into 4 groups: control, gamma irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy, oral administration with 0.4 ml/kg b. wt from squalene and omega-3 for 30 days and oral administration with 0.4 ml/kg b. wt from squalene and omega-3 for 30 days and irradiated with a single dose level (6 Gy). Animals were sacrificed on the 3rd and 7th day post irradiation. Biochemical analysis was carried out on blood glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (MDA). Also lipid profile: plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were assayed. Exposure to gamma radiation at dose level 6 Gy elevated significantly lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decline in level of blood glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and catalase activity (CAT) also, a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and decrease in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). Combined supplementation of squalene and omega-3 significantly prevented the elevation of (MDA) and decline in antioxidant parameters after radiation and ameliorates plasma lipid profile. The resultsliorates plasma lipid profile. The results indicated that the combination of aqualene and omega-3 has a protective role, antioxidant effect and antilipidemic effect against gamma radiation in exposed rats

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The Protective Effects of Vitamin E and Zinc Supplementation Against Lithium-Induced Brain Toxicity of Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Lithium (Li therapy has widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Consequently, consciousness of the side effects and pathogenesis of this metal is needed for such treatments. Recently, information on the interaction of Li with oxidative markers and organs toxicity attend the researchers over the world. In the present study we have tried to evaluate the influence of oral administration of LiCl for 4 weeks on the oxidative stress marker and histological structure of brain in male rats. Fifty adult male albino rats weighing 13515 gm was categorized into 5 groups (10 rats each. Group I worked as negative control, group II administrated with LiCl (0.20 mg/kg bw in drinking water, group III, IV and V were administrated with Zn (10 mg/kg bw, VE (100 mg/kg bw and their combination twice a week besides the daily administration of LiCl for 4 weeks, respectively. Rats after anesthesia with ether killed for collocation of brain for histopathological and biochemical analysis. Data obtained showed a significant increase in LPO, NO, GSH and Li content and the activities of SOD, CAT and AChE with demylination of the nerve fibers and degeneration of neurons in brain of LiCl treated rats. Co-treatment of rats with Zn or VE results in a significant decrease in LPO, NO, GSH content in the activities of SOD, CAT and AChE with less or normal structure of the brain. However, co-treatment with combination of Zn and VE caused a significant increase in SOD, CAT and AChE activities with normal histological structure.In conclusion, the data from the present study show that Zn and VE and their interaction are effective in protection against Li- induced brain toxicity in rat with priority for the combination.

Ahmed Th. Ibrahim

2014-12-01

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Effect of dietary Garcinia kola seed on selected serum electrolytes and trace metals in male Albino rats.  

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The effects of various doses of dietary intake of Garcinia kola seed powder [incorporated in animal feed at levels of 5% w/w, 10% w/w and 20% w/w and fed daily for six weeks] on serum levels of selected electrolytes [K+, Na+, CI-, HCO3-, Mg2+ and Ca2+] and trace metals [Cu2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+] were studied in male Albino rats [100-150 g body wt]. The pair-fed controls received basal feed diet daily for six weeks. Results showed a significant [PGarcinia kola seed. It is also conjectured that the documented antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, antidiabetic and antifertility effects of Garcinia kola seed may have underlying involvement of alterations in body levels of trace metals and electrolytes. PMID:19826464

Agada, P O; Braide, V B

2009-06-01

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Antioxidant Activity of Cabbage and/or Carrot Against Oxidative Stress Induced by Gamma Irradiation in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several studies indicated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against diseases, and populations that consume such diets have higher plasma antioxidants and exhibit lower risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Vegetable is considered major dietary source of fibers and antioxidants such as polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids that can protect against different dietary disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of cabbage and/or carrot against oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in male albino rats. Chemical composition and phenolic contents in cabbage and carrot were determined. Male albino rats were exposed to 5 Gy (single dose with rate 0.46 Gy/min) of whole body gamma irradiation. Thirty five rats were randomly divided into five groups as follow: group 1: control (rats fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks), group 2: irradiated (rats were exposed to whole gamma irradiation and fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks) and groups 3, 4 and 5: irradiated rats fed on balanced diet and received cabbage 15%, carrot 15% and a combination of cabbage and carrot, respectively. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cabbage and/or carrot diet significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum level of glucose and liver function parameters; serum aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and albumin. In addition, significant improvemalbumin. In addition, significant improvements were observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), was observed. The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) associated with remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were observed. Accordingly, it could be concluded that consumption of cabbage and/or carrot could modulate the oxidative stress and protect against chronic diseases caused by radiation exposure and that may be due to the antioxidant activity of both cabbage and carrot

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The Use of Statin Substitutes to Improve the Lipid Profile in Liver Dysfunctional Male Albino Rats  

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More attention has been drawn to different strategies for prevention of cardiovascular associated with liver dysfunction. The aim of the present study is to compare between statin and free fat- milk supplemented with multivitamins in hyperlipidaemic male rats with or without liver dysfunction induced by CCl4. The animals were allocated to 7 equal experimental groups (16 rats each): control group, hypercholesterolemic group, hypercholestero-lemic-statin group, hypercholesterolemic-free fat milk-multivitamins group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4 group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4-statin group, and hypercholesterolemic-CCl4- fat-free milk-multivita-mins group. After one month half of the rats of each group were decapitated and the rest of the animals were decapitated after two months. Lipid profile, relative liver weight, liver function, CPK and LDH were determined. The effectiveness of statin drug in the management of blood lipids was confirmed without improving or worsening liver functions. Meanwhile, this effectiveness worsened in hypercholesterolemic rats treated with CCl4 as compared to hypercholesterolemic group. Administration of fat-free milk with multivitamins, as an alternative remedy for statin drug, has improved lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats and it revealed no changes in liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemic rats with liver dysfunction indicating the favorable use of them as hypolipotropic agent without affecting liver metabolismng liver metabolism

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Effects of radiation and maze performance on brain contents of norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in male albino rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the present study are dealing with the normal patterns of the occurrence of norepinephrine (N E) and 5 - hydroxytryptamine (5-H T) in different brain regions of albino rat and to determine the changes in brain levels of both substances when the rat was subjected to various effects

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Daily Dose effect of Valerian root extract on some Neurotransmitter contents in different Brain areas of male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the daily effect of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L .) root extract on epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) , and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in different brain areas (cerebellum , pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rats .The daily intraperitoneal ( i.p.) injection of 300 mg/kg body wt valerian for 30 days caused a significant increase in epinephrine ( E ) content in pons plus medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex , hypothalamus and in midbrain . Norepinephrine (NE ) content was significantly increased in all brain areas tested except in cerebellum and cerebral cortex . Dopamine (DA) content was significantly increased in all tested brain areas except in cerebral cortex and hippocampus . moreover , there was also a significant increase in serotonin (5-HT ) and 5-hydroxyindol acetic acid (5-HIAA) contents in all tested brain areas . However, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content was significantly decreased in all tested brain areas . After the extract withdrawal, the increase in ( E, NE, DA , 5-HT ) contents and the decrease in GABA content persisted in pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , midbrain and hippocampus , and this might be due to regional differences toward the effect. The increase in E, NE, DA , 5-HT and 5-HIAA contents, at the same time the decr5-HIAA contents, at the same time the decrease in GABA content in the different brain areas of albino rats may be due to the presence of both valepotriates and valerenic acid in the extract which mediated the GABA ergic mechanisms including the inhibition of GABA metabolism and the increase in GABA synthesis and release , although agonized the GABAA receptors which led to the inhibit of the neurotransmitter release. Valerian root extract may be useful as a herbal medicine having sedative effect and it is safe. (author)

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Some toxic manifestations in male albino rats following an acute intraperitoneal injection of the mycotoxins ochratoxim A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study deals with the preparation and microbiology of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OA) that was extracted from Aspergillus niger and injected intraperitoneally to male albino rats at a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (1/5 LD50). Its effect was followed after 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 hours and 7 days. Body weight gain, organs body weights ratio and some hematological and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results revealed significant decrease in body weight gain of treated rats in addition to an alteration in the relative weights of some selected organs. The data revealed dramatic decrease in RBCs count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit value and platelets number, where WBCs count was significantly increased. Moreover, significant increases of serum ALT, AST, ALP and total and direct bilirubin were observed indicating changes in liver function. Total protein and albumin were significantly decreased. Kidney function of treated rats, as determined by alterations in creatinine and blood urea levels, was affected. Also, profound decline in serum testosterone level was observed as performed by radioimmunoassay technique

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Effect of deltamethrin on transmission of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and thyroid hormones in adult male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oral administration of 1/5 LD50 of deltamethrin for 15 days produced an increase in GABA content and a decrease in Cl- ions concentration in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of adult male albino rats, almost at most time intervals. Deltamethrin also resulted in a significant decrease in serum TSH and increase in T3 and T4 levels in the treated rats. From the present results, it was found that deltamethrin decreased the passage of Cl- ions in the cells which might be, in part, due to a decrease of the transmission of GABA and an increase of the circulating thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine and thyroxine). Accordingly, deltamethrin may act as GABA antagonist and may act on the hypothalamus pituitary thyroid axis. In conclusion the elevation of thyroid hormones as well as the decrease in both CL- ions and GABA transmission which could be all together responsible for the impairment of motor activity, hyper excitability and seizure that occurred in rats treated with the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin

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Protective Role of Carnitine against the Harmful Biological Effects of Paracetamol and Radiation Exposure in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

L-carnitine, a natural component of mammalian tissue, is a necessary factor in the utilization of long-chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of L-carnitine on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by paracetamol, ?-radiation, and paracetamol + ?-radiation. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1-Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2-Carnitine group: rats received L-carnitine (0.5 ml/Kg body weight) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3-Paracetamol group: rats received paracetamol (50 mg/kg body) via intraperi-toneal injection during 21 days, 4- Carnitine + Paracetamol group: rats received L-carnitine in parallel to paracetamol treatment, 5- Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 6- Carnitine + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation with 7Gy, 7- Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation, 8- Carnitine + Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine parallel to paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation.The results demonstrated that rats receiving paracetamol, as well as whole body gamma irradiated rats and rats receiving paracetamol and irradiated showed a significant increase of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amie amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity indicating liver injury. A significant increase of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels was recorded also indicating kidney damage. Alteration in liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant increase in the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities indicating oxidative stress. The administration of L-carnitine resulted in significant improvement of hepatic and renal function tests associated with the reduction of oxidative stress. It could be concluded that L-carnitine might modulate paracetamol and ?-radiation induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity possibly through its antioxidant properties

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physiological,molecular and radiometric studies on treatment of induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. the present investigation included physiological, radiometric and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic tablets toward CCl4 - induced toxicity in adult male albion rats ( Rattus norvegicus).CCl4 intoxication, at oral dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight, led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP, CK and LDH. CCl4 caused an elevation of serum triglycerides with no effect on serum total cholesterol. it also increased serum creatinine and urea levels . these biochemical results were in coincidence with the liver and kidneys histopathological alterations . using radioimmunoassay, it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased while that of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) was significantly increased due to CCl4 treatment

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Toxicological interaction of arsenate in immature male albino rats: evidence of dose dependent response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this work was to study the effect of arsenic (As) on body weight gain organs weights, blood profile and hormones of thyroid gland in rats. Forty immature spraque dawely male rats were divided equally into four groups. one group, functioned as control, was given redistilled drinking water and the other groups recived arsenic as sodium arsenate in drinking water with different doses (100, 50 or 25 mg/L). Body weights were recorded by intervals. After four weeks, all animals were sacrificed and liver, kidney, testes, slpeen, thyroid and adrenal glands were weighed and the tissues were sampled and analyzed for arsentic accumulation. Hematological parameters were investigated and serum free thyroxine (FT4), free triodothyronine (FT3) and thyrotropine (TSH) were determined. The results of the current study showed reduction in body weight gain/day, the magnitude of the reduction of growth rate (P<0.01) was detected in the group of rats that reciverd the highest dose of arsenic compared to the control rats, liver kidney, testes and spleen weights were significantly decreased (P<0.01), while significant increases (P<0.01) in weights of thyroid and adrenal glands were recorded. The present data indicated that as tended to accumulate in the previous tissues, but the concentration of as in thyroid tissue was found to be the significantly increased (P<0.01)manly in the group of rats that recived the hightest dose of arsenate, that may positivightest dose of arsenate, that may positively correlated with the variation in pituitary-thyroid axis

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Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas Modulates Radiation-induced Oxidative damage in Liver and kidney of Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas, one of the major vegetable crops consumed worldwide, is rich in phytochemicals, which displayed antioxidant activities. This work aims at assessing the radio-protective properties of sweet potato tubers on liver and kidney tissues. Male albino rats were whole body exposed to 0.5 Gy day after day for a period of 20 days. Animal received orally prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers (100 mg kg/body weight), one week before irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure. The results demonstrated that irradiation of rats induced a significant increase in lipid peroxides level measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concomitant with a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in liver and kidney tissues. Administration of a freshly prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers to rats, one week pre-irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure has significantly of ameliorated the oxidative stress in both tissues. The significant amelioration in oxidative stress was substantiated by improvement of liver and kidney enzymes Treatment of rats with sweet potato has significantly reduced the increase in serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, serum creatinine and urea levels. Furthermore, hyperglycemia and alteration in lipid profile manifested by a significann lipid profile manifested by a significant increase in triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), were improved in sweet potato-treated irradiated rats compared to those only irradiated. According to the results obtained in the present study, it could be concluded that sweet potato through its antioxidant activities could protect cellular membrane from radiation induced oxidative damage in animals and preserve the integrity of tissue functions.

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Beta-glucan ameliorates gamma-rays induced oxidative injury in male Swiss albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1,3-beta-D-Glucan is a natural polysaccharide derived from the cell walls of bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevsiae with immunoenhancing and potent antioxidant effects. This study investigated the pathways through which beta-glucan gavage treatment (50mg/kg) exerts its effect on radiation-induced oxidative damage in male rats. Beta-glucan was given orally to male rats; 3 hours post gamma-irradiation at dose 5Gy, for 10 and 20 days post-irradiation level were assayed, being remarkable indicators in cell oxidative stress. Results pointed out that irradiation at 5Gy significantly depressed all blood parameters, such as erythrocytes count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrit value (Hct), total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, blood glutathione (GSH) level and conversely elevated level of serum ascorbyl radical (AsR), product of lipid peroxidation (MDA melanodialdehyde), triglycerides and cholesterol. Total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, RBCs, Hb, Hct, blood GSH and serum MDA of irradiated animals receiving beta-glucan administration were exhibited significant differences compared to the irradiated group. Marrow count and the percentage of viability and spleenocytes viability were also significantly decreased. Beta-glucan treatment accelerates recovery of cell damage induced by ionizing irradiation through its potential immune-enhancing activity and free radical scavenging ability that is partially mediated through stimulation of immunohaematological system thus could play a role in regulating irradiation complications

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The Protective Efficacy Of Extract Of Hibiscus Sabdariffa (Karkade) Calyces Against Alcohol Toxicity In Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS), Malvacea family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its benefit effect on some physiological parameters as blood picture, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, liver and kidney functions, electrolytes and antioxidant capacity is mentioned in several recent studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in protecting from alcohol toxicity in rats. Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: group 1 received water orally for 30 days, group 2 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) for 30 days, both group 3 and group 4 received Hibiscus sabdariffa (100 mg/kg/day) orally for 30 days and then group 4 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) orally for another 30 days. Serum hepatic markers (aspartate and alanine minotransferases; AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were increased significantly by alcohol abuse with no observed improvement in treatment with HS. Significant reduction in total protein and albumin was observed in alcohol abuse which improved with HS treatment and showed significant increase as compared with both control and alcohol treated groups. Serum kidney markers (urea, creatinine and uric acid) were increased in alcohol abuse and only creatinine and uric acid nearly returned to normal levels with HS treatment while urea level remains high. Serum glucose was increased significantly in alcohol abuse and significantly decreased in group 3 (HS treated) and group 4 (HS + ethanol). Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherogenic index were increased significantly while HDL-C was significantly reduced in alcohol abuse. HS treatment resulted in significant increase in HDL-C and therefore decreased atherogenic index in both group 3 and group 4 which indicated protective effect of HS for coronary heart diseases. These results lead to the conclusion that the use of HS against alcohol toxicity in male albino rats caused partial protection for different body systems.

81

protective effect of certain vitamins against radiation-induced biochemical and histological changes in kidney of male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation is a potent mutagenic and carcinogenic agent due to the liberation of free radicals. It is, therefore, essential to search for radioprotective measures. Some antioxidant cocktails are considered as free radical scavengers, which ameliorate the effects of ionizing radiation. The antioxidant action of some vitamins including vitamins E, A and C beside selenium (selenium vit) can designate them as radio-protective agents. Fifty five male Swiss albino rats were divided into 4 groups, the first one served as control. Rats of the second group were exposed to 7 Gy of whole body gamma irradiation. Rats of the third group were subjected to daily oral administration of selenium vit (0.45 g/kg body weight) for 15 days. The fourth group of animals received the same dose of selenium vit followed by radiation exposure.The protective effect of selenium vit was monitored by studying the serum levels of sodium (Na), potassium (K), urea and creatinine.The results showed that whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 7 Gy (single dose) induced significant elevations in the levels of K, urea and creatinine after 3 and 10 days post-irradiation exposure. Conversely, the level of serum Na showed significant depletion. The histopathological results showed different distortion in the renal corpuscles and renal convoluted tubular epithelial cells. These distortions varied from swelling, vacillation to necrosis and complete degeneration of the epithelial cells of the proximal a of the epithelial cells of the proximal and distal tubules. The kidney glomeruli were shrunken and obvious lesions in the fine structure of the renal tissue were detected such as swelling and cristalysis of the mitochondria. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) exhibited various degrees of damage dilatation, fragmentation, degranulation and destruction. Lysosomes were abundant and destruction of the brush border was evident. The nuclei showed irregular nuclear membrane besides clumped marginal chromatin

82

Role of carnitine in ameliorating the lead and / or irradiation induced toxicity in male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work: aimed to investigate the protective effect of carnitine (3-hydroxy-4-N-trimethyl amino butyric acid) on the contents of total protein, albumin, glucose and lipid peroxides as malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum, in addition to liver glycogen and lipid peroxides content 1, 2, 4 weeks after exposure of rats to a collective dose of 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation and / or lead treatment. Adult male rats received lead (50 mg/kg body weight) and / or exposed to fractionated dose (4 Gy) of gamma irradiation delivered as 0.5 Gy twice weekly for four weeks. Results of the present study revealed that fractionated whole body gamma irradiation and / or lead administration induced cellular damage manifested by a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin, and a significant increase in serum glucose and MDA content as well as significant increase in liver glycogen and MDA. Administration of carnitine (200 mg/kg b.wt.) before lead and / or gamma irradiation, has significantly ameliorated the observed changes, indicating the prophylactic action of carnitine on lead and / or irradiation toxicity

83

Effects of lithium chloride on testicular steroidogenic and gametogenic functions in mature male albino rats  

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The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of lithium, on steroidogenic and gametogenic functions of testis in the rat. Adult male rats of Wistar strain were injected with lithium chloride at the dose of 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, and 0.4 mg/100 g body weight/day for 21 days. All the treated animals along with the vehicle treated controls were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injections. Testicular steroidogenic activity was evaluated by measuring the activities of two steroidogenic key enzymes, {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta} hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase ({Delta}{sup 5} -3{beta}-HSD) and 17{beta} hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17{beta} -HSD). Gametogenic capacity was determined by counting the number of germ cells at stage VII of seminiferous cycle. Plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Administration of lithium chloride at a dose of 0.1 mg/100g body wt. for 21 days led to insignificant changes of plasma FSH, LH, PRL and T along with unaltered activities of testicular {Delta}5 -3{beta}-HSD, 17 {beta}-HSD activities and gametogenesis.

Ghosh, D.; Chaudhuri, A.; Biswas, N.M.; Ghosh, P.K. (Calcutta Univ. (India))

1990-01-01

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Neuroprotective Evaluation of Extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Root in Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Toxicity in Defferent Brain Areas Male Albino Rats  

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In this study, the neuroprotective effect of the extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was investigated against MSG-induced neurotoxicity of male albino rat. The daily dose (4 mg kg-1 b.wt.) i.p. injection of pure monosodium glutamate (MSG) for 30 days and subsequent withdrawal caused a significant decrease in epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) content all tested areas (cerebellum, brainstem, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus) at m...

Waggas, Abeer M.

2009-01-01

85

Serotonin exerting protection of serum lipid pattern in male albino rat subjected to shot or intermittent whole body gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Certain cancer patients are subjected to varying levels of intermittent radiation delivered in certain cases as whole body exposure. Effective control of many haematological complications built up during radiation treatment would necessarily contribute to up-grading of cancer radiotherapy. In the present study, the effect of either shot or intermittent whole body gamma irradiation at cumulative dose levels up to 6 and 10 Gy, have been evaluated on the levels of total lipids and lipid fractions in blood serum of male albino rats. The pharmacological role of serotonin and its potential radioprotective capacity have been assessed on the serum lipid pattern. The results indicated generally significant increases in the levels of blood lipid fractions especially HDL-cholesterol. On the other hand, the level of LDL-cholesterol recorded a significant decrease on the third day post either shot or cumulative dose levels at 6 or 10 Gy and also post 4 successive doses of serotonin administration. The only exceptions were recorded in the case of LDL-cholesterol post administration of single dose of serotonin and serotonin prior to shot dose levels of 6 or 10 Gy. 2 tabs

86

The ameliorative effect of grape seed extract(GSE) on sodium borate-inducing kidney injury of male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Borax (sod-borate) is a toxic compound that is implicated daily to environmental pollutant, so occupational exposure leading to adverse effects on functions of some organs causing their damage as nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and testicular atrophy . In particularly, kidney is the most organ that is affected by borax exposure due to continuous exposure with slow rate of excretion leading to accumulation in the renal tissue. Supplementation with high potent antioxidant grape seed extract may alleviate the worse damage effects induced in the kidney as a result of continual exposure of borax in our daily life. The current study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract on renal injury of male albino rats intoxicated with sod-borate. Twenty eight male albino rats were classified to 4 groups(GI and II and III and IV).GI served as a control, group GII was a group intoxicated with sod-borate for 45 days, where as rats in GIII supplemented with GSE beside sod-borate for 45 days , GIV was a group supplemented with GSE only. Serum and kidney samples were collected for biochemical, histopathological and DNA examinations. Significant elevation in the levels of blood urea and creatinine in GII were observed when compared to control group(GI). Significant decline were prominent in biochemical kidney functions when intoxicated group supplemented with GSE(GIII) , where as non significant changes were observed between control group and group supplemented with GSE only (GIV). Significant increase in both cytokines TNF-? and IL-6 was observed in group intoxicated with sod-borate(GII) when compared to control rats(GI). Oral supplementation with high potent antioxidant GSE (GIII) caused alleviation in the kidney injury leading to the reduction of both pro-inflammatory mediator cytokines TNF-? and IL-6. DNA% fragment migration showed that worse significant migration of DNA fragements were observed in toxicated group(GII) followed by increase in tail length that was evaluated by a fluorescence microscope, but supplementation with GSE(GIII) caused significant improvement with reduction in the percentage of DNA fragements migration contributing to renal tissue recovery. Corticosteroid levels were elevated in intoxicated group(GII) when compared to control group(GI), whereas significant reduction in the level of corticosteroid were observed when intoxicated rats were supplemented with GSE(GIII). Histopathological examination showed that orally administration with sod-borate induced worse alteration with sever damage in renal tissue when compared to control. Supplementation with GSE to intoxicated group resulted in improvement in the damaged renal tissue with mild congestion when compared to intoxicated group . No histological structure alteration were observed between control group and supplemented group with GSE only. The present work concluded that GSE may act as a natural therapeutic agent to alleviate and neutralize the nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by Sod-borate

87

Grape Seed Extract (Vitisvinifera Alleviate Neurotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity Induced by Lead Acetate in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Grape seed extracts (GSE are very potent antioxidant and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities, including an antioxidant property, and has been suggested to be of use in treatment of several diseases. The present study has been undertaken to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of GSE against lead-induced neuro and hepatotoxicity in rat. Male albino rats were divided into six groups: the 1st group, rats were injected daily with saline vehicle and served as negative control, the 2nd group (positive control group, the rats were injected (i.p. with subacute dose (100 mg/kg bw/day of lead acetate (LA. The 3rd group (protective group, the rats were injected (i.p. with LA (100 mg/kg bw/day for 7 days after treatment with GSE (100 mg/kg bw/day for 3 weeks. The 4th, 5th and 6th groups (therapeutics groups, rats were injected (i.p. with subacut dose (100 mg/kg bw/day of lead acetate for 7 days, then treated with GSE (100 mg/kg bw/day for one, two and three weeks, respectively. The level of norepinephrine (NE, dopamine (DA, serotonin (5-HT and 5-hydroxyindol acetic acid (5-HIAA were evaluated in brain regions (cerebellum, brainstem, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus. The result indicated that the administration of subacute dose of LA (100 mg/kg/day, i.p. induce a significant decrease in NE, DA, 5-HT and 5-HIAA content in all tested brain regions. Also the obtained data showed significant increase in liver enzymes: serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level in group 2 (positive control. There is an improvement in neurotransmitters content. Also the obtained data showed significant in- crease in liver enzymes of protective (G3 and therapeutics groups (G4, G5 and G6 which received GSE compared with animal group that received lead acetate (G2. This is may be the presence of proanthocyanidins and procyanidins which have antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The result suggests that grape seed extract may prevent lead-induced neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity.

Abeer M. Waggas

2012-05-01

88

Amelioration of some biochemical parameters in irradiated male albino rats by garlic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Garlic extract has various medical effects on the treatment of many diseases as hypertension, atherosclerosis, inflammation and diabetes. The alteration of the biochemical parameters in blood serum of irradiated rats may play an important role in determining the pathogenesis of radiation exposure. Many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by reactive free radicals. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of garlic against gamma irradiation (5Gy) induced biochemical disorders in rats. Samples were collected at 1, 7 and 14 days post-irradiation. Lipid peroxide content (malondialdehyde), cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, fatty acids, glucose, insulin, glycogen, haemoglobin, ferritin andiron were estimated.Garlic was orally administered to rats (100 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days before exposure to single dose of gamma irradiation at dose level 5 Gy. The data revealed significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxide, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fatty acids, insulin, glucose and iron accompanied with significant decrease in the levels of HDL-cholesterol, glycogen, haemoglobin and ferritin due to radiation exposure. Administration of garlic alone to the rats caused nonsignificant changes in the estimated parameters indicating its safe use, but the treatment with garlic to rats before radiation exposure ameliorated the changes induced by gamma irradiation and tended to normalize their levels.It could be concluded that garlic administratiould be concluded that garlic administration may has a beneficial role in restoring the biochemical disorders induced by 5 Gy gamma irradiation

89

The disposition and metabolism of 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane in male Wistar albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was designed to investigate 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane (TOX) distribution, excretion and metabolism. The experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats after a single administration of TOX at doses of 40 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The exhaled air proved to be the main route of 14C elimination, mainly as 14CO2. During the first 12 h following the administration of 40 mg/kg of TOX the exhalation of 14CO2 was monophasic, with a half-life of 3.5 h. After the administration of 400 mg/kg, TOX was eliminated mainly as 14CO2 with the exhaled air (77%) and unchanged TOX (8%). About 3% of 14C was excreted in the urine as unchanged 1,3,5-trioxane. With regards to TOX elimination from blood plasma for the lower dose, a biphasic process was observed, with half-lives of 4.5 and 72 h. The amount of 14C bound by the erythrocytes was minute compared with the amount in blood plasma. When the higher dose of TOX was administered the efficiency of 14C binding to the erythrocytes was found to be 10 times higher than the respective value for blood plasma. Among the examined tissues the highest concentration of TOX-derived radioactivity was detected in the liver while the lowest was in fat tissue and brain. A subsequent decay of radioactivity occurred in the tissues. The results of the present study indicate that TOX belongs to the group of compounds, which abelongs to the group of compounds, which are rapidly eliminated from the organism; hence TOX should not be expected to accumulate within the tissues. The data obtained confirm the assumed pattern of metabolic transformation, according to which 1,3,5-trioxane undergoes enzymatic transformation to formaldehyde, with carbon dioxide and water being the final products. (orig.)

90

Evaluation of the hepatoprotective activity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves in male albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Olive leaf extract is used for centuries in treatment of various medical purposes. This investigation aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves against overdose paracetamol . 18 rats were divided into three groups, control , 0.5 gm/kg B.W. intrapereitoneally (i. p.) paracetamol treated group and rats were given 2.5 gm /kg BW i. p. of olive leaf aqueous extract for three consecutive days prior to the administration of paracetamol. The results indicate...

Khalil, Enas A. M.

2004-01-01

91

Protective effects of selenium against potassium dichromate-induced hematotoxicity in female and male Wistar albino rats Effets protecteurs du slnium contre lhmatotoxicit induite par le dichromate de potassium chez les rats femelles et mles albinos Wistar  

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Full Text Available Objective: Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 is a potent pollutant for human and animal health. The purpose of the current work is to compare the effect of K2Cr2O7 using variations in the dose, route of administration and duration of exposure in male and female Wistar albino rats and to research the interaction of chromium and selenium with a special focus on hematopoiesis. Materials and methods: K2Cr2O7 was subcutaneously administered alone (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight or K2Cr2O7 (10 mg/kg in association with selenium (0.3 mg/kg was administered to female Wistar albino rats. Male rats received in their drinking water K2Cr2O7 (30 mg/L/day alone or in association with Se (0.3 mg/L/day for 20 consecutive days. The hematological parameters were evaluated on days 3, 6 and 21 after subcutaneous (sc. treatment in female rats and on days 10 and 20 after oral administration in male rats. Results: K2Cr2O7? induced during the first three days a significant (p Objectif : Le dichromate de potassium (K2Cr2O7 est un polluant potentiellement nfaste pour la sant humaine et animale. Cette tude a t entreprise afin de rechercher une ventuelle interaction entre le K2Cr2O7 et le slnium (Se sur lhmatopose chez les rats albinos Wistar mles et femelles. Matriel et Mthodes : Le K2Cr2O7 est administr seul (10, 50 et 100 mg/kg par voie sous-cutane (sc ou en association (10 mg/kg avec le slnium (0,3 mg/kg. Les rats mles reoivent dans leau de boisson le K2Cr2O7 (30 mg/L/jour seul ou en association avec le slnium (0,3 mg/L/jour pendant 20 jours conscutifs. Les variations des paramtres hmatologiques sont values au 3e, 6e et 21e jour chez les rattes et au 10e et 20e jour chez les mles. Rsultats : Les rsultats montrent que le chrome engendre ds le 3e jour aprs son administration par voie sc chez la femelle une diminution notable et dose-dpendante (p<0,05 du nombre drythrocytes, du taux dhmatocrite, du nombre de plaquettes sanguines, de leucocytes, de lymphocytes et une augmentation dose-dpendante du nombre de granulocytes et de monocytes. Le chrome administr par voie orale diminue le nombre de leucocytes et de lymphocytes ds le 10e jour du traitement et augmente celui des monocytes et des granulocytes 20 jours plus tard. La prsence du slnium par voie sous-cutane contrebalance les effets hmatotoxiques du chrome chez la ratte. Conclusion : Ces rsultats suggrent que le slnium a un rle protecteur contre lhmatotoxicit induite par le chrome administr par voie sc chez la ratte Wistar.

Adjroud Ounassa

2010-12-01

92

Effect of salvia a Egyptiaca extract on serotoninergic system and cortisol in adult male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract with a dose of 2 g/kg body weight (0.5 ml solution /rat) for 4 weeks resulted in significant increases in tryptophan, serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in all tested brain areas, almost allover the experimental period. Also, it caused significant decrease in serum cortisol level. According to the obtained results, it could be concluded that the extract of Salvia egyptiaca may affect GABA-benzodiazepine receptors, that eventually inhibit the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) which consequently caused decrease in serum cortisol level. The low level of cortisol inhibits the tryptophan pyrrolase activity resulting in an increase of the peripheral availability of tryptophan for 5-HT synthesis in brain. Accordingly, 5-HT content as well as its metabolite 5-HIAA were increased

93

Beneficial use of continuous administration of crataegus oxycantha in irradiated male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure to ionizing radiation has become frequent with its vast applications in diagnosis, treatment and industry rather than possible environmental pollution with radiation. The animals of this study were allocated into three groups, control group, irradiated group (5 Gy one shot) and hawthorn treated post-irradiation group. Exposure to radiation was implicated with hematological suppression in all hematological parameters tested red blood cells count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrit percentage (HCT) and white blood cells count (WBCs). Radiation exposure caused alteration of lipid metabolism leading to increased total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) and decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL). In addition, liver enzymes were also elevated, while serum albumin was diminished referring to liver dysfunction. The male reproductive hormone (testosterone) was severely inhibited along with glutathione. Administration of extraction of Crategous oxinatha (hawthorn) with a dose of 500 g/kg b.w. orally for consecutive 15 days post-irradiation showed significant ameliorating effects on both hematological and biochemical parameters leading to the suggestion of using hawthorn as food additive in relatively high amount

94

Salvia aegyptiaca as a Potential Herb for Ameliorating the Acute Toxicity Induced by Fenvalerate in Adult Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After fen valerate and/or Salvia aegyptiaca administration to male albino rats, fenvalerate caused a reduction in liver enzymes activity in liver homogenate with a percent change recording -24.1, -21.94 and-30.46 %, after 7 days, for ALT, AST and ALP, respectively .. Moreover, it increased the total protein and albumin at the same period. On day 7, fenvalerate increased the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP by 351. 24, 164.60 and 119.78%, respectively. On the contrary, fenvalerate reduced the serum levels of total protein and albumin. Significant increase was observed in both creatinine (58.62%) and blood urea (47.41 %) after 7 days, whereas, serum T3 and T4 recorded a percentage change of -3.0.18 and -51.45%, respectively. An increase in GABA content in 7 brain areas was noticed after daily oral administration of fenvalerate, showing that GABA content in 'the cortex was the most affected recording, 191.43% change from control on the 7th day. Daily oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight of Salvia aegyptiaca extract alone or after fenvalerate caused a gradual decrease in ALT, AST and ALP enzyme activity as well as in total protein and albumin content in both liver homogenate and serum, on the 7th day. Salvia extract decreased serum creatinine and blood urea throughout the experimental period. No statistically significant changes in T3 and T4 levels were observed in animals that received salvia extract alone. On the other haived salvia extract alone. On the other hand, salvia improved T3 and T4 levels after it was delivered post fenvalerate administration, bringing the hormonal levels near to that of control. Moreover, salvia extract caused a significant decrease in GABA content throughout the experimental period. However, animals that received combined treatment (fenvalerate + salvia) showed that salvia reduced the elevation that occurred in GABA content as a result of fenvalerate administration in all brain areas under investigation. From the current investigation, it could be recommended that, the duration of exposure as well as the given dose have to be planned carefully if salvia has to be taken as a potential herb for treatment. Further studies have to be undertaken to better elucidate the mode of action of salvia and to extract compounds with potential drug treatment

95

Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on The Toxicity and Distribution of 14C-Carbon Tetrachloride in Adult Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was conducted to investigate the possibility of whether the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) has a protective and therapeutic effect on the toxicity and distribution of 14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (cerebellum, striatum, cerebral cortex) of adult male albino rats for determination of distribution of 14C-CCl4 and monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5- HT)) and also estimation of serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of 14C-CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of counted 14C in all tested brain areas all over the experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 1'4C-CCl4 injection resulted in a significant reduction (P14C in tested areas. The maximum reduction was observed in cerebral cortex on 1st day (-40.91%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4 . The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period. This may be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. Data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4 .

96

Evaluation of the protective role of vitamin C in imidacloprid-induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino rats  

OpenAIRE

In the present study, the effects of oral administration of imidacloprid for 4 weeks on serum biochemical, oxidative stress, histopathological and ultrastructural alterations were assessed in the liver of male rats. This study also aimed to investigate whether vitamin C could protect against the imidacloprid-induced oxidative stress. Forty-eight male Sprague dawley rats were divided into four groups of 12 animals each. Group 1 served as the control, while groups 2 and 4 were administered with...

Soujanya, S.; Lakshman, M.; Kumar, A. Anaad; Reddy, A. Gopala

2013-01-01

97

Effect of aflatoxin ingestion on total body water (T OH3 - space), total body solids A KD on some physiological and reproductive characteristics of male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This investigation aimed to study the effects of aflatoxins B1+G1 mixture mainly on total body water (TBW) and on total body solids (TBS) of male albino rats. Some blood components and some reproductive characteristic were also taken into consideration. Two groups, each of 8 male rats were fed the same ration. Rats of one group had been individually ingested daily with a dose of 22 ?g B1 plus 22 ?g G1 for 15 successive weeks. The obtained results showed that aflatoxin administration caused: 1- A decrease in final body weight (FBW), TBW (P<0.01) and TBS (P<0.05). 2- A decrease in serum total proteins (P<0.01), albumin (P<0.05), globulin (P<0.05), glucose (P<0.05) and increase in serum cholesterol, GOT and GPT (P<0.05) activities. 3- A decrease in each of the number of effective matings of males and delivery percentages of females mated with treated males.1 tab

98

The effect of sodium valproate on the biochemical parameters of reproductive function in male albino Wistar rats  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on intratesticular testosterone and lactic dehydrogenase level in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were treated with sodium valproate and sacrificed at the end of the 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week, after the last exposure to sodium valproate. The testes were removed, weighed and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P< 0.001) reduced...

Vijay P; Yeshwanth R; Bairy K

2008-01-01

99

Effect of caricapryl-99 seed alkaloid extract on the serum levels of sex hormones and pituitary gonadotrophins in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activity of alkaloid extract of caricapryl-99 seeds [Carica papaya Linn seeds] on the serum levels of steroid hormones was studied in adult male albino rats. Three tolerated doses obtained from the graph of percentage toxicity [10, 50 and 150 mg/kg] were separately administered orally, daily for three days to three groups of male rats [n=5] while group four of 5 rats received the vehicle [corn oil] as control. The results showed that 10 mg/kg/d caused increase serum levels of FSH and estrogen but decrease in the serum levels of LH and testosterone compared to control; 50 mg/kg/d elevated the serum levels of FSH, estrogen but inhibited testosterone; while 150 mg/kg/d pretreatments caused a significant decrease [p<0.01] in the serum levels of FSH, LH and testosterone. The results suggest that caricapryl-99 treatment inhibited the serum level of the androgen, testosterone which might result in a male infertility. PMID:19826459

Udoh, P B; Udoh, F V; Umoren, E B; James, U W; Okeke, C P; Agwu, B

2009-06-01

100

Safety Evaluation of Long Term Treatment of Methanol Sub-Fraction of Seeds of Carica papaya as a Male Contraceptive with Particular Emphasis on Carcinogenicity in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available A preliminary study to evaluate if long term treatment of Methanol Sub-Fraction (MSF of the seeds of Carica papaya as a male contraceptive would develop neoplastic lesions in vital organs was carried out in albino rats at 50, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 b.wt. day-1 for a period of 24 months, with a minimum dose being one therapeutic dose. Pre-terminal deaths, 45% in males and 48% in females, well within the acceptance limit, were reported to be age related and not treatment related, resulted due to general/respiratory/gastrointestinal/ urogenital disorders in both males and females of control and treated animals. Skin peeling, withering of fur leaving skin patches were observed in few of the animals after 18 months of treatment. Absence of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymis was evident in all the treated animals. No major structural changes compared to control were evident in the vital organs. Serum testosterone, serum electrolytes, tissue biochemical, hematology and clinical chemistry were comparable to those of control animals, suggesting no adverse effect of the test substance following long term treatment. The results provided evidence that the methanol sub-fraction of the seeds of Carica papaya does not lead any development of neoplastic lesion following life term treatment for 24 months in rats and is safe enough to be permitted for further trials as a male contraceptive.

S. Goyal

2009-01-01

101

Effect of gavage treatment with pulverised Garcinia kola seeds on erythrocyte membrane integrity and selected haematological indices in male albino Wistar rats.  

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This study examines the effect of the whole seed of Garcinia kola [GKS] on various blood parameters, in adult male albino rats. Five groups, of 6 animals per group, were treated by gavage with suspensions of graded concentrations of GKS daily for 5 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed and blood was obtained for estimation of the data herein presented. Packed red cell volume [PCV], hemoglobin concentration [Hb], and red blood cell count [RBC] showed significantly [P<0.05], increased response to treatment with GKS; while the platelet and white blood cell [WBC] counts showed no corresponding increase with increasing GKS dosage. The mean red blood cell volume [MCV] and mean cell hemoglobin [MCH] levels decreased with increasing GKS dosage. Prothrombin time [PT] and activated partial thromboplastin time [APPT] were both prolonged with increased GKS dosage; while the serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) decreased significantly [P<0.05] with increased GKS dosage. PMID:19826463

Ahumibe, A A; Braide, V B

2009-06-01

102

Biochemical and histological changes in liver and kidney in male Wistar albino rats following exposure to Solignum: a permethrincontaining wood preservative  

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Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to determine the effect of sub-chronic exposure to Solignum, a permethrin-containing wood preservative on biochemical and histological changes in liver and kidneys of male Wistar albino rats. Thirty-two male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and three treatment concentrations containing 8 rats each. The treatment groups were exposed to Solignum at dose rates of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW respectively per day orally for four weeks. Data obtained from the study showed a progressive increase in the body weight of rats in control whereas, rats treated with different concentrations (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BW of Solignum decreased significantly (?0.05 especially at the end of the second and fourth week when compared with control. On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in the relative liver weights of rats treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg BW Solignum while rats treated with 400 mg/kg BW showed a significant increase when compared with control. The relative weight of kidneys in experimental groups increased significantly when compared with control. Biochemical analysis results illustrated that there was a significant increase in marker enzymes namely alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity at the end of the fourth week. Similarly, total bilirubin, serum urea, creatinine and electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl- levels increased in a dose dependent manner in treated rats when compared with untreated control group. Serum total protein decreased significantly in experimental rats when compared with control. However, cholesterol and triglycerides showed no significant difference when compared with control. Histopathological examination of hepatocytes in treated rats was characterized by mild periportal inflammatory cells and cytoplasmic degeneration. Furthermore, histopathological examination of rat kidneys revealed inflammatory cells, congested vessel and interstitial hemorrhage in rats treated with Solignum. Therefore, this present study is aimed to evaluate the hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic potentials associated with sub-chronic exposure to the commercial pesticide Solignum.

Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

2014-03-01

103

Effects of monosodium-L-glutamate administration on serum levels of reproductive hormones and cholesterol, epididymal sperm reserves and testicular histomorphology of male albino rats.  

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This study investigated the effects of administration of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) on serum gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinising hormone (LH), testosterone and total cholesterol (TC), cauda epididymal sperm reserves (CESR) and testicular histomorphology of adult male albino rats. Eighty-four rats, randomly assigned to 7 groups of 12 rats each, were used for the study. Varying low doses (0.25, 0.50 or 1.00 g/kg body weight) of MSG were administered orally or subcutaneously at 48-h intervals for six weeks. Serum GnRH, LH, testosterone and TC, and CESR were evaluated on days 14, 28 and 42 of MSG administration. Testicular histomorphology was evaluated on day 42. The results showed that the mean serum GnRH, LH and testosterone levels, and the CESR of all the treated groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of the untreated control on days 14, 28 and 42 of MSG administration. The mean serum TC levels of all the treated groups were also significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of the control group on days 14 and 28. No lesions were observed on sections of the testes. It was concluded that MSG administration for 14, 28 and 42 days led to significantly lower serum levels of GnRH, LH, testosterone and TC, and significantly lower CESR. PMID:25655420

Ochiogu, Izuchukwu S; Ogwu, David; Uchendu, Chukwuka N; Okoye, Chidozie N; Ihedioha, John I; Mbegbu, Edmund C

2015-03-01

104

The immunological and histopathological changes of Tramadol, Tramadol/Acetaminophen and Acetaminophen in male Albino rats "Comparative study"  

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Full Text Available Tramadol is a synthetic opioid analgesic. It is commonly prescribed for moderate to severe pain, becoming abused more popular among teens in most countries. Paracetamol as anti-inflammatory drugs (acetaminophen (APAP is widely used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. Meanwhile, tramadol/acetaminophen (tramacet is effective in acute or chronic moderate-to-moderately severe pain. In comparative study, the current investigation threw the light on the effect of over doses of tramadol and/or APAP on the immune function and hepatocytes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Material and methods: Treated rats received oral doses of each drug for 15 consecutive days and after last treatment, they kept three days later for withdrawal studies. The rats were divided into four treatment groups, in the first group, rats received saline and used as control. The second, third and fourth groups treated with tramadol (45 mg/kg, tramadol/APAP (45/450 mg/kg, APAP (450 mg/kg respectively, once a-day at the first week and ending with 90, 90/900, 900 mg/kg at the second week. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the first, second weeks and three days of last treatment. Results: Daily doses of tramadol and /or APAP exposure in rats decreased the cellularity of spleen. Moreover, phagocytic and killing of S. aureus by PMN and macrophage cells caused a highly significant decrease in treated groups. IFN- was reduced in a statistically different treated group of rats. Serum IL-10 was unaffected by any of the treatment regimens but increased only in tramadol/APAP treated rats. Spleen histology exhibited mild pathological alteration with different injures between treated groups. Splenic white pulp accompanied by ill deformed which reflected the reduction of white pulp zones, thickened vasculature in the splenic net work, fibrous trabeculae become prominent feature, where splenic red pulp occupied large areas of the splenic network with predominant edema and megakaryocytes. On the other hand, the effect of tramadol and/or APAP induced DNA alterations of hepatocytes in dose dependent pattern as elucidated by dendrogramatic analysis. Liver histopathological changes of treated groups included vacuolated hepatocytes, dilated sinusoid with proliferated Kupffer cells; atrophied hepatocytes with nuclei reduced in size and darkly stained. Many areas of hepatocytes showed loss of architecture, congested central vein, expanded portal area with edema and inflammatory reaction. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the effect of tramadol/APAP induced anti-inflammatory cytokines than tramadol and APAP alone. Tramadol and/or APAP may display severe pathological consequences of hepatocytes. These hepatic lesions may be caused impairment of the liver function.

Hanan Mostafa Rabei

2011-10-01

105

Protective Effect of Phoenix dactylifera-L Extracts against Radiation-Induced Cardio-Toxicity and Some Biochemical Changes in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Antioxidant properties of the date palm fruit; Phoenix dactylifera-L in mitigation of cellular injury following free radicals release by ionizing radiation has been investigated. Forty-eight male albino rats divided equally into 6 groups were used in this study. Group 1 (G.1) acted as control, G.2 received date extract orally (4 ml/ kg/ day) for 21 days, G.3 was exposed to a single dose of gamma irradiation (6 Gy), G.4 received date extract orally at an identical dose and duration to G.2 and irradiation to G.3, G.5 received the daily date extract for 7 days post irradiation and G.6 received the daily date extract for 21 days before and for 7 days after irradiation. Heart tissue was examined histologically and biochemical testing for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was performed for each rat group. Data from the investigation showed that gamma irradiation caused histopathological damage to the heart tissue and disturbances in most parameters related to cardiac function. Administration of date extracts pre-irradiation provided evidence of a potential protective effect against irradiation hazard

106

Immunotoxicity of clonazepam in adult albino rats.  

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Clonazepam as an addictive drug is studied to elucidate its destructive effects on rats' immune system. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic changes induced by sub-chronic administration of clonazepam for three weeks followed by a withdrawal period in adult male albino rats. Seventy-two Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three equal groups. The first group was used as control; the second and third groups were treated with clonazepam. Six rats from each group were sacrificed weekly. Data showed that clonazepam induced a significant suppression in the level of IFN-gamma cortisol production, total splenocytes count and lymphocytes transformation induced by PHA mitogen along the experimental period especially in the third group. However, subchronic doses of clonazepam increased the production of IL-10 in both treated groups. Moreover, significant DNA damage in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of both treated groups was observed along the duration of the study. In conclusion, the immune system responses can be adversely affected to a greater extent by sub-chronic administration of clonazepam and should be prescribed cautiously as patients may turn addict to it. PMID:24617047

Rabei, Hanan Mostafa

2013-01-01

107

Role of Omega 3 fatty acids on radiation-induced oxidative and structural damage in different tissues of male albino rats  

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Omega-3 fatty acids play a critical role in the development and function of the reproductive and central nervous systems. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels associated with histopathologic changes induced by gamma irradiation in the testis and brain of male albino rats. Rats were whole body exposed to radiation at a single dose of 3 Gy. Omega-3 fatty acids (0.4 gm/kg b wt/day) were given to rats, by gavages, for 15 consecutive days before irradiation and for 15 days after irradiation. Rats were sacrificed one and 15 days post irradiation .Biochemical analysis of testis and cerebral cortex samples showed that irradiation induced a significant increase in xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) and a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT).Histological examination of testis and cerebral cortex tissues showed spermatogonia degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis in the testis and neurons cell bodies with ill defined and even ruptured cell membrane and damaged blood capillaries in the cerebral cortex. Omega-3 administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the levels of MDA, and XO, and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with amelit enzymes, which was associated with amelioration of the histological injury markers in both testis and cerebral cortex. It could be postulated that omega-3 fatty acids as a multi-functional dietary supplement could exert a modulatory role in radiation- induced testis and cerebral cortex biochemical and histological changes through its antioxidant properties.

108

Phenolic Profiling and Evaluation of Contraceptive Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Salsola imbricata Forssk. in Male Albino Rats  

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Reported researches dealing with either composition or bioactivity of Salsola imbricata are limited. This study was conducted aiming to investigate the phenolic composition of the plant and evaluate its efficacy as male contraceptive. Polyphenols, namely, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed by RP-HPLC in the hydrolysed methanol extract using two different wavelengths, 280 and 330?nm. The efficiency of different solvents in extracting the plant phenolics was assessed via spectrophotometric determination of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Acute toxicity study was carried out on the ethanolic extract to ascertain its safety prior to biological evaluation. The contraceptive effect was assessed, in male rats, by oral administration of the extract at two doses (250 and 500?mg/kg b. wt.), over a period of 65 days. HPLC analyses allowed the identification and quantification of a total of 13 and 8 components in the hydrolysed-methanol extract; the overall phenolic composition was dominated by quercitrin (12.692%) followed by coumaric acid (4.251%). Prolonged oral administration of the ethanolic extract caused slight reduction in the testis weight only. A significant decrease in the sperm count was observed (P < 0.01) in the two treated groups while significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility was only observed in the high dose group. Morphological abnormalities were observed in sperms of treated animals. No distinct change in serum FSH, LH, and testosterone concentration was recorded. The histopathological findings supported to a high extent these results. The male contraceptive activity of Salsola imbricata could be ascribed to its phenolic components, especially quercitrin. PMID:25587346

Shehab, Naglaa Gamil

2014-01-01

109

Carbamate Toxicity and Protective effect of vit. A and vit. E on some biochemicalaspects of male albino rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of daily oral administration of carbamate (1/10 L.D50 on rats for 30 successive days were studied. The male rats were divided into five groups (control, control + oil, carbamate, carbamate + vit. A and carbamate + vit. E. Each group (except control and control + oil was daily administrated carbamate (0.012 mg/kg B.wt.. Two groups of carbamate intoxicated animals provided with vit. A (700 mg/kg.B.wt or vit. E (10 mg/kg.B.wt. Poisoning symptoms were recorded, e.g. unbalanse, diarrhea, have poor health and posterior limbs rigidity. Haematological parameters showed a significant decrease in red blood corpuscles (R.B.Cs, white blood corpuscles (W.B.Cs count, Haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit value in groups treated with carbamate, and an improvement in these values was observed in groups treated with the anti-oxidants (vit. A and vit. E. Total lipids cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, glucose, LDH, AST, ALT, adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured in serum. Total proteins, total lipids, of tissues (liver, heart, muscle and kidney were investigated. The present study declare that, carbamate induced a significant elevetion in serum LDH, glucose. total lipids,cholesterol, AST, ALT, adrenaline and noradrenaline. On the other hand, causes a significant reduction in total proteins and albumin. The total lipids and total proteins of the tissue were recorded highly significant decrease in the group treated with carbamate only. From another point of view, antioxidant ameliorated the effect of carbamate on tissues. So, it is clear that administration of vit. E or vit. A. reduced the effect of carbamate on biochemical alteration to various extent. The antioxidant property of vitamin A and vitamin E seem to be responsible for the observed protection against carbamate intoxication.

Samir, A.M. Zaahkouk* ; Eman, G.E. Helal

2000-12-01

110

Gamma radiation effect on the adrenaloctomized albino rat  

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An experiment on male Sprague-Dawley albino rats of 3 months old was carried out. Whole body irradiation (800, 600, 400, 200, and 0 rad) were performed after adrenalectomy, and the grade of corticosteroid in the blood plasma was then measured (Group A, B). Other groups of rats (group C, D) were injected with corticosteron and its effect on their survival was observed. The difference between its effect on the normal and that on the treated rats was not significant. It also showed that the neuro-endocrin reaction did not give beneficial effect on the irradiated rats. (author)

111

Gonadal Responses to Antipsychotic Drugs: Chlorpromazine and Thioridazine Reversibly Suppress Testicular Functions in Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

This work was undertaken to investigate the individual effects and probable mechanism of action of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (largactil) and thioridazine hydrochloride (melleril) on male reproductive functions, in albino rats. A total of 45 adult male albino Wistar-strain rats were used. Five rats served as the control while the remaining forty rats were divided into four groups, of 10 rats each. Rats in group I were treated with 2.3 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group II received 5.7 mg kg-1...

Raji, Y.; Ifabunmi, S. O.; Akinsomisoye, O. S.; Morakinyo, A. O.; Oloyo, A. K.

2005-01-01

112

EFFECTS OF AMLODIPINE ON THE TESTICULAR PARAMETERS OF ALBINO RAT  

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Full Text Available To determine the effect of exposure of calcium channel blocker Amlodipine for different periods on the reproductive parameters of adult male Wistar albino rats Amlodipine in a dose equivalent to the normal clinical dose was administered orally to albino rats in their reproductive age for different periods ranging from two weeks to eighteen weeks and the reproductive parameters such as sperm count, motility and gonado-somatic index were verified. Reproductive parameters such as sperm count and sperm motility were found to be adversely affected in a significant (p<0.05 and duration dependent manner from 28th day onward of once daily administration of Amlodipine while gonado-somatic index was decreased significantly (p<0.05 from 42nd day of continuous administration Potential risk of the calcium channel blocker Amlodipine on male fertility, especially on long term use must be considered while prescribing this drug to young adults.

Shini Dominic

2013-08-01

113

Neuroprotective Evaluation of Extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Root in Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Toxicity in Defferent Brain Areas Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available In this study, the neuroprotective effect of the extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale was investigated against MSG-induced neurotoxicity of male albino rat. The daily dose (4 mg kg-1 b.wt. i.p. injection of pure monosodium glutamate (MSG for 30 days and subsequent withdrawal caused a significant decrease in epinephrine (E, norepinephrine (NE, dopamine (DA and serotonin (5-HT content all tested areas (cerebellum, brainstem, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus at most of the time intervals studied. This is may be due to activation of glutamate receptors, which led to increased the intracellular concentration of Ca+2 ions, so the release of neurotransmitters is increased and the content of monoamines is decreased. After the withdrawal, the decrease in monoamines levels remained in striatum, cerebral cortex and hypothalamus, this may be due to the region specific effect of monosodium glutamate. whereas, daily dose (100 mg kg-1 b.wt. i.p., injection of Ginger (Zingiber officinale root extract for 30 days and subsequent withdrawal caused a significant increased in epinephrine (E, norepinephrine (NE, dopamine (DA and serotonin (5-HT content all tested areas at most of the time intervals studied. This is may be due to inhibition of 5HT-3-receptor effects at the same time the extract blockade of Ca+2 channel, as result the release of neurotransmitter is decreased and the content is increased. After the extract withdrawal, the increase in monoamine levels remained in brainstem, striatum and hippocampus, this may be due to the region specific effect of the extract. The coadninisration of monosodium glutamate and ginger root extract caused increased in monoamine content in most of the tested brain areas at different time intervals. This is may be due to partly attributable to an antagonistic action of ginger root extracts on monosodium glutamate effect, so the monoamines content was increased. From these results, we can say that the ginger extract has a neuroprotective role against monosodium glutamate toxicity effect.

Abeer M. Waggas

2009-01-01

114

Squalene Modulates Radiation-Induced Structural, Ultrastructural And Biochemical Changes In Cardiac Muscles Of Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The failing heart represents an enormous clinical problem and is a major cause of death throughout the world. Hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress have been shown to contribute to heart failure. Squalene is a remarkable bioactive substance that belongs to a class of antioxidants called isoprenoids, which neutralize the harmful effect of excessive free radicals production in the body.The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of squalene against oxidative cardiac muscle damage induced by gamma irradiation.Rats were treated daily by gavage with 0.4 ml/kg squalene for 42 days before whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy and continued until animals were sacrificed 3 days post irradiation.Histological examination of cardiac muscles sections by using light and electron microscopes showed that exposure of rats to ionizing radiation has provoked a severe architecture damage such as necrotic nuclei, nuclei located at the periphery, alteration in chromatin distribution, ruptured cell and mitochondrial membranes, cristae of mitochondria disappeared, sticking mitochondria and ruptured myofibers. Structural and ultra-structural changes were associated with severe oxidative stress. Significant increase of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) (MDA) along with reduction in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalse (CAT), and glutathione content (GSH), were recorded.Treatment of rats with squalene hrecorded.Treatment of rats with squalene has significantly attenuated the radiation-induced oxidative damage and histopathological changes in cardiac muscle which was substantiated by a significant amelioration in the activity of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Furthermore, administration of squalene to rats has adjusted the radiation-induced increase in plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Based on these results, it could be concluded that squalene through its antioxidant properties might be capable of attenuating radiation-induced damage to cardiac muscles.

115

EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC FRUIT EXTRACT OF Pedalium murex Linn. IN ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED UROLITHIASIS IN MALE WISTAR ALBINO RATS.  

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The ethanolic fruit extract of Pedalium murex to ethylene glycol intoxicated rats reverted the levels of the liver and kidney markers to near normal levels protecting liver and renal tissues from damage and also prevents the crystal retention in tissues. The levels of ACP, ALP, AST, ALT in serum andurine were significantly increased due to the damaged structural integrity of renal and hepatic cells causing the enzymes which are located in the cytoplasm to be released into the circulation. The levels of ACP and ALP, AST, ALT in renal and hepatic tissues of ethylene glycol induced rats might be due to leakage of the enzyme into the general circulation from the collateral circulation. LDH levels in serum, urine and tissues were increased on ethylene glycol intoxication is due to the oxalate induced renal and hepatic cellular damage. PMID:22557365

Teepa, K S Ananta; Kokilavani, R; Balakrishnan, A; Gurusamy, K

2010-04-01

116

THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF ONION OIL (ALLIUM CEPA LINN) AGAINST RADIATION-INDUCED HAZARDS IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation poses a major currently irresolvable risk for human. Onion is a major source of dietary flavonoids. The present investigation was carried out to study the protective effects of treating rats with onion oil (150 mg/kg body weight) for consecutive 3 weeks against damages induced by whole body gamma irradiation (7 Gy). Exposure of rats to gamma irradiation caused a significant increase in levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides as well as activities of AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, uric acid and lipid peroxides. Exposure to gamma rays resulted in an increase in the mentioned parameters accompanied by a decrease in urea, total protein, albumin, glutathione content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. It could be concluded that onion oil capable of reducing the biological hazards induced by gamma irradiation

117

EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC FRUIT EXTRACT OF Pedalium murex Linn. IN ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED UROLITHIASIS IN MALE WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

OpenAIRE

The ethanolic fruit extract of Pedalium murex to ethylene glycol intoxicated rats reverted the levels of the liver and kidney markers to near normal levels protecting liver and renal tissues from damage and also prevents the crystal retention in tissues. The levels of ACP, ALP, AST, ALT in serum andurine were significantly increased due to the damaged structural integrity of renal and hepatic cells causing the enzymes which are located in the cytoplasm to be released into the circulation. The...

Teepa, K. S. Ananta; Kokilavani, R.; Balakrishnan, A.; Gurusamy, K.

2010-01-01

118

Possible protective and curative role of thiamine pyrophosphate against radiation induced biochemical and histological changes in male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study has been performed to investigate the possible curative and protective role of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) in minimizing the radiation-induced changes in certain biochemical and histological parameters in the liver and kidney of rats. The activity of liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and g-glutamyl transferase (g-GT) as well as kidney creatinine and urea concentrations were measured. In addition, histological changes in the liver and kidney tissues were examined.The results obtained revealed that whole body g-irradiation of rats at 5 Gy (single dose) induced significant increase in the activity of liver g-GT, ALT and AST and also significant increase in the concentration of creatinine and urea in the kidney at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks post-irradiation. Exposure to radiation induced also distortion in the architecture pattern of the liver as well as degenerative changes of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney.The intraperitoneal administration of TPP at a concentration of 2mg/Kg body weight to unirradiated rats for 5 consecutive days did not induce any significant changes in biochemical and histological parameters studied at all the experimental periods. TPP given to rats for 5 consecutive days either before or after irradiation ameliorated the intensity of changes induced due to radiation exposure. Accordingly, it was concluded that TPP could exert a beneficial protective and curative role against some radiactive and curative role against some radiation-induced biochemical and histological disorders in liver and kidney. Extrapolation of the results obtained in the present study to patients who need such treatments and undergoing radiotherapy requires further investigations

119

Histopathological effects of cisplatin, doxorubicin and 5-flurouracil (5-FU) on the liver of male albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Cisplatin, doxorubicin and fluorouracil (5-FU), drugs belonging to different chemical classes, have been extensively used for chemotherapy of various cancers. Despite extensive investigations into their hepatotoxicity, there is very limited information on their effects on the structure and ultra-structure of liver cells in vivo. Here, we demonstrate for the first time, the effects of these three anticancer drugs on rat liver toxicity using both light and electron microscopy. Light microscopic...

Hassan I El-sayyad, Mohamed F. Ismail

2009-01-01

120

The Possible Protective Role of Genistein against Some Biochemical Alterations Induced by ?-Irradiation in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Genistein is one of the main isoflavones, as an active compound of dietary antioxidants, has shown considerable promise as an effective agent against oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the radio-protective effect of genistein administration to rats at a non-toxic dose (200 mg/kg b.wt.) against Gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative stress. Gamma-irradiation (2.5 Gy x 3 delivered every other day) resulted in a significant decrease in hepatic glutathione contents (GSH), superoxides dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, insulin level as well as the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Moreover, a remarkable increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, the activity of some liver enzymes, the level of glucose and the concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol was observed in ?-irradiated rats. In contrast, genistein administration prior to ?-irradiation of rats ameliorated ?-irradiation-induced oxidative stress by elevating the activity of antioxidant enzymes, enhancing liver function in addition to improving the lipid metabolism. From the results of this study it possible to conclude that genistein is a natural antioxidant and seems to be beneficial for correcting the biochemical alterations and preventing ?-irradiation complications

121

The Interaction Between Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (Captopril and Heat Stress in The Male Albino rats. 2-Tissue Analysis  

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Full Text Available Daily exposure to heat stress causes sustained elevation of blood pressure in rats. It is known that the renin-angiotensin system is activated during episodes of behavioral stress, and the purpose of this work was to assess the action of captopril in the development of stress induced hypertension in rats. Animals were divided into four groups. The first group served as a control, while the other groups were subjected to heat stress of 40C and high hamidity of 80% for 10 successive days. The second group was served as heat stress, while the third and the fourth groups were received low and high doses of captopril (0.7 & 1.4 mg/kg. b.wt., respectively. After 10 days of treatment, half of animals from each group were decapitated and brain, liver, muscle, heart and kidney were separated and analysed. The other half of animals were left for another 10 days without any additional treatment for recovery.The results revealed a significant decrease in total protein of liver, heart, kidney, total lipids of heart, muscle and brain and total cholesterol of liver. On the other hand, insignificant change was noticed in muscle and brain total protein. Similarly, AST and ALT activities were also within the normal values for all the organs examined.Results exhibited that renin-angiotensin system may be important in the development of stress-induced hypertension in rats.

Talaat E.I. Abd-Rabo

2000-12-01

122

Evaluation of silymarin and / or ginger effect on induced hepatotoxicity by carbon tetrachloride in male albino rats  

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Full Text Available Liver disease appears to be increase. Part of this increase may be due to our frequent contact with chemicals and other environmental pollutants. The amount of medicne consumed has increased greatly which could be danger to the liver. The hepatoprotective flavonoid, silymarin (7.56 mg/Kg b. wt. and ginger (Zingiber officinale (1% of diet for 4 weeks were used to ameliorate the liver injury in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCL4 , single acute dose 4 ml/ Kg b. wt. of 50% v/v CCL4 in olive oil, subcutaneous. The obtained results showed that CCL4 decreased serum and liver total protein and albumin. Also reduced glutathione content. The antioxidant enzymes; glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity decreased in the liver of CCL4 toxicity group. On the other hand, CCL4 toxicity increased serum and liver bilirubin, total lipid and total cholestertol levels. In addition, liver function (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver lipid peroxidation content showed significant increase in the CCL4 treated group. Previous parameters turned back to normal values in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats after treating with silymarin and/ or ginger for one month. Meanwhile, the most interesting effect was induced by a combination of silymarin and ginger. Hence, the present findings will provide a potential scope for future use of ginger for the treatment of liver disorders.

Hassan H. A.* and EL-Gendy A. M

2003-09-01

123

Effect of acrylamide on testis of albino rats. Ultrastructure and DNA cytometry study.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To explore the harmful effects of acrylamide on the structure of testis in albino rats, in an attempt to clarify its potential risks on human health. METHODS The present study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from December 2010 to December 2011. Forty-eight adult male albino rats (250-300 g) were divided randomly into 6 groups. Electron microscopy and histochemical techniques using...

Mustafa, Hesham N.

2012-01-01

124

Effect of acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) and Prostaglandins on thyroid tissue and carbohydrate metabolism in liver of male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aspirin, both in chronic and acute doses, led to a considerable decrease in percentage uptake of labelled iodine (Na131I) and serum protein-bound iodine by the thyroid gland whereas prostaglandins (PGs) did not exhibit any significant effect on both the parameters. Simultaneous administration of aspirin and PGs caused a significant decrease in the two parameters, and on withdrawal of aspirin from the diet the two parameters were restored to normal levels, thus suggesting that the effect of aspirin on thyroid is direct and reversible. Aspirin, both in acute and chronic doses, effected decrease in glycogen levels, in vivo and in vitro incorporation of [U-14C] glucose into glycogen, and glycogen synthetase activity in the liver of both fed, and fasting, rat. Prostaglandins, on the other hand, resulted in a significant increase in the three parameters, thus enhancing the rate of liver glycogenesis. Normal levels were restored when both aspirin and PGs were given together. Withdrawal of aspirin also restored normal hepatic glycogenesis. Significant reduction in the activities of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes, viz. glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase, phosphopyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase was observed due to chronic and acute administration of aspirin and PGs were devoid of any significant effect on gluconeogenic enzymes, thus ruling out the mediation of PGs. (auth.)ing out the mediation of PGs. (auth.)

125

The disposition and metabolism of 1,3,5-[U-{sup 14}C]trioxane in male Wistar albino rats  

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The present study was designed to investigate 1,3,5-[U-{sup 14}C]trioxane (TOX) distribution, excretion and metabolism. The experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats after a single administration of TOX at doses of 40 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The exhaled air proved to be the main route of {sup 14}C elimination, mainly as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. During the first 12 h following the administration of 40 mg/kg of TOX the exhalation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was monophasic, with a half-life of 3.5 h. After the administration of 400 mg/kg, TOX was eliminated mainly as {sup 14}CO{sub 2} with the exhaled air (77%) and unchanged TOX (8%). About 3% of {sup 14}C was excreted in the urine as unchanged 1,3,5-trioxane. With regards to TOX elimination from blood plasma for the lower dose, a biphasic process was observed, with half-lives of 4.5 and 72 h. The amount of {sup 14}C bound by the erythrocytes was minute compared with the amount in blood plasma. When the higher dose of TOX was administered the efficiency of {sup 14}C binding to the erythrocytes was found to be 10 times higher than the respective value for blood plasma. Among the examined tissues the highest concentration of TOX-derived radioactivity was detected in the liver while the lowest was in fat tissue and brain. A subsequent decay of radioactivity occurred in the tissues. The results of the present study indicate that TOX belongs to the group of compounds, which are rapidly eliminated from the organism; hence TOX should not be expected to accumulate within the tissues. The data obtained confirm the assumed pattern of metabolic transformation, according to which 1,3,5-trioxane undergoes enzymatic transformation to formaldehyde, with carbon dioxide and water being the final products. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

Ligocka, D.; Sapota, A.; Jakubowski, M. [Toxicokinetics Laboratory, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

1998-04-01

126

The antioxidative effects of some medicinal plants as hypoglycemic agents on chromosomal aberration and abnormal nucleic acids metabolism produced by diabetes stress in male adult albino rats  

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Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to evaluate the chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells of alloxanized diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of Cleome droserifolia (Sammo, Anastatica hierochuntica (Kafta, Juniperus phoencea (Araar and Hyphaene thebaica (Doum as well as their effects on blood glucose, liver and testes total soluble protein, DNA and RNA contents and also nucleases (RNAase and DNAase activity. The material and Methods: The study was performed in six groups. The first group was the normal healthy control; the second group was rats injected with alloxan (diabetic control. Every one of the other four groups (diabetic rats was ingested with each of the methanolic extracts of Kafta, Doum, Sammo and Araar (individually. The results: The results of chromosomal analysis showed that, diabetic rats had a highly significant increase of chromosomal aberrations compared to that of normal healthy control. Animals which treated with the four plants methanolic extracts showed significant improvements in the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations. In case of biochemical analysis, blood glucose level was significantly increased but immunoglobulins levels were decreased in diabetic albino rats. Diabetes increased serum total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL but serum HDL was decreased. RNA and DNA as well as inhibited the nucleases (RNAase and DNAase activity of both organs (liver and testes tissue. The conclusions: It is concluded that diabetes is much harmful in the animal body, whilst the induction of flavonoids extract (by methanol of Kafta, Somma, Araar and Doum reduced these harmful of diabetes.

Sherifa H. Salah

2011-02-01

127

Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total of 24 adult male albino rats were randomly assigned as treated and untreated control groups. Treated group supplemented with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for 5 and 9 weeks. The results revealed that rats supplemented with water hyacinth (as a source of heavy metals) for 5 weeks induced significantly increase in RBCs, WBCs counts, hemoglobin content, Heinz bodies percentage and cell number/size ratio. At the same time liver cell size had a significant decrease under the same treatment. The ninth weeks of the experimental period showed a significant rise of Heinz bodies, globulin level, ALT level, liver cellular aspects (DNA, cell number and cell number/size ratio). A significant decrease of WBCs counts, A/G ratio and cell size were illustrated.The histological examination of treated rats liver showed chronic venous congestion with infiltration of the portal tract by chronic inflammatory cells and necrosis of hepatocyte cells consequently after 5 and 9 weeks of treatment

128

The Albino Rat Following Oral Administration Of A-Chlorohydrin  

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Full Text Available The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatment of female rats with a chlorohydrin caused reversible uterine and ovarian changes. Uterine changes took longer time to recover compared with that of ovarian changes. These results support the possibility that this drug could be a functional female sterilant as it was known as a male sterilant.

Fouad A.F.Ali*, Ali A.Abdel Rahman* and Ashraf M.Moustafa

2001-09-01

129

An Electron Microscopic Study of the Antifertility Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in Male Albino Rats / Estudio de Microscopa Electrnica del Potencial Antifertilidad del Romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) en Ratas Macho Albinas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar el potencial anti-fertilidad de la hierba de uso comn, el romero, en ratas albinas macho utilizando microscopa electrnica como mtodo de investigacin. El extracto etanlico del romero se prepar y administr por va oral a los animales en dos dosis diferent [...] es durante un perodo de tres meses. Los animales experimentales se sacrificaron y se retiraron sus testculos. Se prepararon secciones para microscopa electrnica y se observaron los cambios. Los resultados mostraron cambios microscpicos evidentes en los testculos de los animales que recibieron una dosis mayor del medicamento. La mayora de los tbulos seminferos se observaron comprimidos, con una membrana basal irregular y carente de clulas espermatognicas. El presente trabajo revela una clara evidencia morfolgica de una posible anti-fertilidad dependiente de la dosis del romero administrada en las ratas albinas macho. Abstract in english The present work was aimed at studying the antifertility potential of the commonly used herb, rosemary in the male albino rats using electron microscopy as the method of investigation. Ethanolic extract of the rosmary prepared and administered orally in two different doses for a period of three mont [...] hs to the animals. At the end of the experiment animals were sacrificed and testes removed. Sections for the electrone microscopy prepared and changes were observed. The present results showed evident microscopic changes in the testis of the animals received higher dose of the drug. Most of the seminiferous tubules were compressed, having irregular basement membrane and devoid of any spermatogenic cells. The present work revealed a clear morphological evidence of the dose dependent antifertility potential of the rosemary in the male albino rats.

Rania A. Salah, El-Din; Abd El-Rahman, El-Shahat; Rasha Ahmed, Elmansy.

2012-06-01

130

Attenuating Role of Vitamin C on Sperm Toxicity Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

The toxicity of monosodium glutamate has been on the increase due to increased patronage of fast foods; with its attendant effects. There have also been attempts to attenuate these effects. Hence, the attenuating role of vitamin C on sperm toxicity induced by monosodium glutamate was accessed on the weight of testes and epididymes, epididymal count, motility, viability, semen pH and sperm head abnormality in albino rat as a model. The male rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. ...

Amaechina, O. S.; Ibiang, Y. B.; Ikpeme, E. V.; Ekaluo, U. B.

2013-01-01

131

Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are bes...

Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-robins; Obi-abang, Margaret

2014-01-01

132

Hepatotoxicity of ingested uranium in albino wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium exhibits both radiotoxic and chemotoxic properties. Common route of contamination is ingestion through drinking water. Uranium is mainly nephrotoxic and is also hepatotoxic to mammals including humans. The dose range at which it affects organs still remains in predicament. To study the effect of ingested uranium on enzymatic and histopathological changes of liver in albino wistar rats. Uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UN) solutions were prepared at different concentrations in distilled water for administration. Healthy male and female albino wistar rats weighing 12020 g were randomly divided into six groups, each group with five animals. Group 1 was the control. All the five treatment groups (group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5 and group 6) were orally administered with 0.156, 0.625, 2.5, 10 and 40 mg/kg/day of UN for 28 days duration. Blood samples collected on 29th day were analyzed for ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). In addition, histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed. Significant reduction by 61 and 46 % in GGT levels in female rats of groups 4 and 5 respectively while in male rats, increase of 55, 52 and 40 % in groups 3, 4 and 5 respectively were observed compared to control. In females, ALP levels were decreased by 38 % in group 2 and 29 % in group 4 while no changes were observed in males of control and test groups. ed in males of control and test groups. SGPT level was decreased by 22 % in group 6 in females but increased by 29 and 35 % in groups 2 and 6 respectively in males, compared to control. In females, 25 % increase in SGOT levels in group 4 was observed, but decreased in group 5 and 6 by 26 and 22 % respectively. A 27 % increase in SGOT level in males was recorded in group 2 compared to control. No histopathological changes were observed in liver tissues of test groups or the control. Uranium causes dose-independent changes in key marker enzymes of liver function indicating hepatic damage. Conversely, no histopathological alterations were observed in liver tissues. (author)

133

Effect Of Some Slimming Drugs On Haematological And Some Vital Signs Of Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Some of slimming drugs had been withdrawn from markets so, the present study was conducted to follow the effect of three different anorexic drugs; on the haematological and physical parameters of adults albino rats. The used drugs differ in their nature, where the first one i.e., apple-lite is a fully natural substance, the 2nd one i.e., mirapront-N. is a chemical substance and the 3rd one i.e., tenuate is a synthetic foamy filler substance. Fourty adult male albino rats (130 20g) were random...

Eman G E Helal And Shadia, A. Radwan

2007-01-01

134

The Role of Bee Venom in Controlling Albino Rats Fetal Morphometric and Morphological Changes by Carbimazole Induced Hypothyroidism  

OpenAIRE

Aim of the work. The present study was planned to investigate the role played by Bee venom in improving the morphometric and morphological changes induced by carbimazole in pregnant albino rats and their embryos. Materials and method .A total number of 60 mature virgin female and 30 male Wistar wistar albino rats (for fertilization) were used in this study.Pregnancy was ascertained by vaginal smears.The experimental animals were divided into the following groups:?- (Normal group): in this gr...

Abu Gabal H, Moamena M. And Al Moalla H.

2013-01-01

135

Electroencephalographic changes in albino rats subjected to stress  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty one albino Wistar rats were subjected to stress for 7 hours. There was a significant difference in the slopes of regression lines for 7 nonulcerous rats and those for 14 ulcerous rats. Nonulcerous rats subjected to stress showed greater EEG curve synchronization than did ulcerous rats. If curve synchronization can be equated to a relaxed state, it may therefore be possible to explain the protective action of hypnotics, tranquilizers and analgesics on ulcers.

Mercier, J.; Assouline, G.; Fondarai, J.

1980-01-01

136

Evaluation of Carrot Pomace (Daucus carota L.) as Hypocholesterolemic and Hypolipidemic Agent on Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

The current study examined the attenuating influence of dietary carrot pomace powder (CaPP) on hypercholesterolemia and various oxidative stress-associated with biochemical parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty two male albino rats weighing 11010 g were divided into four groups, the first group received the basal diet only and served as (negative control), the second group received the hypercholesterolemic diet and served as positive control, the other groups received hypercholes...

Elbahnasawy, Amir S. M.; Osfor, Mahmoud M. H.; Afify, Abd El-moneim M. R.; Romeilah, Ramy R. M.

2013-01-01

137

Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Functional and Structural Disorders in Urogenital System of Male Albino Rats Induced by Whole Body Gamma Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pumpkin seeds have long been used for health benefits and the seed oil has been shown to contain active beneficial components that may protect from oxidative stress. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the modulator role of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) supplementation on gamma radiation induced changes in certain biochemical and histological abnormalities in both kidney and testes tissues. Male rats received 5Gy whole body gamma-irradiation delivered as 1 Gy day after day to result in a cumulative dose of 5 Gy. PSO was orally administered to rats (20mg/Kg body weight) for 20 consecutive days before irradiation and during the period of irradiation. On days seven and twenty one after the last irradiation dose, rats were sacrificed. Biochemical analysis in the serum revealed that PSO supplementation diminished the radiation-induced increase in the level of urea, creatinine , follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Significant amelioration of the radiation-induced decreases in calcium (Ca+2), potassium (K+) and testosterone levels were also recorded. PSO administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the level of lipid peroxides measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and the content of glutathione (GSH). Histological observations of photomicrographs of kidney sections of irradiated rats showed amorphoid glomeruli, renal sclerosis and high content of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, hemorrhage in glomeruli, ruptured proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Examination of testis tissues showed disappearance of seminiferous tubules, ruptured tunica albuginea, and degeneration of interstitial cells. PSO supplementation has obviously improved the radiation-induced histopathological changes in both tissues. It could be concluded that PSO can be used as a useful adjunct for maintaining the integrity of biochemical functions and restoring the original histological architecture of kidneys and testes after irradiation

138

Selected neurobehavioural evaluation of Leucas Aspera in wistar albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Background: Leucas Aspera is used in traditional medicine for many ailments. The present study was designed to evaluate the neuro behavioural effects in Wistar albino rats after oral administration of leaves of Leucas Aspera for 28 days. Methods: Wistar albino rats of either sex were treated with the aqueous suspension of dried powdered leaves of L. aspera. Three different groups of animals received L. aspera suspension in doses of 50 mg/kg/day, 100 mg /kg/day or 200mg/kg/day orally for 28 da...

Mrs. Kavitha. R,; Kannan R; Glory Josephine I

2013-01-01

139

Effect of a Long Term Consumption of a Diet Supplemented with Leaves of Gongronema latifolium Benth. on Some Biochemical and Histological Parameters in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of long term consumption of Gongronema latifolium on some biochemical and histological parameters in male rats. Biochemical parameters evaluated included serum protein, haemoglobin, cholesterol, lipid peroxidation, white blood cells, glutathione-s-transferase, superoxide dismutase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The histological changes of the liver, intestines and testes were examined. The long term feeding of a Gongronema latifolium -supplemented diet caused significant increases (p<0.05 in cholesterol, haemoglobin and white blood cells. The diet exhibited antioxidant properties by reducing lipid peroxidation and increasing superoxide dismutase activity. There was a significant increase (p<0.05 in glutathione-s-transferase and decrease in the liver enzymes namely Alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase suggesting a role of Gongronema latifolium in detoxification and hepatoprotection. However, Gongronema latifolium -supplemented diet did not cause any significant changes in weight and serum protein. The histology of the hepatic plate appeared irregular while the portal tracts showed a lifted basement membrane and few inflammatory cells. The intestinal mucosa showed an elongated and broadened villi. There were no histological changes on the testes.

E.J. Iweala Emeka

2009-01-01

140

Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes  

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Full Text Available There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2 mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I - control (intact animals, II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days. Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (-53% and methionine (+133%. The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure.

Shayakhmetova Ganna M.

2014-09-01

141

Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100?mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250?mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250?mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

2014-01-01

142

Image chorioretinal vasculature in albino rats using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy  

OpenAIRE

We imaged the microvascular network in both the retina and the choroid in an albino rat eye using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy guided by optical coherence tomography. Relying on optical absorption and ultrasonic detection, photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy can image both retinal and choroidal vessel networks with high contrast.

Wei, Qing; Liu, Tan; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhang, Hao F.

2011-01-01

143

Camel's Milk Protects against Aluminum Chloride-Induced Toxicity in the Liver and Kidney of White Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) is commonly used in daily life but it can be potentially toxic. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of camel' milk against aluminum-induced biochemical alterations and oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of white albino rats. Approach: White albino male rats (230-250 g) were divided into three groups of 10 rats: a control group treated with normal saline, the AlCl3-treated group and the camel's mi...

Fahaid Al-Hashem

2009-01-01

144

CURATIVE EFFECT OF ABHRAK BHASMA ON LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INTOXICATED ALBINO RATS  

OpenAIRE

In Ayurveda, many drugs are mentioned to treat liver and kidney diseases. Abhrak bhasma is commonly used Ayurvedic medicine against many diseases including hepatitis. This study was planned to investigate the curative effect of abhrak bhasma in liver and kidney functions in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ kg body wt) were given in curative experimental schedule in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 increased serum Aspartate Transaminase ...

Parashuram B Teli, Priti B. Chougule Jaywant T. Jadhav And Aruna A. Kanase

2014-01-01

145

Biochemical Effects Of Ribavirin (Antiviral) And Ddb (Hepato Protective) Drugs In Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

The present investigation has been designed to through spot light on the efficiency of these two drugs in treatment of hepatitis patients. Cortisol, antigliadin (1gG) , total protein (TP) albumin (ALB) , Iron (Fe) , alanine aminotransferase (ALT) , aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum of normal mature male and female albino rats that injected intraperitoneally day after day with 1mg/kg body weight of each drug separately for 3 months. The cor...

Soliman S Ibrahim, Amr Shalaby And Mahmoud Rabeh

2005-01-01

146

Antioxidant Effect of Caffeic Acid on Oxytetracycline Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Caffeic acid is a well-known phenolic compound widely present in plant kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of caffeic acid (CA) against oxytetracycline (OXT) induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino Wistar rats. A total of 30 rats weighing 150170g were randomly divided into five groups of six rats in each group. Oral administration of OXT (200mg/kg body weight/day) for 15days produced hepatic damage as manifested by a significant increase in ...

Jayanthi, R.; Subash, P.

2010-01-01

147

Effect of Pyrethroid Inhalation on the Testis of Albino Rat  

OpenAIRE

The effect of inhalation of the pyrethroid tetramethrin on the testicular tissue of the albino rats was studied. Rats inhaled tetramethrin for 6 weeks showed significant loss in the testes weight and reduction in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules. Moreover, histological examination of the testis revealed destruction of the seminiferous tubules, reduction of spermatogenic cells and degeneration of Leydig cells. It is speculated that tetramethrin may be responsible for inhibition of sper...

Sakr S.A.; Azab A.E.

2001-01-01

148

Ribavirin exposure induces histopathological changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study objectives: The objectives of the study are to describe and compare histopathological changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes of rat, with different doses of Ribavirin at different time intervals. Introduction: The chemical disturbances may affect a vast number of potential sites in male reproductive system as well as its complex hormonal regulation. Testicular toxicity may reduce the fertility of the male. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Ribavirin on the histological structure of seminiferous tubules in the testes of albino rats. Materials and Methods: Seventy two sexually mature adult male albino rats weighing 180-200gms were divided into four groups: A, B, C and D; each group having 18 rats. Ribavirin was administered intraperitoneally in different doses to these groups that were 20mg, 100mg and 200mg/kg body weight, while group A was control. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to three time points which were selected for sacrifice that were 20th, 40th and 60th day from the last exposure to drug. Six randomly selected rats from each group were sacrificed on every sacrifice time. Results and Conclusion: The seminiferous tubules with degenerative changes like appearance of vacuole and necrotic material were observed in comparison to control groups, on 20th day of sacrifice in all groups. In rats sacrificed on day 40th and 60th, the sign of recovery in the form of regeneration of seminiferous epithelium was observed that was more marked in low dose groups than high dose groups which showed late recovery. We conclude that ribavirin being used as antiviral drug induces reversible degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes of albino rats. (author)

149

Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure on Histology and DNA Content of the Brain Cortex and Hypothalamus of Young and Adult Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concerns have been raised regarding the potential adverse effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) arising from mobile phone. The present study investigates the effect of the daily exposure of adult and young rats to EMR for 1 hour (at a frequency of 900 MHz, a power density of 0.02 mW/cm2 and an average specific absorption rate of 1.165 W/kg) on the DNA content and tissue architecture of the cortex and hypothalamus of the rat brain. Both young and adult rats were sacrificed at two intervals, after 4 months of daily EMR exposure and after 1 month of stopping the exposure. The present results showed a significant increase in the DNA intensity of young and adult rats in both areas after 4 months of daily EMR exposure. However, decreased DNA content around the normal level was observed after one month of stopping the exposure. Light microscopic examination of irradiated rats revealed edema, vacuolation, necrosis and proliferated glial cells. Stopping EMR exposure showed mild amelioration in the structural damage of the cerebral cortex of young animals, however, most drastic changes still persisted in the other animals. In conclusion, these data may confirm the neurotoxic risks arising from the extensive use of mobile phones that may alter the brain histology and impair its function

150

The Side Effects Of The Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID) Ketoprofen On Histological And Ultrastructural Aspects Of The Kidneys Of Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

The present work deals with the effect of the therapeutic dose of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ketoprofen on the microscopic structure of the kidney of the albino rat. The present study also sheds light on the risk of using over-dosage either by mistake or in an unwise attempt at quick relieving the body pain. The intramuscular therapeutic dose of ketoprofen to albino rat was calculated and was found to equal 13.5 mg /kg body weight. Fifty adult male albino rats, Rattus norvegicus...

Farag Allah, Amina M.

2001-01-01

151

Histological and Histochemical Studies on the Effects of Methotrexate on the Liver of Adult Male Albino Rat Estudios Histolgico e Histoqumico del Efecto del Metotrexato en el Hgado de Rata Macho Albina Adulta  

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Full Text Available Methotrexate (MTX is widely used in the therapy of various types of malignancy. The present work was designed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes in the liver of albino rat following methotrexate administration. Fifteen adult male albino rats were used in the present work. They were divided into three main groups: Group I was kept without treatment and served as control. Groups II and III were given intraperitoneal injections of normal saline and MTX, respectively, at a dosage of (0.5 mg/Kg twice weekly for total durations of 3, 6 and 9 weeks. The rats were sacrificed and the livers were excised and processed for histological and histochemical study. Examination of sections of the livers of group III showed mononuclear cell infiltration and an increase in the amount of collagen fibers in the portal tracts. There were focal areas of liver cell necrosis with distortion of the normal hepatic architecture. Moreover, there was a gradual and progressive decrease of glycogen content in the hepatocytes. Furthermore, succinic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity were also decreased. In addition there was an increase in acid phosphatase activities in the degenerated areas and loss of activities in areas of massive cellular necrosis. It was concluded that repeated injections of MTX causes hepatic damage of a definite magnitude. This hepatotoxicity progressed with increasing cumulative doses of methotrexate. The present study provided further evidence to the cytotoxic potency of this antifolateEl metotrexato es ampliamente usado en la terapia de varias enfermedades malignas. El presente trabajo fue diseado para investigar los cambios histolgicos e histoqumicos del hgado de rata albina, despus de administrar dicho frmaco. Se usaron 15 ratas albinas, machos, adultas, que fueron divididas en 3 grupos: El grupo I no tuvo tratamiento correspondiendo al control. A los grupos II y III se les administr, por va intraperitoneal, una solucin salina normal y metotrexato, respectivamente, con una dosificacin de 0,5 mg por Kg de peso, dos veces por semana, con una duracin total de 3, 6 y 9 semanas. Las ratas fueron sacrificadas y los hgados extrados y procesados para los estudios histolgico e histoqumico. El examen de los hgados del grupo III mostr infiltracin celular mononuclear y un incremento en la cantidad de fibras colgenas en la va portal. Hubo reas focales de necrosis de clulas hepticas con distorsin de la arquitectura heptica normal. Adems, hubo un gradual y progresivo decrecimiento del contenido de glicgeno en los hepatocitos. La actividad de deshidrogenasa succnica y fosfatas alcalinas tambin disminuy, pero s hubo un aumento de la actividad de las fosfatasas cidas en las reas degeneradas y prdida de actividades en reas de necrosis celular masiva. En conclusin, inyecciones repetidas de metotrexato causan dao heptico de maginitud definida. Esta hepatotoxicidad progres a medida que las dosis se fueron acumulando. El presente estudio muestra evidencias claras de la potencia citotxica de este medicamento.

Mohamed Akram Al-Motabagani

2006-09-01

152

Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial Activity of Propolis Ethanolic Extract and Its Improving Role of Biochemical Changes Induced by Carbon tetrachloride in Male Albino Rats  

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Propolis (bee glue) is a sticky substance that is collected from plants by honeybees. Due to biological and pharmacological activities, it has been extensively used in folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition, the antimicrobial activity and possible protective effects of ethanolic extract of propolis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced biological damages in rats. The studied rats were allotted to four equal groups (6 rats each) : Group 1 served as control and was given the vehicle (Tween 80 dissolved in distilled water, 1:100 ) orally for 21 consecutive days after which they were sacrificed , group 2 treated orally with ethanolic extract of popolis (100?g/rat) for 21 successive days, group 3 ( CCl4 - treated group) administered orally with a single dose (0.5 ml/kg body weight) of carbon tetrachloride (mixed with an equal volume of olive oil) and group 4 (protected group) was treated with propolis extract (100?g/rat) for 21 successive days, after one hour of the last dose of the treatment, a single dose of CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) was given. Then all animals were sacrificed, 24 hr post experimental design period for each group. Our results revealed that, fourteen compounds were identified by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC- MS analysis). Propolis ethanolic extract inhibited the growth of six from the tested microorganisms including bacteria and fungi at 5 mg/ml against E bacteria and fungi at 5 mg/ml against E. coli and B. subtilis and 20 mg/ml against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Penicillium italicum and Candida albicans, while it has no effect on A. fumigatus and Syncephalstrum racemasum. In experimental animals, Leucocytic counts and platelets, in addition, AST, ALT, CK and LDH were significantly increased, meanwhile, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) level was decreased in CCl4 treated rats (group 3) compared to the control (group 1). Protection with ethanolic extract of propolis to rats received CCl4 (group 4) ameliorated the altered levels of studied parameters as compared to control group. In conclusion, these results suggest that propolis has antimicrobial activity and a protective effect on biological damages induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. More researches are required to isolate and purify the active principle involve in biological activity of propolis to used as a curative agent

153

Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats  

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C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

154

Effect of Pyrethroid Inhalation on the Testis of Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available The effect of inhalation of the pyrethroid tetramethrin on the testicular tissue of the albino rats was studied. Rats inhaled tetramethrin for 6 weeks showed significant loss in the testes weight and reduction in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules. Moreover, histological examination of the testis revealed destruction of the seminiferous tubules, reduction of spermatogenic cells and degeneration of Leydig cells. It is speculated that tetramethrin may be responsible for inhibition of spermatogenesis in the rats through suppression of testicular androgenic activity.

Sakr S.A.

2001-01-01

155

Serrobiochemical Effects of Potassium Bromate on Wistar Albino Rats  

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The present study aimed to clarify the toxic effect of potassium bromate in Wistar albino rats. Thirty rats were divided into 5 groups. The first group severed as control and the other four groups received potassium bromate orally at doses 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 body weight (b.wt.) for 21 days. Rats received 400 mg kg-1 b.wt. died within 3 days and those received 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. died on the 18th day post treatm...

Rehab Omer; Abuelgasim, Afaf I.; Elmahdi, B.

2008-01-01

156

HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ACETONE EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA ROXB. BARK ON TYPE-2 DIABETIC ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available In the present study, hypoglycemic effects of Terminalia arjuna bark extract were seen in high fructose (21%followed by streptozotocin (40mg/kg BW induced type-2 diabetic male albino rats. In vivo study showedprotective effect of T. arjuna bark acetone extract of towards blood glucose, serum urea, serum createnine, SGOT,SGPT, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT, urine sugar and urine ketone bodies in diabetic rats. Feeding 500 mg/kgBW arjuna bark extract to rats showed better effect for blood and urine parameters as compared to rats fed with250 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract. The effect of feeding 500 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract was found to bealmost equal to that of with glimepiride fed diabetic rats. The result indicated that Terminalia arjuna bark acetoneextract of have antidiabetogenic and possess hypoglycemic effects in type-2 diabetic rats.

SHAMSHUN NEHAR

2013-01-01

157

The antioxidative effects of some medicinal plants as hypoglycemic agents on chromosomal aberration and abnormal nucleic acids metabolism produced by diabetes stress in male adult albino rats  

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The objectives of the present study are to evaluate the chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells of alloxanized diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of Cleome droserifolia (Sammo), Anastatica hierochuntica (Kafta), Juniperus phoencea (Araar) and Hyphaene thebaica (Doum) as well as their effects on blood glucose, liver and testes total soluble protein, DNA and RNA contents and also nucleases (RNAase and DNAase) activity. The material and Methods: The study was performed in s...

Salah, Sherifa H.; Abdou, Halima S.; Abd El Azeem, Amal S.; Abdel-rahim, E. A.

2011-01-01

158

Antihyperglycemic Effects of Separate and Composite Extract of Root of Musa Paradisiaca and Leaf of Coccinia Indica in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat  

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We evaluated the antihyperglycaemic properties of aqueous-methanolic (40:60) extract of root of Musa paradisiaca and leaf of Coccinia indica in separate as well as in composite manner by conducting experiment on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. We measured food and water intake ability, the fasting blood glucose level, glucose tolerance, activities of important carbohydrate metabolic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hexokinase in liver along with qua...

Mallick, Chhanda; Chatterjee, Kausik; Guhabiswas, Mehuli; Ghosh, Debidas

2007-01-01

159

Radiological and physiological studies on the role of some therapeutic agents used for internal decontamination of radionuclides from male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the earths increasing nuclear arsenal and the growing use of nuclear energy, the possibility of radiological accidents involving release of radioactive materials, internal contamination may consequently occurs via inhalation, ingestion or absorption of radioisotopes.Therefore, the present work was oriented to deal with four topics related to the internal decontamination of two of the most widely used isotopes, namely 134Cs and 60Co from contaminated rats:-In vitro study aimed to select agents that can strongly bind the two metal ions and elucidate the best conditions and the factors affecting this binding. The tested agents were bentonite, vermiculite and Prussian blue (PB). The sorption capacity of PB and vermiculite for both metal ions was high and equivalent to more than 1011 Bq 137Cs or 60Co per gram sorbent. As bentonite has lower capacity to both isotopes, further in vivo experiments were performed with PB and vermiculite.-In vivo studies, via 5 groups of rats, devoted to investigate the kinetics of excretion of 134Cs and/or 60Co from contaminated rats. The biological half lives of excretion, excretion stages for both isotopes and the effect of route of entry on the excretion were estimated.-In vivo studies aimed to investigate the effectiveness of PB + vermiculite and CaDTPA as therapeutic agents for accelerating the elimination of 134Cs and/or 60Co from cont4Cs and/or 60Co from contaminated rats. The study was performed via 6 groups of rats given different regimes of therapy. The results showed the high efficiency of PB + vermiculite for accelerating elimination of 134Cs and orally administrated 60Co while CaDTPA succeeded in accelerating intraperitoneally administrated 60Co. The study proved that oral administration of PB + vermiculite and injection with CaDTPA at the same time is very effective in accelerating elimination of both contaminants simultaneously.-The physiological studies aimed to evaluate the hazardous effects of 134Cs and/or 60Co incorporation and any side effect of therapeutic agents on hematological and biochemical parameters. The data obtained revealed that internal contamination causes a significant decrease in the RBC's counts, Hb concentration, haematocrit value, serum total proteins, albumin, serum inorganic phosphorous, in addition to a significant increase in serum urea, creatinine concentration, glucose, CPK and LDH activities. However, no significant changes were recorded in globulin, A/G ratio, total bilirubin, ALT, AST enzymatic activities, sodium, potassium and calcium levels. The treatment by the tested therapeutic agents has no significant effect on the same parameters and causes significant amelioration in the changes produced by internal contamination with variable degrees.

160

Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies of Paracetamol Infusion in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sub-acute toxicity of paracetamol infusion in albino wistar rats (male and female at different dose levels, ranging from 16 to 66 mg/kg body weight. No mortality was seen in any of the treatment groups during the course of study. Various physiological, hematological as well as biochemical parameters were studied and found not to be changed significantly, indicating that paracetamol infusion is non toxic even at higher dose level in wistar rats. Overall safety and tolerability profile of paracetamol infusion is proved good and does not appear to carry risk of serious adverse effects.

Anurag Payasi

2010-04-01

161

Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats  

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The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this...

Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Prajapati, P. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.

2010-01-01

162

Pharmacological evaluation of some bioactive plant products on albino rats.  

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The study comprises the pharmacological trials with essential oils of Caesulia axillaris, Ocimum gratissimum and Mentha arvensis which have shown strong antifungal property. The biochemical analysis of blood and serum of albino rats fed with the oil treated diet for sixty days exhibited nonanimal toxic nature of the oils. The study reveals the possibility of further exploitation of the oils as safe antifungal agents of plant origin. PMID:16961204

Tiwari, T N; Varma, J; Dubey, N K; Chansouria, J P; Ali, Z

1998-01-01

163

Immunomodulatory activity of Vachadhatryadi Avaleha in albino rats  

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The present study is carried out to evaluate the immuno-modulatory activity of Vacha Dhatryadi Avaleha in albino rats. Vacha Dhatryadi Avaleha was prepared by classical method and evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-medicated immunity in established experimental models. Test formulation was administered at the dose of 900 mg/kg and parameters like hemagglutination titer, ponderal changes, histopathology of immunological organs and immunological paw edema were recorded. Vacha Dha...

Rajagopala, S.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.

2011-01-01

164

Toxicity of Sumithion in Albino Rats: Hematological and Biochemical Studies  

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This study was carried out to investigate the hematological and biochemical effects of the organophosphate insecticide, sumithion, in albino rats. Animals were treated with sumathion at a dose level of 60 mg kg-1 body weight (1/4 LD50 ) daily for 12 days. It was found that erythrocytes (RBCs) count, haemoglobin contents, Mean Corpuscle Volume (MCV) and Mean Corpuscle Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) were almost similar in control and treated animals. On the other hand, the results showed that...

Al Sahhaf, Zuhair Y.

2006-01-01

165

Daily and seasonal rythms in radiosensitivity of albino mongrel rats  

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From experiments in albino mongrel rats it is shown that the radiosensitivity of ?-irradiated (60Co) animals follows a daily rhythm. A synchronization of the daily rhythms in radiosensitivity was noted in winter and during the first spring month which was impaired in April. Established wepe the rhythms of radiosensitivity for three seasons, i. e. winter, spring and summer, with the extremes in the dependence upon mean annual values varying significantly

166

Attenuating Role of Vitamin C on Sperm Toxicity Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The toxicity of monosodium glutamate has been on the increase due to increased patronage of fast foods; with its attendant effects. There have also been attempts to attenuate these effects. Hence, the attenuating role of vitamin C on sperm toxicity induced by monosodium glutamate was accessed on the weight of testes and epididymes, epididymal count, motility, viability, semen pH and sperm head abnormality in albino rat as a model. The male rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. The rats were administered with MSG and vitamin C treatments for 65 days. Vitamin C attenuated the MSG induced toxicity on weight of testes and epididymes, sperm motility, count and sperm head abnormality. Vitamin C can actually attenuate the effect of MSG induced toxicity in rats as a model.

O.S. Amaechina

2013-01-01

167

Genetic Protective Role of D-Glucan against Oxidative Stress Induced by Mitomycin and Gamma-Radiation Exposure in Male Albino Rats  

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D-glucan is a polysaccharide with multi-branching molecules derived from the cell wall of baker's yeast. It was reported to modulated innate immunity via interaction with membrane receptors on macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells and posses potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging capabilities. The aim of the present study was to investigate chemo-protective and radio-protective effect of D-glucan. Rats were orally (gavages) injected with D-glucan at dose of (20 mg/kg body wt) daily for three weeks. Mitomycin c (MMC) was administered three equal doses (1.5 mg/ kg) day after day for one week (2nd week) before radiation exposure at 3 fractionated doses (2 Gy) day after day in the 2nd week. The investigation were carried out on the days 3 and 10 post radiation-exposure and MMC administration for the determination of bone marrow micronucleus (Mn) frequency and DNA fragmentation in blood lymphocytes. The results showed that the exposure of animals to MMC and/ or irradiation led to clearly defined DNA fragmentation. D-glucan administration resulted in a significant improvement in lymphocytes DNA fragmentation and amelioration of Mn frequencies at day 3 and more pronounced at day 10 post irradiation. This study indicates that D-glucan has radio and chemo-protective effects against oxidative stress as a result of ?-radiation and/ or MMC exposure. So, D-glucan may be used to reduce the genotoxicity effects of different anticancer drugs and to reduce their unwanted side effects.

168

Evaluation of antidiabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum in male Wistar albino rats  

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Background: We investigated anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin induced diabetic Wister rats were used in this study consisting of seven groups of six animals each. Groups (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, (3) leaves extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (4) leaves extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (5) fruit peel extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (6) peel extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum and (7) glibenclamide respectively. Fasting blood sugar was recorded on 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day. At the end of the experiment Lipid profile and levels of antioxidants were determined. Safety profile of both extracts was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. Results: Higher dose of fruit peel extract of P. granatum (PEPG) and glibenclamide significantly lowered blood glucose level from 7th day onwards however glibenclamide was found to be more effective. Leaves extract at higher dose and fruit extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 14th day onwards. Leaves extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 21st day onwards. Glibenclamide and higher dose of fruit PEPG extract significantly reduced the total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and significantly increased the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Glibenclamide followed by higher dose was found more effective in reducing plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increasing levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). No toxicity was observed even when both extracts were administered at 10 times of higher dose used in this study and no significant changes were seen when it were used chronically. Conclusion: Leaves and fruit PEPG possesses significant anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant properties. This study supports the traditional use of P. granatum in diabetes. Fruit peel which is normally thrown by many while eating pomegranate fruit is having anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and Antioxidant activity. Furthermore high therapeutic index is safe for chronic use.

Salwe, Kartik J.; Sachdev, Devender O.; Bahurupi, Yogesh; Kumarappan, Manimekalai

2015-01-01

169

ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF BLUMEA LACERA LEAVES IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the antipyretic activity of the methanolic extract of Blumea lacera leaves (BLE on albino rats. Acute toxicity study of BLE was performed by limit test as per OECD guideline. Antipyretic activity was studied by inducing pyrexia with Brewer's yeast. Acute oral LD50 of BLE in female rats was more than 2000 mg/kg. Three ascending doses of 100 (1/20 LD50, 200 (1/10 LD50 and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50 were selected for studying the antipyretic activity of BLE in rats. BLE at dose rates of 200 and 400 mg/kg reduced brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats suggesting antipyretic effect of BLE.

Lokesh K. Verma

2012-07-01

170

EFFECT OF FOOD ADDITIVES (MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE AND SODIUM NITRITE) ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Food additives are substances used in food industry in order to improve the foods taste and appearance by preserving its flavor and preventing it from souring. We study the adverse effect of some food additives on the biochemical parameters in adult male albino rats by daily oral exposure of (15mg/kg body weight),(5mg/kg body weight) of Monosodium glutamate and Sodium nitrite respectively, for 4 weeks and show the alteration of the results of these biochemical parameters in serum of ad...

Eman Salah Abdel-reheim, Hanan Abdel-hameid Abdel-hafeez

2014-01-01

171

Effects of Origanum majorana L. on cadmium induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in albino rats.  

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OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of Origanum majorana L. (OM) against cadmium (Cd)-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. METHODS This study was performed at King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from September to December 2010. Thirty-six male albino rats were divided into 6 groups: control, Cd, OM, OM+Cd, OM pre-treated (received OM extract for 14 days followed by Cd for 14 days), OM post-treated (received Cd for 14 days followed by OM extract for 14 days). All...

Shati, Ali A.

2011-01-01

172

Displaced retinal ganglion cells in albino and pigmented rats  

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Full Text Available We have studied in parallel the population of displaced retinal ganglion cells (dRGCs and normally placed (orthotopic RGCs, oRGCs in albino and pigmented rats. Using retrograde tracing from the optic nerve, from both superior colliculi (SC or from the ipsilateral SC in conjunction with Brn3 and melanopsin immunodetection, we report for the first time their total number and topography as well as the number and distribution of those dRGCs and oRGCs that project ipsi- or contralaterally and/or that express any of the three Brn3 isoforms or melanopsin. The total number of RGCs (oRGCs+dRGCs is 84,7061,249 in albino and 90,4402,236 in pigmented, out of which 2,383 and 2,428 are melanopsin positive (m-RGCs, respectively. Regarding dRGCs: i/ albino rats have a significantly lower number of dRGCs than pigmented animals (0.5% of the total number of RGCs vs. 2.5%, respectively, ii/ dRGCs project massively to the contralateral SC, iii/ the percentage of ipsilaterality is higher for dRGCs than for oRGCs, iv/ a higher proportion of ipsilateral dRGCs is observed in albino than pigmented animals, v/ dRGC topography is very specific, they predominate in the equatorial temporal retina, being densest where the oRGCs are densest, vi/ Brn3a detects all dRGCs except half of the ipsilateral ones and those that express melanopsin, vii/ the proportion of dRGCs that express Brn3b or Brn3c is slightly lower than in the oRGC population, viii/ a higher percentage of dRGCs (13% albino, 9% pigmented than oRGCs (2.6% express melanopsin, ix/ few m-RGCs (displaced and orthotopic project to the ipsilateral SC, x/ the topography of m-dRGCs does not resemble the general distribution of dRGCs, xi/ The soma size in m-oRGCs ranges from 10 to 21 m and in m-dRGCs from 8 to 15 m, xii/ oRGCs and dRGCs have the same susceptibility to axonal injury and hypertension. Although the role of mammalian dRGCs remains to be determined, our data suggest that they are not misplaced by an ontogenic mistake.

Marta Agudo-Barriuso

2014-10-01

173

Displaced retinal ganglion cells in albino and pigmented rats  

OpenAIRE

We have studied in parallel the population of displaced retinal ganglion cells (dRGCs) and normally placed (orthotopic RGCs, oRGCs) in albino and pigmented rats. Using retrograde tracing from the optic nerve, from both superior colliculi (SC) or from the ipsilateral SC in conjunction with Brn3 and melanopsin immunodetection, we report for the first time their total number and topography as well as the number and distribution of those dRGCs and oRGCs that project ipsi- or contralaterally and/o...

Marta Agudo-Barriuso

2014-01-01

174

Biochemical Effects Of Ribavirin (Antiviral And Ddb (Hepato Protective Drugs In Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present investigation has been designed to through spot light on the efficiency of these two drugs in treatment of hepatitis patients. Cortisol, antigliadin (1gG , total protein (TP albumin (ALB , Iron (Fe , alanine aminotransferase (ALT , aspartic aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were determined in serum of normal mature male and female albino rats that injected intraperitoneally day after day with 1mg/kg body weight of each drug separately for 3 months. The cortisol level and ALP showed significant increase in each of ribavirin or DDB treated animals, while the IgG concentration in ribavirin treated animals increased significantly, but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animals. On the other hand both ribavirin and DDB treated male and female rats showed significant decrease in the ALT in serum while serum AST elicited non significant decrease in each of ribavirin and DDB treated male and female. With respect to serum TP and ALB levels the result showed significant decrease in ribavirin and non significant decrease in DDB treated male and female rats. Furthermore, the serum Fe level in ribavirin treated male and female rats increased significantly but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animal.

Soliman S. Ibrahim, Amr Shalaby and Mahmoud Rabeh

2005-09-01

175

The protective role of damsissa (Ambroosia Maritima) against gamma irradiation in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work was directed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with damsissa (Ambrosia maritima) for thirty consecutive days pre- irradiation exposure in controlling the post-irradiation hazards in irradiated rats. Male albino rats (Spraue Dowley strain) weighing about 120+- 10 g were used and blood samples were collected from tails of animals thirty days after treatment with damsissa and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysis such as liver functions, kidney function and lipid profile. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant decrease in the contents of total proteins accompanied by significant increase of urea level as recorded on the 7th days post irradiation. Data obtained in this study revealed that whole body gamma irradiation induced significant elevation in all tested blood lipid functions. There was significant increase of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) whole alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed statistical significant decrease as compared with the control group. Damisissa (Ambrosia maritima) treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of damsissa may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

176

Erythropoietin-Like Effects of Dihydroartemisinin in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day and 7-day oral Dihydroartemisinin (DHA treatments with 5 dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin on the blood and six vital organs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The dosages of DHA tested on 5 test adult Wistar albino rats (weight = 106-140 grams were 1, 2, 60 or 80 mg Kg-1 rat weight of DHA by oral intubation for 5 or 7 days. Four rats of similar weight which served as controls in each experiment were given distilled water equivalents of the administered doses of DHA. Another group of 5 test rats and four control rats (weight 75-90 gms were given 1 mg kg-1 rat weight of DHA or distilled water for 5 or 7 days and were allowed to rest for one week after which the treatment was repeated. Results: The findings of the study showed that Dihydroartemisinin (DHA had erythropoietin-like properties. In the study DHA produced dose, repetition and time dependent statistically significant increases in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: This result suggested that the administered DHA inhibited its own stimulated statistically significant increases in the PCV and the WBC of the treated rats through an inhibitory (negative feed-back effect. The structure and composition of the blood cell types like the presence of large numbers of reticlocytes and left-shifted neutrophils in the blood samples of 5-day DHA -treated rats but not in those of 7-day DHA treated rats indicated that new haemopoiesis was actively going on in the first 5 days of DHA treatment but had slowed down by the sixth and seventh day of treatment. The initial stimulation of haemopoiesis and later inhibition of haemopoesis by a negative feed-back effect on haemopoiesis suggest that DHA has erythropoietin-like properties.

Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

2011-01-01

177

An experimental study of the effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract on cutaneous burn wound healing in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies conducted on the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) extract led us to study the effect of topical chamomile extract on burn wound healing in albino rats. Thirty male albino rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Second-degree burning was induced in 20% of whole surface area of animal body by placing the back of animal into boiling water for 8s. Animals of control group received no treatment. Animals of vehicle and treatment groups were treated topically by olive oil and extract dissolved in olive oil twice a day respectively from the first day of burn induction to complete wound healing. The percentage of wound healing was calculated weekly. The results showed that there was significant difference (p chamomile extract in the form of rubbing oil had a good potential for acceleration of burn wound healing in rats. PMID:18404562

Jarrahi, Morteza

2008-03-20

178

Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis  

OpenAIRE

A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with...

Anbalagan, T.

2009-01-01

179

Effect of Some Food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products) of Young Albino RatsI- Liver and Kidney Functions  

OpenAIRE

Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll) and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow), food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect m...

Zaahkouk, Eman G. E. Helal Samir A. M.

2000-01-01

180

CURATIVE EFFECT OF ABHRAK BHASMA ON LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INTOXICATED ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available In Ayurveda, many drugs are mentioned to treat liver and kidney diseases. Abhrak bhasma is commonly used Ayurvedic medicine against many diseases including hepatitis. This study was planned to investigate the curative effect of abhrak bhasma in liver and kidney functions in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ kg body wt were given in curative experimental schedule in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 increased serum Aspartate Transaminase (AST, Alanine Transaminase (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP activities reflected intoxication that produced cellular degeneration or destruction. With increasing doses of abhrak bhasma given to CCl4 treated rats in 7 days hepatocure schedule normalized the elevated activities of AST, ALT and ALP. Similarly CCl4 mediated increased contents of conjugated, unconjugated and total bilirubin level was reduced with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent bilirubin clearance efficiency. Abhrak bhasma also mediated urea and creatinine clearance indicating renal curative potency. It was found that abhrak bhasma has more curative effects than SiO2 doses. The present findings concluded that abhrak bhasma possess dose dependent curative effects against CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidneys functions in albino rat.

Parashuram B Teli, Priti B Chougule Jaywant T Jadhav and Aruna A Kanase

2014-01-01

181

Effect of Some Antioxidants on the Physical Fitness of Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, more attention has been paid for searching of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in either medicinal practice or as food raw materials. The aim of the present research is to assess the effect of several well-known products used as antioxidants, on body weight, haemopoesis, endocrine system and lipid profile in normal albino rats. Thirty male adult albino rats were equally arranged into 5 groups, the first group was served as control and the others received special treatments where taurine (2% in drinking water), tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w. orally), hawthorn extract (50 mg/100 g b.w. orally) and coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg b.w. orally) were given for two months. Body weight was regularly recorded twice a week and at the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) content, reticulocytic count, white blood cell count (WBCs) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were estimated in blood, while, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), Testosterone, and corticosterone hormones besides lipid profile were estimated in the serum. The results denoted that although there is a slight improvement in the parameters tested, it does not deserve the coast of the regular use of these antioxidants and further investigations still needed

182

Hepatoprotective effects of curcumin against diethyl nitrosamine induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Curcumin is widely used as a traditional medicine. This work was aimed to investigate its possible protective effect against chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats. Fifty male albino rats were divided into five groups (n=10, each). The control group received a single dose of normal saline, the diethylnitrosamine (DENA) group received a single intra-peritoneal dose at 200mg/kg body weight, and the 3rd, 4th and 5th groups were given DENA and daily administrated curcunine (CUR) via intra-gastric intubation in doses of 300,200 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. respectively for 20 weeks. Serum, and liver samples were used for determination of alpha feto-protein (AFP), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukine-6 (IL-6), serum liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP and GGT) levels as well the activities and gene expression of glutathione peroxidise (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and super oxide dismutase (SOD). Curcumin significantly lowered the serum levels of AFP, IL-2 and IL-6, ALT, ALT, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well gene expression of IL-2 and IL-6. In contrast it increased the gene expression and activities of Gpx, GRD, CAT and SOD. The protective effect of CUR against DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in albino rats was proven. PMID:25640336

Kadasa, Naif Mohammed; Abdallah, Haytham; Afifi, Mohamed; Gowayed, Salah

2015-01-01

183

Circadian Rhythm of Outside-Nest Activity in Wild (WWCPS), Albino and Pigmented Laboratory Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS), two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans), and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar). Rats were placed in purpose-built enclosures and their cycle of activity (time spent actively outside the nest) has been studied for one week in standard light conditions and for the next one in round-the-clock darkness. The analysis of circadian pattern of outside-nest activity revealed differences between wild, pigmented laboratory, and albino laboratory strains. During daytime, albino rats showed lower activity than pigmented rats, greater decrease in activity when the light was turned on and greater increase in activity when the light was switched off, than pigmented rats. Moreover albino rats presented higher activity during the night than wild rats. The magnitude of the change in activity between daytime and nighttime was also more pronounced in albino rats. Additionaly, they slept outside the nest more often during the night than during the day. These results can be interpreted in accordance with the proposition that intense light is an aversive stimulus for albino rats, due to lack of pigment in their iris and choroid, which reduces their ability to adapt to light. Pigmented laboratory rats were more active during lights on, not only in comparison to the albino, but also to the wild rats. Since the difference seems to be independent of light intensity, it is likely to be a result of the domestication process. Cosinor analysis revealed a high rhythmicity of circadian cycles in all groups. PMID:23762462

Stryjek, Rafa?; Modli?ska, Klaudia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Pisula, Wojciech

2013-01-01

184

Protective role of desferrioxamine against gamma-irradiation induced histopathological damage in albino rats' liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Possible role of desferrioxamine (Dfx) against histopathological damages induced by ?-rays is evaluated.Male albino rats were divided into 4 groups. 1st group control animals, 2nd group: animals were exposed to whole body ?-irradiation (6 Gy), 3rd group: animals received intra peritoneal (I.P.) injections of Dfx for one week (250 mg/kg body wt) and 4th group: animals received Dfx one week before irradiation. The animals were investigated after 1, 7 and 21 days from irradiation.The results obtained revealed that exposure to ionizing-radiation caused histopathological disorders in liver tissues manifested as degeneration and vaculation of hepatocytes, pyknosis of nuclei, hepatocytes and congestion and dilation of blood sinusoids after 1, 7 and 21 days of irradiation.On the other hand, Dfx protected rats showed reduction in the histopathological changes produced by ?-irradiation.Thus, it could be concluded that Dfx might provide protection against radiation that induced histopathological damage in liver.

185

Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:22131741

Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B; Prajapati, P K; Bhat, Savitha D

2010-07-01

186

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities along with the phytochemical screening of hot methanolic extract of A. scholaris stem bark (ASE in albino rats was undertaken. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, phystosterols, phenolic compounds, glycoside and flavonoids. Oral LD50 of ASE by limit test was found to be above 2000 mg/kg. Two dose level of 200 (1/10 LD50 and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50 were selected for studying the anti -inflammatory activity of ASE using the carrageenan - induced acute paw oedema model in rats. The extract showed significant (p < 0.01 dose dependent reduction in rat paw oedema. The percentages of inhibition of oedema were 42.55 and 53.19 with 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. doses of ASE, respectively, as compared to control. The anti-inflammatory action of ASE can be attributed to its flavonoid contents, which are known to act through inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis.

Aruna K. Singh

2014-04-01

187

HYPOCHOLESTEROLAEMIC EFFECT OF SPIRULINA AND LIV-52 IN LEAD INDUCED TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS  

OpenAIRE

Effect of spirulina and Liv-52 on lead induced hypercholesteroleamia in albino rats was studied. Oral administration of lead acetate(10mg/kg body weight/day) for 30 days resulted in a significant increase(P

Jeyaprakash, K.; Chinnaswamy, P.

2004-01-01

188

Effect of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits  

OpenAIRE

Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both grou...

Narayana, D. B. A.

2011-01-01

189

Circadian Rhythm of Outside-Nest Activity in Wild (WWCPS), Albino and Pigmented Laboratory Rats  

OpenAIRE

The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS), two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans), and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar). Rats were placed in purpose-built en...

Stryjek, Rafa?; Modlin?ska, Klaudia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Pisula, Wojciech

2013-01-01

190

Effects of Junk Foods on Brain Neurotransmitters (Dopamine and Serotonin) and some Biochemical Parameters in Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nutritional Habits have changed significantly and junk foods have become widely popular, in recent years. The present study aimed to shed the light on the effect of potato chips and / or ketchup consumption on some biochemical parameters. Sixty four male and female albino rats were used in the study. Animals were maintained on 0.25 g potato chips/ rat and / or 0.125 g ketchup / rat, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Potato chips showed the lowest body wt gain in the male rats after 4 weeks but, ketchup modulated this negative effect of the potato chips in the group of male animals fed on potato chips plus ketchup. Potato chips significantly decreased brain serotonin, liver glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in both sexes; brain dopamine, serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, ?2- and ?1-globulins in the females and serum thyroxine (T4) in the male rats. Ketchup apparently affected serum T4 and A / G ratio in both sexes, brain dopamine and liver GSH in the males in addition to brain serotonin, serum total globulins and ?1-globulin in the female rats. Potato chips plus ketchup significantly changed T4, dopamine, GSH, CAT, ?1 and ?2-globulins in both sexes; serotonin and ?1-globulin in the male rats, total proteins and albumin in the females. It could be concluded that potato chips consumption might induce numerous adverse effects in various body organsus body organs

191

The protective effect of L-tryptophan versus alpha lipoic acid against L-arginine-induced experimental acute pancreatitis in albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Aim of the study: This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effects of L- treptophan "a precursor of melatonin" and alpha lipoic acid against L- arginine-induced experimental acute pancreatitis in albino rats. Methods: Fourty adult male albino rats (200- 250g) were randomized into 4 groups (n= 10). Group I, the control group was given 0.9% saline intraperitoneally (i.p). Group II, was given 500 mg/100g L-arginine (i.p) as a single dose to induce acute pancreatitis. Group...

Lamia M Farghaly, Nagwan A. Sabak And Naglaa A. El-sherbeny

2007-01-01

192

GABA-immunoreactive starburst amacrine cells in pigmented and albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we tested whether the critical anatomical substrate for retinal direction selectivity is altered in albino mammals. We used dual immunostaining for GABA and choline acetyltransferase and quantitatively analyzed the number of double-labelled starburst amacrine cells in wild-type and albino rats. In albino rats, the percentage of ON-amacrine cells with high GABA content was significantly lower than in pigmented animals. OFF-amacrines did not significantly differ between the two rat strains. Thus, the decreased GABA content in ON-amacrine cells could reflect an altered neuronal substrate for retinal direction selectivity. These results are discussed in relation to the optokinetic deficits described in albino mammals. PMID:15579175

Blaszczyk, W M; Telkes, I; Distler, C

2004-12-01

193

Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn fruits against cadmium chloride toxicity in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work is aimed to investigate the toxicity of 1/20 LD50 of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on male albino rats by oral ingestion and to determine the hepatoprotective effect of Solanum nigrum Linn (SN) dried fruits and their ethanolic extract against CdCl2 toxicity using biochemical parameters. Rats were divided into six groups; the first group is control, second group is CdCl2-intoxicated rats, third group is fed with a semi-modified diet with S. nigrum fruits, fourth group rats ingested with dried extract, and intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) were treated with fruits and ethanolic extract of S. nigrum, respectively. The results showed that rats exposed to CdCl2 induced remarkable decrease in body weight gain, feed efficiency, and Hb, Hct, RBC, and WBC count and MCHC, but increase in MCV and MCH values. In the case of plasma enzymes, there were significant stimulations observed in ALT and AST, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and LDH activities of CdCl2-intoxicated rats (group 2) compared to control (group 1). Plasma protein profile showed decreases in total soluble protein and albumin; also globulin content was decreased by CdCl2 ingestion. Under the same condition, plasma total bilirubin and glucose levels were increased in group 2. In addition, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system (GSH, catalase, and SOD) of liver were harmed by CdCl2 ingestion. Whereas, normal rats treated with SN showed insignificant changes in groups 3 and 4 as compared to control (group 1). The treatment with dried fruits and their ethanolic extract in CdCl2-intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) ameliorated and improved these harmful effects in all above parameters either for blood or liver. The results of this study suggest the protective effect of S. nigrum against liver injury happened by CdCl2 which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity and thereby. PMID:25022247

Abdel-Rahim, Emam A; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E; Ali, Rhaam F; Mahmoud, Hend A

2014-09-01

194

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREADA  

OpenAIRE

Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy) the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled a...

Marisa Pascale Quintino; Manuel de Jesus Simes; Mary Uchiyama Nakamura; Ricardo Martins de Oliveira-Filho; Silvia Espiridio; Luiz Kulay Jnior

2003-01-01

195

The effect of anticonvulsant drugs on the development of male rats and their fertility.  

OpenAIRE

Albino male rats were injected with diphenylhydantoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid or clonazepam for three months immediately after weaning. Following the treatment the fertility of the rats was tested by caging them with proestrus females and recording impregnations. The males were decapitated and their sex organs weighed. Epididymal sperm content and motility rate were recorded. A decrease in the prostate weight was found in the valproic acid and the carbamazepine treated rats. Epididymal ...

Cohn, D. F.; Homonnai, Z. T.; Paz, G. F.

1982-01-01

196

Evaluation of Carrot Pomace (Daucus carota L. as Hypocholesterolemic and Hypolipidemic Agent on Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The current study examined the attenuating influence of dietary carrot pomace powder (CaPP on hypercholesterolemia and various oxidative stress-associated with biochemical parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty two male albino rats weighing 11010 g were divided into four groups, the first group received the basal diet only and served as (negative control, the second group received the hypercholesterolemic diet and served as positive control, the other groups received hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 10%, 20% CaPP for six weeks. The obtained results revealed that groups supplemented with 10% and 20% CaPP significantly decrease total lipid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, liver enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase compared to positive and negative groups. Organs weight, body weight gain significantly decreased compared with positive control. Moreover dietary carrot pomace powder can used to reduce the body weight and reducing hypercholesterolemic complications. In addition, dietary carrot pomace powder serves to improve the blood picture and to reduce the blood glucose level in hypercholesterolemic rats and could use in obese people for body loss. Data of kidney function (Urea record an increase in CaPP 20% level (26.92.96 but this increase was non significant with the negative control group (26.63.1.

Abd El-Moneim M.R. AFIFY

2013-02-01

197

Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis  

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Full Text Available A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with seaweed diet evidenced theiractive participation on the metabolism of the experimental subject. These findings w ere well correlated w ithhistological observation in the liver and intestine shows the hepatocyte appearance and deposited fat and fociat necrosis is also seen in photomicrographs.

T. Anbalagan

2009-10-01

198

Changes In Some Haematological And Biochemical Parameters of Albino Rats In Response to Low-energy Diet  

OpenAIRE

The effect of low-energy diet (Low protein or low fat-diet) was studied using male albino rats. The experiment was expended to 45 days (30 days treatment and 15 days recovery period). Body weight gain or loss as well as blood samples for blood picture (R.B.CS. W.B.CS count, Hb. concentration, Hct value and erythrocyte indices such as MCV, MCH and MCHC) well recorded Biochemical examination for glucose concentration, total protein, albumin, globulin and A/g ratio. Triglyceride level, total cho...

Rashed, Somaia Z. A.

2000-01-01

199

Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress

200

Effect of Xylooligosaccharide Enriched Yogurt on Serum Profile in Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

The effect of Xylooligosaccharide (XO) enriched yogurt in addition to basal diet on serum biochemical profile of albino rats assigned to 5 dietary treatments for a period of 21 days were studied. In all groups of rats (n = 5) serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were observed. The weight gain in rats receiving yogurt was higher than those in control group. XO enriched yogurt showed significant improvement in minerals absorption. There was no significant change in serum cholesterol lev...

Semee Mumtaz; Salim-ur- Rehman; Nuzhat Huma; Amer Jamil

2009-01-01

201

Histological and Physiological Alterations Induced by Thermal Neutron Fluxes in Male Swiss Albino Mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was performed to investigate the biological effects of different thermal neutron fluxes (0.27x108, 0.52X108, 1.089X108, 2.16X108 and 4.32X108) on liver and kidney of male mice using neutron irradiation cell with Ra-Be(?,n) 3 mCi neutron source Leybold (55930). Exposed to various fluxes of thermal neutron induced a dramatic alterations in hepatic and renal functions as indicated by biochemical estimation of several parameters (bilirubin, SGT, and alkaline phosphate .Urea , total protein, and albumin) and confirmed by histological examinations Thermal neutron exposure induces marked increase in the serum activities of total bilirubin, alanine amino transaminase (ALT or GPT), and alkaline phosphate, whereas, urea, total protein and albumin showed marked decline as compared to control group. The physiological changes induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. Histopathological results revealed mild to severe type of necrosis, and degenerative changes in liver and kidney of male mice exposed to thermal neutron fluxes. Also it was found that the histopathological alterations induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. It was found that exposed to thermal neutron fluxes irradiation plays prominent role in the development of the physiological alterations in male Swiss albino mice. The Former up normalities as a result of the sequence events followed interaction of radiation with the former biological mater (liver and kidney) of male Swiss albino mice, which are, physical, physicochemical, chemical, and biological stages.

202

Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

2012-05-01

203

ANTI IMPLANTATION AND PREGNANCY INTERRUPTION ACTIVITY OF JAPAKUSUMA (HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Increase in population has affected many socio-economic conditions of people by increasing crimes, illiteracy, destructive activities, diseases, improper food and shelter. Thus to control this population and limit the family size at a personal level and at a national level, modern contraceptive methods and medicines were introduced long back. There are many new contraceptives available now, but they have various side effects. Some traditional practitioners used to dispense oral contraceptives mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Such as 1 Pippali (Piper longum, Vidanga (Emblica ribes and Tankana (Sodii Biboras. 2 Talisapatra (Taxus baccata and Gairika (Hematite with cold water and 3 Kanji bhavita Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis. An experimental study on above mentioned 1 and 2 formulations has proved its efficacy as temporary contraceptive medicine. To evaluate the permanent or long term temporary contraceptive effect of Japakusuma, an attempt was made in this study. Study was conducted by Choudary and Khanna method on 18 female, 36 male (for mating albino rats. Japakusuma, Propylene glycol, Ovral L formed the materials. Single dose was administered on proestrous stage of rat oestrous cycle and observed for anti-implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Test drug showed significant anti implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Thus showing the temporary contraceptive activity of Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis.

Kashinath Hadimur

2013-06-01

204

EFFECT OF IMIDACLOPRID ON THE BIOCHEMICAL CONTENTS OF KIDNEYS IN MALE SWISS ALBINO MICE  

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Full Text Available Six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F of male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus albinus were orally administered withvaried doses (0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg bw/mouse of imidacloprid; they showed significant decreasein protein, DNA and RNA content in the kidneys of all the treated groups of mice throughout the experimentalperiod (on day 1, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 30 of treatment when compared with controls. It is clear from the results thatthe insecticide caused marked disturbance in the metabolism of protein, DNA and RNA.

M. NAGA PRASANNA

2013-01-01

205

Cytotoxic Effect of Aspartame (Diet Sweet) on the Histological and Genetic Structures of Female Albino Rats and Their Offspring  

OpenAIRE

The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and ...

Ghaly, Inas S.; Abd Elfatah, Azza A. M.; Hanafy, Safaa M.

2012-01-01

206

A comparative study on the susceptibility of male and female albino mice to Trypanosoma brucei brucei  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: Trypanosomiasis has remained a major set-back in the development oflivestock farming in tropical Africa. Thus the need for ascertaining the trypanotolerant levels ofdomestic animal breeds and possible improvement on them cannot be over-emphasised.Methods: Level of trypanotolerance in animals was compared between sexes using albino mice infectedwith a Nigerian strain of Trypanosoma brucei brucei at a 50% mouse lethal dose (MLD50.Results: The male mice showed unrestrained parasite growth with a prepatent period (PP of two daysand a mean survival period (MSP of six days corresponding to a gradual decrease in packed cellvolume (PCV, body weight, diet response and white blood cells (WBC count to the time of death.Their female counterparts showed a PP of three days and MSP of ten days with a similar PCV gradientbut a refractory WBC count. There was no significant difference in the differential leucocytes countin both sexes. However, the eosinophils count was significantly higher in the infected animals. It wasfound that female albino mice exercised more parasite restraint than their male counterparts.Interpretation & conclusion: The result suggests that the female animals may be more trypanotoleranthence may be more useful in protein production in trypanosomiasis endemic areas. However, furtherresearch using large domestic breeds like goats and sheep may be required to confirm the hypothesis.

A.A. Turay, G.O. Nwobu, G.R.A. Okogun, C.U. Igwe, K. Adeyeye, K.E. Aghatise, H.O. Okpal & Y.M. Tatfeng

2005-03-01

207

Comparative study of Lansoprazole and Rabeprazole on ulcer healing property on albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Background: Proton pump inhibitors are widely used for gastroesophageal disorders. The present work was carried out to compare effect of lansoprazole & rabeprozole for gastric ulcer healing. Methods: The study was carried out on gastric ulcer induced by aspirin in albino rats. The rats were divided into control group lansoprazole group and rabeprazole group and the effects of the two drugs, with regards to mean ulcer index was compared with the control and with each other. Analysis of varianc...

Amit Kumar Jha; Rafat Ali Shakur; Asish Kumar Ram

2012-01-01

208

Anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera) in albino rats  

OpenAIRE

The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laborat...

Vikrama Chakravarthi, P.; Gopakumar, N.

2010-01-01

209

Hypoglycemic and antidiabetic profile of the aqueous root extracts of Leptadenia hastata in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic profile and the hypoglycaemic activity of aqueous root extracts of L. hastata in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats model. Eighty five albino rats were used for this study out of this thirty five were used subjected to experimental diabetes by the use of alloxan at a dose of 160 mg kg(-1) body weight. Seven experimental groups of five rats per group (A-G) were used for this study. A standard antidiabetic drug (insulin) group (B) and normal saline group (G) serves as positive control. The blood glucose lowering activity of the extract, insulin and normal saline groups were monitored at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 hpost extract administration. On the other hand the remaining fifty albino rats were used to determine the acute toxicity and the hypoglycemic activity of the extract. The blood glucose levels of the rats were monitored at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post extract administration. Oral administration of aqueous root extract at 600 and 800 mg kg(-1) b.wt have significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the blood glucose in diabetic albino rats. On the other hand the hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous root extract on normal rats at dose of 1000 mg kg(-1) b.wt have significantly (p < 0.05) decreases blood glucose level in normal albino rats. The results of the current study have demonstrated the antidiabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of L. hastata aqueous root extracts and underscore its potentials in the management of diabetes mellitus especially following prolonged use in days. PMID:24171268

Sanda, K A; Sandabe, U K; Auwal, M S; Bulama, I; Bashir, T M; Sanda, F A; Mairiga, A

2013-02-15

210

Attenuation of Experimental Gastric Ulceration by Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the therapeutic dose of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine on experimentally induced gastric ulceration in albino rats. Rats were given sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (22.5 mg kg-1) intramuscularly for 24 h after formation of ulcers induced by indomethacin or by acidified ethanol. Upon sacrifice, colorimetric assays were applied to determine the concentration of protein and mucus, activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxid...

Olaleye, S. B.; Ajeigbe, K. O.

2009-01-01

211

Effect of Oilseed Diets on Plasma Lipid Profile in Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

The effect of fermented melon seed oil (Citrullus lanatus) (Ogiri) and palm kernel oil on the plasma lipid profile of female albino rats were investigated. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups and fed diet composed with fermented melon seed oil, palm kernel oil and control diet for seven weeks. After the feeding trial, plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (p<0.05) than control in palm kernel oil diet while there was no significant...

Ajayi, Olubunmi Bolanle; Ajayi, David Dais

2009-01-01

212

Exploring Hepatotoxicity of Benomyl: Histological and Histochemical Study on Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Benomyl, a fungicide of the benzimidazole group applied against a wide range of fungal diseases of crops and vegetables. The effects of benomyl on the hepatic tissue of albino rats were investigated. Treating rats with benomyl at a dose level of 1/10 LD50 three times/week for three weeks induced various histopathological changes in the liver, such as hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, leucocytic infiltrations, congestion of blood vessels and fatty degener...

Sakr, Saber A.; Abdel Samei, Hany A.; Soliman, Maha E.

2004-01-01

213

Antidiabetic Potentiality of the Aqueous-Methanolic Extract of Seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Correlative and Evidence-Based Approach with Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities  

OpenAIRE

Antidiabetic, antioxidative, and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous-methanolic (2?:?3) extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. (family Meliaceae) seed studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Feeding with seed extract (25?mg 0.25?mL distilled water?1100?gm b.w.?1rat?1?day?1) for 21 days to diabetic rat lowered the blood glucose level as well as the glycogen level in liver. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, and levels of t...

Debidas Ghosh; Tushar Kanti Bera; Kausik Chatterjee; Kazi Monjur Ali; Debasis De

2011-01-01

214

ANTIFERTILITY EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC STALK EXTRACT OF PIPER BETEL LINN ON FEMALE ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To study the antifertility effect of methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn (PBL in female albino rats.Three months young female albino rats were administered with graded doses of methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn for 30 consecutive days and the effect of the extract on the estrus cycle was assessed by observing the changes produced in the vaginal smear, over the 30 days observation period, in comparison to the control. The rats treated with PBL showed highly significant (p<0.05, dose-dependent decrease in the numbers of estrus phase, in comparison to control rats. Large, cornified cells appeared after proestrus phase and number of cornified cells per field decreased. There was no significant change in the number of proestrus, Metestrus or diestrus phases of the estrus cycle, in the PBL treated group in comparison to control. Anestrus phase appeared in all the rats treated with PBL extract, which was not observed in the control group. The methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn possesses antifertility activity in female albino rats.

Pradhan Manas Ranjan

2013-01-01

215

Physiological Effect Of Peri winkle (C.roseus On Diabetic Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available Back ground: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major health problem worldwide in recent time. Asia and Africa are the most viable areas where the disease is feared to raise 23 folds. Many herbal products have been recommended for the treatment of DM in ancient literature of Ayurveda in India and other worldwide.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Catharanthus rosea (C.roseus on diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic C.roseus treated groups. After thirty days of treatment all rats of each group were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid and protein profiles, liver and kidney functions, blood picture and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. Pancreatic samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with heamatoxylin and eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the islets of Langerhans.Results: The obtained results showed that the diabetic rats were diagnosed by laboratory assessment to body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia, significant increase in liver and kidney functions, lipid and protein profiles and decreased liver glycogen content. While, C.roseus treatment led to a significant improvement in these parameters except liver function. Microscopically there was definite vaculation, degeneration, karyolysis and pyknosis of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of C.roseus treatment of this study greatly improves such cellular changes.Conclusion: It was recommended that the use of the water extract of C. roseus levies as a hypoglycemic agent may offer a new hope to the diabetics in future. It's well recommended to use variable doses and different periods of treatment to evaluate the best dose and period

Eman G.E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab*, Atef M. moussa** and Anwaar A. Mohammad

2012-10-01

216

Effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression in male albino Rattus norvegicus  

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Full Text Available Objective : The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 50 g. The effect of O. sanctum and C. sinensis was evaluated for anxiety and depression using elevated plus maze (EPM test, open field test (OFT, forced swim test (FST, and tail suspension test (TST. Result : Restraint stress (3 h/day for six consecutive days induced a significant reduction in both the percentage number of entries and time spent in open arms in EPM, and these changes were reversed with post-treatment of aqueous extract of O. sanctum and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg for 6 days. Restraint stress-induced (a increased latency and (b decreased ambulation and rearing were also reversed by O. sanctum and C. sinensis in OFT. A significant increase in immobility period was observed in FST and TST after restraint stress. O. sanctum and C. sinensis significantly reduced the immobility times of rats in FST and TST. Conclusion : O. sanctum and C. sinensis possess anxiolytic and antidepressant activities.

Tabassum Imrana

2010-01-01

217

Acute Effect of Fansidar and Antioxidant Vitamin C Co- administration on Serum Lipid profile of Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of the lipid profile of fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C co-administration in albino wistar rats.Methodology: Thirty (30 Wistar albino rats ranging from 175-200g were randomly assigned into six (6 study groups of five (5 rats each Viz: I, II, III, IV, V and VI of ten rats per group. Group I served as male control group. Group II served as female control group. Group III served as male fansidar alone treated group. Group IV served as female fansidar alone treated group. Group V served as male fansidar and Vitamin C treated group while group VI served as female fansidar and vitamin C treated group. Each rat was housed in a wooden cage. The animal room was ventilated and kept at room temperature and relative humidity of 29c and 40-70% respectively with 12 hours natural light-dark cycle and were allowed free access to food and water ad libitum. Good hygiene was maintained by constant cleaning and removal of faeces and spilled from cages daily. Rats in all groups were weighed daily and sacrificed 24hours after the experimental periods of 14 days of oral administration and the serum were collected for lipid profile determination. Results: The body weight parameters of both male and female albino rats, showed significant increase (P<0.05 in both the control groups and fansidar + Vitamin C treated group when compared with their initial weights while the group treated with fansidar alone, showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in weight when compared with the initial weight for both genders. Likewise, the fansidar treated groups showed a significant increase (P<0.05 in serum cholesterol when compared with the control while the fansidar + Vitamin C treated group showed no significant difference in total serum cholesterol when compared with the control. The group treated with fansidar alone showed a significant decrease in serum HDL when compared with the control while the group treated with fansidar + Vitamin C showed a significant increase when compared with the control. The treated groups also produced a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum LDL, VLDL and TG when compared with the control. Also, in female albino rats, both treated groups produced a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum total cholesterol when compared with the control. Though the group treated with fansidar alone produce a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum HDL, a significant increase (P<0.05 was observed in groups treated with fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C. The group treated with fansidar alone produce a significant (P<0.05 reduction in serum LDL while groups treated with fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C produced a significant (P<0.05 increase when compared with the control .Likewise, both treated groups produced a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum VLDL when compared with the control. The serum triglyceride in fansidar treated group was significantly(P<0.05 decreased in fansidar+ Vit.C treated group when compared with the control. Conclusion:The biochemical alterations and responses above from this study are indications that fansidar and Vitamin C exhibits a synergistic reaction which might aid hypocholesterolaemic effect or cholesterol clearing or lowering ability which can reduce the risk of predisposition to atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular related disorders.

Dasofunjo Kayode

2014-10-01

218

Intrathecal Ketorolac Injection in Albino Rats;Pharmacological and Histological study  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Ketorolac tromethamine is a potent injectable non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID. Ketorolac provides successful analgesia after intrathecal or epidural injection. It is frequently used to manage post-operative pain, cancer pain, and arthritis either intrathecally, or intramuscular. However, its long term administration could induce renal toxicity and/or gastro-intestinal ulceration. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to assess the analgesic potency of ketorolac after intrathecal injection. Also, we aimed to study the histological effect of ketorolac on the spinal cord and the duodenum after treatment in an animal model. Methods: 40 adult male albino rats, weighing 250-350 gm, were used and divided into 4 groups, 10 rats each. Group S (control received 10l normal saline intrathecally, group K50 received 50g ketorolac intrathecally, group K50 + omeprazole (proton pump inhibitor received 50g ketorolac intrathecally plus 0.2 mg omeprazole orally, and finally, group K100 received 100g ketorolac intrathecally. All animals were treated for four successive days. Result: The rat tail flick latency was longer in K50, K50 + omeprazole, and K100 groups when compared to normal control (P = 0.002. Also, the hind-paw withdrawal latency was longer in treated groups when compared to those of the control group (P = 0.0001. Moreover, K50 group showed decreased phase II response by 61%, K50 + omeprazole group showed decreased phase II by 62%, while K100 group showed decreased it by 76%. Histological examination revealed no changes in the spinal cord of all treated animals. Also, examination of the duodenum showed normal duodenal mucosa in group K50 and those of group K50 + omeprazole. On the other hand, cellular infiltration as well as destruction of the mucous acini have been noticed in the duodenum of K100 group. Conclusion: Ketorolac could be a good alternative drug used intrathecally to manage pain.

Tarek A. Atia, **Mostafa I. Shalaby, ***Nemat M. Al-Baz

2008-12-01

219

Alteraciones en las caractersticas morfomtricas del rin de ratas albinas machos provocadas por la ingestin crnica de etanol desde la adolescencia / Alterations in the morphometric features of kidney of male albino rats provoked by chronic ingestion of ethanol from the adolescence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se pretendi determinar las variaciones que sobre las caractersticas morfomtricas del rin provoca la ingestin crnica de etanol en ratas adolescentes, para lo cual se utilizaron 42 ratas albinas machos de 30 das de nacidas con las cuales se conformaron dos grupos de 21 a [...] nimales cada uno y con tiempos de tratamiento de tres y cinco meses y con estos, dos subgrupos: experimental y control. A las ratas experimentales se les suministr etanol a dosis de 5 g/kg de peso corporal mediante cnula intraesofgica. A las controles se les administr agua en lugar de etanol, en iguales condiciones. Se emplearon cortes histolgicos coloreados con tcnica PAS y se estudiaron las porciones contorneadas de los tbulos proximales y distales. Se calcul el rea de seccin transversal tubular y se midieron los volmenes nucleares de las clulas de ambos tbulos. Se comprob que las ratas experimentales mostraron volmenes nucleares menores que las controles. El grupo experimental mostr valores de reas de seccin transversal de los tbulos renales mayores que los controles, siendo estos valores superiores en los tbulos proximales en las ratas de cinco meses, y los distales en las ratas de tres meses. Se concluy que en la muestra estudiada el alcoholismo crnico iniciado en la adolescencia provoc variaciones morfomtricas en los tbulos proximales y distales del rin. Abstract in english Present paper allowed us to determine the variations exerted by the chronic ingestion of ethanol from the adolescence on the kidney morphometric features in 42 male albino rats of 30 days born divided into two groups of 21 animal each and with the treatment times of three and five months and with th [...] ese 42 animals into two subgroups: one of experimental type and other as control. The experimental rats received ethanol at 5 g/kg doses according to the body weight using an intraesophageal cannula. The control ones received water instead of ethanol in similar conditions. We used histological sections stained with PAS technique to study the outlined portions of the proximal and distal tubules. The tubular transversal section area was estimated measuring the nuclear volumes of cells in both tubules. It was demonstrated that the experimental rats showed higher values of the transversal section of renal tubules higher than the control ones, where these values were superior in proximal tubules in the five months old rats and the distal ones in the three months old. We conclude that in study sample the chronic alcoholism started during adolescence provoked morphometric variations in proximal and distal tubules of kidney.

Aleida, Herrera Batista; Giselle, Puldn Segu; Hctor, Ruiz Candina.

2010-06-01

220

Effect of Aloe vera extract on some physiological parameters in diabetic albino rats  

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Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract from Aloe vera on thirty adult male albino rats were divided into three groups, the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg / kg B.wt. and served as diabetic group and the third was injected with alloxan and treated with Aloe vera water extract ( 0.5 ml / 100 g B.wt. . After thirty days of treatment half of each group were scarified and the other one were left for 15 days without any additional treatment as a recovery period . The results revealed highly significant decrease ( p> 0.01 in blood glucose, and highly significant increase in both liver glycogen content and serum insulin level in the diabetic group treated with aqueos extract of A. vera when compared with the diabetic untreated group. It seems, therefore that water extract of A. vera results in a definite hypoglycemic, hyperinsulinemic effect. On the other hand, a significant increase of body weight gain and liver glycogen content was achieved. The results of this study clarify the role of Aloe vera active as antidiabetic plant and suggest a relationship between drenching. A. vera extract and insulin production which needs further investigation

Eman G.E. Helal; **Mohamad H.A. Hasan;***Ashraf M. Mustafa

2003-09-01

221

Microscopic Studies Of The Effect Of Some Food Additives On The Kidney Of Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available Recently the use of synthetic food coloring additives was increased and the levels of human exposure to such agents are very broad, thus feeding over long periods may continually possess potential hazards to the human health. Also most of the food colors tested in the conventional toxicity experiments showed toxic effects at very high level of intake i.e. 1-5 % in the diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological and histochemical effects of some of these substances (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow on the liver of adult albino rats. The study included three main parts: A. Histological studies on the liver under the effect of (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow substances. Using paraffin sections, which were stained with Hx & Eosin, Masson Trichrome B. Evaluation of histochemical activity of both alkaline phosphates enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes on the renal tissue. C. Statistical evaluation using image analyzer to detect glomerular area, area percentage of collagen fibers distribution and optical density of both alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in glomerulus and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity in renal tubules. Seventy adult male albino rats were used. Nitrate and sunset yellow were given orally through a gastric tube in dose of 1 mg / kg / b.w. daily. The animals were classified into seven groups. 1. Group I (Control group 2. Group II: The animals were given sodium nitrate in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt for one month. 3. Group III: The animals were given sun set yellow in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/day for one month. 4. Group IV: The animals were given sodium nitrate and sunset yellow for one month in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/for each drug in a separate manner. 5. Group V: The animals were given sodium nitrate similar to the previous dose as group II for one month and left 2 weeks without oral intubations. 6. Group VI: The animals were given sun set yellow No 6 in a dose and route of administrations as group III for one month and kept without intubations for 2 weeks. 7. Group VII: The animals were given both sodium nitrate & sunset yellow by the same dose and route of administration as in group IV for one month and kept without intubations for 2 weeks.

Abd El-Tawab M. Ismail - Ashraf M.Moustafa

2003-09-01

222

Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats: A newer model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents, namely silymarin  

OpenAIRE

Backgrounds: This study was conducted to establish olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in Wistar albino rats as a newer model to screen putative hepatoprotective agents namely silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups, namely vehicle control group (CG), olanzapine-treated group (OZ), and olanzapine plus silymarin (OZS) treated groups. Both the OZ and OZS groups were treated with the same dose of intraperitoneal olanzapine for 6 weeks and group OZS additionally r...

Sengupta Parama; Bagchi Chiranjib; Sharma Abhishek; Majumdar G; Dutta C; Tripathi Santanu

2010-01-01

223

EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BLACK CUMIN SEEDS (NIGELLA SATIVA L) ON EXPERIMENTAL ALBINO RATS.  

OpenAIRE

: Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (Rananculacene) or Black cumin seed is widely used in the Indian subcontinent in treatment of gastric ulcer as a traditional medicine. Aim: To investigate gastro-protective activity of aqueous extract of black cumin seeds in aspirin induced ulcer models in albino rats taking ranitidine as positive control. Settings and Design: Albino rats of Wistar strain, (150-200 g) was divided randomly into four groups (n=6) and received the following medications orally ...

Mohua* Sengupta*

2013-01-01

224

Effects of Dietary Advanced Lipid Oxidation End-products on Colitis Healing in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This Experiment is undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary advanced lipid oxidation end products on colitis healing in albino rats. 45 albino rats (divided into 3 groups - control, low dose and high dose ALE groups of average weight of 200g were used for this study. Colitis was induced in all groups using 6% acetic acid. The low and high doses were fed with 7.5g and 15g ALE respectively for 20 days. The control animals ate normal rat chow. The stools of all animals were scored according to the scale of Masonobu et al (2002 for 20 days. On days 7, 14 and 20 three animals were sacrificed from each group and 8cm of the colon was cut out for weight measurement and gross morphological scoring. The results show that on day 6 colitis scores were 0.63 0.03 (control, 0.80 0.03(low dose, 0.73 +_ 0.03(high dose. On day 20, 0.33 0.03 (control, 0.50 0.03 (low dose, 0.50 0.02 (high dose. ALE reduced colitis healing rate compared to the control. This study concludes that ALE aggravated acetic-acid induced colitis in albino rats.

Adeleye, G. S.

2013-04-01

225

Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats  

OpenAIRE

The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantl...

Sachdev, Devender O.; Gosavi, Devesh D.; Salwe, Kartik J.

2012-01-01

226

Effect of some medicinal plants on liver and kidney functions in diabetic albino rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the effect of aqueous extracts of five plants (Nigella sativa , Aloe vera, Ferula assafoetida, Boswellia carterii Birdw and Commiphora myrrha and their mixture on liver and kidney functions and protein profiles. Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into eight groups, the first served as control group, other groups were injected with alloxan(120mg/kg b.wt. The second group served as diabetic rats, the third were treated with a mixture (0.1g/100g b.wt, the fourth was treated with Nigella sativa (0.1g/100g b.wt, the fifth was treated with Aloe vera (0.05 g/100g b.wt , the sixth was treated with Ferula assafoetida (0.1g/100g b.wt, the seventh was treated with Boswellia carterri Birdw (0.1g/100g b.wt and the eighth group was treated with Commiphora myrrha (0.05 g/100g b.wt . After thirty days of treatment half of each group was decapitated and the other one was left for 15 days without any additional treatment as recovery period to followup their hazards if present. The results revealed highly significant increase (p<0.01 in serum transaminases (aspartate ( AST and alanine (ALT, alkaline phosphates (ALP, total bilirubin, urea and creatinine and recorded highly significant decrease (p<0.01 in serum total protein , albumin and globulin concentrations in the diabetic group when compared with normal rates. Otherwise, all plants extracts treated groups showed insignificant changes in the previous parameters when compared with control one . It seams, therefore that the water extracts of these plants and their mixture have protective effect against the side effects of alloxan on liver and kidney.

Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud

2005-06-01

227

Effect Of Some Slimming Drugs On Haematological And Some Vital Signs Of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Some of slimming drugs had been withdrawn from markets so, the present study was conducted to follow the effect of three different anorexic drugs; on the haematological and physical parameters of adults albino rats. The used drugs differ in their nature, where the first one i.e., apple-lite is a fully natural substance, the 2nd one i.e., mirapront-N. is a chemical substance and the 3rd one i.e., tenuate is a synthetic foamy filler substance. Fourty adult male albino rats (130 20g were randomly divided into four groups, ten on each treated group and ten for the first group which conserved as control group. The 2nd group was treated daily with apple-lite (3.5mg/ 100g.b.wt, the 3rd group was treated daily with mirapro-N (0.14mg/100g.b.wt and the 4th group was treated daily with tenuate (0.1 mg/100g.b.wt. Haematological parameters (RBCs, WBCs count, haemoglobin content (Hb, hematocrit value (Hct%, mean cell volume (MCV, mean cell heamoglobin (MCH and mean cell heamoglobin concentration (MCHC were detected after 30 days of treatment and also after 15 days of the last treatment as a recovery period. Also, body weight, percent of organs weight/body weight, skin-fold thickness and some vital measurements i.e. heart beats, respiratory rate and rectal temperature were recorded after the same periods of treatment and recovery. Haematological studies revealed that RBCs count, total WBCs count, Hb and Hct values were significantly decreased in the three groups treated daily with anorexic drugs for 30 days. These changes aere also recorded after the recovery period except in apple-lite treated group which showed insignificant change in RBCs and Hb after the recovery period. The calculated mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC recorded significant increase in apple-lite after treated and recovery periods, while non significant changes in MCHC were observed after mirapro-N and tenuate groups after treatment 30 daysfor 30 days but significant increase of MCHC was recorded after the recovery period of tenuate treated group. Skin-fold thickness of the three regions tested (gluteal, back and belly revealed significant decrease in all the treated groups except the belly region in apple-lite treated group which showed insignificant decrease after treatment for 30 days. Significant decrease of skin-fold thickness of different regions still present after the recovery period of 15 days in the three treated groups except the back region of mirapro-N and the belly region of apple-lite- treated rats which showed insignificant decrease. Percent of organs weight/body weight were affected according the type of tested drug, while apple-lite- caused non significant changes, mirapro-N caused significant increase in hepatosomatic ratio and cardiosomatic ratio, and significant decrease in gonadosomatic ratio. On the other hand, tenuate resulted in a significant increase in percentage weight of kidneys and hepatosomatic ratio and significant decrease of gonadosomatic ratio after treatment for 30 days. After the recovery period, apple-lite revealed significant decrease in brain/b.wt. ratio, while mirapro-N still affected kidneys, gonadosomatic ratio and brain and tenuate still affected gonadosomatic ratio and brain; they recorded significant decrease. The physical measurement of vital signs, i.e. heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature recorded insignificant change after treatment with apple-lite, mirapro-N and tenuate for 30 days, but significant increase of rectal temperature was recorded in the tenuate group of the treated rats. After recovery period insignificant changes in heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature of the treated rats were observed in the three treated groups.

Eman G.E. Helal* and Shadia, A. Radwan**

2007-03-01

228

Diuretic activity of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum extract in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity. PMID:25362605

Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad

2014-11-01

229

Effect of polytrin and gamma-Rays on nucleic acids in placenta of albino-Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this experiment 4 groups of pregnant female albino albino rats were used. The first group served as a control. The second group was irradiated with gamma rays (2 Gy) on day 12 of gestation. The third group was treated orally with polytrin on day 7 of gestation (1/100 LD 50). The last group was treated with polytrin as third group, then irradiated with (2 Gy) on day 12 of gestation. In group 2, severe degeneration in maternal and foetal rat placenta and marked loss of DNA in different layers were observed. The placenta of group 3 showed decrease in the content of RNA without loss in DNA content, in group 4 vacillation in different layers accompanied by decrease in DNA and RNA contents was noticed. 4 figs

230

Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of Basella alba in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was done to evaluate possible hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Basella alba in comparison with silymarin in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Six groups of six albino rats each received orally for 6 weeks, vehicle, paracetamol (2g/kg/day), paracetamol (2g/kg/day) plus silymarin (50mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (60mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (80mg/kg/day) and paracetamol (2g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (100mg/kg/day). Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by comparing serum bilirubin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, proteins, alkaline phosphatase and liver histopathology. Results were represented as mean SEM. One-way ANOVA was done followed by post hoc Tukey's test with a highly significance level of P silymarin. PMID:25347929

Das, Saibal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjib; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath

2014-10-28

231

Antidiabetic Potentiality of the Aqueous-Methanolic Extract of Seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Correlative and Evidence-Based Approach with Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antidiabetic, antioxidative, and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous-methanolic (2?:?3) extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. (family Meliaceae) seed studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Feeding with seed extract (25?mg 0.25?mL distilled water(-1)100?gm b.w.(-1)rat(-1)?day(-1)) for 21 days to diabetic rat lowered the blood glucose level as well as the glycogen level in liver. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, and levels of the products of free radicals like conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles were corrected towards the control after this extract treatment in this model. Furthermore, the seed extract corrected the levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins towards the control level in this experimental diabetic model. The results indicated the potentiality of the extract of S. mahagoni seed for the correction of diabetes and its related complications like oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. The extract may be a good candidate for developing a safety, tolerable, and promising neutraceutical treatment for the management of diabetes. PMID:20981322

De, Debasis; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

2011-01-01

232

The neurotoxic effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the retinal ganglion cells of the albino rat  

OpenAIRE

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) administered postnatally to the albino rat causes extensive destruction of the retina. This MSG effect does not result in complete blindness. Ganglion cells surviving the MSG treatment are healthy and functional. Using retrogradally transported HRP and Nissl itaining in whole mounted retinas, it \\vas found that the ganglion cells left after MSG treatment are nut smaller than those in controls, that these cells do not belong to one cel...

Rijn, C. M.; Marani, E.; Rietveld, W. J.

1986-01-01

233

Evaluation of wound healing effect of Jasminum grandiflorum in albino rats by histopathological studies  

OpenAIRE

Background: Wound healing is an important process in regeneration of the lost tissue, it involves various steps. Varieties of substances are known to interact in the healing process, some of the plant products are found to be beneficial. Jasmine leaves are mentioned to have healing effect in ancient literature. Hence the study was carried out to evaluate the wound healing effect by assessing the histopathological parameters. Methods: The study was done in the albino rats which were divided...

Ravishankar M; Revankar, Shreenivas P.; Jagadeesh K

2014-01-01

234

Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya  

OpenAIRE

Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orall...

Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Thomas Idowu; Godwin Avwioro; Luqman Olatubosun; Ganiyu Adeosun

2010-01-01

235

ANTI-PYRETIC ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANTS IN FEMALE ALBINO RATS: A PRELIMINARY REPORT  

OpenAIRE

Ethanolic extracts of Ailanthus exceisa (AE). Toddalia asiatica (TA) and Araucaria bidwilli (AB) were screened by the anti-pyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermic test model in the laboratory. Dose of AE (100), TA (60) and AB (30) mg., equivalent of the plant material per kg. Body weight of the extracts were administered orally to the female albino rats. Acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening were conducted for all the extracts. LD 50 values on oral administration of th...

Suresh, B.; Dhanasekaran, S.; Elango, K.; Sethuraman, M.; Rajan, S.

1995-01-01

236

Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats  

OpenAIRE

The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group) after oral administration of polar (PF) and non-polar (NPF) fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Me...

Roop, J. K.; Dhaliwal, P. K.; Guraya, S. S.

2005-01-01

237

Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet  

OpenAIRE

Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol). The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL) on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (...

Saikia, H.; Lama, A.

2011-01-01

238

PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.  

Science.gov (United States)

Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier. PMID:22557209

Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R

2006-01-01

239

Prolactin effect on the insulin content of albino rats in different physiological states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolic action of prolactin on insulin levels in plasma and pancreas has been studied. Prolactin was injected in a single dose or single daily doses on 4 successive days into albino rats in six different physiological states. Insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay using 125I insulin. From the results it is concluded that prolactin injected i.p. influences the output of insulin and stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin into the plasma. (author)

240

Effect of cassava based diet on some heamatological parameters in albino rats fed petroleum contaminated diet  

OpenAIRE

The study was carried out to ascertain the effect of a cassava based diet (gari) on crude oil heamato-toxicity in albino rats by feeding diet contaminated with various concentrations of crude oil mixed with 20% gari to determine the protective effect of gari. The haematological parameters haemoglobin (Hb), Packed cell volume (PCV) and white blood cell count (WBC)(Total and differential) were monitored in the animals. Gari feeding at 20% caused insignificant dose dependent decrease in Hb and P...

Braid, S. A.; Awopeju, T. A.; George-opuda, M. I.; Bamigbowu, E. O.; Adegoke, A. O.

2012-01-01

241

PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS A PRELIMINARY STUDY  

OpenAIRE

Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

Vadivelan, R.; Elango, K.; Suresh, B.; Ramesh, B. R.

2006-01-01

242

Antidiabetogenic Effects of Separate and Composite Extract of Seed of Jamun (Eugenia jambolana and Root of Kadali (Musa paradisiaca in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Comparative Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigates separate as well as composite methanolic extracts of seed of Jamun (Eugenia jambolana and root of Kadali (Musa paradisiaca for the management of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rat. As oxidative stress is one of the consequences of diabetes so the present study have measured the activities of some important carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and oxidative stress condition in important visceral organs. After treatment of methanolic extract of above plant parts in separate or in composite manner in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat resulted a significant recovery in the activities of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in liver along with correction in fasting blood glucose as well as liver and skeletal muscle glycogen level and plasma insulin level in respect to diabetic group. Activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase along with the quantity of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and conjugated dienes in liver and skeletal muscle were also corrected by these plant extracts in respect to diabetic state. The composite extract shows a significant recovery in parameters mentioned earlier than the separate extract. None of the extract has any metabolic toxicity induction in general. From this experiment it may be concluded that the composite extracts of above plants parts have some potential antidiabetogenic activities.

Chhanda Mallick

2006-01-01

243

Harmful effect of protein difficiency on lipids, glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in female albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was undertaken to investigate the harmful effect of protein deficient diet on some biochemical activities in serum of female rats. Protein malnutrition is a well known socioeconomic problem in different parts of the world. Many studies were investigated on the biological parameters following protein malnutrition in human and experimental animals. Forty albino female rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group (10 rats) fed 18% protein diet and served as normal control and the other two groups, each contains 15 rats, fed 5% protein for 21 and 45 days, respectively, and served as malnourished groups. The results showed significant decrease in total body weight, serum glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in the third group as well as decrease in the total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations that compared to normal control rats

244

Effect of Potassium Bromate on Liver and Blood Constituents of Wistar Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Twenty four Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups and treated orally with potassium bromate at doses of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 body weight (b.wt.) for 21 days. Rats received 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. died within 18 days. A significant reduction in Hb, PCV and MCHC values were observed in animals received 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. in the second week while no changes occurred in the groups treated with 50 and 100 mg kg

Elmahdi, B.; Abuelgasim, Afaf I.; Rehab Omer

2008-01-01

245

Determination of the antiulcer properties of sodium cromoglycate in pylorus-ligated albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Objectives : To study the ulcer protective property of sodium cromoglycate in pylorus-ligated rats and the biochemical role in ulcer protection by various biochemical tests. Materials and Methods : The ulcer protective effect of sodium cromoglycate was studied using a Pyloric Ligation Model using Wistar albino rats. The antiulcer effect of sodium cromoglycate 40 mg/kg b.w., i.p., was compared with the reference drug ranitidine 27 mg/kg b.w., i.p. The ulcer index was calculated and other bioch...

Srivastava Vivek; Viswanathaswamy A.H.M; Mohan Govind

2010-01-01

246

Propolis Protection from Toxicity Caused by Aluminium Chloride in Male Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Propolis is a resinous natural hive product derived from plant exudate collected by honey bees and has been extensively used in folk medicine. The present study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of propolis in alleviating the toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl3)on some hematological and biochemical parameters of male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were arranged into 4 equal groups; control group, aluminium group (34 mg AlCl3/kg/day), propolis group (100?g propolis/rat)and aluminium plus propolis group. Rats were orally administered their respective doses daily for 30 days. AlCl3 caused significant decrease in hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrit (Ht), total and differential leucocyte count (TLC) when compared to control. On the other hand, aluminium administration caused a significant increase in urea, uric acid, creatinin, bilirubin, the content of phosphorous, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and asparate aminotransferase (AST) and significant decrease in total protein, albumin, globulin and calcium when compared to control. The administration of propolis alleviated the toxic effect of AlCl3 in experimental rats. It could be concluded thal propolis my afford protection from toxicity caused by aluminium chloride in male albino rats

247

Modulation of antioxidant and phosphatase enzymes by beta-carotene against gamma radiation induced testicular disorders in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beta-carotene is a group of plant compounds called carotenoids. It is a precursor for vitamin A and an important antioxidant. This study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of ?-carotene against gamma radiation induced disorders in the testis of male albino rats, it included 4 groups: control group, treated group; animals of this group received a daily oral dose of ?-carotene (30 mg/kg body wt) for 1 week, irradiated group; animals of this group were subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy, and treated-irradiated group; animals received a daily oral dose of ?-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) for 1 week before exposure to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy. 6 animals of each group were autopsied at 1, 3 and 5 days after ?-carotene treatment and/ or irradiation. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase in testis homogenate. In irradiated animals there was a highly significant decrease in testis alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity. On the other hand, significant increase in acid phosphatase activity was observed. Treatment with ?-carotene before irradiation causes significant increase in alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity and significant decrease in acid phosphatase activity compared to the irradiated group. The results of the present study indicated tults of the present study indicated that ?-carotene ameliorated oxidative stress and the loss of cellular antioxidants and suggest that ?-carotene may reduce the radiation damage in testis of male albino rats

248

Role Of Thymus Vulgaris And/Or Origanum Majorana L. Extract In Ameliorating The Toxicity Induced By 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenyl imidazo (4,5-b)Pyridine (PHIP) In Adult Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of the watery extract of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum majorana L. (marjoram) or their mixture on the toxicity induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl imidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) which is one of the most abundant toxic heterocyclic amines (HCA) in cooked meat. Oral administration of PhIP (75 ml/kg) twice a week for four weeks resulted in a significant increase in liver function (AST, ALT and ALP) with a percentage change recording 33.79% , 70.96% and 127.64%, respectively, accompanied with decrease in total protein content. Significant increase (P<0.05) was observed in both creatinine (45.33%) and blood urea (109.17%), whereas serum T3 and T4 recorded significant decrease with a percentage change of -57.32% and -42.44%, respectively. A marked significant reduction (P<0.05) in monoamine contents (DA and NE) in total brain was observed after the ingestion of PhIP recording -13.23% and -13.47%, respectively, as percentage change from control. The daily oral administration of thyme, marjoram and their mixture (W/W) in dose of 500 mg/kg alone, before or after PhIP administration caused a decrease in ALT, AST and ALP levels and increase in total protein in serum and also cause decrease in serum creatinine and urea. Non-significant changes in T3 and T4 levels were observed in rats received the herbal extract. On the other hand, the herbal extract improved T3 and T4 levels before and afct improved T3 and T4 levels before and after PhIP treatment bringing the hormonal levels near to that of control. Moreover, rats that received pre and post treatment with thyme, marjoram and their mixture (W/W) after being treated with PhIP showed high significant reduction in the elevated levels of DA and NE produced by PhIP treatment. From the current investigation, it could be concluded that the watery extract polyphenol flavonoids of thyme and marjoram has the protective and therapeutic effect on the toxicity produced by heterocyclic amine (PhIP) which may be due to their antioxidant property and free radical scavengers activity

249

Hypoglycemic and Antidiabetic Profile of the Aqueous Root Extracts of Leptadenia hastata in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic profile and the hypoglycaemic activity of aqueous root extracts of L. hastata in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats model. Eighty five albino rats were used for this study out of this thirty five were used subjected to experimental diabetes by the use of alloxan at a dose of 160 mg kg-1 body weight. Seven experimental groups of five rats per group (A-G were used for this study. A standard antidiabetic drug (insulin group (B and normal saline group (G serves as positive control. The blood glucose lowering activity of the extract, insulin and normal saline groups were monitored at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h post extract administration. On the other hand the remaining fifty albino rats were used to determine the acute toxicity and the hypoglycemic activity of the extract. The blood glucose levels of the rats were monitored at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post extract administration. Oral administration of aqueous root extract at 600 and 800 mg kg-1 b.wt have significantly (p-1 b.wt have significantly (pL. hastata aqueous root extracts and underscore its potentials in the management of diabetes mellitus especially following prolonged use in days.

I.A. Mairiga

2013-01-01

250

Protective effect of zinc aspartate against acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required in humans and animals for many physiological functions, including antioxidant functions. The evidence to date indicates that zinc is an important element that links antioxidant system and tissue damage. Acetaminophen (AP), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic, produces hepatocyte and renal tubular necrosis in human and animals following overdose. In human, AP is one of the most common causes of acute liver failure as a result of accidental or deliberate overdose. Moreover, the initial event in AP toxicity is a toxic metabolic injury with the release of free radicals and subsequent cellular death by necrosis and apoptosis. This study was designed to evaluate the potential protective role of zinc aspartate in case of acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in rats. A total number of 32 adult male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups: group I (control group), group II (zinc aspartate treated group), group III (acetaminophen treated group; by a single oral dose of 750 mg/kg body weight) and group IV acetaminophen plus zinc treated group; (zinc aspartate was intraperitoneally given one hour after acetaminophen administration in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight). Serum levels of: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, xanthine oxidase (XO), glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were assessed in all groups. The resultO) were assessed in all groups. The results of this study showed that treatment with acetaminophen alone (group III) produced a significant increase in serum levels of the liver enzymes and direct bilirubin. Moreover, in the same group there was a significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine compared to the control group. In addition, there was a significant increase in XO and MDA and a significant decrease in GSH and NO level. Injection of rats with zinc aspartate after acetaminophen treatment could produce a significant protection against the toxic effect of acetaminophen, in comparison with that of acetaminophen treated group. In conclusion, biochemical evaluation revealed that zinc aspartate has a partial protective effect against acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity and oxidative stress. Accordingly, zinc may be an effective therapeutic agent in prevention and treatment of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and free radical production

251

Camel's Milk Protects against Aluminum Chloride-Induced Toxicity in the Liver and Kidney of White Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3 is commonly used in daily life but it can be potentially toxic. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of camel' milk against aluminum-induced biochemical alterations and oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of white albino rats. Approach: White albino male rats (230-250 g were divided into three groups of 10 rats: a control group treated with normal saline, the AlCl3-treated group and the camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group. The AlCl3 treated group received 0.5 mg kg-1 of AlCl3 orally. The camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group was fed 1 mL of fresh camel's milk 10 minutes prior to the administration of oral AlCl3. All rats were treated every day for 30 days. Liver and kidney biochemical serum parameters were analyzed. Lipid peroxidation, as determined by the tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and hydrogen peroxide (HP, and the oxidative stress status, as measured by glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity, were evaluated in the kidney and liver of treated rats. Results: Data showed that the oral administration of AlCl3 resulted in statistically significant increases in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, cholesterol and triglycerides; the total amount of protein and albumin were also significantly decreased. However, these parameters were within normal levels in the rats given camel's milk prior to AlCl3. Additionally, oral administration of AlCl3 induced lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney, which was indicated by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation biomarkers (TBARS and HP and a significant decrease in the activities of GSH, SOD and CAT. In all rats treated with camel's milk before being given AlCl3, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress parameters were within normal levels. Conclusion: Treatment with camel's milk prior to AlCl3 exposure alleviates AlCl3-associated hazards and protects the kidney and liver from AlCl3 toxicity.

Fahaid Al-Hashem

2009-01-01

252

4. Cisplatin and carboplatin induced changes in oxidative enzyme activity levels in albino rats liver  

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Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the possible interference of cisplatin or carboplatin on oxidative enzymes in liver of albino rats. Rats were divided into three groups each consisting of eight animals. Group 1 (Control received 0.9% of normal saline. Group 2 (Treatment received cisplatin of 3 mg/kg body weight and Group 3 (Treatment received carboplatin of 10 mg/kg body weight. Injections were given intra-peritoneally to rats on 1st, 3rd and 5th day of experimentation. On 45th day of experiment, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Succinate dehydrogenases (SDH, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH activities in the cytosol fraction were assayed in liver of albino rats. Cisplatin or carboplatin treatment caused significant changes in activity levels of SDH, LDH & G-6-PDH in liver of experimental rats, when compared to control rats. From the study it may be concluded that, hepatic tissue is meeting its energy requirements through alternative pathways. In other words this can be viewed as functional or physiological adaptation of the liver in treated rats, may be due to stress caused by platinum-based anticancer drugs.

Y.V. Kishore Reddy

2010-08-01

253

Effect of Low Protein Diet on the Acute Doses of Actellic-20 in the Heart And Brain of Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

A study on the effect of low- protein diet on the toxicity of acute doses of Actellic-20 in the heart and brain of albino rats was carried out. Three weeks old weaning albino rats Rattus norvegicus were grouped into two and fed low and normal protein diet for four weeks after which they were given Actellic-20 at low dose levels (100ppm and 150ppm) by oral intubation. The rats were sacrificed at 24h, 72h, and 120h after dosing and the activities of Alkaline phosphatase, Alanine aminotra...

Ajayi; Olubunmi Bolanle; Ajimoko; Yemisi Rufina

2005-01-01

254

Effect of Gamma Radiation on the Albino Rat's Liver and the Possible Protective Role of ?-carotene on the Histological and Ultra Structural Changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Present investigation reports the possible protective effect of ?-carotene against hepatic lesions induced in male albino rats due to gamma-irradiation 48 male albino rats were divided into three main groups; the first served as control (12 animals). Rats of the second group (18 animals) were exposed to a sub-lethal dose of whole body gamma-irradiation and then divided into three equal subgroups. The rats of the third main group (18 animals) received 5 mg/kg body wt of ?-carotene at a daily oral dose for 2 weeks, and were then subjected to whole body gamma-irradiation at sub-lethal single dose level of 6 Gy. This group was then divided into three equal subgroups. The animals were autopsied at three intervals; one week, two weeks and four weeks post irradiation. The obtained data revealed that gamma-irradiation induced different histological changes in the liver of irradiated animals. These changes varied from haemorrhage, congestion in blood vessels, pyknosis and necrosis as well as complete degenerated area in the liver. Electron micrographs recorded swollen mitochondria, fragmented endoplasmic reticulum, distorted nuclei and cell membrane and lipid infiltration in the hepatocytes of irradiated animals. The treatment with ? carotene (5 mg/ kg body wt for two weeks) pre-exposure to radiation attenuated most of these changes. Therefore, the present study has included for the potential use of ?-carotene as a radio protector

255

Caractersticas ultraestruturais do segmento abdominal da aorta de rato albino = Mural features of the abdominal aortic segment of albino rat  

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Full Text Available O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar as peculiaridades ultraestruturais da parede da aorta de rato. Foram utilizados sete ratos albinos, adultos jovens, dos quais foram coletados fragmentos da aorta abdominal infra-renal. Aps a coleta, os segmentosvasculares foram fixados e encaminhados para a rotina de microscopia eletrnica de transmisso e varredura. As lamelas elsticas aparecem interpostas s fibras musculares lisas, sendo essa disposio principalmente notada na tnica mdia da parede vascular. Entre asfibras musculares lisas e as lamelas elsticas, observa-se um inter-relacionamento aparentemente estreito, feito por conexo e ancoramento entre ambos os elementos murais por meio de lamelas de colgeno. A tnica ntima da aorta abdominal do rato mostraalgumas peculiaridades ultraestruturais marcantes, tais como a interrupo, em certos locais da parede, de continuidade da lmina elstica interna, interrupo acompanhada por poros endoteliais, de certa extenso, suprajacentes falha na estrutura elstica intimal. Este padro de constituio mural, com destaque aos ancoramentos elstico-musculares, via o colgeno, parece garantir propriedades fundamentais da parede vascular, concernentes hemodinmica, tal como o cisalhamento, normalmente notado entre os estratos superpostosda parede vascular, bem como a contratilidade e a visco-elasticidade da parede arterial.The objective of the present research was to investigate the ultrastructural peculiarities of the aortic wall of the rat. Seven young adult rats were used, from which fragments of theinfrarenal abdominal aorta were collected. After collection, the vascular segments were fixed and sent for analysis by scanning electron microscope. The elastic lamellae appear interposed with smooth muscular fibers; this pattern was verified mainly at the medial layer structure. Among the mural elements a well defined interrelationship was established through connective lamellae of the arterial wall. The collagen lamellae mainly provided anchoring among the elastic and smooth muscular constituents. The intimal layer showedspecial ultrastructural features, such as a non-continuous inner elastic lamina presented in certain sites of the vascular wall, followed by endothelial pores. This mural pattern of the abdominal aorta provided support to vascular functions such as shrinkage among the laminar composition of the arterial layers, also acting in mechanical properties of the vascular wall, such as viscoelasticity and contractility essential actions to blood vessel hemodynamics.

2007-10-01

256

NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL FOOD COLOUR AND SWEETENER IN ADULT MALE ALBINO MICE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aims to investigate the effect of aspartame (artificial sweetener) and sunset yellow (artificial colour) on monoamines content in different brain areas of the adult male albino mice (cerebellum, brain stem, striatum, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex), and also on testosterone level in serum.The present study showed that the daily intraperitoneal injection of aspartame with dose of 200 mg/kg caused significant increase in monoamines content and testosterone level at most experimental periods. The elevation of monoamines content may be due to increase in phenylalanine concentration which leading to increase the synthesis of monoamines. The elevation of testosterone level may be due to the increment of DA content in hypothalamus which led to increase the release of LHRH. On the other hand, the daily intraperitoneal injection of sunset yellow with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg caused significant decrease in monoamines content and non-significant change in serum testosterone level at most experimental periods. The decrement in monoamines content may be due to the decrease in its uptake by the neurotransmitters or decrease in its synthesis

257

Wound healing property of paroxetine in immunosuppressed albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the wound healing activity of Paroxetine in different wound models in wistar rats and to study its effects on dexamethasone suppressed wound healing. Methods: For assessment of wound healing activity, excision and incision wound models were used. Group I was assigned as control, orally, Group II received Paroxetine, i.p, Group III received Dexamethasone intramuscularly (i.m) and Group IV received Dexamethasone i.m and Paroxetine, i....

Dwajani S; Ranjana Gurumurthy

2013-01-01

258

Effect of Fractionated Low Doses of Gamma Radiation on Some Haematological and Immunological Parameters in Albino Rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed on 30 mature male albino rats to evaluate the direct effect of fractionated low doses (0.5 Gy twice weekly) gamma radiation and delayed effect (one month post-irradiation) on some haematological and immunological parameters. The rats were divided into three equal groups, Control and two whole body gamma-irradiated groups the irradiated groups were subjected to total doses of 4 and 8 Grays over a period of one and two months, respectively. The blood samples and peritoneal macrophages were taken twice from each irradiated rats at the end of their irradiation period and after one month post irradiation. Activated peritoneal macrophages in all groups showed significant decrease as compared to control group denoting that irradiation may cause receptor alteration and/or decrease in the phagocytic power of macrophages lasting for a longer time. Throughout the whole experiment there was wide variation in platelet count with no significant or minimal changes in other blood elements. Moreover, in the post irradiation group after two months irradiation, all the haematological parameters tested, except the Hct, were increased as compared to the control group. These results pointed to that the bone marrow and lymphoid organs of the animals can tolerate fractionated low dose irradiation through rapid recovery and/or compensatory stimulation. The presence of many target cells in the post irradiated group increases the red blood cell fragilitye red blood cell fragility

259

Effect of flunarizine on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test  

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Full Text Available Background: Flunarizine is commonly used for migraine prophylaxis. It is a calcium channel blocker which blocks the L-type, T-type and N-type of calcium channels of pancreatic beta cells and other cells. It is believed to cause alterations in blood glucose levels secondary to its effect on calcium channel dependent insulin secretion.Objective: To evaluate the effect of flunarizine on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test (OGTTMaterials and Methods: Flunarizine and distilled water were given orally for 5 days to the test (T and control (C groups of 6 normal albino rats respectively (N = 6. OGTT was conducted on both the groups on the 5th day and blood glucose levels were analyzed at 0, 60 and 150 minutes. Data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and independent samples t -test.Results: Flunarizine caused hyperglycemia at all durations of the OGTT with a maximum difference of 26% at 0 hour. The extent of worsening was maximum at 60 - 0 minute interval in both the instances i.e. test group value compared with control (T-C and control values compared with itself (C-C. The comparison of extent of hyperglycemia revealed that T-C showed 17% (47mg/dl more hyperglycemia than the C-C (40 mg/dl.Conclusion: Flunarizine has hyperglycemic effects in normal albino rats when given for 5 consecutive days orally even at the dose used for prophylaxis of migraine in human beings. A word of caution is thus advised when using flunarizine in impaired glucose tolerance or diabetic subjects.

Suresha RN

2013-03-01

260

Morphofunctional state of the adrenal glands in albino rats under conditions of toxic stress caused by cadmium salt in winter and summer periods.  

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We studied the morphology and function of the adrenal glands in male and female albino rats in cadmium intoxication during winter and summer periods (January and July). In animals of the control group, sex-related differences in the total area of the adrenal glands and in the size of their zones were revealed. In females, zones of adrenal gland were larger than in males. In winter months, these differences were most pronounced. Analysis of seasonal differences in the area of the adrenal glands in males revealed no significant differences in winter and summer months. Irrespective of the season and gender, cadmium chloride treatment led to an increase in the size of the adrenal glands. Cadmium salts caused more pronounced functional strain in males in winter months and in females in summer. PMID:22238762

Kotelnikova, S V; Kargina, M V; Kotelnikov, A V

2011-06-01

261

Microchemical analysis of retina layers in pigmented and albino rats by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.  

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Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy is a powerful technique that can be used to collect infrared spectra from microscopic regions of tissue sections. The infrared spectra are evaluated to chemically characterize the absorbing molecules. This technique can be applied to normal or diseased tissues. In the latter case, FT-IR microspectroscopy can reveal chemical changes that are associated with discrete regions of lesion sites, which can provide insights into the chemical mechanisms of disease processes. In the present study, FT-IR microspectroscopy was used to analyze sections of retina from normal (pigmented) and albino rats. The outer segments of retinas from pigmented animals were found to have unusually strong absorption values for C&z.dbnd6;C-H unsaturation and carbonyl functional groups. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a major constituent of lipids in the outer segments, also had particularly high absorption values for these functional groups, which suggests that it is responsible for those enhanced absorption values. Absorbance values for the unsaturation and carbonyl functional groups were substantially reduced in the outer segments of retinas from albino animals. This finding, together with data from other studies on light-induced oxidative events in the retina, indicates a loss of DHA by a light-induced mechanism in albino animals. The outer nuclear layer had strong absorbance values for H-C-OH and P&z. dbnd6;O functional groups, which is likely due to the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. The outer and inner plexiform layers were found to contain greater concentrations of CH(2) and C&z.dbnd6;O functional groups than the outer and inner nuclear layers, which is due to the high concentration of synaptic connections in the former layers. In summary, FT-IR microspectroscopy revealed a unique chemical profile in the outer segments compared to other retinal layers, and this profile was altered in albino animals. PMID:10594378

LeVine, S M; Radel, J D; Sweat, J A; Wetzel, D L

1999-12-27

262

Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya  

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Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

Taofeeq Oduola

2010-05-01

263

Analyzing LED-induced haemal fluorescent spectra on laboratory small albino rat  

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Native fluorescence spectral characteristics of red blood cells were studied in the visible region in this paper. Blood samples were collected from normal small albino rats. Native fluorescence spectra of the erythrocyte were induced using Light Emitting Diode (LED) at yellow wavelength about 570+/- 16 nm ((Delta) (lambda) 0.5approximately equals 32nm). As the rat's erythrocyte content of in physiological water is increasing, the fluorescent primary emission peak is red shifted from 588 nm to above 615 nm. Furthermore, the fluorescence intensity at about 600 nm was found to be maximal while the rat's erythrocyte consistence is 1%. Moreover, it is shown in large numbers of experiments that LED-induced fluorescence spectra of the erythrocyte are similar with the whole blood. It may make sense for low- intensity light therapy.

Gao, Shumei; Luo, Xiaosen; Lan, Xiufeng; Jiao, Fangxiang; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu; Xu, Jiaying; Lu, Shiyue; Shen, Jian; Liu, Jiangang

2002-04-01

264

STUDY OF HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES INDUCED BY ENDOSULFAN IN KIDNEY OF ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Endosulfan, a neurotoxic organochlorine insecticide and cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial, and agricultural situations. An effective dose (1/3rd , 1/6th of 0.28 ppm/kg-1 LD50 of endosulfan was injected to 4, 5 and 6 week of albino rats and its exposure was studied on histopathology of kidney after 15, 30 and 45 days of exposure. The histopathological changes in renal tissue of rats exposed to endosulfan by interdermal injection showed pronounced changes in the structure of renal corpuscles and caused renal necrosis. The examination revealed nephrotoxic effects on endosulfan treated rats. The effect of this pesticide on oxidative stress and its biodegradation were also explained. This review will be useful for the researchers working in the field of pesticides and will create an awareness regarding its hazardous effect.

Sabiha Khan

2014-05-01

265

Effect of Neem oil on the structure and function of the mature female albino rat ovaries  

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Full Text Available Objective: The study was undertaken to observe the effect of Neem oil treatment on the fertility, microscopic structure of ovary and the associated changes in the serum levels of female reproductive hormones in mature female albino rats. Methods: The animals were divided in different groups as A1 = treated females at low dose (0.6 ml of Neem oil/animal, A2 = treated females at high dose (1.2 ml of Neem oil/animal, A3 = controls for group A1 (corresponding dose of peanut oil and A4 = controls for A2 (corresponding dose of peanut oil. Animals were kept under observation for a period of six weeks. At the end of this period animals were anesthetized, blood was removed by cardiac puncture and sacrificed. Ovaries were removed and fixed in 10% formol saline for microscopy and methanol for high-performance liquid chromatography purpose. Rresults: Microscopic sections of the ovaries have revealed decrease in the number of mature ovarian follicles. Significant changes in the levels of associated reproductive hormones and presence of higher concentrations of active Neem components in the gonads amongst the treated female rats have also been shown in this study. Cconclusions: From these findings it can be concluded that Neem oil has a dose depended anti-fertility potential in the female albino rats.

Masood Ahmed Shaikh

2009-03-01

266

Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract  

OpenAIRE

Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of t...

Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Ganiyu Adeosun; Abdul-Waheed Ademosun; Gassal Raheem; Godwin Avwioro

2010-01-01

267

Wound healing activities of Bark Extract of Jatropha curcas Linn in albino rats.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To investigate the wound-healing properties of crude bark extract of Jatropha curcas Linn in Wistar albino rats. METHODS This work was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India, in the year 2005. We divided the animals into 3 groups of 12 each. Group I was saline control without wound, group II was animals treated with JC extract in the dose of 2 ml/kg body weight with wound and g...

Somashekar Shetty; Udupa, Saraswati L.; Udupa, Alaya L.; Vollala, Venkata R.

2006-01-01

268

Effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of bone collagen in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of collagen in bone was studied in young female albino rats after a single injection of 3H-proline. Both specific and total radioactivities of hydroxyproline in the total collagen of the bone were found to decrease in the protein-deficient animals, indicating decreased rate of collagen synthesis. In the urine the amount of hydroxyproline excreted and total radioactivity of 3H-hydroxyproline were greatly decreased. The results of the present investigation therefore clearly indicate decreased synthesis and catabolism of collagen in bones of protein deficient animals compared to controls. (auth.)

269

The Role of Bee Venom in Controlling Albino Rats Fetal Morphometric and Morphological Changes by Carbimazole Induced Hypothyroidism  

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Full Text Available Aim of the work. The present study was planned to investigate the role played by Bee venom in improving the morphometric and morphological changes induced by carbimazole in pregnant albino rats and their embryos. Materials and method .A total number of 60 mature virgin female and 30 male Wistar wistar albino rats (for fertilization were used in this study.Pregnancy was ascertained by vaginal smears.The experimental animals were divided into the following groups:?- (Normal group: in this group the pregnant rats were injected intraperitonealy by distilled water (The solvent of both carbimazole and bee venom by dose 1ml/200g.body weight, from day 1 to day 18 of gestation.II-The group of treated animals: this group was divided into 3 subgroups:1-The carbimazole group: this group was divided into2 subgroups, the pregnant rats were orally injected at a dose 2 and 3mg /200g.body weight, daily from day 1 to day 18 of gestation.2-The Bee venom group: the pregnant rats were intraperitonealy injected with a dose 0.6 mg/200g. body weight on days 2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,15 and 16 of gestation.3-The treatment group: the pregnant rats were intraperitonealy injected with Bee venom at a dose 0.6 mg/200g. body weight 1 hour after the intraperitonealy injection by the 2 doses of carbimazole (2 and 3mg /200g. body weight.The days of injection for both treatments (Bee venom and carbimazole were as mentioned before. Results. The results of the present study showed that carbimazole treatment with its 2 doses induced highly significant increase in the body weights of pregnant rats, highly significant reduction of the uterus weight with shortness of the horns as well as unequal distribution of the embryos between them, increased number of the resorbed fetuses when comparing with the control group, Bee venom injection revealed improvement of these changes .The orally injection of the 2 doses of carbimazole resulted in very highly decrease in fetuses body weights and lengths; however Bee venom induced obvious improvement as compared with the carbimazole effects. Orally injection of carbimazole at the dose 3mg /200g body weight showed increased fetal mortality rate as compared with the control group; however, intraperitonealy injection of Bee venom resulted in improvement in the rate of live fetuses and never of dead ones was observed after Bee venom treatment. The 2 doses of carbimazole induced lots of malformations of embryos such as variations in the size of embryos of the same mother, the embryos exhibited fragile skin, sub dermal blood coagulation beside edema in different regions of the fetal body ,as well as malformations of the regions of the eye resembled in exophthalmos and rostrum region such as cleft lips, beside clubbed fore and hind limbs , kyphosis of the body of the embryos, exencephaly.Bee venom treatment resulted in control of the changes induced by carbimazole injection. The fetuses were resembled to those of the control group.Conclusion: It is clear that bee venom plays an important role in controlling the morphometric and morphological changes in fetuses of albino rats suffering from hypothyroidism induced by carbimazole

Abu Gabal H*, Moamena M** and Al Moalla H

2013-04-01

270

Protective Effects and Its Relative Mechanisms of Low Dose Ionizing Radiation on pancreatic cells of Male Diabetic Rats  

OpenAIRE

Back ground & Aim of the work: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder brings great danger to human health. Low-dose-rate radiation modulates various biological responses including carcinogenesis, immunological responses and diabetes. This study examined the effect of low doses of irradiation on the pathological and ultrastructural progression of type I diabetes in rats inducted by Streptozotocin.Material and Methods: The present study was done on 80 healthy adult albino male...

Hanaa F Waer, Seham A. Helmy

2012-01-01

271

Two-line hybrid rice male sterile line 'NHR111S' with a marker of green-revertible albino leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NHR111S is a new two-line male sterile line with a marker of green-revertible albino leave that was bred from in vitro mutagens is of the thermo/photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line 'Guangzhan63S' by 60Co ?-rays. It has the same desired agronomic traits, fertility characteristics and combining ability as characteristics of the parent. It is convenient to develop leaf color marker-aided elimination strategy in the multiplication and production of hybrid rice seeds. (authors)

272

Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts using aspirin induced ulcer model in albino rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts in albino rats.

Khaja Zeeyauddin

2011-01-01

273

Effect of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on male rat reproductive system in a simulated scenario.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports of declining male fertility have renewed interest in assessing the role of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Testicular function is particularly susceptible to the radiation emitted by EMFs. Significant decrease in sperm count, increase in the lipid peroxidation damage in sperm cells, reduction in seminiferous tubules and testicular weight and DNA damage were observed following exposure to EMF in male albino rats. The results suggest that mobile phone exposure adversely affects male fertility. PMID:25241589

Kumar, Sanjay; Nirala, Jay Prakash; Behari, J; Paulraj, R

2014-09-01

274

Long term creatine monohydrate supplementation, following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult, improves neuromuscular coordination and spatial learning in male albino mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Creatine is known to rescue animals following brain damage. Present study was designed to demonstrate the effect of long term (15 week) supplementation of 2% creatine monohydrate (Cr), following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult, on learning and memory formation in male albino mouse. Albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8% hypoxia for 25 minutes. Following weaning, animals were separated and grouped on the basis of dietry supplementation for 15 weeks followed by a battery of neurological tests including Morris water maze, open field and rota rod. It was observed that HI mice fed on 2% Cr for 15 weeks performed better than their littermates mice on normal rodent diet during water maze (learning and memory) and rotating rod (neuro-muscular coordination and balance) test while the results of open field test remained unaffected. It was also observed that Cr treated animals had a reduced brain infarct volume than untreated but this difference did not reached statistical significance. We have also observed an overall increase in body weight in Cr treated mice during the study. Over all our results are indicating that long term Cr supplementation is beneficial for male albino following hypoxic ischemic insult. PMID:25445997

Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

2015-04-01

275

CURATIVE POTENTIAL OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SCENT LEAF (OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM ON CISPLATIN INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used for a wide variety of tumors, but is reported to be hepatotoxic. In the current study, the dose dependent and time course curative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (O.G. on cisplatin induced hepatotoxic rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches was evaluated. Male albino wistar rats weighing between 150-200g were randomly separated into four different groups of eighteen (18 rats per group. Rats in group 1 received no cisplatin. Normal saline was administered intraperitoneally (i.p. The rats in group 2 were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight i.p. Tissue damage was also induced in rats in groups 3 and 4 by a single intraperitoneal-administration of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight. After three days, 2ml/kg body weight of 5% and 10% aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum were administered to rats in groups 3 and 4 respectively, through the oral route using the gavage once daily for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Rats in group 2 were given sterile water in place of the extracts while rats in group 1 were the untreated controls. They were all allowed unlimited access to tap water and growers mash. Results showed the extract to cause significant (P? 0.05 dose and time related attenuation in the elevation of serum liver enzyme markers of acute hepatocellular injury (ALT, AST and ALP and increase in serum protein. Cisplatin treatment caused significant increase (P? 0.05 in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT from 43.03 1.29 to 127.90 0.89 U/L and a decrease (P? 0.05 in serum protein concentration from 93.70 0.61 to 50.43 1.53 g/l. There were considerable decreases (P? 0.05 in body weight and liver weight to body weight ratio in the test animals. However, most of these observed changes were alleviated by prophylactic treatment with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum which was also found to be dose and time dependent (P ? 0.05. The ameliorating effect was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations of liver tissues in the groups treated with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum (5% and 10%. The results from this study indicate that aqueous leaf extracts of O. gratissimum has anti-hepatotoxic action against cisplatin induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Hence the extracts have the potential to be used for the management of hepatopathies and as a therapeutic adjuvant in cisplatin toxicity.

E. M. Arhoghro

2012-08-01

276

A novel immunohistochemical marker of normal and neoplastic melanocytes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In albino rats, spontaneous occurrence of melanocytic tumors is rare, with diagnosis difficult. This study evaluated immunoreactivity for PNL2 in normal and neoplastic melanocytes in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues of albino rats. The samples consisted of 11 (1.57%) amelanotic melanomas in 700 rats (2 studies), 23 non-melanocytic tumors, and a wide variety of normal tissues. In normal albino rats, PNL2 stained the melanocytes in the iris and choroid of the eyeball and the hair bulb and basal cell layers of the epidermis of the whole body. In amelanotic melanoma, the tumor cells consisted of spindle cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm without melanin granules. PNL2 consistently stained cytoplasm in all amelanotic melanoma cells. In contrast, the nonmelanocytic tumor cells were not labeled. Electron microscopically, neoplastic, and normal melanocytes showed numerous cytoplasmic premelanosomes (stage II melanosome). In conclusion, PNL2 is direct against a fixative- and decalcific-resistant melanocyte-associated antigen, and has high specificity against normal and neoplastic melanocytes of albino rats. PMID:18487499

Kurotaki, T; Tomonari, Y; Kanno, T; Wako, Y; Tsuchitani, M

2008-05-01

277

HAIR GROWTH POTENTIAL OF EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN. PLANT EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae is traditionally used for its hair growth promoting activity in rural community of Indian sub-continent. Studies were therefore carried out to evaluate petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous base and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats for thirty days. The time required for hair growth initiation and completion was significantly (P < 0.01 reduced. Minoxidil 2% solution applied topically served as positive control. The treatment was successful in bringing 73% of hair follicles in anagenic phase by application of 5% methanolic extract as comparable to standard. Bioactivity guided fractionation was carried out of methanolic extract and was fractionated as aqueous and non-aqueous extract and screened pharmacologically. Water insoluble methanolic extract was found to be more potent and reduced the hair growth initiation and completion time significantly (P < 0.01 as comparable to standard. It holds the promise of potent alternative for minoxidil.Keywords:

Bhaiji Amrita

2012-05-01

278

Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

279

Bees' Honey Protects the Liver of Male Rats against Melamine Toxicity  

OpenAIRE

The protective effect of natural bees' honey to the liver of male albino rats against melamine toxicity was studied. Melamine supplementation at a dose of 20000?ppm in the diet for 28 days induced adverse effects on the liver, decreased serum total protein and increased liver enzyme: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Histological changes of the melamine supplemented group showed necrosis in the hepatic tissues around the central veins of the liv...

El Rabey, Haddad A.; Al-seeni, Madeha N.; Al-solamy, Suad M.

2013-01-01

280

Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are highly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

Hasan Zora

2012-04-01

281

Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are hig [...] hly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae) which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

Hasan, Zora; Zumrut F. Biber, Muftuler; Ilknur, Demir; Ayfer Yurt, Kilcar; Cigdem, Ichedef; Perihan, Unak.

2012-04-01

282

Comparative study of Lansoprazole and Rabeprazole on ulcer healing property on albino rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Proton pump inhibitors are widely used for gastroesophageal disorders. The present work was carried out to compare effect of lansoprazole & rabeprozole for gastric ulcer healing. Methods: The study was carried out on gastric ulcer induced by aspirin in albino rats. The rats were divided into control group lansoprazole group and rabeprazole group and the effects of the two drugs, with regards to mean ulcer index was compared with the control and with each other. Analysis of variance and Students t-tests were applied to compare the results. Results: It was found that the mean ulcer index varied significantly across the three groups (p = .000. Compared to the control group, the ulcer index was significantly less in both lansoprazole and rabeprazole groups (p = .000. But the ulcer index with rabeprazole was significantly less than that with lansoprazole (p = .001. Conclusion: Rabeprazole is more efficacious than lansoprazole as far as ulcer healing effect is concerned.

Amit Kumar Jha

2012-11-01

283

Acoustic startle response in the opossum Monodelphis domestica in comparison with the Wistar albino rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acoustic startle response (ASR) was studied in 20 gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica) and its characteristics were compared with those obtained from responses of 20 Wistar albino rats. The animals were exposed to 10 ms, 110 dB white noise acoustic pulses in the Coulbourn apparatus. Amplitude of ASR was normalized to the weight of animals and then analyzed. The results show that probability of a freezing response is much higher in the opossums that generally respond with lower startle amplitudes in comparison to rats. These differences may reflect different emotional characteristics of the two species, different reactions to fear in opossum and/or different ecological specializations of the two species. PMID:15960307

B?aszczyk, Janusz W; Turlejski, Kris

2005-01-01

284

Distribution and excretion of ?-naphthylthio-[14C]urea in Albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

?-naphthylthio-(14C) urea was synthesised by allowing potassium (14C)thiocyanate to react with ?-naphthylamine. Its distribution and excretion were studied in Albino rats following the administration of this rodenticide. Considerable radioactivity observed in liver and kidney, increased till 8 hr and later decreased. About 80% of the activities present in serum and pleural effusion were found in the respective albumin fractions. Approximately 40% of the dose administered was excreted in urine and less than 1% in faeces in 20 hr. About 36% of the total urinary activity was recovered as unchanged compound and the rest was distributed in three metabolites with low Rsyb(f) values. Decrease in cytochsome P-450 content and activities of N, N-dimethylaniline demethylase, aryl 4-hydroxylase and reduced NAD dehydrogenase were observed in ?-naphthylathiourea-treated rats. (author)

285

Antihepatotoxic Effect of Feronia Limonia Fruit against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Damage in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Feronia limonia Swingle, though mentioned as a high utility medicinal plant in Ayurveda for the treat-ment of liver disorders, but has no scientific investigations. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of extracts of Feronia limonia fruit on albino rat liver, damage induced by single dose of carbon-tetrachloride (1.5 ml/kg, p.o.. The oral administration of extracts (500 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days has shown significant hepatoprotective action. There is reduction in the elevated levels of serum enzymes such SGOT, SGPT, ALP and Serum bilirubin and elevation in level of GSH, GPX,GLY and total protein in Feronia limonia protected rats.

Bahar Ahmed

2010-06-01

286

The influence of whole-body gamma-irradiation on tests in epidiolymis of albino rat  

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The testes weights as well as the histopathological changes of testes and epididymes of albino rats exposed to whole-body gamma-irradiation in doses 100, 200 and 400 rad for 1, 15, 30 and 45 days were investigated. Testes weights were reduced in rats exposed to 200 and 400 rad for 15, 30 and 45 days. The histopathological changes of testes and epididymes varied according to the degree of irradiation. The degree and intensity of damage to the organs was in proportion to the intensity of irradiation. With the small dose (100 rad) there was degeneration of the primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm cells. With higher doses (200 and 400 rad) there were degeneration and necrosis of the spermatogenic cells and spermatogonia, hyalinization of the interstitial tissue, as well as connective tissue proliferation around the epididymal tubules

287

Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate matter (dust on hematological indices of albino rats  

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Full Text Available The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological indices of the exposed rats were examined on days 10, 20, 30, and 60 post administrations. White blood cell, red blood cell and hemoglobin counts peaked between days 20 and 30. This observation was markedly so for the higher doses, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, in contrast to the 500 mg/kg dose. The platelet count however indicated a gradual increase within the study period. Observed changes for these indices from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system.

V.O. Ogugbuaja

2004-12-01

288

Protective Effect Of Avocado Oil Against Biochemical And Histological Changes In Whole Body Gamma Irradiation In Albino Rats  

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Avocado oil, extracted from the pulp of the fruit, is rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, linolenic, oleic acids and the monounsaturated fatty acid. It also contains B-sitosterol, B-carotene, lecithin, minerals and vitamins A, C, D and E. Avocado oil lowers the blood levels of serum lipids and has antioxidant properties as a free radical scavenger. Male albino rats were divided into 5 groups. 1- Control group: rats not subjected to any treatment, 2- Avocado treated group: rats received avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3- Irradiated group: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 4- Avocado + irradiated group: rats received avocado oil for 21 days then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation with 7 Gy and 5- Radiation + avocado group: rats were exposed to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then received avocado oil for 21 days. Avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) was given to rats, receiving a standard diet, for 21 days before exposure to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then the treatment was continued for 10 days after irradiation. Several investigations were carried out such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), lipid profile and blood sugar. High significant increase in MDA was observed and treatment with avocado before irradiation caused significant increase in GSH, CAT and SOD and significant decrease in MDA as compared to the irradiated groups. The results also showed that treatment with avocado oil significantly diminished the radiation-induced alterations observed in the levels of lipid profile and glucose. The results demonstrated that whole body gamma irradiated rats showed significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose. By studying the lipid profile, significant increases in cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C levels were recorded while significant decrease was recorded in HDL-C. The significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with significant decrease in glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) indicated oxidative stress. The administration of avocado oil resulted in significant improvement in hepatic function and lipid profile which associated with reduction in oxidative stress. The histological study showed that administration of avocado oil before irradiation led to partial improvement in hepatocytes and also preserved hepatic architecture while after irradiation, loss of architecture, fibrosis and fatty infiltration were observed. These results indicated that avocado oil can enhance the improvement of liver tissues in gamma irradiated rats. It could be concluded that avocado oil may have a bioprotective effect on radiation-induced oxidative stress and might modulate gamma radiation-induced hepatotoxicity possibly through its antioxidant properties

289

Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L. Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar  

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Full Text Available Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage, mercuric chloride (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of virgin olive oil and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 2 weeks of experimental period. Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of virgin olive oil resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and glutathione S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by virgin olive oil supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of virgin olive oil. The results clearly demonstrate that virgin olive oil treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

Youcef Necib

2014-03-01

290

Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats  

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Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746

R. Narmadha

2013-12-01

291

Effect of Sitagliptin "a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP-4) Inhibitor" on the Endocrine Part of the Pancreas in Experimentally induced Diabetes in Adult Albino Rat; A Light Microscopic and Biochemical Studies  

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Sitagliptin is highly selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor that is considered as one of the new oral therapies for management of type II diabetes. Because of the sitagliptin unknown effects on the endocrine part of the pancreas, especially on the cellular levels, this study was done to evaluate its effect on the endocrine part of the pancreas in experimentally-induced type II diabetic in adult albino rats. Material and Methods: The present study was carried out on 30 adult male ...

Gebaly, Tamer M. M. Abu-amara And Zeinab M.

2012-01-01

292

The effect of Sitagliptin (Januvia on the liver of adult Albino rats in cases of experimental diabetes mellitus(Microscopic and laboratory studies  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Sitagliptin (Januvia on the liver of experimentally induced diabetes in albino rats.Material and Methods: Fifteen adult male albino rats were used and divided into three equal groups. The first group was considered as a control group. In the second group experimental induction of diabetes was performed by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan and left as a diabetic control for three weeks. The third group was consisted of rats of experimentally induced diabetes and treated by a daily dose of Sitagliptin (Januvia as oral anti diabetic therapy for three weeks.Two main parameters were performed; the first was microscopic and histochemical studies on the liver tissue while the second was laboratory evaluation of some liver functions.Results: The hepatic tissue was affected by the experimental induction of diabetes in the form of cellular infiltration, hepatic cell cords disarrangement and vascular congestion after three weeks of induction.The fibrous elements as well as mucopolysaccharides contents were greatly reduced. Histochemical changes in the liver enzymes showed mild decrease. Liver function tests showed mild changes.Diabetic changes were gradually returned back to its normal state after the use of daily oral dose of Sitagliptin.Conclusions: The antidiabetic drug (Sitagliptin could be considered a good therapy in limiting the risk of diabetes Mellitus on liver tissue

Moustafa I. Hassan 1 Gamal S.El-Gharabawy 1 and Abdel-Ghany A. Moustafa

2012-04-01

293

The Vitamine D3 Analogue (1? Hydroxyvitamin D3) Aggravates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity In Albino Rats  

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Provitamin D, cholecalciferol, undergoes hydroxylation at the 25 and the 1? position in the liver and the kidney, respectively, before it turns into a hormonally active form regulating calcium homeostasis. The main purpose of the present study is to assess the potential of the 1? hydroxyvitamin D3 analogue to aggravate the ability of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to cause hepatotoxicity in albino rats. For this purpose, four groups of male albino rats, each of five, were used as follow: control group (G 1) received no treatment, CCl4 treated group (G 2) received CCl4 at a dose of 0.2 ml/100 g body weight in sunflower oil (1/1) v/v ratio two times per week for three weeks subcutaneously, 1? hydroxyvitamin D3 treated group (G 3) received a total dose of 5 ng/g body weight of 1? hydroxyvitamin D3 dissolved in propyl alcohol divided into six doses each given twice weekly for three weeks via the subcutaneous route, and CCl4 + 1? hydroxyvitamin D3 treated group (G 4) received the same dose of CCl4 and 1? hydroxyvitamin D3 concomitantly as previously described. Liver tissues from sacrificed animals were fixed in 10% formalin before sectioning and stained with eosin and hematoxyline then were examined histopathologically. Sera from control and treated animals were separated from blood and examined for ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase and LDH levels. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G, bilirubin, creatinine, pholin, A/G, bilirubin, creatinine, phosphorous and Ca levels were also monitored. Data from the present study showed that administration of 1? hydroxyvitamin D3 aggravated CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as evidenced by the exacerbation of the rise in serum ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase levels. The analogue, however, had no effect on serum liver enzymes in CCl4 untreated rats. Though, CCl4 caused significant impairment of kidney function as shown by the rise in serum creatinine and urea levels which were differentially affected by the analogue. In conclusion, the 1? hydroxyvitamin D3 compound used widely in the treatment of hypocalcemia of different etiologies may aggravate the hepatotoxic potential of liver injurious agents and this should be considered in patients suffering from liver cirrhosis associated with hypocalcemia

294

Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet  

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Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and to compare it with a standard hypolipidaemic drug simvastatin. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (100-200 g were randomized into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The groups were treated as follows: Group A: normal diet (ND; Group B: HFD (vanaspati ghee + coconut oil mixture in ratio of 3:2 at 10 ml/kg/day; Group C: HFD+ AEBSL (100 mg/kg/day; Group D: HFD + AEBSL (200 mg/kg/day; Group E: HFD + simvastatin (1.8 mg/kg/day. Lipid profile was estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. AEBSL showed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL levels and significant (p<0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in hypercholesteromic rats (Group C and Group D. AEBSL 200 mg/kg/day found to be more effective than AEBSL 100 mg/kg/day. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01 and increases the percentage of protection AEBSL treated animals. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves have excellent lipid lowering potentiality.

H. Saikia

2011-04-01

295

Oral supplementation of Ocimum basilicum has the potential to improves the locomotory, exploratory, anxiolytic behavior and learning in adult male albino mice.  

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The aim of this project was to determine the effect of 100mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory, locomotory and short-term memory formation in male albino mice. Five weeks old, male albino mice were used as the experimental animals in order to demonstrate the effect of O. basilicum's extract on learning and memory. Each male albino mouse was weighted and orally treated either with 100mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of O. basilicum leaf extract or with commercially available saline solution (Otsuka, Pakistan) for 7days. Behavioral observations were made by applying a series of neurological tests (Elevated plus maze, Light and dark box, Open field and Rota rod). Dose supplementation continued during neurological testing. It was observed that 100mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract improves neuromuscular co-ordination and male albino mouse performance in open field, light dark box and during novel object test when compared with control group. We concluded that 100mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract hasthe potential to improve neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory behavior, object recognition ability and transfer latency in male albino mice and can be safely administrated orally. PMID:25082078

Zahra, K; Khan, M A; Iqbal, F

2015-01-01

296

Effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in urolithiasis induced wistar albino rats  

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Urolithiasis was induced using ethylene glycol in wistar albino rats, the formation of calcium stones in the kidney results with the damage of antioxidant system. Ethanolic extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb fruit of family Curcurbitaceae was used to treat urolithiasis. On this course, the extract also repairs the changes that happened in the enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of urolithiasis induced rats. The results obtained from the analysis were...

Balakrishnan, A.; Kokilavani, R.; Gurusamy, K.; Teepa, K. S. Ananta; Sathya, M.

2011-01-01

297

Role of the brain dopaminergic and opioid system in the regulation of "child's" (maternal bonding) behavior of newborn albino rats.  

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Administration of D(2) receptor antagonist clebopride in a dose not affecting locomotor activity was followed by a decrease in maternal bonding behavior of 10-day-old and 15-day-old albino rat pups. D(1) receptor antagonist SCH23390 had a stimulatory effect only on the behavior of 10-day-old newborns. Opioid peptide ?-casomorphin-7 abolished the effect of clebopride in rat pups of the older age group. PMID:21240335

Stovolosov, I S; Dubynin, V A; Kamensky, A A

2011-01-01

298

Gross hepatic changes in developing albino rats exposed to valproic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Valproid Acid (VPA) is a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug. Its use during pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies and hepatotoxicity. This study was designed to assess the effects of VPA on the gross structure of liver in developing albino rats exposed to the drug during various trimesters of pregnancy. Methods: In this experimental study 40 pregnant rats were divided into 4 equal groups A, B, C and D. Group A received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day intraperitonealy (I/P) on days 3, 4 and 5 of gestation. Group B received the drug in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 8, 9 and 10 of gestation. Group C received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 16, 17 and 18 of gestation. Group D received no treatment and was kept as a control group. On day 21, the rats were euthanised by cervical dislocation. The liver of the foetuses were dissected out for the assessment of their gross structure. Results: Foetal liver of the experimental groups showed significant decrease in weight as well as relative tissue weight index (RTWI) as compared to the control group, although the gross appearance of the foetal liver was normal in all the groups. Conclusion: The use of VPA during various trimesters of pregnancy produces hepatotoxicity in the developing rats. So, the use of this drug during pregnancy should be carefully decided. (author)

299

Protective role of ginkgo Biloba extract against gamma radiation and alcohol induced liver damage in albino rats  

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Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves that promotes vasodilatation and improves blood flow through arteries, veins and capillaries and has antioxidant properties as a tree radical scavenger. This study was designed to evaluate the protective efficacy of EGb 761 against gamma radiation and/ or alcohol induced disorders in the liver of male albino rats. EGb 761 was given orally at a dose level of 100 mg/ kg body wt for 4 days, absolute alcohol was administered orally at a dose level of 1ml/ rat for 4 days and the dose of gamma radiation was 6.5 Gy. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA). reduced glutathion (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in the liver tissue. In irradiated and/ or alcoholic animal groups, there was a highly significant decrease in liver NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD. On the other hand, significant increase in MDA content was observed. Treatment with EGb 761 before irradiation and/or alcohol causes significant increase in NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD and significant decrease in MDA content compared to the irradiated and/ or alcoholic groups. Based on these observations, one could conclude that pre-treatment of rats with EGb 761 could partly protect liver from gamma rays and/ or absolute alcohol injurious and this protection may be induced, at least partly, throtion may be induced, at least partly, through antioxidant mechanisms

300

Comparative gastroprotective effects of natural honey, nigella sativa and cimetidine against acetylsalicylic acid Induced gastric ulcer in albino rats  

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Natural honey (NH) and Nigella sativa (NS) seeds have been in use as a natural remedy for over thousands of years in various parts of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of NS (Nigella sativa) and NH (natural honey) on acetylsalicylic acid induced gastric ulcer in an experimental model with comparison to Cimetidine (CD). The study was conducted on 100 male albino rats, divided into 5 groups, with 20 animals in each group. Group A was used as a control and treated with Gum Tragacanth (GT). Eighty animals of the other groups were given acetylsalicylic acid (0.2 gm/kg body weight for 3 days) to produce ulcers by gavage. Two animals from each group were sacrificed for the detection of gastric ulcers. The remaining 72 animals were equally divided in four groups (B, C, D and E). The rats in group B, C and D were given NS, NH, and CD respectively while those in E were kept as such. No gastric lesions were seen in control group A while all the animals in group E revealed gastric ulcers. The animals of group B, C and D showed healing effects in 15/18 (83%), 14/18 (78%) and 17/18 (94%) animals grossly; 13/18 (72%), 14/18 (78%) and 16/18 (89%) rats showed recovery on microscopic examination respectively. The healing effects were almost the same in all three groups therefore, the statistical difference was not significant among them (p =0.40 and 0.65) while significant from group E (p=0.0000075, 0.0000016 and 0.0000012 respectively). NS and NH ar and 0.0000012 respectively). NS and NH are equally effective in healing of gastric ulcer similar to cimetidine. Further broad spectrum studies as well as clinical trials should be conducted before the use of these products as routine medicines. (author)

301

Does coenzyme-Q have a protective effect against atorvastatin induced myopathy? A histopathological and immunohistochemical study in albino rats.  

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Introduction. In addition to their lipid-lowering effect, statins have pleiotropic effects that may extend their use to the treatment and prevention of various other diseases such as cancer, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, the number of patients taking statins is expected to increase. A side effect of statins, statin-induced myopathy, which may result from reduced muscular coenzyme Q10 levels, limits their use. The current study investigates if supplementing with CoQ10 could ameliorate statin induced myopathy. Materials and Methods. Forty adult male albino rats were randomized into 4 groups, with 10 rats per group. The following was administered to the rats using oral gavage for 4 weeks: Group 1: 2 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose once daily. Group 2: 100 mg/kg/ day coenzyme Q10 dissolved in 2 ml of cotton seed oil. Group 3: 10 mg/kg once daily atorvastatin dissolved in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose. Group 4: concomitantly received CoQ10 and atorvastatin similar to groups 2 and 3 respectively. Plasma creatine kinase levels were measured by using spectrophotometer. The right extensor digitorum longus muscle sections were stained for histological (Haematoxylin & Eosin, Masson trichrome and Phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin) and immunohistochemical (cytochrome C and Bax) examinations. Quantitative measures of cytochrome C and Bax were carried out using image analyzer. Results. Atorvastatin induced increased total creatine kinase, skeletal muscle variations in the sizes and shapes, necrosis, disorganization, nuclear pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, dismantled plasma membrane, excess collagen fibers and lipid deposition in addition to loss of cross striation. Atorvastatin increased the intensity of the immune-positive reactions of cytochrome C and Bax. These changes were ameliorated by concomitantly giving coenzyme Q10. Conclusion. CoQ10 may ameliorate atorvastatin induced skeletal muscle injury. PMID:25366571

Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Khamis, Nehal; Al-Drees, Abdulmajeed; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad

2015-03-01

302

Effect of Calotropis procera latex on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in albino rats.  

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The alcoholic extract of the latex obtained from Calotropis procera (Asclepidaceae) was evaluated for protection against isoproterenol (20 mg/100 g body wt., s.c.)-induced myocardial infarction in albino rats. The heart damage induced by isoproterenol was indicated by elevated levels of the marker enzymes such as Creatine Kinase-isoenzyme (CK-MB), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) in serum with increased lipid peroxide and reduced glutathione content in heart homogenates. Microscopical examination (histopathology) was also performed on the myocardial tissue. Pretreatment with an ethanolic latex extract of Calotropis procera at a dose of 300 mg/kg body wt., administered orally thrice a day for 30 days, reduced significantly (p < 0.01) the elevated marker enzyme levels in serum and heart homogenates in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Histopathological observation revealed a marked protection by the extract in myocardial necrotic damage. PMID:15185846

Ahmed, K K Mueen; Rana, A C; Dixit, V K

2004-01-01

303

Correction of glutathione metabolism in the liver of albino rats affected by low radiation doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The levels of total glutathione GSH, GSSG and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were studied in the liver of adult albino rats subjected to 3-fold external ?-irradiation throughout 2 weeks at the overall dose of 0.75 Gy after 15 h, 2 and 5 days from the last irradiation. Some animals were injected intraperitoneally with the pantothenate containing complex > 3 times on days 1-3 before the irradiation. The radiation related decrease of GSH, GSH/GSSG and the total glutathione level was prevented by the prophylactic administration of the complex and probably at the expense of the activation of the G-SH biosynthesis and/or transport in the liver by the CoA biosynthetic precursor. (author)

304

Hypolipidemic effect of triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis on female albino rats  

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Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia, hyperlipoproteinemia or dyslipidemia is the presence of elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and / or lipoproteins in the blood. Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities are extremely common in the general population and are regarded as a highly modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease due to the influence of cholesterol, one of the most clinically relevant lipid substances in atheroscterosis. Aim of the work: This study aimed to evaluate the possible treatment and protective effect of triphala on hyperlipidemic rats. Material and methods: Six groups (5rat/group of female albino rats (Rattus albinus were used. The 1st group used as control, in the 2nd group hyperlipidemia (25% fat & 2% cholesterol was induced for 3 weeks only then sacrified , the 3rd group was hyperlipidemic rats for 3 weeks then left for other 3 weeks without any additional treatment as a recovery period, the 4th group served as hyperlipidemic group for 3 weeks then treated with triphala for another 3 weeks (25 mg/100 gm b. wt., the 5th group was hyperlipidemic (25% fat & 2% cholesterol for 6 weeks and the 6th group served as hyperlipidemic rats for 6 weeks, and at the same time given triphala (25 mg/100 gm b. wt. by oral administration. Results: The biochemical parameters showed highly significant increase in the body weight, serum glucose, ASAT, ALAT, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin and total lipids in liver .Many histopathological and histochemical changes were detected in liver tissue of the hyperlipidemic rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with triphala ameliorated the biochemical parameters, histological and histochemical results. Conclusion: It is recommended to use triphala in diets for hyperlipidemic patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

Eman G.E. Helal,Fatma Ahmed Eid and Amira M. Salah EL-Din Ahmed El

2011-04-01

305

EFFECT OF AMLODIPINE ON ORAL GLUCOSE INDUCED GLYCEMIC CHANGES IN NORMAL ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of amlodipine on blood glucose levels through oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic albino Rats and the magnitude of its effect on basal v/s glucose induced glycemic value compared to control.Methods: Rats were divided into control and test groups to study the effect of glucose induced glycemic changes in normal rats following oral administration of amlodipine. The control group received 1 ml of distilled water everyday, test group received amlodipine everyday in the dose of 1.5 mg/Kg BW for 3 days.On the third day, 2 hours after drug administration both groups were administered oral glucose in the dose of 0.6 gm/Kg BW. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 60 and 150 minutes after glucose administration by rat tail snipping method using ACCUCHEK glucometer.Results: The mean CBG of Test group is significantly higher(P<0.001 at all times of the glucose challenge i.e. 0, 60, 150 minutes from the time of glucose administration compared to control group. The optimal hyperglycemia was seen at 60 minutes which is 32.76% higher than the control group, followed by 0 minutes (29.41% and 150 minutes (7.92%. Conclusion: Amlodipine worsens glycaemic control in normal rats at all hours of glucose challenge. Extending this to human beings, whether with impaired glucose tolerance or overt diabetes mellitus, it is suggested to limit the use of amlodipine to situations unless absolutely necessary since it induces hyperglycaemia even in normoglycaemic rats by a postulated mechanism of inhibition of both basal and glucose induced insulin secretion significantly.

Dr. Sushma V. Naidu et al

2012-09-01

306

The Physiological Impact on the Consumption of Albizia saman Pods by Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The impact of using Albizia saman in a whole and supplementary feeding of laboratory rats (Sprague Dawley was investigated in a twelve week experiment. In the first trial, whole pods were presented to the animals, while in the second trial five supplementary diets were formulated using A.saman at 0, 15, 20, 25 and 30% supplementation. Upon presentation of the plant materials, there was a rapid response and movement of the rats towards the pods of A.saman either as a whole feed or supplementary feed. Despite the fact that the pods were well received and consumed, it did not support the growth and development of the rats. When presented as supplement, there was a good consumption of the feed with a corresponding good growth rate with group C (25% having the highest consumption rate while Group A (0% recorded the least. There was a steady weight increase in rats given supplementary feeds; Group D had the highest weight gain while Group A had the lowest. Hematological analysis showed Group B having the highest values for PCV, Hb and RBC and low at 25 and 30%. Total protein, albumin and cholesterol values were highest in Group D and lowest in Group E. There were no significant differences in the values of serum enzymes (ASP, ALT and AP, serum electrolyte concentration and proximate analysis of the experimental rats feed with the different supplementary diets. The result of this study has shown that although the pods of A. saman either as raw or milled were well received by the albino rats, it may not be suitable as whole feed except when combined with other feed materials. The pod is best at 15-25% level of supplement, optimizing at 25%.

K.O. Ademolu

2006-01-01

307

Implication of reproductive endocrine malfunction in male antifertility efficacy of Azadirachta indica extract in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of the ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark on body and organ weights, sperm morphology, counts and viability, serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were studied in albino rats. Intraperitoneal administration (i.p) of the extract for ten weeks caused significant dose-dependent decreases in weights of the testis, epididymis and seminal vesicles but an increase in that of the adrenal gland. Sperm counts, morphology and viability were adversely affected in the extract treated rats. Rats that received 150 mgkg(-1) b.w. Azadirachta extract were unable to impregnate female rats throughout the duration of the study. However, these female rats conceived and sired physically normal litters about four weeks after cohabitation with untreated male rats. Azadirachta indica produced dose-dependent reduction in serum testosterone and LH but no change in FSH levels. Most of the changes produced in this study were restored in recovery experiments. PMID:15032463

Raji, Y; Udoh, U S; Mewoyeka, O O; Ononye, F C; Bolarinwa, A F

2003-06-01

308

The protective and/or curative effect of serotonin on sex hormones in gamma irradiated albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were carried out to investigate the efficacy of serotonin as a potential radioprotector and/or therapeutic agent. Irradiation of male albino rats was applied in single doses at 6.5 and 10 Gy levels. The effect was traced on FSH, LH, PrL and testosterone in blood and testicular tissue. The data obtained revealed marked and significant protection both serum and testicular tissue for the lower dose level of 6.5 Gy. Serotonin proved to exert nonsignificant control of hormonal changes due to the higher dose level of 10 Gy. Serotonin administered after radiation exposure, showed partial curative role for changes in LH, whereas it failed to exert any significant therapeutic role on changes in FSH, PrL and tester one induced by either of the two applied dose levels. It could be concluded that serotonin played only a good role as radioprotector on all investigated hormones in serum and testis at the radiation dose level 6.5 Gy. 8 figs., 8 tabs

309

Effect of Some Food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products of Young Albino RatsI- Liver and Kidney Functions  

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Full Text Available Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow, food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect might explain hyperactivity of children that was claimed associated with consumption of food colorants. The study revealed that administration of both natural and synthetic food colorants (permitted dose significantly increases serum AST and serum urea. All colorants with the exception of sun-set yellow significantly increase serum total bilirubin. While, chlorophyll, fast-green and sun-set yellow were significantly increase serum ALT. Some of the colorants used have a retard destructive effect on some vital organ functions, which extends even after the recovery period. Therefore, large quantities and /or long periods of colorants administration should not be used as additive in man's diet or as a drink. Hence, these colorants should restrictly be used in nutritional therapy. And more caring must be done prevent our children to eat or drink these colorants with much amounts or for long period.

Eman G. E. Helal(1 Samir A.M.Zaahkouk

2000-12-01

310

Effect of aspirin and prostaglandins on the carbohydrate metabolism in albino rats.: glucose oxidation through different pathways and glycolytic enzymes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of chronic and acute doses of aspirin and prostaglandins F2? and E2 individually on the oxidation of glucose through Embden Meyerhof-TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathways and some key glycolytic enzymes of liver were studied in male albino rats. Studies were extended to find the combined effect of PGF2? and E2 with an acute dose of aspirin. There was increased utilisation of both 1-14C glucose and 6-14C glucose on aspirin treatment. However, the metabolism through the EM-TCA pathway was more pronounced as shown by a reduced ratio of 14CO2 from 1-14C and 6-14C glucose. Two hepatic key glycolytic enzymes viz. hexokinase and pyruvate kinase were increased due to aspirin treatment. Withdrawal of aspirin corrected the above impaired carbohydrate metabolism in liver. Prostaglandin F2? also caused a reduction in the utilisation of 1-14C glucose, while PGE2 recorded an increase in the utilisation of both 1-14C and 6-14C glucose when compared to controls, indicating that different members of prostaglandins could affect metabolisms and differently. Administration of the PGs and aspirin together showed an increase in the utilisation of 6-14C glucose. (auth.)

311

Radioprotective role of vitamin E and urea in irradiated albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In control rats, the levels of glycogen and pyruvic acid in the forebrain were 217 8 to 226 8 and 17.70 0.60 to l8.00 0.62 ? g/g fresh tissue, respectively. Whole body gamma irradiation at the dose of 7 Gy caused a significant increase in the level of glycogen in the forebrain of albino rats. This increase was about 29%, 47%, 38% and 24% on the 1 st, 3 rd, 7 th and 10 th days post irradiation, respectively. As for pyruvic acid content, a temporary significant increase by about 19% on the 3 rd day post irradiation was observed, while a decrease of 32% and 28% was recorded on the 7th and 10th days after irradiation, respectively. The treatment of rats with intraperitoneal injection of either vitamin E at a concentration of 10 mg/100 g animal body weight, or with urea at 200 mg/100 g body weight pre-irradiation reduced the changes induced by whole body gamma irradiation. 1 tab

312

Study on the diuretic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seed extract in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methanol extract of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds (SPSE) was evaluated for its diuretic activity in Wistar albino rats. The SPSE was administered at the graded doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight. The parameters which were taken into account during the experimental on each rat were: total urine volume (corrected for water intake during the test period), body weight before and after the experiment, and the concentration of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions in urine. The total urine volumes of the SPSE (600 mg/kg)-treated rats were evaluated nearly two and half fold then compared with the control (saline treated) group. Excretion of cations (sodium and potassium ions) and anions (chloride ions) also increased significantly with respect to the control group. The diuretic effect was comparable with that of the standard drug Furosemide. The increase of cations in the urine on treatment with Strychnospotatorum seed extract (SPSE) was dose-dependent. This effect supports the use of the Strychnos potatorum seeds as a diuretic in folk remedies. PMID:11824523

Biswas, S; Murugesan, T; Maiti, K; Ghosh, L; Pal, M; Saha, B P

2001-11-01

313

Effect of Soybean (Glycine max L. on the Hormonal Milieu of Male Rats  

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Full Text Available Effect of soybean (Glycine max on serum level of some sex hormones: testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone/interstitial cell stimulating hormone (LH/ICSH, estradiol and prolactin in male rats was investigated. Twenty male albino rats of 12 weeks old with similar body weights were assigned to four groups of 5 rats each and treatment with soybean meal at 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively daily for 8 weeks. Blood samples collected through cardiac puncture were assayed for levels of hormones. There were dose-dependent effects of the soybean meal on the serum concentration of the hormones. The treatment significantly reduced the levels of testosterone and FSH in the serum while it significantly increased the levels of estradiol, LH/ICSH and prolactin. The results show that soybean (Glycine max had strong capability to disrupt hormonal functions. Hence, its indiscriminate use could increase the risk of infertility in males.

O. Udensi

2011-01-01

314

High Fiber Diet Effect On Haemopoietic And Endocrine System In Irradiated Male Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wheat bran was mixed with standard rat diet in order to assess the role of high fiber diet on the damage induced by 4 Gy gamma irradiation in male rats. Immediately after exposure to irradiation, the male albino rats were fed on diet containing 10% wheat bran ad libitum. After 15 days, the rats were decapitated then blood picture, levels of calcium, glucose, folic acid, vitamin B12 , triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), testosterone and insulin hormones were determined. The results denoted that wheat bran had an improvement effect on the radiation damage on blood picture, calcium level, vitamin B12 , folic acid and testosterone hormone, which most probably due to the effect of the high antioxidant action of wheat bran that might improve the gastro intestinal metabolism.

315

Evaluation of the Abortifacient Properties of Chloroform Extract of Carica papaya L. Seed in Female Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried out to investigate the impact of oral administration of chloroform extract of Carica papaya seed (CPE) on implantation and pregnancy in female albino rats. The study was divided into three experimental sections. Each section was subdivided into 4 groups treated, respectively with 25, 50 and 100 mg kg 1 b.w CPE and 2.5% tween 80 in normal saline (vehicle for CPE; control). Rats in section 1 were treated with CPE for two weeks before mating (pre-coital). Rats in section 2...

Raji, Y.; Morakinyo, A. O.; Akinsomisoye, O. S.; Oloyo, A. K.; Esegbue-peters, P. R. C.; Kunle-alabi, Olufadekemi T.

2006-01-01

316

Antidiarrheal activity and Phytochemical profile of the ethanolic leaf extract of Leonotis nepetifolia (Lion's ear) in Wistar albino rats  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Leonotis nepetifolia in wistar albino rats. Methods: This study was done in February 2013. The ethanolic leaf extract of L. nepetifolia was evaluated for its antidiarrheal activity. A total of sixty rats were used in the study. At first, thirty rats in five groups of six animals were orally dosed with the extract at dose rates of 225mg/kg, 450mg/kg, 900mg/kg body weight respectively...

Ndukui James Gakunga; Godfrey Kateregga; Larry Fred Sembajwe; John Kateregga

2013-01-01

317

Effects of ciprofloxacin and zinc chloride in adult albino rat and pre-natal conceptus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Administration of quinolone therapy is controversial during growing age as stated by earlier authors. The flouroquinolones are currently not indicated for young children because of arthropathy and adverse effect as new born shown by studies. However the effects of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ on prenatal conceptus have remained undocumented. The present study was designed to compare the effects on conceptus after maternal ingestion of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ using Wastar albino rats. Methods: Ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ was administrated to pregnant female albino rats. Ciprofloxacin with a dose of 20 mg/Kg bodyweight and ZnCl/sub 2/ 120 micro g/100 gm bodyweight two times therapeutic dose for 10 days (from day 8-18 of pregnancy). Each animal was weighted on day 1, day 8 and day 18 of pregnancy. Abortion resulted on day 18th of pregnancy. Each group of pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation by over dose of either anaesthesia, abdomen opened, uterus and both cornua containing conceptus identified, removed, there weight recorded, crown rump length was measured and was compared with similar value of control animals. The results were statistically analysed to find out the significance. Results: The ciprofloxacin induces a mordanting effect as obviated by increased basophilia. Our study reveals that ciprofloxacin administered in maternal, decreased maternal body weight to 38.4+-0.9 gm. However simultaneous ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained the bodimultaneous ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained the body weight to 41.4+-0.7 gm, while ZnCl/sub 2/ increased the body weight to 46.5+-2.25 gm. The body weight and Crown Rump length (CR Length) in conceptus decreased by 4.52+-0.10 gm and 3.06+-0.09 Cm respectively. That ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ administration maintained the body weight and CR length by 5.46+-0.09 gm and 3.79+-0.13 Cm respectively. That ZnCl/sub 2/ administration increased the body weight and CR length by 6.71+-0.05 gm and 4.15+-0.08 Cm respectively. Conclusion: Prenatal administration of Ciprofloxacin caused reduction in growth rate and CR length, and ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained body weight and CR length and growth of the rat conceptus. (author)

318

Effect Of Extensive Use Of Garlic In Feed On Normal And Irradiated Stressed Male Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty mature male albino rats were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of using crude garlic for one month on general heath condition and to compare between garlic intakes pre and post-irradiated stressed rats.Fresh minced cloves (8-10) of garlic were added to the rat diet twice per day for 30 days in garlic group and for 7 and 15 days prior to and after 4 Gy irradiation in pre and post-irradiated garlic groups, respectively. The results denoted that the extensive use of garlic in food improved the general condition in non-stressed rats while in irradiated stressed rats, the immediate intake of garlic after radiation was more efficient in ameliorating the undesirable radiation effects, where some biochemical and hematological parameters were examined in pre and post-garlic intake such as Hb, RBCs, platelets, T3, testosterone and insulin.

319

Anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg/celecoxib @ 10mg/kg (in case of COX?2 assay on 7th day of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days. All groups of lotus seed extracts were revealed anti-inflammatory activity in Carragenin induced inflammation as well as in COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay. While comparing all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed extracts, exhibited more pronounced inhibition than other groups. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 157-159

P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

2010-08-01

320

Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract  

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Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

Taofeeq Oduola

2010-05-01

321

Evaluation of analgesic activity of lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the analgesic effect of red and white lotus (Nelumbonuciferaseeds in albino rats. The analgesic action in acute pain model was studied by tail flick method. Themethanolicextracts of lotus seeds were screened forphytochemicalanalysis and it?s revealed the presence of all components excluding tannins. The Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawleyrats were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drugdiclofenacpotassium @ 3mg/kg on 7thday of study. Themethanolicextract ofNelumbonuciferaseeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days.It is observed that the both lotus seed extracts shows considerable analgesic effect in acute pain model which is less than the effect ofDiclofenacgroup. The higher dose groups of lotus seed extracts (600mg/kg were revealed more activity than their corresponding lower dose. While evaluating all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed (600mg/kg, exhibited more pronounced activity than other extracts. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 355-357

P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

322

ACUTE ANXIOLYTIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SARACA ASOKA BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Anxiety is defined as a psychological state characterized by abnormal cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. Anxiety is normal reaction to stress. However, when it becomes excessive, falls under the classification of an anxiety disorder. Even though Benzodiazepines (BZDs are the major class of compounds used in anxiety; long-term use of the same may cause many adverse psychological and physical effects. In the present study, we have attempted to evaluate the acute anxiolytic effect of ethanolic extract of Saraca asoka Bark (EESAB in Wistar Albino Rats. The rats weighing 150200gm were divided into 5 groups containing 6 animals for each dose and were housed for 10 days prior to testing. In this study, control (1% Gum acacia, test drug EESAB (100, 200 & 400mg/ kg and standard drug Diazepam (1.0mg/kg were administered orally. One hour after oral administration of the drugs / vehicle, the experiment were conducted by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM. Our results suggest that, behavioral dis-inhibitory effects of EESAB exhibited anxiolytic activity at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg compared to control.

Chandra shekar Rajan

2013-06-01

323

Acute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Some Polyherbal Formulations in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the acute oral toxicity potentials of certain herbal veterinary preparations in albino Wistar rats. In the sighting study, the test substances were administered in sequential manner to one animal each at 2000 and 5000 mg kg-1 body weight followed by four animals at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight in the main study; whereas the test materials with well documented traditional use were evaluated at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight. The treated animals were observed for mortality, untoward clinical/toxic signs, alterations in body weight gain and necropsy findings during the study. The treated animals survived throughout the study period and did not reveal any treatment related major abnormal clinical signs at the tested dose levels for all the products. The overall percent body weight gain in rats treated with the herbal products was found to be normal during the 14 day observation period. On necropsy, no abnormalities were observed. In conclusion, acute oral toxicity testing of screened herbal veterinary products did not produce any treatment-related adverse effects upto the dose level of 5000 mg kg-1 body weight.

A.J. Joshua

2008-01-01

324

5. Evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats  

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The hypoglycemic potential of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum was investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. The extract at a dose of 260 mg/kg produced a significant (P< 0.05) reduction in blood glucose level by 112% at 24 h of oral administration. At 390 mg/kg, significant reduction (P< 0.05) in blood glucose levels of 102% (6 h) and 82% (24 h) were observed. A significant reduction (P

Mbagwu, Herbert O. C.; Clement Jackson; Idongesit Jackson; Godwin Ekpe; Udeme Eyaekop; Grace Essien

2011-01-01

325

Antiovulatory Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Chromatographic Fractions of Citrus medica Seeds in Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

In India the control of fertility is based on the folk use of numerous traditional antifertility plants that has been practiced for many years. The petroleum ether extract of Citrus medica seeds which showed promising antiovulatory activity in female albino rats was examined for the isolation of its active fractions. Two fractions were obtained using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of the extract. Both fractions were subjected for testing their anti-ovulatory activity and estrous cycle ...

Patil, Saraswati B.; Patil, Sharangouda J.

2013-01-01

326

Antioxidative Properties of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Globimetula braunii in Normal Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Globimetula braunii used in Nigerian traditional medicine for managing various diseases was investigated for its antioxidant properties in adult Swiss albino rats. The pulverized plant material was extracted in 80% methanol using Soxhlet apparatus and fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. The crude and ethyl acetate fractions were evaluated for their effects on activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), gluthathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), lipid p...

Okpuzor, J.; Ogbunugafor, H.; Kareem, G. K.

2009-01-01

327

Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts using aspirin induced ulcer model in albino rats  

OpenAIRE

The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae) was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg) in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg) of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark ext...

Khaja Zeeyauddin; Mohammed Ibrahim; Muna Abid; Mangamoori Lakshmi Narsu

2011-01-01

328

Cytotoxic Effect of Aspartame (Diet Sweet on the Histological and Genetic Structures of Female Albino Rats and Their Offspring  

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Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated, each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1 the gestation period (subgroup one, (2 the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two and (3 animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal.

Inas S. Ghaly

2012-01-01

329

Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 +/- 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group) after oral administration of polar (PF) and non-polar (NPF) fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05) in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 +/- 0.33 and 4.67 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 +/- 1.67 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 +/- 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 +/- 0.40 and 1.80 +/- 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 +/- 7.02) and follicles in various stages (I-VII) of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05) the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 +/- 5.93 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 +/- 0.88 and 5.33 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF) and dharek (13.00 +/- 3.58 and 14.60 +/- 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF) treatments compared to control (216.00 +/- 15.72 and 222.20 +/- 19.52, respectively). Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of follicles. This may help elevate the socio-economic status of the country. Thus, the present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of A. indica and M. azedarach seed extracts on reproduction of albino rats. PMID:15933789

Roop, J K; Dhaliwal, P K; Guraya, S S

2005-06-01

330

The Protective Effect of Vitamin C on Irradiated Testes of Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available The increased exposure to radiation in medicine or industries increases the hazards of radiation on various organs of the human body. The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of anti oxidant (vitamin C against the effect of radiation on rat testes. Thirty adult albino rats were divided into three groups, each contained ten rats .The first group (G.1 was exposed to 415 r (G.1' or 622 r (G.1" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week. The second group (G.2 was exposed to 415 r (G.2' or 622 r (G.2" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week, in addition to vitamin C equivalent to 86.9 mg./liter orally for the two sub groups for the same period . The third group (G.3 was a control group. The examined testes of G.1 showed damaged germinal epithelium with remaining some layers of spermatogonia. There was no affection of spermatocytes, mature sperms, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, the lumen contained little sperms and debris of germ cells (G.1' .While for (G.1" there was marked damage of the seminiferous tubules with irregular outline, destruction of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids with pyknotic type of nuclear degeneration and the lumen was devoid of mature sperms. The examined testes of the (G.2 showed evidence of almost complete recovery for G .2' and marked recovery for G.2" It is concluded that anti oxidants were essential to patients exposed to x-ray , to guard against its hazards.

Lotfy Sayed*, Esam Eldin Abdel Hady*, Hosam Eldin Hussin

2005-06-01

331

Increased risk of fetal anomalies following maternally induced hypothyroidism in female albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

evaluate the alleged association of fetal abnormalities associated with maternal thyroid hypo function, hypothyroidism was induced in female albino rats by means of daily oral administration of carbimazole (CA) at a dose of 1 mg per rat. The female were allocated into 5 groups. Group 1. comprised female rats administered CA for 15 days prior to conception and throughout the whole gestational period unit day 20. Group 2, included pregnant rats treated with CA from the 1st to the 20 th d gestational day. Group 3, contained pregnant rats treated with CA from the 7 th to the 18 th gestational day. The animals were sacrificed at the evening of the last day assigned for the drug intake. Two groups of euthyroid pregnant rats orally received the vehicle daily from the 1st to the 20th gestational day (control 20 days) and from the 7th to 18th gestational day (control 18 days) after which they were sacrificed. Blood was then collected for quantitative hormonal evaluation and uteri were removed and dissected for embryological studies. Overall, all the CA treated groups showed reduced thyroid hormones (total T4 and T3) and elevated TSH concentration, the extent of which was amplified with prolonged drug administration. Concomitant with TSH, FSH revealed elevated values in both groups treated for longer time duration with CA (Groups 1 and 2). Accordingly, the female sex hormones showed significant fluctuations. Where estrogen levels were inversely correlated with the progesterone nversely correlated with the progesterone levels in all the CA treated groups. In the 2nd and 3rd treated groups estrogen concentrations decreased whereas progesterone levels increased. However, in the 1st experimental group treated 15 days preconception and throughout pregnancy till day 20. estrogen levels recorded an obvious rise versus an abrupt fall in the progesterone concentrations as compared to the control pregnant euthyroid hormonal values. On the other hand, embryological studies discerned, in most of the pregnant hypothyroid females, shortening and shrinkage in uteri with unequal distribution of embryos between the two horns. Moreover, a considerable number of resorption sites and dead malformed undeveloped embryos were easily recognized. The affected embryos suffered prominent bulge of eyeballs, fragile skin, Sub dermal hemorrhage, together with some deformities in the head region and the fore and hind limbs. Group 1 treated with CA for the longest experimental duration showed the highest mortality rate while Group 3 treated during the sensitive period of organogenesis (from the 7th to the 18th gestational days) revealed the highest decrement in both the length and weight measurements of the surviving embryos of the three experimental groups

332

Sub-Acute Toxicity Profile of Fixed Dose Combination of Pirotum (Cefpirome-Sulbactam in Swiss Albino Mice and Wistar Rat  

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Full Text Available The objective of current study was to evaluate deleterious effects of a potential combination of cefpirome, a member of the latest class of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, in combination of ?-lactamase inhibitor, sulbactum. To assess the toxicity profile of fixed dose regimen Pirotum (Cefpirome+Sulbactum in 2:1 ratio, a repeated dose subacute toxicity study was conducted on Swiss albino mice and Wistar rat (male and female. Three different dose levels (30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1 of combination were administered for twenty eight days. Physical parameters, hematological parameters and biochemical parameters related to liver toxicity and nephrotoxicity were evaluated as end point parameters. Findings of present study were also supported by hematological as well as histopathology parameters. Data of current study indicated that Pirotum exerted no deleterious effect on blood, liver and kidney function as no alteration was observed in biochemical parameters at any dose level.

A. Tamta

2010-01-01

333

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREADA  

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Full Text Available Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled as follows. Controls (C, animals treated with the drug vehicle (destilled water; experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3, animals treated with 35, 105 or 315 mg/kg b.w. pyrazinamide by gavage (oral route once daily up to the term (20th day of pregnancy. Drug or vehicle volume was always 0.5 ml. Body weight gain was followed up every week. At term, upon sacrifice (in excess of anesthesia and histerectomy, the following parameters have been studied: number of implantations and reabsorptions; intrauterine deaths; number of living foetuses and of placentae; weights of concepts and of placentae; major foetal malformations; maternal mortality index. No significant effects of pyrazinamide on rat pregnancy have been observed regarding the maternal body weight gain, the weights of concepts, the number of implantations and reabsorptions and the weights of placentae and foetuses. Also, no deleterious effects have been noticed regarding major foetal malformations, intrauterine deaths or maternal mortality. With the highest pyrazinamide dosis employed (315 mg/kg b.w., however, a significant lowered uterine weight was recorded. Although otherwise safe, a high-dose regimen of pyrazinamide during rat pregnancy can induce a slight yet significant reduction of uterine weight.La pyrazinamida es un frmaco muy utilizado para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, pero no hay datos en la literatura respecto a sus potenciales riesgos para la preez. Debido a esto, en este trabajo tratamos ratas preadas durante toda la gestacin (desde el da 0 hasta el da 20 con 3 dosis de pyrazinamida (35, 105 o 315 mg/kg, una vez al da para una primera observacin sobre los efectos de la pyrazinamida durante la preez. Las ratas control recibieron el vehculo de la droga (agua destilada. Los resultados mostraron que no hubo alteraciones significativas en cuanto a la evolucin del peso corporal de las ratsa madres, al peso de los fetos, al nmero de implantaciones y reabsorciones, ni tampoco en cuanto a los pesos de placentas y fetos. Adems, no se observaron malformaciones fetales mayores, muertes intrauterinas o aumento de la mortalidad materna. El nico efecto significativo observado con la dosis de 315 mg/kg de pyrazinamida, fue una reduccin del peso uterino

Marisa Pascale Quintino

2003-01-01

334

Evaluation of the Abortifacient Properties of Chloroform Extract of Carica papaya L. Seed in Female Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the impact of oral administration of chloroform extract of Carica papaya seed (CPE on implantation and pregnancy in female albino rats. The study was divided into three experimental sections. Each section was subdivided into 4 groups treated, respectively with 25, 50 and 100 mg kg 1 b.w CPE and 2.5% tween 80 in normal saline (vehicle for CPE; control. Rats in section 1 were treated with CPE for two weeks before mating (pre-coital. Rats in section 2 were administered CPE from day 1 of pregnancy till term (post coital while rats in section 3 received the extract for two weeks before mating and thereafter throughout term (pre and post-coital. Implantation sites and resorptions were determined in some of the pregnant rats after laparotomy. The gestation period, litter size and fetal weight were recorded in the remaining rats. The litters were also observed for any morphological alterations. The extract treated rats had significant decreases in litter size and implantation count (p<0.01. The percentage resorptions increased in a dose dependent manner while the fetal weight and morphology remain unchanged when compared with the normal untreated control groups. The percentage resorptions were high in CPE treated rats when compared with the control group. None of the 100 mg kg 1 b.w CPE treated female rats had litters. The results suggest that the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seed has anti-implantation and abortifacient properties in female albino rats.

Y. Raji

2006-01-01

335

Effect of forced swim stress on wistar albino rats in various behavioral parameters  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters cognition, learning memory and emotional responses, causing mental disorders like depression and anxiety and stress in rats. Methods: The experiment was carried out with 12 healthy albino Wistar female rats weighing about 150-180gms. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of six animals each. Group I (control, Group II (Stressed Group. Group II rats are placed in plastic tanks for 45minutes for15 days. Temperature of water was maintained at 20?C. During stress phase, the animals will be trained for forced swim test, behavioral changes observed by open field apparatus for emotions, and eight arm maze for memory & leaning, elevated plus maze for anxiety. Results: Forced swim stress causes to a significant change (p<0.05 on cognitive functions: motivation, learning and memory. Forced swim stress is the factor damaging the hippocampus causes repeated immobilization and produce atrophy of dendrites of pyramidal neurons and neuroendocrinological disturbances, controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Repeated stress in the form of forced swimming activates the free radical processes leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation in many tissues. Conclusion: This study reveals the effect of repeated forced swim stress causes wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. The earlier findings have reported that chronic and acute stress procedures weaken working memory functions in rats. There are very fewstudies on sub acute forced swim stress on working memory status of the animal. The study was undertaken to assess the various behavioral changes by applying sub acute forced swim.

Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.

2012-09-01

336

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA GUMMI GUTTA (LINN IN PARACETAMOL INTOXICATED WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Garcinia gummi gutta fruit in the selective in vivo model system using Wistar albino rats. The experiment was comprised of five groups such as Healthy control, Disease control (Paracetamol treated, Positive control (Silymarin treated, test groups G. gutta lower dose(250mg/kg b.wt and higher dose (500 mg/kg b.wt. The study period was 10 days and the biochemical profile including SGOT, ALKP, Total protein and antioxidant enzymes Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase and Glutathione reductase levels were evaluated in blood and tissue samples (liver, kidney, heart of all the experimental animals. The study proved that there was a significant improvement of antioxidant enzyme levels in the G. gutta treated groups as compared to the control groups and the efficacy was found to be dose dependent. The study proved the antioxidant activity of G. gutta extract and further study on characterization of phytoconstituents is under progress for harnessing G. gutta as a drug formulation.

Thamizh Selvam N

2011-11-01

337

The ultrastructural effects of long-term use of henna on the albino rat skin.  

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Tattooing with henna is a routine practice in the Arab world. To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have evaluated the adverse histological effects following henna tattooing on the ultrastructure of the skin. The objectives of this study were to diagnose the cytopathological alterations induced by commercial henna and to investigate the adverse role of henna when combined with sun ray on the skin. The skin of albino rats was tattooed with natural and black henna for three months, skin samples were examined by transmission electron microscope. In addition, the concentration of lead in henna samples was estimated by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results expanded the understanding of the pathogenesis of henna-induced phytophotodermatitis. We hypothesized that henna-associated additives penetrated the epidermal barrier to gain access to the vascular dermis where the harmful ingredients became concentrated, leading to skin pathology through a dual mechanism. First, these ingredients became re-transported into the epidermis through vesicular trafficking leading to dermo-epidermal blistering and cytoplasmic vacuolization of the stratum basal cells. Following this, cytoplasmic vacuoles poured their content into the nuclei through continuities with the perinuclear cisterna, possibly leading to genetic mutation. The progression of keratinocytes into the next layers became associated with nuclear and cytoplasmic signs of apoptosis with subsequent phagocytosis in other epidermal cells, most probably keratinocytes. The second mechanism of injury was mediated through accumulation of inflammatory cells around capillaries in the dermis with the release of angiogenic and mitogenic mediators resulting in vasculopathy. PMID:24062203

Al-Shobaili, Hani A; El-Bassouny, Dalia R

2014-03-01

338

Stimulatory Effects of Dihydroartemisinin on the Leucocyte Population of Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Five dosages of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA which included 1mg kg-1; a repeated dose of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1 were administered orally to albino rats for 5 days. The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin treatment significantly elevated the total white cell count (pApproach: By increasing the population of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes (which engage in chemo tactic response; microbial killing; microbial ingestion and antibody production in the blood, dihydroartemisinin demonstrated that it stimulates increase in their population and uses them as part of its own arsenals of warfare against endoparasites (like malaria parasites and pathogens. Results: The results of this study show that dihydroartemisinin stimulated a lot of new white blood cell production by haemopoetic sites of the body The increases in the total white blood cell count; the percentage neutrophils count and the percentage lymphocyte counts were significant at pConclusion: The results of the study suggest that the phagocytic and immunological activities of the body?s white blood cell population are important components of the efficacious Plasmodium Schizonticidal actions of Dihydroartemisinin in malaria treatment.

U. A. Utoh-Nedosa

2011-01-01

339

Hematological and histopathological changes in female albino rats after gamma irradiation and /or piper nigrum treatment  

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This study was carried out to investigate the effect of whole body gamma irradiation, at dose level of 6.0 Gy (single dose), and or daily treatment with P. nigrum (black pepper) at doses of 160 and 320 mg/kg body weight up to 36, 71 and 99 days on some hematological aspects as well as histopathological changes in lung, kidney and brain tissues of female albino rats. The results revealed that whole body gamma irradiation significantly elevated the values of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and hematocrit percentage (HC %) but hemoglobin level was significantly decreased. These changes were ameliorated after treatment with P. nigrum. Non-significant changes were obtained regarding the effect of both doses of P. nigrum on red and white blood cell counts throughout the three time intervals. However, a dose of 160 mg/kg body weight of P. nigrum significantly reduced the hemoglobin contents throughput the experimental period. Histopathological examination revealed that lung, kidney and brain tissues showed marked to moderate pathological changes after irradiation and/or P.nigrum treatments. However, treatment with P. nigrum showed positive effect against the harmful effects of gamma irradiation, concerning kidney and brain. Although no malignant transformation could be detected, the resultant marked alveolar inflammation, bronchial wall hyperplasia and reactive astrocytic proliferation are important pathological changes that should be considered as pre-neoplges that should be considered as pre-neoplastic changes

340

Effect of Solanine on Arthritis Symptoms in Postmenopausal Female Albino Rats  

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Solanine is a toxic compound produced in nightshades family as potato,tomato and eggplant when exposed to light.The current study was carried out on 18 female postmenopausal albino rats to investigate the effect of solanine on the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.Animals were classified into 3 groups feeding on balanced diet only (GI) or replaced by two third with small pieces of diseased potatoes for 2 and 4 weeks (GII,GIII) respectively . Serum levels of arthritic bio markers were investigated as the estimation of erythrocytes sedimentation rate ( ESR) , C-Reactive Protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA),Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?),Interleukin-6( IL-6) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in all groups. There was a significant positive increase in the levels of ESR, CRP , MDA , TNF-?, IL-6 , and IgG among different groups depending on potatoes intake. There was positive correlation between the serum levels of CRP and TNF-? ,Il-6 and IgG.However, a non significantly positive correlation between serum level of CRP and the level of MDA was observed. The data of the present study showed that old age and postmenopausal suffering from arthritis and joint swollen must eliminat or avoid the nightshades plants to alleviate the joint pain and also decrease the destruction of the tissues

341

Changes In Some Haematological And Biochemical Parameters of Albino Rats In Response to Low-energy Diet  

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Full Text Available The effect of low-energy diet (Low protein or low fat-diet was studied using male albino rats. The experiment was expended to 45 days (30 days treatment and 15 days recovery period. Body weight gain or loss as well as blood samples for blood picture (R.B.CS. W.B.CS count, Hb. concentration, Hct value and erythrocyte indices such as MCV, MCH and MCHC well recorded Biochemical examination for glucose concentration, total protein, albumin, globulin and A/g ratio. Triglyceride level, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol level, in addition to some hormones such as insulin, Testosterone and Leptin levels were examined at the end of the treatment period and the recovery period. A significant decrease in body weight gain percentage was observed in group fed low protein or Low fat-diet and the body weight improved during and after the recovery period. A significant decrease in R.B.CS, W.B.CS, count and Hb. concentration, and Hct value in treatment period and improved during and after recovery period. Total proteins, albumin and globulin were significantly affected by low protein or low-fat diet treatment in comparison with the control group. These effects were significantly counteracted by balanced diet. A significant decrease in triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were observed in groups received diet containing low-protein or low fat as compared with the control group. The results of the present study showed a significant reduction in (Leptin, insulin and testosterone level after treatment for 30 days and recovery period for 15 days.

Somaia Z. A. Rashed

2000-12-01

342

L-NAME protects against acute light damage in albino rats, but not against retinal degeneration in P23H and S334ter transgenic rats.  

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Two previous studies have shown that N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, protects retinas of albino rats and mice from damaging levels of light. The aims of the present study were two-fold: (1) to confirm the protective effect of L-NAME on wild type albino rats and (2) to determine if L-NAME protects the retinas of transgenic rats with P23H and S334ter rhodopsin mutations. In the first study, albino rats born and raised in 5-10 lux cyclic light were injected intraperitoneally with either L-NAME or its inactive isomer D-NAME 30 min before being placed in bright light (2700 lux) for 24hr. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded before light treatment and 2 days after cessation of exposure, and eyes were enucleated for morphologic evaluation. L-NAME, but not D-NAME provided structural protection of photoreceptor cells from light damage. The functional rescue was not statistically significant between the drug treated groups. In the second study, albino WT, P23H transgenic, and S334ter transgenic rats were born and raised in 400 lux cyclic light. Three week old animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of L-NAME or D-NAME for 4 weeks, and the same drugs were added to their drinking water. At 7 weeks of age, the ERG sensitivity curves and the outer nuclear layer thickness of both transgenic groups were significantly reduced compared to WT controls. However, administration of L-NAME did not protect against retinal degeneration caused by the rhodopsin mutation in either strain of transgenic (P23H and S334ter) rats. Thus, although photoreceptor cell death in light damage and inherited retinal degenerations share a common apoptotic mechanism, there must be significant 'up-stream' differences that allow selective neuroprotection by L-NAME. PMID:12634110

Kldi, Ildik; Dittmar, Mark; Pierce, Paula; Anderson, Robert E

2003-04-01

343

EFFICACY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED NEPHROLITHIASIS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is the third most common disorder of the urinary system with high recurrence rate. Clinical treatment of lithiasis is costly and can cause harmful side effects and hence nowadays phytotherapy have higher clinical significance in kidney stone management. Aim of the study is to investigate the antilithiatic property of the methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (MEAP in experimentally induced nephrolithiatic rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar albino rats by administering the dose of 0.75% ethylene glycol for a period of 28 days. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups. Group I served as normal control. Group II received standard antilithiatic drug and group III as the lithiatic control. Group IV and V indicated as preventive regime, received 400mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight MEAP and group VI, VII, VIII and IX indicated curative regime of which VI and IX received 400mg/kg extract and VII and VIII at 200mg/kg body weight of MEAP. At the end of the experimental period, serum (creatinine, blood urea, BUN, uric acid urine (protein, calcium and phosphorus and kidney (calcium and phosphorus were analyzed. All the elevated biochemical parameters in EG received group were declined in the MEAP treated groups at dosage of 200 and 400mg/kg. Urinary protein, phosphorus and calcium also declined in both MEAP treatment groups than the lithiatic groups. Serum creatinine declined significantly in high dose received group than its low dose in both post and co treatment groups. A dose dependent effect was observed in all the serum parameters except BUN. Kidney phosphorus and calcium of preventive regime which received MEAP at a high dose of 400mg/kg showed a clear dose dependent effect than the curative regimes. The result of the present study suggests the usefulness of MEAP against nephrolithiasis.

Prathibhakumari P.V.

2013-06-01

344

Assessment of enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation by intermittent fasting in Wistar albino rats.  

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Intermittent fasting (IF), a type of feeding regimen where the frequency of eating is reduced enhances cardiovascular stress adaptation and improves cardiovascular risk factors in rats. Data on the effect of IF on the endothelium is not common, so we examined whether IF showed similarity to documented beneficial effects of caloric restriction on endothelium-dependent vasodilatory responses of rat aortic rings. 25 young male Wistar rats had ad libitum (AL) access to food and 25 others were provided with food every other day for 2 months, during which their weight was measured every 2 weeks. Vascular reactivity of abdominal aorta was simultaneously evaluated using dual wire myographs. Weight gain was greater in the AL group (P<0.001) at all weighing intervals. Acetylcholine (ACh; 10(-10)-10(-5)M) produced greater (P<0.05) vasorelaxation in IF rats at the two highest concentrations. IF reduces weight gain in young male rats and improves their aortic endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. PMID:23362726

Razzak, Rima L Abdul; Abu-Hozaifa, Bodour M; Bamosa, Abdullah O; Ali, Nemah M

2011-01-01

345

Paradoxical sleep deprivation decreases serum testosterone and Leydig cells in male rats  

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Full Text Available Background Chronic stress increases glucocorticoid levels and accelerates reduction in Leydig cells functions and numbers. Chronic stress models in the working place comprise sleep deprivation, sedentary stress, and physical stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various work stress models, such as stress from paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD, immobilization, and footshock, on serum testosterone levels and number of Leydig cells in male albino rats. Methods This study was of experimental randomized post-test only with control group design using 24 male Wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The sample was divided into 4 groups: K1 (control, K2 (PSD, K3 (immobilization and K4 (footshock, receiving treatment for 25 days. Measured parameters were serum testosterone level and Leydig cell number. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by post hoc LSD. Results Mean serum testosterone levels (0.07 0.08 ng/mL and Leydig cell numbers (4.22 l0.96 were lowest in the PSD stress model. Serum testosterone levels differed significantly between controls and PSD group (p=0.014, while there was a significant difference in numbers of Leydig cells between footshock stress and PSD (p=0.011 and between the three stress groups and controls (p=0.006. Conclusion This study demonstrated that PSD, immobilization and footshock stress significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and number of Leydig cells in male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The mechanism by which PSD affects serum testosterone is still unclear.

Fitranto Arjadi

2014-04-01

346

The Effect of Amantadine on Clomipramine Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Male Rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: Several studies have reported that Clomipramine has the ability to suppress male rat sexual behavior. Literature indicatesthat the activation of brain D2 receptors causes facilitation of penile erection, and a number of reports have indicated dopamines involvement in sexual function. Hence this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Amantadine, a dopamine agonists on the Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction. Methods: The study subjects involved a total of 48 males and 48 females, 4 months old Sprague-Dawley albino rats, all housed in a group of six males and females separately in plexi glass cages in an acclimatized colony room (250.50C maintained on a 12/12 hr light/dark cycle. The male rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 male rats each. Group I served as controls. Group II, III, and IV were treated with Amantadine (9 mg/kg body weight, p.o 30 min, prior to the treatment with 13.5 mg/kg, 27 mg/Kg and 54 mg/Kg bodyweight p.o of Clomipramine respectively for 60 days. The control group received vehicle 1 ml/kg p.o. The sexual behavior of the male rats was observed to determine the following parameters: mount latency, intromission latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory pause, and intromission frequency. As well as the sexual behavior; serum testosterone and histopathology of the testes were also investigated in this study. Results: The results indicate that Amantadine in all aspects failed to antagonize Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction in male rats. Even the sexual competence of male rats treated with 1/2 therapeutic dose (TD of Clomipramine failed to regain their sexual competence in the presence of Amantadine. Testicular damage and decline in testosterone levels continued in the presence of Amantadine. Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that Amantadine could not be a safe antidote to antagonize Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction.

K Kumar Eswar

2011-11-01

347

Radiation induced changes in plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen in desert rodent and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of gamma-irradiation on plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen was studied in the desert rodent, psammomy obesus obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats kept on high protein diet, the radiation syndrome resulted in urine retention, while in those kept on non-protein diet, such phenomenon was recorded only with the high radiation level of 1170r. Radiation exposure to 780 and 1170r caused remarkable diuresis in psammomys obesus obesus whereas they induced significant urine retention in albino rats. The levels of plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen were higher in albino rats maintained on high protein diet than in those kept on non-protein diet. Radiation exposure caused an initial drop in plasma total protein nitrogen concentration, concomitant with an initial rise in total urinary nitrogen, radiation exposure of psammomys obesus obesus caused significant increase in the levels of plasma protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen. Psammomys obesus obesus seemed to be more affected by radiation exposure than did the albino rats

348

Effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on sodium valporate induced cytogenetic and testicular alterations in albino rats.  

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The present study investigated the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiepileptic drug, sodium valporate (SVP) in albino rats and the effect of saffron aqueous extracts. Treating rats with SVP caused a significant increase in the chromosomal aberrations either structural or numerical and decreased the mitotic index. Besides, animals administered SVP showed DNA damage appeared in the single strand breaks (comet assay). Testis of SVP-treated rats showed many histopathological changes. A significant decrease in seminiferous tubules and their epithelial heights diameters and inhibition of spermatogenesis was recorded. In addition, the number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Biochemical results revealed an increase in malondialdhyde (MDA) which is lipid peroxidation marker and a significant decrease in the level of serum antioxidant enzyme, catalase (CAT) and reducing antioxidant power (RAP). Animals given SVP and saffron showed an improvement in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by SVP. Moreover, MDA decreased and CAT and RAP increased. It is concluded from the present results that the ameliorative effects of saffron extract against SVP-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats may be due to the presence of one or more antioxidant components of saffron. PMID:25276476

Sakr, Saber A; Zowail, Mohamed E; Marzouk, Amera M

2014-09-01

349

Effect of heat stress on histopathological alterations in kidneys of albino rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of heat stress was studied over two months (July and August by using thirty adult male rats. The animals were divided into six groups (five animals per each group and tested for 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days, under controlled condition (455C. The clinical observation indicated significant decrease in activity and body weight associated with oligourea and hypophagia. All these signs were prominent after five days of the experiment. The kidneys of rats under heat stress showed degenerated glomeruli began at 7th day of the study and widening of the capsular space. Atrophy of some glomeruli was also noticed. With prolong exposure to heat changes in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules were prominent when compared with normal rats kidneys.

Sabah S.A. Al-Tekrity

2011-02-01

350

Bees' honey protects the liver of male rats against melamine toxicity.  

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The protective effect of natural bees' honey to the liver of male albino rats against melamine toxicity was studied. Melamine supplementation at a dose of 20000 ppm in the diet for 28 days induced adverse effects on the liver, decreased serum total protein and increased liver enzyme: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Histological changes of the melamine supplemented group showed necrosis in the hepatic tissues around the central veins of the liver and precipitation of melamine crystals. Treating the male albino rats (that were presupplemented regularly with 20000 ppm melamine) with natural bees' honey at a dose of 2.5 g/kg body weight for 28 days improved both liver functions and increased serum protein. In addition, a positive impact on the shape of the cells after treatment with honey compared to the positive melamine supplemented group was observed. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed that the use of natural bees' honey has the ability to protect the liver of rats against the toxic effects of melamine. PMID:23971045

El Rabey, Haddad A; Al-Seeni, Madeha N; Al-Solamy, Suad M

2013-01-01

351

Retinal projections to the subcortical visual system in congenic albino and pigmented rats  

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The primary visual pathway in albino mammals is characterized by an increased decussation of retinal ganglion cell axons at the optic chiasm and an enhanced contralateral projection to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. In contrast to the primary visual pathway, little is known about the organization of retinal input to most nuclei of the subcortical visual system in albino mammals. The subcortical visual system is a large group of retinorecipient nuclei in the diencephalon and mesencepha...

Fleming, Mark D.; Benca, Ruth M.; Behan, Mary

2006-01-01

352

The protective effect of L-tryptophan versus alpha lipoic acid against L-arginine-induced experimental acute pancreatitis in albino rats  

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Full Text Available Aim of the study: This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effects of L- treptophan "a precursor of melatonin" and alpha lipoic acid against L- arginine-induced experimental acute pancreatitis in albino rats. Methods: Fourty adult male albino rats (200- 250g were randomized into 4 groups (n= 10. Group I, the control group was given 0.9% saline intraperitoneally (i.p. Group II, was given 500 mg/100g L-arginine (i.p as a single dose to induce acute pancreatitis. Group III: was given 250mg/kg L-tryptophan (i.p 30 min prior to L- arginine injection. Group IV: was given 50mg/kg alpha lipioc acid(i.p 30 min prior to L-arginine. Before scarifice, blood samples were obtained from all groups to assay serum amylase and interleukin 6. Animals were sacrificed after 6 hours. For the histopathological study, pancreatic tissue was prepared for histological (H&E, PAS histochemical ( Tween stain for lipases and immunohistochemical ( Bax stain for apoptosis techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were done to assess the degree of acinar cells affection Results: It was revealed that serum amylase and interleukin 6 in group II rose rapidly. Microscopically, severe acinar cells degeneration, interstitial edema, diffuse bleeding and inflammatory infiltration were demonstrated. These changes were markedly improved with the administration of both L- tryptophan and alpha lipoic acid. Conclusion: It was concluded that both L- tryptophan & alpha lipoic acid reduced the effects of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis with better protection achieved by L-tryptophan administration.

Lamia M. Farghaly* , Nagwan A. Sabak ** and Naglaa A. El-sherbeny

2007-03-01

353

Some toxicological studies of Momordica charantia L. on albino rats in normal and alloxan diabetic rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Momordica charantia L. (MC) (Cucurbitaceae) commonly known as balsam pear, bitter gourd or karela, used in several purposes in traditional medicine is an important medicinal plant. Two sets of experiments were carried out, the first experiment indicated that the LD(50) for MC juice and alcoholic extracts were 91.9 and 362.34 mg/100g b.wt., respectively, of subcutaneously "s.c." injected mice. The toxic signs were recorded within the first 24 h post-injection. The second experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of MC juice and alcoholic extracts on blood glucose and other biochemical parameters in normal and diabetic rats. Both extracts induced a significant decrease in serum glucose levels in normal and diabetic rats. The two extracts did not show any significant effect in urea, creatinine, ALT, AST and AP in normal rat, while in diabetic rats the two extracts caused a significant decrease in serum urea, creatinine, ALT, AST, AP, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Also, these results suggested that MC extracts possesses anti-diabetic, hepato-renal protective and hypolipidemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thus, MC is alternative therapy that has primarily been used for lowering blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:16815658

Abd El Sattar El Batran, Seham; El-Gengaihi, Souad E; El Shabrawy, Osama A

2006-11-24

354

Consideraes sobre o msculo estriado na desnutrio proteica estudo experimental, em ratos albinos / Considerations about the striate muscle in protein deprivation: an experimental study in albino rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os efeitos da desnutrio sobre o msculo gastrccnemius plantaris de ratos albinos, limitando-se genitora a dieta em 6,7% de protenas e aos seus produtos, em 3,2% aps o desmame, foram observados em microscopia ptica e eletrnica e comparados com os controles. Os animais, em nmero de 40, fora [...] m distribudos em grupo hipoproteico e normal, sendo a metade de cada grupo sacrificada aos 15 dias e a restante, aps o desmame, aoa 30 dias. Observamos acentuada reduo ponderai dos ratos com alimentao bipoproteica, chegando a cerca de 50% em relao aos normais. As fibras do msculo estudado, nos ratos desnutridos, apresentaram importante reduo de seus dimetros. As reaes histoqumicas revelaram que tanto as fibras do tipo I como as do tipo II estavam comprometidas, ocorrendo maior reduo nas ltimas. Fibras do tipo II, de pequena espessura, com aspecto de fibra P (fetal) foram encontradas nos animais subnutridos de 15 dias, denotando retardo na maturao destas fibras. As avaliaes em ultramicroscopia no mostraram alteraes especficas dia ultra-estrutura muscular, revelando apenas intensa reduo do calibre das fibras, quando comparadas s dos ratos normais. Conclumos pela hipoplasia e no atrofia do tecido muscular dos animais submetidos a desnutrio pr e ps-natal. O presente estudo, somado a outros nos quais foram analisados a ponta anterior da medula e o nervo perifrico de ratos desnutridos, permite-nos considerar que na privao proteica ocorrem retardo no desenvolvimento e hipoplasia da unidade mootra. Conjecturamos a possibilidade de, na amiotrofa espinhal progressiva da infncia (doena de Werdnig-Hoffmann), acontecer tambm hipoplasia das fibras do tipo II e no atrofia, aventando a hiptese de, nesta doena, haver alteraes no metabolismo proteico. Abstract in english The effects of undernutrition on the gastrocnemius plantaris muscle of young albino nats were observed with light and electronmicroscopy and were compared with controls. Pregnant rats received a diet containing 6.7% protein and the neonates had a 3.2% protein diet after weaning. A total number of [...] 40 animals were distributed in two groups: one nypoproteic and one control. Half of the animals of each group were killed 15 days after birth and the remaining ones at 30 days. We could observe important reduction in the weight of the undernourished rats reaching about 50% when compared with the control animals. An important reduction in the diameter of muscle fibers was noted in undernourished rats. Histochemical reactions showed that not only the type I but also the type II fibers were involved, the latter being more severely reduced in size. Type II fibers os small diameter, resembling F (fetal) fiber were found in animals at 15 days indicating a delay in maturation. TJltrastructural evaluation of the muscle did not show specific changes except for a severe reduction in the caliber of fibers when compared with control animals. We concluded that there was hypoplasia and not atrophy of the muscular tissue in animals submitted to pre- and post-natal undernutrition. The present study, associated with others in which the spinal motor cells and peripheral nerves of undernourished rats were analysed, allow us to consider that with protein deprivation there is a delay in the development, a hypoplasia of the motor unit. We think that in infantile progressive spinal amyotrophy (Werdnig-Hoffmann disease) there is possibly hypoplasia and not atrophy of the type II fibers and we postulate that a metabolic proteic problem is involved in this disease.

Osvaldo J. M., Nascimento; Kalil, Madi; Joo Batista Guedes e, Silva; Porphirio J., Soares Filho; Myriam D, Hahn; Bernardo, Couto; Marcos R. G., Freitas.

1990-12-01

355

Bronchodilating Activity of Formulated Syrup of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Moraceae Root Extract in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus root extract, with a bronchodilating agent, is traditionally used for treating asthma. To provide a scientific basis for such claim, this study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the formulated syrup of such extract by determining its acute oral toxicity level, approximate effective dose, the significant difference in the total leukocyte count (TLC, total eosinophil count (TEC and histopathologic evaluation of lung tissue. Female Swiss mice were used to determine the toxicity at selected fixed dose levels of 5, 50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg. Approximate Effective Dose (AED determination was conducted using female albino rats with a logarithmic increase by 0.6 intervals. Animals were administered with alumovalbumin and desired dose of root extract, respectively. Blood samples were collected for leukocyte and eosinophil counts. It was found that acute oral toxicity was at 2000mg/kg and 5000 mg/kg. AED has significant influence on TLC and TEC at dose levels of 15.85, 251.19, 1000 and 3981.07 mg/ kg. Analysis of Variance showed a significant difference in the mean of the decrease in the total leukocyte count due to the formulated syrup of root extract, Salbutamol (positive control and plain syrup (negative control. Tukey's multiple comparison tests, t-test and histopathologic evaluation on the group treated with Salbutamol and root extract formulation showed no significant difference on the TLC and TEC. Salbutamol was not significantly different from the formulated syrup. Hence, both treatments were effective as bronchodilating agents.

Kathleen G. Bersabal

2012-10-01

356

ROLE OF OCIMUM CANUM IN PREVENTION OF REPERFUSION-INDUCED RENAL ISCHEMIA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Acute renal failure is defined as rapid loss of renal function and has been associated with a high mortality rate. Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury of the kidney is the most prominent cause of intrinsic acute renal failure. Activation of reactive oxygen species is implicated in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. This study investigated the anti-ischemic effect of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC against renal I/R injury by its effect on reactive oxygen species. Wistar albino rats were administered different doses of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC before renal ischemia, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. Serum creatinine, Serum Cystatin C, serum oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were measured for renal dysfunction. Serum and tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels were measured. Renal sections were analyzed for histological grading of renal injury. Hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC significantly reduced increased creatinine, Cystatin C, serum oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Ocimum canum also increased kidney superoxide dismutase activity, catalase and reduced glutathione levels and reduced the malondialdehyde levels. Hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum reduced histological renal damage. These results suggest that the hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum reduces renal dysfunction and injury caused by renal I/R.

Saiprasanna Behera

2012-08-01

357

Metabolic response to optic centers to visual stimuli in the albino rat: anatomical and physiological considerations  

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The functional organization of the visual system was studied in the albino rat. Metabolic differences were measured using the /sup 14/C-2-deoxyglucose (DG) autoradiographic technique during visual stimulation of one entire retina in unrestrained animals. All optic centers responded to changes in light intensity but to different degrees. The greatest change occurred in the superior colliculus, less in the lateral geniculate, and considerably less in second-order sites such as layer IV of visual cortex. These optic centers responded in particular to on/off stimuli, but showed no incremental change during pattern reversal or movement of orientation stimuli. Both the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate increased their metabolic rate as the frequency of stimulation increased, but the magnitude was twice as great in the colliculus. The histological pattern of metabolic change in the visual system was not homogenous. In the superior colliculus glucose utilization increased only in stratum griseum superficiale and was greatest in visuotopic regions representing the peripheral portions of the visual field. Similarly, in the lateral geniculate, only the dorsal nucleus showed an increased response to greater stimulus frequencies. Second-order regions of the visual system showed changes in metabolism in response to visual stimulation, but no incremental response specific for type or frequency of stimuli. To label proteins of axoplasmic transport to study the terminal fields of retinal projections /sup 14/C-amino acids were used. This was done to study how the differences in the magnitude of the metabolic response among optic centers were related to the relative quantity of retinofugal projections to these centers.

Toga, A.W.; Collins, R.C.

1981-07-10

358

Studies on the hypolipidemic effects of Coconut oil when blended with Tiger nut oil and fed to albino rats  

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Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend a reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intake as a means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and CVD. The main objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of feeding blended oils consisting of coconut oil (CNO with different proportions of Tiger nut oil (TNO on serum lipid levels in Albino rats. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of the blended oils. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with coconut oil at the volume ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 25:75, 10:90 and 0:100. Fifty-six male albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 8 rats each according to the oil type. The blended oils were fed to rats for a period of up to 10 weeks. Total cholesterol (T-Ch, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch, and triglycerides (TG, were determined. The atherogenic Index (AI was calculated. The results showed that non-significant changes in all nutritional parameters were observed between the control group and the rats fed with the tested oils. The results also indicate that coconut oil had 86% saturated fatty acids. On TNO contains 66% oleic acid. Therefore, blending coconut oil with tiger nut oil can reduce the proportions of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in CNO. The rats that were fed blended oils showed significantly reduced levels of serum cholesterol as compared to those fed CNO. The HDL levels were marginally enhanced in the rats that were fed blended oils. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were controlled when TNO/CNO proportions varied between 25/75 and 70/30. This was reflected in the calculation of the atherogenic index. Similar changes were observed with serum triglyceride levels.

La hiperlipidemia es un factor de riesgo predominante para la aterosclerosis y las enfermedades cardiovasculares asociadas (ECV. Las directrices internacionales emitidas por la Organizacin Mundial de la Salud recomiendan una reduccin de grasas saturadas y colesterol, como medio para prevenir la hipercolesterolemia y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. El principal objetivo de la presente investigacin fue evaluar los efectos de una alimentacin conteniendo mezclas de aceites, que consiste en aceite de coco (CNO con diferentes proporciones de aceite de chufa (TNO, sobre los niveles de lpidos en suero en ratas albinas. Se realiz un anlisis GLC para determinar la composicin de cidos grasos de los aceites mezclados. Los aceites se obtuvieron mezclando aceite de chufa con aceite de coco en las relaciones:100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 25:75, 10:90 y 0:100 (volumen:volumen. Cincuenta y seis ratas albinas macho se dividieron aleatoriamente en 7 grupos de 8 ratas cada uno, segn el tipo de aceite y se alimentaron durante un perodo de hasta 10 semanas con las mezclas de aceites. Se determin el colesterol total (T-Ch, colesterol en lipoprotenas de alta densidad (HDL-Ch, colesterol en lipoprotenas de baja densidad (LDL-Ch, triglicridos (TG y el ndice aterognico (IA. Los resultados mostraron cambios no significativos en todos los parmetros nutricionales entre el grupo control y las ratas alimentadas con los aceites ensayados. Los resultados tambin indican que el aceite de coco tiene un 86% de cidos grasos saturados. TNO por otro lado contiene un 66% de cido oleico. Por lo tanto, una mezcla de aceite de coco con aceite de chufa reduce la relacin de cidos grasos saturados a insaturados del CNO. Las ratas alimentadas con las mezclas de aceites mostraron niveles significativamente mas bajos de colesterol en suero en comparacin con los de CNO. Los niveles de HDL mejoraron ligeramente en las ratas alimentadas con las mezclas de aceites. El colesterol total y colesterol LDL estuvieron controlados cuando las proporciones TNO / CNO variaron entre el 25/75

El-Anany, A. M.

2012-09-01

359

Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats: A newer model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents, namely silymarin  

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Full Text Available Backgrounds: This study was conducted to establish olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in Wistar albino rats as a newer model to screen putative hepatoprotective agents namely silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups, namely vehicle control group (CG, olanzapine-treated group (OZ, and olanzapine plus silymarin (OZS treated groups. Both the OZ and OZS groups were treated with the same dose of intraperitoneal olanzapine for 6 weeks and group OZS additionally received oral silymarin. Baseline and terminal hepatic enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, and ALP were measured in all three groups. Results: Histopathological examination of livers of both OZ and OZS groups showed degenerative changes, whereas those of control group showed normal architecture. Liver enzyme levels showed statistically significant rise in comparison to the control group as well as the respective base line values in both the test groups, but the differences in the rise of liver enzymes between the two test groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in rats can be used as a model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents and in our setting silymarin has failed to provide any hepatoprotection.

Sengupta Parama

2010-01-01

360

Effect of single and repeated injections of selective D2-antagonist clebopride on maternal behavior of albino rats.  

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This study examined the effect of clebopride at low concentration that did not modify the motor activity on the parental care in female albino rats. Single injection of the drug attenuated the parental care reactions on postinjection minute 20, but not one day thereafter. The daily injection of the drug during the post partum period (1-6 days) resulted in significantly more pronounced and stable effects. The data obtained substantiated the views on the major contribution of D(2)-receptors in the development of behavioral manifestations of puerperal depression. PMID:22816078

Tanaeva, K K; Dobryakova, Yu V; Dubynin, V A; Kamensky, A A

2012-06-01

361

Comparative study on the effect of Gliclazide and two Antidiabetic plants used in Folk Medicine on Albino Rat's fetuses  

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The present study was designed to assess the adverse effects of gliclazide and two antidiabetic plants extracts on 15 &18 days fetuses of albino rat (Rattus norvegicus). The two antidiabetic plants extracts were aquatic extract of Aremisia herba alba (shih-balady) and alcoholic extract of Salix babylonica L. leaves (Om-Ashoor) which is known by salicin. The doses used were 4 mg / kg (Katsumata, and kastumata 1990) for the gliclazide drug (diamicron), 450 mg/kg for Artemisia herba alba (Al-Wai...

Ibrahim G Ibrahim, Boshra El-salkh

2002-01-01

362

ATRAZINE ALTERS STEROIDOGENESIS IN MALE WISTAR RATS  

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We have reported that atrazine (ATR, 200 mg/kg x 30 d) causes increased serum estrone (E) and estradiol (E2) in male wistar rats (Toxicol. Sci. 2000, 58:50-59). This study evaluates the short-term effects of ATR on E, E2 and their precursors in the steroidogenic pathway. Sixty-da...

363

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS / EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREADA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La pyrazinamida es un frmaco muy utilizado para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, pero no hay datos en la literatura respecto a sus potenciales riesgos para la preez. Debido a esto, en este trabajo tratamos ratas preadas durante toda la gestacin (desde el da 0 hasta el da 20) con 3 dosis de p [...] yrazinamida (35, 105 o 315 mg/kg, una vez al da) para una primera observacin sobre los efectos de la pyrazinamida durante la preez. Las ratas control recibieron el vehculo de la droga (agua destilada). Los resultados mostraron que no hubo alteraciones significativas en cuanto a la evolucin del peso corporal de las ratsa madres, al peso de los fetos, al nmero de implantaciones y reabsorciones, ni tampoco en cuanto a los pesos de placentas y fetos. Adems, no se observaron malformaciones fetales mayores, muertes intrauterinas o aumento de la mortalidad materna. El nico efecto significativo observado con la dosis de 315 mg/kg de pyrazinamida, fue una reduccin del peso uterino Abstract in english Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of al [...] bino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy) the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled as follows. Controls (C), animals treated with the drug vehicle (destilled water); experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3), animals treated with 35, 105 or 315 mg/kg b.w. pyrazinamide by gavage (oral route) once daily up to the term (20th day of pregnancy). Drug or vehicle volume was always 0.5 ml. Body weight gain was followed up every week. At term, upon sacrifice (in excess of anesthesia) and histerectomy, the following parameters have been studied: number of implantations and reabsorptions; intrauterine deaths; number of living foetuses and of placentae; weights of concepts and of placentae; major foetal malformations; maternal mortality index. No significant effects of pyrazinamide on rat pregnancy have been observed regarding the maternal body weight gain, the weights of concepts, the number of implantations and reabsorptions and the weights of placentae and foetuses. Also, no deleterious effects have been noticed regarding major foetal malformations, intrauterine deaths or maternal mortality. With the highest pyrazinamide dosis employed (315 mg/kg b.w.), however, a significant lowered uterine weight was recorded. Although otherwise safe, a high-dose regimen of pyrazinamide during rat pregnancy can induce a slight yet significant reduction of uterine weight.

Marisa, Pascale Quintino; Manuel de Jesus, Simes; Mary, Uchiyama Nakamura; Ricardo, Martins Oliveira-Filho; Silvia, Espiridio; Luiz, Kulay Jnior.

364

Effect of Cichorium intybus L. on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats.  

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Full Text Available Background: Fatty liver is now one of the most common diseases in Egypt. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds.The current investigation was carried out to examine the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days resulting in steatosis and c chicory treated group; which was treated with chicory water extract (70 mg/kg for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days and c drug protection group; which received chicory for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment with chicory ameliorated most of the evaluated biochemical parameters and improved the induced degenerative histopathological changes. The pre-treatment with chicory before the induction of fatty liver gave some protection against factors that experimentally induced fatty liver. Conclusion: Chicory as diet additive is recommend for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M.Moussa Sharaf**

2011-10-01

365

Effect of Zingiber officinale on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats  

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Full Text Available Fatty liver causes were markedly increased in Egyptian people throughout last years. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds. Ginger is a natural dietary rhizome with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger treated group; which was treated with ginger water extract (125 mg/kg for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120 mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger protective group; which received ginger for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment with ginger ameliorated most of the evaluated biochemical parameters and improved the induced degenerative histopathological changes. The pre-treatment with ginger before the induction of fatty liver gave some protection against factors that experimentally induced fatty liver. Conclusion: Ginger as diet additive is recommend for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M. Moussa Sharaf**

2012-01-01

366

Interaction of toxic effect of the organophosphorus pesticide cyolane and schistosoma mansoni infection in male albino mice  

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The organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are the most widely used substances employed in agriculture and pollute the environment. On the other hand, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in Egypt. The present study was performed to investigate the toxic interaction of the OP insecticide cyolane and Schistosoma mansoni infection on the liver and kidney functions, blood glucose and insulin hormone in male albino mice. The obtained data indicated that treatment of normal mice or those infected by S.mansoni with cyolane at daily dose levels of 1/50 or 1/20 LD 50 significantly increased AST, ALT, total and direct bilirubin, urea and creatinine. Also, fluctuations in fasting glucose levels and in insulin hormone were recorded in cyolane treated groups. These fluctuations were pronounced in infected - treated groups. Histopathological investigation revealed that, hepatic tissue sections in S. mansoni infected group showed both cellular and fibrocellular granuloma around ova. In S. mansoni infected group and treated with cyolane, the mean number of granuloma was decreased. The granulomas were fibrocellular rather than cellular. The foci of the inflammatory cells detected in hepatic parenchyma without ova were characteristic in infected - treated groups. Consequently, exposure to insecticides should be avoided specially in the rural areas where schistosomiasis is still endemic

367

Histomorphological Effect of the Aqueous Root-Bark Extract of Ficus sycomorus (Linn) on the Liver and Kidney of Albino Rats  

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The aqueous root-bark extract of Ficus sycomorus (Linn) was screened for its chemical constituents, median lethal dose and its histomorphological effect on the liver and kidney of albino rats. A total of 114 adult albino rats of both sexes weighing between 150-320 g were used in this study. The animals were weighed and randomly divided into two batches for the acute toxicity and histomorphological studies. In the acute toxicity study the aqueous extract of the root-bark of Ficus sycomorus was...

Garba, S. H.; Prasad, J.; Sandabe, U. K.

2006-01-01

368

The Role of Carnosine in Protection Against the Damaging Effect of Maternal Nicotine Exposure During Gestation and Lactation on the Lung of Albino Rat Offspring  

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The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the effect of maternal nicotine exposure, during gestation and lactation, on the lung histological structures of rat offspring and its reversibility and (2) to establish whether carnosine would protect the neonatal rat lung against the adverse effects of maternal nicotine exposure. After mating, the pregnant albino rats were divided into three groups; group I (control group) received a daily subcutaneous injection of normal saline, group II recei...

Hoda Mahmoud El-Aasar; Soliman, Kawther M.

2007-01-01

369

Effect of soaked Moringa oleifera seeds on growth rates and the levels of some biochemical parameters in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. The raw matured seeds which have been reported to be used as food and clarifying agent of turbid water caused growth retardation in albino rats and this might have been due to its antinutritional contents. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soaking the seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done. Its effect on growth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rats were investigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weights measured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 Chemistry Analyzer. The growth rates of rats fed with the commercial rat pellets, Casilan diet and the processed Moringa seed diet had a range of 80.06 +/- 3.54 to 100.98 +/- 5.37, 66.70 +/- 7.54 to 55.23 +/- 7.47 and 52.99 +/- 4.15 to 35.47 +/- 2.26, respectively. The parameters assayed for the group that received the processed Moringa seed diet are 144.00 +/- 16.80 (AST), 41.00 +/- 7.05 (ALT), 66.50 +/- 8.80 (ALP) and 12.45 +/- 1.18 (Total Bilirubin). The one-way ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the parameters of all the groups at 95% significance level (p Moringa oleifera seed did not support growth in the animal subjects and also did not pose a threat to the liver. However, it is better to develop more suitable processing methods to improve the seed's nutritional capabilities. PMID:24199486

Igwilo, I O; Ogoke, T J; Ogbu, D O; Igwilo, S N; Obi, E; Abdulsalami, M S

2013-01-01

370

Effect of Soaked Moringa oleifera Seeds on Growth Rates and the Levels of Some Biochemical Parameters in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. The raw matured seeds which have been reported to be used as food and clarifying agent of turbid water caused growth retardation in albino rats and this might have been due to its anti-nutritional contents. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soaking the seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done. Its effect on growth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rats were investigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weights measured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 Chemistry Analyzer. The growth rates of rats fed with the commercial rat pellets, Casilan diet and the processed Moringa seed diet had a range of 80.063.54 to 100.985.37, 66.707.54 to 55.237.47 and 52.994.15 to 35.472.26, respectively. The parameters assayed for the group that received the processed Moringa seed diet are 144.0016.80 (AST, 41.007.05 (ALT, 66.508.80 (ALP and 12.451.18 (Total Bilirubin. The one-way ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the parameters of all the groups at 95% significance level (pMoringa oleifera seed did not support growth in the animal subjects and also did not pose a threat to the liver. However, it is better to develop more suitable processing methods to improve the seeds nutritional capabilities.

E. Obi

2013-01-01

371

The Effect of Nigerian Qua-iboe Brent Crude Oil on the Reproductive Performance of Female Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The reproductive performance of rats given graded levels of the Nigerian Qua-Iboe brent crude oil was investigated in 32 female wistar albino rats. The experiment was divided into three parts, whereby, crude oil was given orally at the dose of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mL, corresponding to Groups A, B and C, respectively, for four weeks, while the untreated group served as control (Group D. Experiment one investigated the effect of the crude oil on the oestrous cycle in rats divided into four groups of four replicates, monitored for four consecutive cycles for regularity of oestrous cycle using vaginal cytology. Three of the four groups were drenched with graded levels of the crude oil while remaining group served as the control. Experiment two investigated the effect of crude oil on gestation, using another set of female Wistar albino rats which were grouped and drenched as in experiment one. Mating was monogamous, while drenching done every other day following mating. The gestation length, litter size, stillbirth and gross malformation of foetuses were monitored. The same group of animals in experiment two was used for experiment three, whereby the animals were drenched prior to mating and until parturition. Results showed irregularity of oestrous cycle in the drenched groups, with significant differences (p<0.05 existing between the experimental group and control group considering stillbirths, conception rates, gestation length and litter size. These findings suggested that exposure to Nigerian Qua-Iboe Brent crude oil affected the reproductive performance of the rats.

C.U. Nwaigwe

2012-01-01

372

Reproductive Effects Of human Interferon-Alpha-2b Administration on Male Albino Mice Testes.An Experimental Study  

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Full Text Available Background: Recombinant human interferon alpha (rh-IFN- is used therapeutically in malignant disorders and chronic hepatitis. The phenotypic effects of this drug at the structural levels on testicular tissue were hardly ever addressed. Hence, this work was designed in adult male albino mice to study the phenotypic effects of rh-INF--2b on testicular tissue as well as assessing its effects on serum testosterone and gonadotropins levels. Objective: This research was planned to through light on the effects of interferon-alpha-2b (IFN-alpha-2b on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT axis of the adult male albino mice. Design: Experimental study. Setting: National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute (NHTMRI. The study was conducted from November (2004 to February (2005. Materials and methods: Thirty sexually mature male mice were divided into three groups (10 mice in each group, namely: the control, the experimental and the recovery groups. Mice in the experimental and recovery groups were administered recombinant human interferon alpha intraperitoneally at a dose of 3000 U / mouse weekly for 12 weeks in a volume of 1.0-microliter isotonic normal saline, then animals in the recovery group were left to recover for a further period of two months. At the end of the experiment, serum concentrations of gonadotropins and testosterone were measured and then all animals were then sacrificed to study histopathologically the possible effects of interferon on the testicular tissue. Results: rh-IFN--2b induced remarkable decline in the serum levels of both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH in mice of the experimental group compared to the corresponding control and mice of recovery group. At the same time, testosterone was moderately increased in the experimental group, and then returned to its normal levels within 2 months after cessation of treatment. Histopathologically, in the experimental group, there were focal thickening of the basement membrane, degenerative changes and clumping of the germinal epithelial cells in the center of seminiferous tubules, partial desquamation of the germinal epithelium from basement membrane, reduction in the germ cell height, partial arrest of maturation and increased number of Sertoli cells. Increased number of Leydig's cells and hypervascularity were detected in the interstitial spaces. In the recovery group, there was lessening of the germ cell hypoplasia manifested by restoration of spermatogenic cells and accidental disruption in the basement membrane. Most of the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells restored their polarity, height and maturation. Conclusion: our results suggest that rh-INF--2b temporally affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (HPT, both centrally and peripherally (at the testicular level, through the lessening of FSH, LH, raise of testosterone serum levels and direct phenotypic effect on the testicular tissue.

Nabil Abdel Mageed *, Ehsan Hassan **, Azza Hegazy **, Nagwa M. Abdel

2005-06-01

373

Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock roots on the sexual behavior of male rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control were administered 10 mL?kg body weight distilled water (vehicle, group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra, while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3. Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Results Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.

JianFeng Cao

2012-02-01

374

Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on hematology and erythrocyte antioxidant defense system of albino rats exposed to heavy metals (nickel II & chromium VI).  

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Heavy metals are stable environmental contaminants, causing various alterations in target tissues. Garlic has some beneficial effect in preventing heavy metal induced various alteration. The objective was to investigate the possible protective role of fresh aqueous homogenate of garlic on hematology, erythrocyte antioxidant defense system in male albino rats treated with NiSO4 and K2Cr2O7. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was untreated control. Group II was given aqueous homogenate of garlic (orally). Group III was administered with nickel sulfate (i.p). Group IV was given NiSO4 and garlic simultaneously. Group V was administered with K2Cr2O7 (i.p). Group VI were treated simultaneously with K2Cr2O7 and garlic. RBC, WBC, platelet count, PCV%, hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly and clotting time increased significantly after nickel treatment. After chromium treatment all the values decreased except clotting time. Increased malondialdehyde and glutathione level after nickel and chromium treatment was observed. Also erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities significantly increased after nickel and chromium treatment. Simultaneous garlic supplementation exhibited protective role to combat nickel toxicity, whereas no such beneficial effects were observed for chromium (VI). Garlic may partially prevent nickel and chromium induced alteration but such ameliorated effects as an antioxidant is only restricted on nickel induced alteration. PMID:23387242

Tikare, Swati N; Yendigeri, Saeed; Gupta, Amrita Das; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Kusal K

2012-01-01

375

Liver Regenerative Effect of Phyllanthus amarus Linn. Against Alcohol Induced Liver Cell Injury in Partially Hepatectomised Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study investigates the liver regenerative effect of Phyllathus amarus Linn against alcohol induced liver cell injury in partial hepatectomised albino rats. The oral administration of Phyllanthus amarus extracts increases the activities of thymidine kinase in regenerating rat liver at 24 h. Levels of DNA and protein analysis showed that the increase in thymidine kinase was caused by comparable increase the DNA and protein. Histopathology confirmed the mitosis counts increases to the activity of DNA. These findings suggested that Phyllanthus amarus inducing DNA synthesis by the induction of levels of synthesizing nucleic acid enzymes during liver regeneration. Phyllanthus amarus may be used, as a potential liver regenerative herb in hepatic disorders and seems to be beneficial against alcohol induced liver cell damage.

P. Chattopadhyay

2006-01-01

376

Rheological Studies and Effect of Feeding Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Seeds on Histology of Some Organs of the Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available In this study, the rheological properties of composite flour and their guar meal blends were studied by farinography. The water absorption percent, arrival time, development time, dough stability, mixing tolerance, ash, protein, falling number, baking strength, index of swelling and extensibility were estimated. The effect of feeding guar seeds powder on liver enzymes (GOT and GPT and kidney functions (urea and creatinine of rats were investigated. The results showed that diets with 5% guar seeds powder had the best effect on GOT (17.7 U L-1, GPT (22.2 U L-1, urea (26.0 mg dL-1 and creatinine (0.83 mg dL-1. Histopathological studies were also carried out in the kidney and liver of the albino rats.

Sherif E.A. Badr

2015-01-01

377

Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.  

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The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:24556450

Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

2014-01-01

378

Effects of petroleum ether extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. on sexual behavior in male rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: The roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. (Compositae are employed in Ayurvedic system of medicine as Vajikaran Rasayana a category of drugs for vitality and virility. They are believed to have aphrodisiac action. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate their effects on sexual behavior in male rats. Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into control group, testosterone group, low-dose (50 mg/kg petroleum ether extract (PEE group and high-dose (100 mg/kg PEE group. PEE obtained from the roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum was administered orally to albino rats once daily, and 0.5 mg/kg (body weight of testosterone was given intramuscularly twice weekly and served as positive control. The course of treatment was 28 days. The effects of PEE and testosterone on changes in body and accessory sexual organ weights, sexual behavior, penile erection and sexual performance were studied before treatment, after 15 and 28 days of treatment and 7 and 15 days after treatment.Results: After 28 days of treatment, PEE and testosterone had a marked influence on body and accessory sexual organ weights as compared with arachis oil. The treated male rats were more receptive and oriented towards female rats and increased precopulatory activities like licking and sniffing of female anogenitals were observed. The penile erection index was significantly increased with reduction in mount latency and intromission latency period. There were four-fold increase in mount and three-fold increase in intromission frequency in treated rats reflecting improved sexual performance. The behavioral and sexual parameters were also observed after a lapse of 7 and 15 days of discontinuance of drug treatment.Conclusion: Unlike testosterone, the PEE of Anacyclus pyrethrum shows efficacy in rats tested after the lapse of 7 and 15 days of discontinuation of treatment. This suggests that the drug has prolonged effect and capacitate the treated rats for improved sexual potential.

Vikas Sharma

2010-08-01

379

Atorvastatin Has no Effects on Kidney Tissues of Wistar Albino Rats in the Long-Term Intake: An Electron Microscopic Study Atorvastatina no Tiene Efectos sobre los Tejidos Renales de Ratas Wistar Albinas en el Consumo a Largo Plazo: Un Estudio de Microscopia Electrnica  

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In this study, we evaluated the ultrastructural findings of kidney with systemic administration of different doses of atorvastatin in a rat model. Statins may have anti-inflammatory effects that would play a role in preventing the cellular damage. The aim of this study was to investigate how atorvastatin could play a role in kidney tissues. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats (200250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups of ten rats each (A1, A2, A3 and Control). Three different doses of a...

Ayfer Aktas; Serhan Tasdemir, M.; Cudi Tuncer, M.; Yusuf Nergiz; Murat Akkus; Hsn Alper Bagriyanik

2011-01-01

380

HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF COCCINIA GRANDIS ROOT EXTRACT AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATIC OXIDATIVE STRESS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Coccinia grandis root extract against paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress in wistar albino rats. The ethanolic extracts of Coccinia grandis (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg were administered orally to the animals and hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (750mg/kg. The extracts were administered orally by suspending in 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose solution. Silymarin (25mg/kg was given as reference standard. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis roots produced a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SGOT, SGPT, SALP, Total bilirubin and Direct bilirubin and it also produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in Total protein when compared to paracetamol treated group indicating hepatoprotective action. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis root produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in SOD, CAT and GSH activity when compared to paracetamol treated group and it also produced significant (P<0.01 increase in activity of Px and GPx at 400mg/kg dose, indicating antioxidant activity. But it produced less significant in Px at 200mg/kg dose and it showed no significant activity in GPx at 200mg/kg dose. The histopathological study of liver section of rat treated with ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis (200 and 400 mg/kg showed mild hepatocyte degeneration. It was concluded from the result that ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats.

Moideen K

2011-03-01

381

TO INVESTIGATE HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF MACROTYLOMA UNIFLORUM. SEED EXTRACT ON PARACETAMOL AND D-GALACTOSAMINE INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS.  

OpenAIRE

Hepatoprotective activity of 95% methanolic extract was investigated against D-Galactosamine  and paracetamol  induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. Silymarin was used as the reference standard at 50mg/kg orally and it showed effect in both the hepatotoxicity models. Rats were divided in 5 groups each group contains 6 animals. The degree of protection was determined by the estimation of biochemical parameter like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, Bilirubin (Direct & Total). In histopathologi...

HITESHKUMAR BHOGILAL PARMAR

2012-01-01

382

Hepatoprotection: A Hallmark of Citrullus colocynthis L. against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the in-vivo hepatoprotective effect of the ethanolic extracts of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn. against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Animal Model: Swiss Albino rats of either sex were used, divided into six groups with six in each group. Group 1-Normal control: The animals were maintained under normal control, which were given distilled water only. Group 2-Induction of hepatotoxicity: The animals received paracetamol 500 mg/kg b.w. (p.o every 72 h for 10 Days. Groups 3 to 5: Animals received ethanolic extract of Citrullus colocynthis L. at 50, 100 & 200 mg/kg bw/day for 7 days (p.o. Group 6: The animals were treated with Silymarin (100 mg/kg p.o which served as standard. Groups 3 to 6 were intoxicated with paracetamol (500 mg/kg bw 1 h before the administration of extract or Silymarin for 10 days. Histopathological findings, different hepatic biochemical parameters viz. AST, ALT, ALP, Total bilirubin, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, & the body weight before & after treatment were evaluated to investigate the hepatoprotective activity. Results: Paracetamol induced a significant rise in AST, ALT, ALP, Total Bilirubin, Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides. Administration of 200 mg/kg bw of ethanolic extract of Citrullus colocynthis L. effectively reduced these pathological damages caused by paracetamol intoxication. In addition to serum parameters treatment of 200 mg/kg bw of ethanolic extract of Citrulus colocynthis L. also promotes the body weight in albino rats as shown in Figure 6 respectively. Histopathological changes of the liver samples were compared with the normal control as shown in Figures 2-5 respectively. Conclusion: From our results we may infer that the mode of action of 90% ethanolic extract of Citrullus colocynthis L. (200 mg/kg bw in affording the in-vivo hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol may be due to the cell membrane stabilization, hepatic cell regeneration & normalizing the serum parameters.

Suresh Kumar Bansal

2012-07-01

383

?-carotene Protects the Physiological Antioxidants Against Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Carcinogenesis in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available To study the effects of ?-carotene on the body growth and physiological antioxidants, male weanling rats were fed with low and high amount of ?-carotene before four weeks and after six months of Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1 treatment (0.5 mg kg-1 body wt., on alternate days, total 10 doses, i.p. The results were compared with animals treated with AFB1. The final body weight of AFB1 treated animals was significantly reduced in the normal group (NVE. Plasma vitamin E was reduced significantly in NVE group whereas vitamin C levels decreased significantly in NVE and low ?-carotene (LBE fed group. The maximum reduction was found in NVE group. Plasma GSH levels were increased significantly in animals in high ?-carotene (HBC fed group. Liver protein showed significant reduction in NVE group. Liver lipid peroxidation was increased significantly in NVE and LBE groups. Liver vitamin A showed dose dependent increased levels in animals fed with high amount of ?-carotene. Vitamin E was decreased significantly in NVE group. Liver antioxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase levels were reduced significantly in the treated animals of the NVE group. Results obtained indicated that ?-carotene supplementation elevated the levels of vitamin C, glutathione and glutathione related enzymes which act as a free radical scavenger and reduced the toxicity effect of AFB1 in rats.

Vinayak Patel

2006-01-01

384

Screening of Isolated Fractions of Dendrophthoe falcata Methanol Stem Extract for Its Effects on Reproductive Functions of Male Rats  

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Full Text Available In our previous study methanol crude extract of Dendrophthoe falcata Ettingsh (family-Loranthaceae, stem showed contraceptive like activities in male albino rats. In the present study proven fertile male rats were treated with different isolated fractions (Chloroform: Methanol of D. falcata stem at 50 mg/rat/day for 60 days. On day 61th the animals were autopsied, testes and accessory sex organs i.e. epididymides, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate were dissected out and weighed. Sperm dynamics and serum testosterone level were assessed; also testicular histological studies were done. The sperm motility and density were significantly reduced in all the treatment groups. Testosterone levels were declined significantly. Evaluations of testicular cell dynamics and histological studies suggest disrupt or inhibited spermatogenesis.

J. B. S. Kachhawa

2012-01-01

385

Labeling of apigenin with 131I and bioactivity of 131I-apigenin in male and female rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), one of the most common flavonoids, has been shown to possess a variety of biological activities including tumor growth inhibition and chemopreventation. In the present study, apigenin was labeled with 131I using iodogen method and investigated of its bioactivity. Radiolabeling yield is 980.2%, as determined by radio thin layer chromatography (RTLC), electrophoresis and radio high performance liquid chromatography (RHPLC). Besides, structure analysis of synthesized cold iodoapigenin complex were assessed with LCMS/ MS and 1H-NMR. Results of in vitro study indicated a high stability (3 hours) in human serum. Biodistrubition studies are performed in male and female albino Wistar rats. Biodistribution data related to the male rats showed significant uptake in the small intestine. The female rats biodistribution results indicated that the uptake of 131I-apigenin was high in the intestine and uterus. (author)

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