WorldWideScience

Sample records for malate synthase activity

  1. Biochemical characterization of malate synthase G of P. aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volckaert Guido

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malate synthase catalyzes the second step of the glyoxylate bypass, the condensation of acetyl coenzyme A and glyoxylate to form malate and coenzyme A (CoA. In several microorganisms, the glyoxylate bypass is of general importance to microbial pathogenesis. The predicted malate synthase G of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has also been implicated in virulence of this opportunistic pathogen. Results Here, we report the verification of the malate synthase activity of this predicted protein and its recombinant production in E. coli, purification and biochemical characterization. The malate synthase G of P. aeruginosa PAO1 has a temperature and pH optimum of 37.5C and 8.5, respectively. Although displaying normal thermal stability, the enzyme was stable up to incubation at pH 11. The following kinetic parameters of P. aeruginosa PAO1 malate synthase G were obtained: Km glyoxylate (70 ?M, Km acetyl CoA (12 ?M and Vmax (16.5 ?mol/minutes/mg enzyme. In addition, deletion of the corresponding gene showed that it is a prerequisite for growth on acetate as sole carbon source. Conclusion The implication of the glyoxylate bypass in the pathology of various microorganisms makes malate synthase G an attractive new target for antibacterial therapy. The purification procedure and biochemical characterization assist in the development of antibacterial components directed against this target in P. aeruginosa.

  2. Alkaloids as inhibitors of malate synthase from Paracoccidioides spp.: receptor-ligand interaction-based virtual screening and molecular docking studies, antifungal activity, and the adhesion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fausto Guimaraes; Neto, Benedito Rodrigues da Silva; Gonçalves, Ricardo Lemes; da Silva, Roosevelt Alves; de Oliveira, Cecília Maria Alves; Kato, Lucília; Freitas, Carla Dos Santos; Giannini, Maria José Soares Mendes; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Pereira, Maristela

    2015-09-01

    Paracoccidioides is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Malate synthase plays a crucial role in the pathogenicity and virulence of various fungi, such as those that are human pathogens. Thus, an inhibitor of this enzyme may be used as a powerful antifungal without side effects in patients once these enzymes are absent in humans. Here, we searched for compounds with inhibitory capacity against the malate synthase of Paracoccidioides species (PbMLS). The three-dimensional (3D) structure of PbMLS was determined using the I-TASSER server. Compounds were selected from the ZINC database. Based on the mechanism underlying the interaction of the compounds with PbMLS, it was possible to identify β-carboline moiety as a standard key structure. The compounds with β-carboline moiety that are available in our laboratories were investigated. A total of nine alkaloid compounds were selected. The primary mechanisms of interaction of the alkaloid compounds in the binding pocket of PbMLS were identified and compared with the mechanism of interaction of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). We discovered that the amphipathic nature of the compounds, concomitant with the presence of β-carboline moiety, was crucial for their stability in the binding pocket of PbMLS. In addition, the importance of a critical balance of the polar and nonpolar contacts of the compounds in this region was observed. Four β-carboline alkaloid compounds showed the ability to inhibit recombinant PbMLS (PbMLSr) activity, Paracoccidioides species growth, and adhesion of the fungus and PbMLSr to the extracellular matrix components. The cytotoxicity of the alkaloids was also evaluated. PMID:26124176

  3. The localization of nitrite reductase, glutamate synthase and malate metabolism enzymes in Pisum arvense L. roots

    OpenAIRE

    Genowefa Kubik-Dobosz; Grażyna Kłobus

    2014-01-01

    Centrifugation of a homogenate made from Pisum arvense L. roots in a sucrose density gradient enabled the separation of the plastid fraction from mitochondria and microsomes. The presence of nitrite reductase and glutamate synthase was demonstrated in the plastids. Malic enzyme activity was not linked with any organelle fraction and was found only in the cytosol. High malate dehydrogenase activity was found in the mitochondria fraction, although its activity was also determined in plastids. T...

  4. Phosphorylation of glyoxysomal malate synthase from castor oil seed endosperm and cucumber cotyledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyoxysomal malate synthase (MS) was purified to apparent homogeneity from 3-d germinating castor oil seed endosperm by a relatively simple procedure including two sucrose density gradient centrifugations. Antibodies raised to the caster oil seed MS crossreacted with MS from cucumber cotyledon. MS was phosphorylated in both tissues in an MgATP dependent reaction. The phosphorylation pattern was similar for both enzymes and both enzymes were inhibited by NaF, NaMo, (NH4)SO4, glyoxylate and high concentration of MgCl2 (60 mM), but was not inhibited by NaCl and malate. Further characterization of the phosphorylation of MS from castor oil seed endosperms showed that the 5S form of MS is the form which is labelled by 32P. The addition of exogenous alkaline phosphatase to MS not only decreased enzyme activity, but could also dephosphorylate phospho-MS. The relationship between dephosphorylation of MS and the decrease of MS activity is currently under investigation

  5. Primary and post-irradiation inactivation of the sulfhydryl enzyme malate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of additives during X-irradiation of malate synthase led to radioprotective effects against primary and postirradiation inactivation. Pronounced effects were provided by typical scavengers, sulfhydryl reagents and specific ligands (substrates, products, analogues). The results show that scavenging and specific protection are responsible for the protective efficiency of additives. Scavengers delete noxious species formed during irradiation or post-radiationem. Sulfhydryl reagents may act as repair substances. Specific ligands protect the active site of the enzyme and the essential sulfhydryls; specific protection is more pronounced post-radiationem. Ligands and sulfhydryl reagents may additionally act as scavengers. A cumulative index for the protective power of additives against both sorts of inactivation was established. (author). 20 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  6. Relationship between 5S and 20S forms of malate synthase in maturing cottonseeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malate synthase (MS) activity appears and increases during seed maturation persists during desiccation, then increases again following germination. Because different modes of synthesis and organelle import of MS may occur in maturing and germinated seeds, a comparative study was performed. A comparison of immunoprecipitations from in-vivo-labeled seeds (35S-met) and in-vitro translations of Poly A+ RNA (wheat germ) showed no detectable differences in subunit mol wt. When MS activity first appears (42 DPA) only the cytosolic 5S form is found in rate-zonal gradients (5-25% sucrose). At 48 DPA, O d, and 48 h germinated seeds both the 5S and glyoxysomal 20S forms are present, with the 20S becoming more prevalent. Western blots of SDS-PAGE gels showed that no other form(s) of MS (inactive) are present in rate-zonal fractions. Calculations of radiospecific activity (per MS activity) of 5S and 20S forms radiolabeled in vivo (35S-met) at various time periods provided further convincing evidence that there is a 5S precursor to 20S product relationship during both seed maturation and seedling growth

  7. Systematic replacement of lysine with glutamine and alanine in Escherichia coli malate synthase G: effect on crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanine and glutamine mutations were made to the same 15 lysine positions on the surface of E. coli malate synthase G and the impact on crystallization observed. The results support lysine replacement for improvement of crystallization and provide insight into site selection and type of amino-acid replacement. Two proposals recommend substitution of surface lysine residues as a means to improve the quality of protein crystals. In proposal I, substitution of lysine by alanine has been suggested to improve crystallization by reducing the entropic cost of ordering flexible side chains at crystal contacts. In proposal II, substitution of lysine by residues more commonly found in crystal contacts, such as glutamine, has been proposed to improve crystallization. 15 lysine residues on the surface of Escherichia coli malate synthase G, distributed over a variety of secondary structures, were individually mutated to both alanine and glutamine. For 28 variants, detailed studies of the effect on enzymatic activity and crystallization were conducted. This has permitted direct comparison of the relative effects of the two types of mutations. While none of the variants produced crystals suitable for X-ray structural determination, small crystals were obtained in a wide variety of conditions, in support of the general approach. Glutamine substitutions were found to be more effective than alanine in producing crystals, in support of proposal II. Secondary structure at the site of mutation does not appear to play a major role in determining the rate of success

  8. Refined solution structure of the 82-kDa enzyme malate synthase G from joint NMR and synchrotron SAXS restraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of the accurate three-dimensional structure of large proteins by NMR remains challenging due to a loss in the density of experimental restraints resulting from the often prerequisite perdeuteration. Solution small-angle scattering, which carries long-range translational information, presents an opportunity to enhance the structural accuracy of derived models when used in combination with global orientational NMR restraints such as residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) and residual chemical shift anisotropies (RCSAs). We have quantified the improvements in accuracy that can be obtained using this strategy for the 82 kDa enzyme Malate Synthase G (MSG), currently the largest single chain protein solved by solution NMR. Joint refinement against NMR and scattering data leads to an improvement in structural accuracy as evidenced by a decrease from ?4.5 to ?3.3 A of the backbone rmsd between the derived model and the high-resolution X-ray structure, PDB code 1D8C. This improvement results primarily from medium-angle scattering data, which encode the overall molecular shape, rather than the lowest angle data that principally determine the radius of gyration and the maximum particle dimension. The effect of the higher angle data, which are dominated by internal density fluctuations, while beneficial, is also found to be relatively small. Our results demonstrate that joint NMR/SAXS refinement can yield significantly improved accuracy in solution structure determination and will be especially well suited for the study of systems with limited NMR restraints such as large proteins, oligonucleotides, or their complexes

  9. A chimeric protein of aluminum-activated malate transporter generated from wheat and Arabidopsis shows enhanced response to trivalent cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Tsuchiya, Yoshiyuki; Ariyoshi, Michiyo; Ryan, Peter R; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2016-07-01

    TaALMT1 from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and AtALMT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana encode aluminum (Al)-activated malate transporters, which confer acid-soil tolerance by releasing malate from roots. Chimeric proteins from TaALMT1 and AtALMT1 (Ta::At, At::Ta) were previously analyzed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Those studies showed that Al could activate malate efflux from the Ta::At chimera but not from At::Ta. Here, functions of TaALMT1, AtALMT1 and the chimeric protein Ta::At were compared in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells. We focused on the sensitivity and specificity of their activation by trivalent cations. The activation of malate efflux by Al was at least two-fold greater in the chimera than the native proteins. All proteins were also activated by lanthanides (erbium, ytterbium, gadolinium, and lanthanum), but the chimera again released more malate than TaALMT1 or AtALMT1. In Xenopus oocytes, Al, ytterbium, and erbium activated inward currents from the native TaALMT1 and the chimeric protein, but gadolinium only activated currents from the chimera. Lanthanum inhibited currents from both proteins. These results demonstrated that function of the chimera protein was altered compared to the native proteins and was more responsive to a range of trivalent cations when expressed in plant cells. PMID:27039280

  10. Effects of Al(III and Nano-Al13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Fu Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT modified glass carbon electrode (GCE. The results showed that Al(III and Al13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III and Al13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III and Al13 on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  11. Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters from the MATE and ALMT families function independently to confer Arabidopsis aluminum tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) activated root malate and citrate exudation plays an important role in Al tolerance in many plant species. Here, we report on the identification and characterization of AtMATE, a homolog of the recently discovered sorghum and barley Al tolerance genes, here shown to encode an Al-activ...

  12. Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters encoded by distinct Al tolerance genes function independently in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) -activated malate and citrate exudation from roots plays an important role in conferring Al tolerance to many plant species. Here, we report on the identification and characterization of AtMATE, the gene encoding an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that functions in Arabid...

  13. The role of malate in the synthesis of glutamate in Pisum arvense roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genowefa Kubik-Dorosz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo and in vitro activities of NADH-dependent glutamate synthase in excised Pisum arvense roots increased several-fold under the influence of malate while pyruvate oxaloacctate. citrate and succinate inhibited this entyme. The plastids isolated from Pisum arvense root,. ahen incubated with glutamine and α-ketoglutarate, released glutamate into the medium Malate clearly stimulated this process. Albizziin (25 mM completely reduced the presence of glutamate in the incubation mixture. These results indicate that reduced pyridine nucleotides arising in P. arvense root plastids during oxidation of malic acid may constitute the indispensable source of electrons for glutamic acid synthesis.

  14. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the monitoring of malate- and oxaloacetate-producing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Chnier, D; Briault, R; Mailloux, R; Hamel, R D; Appanna, V D

    2005-09-30

    We demonstrate a facile blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) technique to detect two malate-generating enzymes, namely fumarase (FUM), malate synthase (MS) and four oxaloacetate-forming enzymes, namely pyruvate carboxylase (PC), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), citrate lyase (CL) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) was utilized as a coupling enzyme to detect either malate or oxaloacetate in the presence of their respective substrates and cofactors. The latter four oxaloacetate-forming enzymes were identified by 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP) and p-iodonitrotetrazolium (INT) while the former two malate-producing enzymes were visualized by INT and phenazine methosulfate (PMS) in the reaction mixtures, respectively. The band formed at the site of enzymatic activity was easily quantified, while Coomassie staining provided information on the protein concentration. Hence, the expression and the activity of these enzymes can be readily evaluated. A two-dimensional (2D) BN-PAGE or SDS-PAGE enabled the rapid purification of the enzyme of interest. This technique also provides a quick and inexpensive means of quantifying these enzymatic activities in normal and stressed biological systems. PMID:16154636

  15. Extramitochondrial citrate synthase activity in bakers' yeast.

    OpenAIRE

    Rickey, T M; Lewin, A S

    1986-01-01

    We isolated the gene for citrate synthase (citrate oxaloacetate lyase; EC 4.1.3.7) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ablated it by inserting the yeast LEU2 gene within its reading frame. This revealed a second, nonmitochondrial citrate synthase. Like the mitochondrial enzyme, this enzyme was sensitive to glucose repression. It did not react with antibodies against mitochondrial citrate synthase. Haploid cells lacking a gene for mitochondrial citrate synthase grew somewhat slower than wild-typ...

  16. Functional, structural and phylogenetic analysis of domains underlying the Al-sensitivity of the aluminium-activated malate/anion transporter, TaALMT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    TaALMT1 (Triticum aestivum Aluminum Activated Malate Transporter) is the founding member of a novel gene family of anion transporters (ALMTs) that mediate the efflux of organic acids. A small subgroup of root-localized ALMTs, including TaALMT1, is physiologically associated with in planta aluminum (...

  17. Acetolactate Synthase Activity in Developing Maize (Zea mays L.) Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhitch, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Acetolactate synthase (EC 4.1.3.18) activity was examined in maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm and embryos as a function of kernel development. When assayed using unpurified homogenates, embryo acetolactate synthase activity appeared less sensitive to inhibition by leucine + valine and by the imidazolinone herbicide imazapyr than endosperm acetolactate synthase activity. Evidence is presented to show that pyruvate decarboxylase contributes to apparent acetolactate synthase activity in crude embryo extracts and a modification of the acetolactate synthase assay is proposed to correct for the presence of pyruvate decarboxylase in unpurified plant homogenates. Endosperm acetolactate synthase activity increased rapidly during early kernel development, reaching a maximum of 3 micromoles acetoin per hour per endosperm at 25 days after pollination. In contrast, embryo activity was low in young kernels and steadily increased throughout development to a maximum activity of 0.24 micromole per hour per embryo by 45 days after pollination. The sensitivity of both endosperm and embryo acetolactate synthase activities to feedback inhibition by leucine + valine did not change during kernel development. The results are compared to those found for other enzymes of nitrogen metabolism and discussed with respect to the potential roles of the embryo and endosperm in providing amino acids for storage protein synthesis. PMID:16665871

  18. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies on the X-ray induced aggregation of ribonnuclease, lactate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and serum albumin. A comparison with malate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray induced aggregation of ribonuclease, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and serum albumin in aqueous solution was monitored in situ by means of small-angle X-ray scattering. Measurements carried out with ribonuclease, LDH and serum albumin in the absence of dithiothreitol (DTT) and with GAPDH in the presence of 0.2mM DTT established the following series for the rates of aggregation of the proteins under these conditions: ribonuclease >LDH> >GAPDH> serum albumin. Within six hours from the beginning of irradiation (i.e. about the time required for the exposure of one complete scattering curve under the conditions of our experiments) the following increases of R tilde resulted: ribonuclease 9%, LDH 7%, GAPDH 4%, serum albumin <1%. Changes of R tilde exceeding 1% are, of course, too high to be tolerated in conventional scattering experiments. Measurements carried out with LDH and GAPDH in the presence of 2mM DTT established a strong protective effect of DTT against the X-ray induced aggregation of these enzymes. The initial increase of R tilde upon irradiation of LDH and GAPDH in the presence of 2mM DTT was found to be even lower than the increase of R tilde observed when serum albumin was irradiated in the absence of DTT. However, the observed decrease of anti x of LDH and GAPDH at the early stages of irradiation suggested the occurrence of fragmentation of the enzymes as another consequence of radiation damage. This finding is discussed in context with the results from previous scattering experiments and electrophoretic studies on malate synthase. (author)

  19. Phasin Proteins Activate Aeromonas caviae Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthase but Not Ralstonia eutropha PHA Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Ushimaru, Kazunori; Motoda, Yoko; Numata, Keiji; Tsuge, Takeharu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo activity assays of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) in the presence of phasin proteins (PhaPs), which revealed that PhaPs are activators of PhaC derived from Aeromonas caviae (PhaCAc). In in vitro assays, among the three PhaCs tested, PhaCAc was significantly activated when PhaPs were added at the beginning of polymerization (prepolymerization PhaCAc), whereas the prepolymerization PhaCRe (derived from Ralstonia eutropha) and PhaCDa...

  20. Activated glycogen synthase-3β suppresses cardiac hypertrophy in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Antos, Christopher L.; McKinsey, Timothy A.; Frey, Norbert; Kutschke, William; McAnally, John; Shelton, John M.; James A. Richardson; Hill, Joseph A.; Eric N. Olson

    2002-01-01

    The adult myocardium responds to a variety of pathologic stimuli by hypertrophic growth that frequently progresses to heart failure. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin is a potent transducer of hypertrophic stimuli. Calcineurin dephosphorylates members of the nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) family of transcription factors, which results in their translocation to the nucleus and activation of calcium-dependent genes. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) ph...

  1. The effect of ketotifen on nitric oxide synthase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel N. Heyman; Karmeli, Fanny; Brezis, Mayer; Rachmilewitz, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effect of ketotifen, a second generation H1-receptor antagonist on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in colonic mucosa and in renal tissues, and on rat renal haemodynamics in vivo.Ketotifen (100 μg ml−1) increased human colonic NOS activity from 3.7±0.6 to 14.5±1.3 nmol g−1 min−1 (P

  2. Phasin Proteins Activate Aeromonas caviae Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthase but Not Ralstonia eutropha PHA Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushimaru, Kazunori; Motoda, Yoko; Numata, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo activity assays of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) in the presence of phasin proteins (PhaPs), which revealed that PhaPs are activators of PhaC derived from Aeromonas caviae (PhaCAc). In in vitro assays, among the three PhaCs tested, PhaCAc was significantly activated when PhaPs were added at the beginning of polymerization (prepolymerization PhaCAc), whereas the prepolymerization PhaCRe (derived from Ralstonia eutropha) and PhaCDa (Delftia acidovorans) showed reduced activity with PhaPs. The PhaP-activated PhaCAc showed a slight shift of substrate preference toward 3-hydroxyhexanoyl-CoA (C6). PhaPAc also activated PhaCAc when it was added during polymerization (polymer-elongating PhaCAc), while this effect was not observed for PhaCRe. In an in vivo assay using Escherichia coli TOP10 as the host strain, the effect of PhaPAc expression on PHA synthesis by PhaCAc or PhaCRe was examined. As PhaPAc expression increased, PHA production was increased by up to 2.3-fold in the PhaCAc-expressing strain, whereas it was slightly increased in the PhaCRe-expressing strain. Taken together, this study provides evidence that PhaPs function as activators for PhaCAc both in vitro and in vivo but do not activate PhaCRe. This activating effect may be attributed to the new role of PhaPs in the polymerization reaction by PhaCAc. PMID:24584238

  3. Activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: substrates, modulators and products

    OpenAIRE

    Bevers, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the effects of its substrates, modulators and products are described. eNOS produces nitric oxide (NO), which is involved in vascular biology. L-arginine and BH4 are both essential factors for adequate eNOS function. Reduced levels of the substrate or cofactor lead to the formation of superoxide by eNOS, a process referred to as eNOS uncoupling. In all studies described here, a microvascular endothelial cell line (bEn...

  4. Insulin resistance is associated with reduced fasting and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase phosphatase activity in human skeletal muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Kida, Y.; Esposito-Del Puente, A; Bogardus, C.; Mott, D M

    1990-01-01

    Insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase activity in human skeletal muscle correlates with insulin-mediated glucose disposal rate (M) and is reduced in insulin-resistant subjects. We have previously reported reduced insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase activity associated with reduced fasting glycogen synthase phosphatase activity in skeletal muscle of insulin-resistant Pima Indians. In this study we investigated the time course for insulin stimulation of glycogen synthase and synthase phosphatas...

  5. Modification of a thiol at the active site of the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme results in changes in the rate-determining steps for oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thiol group at the malate-binding site of the NAD-malic enzyme from Ascaris suum has been modified to thiocyanate. The modified enzyme generally exhibits slight increases in KNAD and Kimetal and decreases in Vmax as the metal size increases from Mg2+ to Mn2+ to Cd2+, indicative of crowding in the site. The Kmalate value increases 10- to 30-fold, suggesting that malate does not bind optimally to the modified enzyme. Deuterium isotope effects on V and V/Kmalate increase with all three metal ions compared to the native enzyme concomitant with a decrease in the 13C isotope effect, suggesting a switch in the rate limitation of the hydride transfer and decarboxylation steps with hydride transfer becoming more rate limiting. The 13C effect decreases only slightly when obtained with deuterated malate, suggestive of the presence of a secondary 13C effect in the hydride transfer step, similar to data obtained with non-nicotinamide-containing dinucleotide substrates for the native enzyme (see the preceding paper in this issue). The native enzyme is inactivated in a time-dependent manner by Cd2+. This inactivation occurs whether the enzyme alone is present or whether the enzyme is turning over with Cd2+ as the divalent metal activator. Upon inactivation, only Cd2+ ions are bound at high stoichiometry to the enzyme, which eventually becomes denatured. Conversion of the active-site thiol to thiocyanate makes it more difficult to inactivate the enzyme by treatment with Cd2+

  6. Phosphorylation at S384 regulates the activity of the TaALMT1 malate transporter that underlies aluminum resistance in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we examined the role of protein phosphorylation & dephosphorylation in the transport properties of the wheat root malate efflux transporter underlying Al resistance, TaALMT1. Preincubation of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing TaALMT1 with protein kinase inhibitors (K252a and staurospo...

  7. Activation of constitutive nitric oxide synthases by oxidized calmodulin mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Heather J; Bartlett, Ryan; Perdicakis, Basil; Jervis, Eric; Squier, Thomas C; Guillemette, J Guy

    2003-07-01

    Several calmodulin (CaM) mutants were engineered in an effort to identify the functional implications of the oxidation of individual methionines in CaM on the activity of the constitutive isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Site-directed mutagenesis was used to substitute the majority of methionines with leucines. Substitution of all nine methionine residues in CaM with leucines had minimal effects on the binding affinity or maximal enzyme activation for either the neuronal (nNOS) or endothelial (eNOS) isoform. Selective substitution permitted determination of the functional consequences of the site-specific oxidation of Met(144) and Met(145) on the regulation of electron transfer within nNOS and eNOS. Site-specific oxidation of Met(144) and Met(145) resulted in changes in the CaM concentration necessary for half-maximal activation of nNOS and eNOS, suggesting that these side chains are involved in stabilizing the productive association between CaM and NOS. However, the site-specific oxidation of Met(144) and Met(145) had essentially no effect on the maximal extent of eNOS activation in the presence of saturating concentrations of CaM. In contrast, the site-specific oxidation of Met(144) (but not Met(145)) resulted in a reduction in the level of nNOS activation that was associated with decreased rates of electron transfer within the reductase domain. Thus, nNOS and eNOS exhibit different functional sensitivities to conditions of oxidative stress that are expected to oxidize CaM. This may underlie some aspects of the observed differences in the sensitivities of proteins in vasculature and neuronal tissues to nitration that are linked to NOS activation and the associated generation of peroxynitrite. PMID:12820885

  8. In vitro stabilization and minimum active component of polygalacturonic acid synthase involved in pectin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Takao; Ishimizu, Takeshi; Akita, Kazumasa; Hase, Sumihiro

    2007-09-01

    Polygalacturonic acid (PGA) synthase successively transfers galacturonic acid to oligogalacturonic acid by an alpha1,4-linkage to synthesize PGA, the backbone of plant pectic homogalacturonan. PGA synthase has not been purified to date due to its instability in vitro. In this study, we found stable conditions in vitro and separated a minimum active component of the enzymes from pea and azuki bean epicotyls. The PGA synthase lost its activity in 500 mM of sodium chloride or potassium chloride, while it was relatively stable at low salt concentrations. Under low salt concentrations, three peaks bearing PGA synthase activity were separated, by gel filtration and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The molecular masses of these enzymes solubilized with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethyl-ammonio]propanesulfonic acid were estimated to be 21,000, 5,000, and 590 kDa. The two higher molecular mass PGA synthases converted to smaller PGA synthase proteins when treated with high salt concentrations, while retaining their activity, indicating that PGA synthase has a minimum active component for its activity. PMID:17827695

  9. SCREENING OF 6-PYRUVOYL-TETRAHYDROPTERIN SYNTHASE ACTIVITY DEFICIENCY AMONG HYPERP HENYLALANINEMIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURDI QUJEQ

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A deficiency of the phenylalanine hydroxylase activity or its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin may"nlead to hyperphenylalamnemia and as a result, loss of IQ, poor school performance, and"nbehavior problems occurs. Deficiency in 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase activity is the"nmajor cause of tetrahydrobiopterin deficient phenylketonuria. In this study, blood specimens"nfrom 165 healthy volunteers and 127 children with phenylketonuria were used to determine"nthe 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase activity. It was found that the activity of 6-"npyruvoyl- tetrahydropterin synthase was decreased in comparison with control [23.46 +/-"n2.94, (mean +/- SD, mmol/ ml/h, n=I27 vs. 127.63 +/- 4.52, n=165, p<0.05]. Results of"nthis study indicate that examination of 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase activity is helpful"nand may lead to the diagnosis cause of hyperphenylalaninemia.

  10. Enhancing Human Spermine Synthase Activity by Engineered Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Zheng, Yueli; Petukh, Margo; Pegg, Anthony; Ikeguchi, Yoshihiko; Alexov, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Spermine synthase (SMS) is an enzyme which function is to convert spermidine into spermine. It was shown that gene defects resulting in amino acid changes of the wild type SMS cause Snyder-Robinson syndrome, which is a mild-to-moderate mental disability associated with osteoporosis, facial asymmetry, thin habitus, hypotonia, and a nonspecific movement disorder. These disease-causing missense mutations were demonstrated, both in silico and in vitro, to affect the wild type function of SMS by either destabilizing the SMS dimer/monomer or directly affecting the hydrogen bond network of the active site of SMS. In contrast to these studies, here we report an artificial engineering of a more efficient SMS variant by transferring sequence information from another organism. It is confirmed experimentally that the variant, bearing four amino acid substitutions, is catalytically more active than the wild type. The increased functionality is attributed to enhanced monomer stability, lowering the pKa of proton donor catalytic residue, optimized spatial distribution of the electrostatic potential around the SMS with respect to substrates, and increase of the frequency of mechanical vibration of the clefts presumed to be the gates toward the active sites. The study demonstrates that wild type SMS is not particularly evolutionarily optimized with respect to the reaction spermidine → spermine. Having in mind that currently there are no variations (non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism, nsSNP) detected in healthy individuals, it can be speculated that the human SMS function is precisely tuned toward its wild type and any deviation is unwanted and disease-causing. PMID:23468611

  11. Malate Synthesis and Secretion Mediated by a Manganese-Enhanced Malate Dehydrogenase Confers Superior Manganese Tolerance in Stylosanthes guianensis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijian; Sun, Lili; Liu, Pandao; Liu, Guodao; Tian, Jiang; Liao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) toxicity is a major constraint limiting plant growth on acidic soils. Superior Mn tolerance in Stylosanthes spp. has been well documented, but its molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, superior Mn tolerance in Stylosanthes guianensis was confirmed, as reflected by a high Mn toxicity threshold. Furthermore, genetic variation of Mn tolerance was evaluated using two S. guianensis genotypes, which revealed that the Fine-stem genotype had higher Mn tolerance than the TPRC2001-1 genotype, as exhibited through less reduction in dry weight under excess Mn, and accompanied by lower internal Mn concentrations. Interestingly, Mn-stimulated increases in malate concentrations and exudation rates were observed only in the Fine-stem genotype. Proteomic analysis of Fine-stem roots revealed that S. guianensis Malate Dehydrogenase1 (SgMDH1) accumulated in response to Mn toxicity. Western-blot and quantitative PCR analyses showed that Mn toxicity resulted in increased SgMDH1 accumulation only in Fine-stem roots, but not in TPRC2001-1. The function of SgMDH1-mediated malate synthesis was verified through in vitro biochemical analysis of SgMDH1 activities against oxaloacetate, as well as in vivo increased malate concentrations in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), soybean (Glycine max) hairy roots, and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) with SgMDH1 overexpression. Furthermore, SgMDH1 overexpression conferred Mn tolerance in Arabidopsis, which was accompanied by increased malate exudation and reduced plant Mn concentrations, suggesting that secreted malate could alleviate Mn toxicity in plants. Taken together, we conclude that the superior Mn tolerance of S. guianensis is achieved by coordination of internal and external Mn detoxification through malate synthesis and exudation, which is regulated by SgMDH1 at both transcription and protein levels. PMID:25378694

  12. Malate synthesis and secretion mediated by a manganese-enhanced malate dehydrogenase confers superior manganese tolerance in Stylosanthes guianensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijian; Sun, Lili; Liu, Pandao; Liu, Guodao; Tian, Jiang; Liao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) toxicity is a major constraint limiting plant growth on acidic soils. Superior Mn tolerance in Stylosanthes spp. has been well documented, but its molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, superior Mn tolerance in Stylosanthes guianensis was confirmed, as reflected by a high Mn toxicity threshold. Furthermore, genetic variation of Mn tolerance was evaluated using two S. guianensis genotypes, which revealed that the Fine-stem genotype had higher Mn tolerance than the TPRC2001-1 genotype, as exhibited through less reduction in dry weight under excess Mn, and accompanied by lower internal Mn concentrations. Interestingly, Mn-stimulated increases in malate concentrations and exudation rates were observed only in the Fine-stem genotype. Proteomic analysis of Fine-stem roots revealed that S. guianensis Malate Dehydrogenase1 (SgMDH1) accumulated in response to Mn toxicity. Western-blot and quantitative PCR analyses showed that Mn toxicity resulted in increased SgMDH1 accumulation only in Fine-stem roots, but not in TPRC2001-1. The function of SgMDH1-mediated malate synthesis was verified through in vitro biochemical analysis of SgMDH1 activities against oxaloacetate, as well as in vivo increased malate concentrations in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), soybean (Glycine max) hairy roots, and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) with SgMDH1 overexpression. Furthermore, SgMDH1 overexpression conferred Mn tolerance in Arabidopsis, which was accompanied by increased malate exudation and reduced plant Mn concentrations, suggesting that secreted malate could alleviate Mn toxicity in plants. Taken together, we conclude that the superior Mn tolerance of S. guianensis is achieved by coordination of internal and external Mn detoxification through malate synthesis and exudation, which is regulated by SgMDH1 at both transcription and protein levels. PMID:25378694

  13. [Effect of heavy metals on activity of key enzymes of glyoxylate cycle and content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the germinating soybean Glicine max L.seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdudnaia, E F; Kaliman, P A

    2008-01-01

    The influence of CoCl2 and CdCl2 on the activity of isocytrate lyase, malate synthase and NAD-malate dehydrogenase in the seed lobes and the composition of malondialdehyde products at early stages of germinating of soybean seeds: after first 24-hours, 72 hours and 96 hours are investigated. It is shown that when germinating in the medium containing no metal salts, isocytrate lyase activity is greatly increased during 96 h and malate synthase is increased after 72 h and is decreased after 96 h of germination period. CoCl2 activated isocytrate lyase activity after 72 hours and decreased malate synthase activity after 96 hours. The lengthening of the primary root under such conditions is noted. CdCl2 inhibited isocytrate lyase activity during first 24 hours and suppressed malate synthase activity after 96 hours. During this process the germ growth is suppressed. CoCl2 increased the composition of malondialdehyde products during each period of germination, and CdCl2 increased malondialdehyde content after 72 and 96 hours. The role of glyoxylate cycle enzymes in transforming fatty acids into carbohydrates and in forming the primary root under the process of germination of seed lobes of soybean is discussed. PMID:18710031

  14. Spermine synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Pegg, Anthony E; Michael, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    Spermine is present in many organisms including animals, plants, some fungi, some archaea, and some bacteria. It is synthesized by spermine synthase, a highly specific aminopropyltransferase. This review describes spermine synthase structure, genetics, and function. Structural and biochemical studies reveal that human spermine synthase is an obligate dimer. Each monomer contains a C-terminal domain where the active site is located, a central linking domain that also forms the lid of the catal...

  15. Reassessment of the transhydrogenase/malate shunt pathway in Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 through kinetic characterization of malic enzyme and malate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillefer, M; Rydzak, T; Levin, D B; Oresnik, I J; Sparling, R

    2015-04-01

    Clostridium thermocellum produces ethanol as one of its major end products from direct fermentation of cellulosic biomass. Therefore, it is viewed as an attractive model for the production of biofuels via consolidated bioprocessing. However, a better understanding of the metabolic pathways, along with their putative regulation, could lead to improved strategies for increasing the production of ethanol. In the absence of an annotated pyruvate kinase in the genome, alternate means of generating pyruvate have been sought. Previous proteomic and transcriptomic work detected high levels of a malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme, which may be used as part of a malate shunt for the generation of pyruvate from phosphoenolpyruvate. The purification and characterization of the malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme are described in order to elucidate their putative roles in malate shunt and their potential role in C. thermocellum metabolism. The malate dehydrogenase catalyzed the reduction of oxaloacetate to malate utilizing NADH or NADPH with a kcat of 45.8 s(-1) or 14.9 s(-1), respectively, resulting in a 12-fold increase in catalytic efficiency when using NADH over NADPH. The malic enzyme displayed reversible malate decarboxylation activity with a kcat of 520.8 s(-1). The malic enzyme used NADP(+) as a cofactor along with NH4 (+) and Mn(2+) as activators. Pyrophosphate was found to be a potent inhibitor of malic enzyme activity, with a Ki of 0.036 mM. We propose a putative regulatory mechanism of the malate shunt by pyrophosphate and NH4 (+) based on the characterization of the malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. PMID:25616802

  16. Application of a Colorimetric Assay to Identify Putative Ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5'-Phosphate Synthase Genes Expressed with Activity in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bechard Matthew E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT is a tetrahydrofolate analog originally discovered in methanogenic archaea, but later found in other archaea and bacteria. The extent to which H4MPT occurs among living organisms is unknown. The key enzyme which distinguishes the biosynthetic pathways of H4MPT and tetrahydrofolate is ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5'-phosphate synthase (RFAP synthase. Given the importance of RFAP synthase in H4MPT biosynthesis, the identification of putative RFAP synthase genes and measurement of RFAP synthase activity would provide an indication of the presence of H4MPT in untested microorganisms. Investigation of putative archaeal RFAP synthase genes has been hampered by the tendency of the resulting proteins to form inactive inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. The current work describes a colorimetric assay for measuring RFAP synthase activity, and two modified procedures for expressing recombinant RFAP synthase genes to produce soluble, active enzyme. By lowering the incubation temperature during expression, RFAP synthase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus was produced in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The production of active RFAP synthase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus was achieved by coexpression of the gene MTH0830 with a molecular chaperone. This is the first direct biochemical identification of a methanogen gene that codes for an active RFAP synthase.

  17. The Domain Responsible for Sphingomyelin Synthase (SMS) Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Yeang, Calvin; Varsheny, Shweta; Wang, Renxiao; Zhang, Ya; Ye, Deyong; Jiang, Xian-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) sits at the crossroads of sphingomyelin (SM), ceramide, diacylglycerol (DAG) metabolism. It utilizes ceramide and phosphatidylcholine as substrates to produce SM and DAG, thereby regulating lipid messengers which play a role in cell survival and apoptosis. There are two isoforms of the enzyme, SMS1 and SMS2. Both SMS1 and SMS2 contain two histidines and one aspartic acid which are evolutionary conserved within the lipid phosphate phosphatase superfamily. In this s...

  18. Piriformospora indica requires kaurene synthase activity for successful plant colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Chen, Xi; Ma, Chaoyang; Wu, Hongqing; Qi, Shuting

    2016-05-01

    Ent-kaurene (KS) synthases and ent-kaurene-like (KSL) synthases are involved in the biosynthesis of phytoalexins and/or gibberellins which play a role in plant immunity and development. The relationship between expression of five synthase genes (HvKSL1, HvKS2, HvKS4, HvKS5, HvKSL4) and plant colonization by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica was assessed in barley (Hordeum vulgare). The KS gene family is differently up-regulated at 1, 3 and 7 day after P. indica inoculation. By comparison, the HvKSL4 gene expression pattern is more significantly affected by UV irradiation and P. indica colonization. The characterizations of two silencing lines (HvKSL1-RNAi, HvKSL4-RNAi) also were analyzed. HvKSL1-RNAi and HvKSL4-RNAi lines in the first generation lead to less dark green leaves and slower plant development. Further, reduced spikelet fertility in progenies of RNAi plants heterozygous for HvKSL1 were observed, but not for HvKSL4. T2 generation of HvKSL1-RNAi line showed semi-dwarf phenotype while the wild type phenotype could be restored by applying GA3. Silencing of HvKSL4 and HvKSL1 resulted in reduced colonization by P. indica especially in the HvKSL1-RNAi line. These results probably suggest the presence of two ent-KS synthase in barley, one (HvKSL1) that participates in the biosynthesis of GAs and another (HvKSL4) that is involved in the biosynthesis of phytoalexins. PMID:26943021

  19. Enhancing Human Spermine Synthase Activity by Engineered Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhe; Zheng, Yueli; Petukh, Margo; Pegg, Anthony; Ikeguchi, Yoshihiko; Alexov, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Spermine synthase (SMS) is an enzyme which function is to convert spermidine into spermine. It was shown that gene defects resulting in amino acid changes of the wild type SMS cause Snyder-Robinson syndrome, which is a mild-to-moderate mental disability associated with osteoporosis, facial asymmetry, thin habitus, hypotonia, and a nonspecific movement disorder. These disease-causing missense mutations were demonstrated, both in silico and in vitro, to affect the wild type function of SMS by e...

  20. Regulation of callose synthase activity in situ in alamethicin-permeabilized Arabidopsis and tobacco suspension cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmusson Allan G

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cell wall component callose is mainly synthesized at certain developmental stages and after wounding or pathogen attack. Callose synthases are membrane-bound enzymes that have been relatively well characterized in vitro using isolated membrane fractions or purified enzyme. However, little is known about their functional properties in situ, under conditions when the cell wall is intact. To allow in situ investigations of the regulation of callose synthesis, cell suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0, and tobacco (BY-2, were permeabilized with the channel-forming peptide alamethicin. Results Nucleic acid-binding dyes and marker enzymes demonstrated alamethicin permeabilization of plasma membrane, mitochondria and plastids, also allowing callose synthase measurements. In the presence of alamethicin, Ca2+ addition was required for callose synthase activity, and the activity was further stimulated by Mg2+ Cells pretreated with oryzalin to destabilize the microtubules prior to alamethicin permeabilization showed significantly lower callose synthase activity as compared to non-treated cells. As judged by aniline blue staining, the callose formed was deposited both at the cell walls joining adjacent cells and at discrete punctate locations earlier described as half plasmodesmata on the outer walls. This pattern was unaffected by oryzalin pretreatment, showing a quantitative rather than a qualitative effect of polymerized tubulin on callose synthase activity. No callose was deposited unless alamethicin, Ca2+ and UDP-glucose were present. Tubulin and callose synthase were furthermore part of the same plasma membrane protein complex, as judged by two-dimensional blue native SDS-PAGE. Conclusion Alamethicin permeabilization allowed determination of callose synthase regulation and tubulin interaction in the natural crowded cellular environment and under conditions where contacts between the cell wall, the plasma membrane and cytoskeletal macromolecules remained. The results also suggest that alamethicin permeabilization induces a defense response mimicking the natural physical separation of cells (for example when intercellulars are formed, during which plasmodesmata are transiently left open.

  1. Promotion of beta-glucan synthase activity in corn microsomal membranes by calcium and protein phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliyath, G.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1988-01-01

    Regulation of the activity of beta-glucan synthase was studied using microsomal preparations from corn coleoptiles. The specific activity as measured by the incorporation of glucose from uridine diphospho-D-[U-14C]glucose varied between 5 to 15 pmol (mg protein)-1 min-1. Calcium promoted beta-glucan synthase activity and the promotion was observed at free calcium concentrations as low as 1 micromole. Kinetic analysis of substrate-velocity curve showed an apparent Km of 1.92 x 10(-4) M for UDPG. Calcium increased the Vmax from 5.88 x 10(-7) mol liter-1 min-1 in the absence of calcium to 9.52 x 10(-7) mol liter-1 min-1 and 1.66 x 10(-6) mol liter-1 min-1 in the presence of 0.5 mM and 1 mM calcium, respectively. The Km values remained the same under these conditions. Addition of ATP further increased the activity above the calcium-promoted level. Sodium fluoride, a phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor, promoted glucan synthase activity indicating that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are involved in the regulation of the enzyme activity. Increasing the concentration of sodium fluoride from 0.25 mM to 10 mM increased glucan synthase activity five-fold over the + calcium + ATP control. Phosphorylation of membrane proteins also showed a similar increase under these conditions. Calmodulin, in the presence of calcium and ATP stimulated glucan synthase activity substantially, indicating that calmodulin could be involved in the calcium-dependent phosphorylation and promotion of beta-glucan synthase activity. The role of calcium in mediating auxin action is discussed.

  2. Glycogen synthase activation in human skeletal muscle: effects of diet and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, R G; Lamb, D R; Lutz, S A; Perrill, C V; Reimann, E M; Schlender, K K

    1979-06-01

    We investigated the role of glycogen synthase in supranormal resynthesis (supercompensation) of skeletal muscle glycogen after exhaustive exercise. Six healthy men exercised 60 min by cycling with one leg at 75% VO2max, recovered 3 days on a low-carbohydrate diet, exercised again, and recovered 4 days on high-carbohydrate diet. Glycogen and glycogen synthase activities at several glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) concentrations were measured in biopsy samples of m. vastus lateralis. Dietary alterations alone did not affect glycogen, whereas exercise depleted glycogen stores. After the second exercise bout, glycogen returned to normal within 24 h and reached supercompensated levels by 48 h of recovery. Glycogen synthase activation state strikingly increased after exercise in exercised muscle and remained somewhat elevated for the first 48 h of recovery in both muscles. We suggest that 1) forms of glycogen synthase intermediate to I (G6P-independent) and D (G6P-dependent) forms are present in vivo, and 2) glycogen supercompensation can in part be explained by the formation of intermediate forms of glycogen synthase that exhibit relatively low activity ratios, but an increased sensitivity to activation by G6P. PMID:109015

  3. Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenitzer, Veronika [INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Biomineralisation Group, Campus D2.2, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Universitaet Regensburg, Biochemie I, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Eichner, Norbert [Universitaet Regensburg, Biochemie I, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke [Munich University of Applied Sciences, Lothstrasse 34, D-80335 Muenchen, Germany, and Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, D-80539 Muenchen (Germany); Weiss, Ingrid M., E-mail: ingrid.weiss@inm-gmbh.de [INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Biomineralisation Group, Campus D2.2, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Universitaet Regensburg, Biochemie I, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dictyostelium produces the 264 kDa myosin chitin synthase of bivalve mollusc Atrina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin synthase activity releases chitin, partly associated with the cell surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membrane extracts of transgenic slime molds produce radiolabeled chitin in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin producing Dictyostelium cells can be characterized by atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This model system enables us to study initial processes of chitin biomineralization. -- Abstract: Several mollusc shells contain chitin, which is formed by a transmembrane myosin motor enzyme. This protein could be involved in sensing mechanical and structural changes of the forming, mineralizing extracellular matrix. Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W. 264 kDa/monomer) in Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for myosin motor proteins. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy (CLSM), chitin binding GFP detection of chitin on cells and released to the cell culture medium, and a radiochemical activity assay of membrane extracts revealed expression and enzymatic activity of the mollusc chitin synthase in transgenic slime mold cells. First high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of Ar-CS1 transformed cellulose synthase deficient D. discoideumdcsA{sup -} cell lines are shown.

  4. Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Dictyostelium produces the 264 kDa myosin chitin synthase of bivalve mollusc Atrina. ? Chitin synthase activity releases chitin, partly associated with the cell surface. ? Membrane extracts of transgenic slime molds produce radiolabeled chitin in vitro. ? Chitin producing Dictyostelium cells can be characterized by atomic force microscopy. ? This model system enables us to study initial processes of chitin biomineralization. -- Abstract: Several mollusc shells contain chitin, which is formed by a transmembrane myosin motor enzyme. This protein could be involved in sensing mechanical and structural changes of the forming, mineralizing extracellular matrix. Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W. 264 kDa/monomer) in Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for myosin motor proteins. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy (CLSM), chitin binding GFP detection of chitin on cells and released to the cell culture medium, and a radiochemical activity assay of membrane extracts revealed expression and enzymatic activity of the mollusc chitin synthase in transgenic slime mold cells. First high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of Ar-CS1 transformed cellulose synthase deficient D. discoideumdcsA? cell lines are shown.

  5. Association of glycogen synthase phosphatase and phosphorylase phosphatase activities with membranes of hepatic smooth endoplasmic reticulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A detailed investigation was conducted to determine the precise subcellular localization of the rate-limiting enzymes of hepatic glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthase and phosphorylase) and their regulatory enzymes (synthase phosphatase and phosphorylase phosphatase). Rat liver was homogenized and fractionated to produce soluble, rough and smooth microsomal fractions. Enzyme assays of the fractions were performed, and the results showed that glycogen synthase and phosphorylase were located in the soluble fraction of the livers. Synthase phosphatase and phosphorylase phosphatase activities were also present in soluble fractions, but were clearly identified in both rough and smooth microsomal fractions. It is suggested that the location of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) within the cytosome forms a microenvironment within hepatocytes that establishes conditions necessary for glycogen synthesis (and degradation). Thus the location of SER in the cell determines regions of the hepatocyte that are rich in glycogen particles. Furthermore, the demonstration of the association of synthase phosphatase and phosphorylase phosphatase with membranes of SER may account for the close morphological association of SER with glycogen particles (i.e., disposition of SER membranes brings the membrane-bound regulatory enzymes in close contact with their substrates). PMID:227915

  6. Changes in Carbohydrate Content and the Activities of Acid Invertase, Sucrose Synthase and Sucrose Phosphate Synthase in Asparagus Spears During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Bhowmik

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We held asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. spears at 25?C for up to 5 days after harvest and examined changes in soluble carbohydrates and the activities of enzymes concerned with carbohydrate breakdown in both top and bottom portions of the spears. The acid invertase in soluble fraction showed a higher activity than that in cell wall bound fraction and the top portion of the spear showed a significantly higher soluble acid invertase activity than the bottom portion. But the activity of cell wall bound acid invetase was higher in bottom portion. In both the top and bottom portions soluble acid invertase activity increased during first day of storage and after that it started to decrease gradually up to five days. In case of cell wall bound acid invertase the activity increased during first two days and after that it also started to decrease. Sucrose synthase activity, found higher in bottom portion than top, started to decline from the first day of storage and continued up to five days. But the activity declined rapidly on third day. In case of sucrose phosphate synthase there was no specific inclining or declining pattern of activity in any portion of the spear. Among the soluble sugars fructose and glucose were predomonant and fructose content was significantly higher than the glucose and sucrose. All the three sugars started to decrease from the first day and continued up to five days. Sucrose content was negatively correlated with invertase and sucrose synthase in both portions and accounted well for the relation between the substrate and enzyme activity. But sucrose phohphate synthase activity remained almost constant during the storage period and there was no significant correlation between sugar content and sucrose phosphate synthase activity.

  7. Kinetic studies of the regulation of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase by citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpí, J L; Dordal, A; Montserrat, J; Mazo, A; Cortés, A

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase shows a complex regulation pattern in the presence of citrate. Previously published results indicate that this enzyme is activated by citrate in the NAD(+)----NADH direction and inhibited in the opposite direction. Moreover, high concentrations of L-malate or oxaloacetate produce deviations from the Michaelis-Menten behaviour. Results reported in this paper clearly show that citrate both activates and inhibits mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase in the same direction (NAD(+)----NADH), and in the same reaction medium, depending on substrate concentration. This surprising effect has made it necessary to propose a new kinetic mechanism that extends those previously suggested and allows us to explain both the citrate effect (activating or inhibitory) and the effect of high concentrations of L-malate and oxaloacetate. PMID:1567375

  8. Spermine synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Spermine is present in many organisms including animals, plants, some fungi, some archaea, and some bacteria. It is synthesized by spermine synthase, a highly specific aminopropyltransferase. This review describes spermine synthase structure, genetics, and function. Structural and biochemical studies reveal that human spermine synthase is an obligate dimer. Each monomer contains a C-terminal domain where the active site is located, a central linking domain that also forms the lid of the catalytic domain, and an N-terminal domain that is structurally very similar to S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. Gyro mice, which have an X-chromosomal deletion including the spermine synthase (SMS) gene, lack all spermine and have a greatly reduced size, sterility, deafness, neurological abnormalities, and a tendency to sudden death. Mutations in the human SMS lead to a rise in spermidine and reduction of spermine causing Snyder-Robinson syndrome, an X-linked recessive condition characterized by mental retardation, skeletal defects, hypotonia, and movement disorders. PMID:19859664

  9. Assaying Ceramide Synthase Activity In Vitro and in Living Cells Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Xin Ying; Pickford, Russell; Don, Anthony S

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids are one the major lipid families in eukaryotes, incorporating a diverse array of structural and signaling lipids such as sphingomyelin and gangliosides. The core lipid component for all complex sphingolipids is ceramide, a diacyl lipid consisting of a variable length fatty acid linked through an amide bond to a long chain base such as sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. This reaction is catalyzed by a family of six ceramide synthases (CERS1-6), each of which preferentially catalyzes the synthesis of ceramides with different fatty acid chain lengths. Ceramides are themselves potent cellular and physiological signaling molecules heavily implicated in diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases, making it important for researchers to have access to sensitive and accurate assays for ceramide synthase activity. This chapter describes methods for assaying ceramide synthase activity in cell or tissue lysates, or in cultured cells (in situ), using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as the readout. LC-MS/MS is a very sensitive and accurate means for assaying ceramide synthase reaction products. PMID:26552671

  10. Anaerobic Toluene Activation by Benzylsuccinate Synthase in a Highly Enriched Methanogenic Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Beller, Harry R.; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2000-01-01

    Permeabilized cells of a highly enriched, toluene-mineralizing, methanogenic culture catalyzed the addition of toluene to fumarate to form benzylsuccinate under anaerobic conditions. The specific in vitro rate of benzylsuccinate formation was >85% of the specific in vivo rate of toluene consumption. This is the first report of benzylsuccinate synthase activity in a methanogenic culture; the activity has previously been reported to occur in denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, and anoxygenic photot...

  11. Potentiation of osteoclast bone-resorption activity by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase.

    OpenAIRE

    Kasten, T P; Collin-Osdoby, P; Patel, N.; Osdoby, P; Krukowski, M; Misko, T. P.; Settle, S L; Currie, M G; Nickols, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    We have examined the effects of modulating nitric oxide (NO) levels on osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in vitro and the effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on bone mineral density in vivo. Diaphorase-based histochemical staining for NOS activity of bone sections or highly enriched osteoclast cultures suggested that osteoclasts exhibit substantial NOS activity that may account for basal NO production. Chicken osteoclasts were cultured for 36 hr on bovine bone slices in the pr...

  12. Sphingomyelin synthase 1 activity is regulated by the BCR-ABL oncogene[S

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Tara Ann; Subathra, Marimuthu; Signorelli, Paola; Choi, Young; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yong; Villani, Maristella; Bhalla, Kapil; Zhou, Daohong; Luberto, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) produces sphingomyelin while consuming ceramide (a negative regulator of cell proliferation) and forming diacylglycerol (DAG) (a mitogenic factor). Therefore, enhanced SMS activity could favor cell proliferation. To examine if dysregulated SMS contributes to leukemogenesis, we measured SMS activity in several leukemic cell lines and found that it is highly elevated in K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells. The increased SMS in K562 cells was caused by the ...

  13. Reduced peroxisomal citrate synthase activity increases substrate availability for polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis in plant peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilbrook, Kimberley; Poirier, Yves; Gebbie, Leigh; Schenk, Peer M; McQualter, Richard B; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2014-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bacterial carbon storage polymers used as renewable, biodegradable plastics. PHA production in plants may be a way to reduce industrial PHA production costs. We recently demonstrated a promising level of peroxisomal PHA production in the high biomass crop species sugarcane. However, further production strategies are needed to boost PHA accumulation closer to commercial targets. Through exogenous fatty acid feeding of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that contain peroxisome-targeted PhaA, PhaB and PhaC enzymes from Cupriavidus necator, we show here that the availability of substrates derived from the β-oxidation cycle limits peroxisomal polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis. Knockdown of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity using artificial microRNA increased PHB production levels approximately threefold. This work demonstrates that reduction of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity may be a valid metabolic engineering strategy for increasing PHA production in other plant species. PMID:24944109

  14. Increased nitric oxide synthase activity and Hsp90 association in skeletal muscle following chronic exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, M. Brennan; Mitchell, Brett M.; Sood, Sarika G.; Webb, R. Clinton; Venema, Richard C.

    2008-01-01

    Exercise training results in dynamic changes in skeletal muscle blood flow and metabolism. Nitric oxide (NO) influences blood flow, oxidative stress, and glucose metabolism. Hsp90 interacts directly with nitric oxide synthases (NOS), increasing NOS activity and altering the balance of superoxide versus NO production. In addition, Hsp90 expression increases in various tissues following exercise. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that exercise training increases Hsp90 expression as well as Hs...

  15. Expression and Activity of Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoforms in Methamphetamine-Induced Striatal Dopamine Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Friend, Danielle M.; Son, Jong H.; Keefe, Kristen A.; Fricks-Gleason, Ashley N

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide is implicated in methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity; however, the source of the nitric oxide has not been identified. Previous work has also revealed that animals with partial dopamine loss induced by a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine fail to exhibit further decreases in striatal dopamine when re-exposed to methamphetamine 7–30 days later. The current study examined nitric oxide synthase expression and activity and protein nitration in striata of animals administe...

  16. Fumonisin concentration and ceramide synthase inhibitory activity of corn, masa, and tortilla chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Kenneth A; Norred, William P; Meredith, Filmore I; Riley, Ronald T; Stephen Saunders, D

    2006-07-01

    Nixtamalization removes fumonisins from corn and reduces their amounts in masa and tortilla products. Fumonisin concentrations and potential toxicity could be underestimated, however, if unknown but biologically active fumonisins are present. Therefore, the relative amounts of fumonisins in extracts of fumonisin-contaminated corn and its masa and tortilla chip nixtamalization products were determined with an in vitro ceramide synthase inhibition bioassay using increased sphinganine (Sa) and sphinganine to sphingosine ratio (Sa/So) as endpoints. African green monkey kidney cells (Vero cells ATCC CCL-81) were grown in 1-ml wells and exposed to 4 microl of the concentrated extracts for 48 h. The corn extract inhibited ceramide synthase as Sa (mean = 132 pmol/well) and Sa/So (mean = 2.24) were high compared to vehicle controls (Sa = 9 pmol/well; Sa/So = 0.10). Inhibitory activity (mean Sa = 14-24 pmol/well; mean Sa/So = 0.17-0.28) of the masa and tortilla chip extracts were reduced > or = 80% compared to the corn extract. Results were corroborated in a second experiment in which Sa and Sa/So of the wells treated with masa or tortilla chip extracts were reduced > or = 89% compared to those treated with the corn extract. Masa and tortilla chip FB1 concentrations (4-7 ppm) were reduced about 80-90% compared to the corn (30 ppm) when the materials were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Therefore, nixtamalization reduced both the measured amount of FB1 and the ceramide synthase inhibitory activity of masa and tortilla chips extracts. The results further suggest that the masa and tortilla chip extracts did not contain significant amounts of unknown fumonisins having ceramide synthase inhibitory activity. PMID:16760143

  17. Reduced ceramide synthase 2 activity causes progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Mai-Britt; Olsen, Anne S B; Neess, Ditte; Ben-David, Oshrit; Klitten, Laura L; Larsen, Jan; Sabers, Anne; Vissing, John; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Hasholt, Lis; Klein, Andres D; Tsoory, Michael M; Hjalgrim, Helle; Tommerup, Niels; Futerman, Anthony H; Møller, Rikke S; Færgeman, Nils J

    2014-01-01

    with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME). Mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy were used to examine the effects of reduced CERS2 activity on cellular lipid composition and plasma membrane functions. RESULTS: We identify a novel 27 kb heterozygous deletion including the CERS2 gene in a proband...... diagnosed with PME. Compared to parental controls, levels of CERS2 mRNA, protein, and activity were reduced by ˜50% in fibroblasts isolated from this proband, resulting in significantly reduced levels of ceramides and sphingomyelins containing the very long-chain fatty acids C24:0 and C26:0. The change in...... acids, lead to development of PME....

  18. Impaired glycogen synthase activity and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    expression analysis and proteomics have pointed to abnormalities in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cellular stress in muscle of type 2 diabetic subjects, and recent work suggests that impaired mitochondrial activity is another early defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. This review will...

  19. Glycogen Synthase Kinase3 Beta Phosphorylates Serine 33 of p53 and Activates p53's Transcriptional Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Price Brendan D; Turenne Gaetan A

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background The p53 protein is activated by genotoxic stress, oncogene expression and during senescence, p53 transcriptionally activates genes involved in growth arrest and apoptosis. p53 activation is regulated by post-translational modification, including phosphorylation of the N-terminal transactivation domain. Here, we have examined how Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK3), a protein kinase involved in tumorigenesis, differentiation and apoptosis, phosphorylates and regulates p53. Resu...

  20. Arginase activity in mitochondria - An interfering factor in nitric oxide synthase activity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously, in tightly controlled studies, using three independent, yet complementary techniques, we refuted the claim that a mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) isoform exists within pure, rat liver mitochondria (MT). Of those techniques, the NOS-catalyzed [14C]-L-arginine to [14C]-L-citrulline conversion assay (NOS assay) with MT samples indicated a weak, radioactive signal that was NOS-independent . Aliquots of samples from the NOS assays were then extracted with acetone, separated by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and exposed to autoradiography. Results obtained from these samples showed no radioactive band for L-citrulline. However, a fast-migrating, diffuse, radioactive band was observed in the TLC lanes loaded with MT samples. In this manuscript, we identify and confirm that this radioactive signal in MT samples is due to the arginase-catalyzed conversion of [14C]-L-arginine to [14C]-urea. The current results, in addition to reconfirming the absence of NOS activity in rat liver MT, also show the need to include arginase inhibitors in studies using MT samples in order to avoid confounding results when using NOS activity assays.

  1. Arginase activity in mitochondria - An interfering factor in nitric oxide synthase activity assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatakrishnan, Priya; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Almeida, Igor C. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Miller, R.T., E-mail: tmiller2@utep.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Previously, in tightly controlled studies, using three independent, yet complementary techniques, we refuted the claim that a mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) isoform exists within pure, rat liver mitochondria (MT). Of those techniques, the NOS-catalyzed [{sup 14}C]-L-arginine to [{sup 14}C]-L-citrulline conversion assay (NOS assay) with MT samples indicated a weak, radioactive signal that was NOS-independent . Aliquots of samples from the NOS assays were then extracted with acetone, separated by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and exposed to autoradiography. Results obtained from these samples showed no radioactive band for L-citrulline. However, a fast-migrating, diffuse, radioactive band was observed in the TLC lanes loaded with MT samples. In this manuscript, we identify and confirm that this radioactive signal in MT samples is due to the arginase-catalyzed conversion of [{sup 14}C]-L-arginine to [{sup 14}C]-urea. The current results, in addition to reconfirming the absence of NOS activity in rat liver MT, also show the need to include arginase inhibitors in studies using MT samples in order to avoid confounding results when using NOS activity assays.

  2. Characterization of the Highly Active Polyhydroxyalkanoate Synthase of Chromobacterium Sp. Strain Usm2

    OpenAIRE

    Bhubalan, Kesaven; Chuah, Jo-Ann; Shozui, Fumi; Brigham, Christopher J.; Taguchi, Seiichi; Sinskey, Anthony J; Rha, ChoKyun; Sudesh, Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) is very much dependent on the expression and activity of a key enzyme, PHA synthase (PhaC). Many efforts are being pursued to enhance the activity and broaden the substrate specificity of PhaC. Here, we report the identification of a highly active wild-type PhaC belonging to the recently isolated Chromobacterium sp. USM2 (PhaC[subscript Cs]). PhaC[subscript Cs] showed the ability to utilize 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV)...

  3. Multiple strategies to prevent oxidative stress in Arabidopsis plants lacking the malate valve enzyme NADP-malate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbelmann, Inga; Selinski, Jennifer; Wehmeyer, Corinna; Goss, Tatjana; Voss, Ingo; Mulo, Paula; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Aro, Eva-Mari; Oelze, Marie-Luise; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Do, Phuc T; Fernie, Alisdair R; Talla, Sai K; Raghavendra, Agepati S; Linke, Vera; Scheibe, Renate

    2012-02-01

    The nuclear-encoded chloroplast NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) is a key enzyme controlling the malate valve, to allow the indirect export of reducing equivalents. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. T-DNA insertion mutants of NADP-MDH were used to assess the role of the light-activated NADP-MDH in a typical C(3) plant. Surprisingly, even when exposed to high-light conditions in short days, nadp-mdh knockout mutants were phenotypically indistinguishable from the wild type. The photosynthetic performance and typical antioxidative systems, such as the Beck-Halliwell-Asada pathway, were barely affected in the mutants in response to high-light treatment. The reactive oxygen species levels remained low, indicating the apparent absence of oxidative stress, in the mutants. Further analysis revealed a novel combination of compensatory mechanisms in order to maintain redox homeostasis in the nadp-mdh plants under high-light conditions, particularly an increase in the NTRC/2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx) system in chloroplasts. There were indications of adjustments in extra-chloroplastic components of photorespiration and proline levels, which all could dissipate excess reducing equivalents, sustain photosynthesis, and prevent photoinhibition in nadp-mdh knockout plants. Such metabolic flexibility suggests that the malate valve acts in concert with other NADPH-consuming reactions to maintain a balanced redox state during photosynthesis under high-light stress in wild-type plants. PMID:22140244

  4. Increase of particulate nitric oxide synthase activity and peroxynitrite synthesis in UVB-irradiated keratinocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we demonstrate that human keratinocytes possess a Ca2+/ calmodulin-dependent particulate NO synthase that can be activated to release NO after exposure to UVB radiation. UVB irradiation (up to 20 mJ/cm2) of human keratinocyte plasma membranes resulted in a dose-dependent increase in NO and L-[3H]citrulline production that was inhibited by approx. 90% in the presence of N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). In time-course experiments with UVB-irradiated plasma membranes the changes in NO production were followed by analogous changes in soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activity. In reconstitution experiments, when particulate NO synthase was added to purified sGC isolated from keratinocyte cytosol, a 4-fold increase in cGMP was observed; the cGMP was increased by NO synthesized after UVB irradiation (up to 20 mJ/cm2) of particulate NO synthase. A 5-fold increase in superoxide (O2-) and a 7-fold increase in NO formation followed by an 8-fold increase in peroxynitrite (ONOO-) production by UVB (20 mJ/cm2)-irradiated keratinocyte microsomes was observed. UVB radiation (20 mJ/cm2) decreased plasma membrane lipid fluidity as indicated by steady-state fluorescence anisotropy. Membrane fluidity changes were prevented by L-NMMA. Changes in Arrhenius plots of particulate NO synthase in combination with changes in its allosteric properties induced by UVB radiation are consistent with a decreased fluidity of the lipid microenvironment of the enzyme. The present studies provide important new clues to the role of NO and ONOO- released by UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes in skin erythema and inflammation. (Author)

  5. Active intermediates of polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase from Aeromonas caviae in polymerization reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Keiji; Motoda, Yoko; Watanabe, Satoru; Tochio, Naoya; Kigawa, Takanori; Doi, Yoshiharu

    2012-11-12

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase from Aeromonas caviae FA440 (PhaC(Ac), BAA21815) is one of the most valuable PHA synthase, because of its function to synthesize a practical bioplastic, poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate] [P(3HB-co-3HHx)]. However, biochemical activity and active intermediates of PhaC(Ac) have not been clarified until now. In the present study, a gene of PhaC(Ac) was cloned and overexpressed by a cell-free protein expression system. Both the polymerization activity and oligomerization behavior of the purified PhaC(Ac) were characterized in order to clarify the active intermediates of PhaC(Ac) based on the hydrodynamic diameters and specific activities of PhaC(Ac). The influences of a substrate, (R)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA (3HB-CoA), on the oligomerization of PhaC(Ac) (7.5 ?M) were also investigated, and then the Hill coefficient (n = 2.6 0.4) and the microscopic dissociation constant (K(m) = 77 5 ?M) were determined. Based on the results, the active intermediate of PhaC(Ac) was concluded to be the dimeric PhaC(Ac) containing 3HB-CoA as an activator for its dimerization. This information is critical for revealing the relationships between its dimerization and function in PHA synthesis. PMID:23043466

  6. Induction of long noncoding RNA MALAT1 in hypoxic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelli A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aurelia Lelli,1,2,* Karen A Nolan,1,2,* Sara Santambrogio,1,2 Ana Filipa Gonçalves,1,2 Miriam J Schönenberger,1,2 Anna Guinot,1,2 Ian J Frew,1,2 Hugo H Marti,3 David Hoogewijs,1,2,4 Roland H Wenger1,2 1Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Human Physiology (ZIHP, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2National Center of Competence in Research "Kidney.CH", Zurich, Switzerland; 3Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 4Institute of Physiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Long thought to be “junk DNA”, in recent years it has become clear that a substantial fraction of intergenic genomic DNA is actually transcribed, forming long noncoding RNA (lncRNA. Like mRNA, lncRNA can also be spliced, capped, and polyadenylated, affecting a multitude of biological processes. While the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of lncRNAs have just begun to be elucidated, the conditional regulation of lncRNAs remains largely unexplored. In genome-wide studies our group and others recently found hypoxic transcriptional induction of a subset of lncRNAs, whereof nuclear-enriched abundant/autosomal transcript 1 (NEAT1 and metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1 appear to be the lncRNAs most ubiquitously and most strongly induced by hypoxia in cultured cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-2 rather than HIF-1 seems to be the preferred transcriptional activator of these lncRNAs. For the first time, we also found strong induction primarily of MALAT1 in organs of mice exposed to inspiratory hypoxia. Most abundant hypoxic levels of MALAT1 lncRNA were found in kidney and testis. In situ hybridization revealed that the hypoxic induction in the kidney was confined to proximal rather than distal tubular epithelial cells. Direct oxygen-dependent regulation of MALAT1 lncRNA was confirmed using isolated primary kidney epithelial cells. In summary, high expression levels and acute, profound hypoxic induction of MALAT1 suggest a hitherto unrecognized role of this lncRNA in renal proximal tubular function. Keywords: hypoxia-inducible factor, kidney, oxygen, proximal tubule, testis

  7. The metabolism of malate by cultured rat brain astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since malate is known to play an important role in a variety of functions in the brain including energy metabolism, the transfer of reducing equivalents and possibly metabolic trafficking between different cell types; a series of biochemical determinations were initiated to evaluate the rate of 14CO2 production from L-[U-14C]malate in rat brain astrocytes. The 14CO2 production from labeled malate was almost totally suppressed by the metabolic inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A suggesting that most of malate metabolism was coupled to the electron transport system. A double reciprocal plot of the 14CO2 production from the metabolism of labeled malate revealed biphasic kinetics with two apparent Km and Vmax values suggesting the presence of more than one mechanism of malate metabolism in these cells. Subsequent experiments were carried out using 0.01 mM and 0.5 mM malate to determine whether the addition of effectors would differentially alter the metabolism of high and low concentrations of malate. Effectors studied included compounds which could be endogenous regulators of malate metabolism and metabolic inhibitors which would provide information regarding the mechanisms regulating malate metabolism. Both lactate and aspartate decreased 14CO2 production from malate equally. However, a number of effectors were identified which selectively altered the metabolism of 0.01 mM malate including aminooxyacetate, furosemide, N-acetylaspartate, oxaloacetate, pyruvate and glucose, but had little or no effect on the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate. In addition, alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate decreased 14CO2 production from 0.01 mM malate much more than from 0.5 mM malate. In contrast, a number of effectors altered the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate more than 0.01 mM. These included methionine sulfoximine, glutamate, malonate, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and ouabain

  8. Characterization and sequencing of the active site of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase the key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis, is inactivated by its substrate S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Apple ACC synthase was purified with an immunoaffinity gel, and its active site was probed with NaB3H4 or Ado[14C]Met. Peptide sequencing of both 3H- and 14C-labeled peptides revealed a common dodecapeptide of Ser-Leu-Ser-Xaa-Asp-Leu-Gly-Leu-Pro-Gly-Phe-Arg, where Xaa was the modified, radioactive residue in each case. Acid hydrolysis of the 3H-labeled enzyme released radioactive N-pyridoxyllysine, indicating that the active-site peptide contained lysine at position 4. Mass spectrometry of the 14C-labeled peptide indicated a protonated molecular ion at m/z 1390.6, from which the mass of Xaa was calculated to be 229, a number that is equivalent to the mass of a lysine residue alkylated by the 2-aminobutyrate portion of AdoMet, as we previously proposed. These results indicate that the same active-site lysine binds the PLP and convalently links to the 2-aminobutyrate portion of AdoMet during inactivation. The active site of tomato ACC synthase was probed in the same manner with Ado [14C]Met. Sequencing of the tomato active-site peptide revealed two highly conserved dodecapeptides; the minor peptide possessed a sequence identical to that of the apple enzyme, whereas the major peptide differed from the minor peptide in that methionine replaced leucine at position 6

  9. Zinc affects differently growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatin synthase expression of four marine diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benoît; Tremblin, Gérard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-supplementation (20 μM) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses. PMID:22645501

  10. Mechanism of activation of bacterial cellulose synthase by cyclic-di-GMP

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Jacob L.W.; McNamara, Joshua T.; Zimmer, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial signaling molecule cyclic-di-GMP stimulates the synthesis of bacterial cellulose, frequently found in biofilms. Bacterial cellulose is synthesized and translocated across the inner membrane by a complex of the cellulose synthase BcsA and BcsB subunits. Here we present crystal structures of the cyclic-di-GMP-activated BcsA–B complex. The structures reveal that cyclic-di-GMP releases an auto-inhibited state of the enzyme by breaking a salt bridge which otherwise tethers a conserve...

  11. Substrate structure-activity relationships guide rational engineering of modular polyketide synthase ketoreductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Constance B; Pasman, Marjolein E; Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T

    2016-01-14

    Modular polyketide synthase ketoreductases can set two chiral centers through a single reduction. To probe the basis of stereocontrol, a structure-activity relationship study was performed with three α-methyl, β-ketothioester substrates and four ketoreductases. Since interactions with the β-ketoacyl moiety were found to be most critical, residues implicated in contacting this moiety were mutated. Two mutations were sufficient to completely reverse the stereoselectivity of the model ketoreductase EryKR1, converting it from an enzyme that generates (2S,3R)-products into one that yields (2S,3S)-products. PMID:26568113

  12. Trichothecenes induce accumulation of glucosylceramide in neural cells by interfering with lactosylceramide synthase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid metabolites produced by several fungal strains that impair human and animal health. Since sphingolipids were connected with fungal toxicity the aim of the present study was to test the influence of fungal metabolites on sphingolipid metabolism in neural cells. The crude extract of fungal strain Spicellum roseum induced accumulation of glucosylceramide (GlcCer), and simultaneous reduction of the formation of lactosylceramide (LacCer) and complex gangliosides in primary cultured neurons. Following a bioassay-guided fractionation of the respective fungal extract we could demonstrate that the two isolated trichothecene derivatives, 8-deoxy-trichothecin (8-dT) and trichodermol (Td-ol) were responsible for this effect. Thus, incubation of primary cultured neurons as well as of neuroblastoma B104 cells for 24 h with 30 μM of either of the two fungal metabolites resulted in uncoupling of sphingolipid biosynthesis at the level of LacCer. For the observed reduction of LacCer synthase activity by about 90% cell integrity was crucial in both cell types. In neuroblastoma cells the amount of LacCer synthase mRNA was reduced in the presence of trichothecenes, whereas in primary cultured neurons this was not the case, suggesting a post-transcriptional mechanism of action in the latter cell type. The data also show that the compounds did not interfere with the translocation of GlcCer in neuroblastoma cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that trichodermol and 8-deoxy-trichothecin inhibit LacCer synthase activity in a cell-type-specific manner

  13. Diterpene synthases of the biosynthetic system of medicinally active diterpenoids in Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Dullat, Harpreet; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; Starks, Courtney; Hamberger, Bjrn; Bohlmann, Jrg

    2014-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose major bioactive compounds, marrubiin and other labdane-related furanoid diterpenoids, have potential applications as anti-diabetics, analgesics or vasorelaxants. Metabolite and transcriptome profiling of M.vulgare leaves identified five different candidate diterpene synthases (diTPSs) of the TPS-c and TPS-e/f clades. We describe the invitro and invivo functional characterization of the M.vulgare diTPS family. In addition to MvEKS ent-kaurene synthase of general metabolism, we identified three diTPSs of specialized metabolism: MvCPS3 (+)-copalyl diphosphate synthase, and the functional diTPS pair MvCPS1 and MvELS. In a sequential reaction, MvCPS1 and MvELS produce a unique oxygenated diterpene scaffold 9,13-epoxy-labd-14-ene en route to marrubiin and an array of related compounds. In contrast with previously known diTPSs that introduce a hydroxyl group at carbon C-8 of the labdane backbone, the MvCPS1-catalyzed reaction proceeds via oxygenation of an intermediate carbocation at C-9, yielding the bicyclic peregrinol diphosphate. MvELS belongs to a subgroup of the diTPS TPS-e/f clade with unusual ??-domain architecture. MvELS is active in vitro and in vivo with three different prenyl diphosphate substrates forming the marrubiin precursor 9,13-epoxy-labd-14-ene, as identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, manoyl oxide and miltiradiene. MvELS fills a central position in the biosynthetic system that forms the foundation for the diverse repertoire of Marrubium diterpenoids. Co-expression of MvCPS1 and MvELS in engineered E.coli and Nicotiana benthamiana offers opportunities for producing precursors for an array of biologically active diterpenoids. PMID:24990389

  14. Protein phosphorylation as a mechanism for regulation of spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein phosphorylation has been identified as a mechanism for the light-dark regulation of spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) activity, previously shown to involve some type of covalent modification of the enzyme. The 120 kD subunit of SPS in extracts of light-treated leaves was labeled with 32P in the presence of [γ-32P] ATP. In this in vitro system, 32P incorporation into light-activated SPS was dependent upon ATP and magnesium concentrations as well as time, and was closely paralleled by inactivation of the enzyme. The soluble protein kinase involved in the interconversion of SPS between activated and deactivated forms may be specific for SPS as it co-purifies with SPS during partial purification of the enzyme. The kinase appears not to be calcium activated and no evidence has been obtained for metabolite control of SPS phosphorylation/inactivation

  15. Active-site models for complexes of quinolinate synthase with substrates and intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano, Erika V.; Zhang, Yang; Colabroy, Keri L.; Sanders, Jennie M.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E., E-mail: see3@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-1301 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Structural studies of quinolinate synthase suggest a model for the enzymesubstrate complex and an enzymeintermediate complex with a [4Fe4S] cluster. Quinolinate synthase (QS) catalyzes the condensation of iminoaspartate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate to form quinolinate, the universal precursor for the de novo biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. QS has been difficult to characterize owing either to instability or lack of activity when it is overexpressed and purified. Here, the structure of QS from Pyrococcus furiosus has been determined at 2.8 resolution. The structure is a homodimer consisting of three domains per protomer. Each domain shows the same topology with a four-stranded parallel ?-sheet flanked by four ?-helices, suggesting that the domains are the result of gene triplication. Biochemical studies of QS indicate that the enzyme requires a [4Fe4S] cluster, which is lacking in this crystal structure, for full activity. The organization of domains in the protomer is distinctly different from that of a monomeric structure of QS from P. horikoshii [Sakuraba et al. (2005 ?), J. Biol. Chem.280, 2664526648]. The domain arrangement in P. furiosus QS may be related to protection of cysteine side chains, which are required to chelate the [4Fe4S] cluster, prior to cluster assembly.

  16. PhaM Is the Physiological Activator of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) Synthase (PhaC1) in Ralstonia eutropha

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer, Daniel; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthase (PhaC1) is the key enzyme of PHB synthesis in Ralstonia eutropha and other PHB-accumulating bacteria and catalyzes the polymerization of 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA to PHB. Activity assays of R. eutropha PHB synthase are characterized by the presence of lag phases and by low specific activity. It is assumed that the lag phase is caused by the time necessary to convert the inactive PhaC1 monomer into the active dimeric form by an unknown priming process. The lag...

  17. CETSA screening identifies known and novel thymidylate synthase inhibitors and slow intracellular activation of 5-fluorouracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, Helena; Axelsson, Hanna; Jafari, Rozbeh; Dan, Chen; Mateus, André; Haraldsson, Martin; Larsson, Andreas; Molina, Daniel Martinez; Artursson, Per; Lundbäck, Thomas; Nordlund, Pär

    2016-03-01

    Target engagement is a critical factor for therapeutic efficacy. Assessment of compound binding to native target proteins in live cells is therefore highly desirable in all stages of drug discovery. We report here the first compound library screen based on biophysical measurements of intracellular target binding, exemplified by human thymidylate synthase (TS). The screen selected accurately for all the tested known drugs acting on TS. We also identified TS inhibitors with novel chemistry and marketed drugs that were not previously known to target TS, including the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine. By following the cellular uptake and enzymatic conversion of known drugs we correlated the appearance of active metabolites over time with intracellular target engagement. These data distinguished a much slower activation of 5-fluorouracil when compared with nucleoside-based drugs. The approach establishes efficient means to associate drug uptake and activation with target binding during drug discovery.

  18. Non-canonical active site architecture of the radical SAM thiamin pyrimidine synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Michael K.; Mehta, Angad P.; Zhang, Yang; Abdelwahed, Sameh H.; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2015-03-01

    Radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes use a [4Fe-4S] cluster to generate a 5?-deoxyadenosyl radical. Canonical radical SAM enzymes are characterized by a ?-barrel-like fold and SAM anchors to the differentiated iron of the cluster, which is located near the amino terminus and within the ?-barrel, through its amino and carboxylate groups. Here we show that ThiC, the thiamin pyrimidine synthase in plants and bacteria, contains a tethered cluster-binding domain at its carboxy terminus that moves in and out of the active site during catalysis. In contrast to canonical radical SAM enzymes, we predict that SAM anchors to an additional active site metal through its amino and carboxylate groups. Superimposition of the catalytic domains of ThiC and glutamate mutase shows that these two enzymes share similar active site architectures, thus providing strong evidence for an evolutionary link between the radical SAM and adenosylcobalamin-dependent enzyme superfamilies.

  19. CETSA screening identifies known and novel thymidylate synthase inhibitors and slow intracellular activation of 5-fluorouracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, Helena; Axelsson, Hanna; Jafari, Rozbeh; Dan, Chen; Mateus, André; Haraldsson, Martin; Larsson, Andreas; Molina, Daniel Martinez; Artursson, Per; Lundbäck, Thomas; Nordlund, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Target engagement is a critical factor for therapeutic efficacy. Assessment of compound binding to native target proteins in live cells is therefore highly desirable in all stages of drug discovery. We report here the first compound library screen based on biophysical measurements of intracellular target binding, exemplified by human thymidylate synthase (TS). The screen selected accurately for all the tested known drugs acting on TS. We also identified TS inhibitors with novel chemistry and marketed drugs that were not previously known to target TS, including the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine. By following the cellular uptake and enzymatic conversion of known drugs we correlated the appearance of active metabolites over time with intracellular target engagement. These data distinguished a much slower activation of 5-fluorouracil when compared with nucleoside-based drugs. The approach establishes efficient means to associate drug uptake and activation with target binding during drug discovery. PMID:27010513

  20. Tumor-suppressive function of long noncoding RNA MALAT1 in glioma cells by downregulation of MMP2 and inactivation of ERK/MAPK signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y; Wu, Z; Wu, T; Huang, Y; Cheng, Z; Li, X; Sun, T; Xie, X; Zhou, Y; Du, Z

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a type of long noncoding RNA. It is associated with metastasis and is a favorable prognostic factor for lung cancer. Recent studies have shown that MALAT1 plays an important role in other malignancies. But, little is known about the role of MALAT1 in glioma. In this study, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to demonstrate that the expression of MALAT1 was lower than that in normal brain tissues. Stable RNA interference-mediated knockdown of MALAT1 in human glioma cell lines (U87 and U251) significantly promoted the invasion and proliferation of the glioma cells by in vitro assays. Conversely, overexpression of MALAT1 caused significant reduction in cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and tumorigenicity in both subcutaneous and intracranial human glioma xenograft models. Furthermore, MALAT1-mediated tumor suppression in glioma cells may be via reduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) signaling activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). In conclusion, overall data demonstrated the tumor-suppressive role of MALAT1 in glioma by attenuating ERK/MAPK-mediated growth and MMP2-mediated invasiveness. PMID:26938295

  1. Calreticulin Transacetylase mediated activation of human platelet nitric oxide synthase by acetyl group donor compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Sushama, Anupam; Manral, Sushma; Sinha, Rajesh; Joshi, Rini; Singh, Usha; Rohil, Vishwajeet; Prasad, Ashok K; Parmar, Virinder S; Raj, Hanumantharao G

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenols have attracted immense interest because of their diverse biological and pharmacological activities. Surprisingly, not much is documented about the biological activities of acetoxy derivatives of polyphenol called polyphenolic acetates (PA). In our previous reports, we have conclusively established the Calreticulin Transacetylase (CRTAase) catalyzed activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by PA. In the present work, specificity of CRTAase to various classes of PA was characterized in human platelet. The effect of PA, on platelet NOS and intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation were studied in an elaborated manner. Platelet CRTAase exhibited differential specificities to polyphenolic acetates upon incubation with l-arginine leading to activation of NOS. The intraplatelet generation of NO was studied by flowcytometry using DCFH-DA. The differential specificities of CRTAase to PA were found to positively correlate with increased production of NO upon incubation of PRP with PA and l-arginine. Further, the inhibitory effect of l-NAME on PA induced NO formation in platelets substantiated the CRTAase catalyzed activation of NOS. The real-time RT-PCR profile of NOS isoforms confirmed the preponderance of eNOS over iNOS in human platelets on treatment with PA. Western blot analysis also reiterated the differential pattern of acetylation of eNOS by PA. PA were also found effective in increasing the intraplatelet cGMP levels and inhibiting ADP-induced platelet aggregation. It is worth mentioning that the effects of PA were found to be in tune with the specificities of platelet CRTAase to PA as the substrates. PMID:22100620

  2. Function, kinetic properties, crystallization, and regulation of microbial malate dehydrogenase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Íñiguez, Tóshiko; Aburto-Rodríguez, Nelly; Vilchis-González, Ana Laura; Flores, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) is an enzyme widely distributed among living organisms and is a key protein in the central oxidative pathway. It catalyzes the interconversion between malate and oxaloacetate using NAD+ or NADP+ as a cofactor. Surprisingly, this enzyme has been extensively studied in eukaryotes but there are few reports about this enzyme in prokaryotes. It is necessary to review the relevant information to gain a better understanding of the function of this enzyme. Our review of the data generated from studies in bacteria shows much diversity in their molecular properties, including weight, oligomeric states, cofactor and substrate binding affinities, as well as differences in the direction of the enzymatic reaction. Furthermore, due to the importance of its function, the transcription and activity of this enzyme are rigorously regulated. Crystal structures of MDH from different bacterial sources led to the identification of the regions involved in substrate and cofactor binding and the residues important for the dimer-dimer interface. This structural information allows one to make direct modifications to improve the enzyme catalysis by increasing its activity, cofactor binding capacity, substrate specificity, and thermostability. A comparative analysis of the phylogenetic reconstruction of MDH reveals interesting facts about its evolutionary history, dividing this superfamily of proteins into two principle clades and establishing relationships between MDHs from different cellular compartments from archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes.

  3. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption. PMID:25900579

  4. Lid L11 of the glutamine amidotransferase domain of CTP synthase mediates allosteric GTP activation of glutaminase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoës, Martin; Mølgaard, Anne; Johansson, Eva; Martinussen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    , R359P and G360P also showed no GTP activation of the uncoupled glutaminase reaction whereas the G360A enzyme was about twofold more active than wild-type enzyme. The elevated K(A) for GTP and reduced GTP activation of CTP synthesis of the mutant enzymes are in agreement with a predicted interaction......GTP is an allosteric activator of CTP synthase and acts to increase the k(cat) for the glutamine-dependent CTP synthesis reaction. GTP is suggested, in part, to optimally orient the oxy-anion hole for hydrolysis of glutamine that takes place in the glutamine amidotransferase class I (GATase) domain...... position depending on the presence or absence of glutamine in the glutamine binding site. Displacement or rearrangement of this loop may provide a means for the suggested role of allosteric activation by GTP to optimize the oxy-anion hole for glutamine hydrolysis. Arg359, Gly360 and Glu362 of the...

  5. Arginase reciprocally regulates nitric oxide synthase activity and contributes to endothelial dysfunction in aging blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Dan E.; White, Ron; Li, Dechun; Minhas, Khalid M.; Cernetich, Amy; Kim, Soonyul; Burke, Sean; Shoukas, Artin A.; Nyhan, Daniel; Champion, Hunter C.; Hare, Joshua M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although abnormal L-arginine NO signaling contributes to endothelial dysfunction in the aging cardiovascular system, the biochemical mechanisms remain controversial. L-arginine, the NO synthase (NOS) precursor, is also a substrate for arginase. We tested the hypotheses that arginase reciprocally regulates NOS by modulating L-arginine bioavailability and that arginase is upregulated in aging vasculature, contributing to depressed endothelial function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inhibition of arginase with (S)-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine, HCl (BEC) produced vasodilation in aortic rings from young (Y) adult rats (maximum effect, 46.4+/-9.4% at 10(-5) mol/L, Pvessels to those of Y. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that arginase modulates NOS activity, likely by regulating intracellular L-arginine availability. Arginase upregulation contributes to endothelial dysfunction of aging and may therefore be a therapeutic target.

  6. Dual regulation of muscle glycogen synthase during exercise by activation and compartmentalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats, Clara; Helge, Jørn W; Nordby, Pernille; Qvortrup, Klaus; Ploug, Thorkil; Dela, Flemming; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen synthase (GS) is considered the rate-limiting enzyme in glycogenesis but still today there is a lack of understanding on its regulation. We have previously shown phosphorylation-dependent GS intracellular redistribution at the start of glycogen re-synthesis in rabbit skeletal muscle (Prats...... dephosphorylation at sites 2+2a, 3a, and 3a + 3b. Furthermore, we report the existence of several glycogen metabolism regulatory mechanisms based on GS intracellular compartmentalization. After exhausting exercise, epinephrine-induced protein kinase A activation leads to GS site 1b phosphorylation targeting the...... lateralis muscle of the previously reported mechanism of glycogen metabolism regulation in rabbit tibialis anterior muscle. After overnight low muscle glycogen level and/or in response to exhausting exercise-induced glycogenolysis, GS is associated with spherical structures at the I-band of sarcomeres....

  7. Mechanical Control of ATP Synthase Function: Activation Energy Difference between Tight and Loose Binding Sites

    KAUST Repository

    Beke-Somfai, Tamás

    2010-01-26

    Despite exhaustive chemical and crystal structure studies, the mechanistic details of how FoF1-ATP synthase can convert mechanical energy to chemical, producing ATP, are still not fully understood. On the basis of quantum mechanical calculations using a recent highresolution X-ray structure, we conclude that formation of the P-O bond may be achieved through a transition state (TS) with a planar PO3 - ion. Surprisingly, there is a more than 40 kJ/mol difference between barrier heights of the loose and tight binding sites of the enzyme. This indicates that even a relatively small change in active site conformation, induced by the γ-subunit rotation, may effectively block the back reaction in βTP and, thus, promote ATP. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  8. Substrate-bound structures of benzylsuccinate synthase reveal how toluene is activated in anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Michael A; Marsh, E Neil G; Drennan, Catherine L

    2015-09-11

    Various bacteria perform anaerobic degradation of small hydrocarbons as a source of energy and cellular carbon. To activate non-reactive hydrocarbons such as toluene, enzymes conjugate these molecules to fumarate in a radical-catalyzed, C-C bond-forming reaction. We have determined x-ray crystal structures of the glycyl radical enzyme that catalyzes the addition of toluene to fumarate, benzylsuccinate synthase (BSS), in two oligomeric states with fumarate alone or with both substrates. We find that fumarate is secured at the bottom of a long active site cavity with toluene bound directly above it. The two substrates adopt orientations that appear ideal for radical-mediated C-C bond formation; the methyl group of toluene is positioned between fumarate and a cysteine that forms a thiyl radical during catalysis, which is in turn adjacent to the glycine that serves as a radical storage residue. Toluene is held in place by fumarate on one face and tight packing by hydrophobic residues on the other face and sides. These hydrophobic residues appear to become ordered, thus encapsulating toluene, only in the presence of BSS?, a small protein subunit that forms a tight complex with BSS?, the catalytic subunit. Enzymes related to BSS are able to metabolize a wide range of hydrocarbons through attachment to fumarate. Using our structures as a guide, we have constructed homology models of several of these "X-succinate synthases" and determined conservation patterns that will be useful in understanding the basis for catalysis and specificity in this family of enzymes. PMID:26224635

  9. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on rabbit urinary bladder citrate synthase activity in the presence and absence of a grape suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Venugopal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The etiology of obstructive bladder dysfunction includes free radical damage to mitochondria. Feeding rabbits a standardized grape suspension protects the ability of the bladder to contract and empty in part by preventing mitochondrial damage, thus maintaining smooth muscle and mucosal metabolism. The objective of the current study is to determine the direct effect of this grape suspension on the response of mitochondria to the oxidative effects of hydrogen peroxide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six male rabbits were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and the bladders excised. Four full thickness strips were obtained for contractile studies and the balance separated into smooth muscle and mucosa compartments by blunt dissection. The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the contractile response to field stimulation was quantitated. Each tissue was homogenized and the effects of increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in the presence and absence of grape suspension on citrate synthase activity was determined. RESULTS: Citrate synthase activity was significantly higher in the mucosa than in the muscle. The grape suspension had no effect on control citrate synthase activity. However, the grape suspension provided significant protection of both smooth muscle and mucosal citrate synthase activity. CONCLUSIONS: These studies support the conclusion that the grape suspension provides direct protection of mitochondrial function.

  10. High-performance liquid chromatography method with radiochemical detection for measurement of nitric oxide synthase, arginase, and arginine decarboxylase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volke, A; Wegener, Gregers; Vasar, E; Volke, V

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide has been shown to be involved in numerous biological processes, and many studies have aimed to measure nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Recently, it has been demonstrated that arginase and arginine decarboxylase (ADC), two enzymes that also employ arginine as a substrate, may re...

  11. Regulation and activation of phytoene synthase, a key enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis, during photomorphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, R; Beyer, P; Hugueney, P; Kleinig, H; von Lintig, J

    2000-11-01

    During photomorphogenesis in higher plants, a coordinated increase occurs in the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. The carotenoid level is under phytochrome control, as reflected by the light regulation of the mRNA level of phytoene synthase (PSY), the first enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. We investigated PSY protein levels, enzymatic activity and topological localization during photomorphogenesis. The results revealed that PSY protein levels and enzymatic activity increase during de-etiolation and that the enzyme is localized at thylakoid membranes in mature chloroplasts. However, under certain light conditions (e.g., far-red light) the increases in PSY mRNA and protein levels are not accompanied by an increase in enzymatic activity. Under those conditions, PSY is localized in the prolamellar body fraction in a mostly enzymatically inactive form. Subsequent illumination of dark-grown and/or in far-red light grown seedlings with white light causes the decay of these structures and a topological relocalization of PSY to developing thylakolds which results in its enzymatic activation. This light-dependent mechanism of enzymatic activation of PSY in carotenoid biosynthesis shares common features with the regulation of the NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase, the first light-regulated enzyme in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The mechanism of regulation described here may contribute to ensuring a spatially and temporally coordinated increase in both carotenoid and chlorophyll contents. PMID:11144270

  12. Rapid Detection of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in Mouse Sperm Using Fluorescent Gel Shift Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseok Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Assaying the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3 activity in sperm is of great importance because it is closely implicated in sperm motility and male infertility. While a number of studies on GSK3 activity have relied on labor-intensive immunoblotting to identify phosphorylated GSK3, here we report the simple and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in mouse sperm using conventional agarose gel electrophoresis and a fluorescent peptide substrate. When a dye-tethered and prephosphorylated (primed peptide substrate for GSK3 was employed, a distinct mobility shift in the fluorescent bands on the agarose was observed by GSK3-induced phosphorylation of the primed peptides. The GSK3 activity in mouse testes and sperm were quantifiable by gel shift assay with low sample consumption and were significantly correlated with the expression levels of GSK3 and p-GSK3. We suggest that our assay can be used for reliable and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in cells and tissue extracts.

  13. A novel electron paramagnetic resonance-based assay for prostaglandin H synthase-1 activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Adriano G

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostaglandin H2 synthase (PGHS is the enzyme that catalyses the two-stage conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2 prior to formation of prostanoids that are important in inflammation. PGHS isozymes (-1 and -2 are the target for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Given the rekindled interest in specific anti-inflammatory PGHS inhibitors with reduced unwanted side effects, it is of paramount importance that there are reliable and efficient techniques to test new inhibitors. Here, we describe a novel in vitro electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR-based assay for measuring the activity of PGHS-1. Methods We validated a novel in vitro PGHS-1 activity assay based on the oxidation of spin-trap agent, 1-hydroxy-3-carboxy-pyrrolidine (CPH to 3-carboxy-proxy (CP under the action of the peroxidase element of PGHS-1. This quantifiable spin-adduct, CP, yields a characteristic 3-line electron paramagnetic (EPR spectrum. Results The assay is simple, reproducible and facilitates rapid screening of inhibitors of PGHS-1. Aspirin (100 ?M, 1 mM caused significant inhibition of spin-adduct formation (72 11 and 100 16% inhibition of control respectively; P 0.05. Conclusion We have demonstrated and validated a simple, reproducible, quick and specific assay for detecting PGHS-1 activity and inhibition. The EPR-based assay described represents a novel approach to measuring PGHS activity and provides a viable and competitive alternative to existing assays.

  14. A natural mutation-led truncation in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes at the Ma locus is associated with low fruit acidity in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Li, Mingjun; Fazio, Gennaro; Cheng, Lailiang; Xu, Kenong

    2012-08-01

    Acidity levels greatly affect the taste and flavor of fruit, and consequently its market value. In mature apple fruit, malic acid is the predominant organic acid. Several studies have confirmed that the major quantitative trait locus Ma largely controls the variation of fruit acidity levels. The Ma locus has recently been defined in a region of 150 kb that contains 44 predicted genes on chromosome 16 in the Golden Delicious genome. In this study, we identified two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes, designated Ma1 and Ma2, as strong candidates of Ma by narrowing down the Ma locus to 65-82 kb containing 12-19 predicted genes depending on the haplotypes. The Ma haplotypes were determined by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosome clones from G.41 (an apple rootstock of genotype Mama) that cover the two distinct haplotypes at the Ma locus. Gene expression profiling in 18 apple germplasm accessions suggested that Ma1 is the major determinant at the Ma locus controlling fruit acidity as Ma1 is expressed at a much higher level than Ma2 and the Ma1 expression is significantly correlated with fruit titratable acidity (R (2) = 0.4543, P = 0.0021). In the coding sequences of low acidity alleles of Ma1 and Ma2, sequence variations at the amino acid level between Golden Delicious and G.41 were not detected. But the alleles for high acidity vary considerably between the two genotypes. The low acidity allele of Ma1, Ma1-1455A, is mainly characterized by a mutation at base 1455 in the open reading frame. The mutation leads to a premature stop codon that truncates the carboxyl terminus of Ma1-1455A by 84 amino acids compared with Ma1-1455G. A survey of 29 apple germplasm accessions using marker CAPS(1455) that targets the SNP(1455) in Ma1 showed that the CAPS(1455A) allele was associated completely with high pH and highly with low titratable acidity, suggesting that the natural mutation-led truncation is most likely responsible for the abolished function of Ma for low pH or high acidity in apple. PMID:22806345

  15. Identification of the first Oomycete annexin as a (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan synthase activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenzana, Jamel; Pelosi, Ludovic; Briolay, Anne; Briolay, Jrme; Bulone, Vincent

    2006-10-01

    (1-->3)-beta-D-Glucans are major components of the cell walls of Oomycetes and as such they play an essential role in the morphogenesis and growth of these microorganisms. Despite the biological importance of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, their mechanisms of biosynthesis are poorly understood. Previous studies on (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan synthases from Saprolegnia monoica have shown that three protein bands of an apparent molecular weight of 34, 48 and 50 kDa co-purify with enzyme activity. However, none of the corresponding proteins have been identified. Here we have identified, purified, sequenced and characterized a protein from the 34 kDa band and clearly shown that it has all the biochemical properties of proteins from the annexin family. In addition, we have unequivocally demonstrated that the purified protein is an activator of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan synthase. This represents a new type of function for proteins belonging to the annexin family. Two other proteins from the 48 and 50 kDa bands were identified as ATP synthase subunits, which most likely arise from contaminations by mitochondria during membrane preparation. The results, which are discussed in relation with the possible regulation mechanisms of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan synthases, represent a first step towards a better understanding of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis in Oomycetes. PMID:16978258

  16. Production of functionally active Penicillium chrysogenum isopenicillin N synthase in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veenhuis Marten

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-Lactams like penicillin and cephalosporin are among the oldest known antibiotics used against bacterial infections. Industrially, penicillin is produced by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. Our goal is to introduce the entire penicillin biosynthesis pathway into the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Yeast species have the advantage of being versatile, easy to handle and cultivate, and possess superior fermentation properties relative to filamentous fungi. One of the fundamental challenges is to produce functionally active enzyme in H. polymorpha. Results The P. chrysogenum pcbC gene encoding isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS was successfully expressed in H. polymorpha, but the protein produced was unstable and inactive when the host was grown at its optimal growth temperature (37°C. Heterologously produced IPNS protein levels were enhanced when the cultivation temperature was lowered to either 25°C or 30°C. Furthermore, IPNS produced at these lower cultivation temperatures was functionally active. Localization experiments demonstrated that, like in P. chrysogenum, in H. polymorpha IPNS is located in the cytosol. Conclusion In P. chrysogenum, the enzymes involved in penicillin production are compartmentalized in the cytosol and in microbodies. In this study, we focus on the cytosolic enzyme IPNS. Our data show that high amounts of functionally active IPNS enzyme can be produced in the heterologous host during cultivation at 25°C, the optimal growth temperature for P. chrysogenum. This is a new step forward in the metabolic reprogramming of H. polymorpha to produce penicillin.

  17. Photo-control of nitric oxide synthase activity using a caged isoform specific inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Heather J; Perdicakis, Basil; Fishlock, Dan; Lajoie, Gilles A; Jervis, Eric; Guy Guillemette, J

    2002-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in a number of physiological processes and is produced in mammalian cells by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isozymes. Because of the diverse functions of NO, pharmaceutical interventions which seek to abrogate adverse effects of excess NOS activity must not interfere with the normal regulation of NO levels in the body. A method has been developed for the control of NOS enzyme activity using the localized photochemical release of a caged isoform-specific NOS inhibitor. The caged form of an iNOS inhibitor has been synthesized and tested for photosensitivity and potency. UV and multiphoton uncaging were verified using a hemoglobin-based assay. IC(50) values were determined for the inhibitor (70+/-11 nM), the caged inhibitor (1098+/-172 nM), the UV uncaged inhibitor (67+/-26 nM) and the multiphoton uncaged inhibitor (73+/-11 nM). UV irradiation of the caged inhibitor resulted in a 86% reduction in iNOS activity after 5 min. Multiphoton uncaging had an apparent first order time constant of 0.007+/-0.001 min(-1). A therapeutic range exists, with molar excess of inhibitor to enzyme from 3- to 7-fold, over which the full dynamic range of the inhibition can be exploited. PMID:11937350

  18. Inactivation of highly activated spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase by dephosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) can be phosphorylated and inactivated in vitro with [γ-32P]ATP. Thus, it was surprising to find that SPS, extracted from leaves fed mannose in the light to highly activate the enzyme, could be inactivated in an ATP-independent manner when desalted crude extracts were preincubated at 25 degrees C before assay. The spontaneous inactivation involved a loss in activity measured with limiting substrate concentrations in the presence of the inhibitor, Pi, without affecting maximum catalytic activity. The spontaneous inactivation was unaffected by exogenous carrier proteins and protease inhibitors, but was inhibited by inorganic phosphate, fluoride, and molybdate, suggesting that a phosphatase may be involved. Okadaic acid, a potent inhibitor of mammalian type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases, had no effect up to 5 micromolar. Inactivation was stimulated about twofold by exogenous Mg2+ and was relatively insensitive to Ca2+ and to pH over the range pH 6.5 to 8.5. Radioactive phosphate incorporated into SPS during labeling of excised leaves with [32P]Pi (initially in the dark and then in the light with mannose) was lost with time when desalted crude extracts were incubated at 25 C, and the loss in radiolabel was substantially reduced by fluoride. These results provide direct evidence for action of an endogenous phosphatase(s) using SPS as substrate

  19. Antioxidant and nitric oxide synthase activation properties of water soluble polysaccharides from Pleurotus florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subarna Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several diseases, and, at the same time, nitric oxide is recognized as an important messenger molecule for several pathophysiological conditions. Hence, a novel antioxidant and nitric oxide synthase (NOS activator from natural sources have significant importance in human health. Aims: The present study was conducted to evaluate the free radical-scavenging activity and NOS activation properties of water-soluble crude polysaccharide (Floridan from Pleurotus florida. Materials and Methods: Crude polysaccharide was precipitated from hot water extract of P. florida, and their physicochemical parameters were determined. Then, α and β glucan were estimated using mushroom and yeast β glucan assay kit and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Floridan was analyzed for their free radical scavenging activity in different test systems, namely hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion chelating ability, determination of reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Floridan was also tested for NOS activation using oxyhaemoglobin method. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically analyzed using the Student′s t-test. Results: Results showed that Floridan was rich in water-soluble β glucan with very low amount of protein and phenols. The EC 50 for hydroxyl and superoxide radical-scavenging activity were 140 and 320 μg/ml, respectively, 450 μg/ml for chelating ability, 300 μg/ml for inhibition of lipid peroxidation and 2 mg/ml for reducing power. Floridan also increased nitric oxide production significantly. Conclusions: The present results revealed that this mushroom polysaccharide may be utilized as a promising dietary supplement to combat several killer diseases.

  20. The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne Bjerre; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity and......, synthase, human, skeletal, muscle, training, not electrical stimulation, not in-vitro, not rats. Studies that reported changes in CS activity and V.O2max were included. Different training types and subject populations were analyzed independently to assess correlation between relative changes in V.O2max and.......4). Training induced changes in whole body oxidative capacity is matched by changes in muscle CS activity in a nearly 1:1 relationship. Absolute values of CS across different studies cannot be compared unless a standardized analytical method is used by all laboratories...

  1. Materials and methods for efficient succinate and malate production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantama, Kaemwich; Haupt, Mark John; Zhang, Xueli; Moore, Jonathan C; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    2014-04-08

    Genetically engineered microorganisms have been constructed to produce succinate and malate in mineral salt media in pH-controlled batch fermentations without the addition of plasmids or foreign genes. The subject invention also provides methods of producing succinate and malate comprising the culture of genetically modified microorganisms.

  2. Nitric oxide synthase activity in human trophoblast, term placenta and pregnant myometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurini Ricardo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate the possible role of nitric oxide (NO produced locally or intramurally in the quiescence of the pregnant myometrium, nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity was measured in samples from first trimester (villous, and non villous-trophoblast, term placenta and pregnant myometrium. Trophoblast tissue was obtained from psychosocial termination of pregnancy (9 12 weeks' gestation whereas placenta and myometrium, from the same patient, at deliveries by Caesarean section. NOS activity was measured in both cytosolic and particulate fractions by the formation of 14C-citrulline from 14C-arginine. Western immunoblotting was used to identify the endothelial NOS (eNOS and neuronal (nNOS isoforms. The activity of NOS in particulate fractions from all preparations was considerably higher than the cytosolic fractions. Activity in all fractions except the myometrium was highly Ca-dependent. More than 50% of particulate NOS from the myometrium was Ca-independent. NOS activity was highest in the villous trophoblast and there was a significant difference between the villous and non-villous trophoblast. In placenta and myometrium, NOS was 24 fold and 2028-fold lower than the villous trophoblast, respectively. Western blot analysis showed clearly eNOS in the particulate fraction and a weak eNOS band in the cytosolic fractions, whereas nNOS was not detectable in any of the fractions. In view of the marginal activity of NOS in the myometrium, NO produced by the trophoblast and placenta could play a significant role in maintaining uterine quiescence by paracrine effect.

  3. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III Overexpression By Gene Therapy Exerts Antitumoral Activity In Mouse Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl González

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma develops in cirrhotic liver. The nitric oxide (NO synthase type III (NOS-3 overexpression induces cell death in hepatoma cells. The study developed gene therapy designed to specifically overexpress NOS-3 in cultured hepatoma cells, and in tumors derived from orthotopically implanted tumor cells in fibrotic livers. Liver fibrosis was induced by CCl4 administration in mice. Hepa 1-6 cells were used for in vitro and in vivo experiments. The first generation adenovirus was designed to overexpress NOS-3 (or GFP and luciferase cDNA under the regulation of murine alpha-fetoprotein (AFP and Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV promoters, respectively. Both adenoviruses were administered through the tail vein two weeks after orthotopic tumor cell implantation. AFP-NOS-3/RSV-Luciferase increased oxidative-related DNA damage, p53, CD95/CD95L expression and caspase-8 activity in cultured Hepa 1-6 cells. The increased expression of CD95/CD95L and caspase-8 activity was abolished by l-NAME or p53 siRNA. The tail vein infusion of AFP-NOS- 3/RSV-Luciferase adenovirus increased cell death markers, and reduced cell proliferation of established tumors in fibrotic livers. The increase of oxidative/nitrosative stress induced by NOS-3 overexpression induced DNA damage, p53, CD95/CD95L expression and cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The effectiveness of the gene therapy has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Cytochrome c oxidase deficiency accelerates mitochondrial apoptosis by activating ceramide synthase 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schll, S; Gnther, S D; Brodesser, S; Seeger, J M; Tosetti, B; Wiegmann, K; Pongratz, C; Diaz, F; Witt, A; Andree, M; Brinkmann, K; Krnke, M; Wiesner, R J; Kashkar, H

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous pathogenic changes within the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) have been associated with an elevated occurrence of apoptosis within the affected tissues, the mechanistic insight into how mitochondrial dysfunction initiates apoptotic cell death is still unknown. In this study, we show that the specific alteration of the cytochrome c oxidase (COX), representing a common defect found in mitochondrial diseases, facilitates mitochondrial apoptosis in response to oxidative stress. Our data identified an increased ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6) activity as an important pro-apoptotic response to COX dysfunction induced either by chemical or genetic approaches. The elevated CerS6 activity resulted in accumulation of the pro-apoptotic C16?:?0 ceramide, which facilitates the mitochondrial apoptosis in response to oxidative stress. Accordingly, inhibition of CerS6 or its specific knockdown diminished the increased susceptibility of COX-deficient cells to oxidative stress. Our results provide new insights into how mitochondrial RC dysfunction mechanistically interferes with the apoptotic machinery. On the basis of its pivotal role in regulating cell death upon COX dysfunction, CerS6 might potentially represent a novel target for therapeutic intervention in mitochondrial diseases caused by COX dysfunction. PMID:25766330

  5. UDP-[14C]glucose-labelable polypeptides from pea: Possible components of glucan synthase I activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A membrane-bound polypeptide doublet of about 40 kD can be rapidly labeled with UDP-[14C]glucose under the assay conditions for glucan synthase I (GS-I). Label seems covalently bound, and chases when unlabeled UDPG is added; it might represent a covalent intermediate in polysaccharide synthesis. Labeling and GS-I activity show several common features: they co-sediment with Golgi membranes in sucrose gradients; they depend similarly on Mg2+ or Mn2+ (not Ca2+); they decrease dramatically from stem apex to base, and are higher in epidermis than internal tissue; they show similar sensitivities to several inhibitors. But the doublet still labels after polysaccharide-synthesizing activity has been destroyed by Triton X-100. The doublet polypeptides might be glucosyl tranferases whose ability to transfer glucose units to a glucan chain is detergent-sensitive, but to accept glucose from UDPG is not; or they might be detergent-insensitive primary glucose acceptors, from which a distinct, detergent-sensitive transferase(s) move(s) these units to glucan chains

  6. Cytochrome c oxidase deficiency accelerates mitochondrial apoptosis by activating ceramide synthase 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüll, S; Günther, S D; Brodesser, S; Seeger, J M; Tosetti, B; Wiegmann, K; Pongratz, C; Diaz, F; Witt, A; Andree, M; Brinkmann, K; Krönke, M; Wiesner, R J; Kashkar, H

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous pathogenic changes within the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) have been associated with an elevated occurrence of apoptosis within the affected tissues, the mechanistic insight into how mitochondrial dysfunction initiates apoptotic cell death is still unknown. In this study, we show that the specific alteration of the cytochrome c oxidase (COX), representing a common defect found in mitochondrial diseases, facilitates mitochondrial apoptosis in response to oxidative stress. Our data identified an increased ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6) activity as an important pro-apoptotic response to COX dysfunction induced either by chemical or genetic approaches. The elevated CerS6 activity resulted in accumulation of the pro-apoptotic C16 : 0 ceramide, which facilitates the mitochondrial apoptosis in response to oxidative stress. Accordingly, inhibition of CerS6 or its specific knockdown diminished the increased susceptibility of COX-deficient cells to oxidative stress. Our results provide new insights into how mitochondrial RC dysfunction mechanistically interferes with the apoptotic machinery. On the basis of its pivotal role in regulating cell death upon COX dysfunction, CerS6 might potentially represent a novel target for therapeutic intervention in mitochondrial diseases caused by COX dysfunction. PMID:25766330

  7. Chronic hyperammonemia induces tonic activation of NMDA receptors in cerebellum leading to a decrease of neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Ahabrach

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Impaired function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway contributes to cognitive impairment in hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy. The mechanisms by which hyperammonemia impairs this pathway remain unclear. Understanding these mechanisms would allow designing clinical treatments for cognitive deficits in hepatic encephalopathy. The aims of this work were: 1- to assess whether chronic hyperammonemia in vivo alters basal activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS in cerebellum and/or its activation in response to NMDA receptor activation; 2- to analyse the molecular mechanisms by which hyperammonemia induces these alterations; 3- to investigate whether tonic NMDA activation is increased in cerebellum in chronic hyperammonemia in vivo, and 4- whether this tonic activation is responsible for nNOS alterations in cerebellum. The findings show that hyperammonemia reduces both basal activity of nNOS and its activation following NMDA receptor activation. Reduced basal activity is due to increased phosphorylation of Ser847 by calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKII, which in turn is due to increased phosphorylation of Thr286. Inhibiting CaMKII, with KN-62 normalizes phosphorylation of Ser847 and basal NOS activity in hyperammonemic rats, leading to values similar to controls. Reduced activation of nNOS in response to NMDA receptor activation in hyperammonemia is due to altered subcellular localization of nNOS, with reduced amount in post-synaptic membranes and increased amount in the cytosol. Blocking NMDA receptors with MK-801 increases cGMP and NO metabolites in cerebellum in vivo and in slices from hyperammonemic rats, reduces phosphorylation and activity of CaMKII and normalizes nNOS phosphorylation and activity. MK-801 also increases nNOS in synaptic membranes and reduces it in cytosol. This indicates that hyperammonemia increases tonic activation of NMDA receptors leading to reduced activity of nNOS and of the glutamate NO cGMP pathway.

  8. Plastidial NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase is critical for embryo development and heterotrophic metabolism in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Seraina; Liu, Hung-Chi; Stadler, Martha; Schreier, Tina; Eicke, Simona; Lue, Wei-Ling; Truernit, Elisabeth; Zeeman, Samuel C; Chen, Jychian; Ktting, Oliver

    2014-03-01

    In illuminated chloroplasts, one mechanism involved in reduction-oxidation (redox) homeostasis is the malate-oxaloacetate (OAA) shuttle. Excess electrons from photosynthetic electron transport in the form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced are used by NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH) to reduce OAA to malate, thus regenerating the electron acceptor NADP. NADP-MDH is a strictly redox-regulated, light-activated enzyme that is inactive in the dark. In the dark or in nonphotosynthetic tissues, the malate-OAA shuttle was proposed to be mediated by the constitutively active plastidial NAD-specific MDH isoform (pdNAD-MDH), but evidence is scarce. Here, we reveal the critical role of pdNAD-MDH in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. A pdnad-mdh null mutation is embryo lethal. Plants with reduced pdNAD-MDH levels by means of artificial microRNA (miR-mdh-1) are viable, but dark metabolism is altered as reflected by increased nighttime malate, starch, and glutathione levels and a reduced respiration rate. In addition, miR-mdh-1 plants exhibit strong pleiotropic effects, including dwarfism, reductions in chlorophyll levels, photosynthetic rate, and daytime carbohydrate levels, and disordered chloroplast ultrastructure, particularly in developing leaves, compared with the wild type. pdNAD-MDH deficiency in miR-mdh-1 can be functionally complemented by expression of a microRNA-insensitive pdNAD-MDH but not NADP-MDH, confirming distinct roles for NAD- and NADP-linked redox homeostasis. PMID:24453164

  9. Quinazoline thymidylate synthase inhibitors: methods for assessing the contribution of polyglutamation to their in vitro activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, A L; Kimbell, R; Brown, M; Brunton, L; Boyle, F T

    1995-10-01

    Many quinazoline thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitors undergo intracellular metabolism to polyglutamate forms which can significantly alter their activity and pharmacodynamics through improved TS inhibition and drug retention. When a series of quinazolines was tested for inhibitory activity towards TS (IC50 0.001-2 microM) and the growth of L1210 cells (IC50 0.005-10 microM), no direct correlation was observed. However, a very good correlation was apparent if a L1210 variant cell line (L1210: RD1694) was used. This line is deficient in its ability to form antifolate polyglutamates. A number of other intact cell methods have also been developed which estimate the contribution that intracellular polyglutamation makes to a compound's activity. These assays were validated using a series of quinazoline-based TS inhibitors with well-defined activity for TS, folypolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) and the reduced-folate cell membrane carrier (RFC). Short-exposure growth-inhibition assays or the measurement of TS activity in situ after various incubation times, followed by different lengths of time in drug-free medium, can indicate both the speed and extent of appearance of retentive forms (usually polyglutamates). Continuous-exposure growth-inhibition assays, in the presence of leucovorin (LV), are also useful, since only the growth-inhibitory potency of polyglutamated analogues is significantly decreased by LV. Highly polyglutamated compounds, e.g. ZD1694, are virtually inactive in the presence of a high concentration of LV. It is proposed that these methods, when considered together, provide a greater degree of information concerning the rate and extent of polyglutamation of a particular compound than isolated FPGS assays alone. PMID:7495479

  10. Comparison of inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in pancreatic islets of young and aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhfall, Khadije; Hashtroudi, Mehri Seyed; Ghasemi, Asghar; Mehrani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Some pathologic situations such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome are associated with alternation in nitric oxide level. Incidence of these condition increases with aging. On the other hand, insulin secretion is modulated by nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity is also altered in diabetes. In this study, modification in the enzyme activity associated with aging and also optimized procedure for islet NOS assay was investigated. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided in two experimental groups: A: adult rats; were 4 month old and B: old rats; were 12 month old. In all groups, plasma glucose, insulin and NOX (nitrite + nitrate = NOX) were measured, and also insulin secretion in isolated pancreatic islet with or without L-NAME was investigated. Furthermore, the inducible NOS activity with L-citrulline measurement in islets was measured. Results: L-citrulline was quantified using one step HPLC column. Aging induced hyperglycemia (P<0.05) and excess plasma NOX (17.74 1.664 and 26.25 2.166 ?mol/l in A and B groups respectively, P<0.05) with unaltered plasma insulin. Islet insulin secretion was significantly reduced in aging rats. L-NAME induced islet insulin secretion especially in aging rats (P=0.003). Inducible NOS activity in islets of aging rats was significantly higher than adult rats (1.082 0.084 and 6.277 0.475 pmol/min per mg protein in adult and aging rats, respectively, P<0.001). Conclusion: These findings show that decreased in islet insulin secretion may be related to increase in iNOS activity in islets, which follows impaired carbohydrate metabolism in aging. PMID:25810884

  11. Methylmercury intoxication activates nitric oxide synthase in chick retinal cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herculano A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The visual system is a potential target for methylmercury (MeHg intoxication. Nevertheless, there are few studies about the cellular mechanisms of toxicity induced by MeHg in retinal cells. Various reports have indicated a critical role for nitric oxide synthase (NOS activation in modulating MeHg neurotoxicity in cerebellar and cortical regions. The aim of the present study is to describe the effects of MeHg on cell viability and NOS activation in chick retinal cell cultures. For this purpose, primary cultures were prepared from 7-day-old chick embryos: retinas were aseptically dissected and dissociated and cells were grown at 37ºC for 7-8 days. Cultures were exposed to MeHg (10 µM, 100 µM, and 1 mM for 2, 4, and 6 h. Cell viability was measured by MTT method and NOS activity by monitoring the conversion of L-[H³]-arginine to L-[H³]-citrulline. The incubation of cultured retina cells with 10 and 100 µM MeHg promoted an increase of NOS activity compared to control (P < 0.05. Maximum values (P < 0.05 were reached after 4 h of MeHg incubation: increases of 81.6 ± 5.3 and 91.3 ± 3.7%, respectively (data are reported as mean ± SEM for 4 replicates. MeHg also promoted a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability, with the highest toxicity (a reduction of about 80% in cell viability being observed at the concentration of 1 mM and after 4-6 h of incubation. The present study demonstrates for the first time the modulation of MeHg neurotoxicity in retinal cells by the nitrergic system.

  12. Rhodobacter capsulatus porphobilinogen synthase, a high activity metal ion independent hexamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairman Robert

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzyme porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS, which is central to the biosynthesis of heme, chlorophyll and cobalamins, has long been known to use a variety of metal ions and has recently been shown able to exist in two very different quaternary forms that are related to metal ion usage. This paper reports new information on the metal ion independence and quaternary structure of PBGS from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. Results The gene for R. capsulatus PBGS was amplified from genomic DNA and sequencing revealed errors in the sequence database. R. capsulatus PBGS was heterologously expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. Analysis of an unusual phylogenetic variation in metal ion usage by PBGS enzymes predicts that R. capsulatus PBGS does not utilize metal ions such as Zn2+, or Mg2+, which have been shown to act in other PBGS at either catalytic or allosteric sites. Studies with these ions and chelators confirm the predictions. A broad pH optimum was determined to be independent of monovalent cations, approximately 8.5, and the Km value shows an acidic pKa of ~6. Because the metal ions of other PBGS affect the quaternary structure, gel permeation chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments were performed to examine the quaternary structure of metal ion independent R. capsulatus PBGS. The enzyme was found to be predominantly hexameric, in contrast with most other PBGS, which are octameric. A protein concentration dependence to the specific activity suggests that the hexameric R. capsulatus PBGS is very active and can dissociate to smaller, less active, species. A homology model of hexameric R. capsulatus PBGS is presented and discussed. Conclusion The evidence presented in this paper supports the unusual position of the R. capsulatus PBGS as not requiring any metal ions for function. Unlike other wild-type PBGS, the R. capsulatus protein is a hexamer with an unusually high specific activity when compared to other octameric PBGS proteins.

  13. Distinct parts of leukotriene C4 synthase interact with 5-lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase activating protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leukotriene C4 is a potent inflammatory mediator formed from arachidonic acid and glutathione. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) and leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S) participate in its biosynthesis. We report evidence that LTC4S interacts in vitro with both FLAP and 5-LO and that these interactions involve distinct parts of LTC4S. FLAP bound to the N-terminal part/first hydrophobic region of LTC4S. This part did not bind 5-LO which bound to the second hydrophilic loop of LTC4S. Fluorescent FLAP- and LTC4S-fusion proteins co-localized at the nuclear envelope. Furthermore, GFP-FLAP and GFP-LTC4S co-localized with a fluorescent ER marker. In resting HEK293/T or COS-7 cells GFP-5-LO was found mainly in the nuclear matrix. Upon stimulation with calcium ionophore, GFP-5-LO translocated to the nuclear envelope allowing it to interact with FLAP and LTC4S. Direct interaction of 5-LO and LTC4S in ionophore-stimulated (but not un-stimulated) cells was demonstrated by BRET using GFP-5-LO and Rluc-LTC4S.

  14. Elicitor-mediated induction of tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase activities in cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilert, U; De Luca, V; Constabel, F; Kurz, W G

    1987-05-01

    Treatment of one cell line (No. 615) of Catharanthus roseus c.v. Little Delicata with an elicitor preparation of autoclaved and homogenized Pythium aphanidermatum culture resulted in rapid accumulation of indole alkaloids. Alkaloid formation was preceded by rapid transient increases in the extractable activities of the enzymes tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase. The induction of these two enzyme activities occurred when cells were transferred to alkaloid production medium or treatment with fungal elicitors. Treatment of this cell line with translational or transcriptional inhibitors prevented the Pythium-induced increases of enzyme activity as well as alkaloid accumulation. When cells were transferred to alkaloid production medium the induction of strictosidine synthase activity preceded that of tryptophan decarboxylase by many hours even when cells were also treated with Pythium elicitor. Results suggested that tryptophan decarboxylase induction proceeds only when endogenous tryptamine levels were decreased by two-third. The internal cellular level of tryptamine, therefore, could regulate expression of tryptophan decarboxylase, whereas induction of strictosidine synthase or of another enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway could control channeling of tryptamine into alkaloids. The results demonstrate that fungal elicitors can be used to facilitate studies of the factors which regulate expression of indole alkaloid pathway enzymes and their ultimate pathway products. PMID:3579315

  15. Effects of olive oil polyphenols on fatty acid synthase gene expression and activity in human colorectal cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Notarnicola, Maria; Pisanti, Simona; Tutino, Valeria; Bocale, Domenica; Rotelli, Maria Teresa; Gentile, Antonio; Memeo, Vincenzo; Bifulco, Maurizio; Perri, Enzo; Caruso, Maria Gabriella

    2010-01-01

    Oleuropein (OL) and hydroxytyrosol (HT), the main olive oil polyphenols, possess anti-proliferative effects in vitro. Fatty acid synthase, a key anabolic enzyme of biosynthesis of fatty acids, plays an important role in colon carcinoma development. Our aim was to investigate whether gene expression of FAS, as well as its enzymatic activity, is regulated by HT and OL in two human colon cancer cell lines, as HT-29 and SW620. In addition, we investigated the effects of these polyphenols on growt...

  16. Photosynthetic Adaptation to Length of Day Is Dependent on S-Sulfocysteine Synthase Activity in the Thylakoid Lumen1[W

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez, María Ángeles; Galmés, Jeroni; Moreno, Inmaculada; Mullineaux, Philip M.; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C.

    2012-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) chloroplasts contain two O-acetyl-serine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) homologs, OAS-B, which is an authentic OASTL, and CS26, which has S-sulfocysteine synthase activity. In contrast with OAS-B, the loss of CS26 function resulted in dramatic phenotypic changes, which were dependent on the light treatment. We have performed a detailed characterization of the photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in cs26 plants compared with those of wild-type plants u...

  17. Rational Improvement of Simvastatin Synthase Solubility in Escherichia coli Leads to Higher Whole-cell Biocatalytic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xinkai; Pashkov, Inna; Gao, Xue; Guerrero, Jennifer L.; Yeates, Todd O; Tang, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Simvastatin is the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the blockbuster cholesterol lowering drug Zocor. We have previously developed an Escherichia coli based whole-cell biocatalytic platform towards the synthesis of simvastatin sodium salt (SS) starting from the precursor monacolin J sodium salt (MJSS). The centerpiece of the biocatalytic approach is the simvastatin synthase LovD, which is highly prone to misfolding and aggregation when overexpressed from E. coli. Increasing the solubility o...

  18. Malate dehydrogenases from actinomycetes: structural comparison of Thermoactinomyces enzyme with other actinomycete and Bacillus enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, K.; Sundaram, T K; Kernick, M

    1984-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenases from bacteria belonging to the genus Thermoactinomyces are tetrameric, like those from Bacillus spp., and exhibit a high degree of structural homology to Bacillus malate dehydrogenase as judged by immunological cross-reactivity. Malate dehydrogenases from other actinomycetes are dimers and do not cross-react with antibodies to Bacillus malate dehydrogenase.

  19. NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE ACTIVITY AND PEROXYNITRITE CONTENT IN CELLS OF RAT’S MUCOUS COAT OF STOMACH UNDER EXPERIMENTAL STRESS-INDUCED ULCER

    OpenAIRE

    I. S. Maksymovych; M. V. Mylenko; O. V. Drobinska; L.I. Ostapchenko

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase activity in gastric mucosal cells as well as peroxynitrite generation in experimental stress-induced gastric ulcer formation in rats were studied. There was made the conclusion that nitric oxide synthase activity is growing during the stress. It causes increasing of peroxynitrite’ production and ulcer formation. It was established that destructive gastric mucosal damages depend on stress’ duration. It was determined that nitric oxide is involved in complex pathogenetic m...

  20. Glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors sensitise CLL cells to cytotoxic agents without reversing P-gp functional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Gareth; Butters, Terry D; Ganeshaguru, Kanagasabai; Mehta, Atul B

    2009-05-01

    Malignant B-cells from most chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients over-express MDR1 encoded P-glycoprotein (P-gp) multidrug efflux pump. Inhibition of glucosylceramide (GC) synthesis has been shown in cell lines to correlate with the expression and function of P-gp and sensitise cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. We investigated the hypothesis that reducing intracellular GC levels will reduce P-gp expression in malignant cells from CLL patients. We studied the ability of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitors N-butyl-deoxygalactonojirimycin (OGB-1) and N-nonyl-deoxygalactonojirimycin (OGB-2) to sensitise CLL cells to conventional cytotoxic drug 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (CdA) and the cytostatic drugs chlorambucil and fludarabine. The effect on P-gp activity was analysed using the calcein-AM accumulation assay where a multidrug activity factor (MAF) of >10 in the presence of a P-gp inhibitor denotes P-gp functional activity. The P-gp over-expressing cell line CEM-VLB showed a MAF value of 96.4 with the P-gp inhibitor Z.3HCL, which fell to 15.7 after co-incubation with OGB-1 and 45.9 with OGB-2. The IC(50) for vincristine fell from >10 microg/ml to 55.5 ng/ml in the presence of OGB-2. In P-gp(+ve) peripheral blood mononuclear cells from three normal volunteers, the mean MAF values for Z.3HCL, OGB-1 and OGB-2 were 23.86, 1.83 and 16.2 respectively. In 9/13 CLL samples the mean P-gp functional activity was 22.15 and P-gp was over-expressed in 12/13 samples. However, the MAF value with OGB-1 and OGB-2 was <10. Nevertheless, sensitisation in CLL cells was observed by a reduction in the IC(50) in the presence of OGB-1 and OGB-2 with the conventional drugs. We conclude that although GCS inhibitors sensitize CLL cells to cytotoxic and cytostatic drugs, they do not appear to have any effect on P-gp functional activity. PMID:19285492

  1. Substrate interaction dynamics and oxygen control in the active site of thymidylate synthase ThyX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Hubert F; Djaout, Kamel; Lamarre, Isabelle; Ulmer, Jonathan E; Schaming, Delphine; Balland, Véronique; Liebl, Ursula; Myllykallio, Hannu; Vos, Marten H

    2014-04-01

    Thymidylate synthase ThyX, required for DNA synthesis in many pathogenic bacteria, is considered a promising antimicrobial target. It binds FAD and three substrates, producing dTMP (2'-deoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate) from dUMP (2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate). However, ThyX proteins also act as NADPH oxidase by reacting directly with O2. In the present study we investigated the dynamic interplay between the substrates and their role in competing with this wasteful and potentially harmful oxidase reaction in catalytically efficient ThyX from Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus-1. dUMP binding accelerates the O2-insensitive half-reaction between NADPH and FAD by over four orders of magnitude to ~30 s-1. Thus, although dUMP does not have a direct role in FAD reduction, any turnover with molecular O2 requires its presence. Inversely, NADPH accommodation accelerates dUMP binding ~3-fold and apparently precedes dUMP binding under physiological conditions. In the oxidative half-reaction, excess CH2H4folate (N5,N10-methylene-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate) was found to re-oxidize FADH2 within 1 ms, thus very efficiently competing with FADH2 oxidation by O2 (1.5 s-1 under aerobic conditions). The resulting reaction scheme points out how the interplay between the fast reactions with the native substrates, although not rate-limiting for overall catalysis, avoids NADPH oxidase activity in aerobic micro-organisms, including many pathogens. These observations also explain why ThyX proteins are also present in aerobic micro-organisms. PMID:24422556

  2. Heme A synthase in bacteria depends on one pair of cysteinyls for activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Anna; Hederstedt, Lars

    2016-02-01

    Heme A is a prosthetic group unique for cytochrome a-type respiratory oxidases in mammals, plants and many microorganisms. The poorly understood integral membrane protein heme A synthase catalyzes the synthesis of heme A from heme O. In bacteria, but not in mitochondria, this enzyme contains one or two pairs of cysteine residues that are present in predicted hydrophilic polypeptide loops on the extracytoplasmic side of the membrane. We used heme A synthase from the eubacterium Bacillus subtilis and the hyperthermophilic archeon Aeropyrum pernix to investigate the functional role of these cysteine residues. Results with B. subtilis amino acid substituted proteins indicated the pair of cysteine residues in the loop connecting transmembrane segments I and II as being essential for catalysis but not required for binding of the enzyme substrate, heme O. Experiments with isolated A. pernix and B. subtilis heme A synthase demonstrated that a disulfide bond can form between the cysteine residues in the same loop and also between loops showing close proximity of the two loops in the folded enzyme protein. Based on the findings, we propose a classification scheme for the four discrete types of heme A synthase found so far in different organisms and propose that essential cysteinyls mediate transfer of reducing equivalents required for the oxygen-dependent catalysis of heme A synthesis from heme O. PMID:26592143

  3. Phosphorylation of inhibitor-2 and activation of MgATP-dependent protein phosphatase by rat skeletal muscle glycogen synthase kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat skeletal muscle contains a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-M) which is not stimulated by Ca2+ or cAMP. This kinase has an apparent Mr of 62,000 and uses ATP but not GTP as a phosphoryl donor. GSK-M phosphorylated glycogen synthase at sites 2 and 3. It phosphorylated ATP-citrate lyase and activated MgATP-dependent phosphatase in the presence of ATP but not GTP. As expected, the kinase also phosphorylated phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2). Phosphatase incorporation reached approximately 0.3 mol/mol of I-2. Phosphopeptide maps were obtained by digesting 32P-labeled I-2 with trypsin and separating the peptides by reversed phase HPLC. Two partially separated 32P-labeled peaks were obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with either GSK-M or glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and these peptides were different from those obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CSU) or casein kinase II (CK-II). When I-2 was phosphorylated with GSK-M or GSK-3 and cleaved by CNBr, a single radioactive peak was obtained. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that I-2 was phosphorylated by GSK-M or GSK-3 predominately in Thr whereas CSU and CK-II phosphorylated I-2 exclusively in Ser. These results indicate that GSK-M is similar to GSK-3 and to ATP-citrate lyase kinase. However, it appears to differ in Mr from ATP-citrate lyase kinase and it differs from GSK-3 in that it phosphorylates glycogen synthase at site 2 and it does not use GTP as a phosphoryl donor

  4. Phosphorylation of inhibitor-2 and activation of MgATP-dependent protein phosphatase by rat skeletal muscle glycogen synthase kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegazy, M.G.; Reimann, E.M.; Thysseril, T.J.; Schlender, K.K.

    1986-05-01

    Rat skeletal muscle contains a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-M) which is not stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/ or cAMP. This kinase has an apparent Mr of 62,000 and uses ATP but not GTP as a phosphoryl donor. GSK-M phosphorylated glycogen synthase at sites 2 and 3. It phosphorylated ATP-citrate lyase and activated MgATP-dependent phosphatase in the presence of ATP but not GTP. As expected, the kinase also phosphorylated phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2). Phosphatase incorporation reached approximately 0.3 mol/mol of I-2. Phosphopeptide maps were obtained by digesting /sup 32/P-labeled I-2 with trypsin and separating the peptides by reversed phase HPLC. Two partially separated /sup 32/P-labeled peaks were obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with either GSK-M or glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and these peptides were different from those obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CSU) or casein kinase II (CK-II). When I-2 was phosphorylated with GSK-M or GSK-3 and cleaved by CNBr, a single radioactive peak was obtained. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that I-2 was phosphorylated by GSK-M or GSK-3 predominately in Thr whereas CSU and CK-II phosphorylated I-2 exclusively in Ser. These results indicate that GSK-M is similar to GSK-3 and to ATP-citrate lyase kinase. However, it appears to differ in Mr from ATP-citrate lyase kinase and it differs from GSK-3 in that it phosphorylates glycogen synthase at site 2 and it does not use GTP as a phosphoryl donor.

  5. Role of NAD+-Dependent Malate Dehydrogenase in the Metabolism of Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N. Rozova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We have expressed the l-malate dehydrogenase (MDH genes from aerobic methanotrophs Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b as his-tagged proteins in Escherichia coli. The substrate specificities, enzymatic kinetics and oligomeric states of the MDHs have been characterized. Both MDHs were NAD+-specific and thermostable enzymes not affected by metal ions or various organic metabolites. The MDH from M. alcaliphilum 20Z was a homodimeric (2 × 35 kDa enzyme displaying nearly equal reductive (malate formation and oxidative (oxaloacetate formation activities and higher affinity to malate (Km = 0.11 mM than to oxaloacetate (Km = 0.34 mM. The MDH from M. trichosporium OB3b was homotetrameric (4 × 35 kDa, two-fold more active in the reaction of oxaloacetate reduction compared to malate oxidation and exhibiting higher affinity to oxaloacetate (Km = 0.059 mM than to malate (Km = 1.28 mM. The kcat/Km ratios indicated that the enzyme from M. alcaliphilum 20Z had a remarkably high catalytic efficiency for malate oxidation, while the MDH of M. trichosporium OB3b was preferable for oxaloacetate reduction. The metabolic roles of the enzymes in the specific metabolism of the two methanotrophs are discussed.

  6. Malolactic fermentation: electrogenic malate uptake and malate/lactate antiport generate metabolic energy.

    OpenAIRE

    Poolman, B.; Molenaar, D.; Smid, E.J.; Ubbink, T; Abee, T.; Renault, P P; Konings, W. N.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of metabolic energy production by malolactic fermentation in Lactococcus lactis has been investigated. In the presence of L-malate, a proton motive force composed of a membrane potential and pH gradient is generated which has about the same magnitude as the proton motive force generated by the metabolism of a glycolytic substrate. Malolactic fermentation results in the synthesis of ATP which is inhibited by the ionophore nigericin and the F0F1-ATPase inhibitor N,N-dicyclohexylca...

  7. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    unclear whether callose synthases can also produce cellulose and whether plant cellulose synthases may also produce beta-1,3-glucans. We describe here an Arabidopsis gene, AtGsl5, encoding a plasma membrane-localized protein homologous to yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase whose expression partially...... complements a yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase mutant. AtGsl5 is developmentally expressed at highest levels in flowers, consistent with flowers having high beta-1,3-glucan synthase activities for deposition of callose in pollen. A role for AtGsl5 in callose synthesis is also indicated by AtGsl5 expression in...... the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants...

  8. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity promotes ischaemic skin flap survival

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Anthony J; Barker, Jane E.; Mitchell, Geraldine M.; Theile, David R B; Romero, Rosalind; Messina, Aurora; Wagh, Milind; Fraulin, Frankie O G; Morrison, Wayne A.; Stewart, Alastair G

    2001-01-01

    We have examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) in a model of functional angiogenesis in which survival of a skin flap depends entirely on angiogenesis to provide an arterial blood supply to maintain tissue viability.The different effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on rat skin flap survival appeared to be explained on the basis of their NOS isoform selectivity. Skin flap survival was decreased by iNOS-selective (inducible NOS) inhibitors, S-methyl-isothiourea, aminoguanidine and...

  9. Targeting DXP synthase in human pathogens: enzyme inhibition and antimicrobial activity of butylacetylphosphonate

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jessica M.; Warrington, Nicole V.; Vierling, Ryan J.; Kuhn, Misty L.; Anderson, Wayne F; Koppisch, Andrew T.; Freel Meyers, Caren L.

    2013-01-01

    The unique methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is essential in most bacterial pathogens. The first enzyme in this pathway, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) synthase, catalyzes a distinct thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent reaction to form DXP from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (D-GAP) and pyruvate and represents a potential anti-infective drug target. We have previously demonstrated that the unnatural bisubstrate analog, butylacetylphosphonate (BAP), exhi...

  10. In Silico Screening of the Library of Pyrimidine Derivatives as Thymidylate Synthase Inhibitors for Anticancer Activity

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. Nerkar; S. A. Ghone; A. K. Thaker

    2009-01-01

    We here report the virtual screening of several series of pyrimidine derivatives for in silico Thymidylate Synthase (TS) inhibition to arrive at possible potential inhibitors of TS with acceptable pharmacokinetic or ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion) properties. Library of the molecules was constructed based upon structural modifications of pyrimidines nucleus. Structural modifications in descending order were performed for the series of pyrimidines, viz from pyrimidine...

  11. The effect of intermittent cryotherapy on the activities of citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase in regenerating skeletal muscle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nuno Miguel Lopes de, Oliveira; Joo Luiz Quagliotti, Durigan; Flvia Simone, Munin; Maria Luiza Barcelos, Schwantes; Tania de Ftima, Salvini.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of three sessions of cryotherapy (three sessions of 30 minutes applied each 2 h) and muscle compression in the regenerating skeletal muscle of the rats. The middle belly of tibialis anterior muscle was injured by a frozen iron bar and received one of the following inte [...] rvention: injury + cryotherapy (treated with cryotherapy); injury + placebo (sand pack), and injury (I).The enzymatic activities of citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in the presence of 1mM or 10mM pyruvate. The ANOVA and Tukey's test (p

  12. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe chs2p has no chitin synthase activity but is related to septum formation

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-García, Rebeca; Durán, Ángel; Valdivieso, María Henar

    2003-01-01

    Chitin synthesis occurs in most fungi through the action of different chitin synthase (CS) isoenzymes. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe the chs2+ gene codes for a protein with significant similarity to CS enzymes, but lacking most of the residues considered to be essential for activity, including the QRRRW domain. Here we show that chs2p is a functional protein that localises to the growing edge of the septum but is not a CS enzyme. Strong over-expression is lethal, while moderate expression lead...

  13. New procedures to measure synthase and phosphatase activities of bis-phosphoglycerate mutase. Interest for development of therapeutic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In red blood cells, a modulation of the level of the allosteric effector of hemoglobin, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) would have implications in the treatment of ischemia and sickle cell anemia. Its concentrations is determined by the relative activities of the synthase and phosphatase reactions of the multifunctional bis-phosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM). In this report we develop first a more direct synthase assay which uses glyceraldehyde phosphate to suppress the aldolase and triose phosphate isomerase reactions. Secondly we propose a radioactive phosphatase assay coupled to chromatographic separation and identification of the reaction products by paper electrophoresis. Such identification of these products allows us to show that the multifunctional BPGM expresses its mutase instead of its phosphatase activity in conditions of competition between the 3-phosphoglycerate and the 2-phospho-glycolate activator in the phosphatase reaction. These two more precise procedures could be used to study the effects of substrate and cofactor analogues regarding potential therapeutic approaches and could be used for clinical analyses to detect deficiency of BPGM. (author)

  14. The Cytoplasmic Tail of GM3 Synthase Defines Its Subcellular Localization, Stability, and In Vivo Activity

    OpenAIRE

    UEMURA, Satoshi; Yoshida, Sayaka; Shishido, Fumi; Inokuchi, Jin-ichi

    2009-01-01

    GM3 synthase (SAT-I) is the primary glycosyltransferase responsible for the biosynthesis of ganglio-series gangliosides. In this study, we identify three isoforms of mouse SAT-I proteins, named M1-SAT-I, M2-SAT-I, and M3-SAT-I, which possess distinct lengths in their NH2-terminal cytoplasmic tails. These isoforms are produced by leaky scanning from mRNA variants of mSAT-Ia and mSAT-Ib. M2-SAT-I and M3-SAT-I were found to be localized in the Golgi apparatus, as expected, whereas M1-SAT-I was e...

  15. An active site–tail interaction in the structure of hexahistidine-tagged Thermoplasma acidophilum citrate synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Donini, Stefano; Kappock, T. Joseph, E-mail: kappock@purdue.edu [Purdue University, 175 South University Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2063 (United States)

    2015-09-23

    Citrate synthase from the thermophilic euryarchaeon T. acidophilum fused to a hexahistidine tag was purified and biochemically characterized. The structure of the unliganded enzyme at 2.2 Å resolution contains tail–active site contacts in half of the active sites. Citrate synthase (CS) plays a central metabolic role in aerobes and many other organisms. The CS reaction comprises two half-reactions: a Claisen aldol condensation of acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) and oxaloacetate (OAA) that forms citryl-CoA (CitCoA), and CitCoA hydrolysis. Protein conformational changes that ‘close’ the active site play an important role in the assembly of a catalytically competent condensation active site. CS from the thermoacidophile Thermoplasma acidophilum (TpCS) possesses an endogenous Trp fluorophore that can be used to monitor the condensation reaction. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of TpCS fused to a C-terminal hexahistidine tag (TpCSH6) reported here is an ‘open’ structure that, when compared with several liganded TpCS structures, helps to define a complete path for active-site closure. One active site in each dimer binds a neighboring His tag, the first nonsubstrate ligand known to occupy both the AcCoA and OAA binding sites. Solution data collectively suggest that this fortuitous interaction is stabilized by the crystalline lattice. As a polar but almost neutral ligand, the active site–tail interaction provides a new starting point for the design of bisubstrate-analog inhibitors of CS.

  16. Clinicopathological and biological significance of aberrant activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Y

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Yunfeng Fu,1 Xinyu Wang,1 Xiaodong Cheng,1 Feng Ye,2 Xing Xie,1,2 Weiguo Lu1,2 1Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 2Women's Reproduction and Health Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 plays an important role in human cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of expression of GSK-3α/β and pGSK-3α/βTyr279/216 in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and to investigate whether GSK-3 inhibition can influence cell viability and tumor growth of ovarian cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine expression of GSK-3α/β and pGSK-3α/βTyr279/216 in 71 human epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and correlations between protein expression, and clinicopathological factors were analyzed. Cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay following exposure of ovarian carcinoma cells to pharmacological inhibitors of GSK-3 or GSK-3 small interfering RNA. In vivo validation of tumor growth inhibition was performed with xenograft mice. Results: The expression levels of GSK-3α/β and pGSK-3α/βTyr279/216 in ovarian cancers were significantly higher than those in benign tumors. High expression of GSK-3α/β was more likely to be found in patients with advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stages and high serum cancer antigen 125. Higher expression of pGSK-3α/βTyr279/216 was associated with advanced FIGO stages, residual tumor mass, high serum cancer antigen 125, and poor chemoresponse. Worse overall survival was revealed by Kaplan–Meier survival curves in patients with high expression of GSK-3α/β or pGSK-3α/βTyr279/216. Multivariate analysis indicated that FIGO stage, GSK-3α/β expression, and pGSK-3α/βTyr279/216 expression were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. GSK-3 inhibition by lithium chloride, 4-benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione (TDZD-8, or GSK-3 small interfering RNA can decrease viability of SKOV3 and SKOV3-TR30 ovarian cancer cells. Additionally, lithium chloride-treated SKOV3 xenograft mice had a significant reduction in tumor growth compared with control-treated animals. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that overexpression and aberrant activation of GSK-3 may contribute to progression and poor prognosis in ovarian cancer. Inhibition of GSK-3 may be a potential therapy for ovarian cancer.Keywords: ovarian carcinoma, immunohistochemistry, lithium chloride, TDZD-8

  17. PHALLONOPTIC MALATE: A CRITICAL GAZE AT SPACE, VISUAL CULTURE AND PERFORMANCE IN THE STREETS OF OROSA AND BOCOBO, MALATE, MANILA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clod Marlan Krister V. Yambao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phallonopticism comes from the confluence of the term “phallus” and “panopticon.” I define Phallonotpicism as the configuration of gaze, power and desires specific to but not limited to male performances. By utilizing the term phallonopticism as a heuristic category for analysis, this paper attempts to analyze how Malate’s urban spaces of consumption are gendered. It attempts to map the topography of male homosocial intersubjectivities and the production of desire, power and gaze through male performances, visual culture and structures. Orosa Street is known as the GLTB consumption district of Malate while just a block away, is Bocobo Street, where a “straight” and “heterosexual” male population dwell. The dominance of male homosociality along the said streets has been established through research findings from 2002 - 2009. Through the confluence of political- economic discourse and psychoanalysis this paper will argue that Malate’s urban spaces inform the male subject construction and formation. Furthermore, male homosocialities in both streets activate the production and consumption of gendered spatial politics through complex forms of surveillance, discipline, resistance, and subversion from its stakeholders such as state institutions, the market and Malate’s public.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of latent, active and recombinantly expressed aurone synthase, a polyphenol oxidase, from Coreopsis grandiflora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latent and active aurone synthase purified from petals of C. grandiflora (cgAUS1) were crystallized. The crystal quality of recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 was significantly improved by co-crystallization with the polyoxotungstate Na6[TeW6O24] within the liquid–liquid phase-separation zone. Aurone synthase (AUS), a member of a novel group of plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), catalyzes the oxidative conversion of chalcones to aurones. Two active cgAUS1 (41.6 kDa) forms that differed in the level of phosphorylation or sulfation as well as the latent precursor form (58.9 kDa) were purified from the petals of Coreopsis grandiflora. The differing active cgAUS1 forms and the latent cgAUS1 as well as recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 were crystallized, resulting in six different crystal forms. The active forms crystallized in space groups P212121 and P1211 and diffracted to ∼1.65 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of active cgAUS1 with 1,4-resorcinol led to crystals belonging to space group P3121. The crystals of latent cgAUS1 belonged to space group P1211 and diffracted to 2.50 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of recombinantly expressed pro-AUS with the hexatungstotellurate(VI) salt Na6[TeW6O24] within the liquid–liquid phase separation zone significantly improved the quality of the crystals compared with crystals obtained without hexatungstotellurate(VI)

  19. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of latent, active and recombinantly expressed aurone synthase, a polyphenol oxidase, from Coreopsis grandiflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette, E-mail: annette.rompel@univie.ac.at [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2015-05-22

    Latent and active aurone synthase purified from petals of C. grandiflora (cgAUS1) were crystallized. The crystal quality of recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 was significantly improved by co-crystallization with the polyoxotungstate Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase-separation zone. Aurone synthase (AUS), a member of a novel group of plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), catalyzes the oxidative conversion of chalcones to aurones. Two active cgAUS1 (41.6 kDa) forms that differed in the level of phosphorylation or sulfation as well as the latent precursor form (58.9 kDa) were purified from the petals of Coreopsis grandiflora. The differing active cgAUS1 forms and the latent cgAUS1 as well as recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 were crystallized, resulting in six different crystal forms. The active forms crystallized in space groups P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to ∼1.65 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of active cgAUS1 with 1,4-resorcinol led to crystals belonging to space group P3{sub 1}21. The crystals of latent cgAUS1 belonged to space group P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to 2.50 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of recombinantly expressed pro-AUS with the hexatungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase separation zone significantly improved the quality of the crystals compared with crystals obtained without hexatungstotellurate(VI)

  20. The muscle-specific protein phosphatase PP1G/R(GL)(G(M))is essential for activation of glycogen synthase by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschenbach, W G; Suzuki, Y; Breeden, K; Prats, C; Hirshman, M F; Dufresne, S D; Sakamoto, K; Vilardo, P G; Steele, M; Kim, J H; Jing, S L; Goodyear, L J; DePaoli-Roach, A A

    2001-01-01

    In skeletal muscle both insulin and contractile activity are physiological stimuli for glycogen synthesis, which is thought to result in part from the dephosphorylation and activation of glycogen synthase (GS). PP1G/R(GL)(G(M)) is a glycogen/sarcoplasmic reticulum-associated type 1 phosphatase th...

  1. Plastidial NAD-Dependent Malate Dehydrogenase Is Critical for Embryo Development and Heterotrophic Metabolism in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Seraina; Liu, Hung-Chi; Stadler, Martha; Schreier, Tina; Eicke, Simona; Lue, Wei-Ling; Truernit, Elisabeth; Zeeman, Samuel C.; Chen, Jychian; Ktting, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    In illuminated chloroplasts, one mechanism involved in reduction-oxidation (redox) homeostasis is the malate-oxaloacetate (OAA) shuttle. Excess electrons from photosynthetic electron transport in the form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced are used by NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH) to reduce OAA to malate, thus regenerating the electron acceptor NADP. NADP-MDH is a strictly redox-regulated, light-activated enzyme that is inactive in the dark. In the dark or in nonphotosynthetic tissues, the malate-OAA shuttle was proposed to be mediated by the constitutively active plastidial NAD-specific MDH isoform (pdNAD-MDH), but evidence is scarce. Here, we reveal the critical role of pdNAD-MDH in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. A pdnad-mdh null mutation is embryo lethal. Plants with reduced pdNAD-MDH levels by means of artificial microRNA (miR-mdh-1) are viable, but dark metabolism is altered as reflected by increased nighttime malate, starch, and glutathione levels and a reduced respiration rate. In addition, miR-mdh-1 plants exhibit strong pleiotropic effects, including dwarfism, reductions in chlorophyll levels, photosynthetic rate, and daytime carbohydrate levels, and disordered chloroplast ultrastructure, particularly in developing leaves, compared with the wild type. pdNAD-MDH deficiency in miR-mdh-1 can be functionally complemented by expression of a microRNA-insensitive pdNAD-MDH but not NADP-MDH, confirming distinct roles for NAD- and NADP-linked redox homeostasis. PMID:24453164

  2. Arginase reciprocally regulates nitric oxide synthase activity and contributes to endothelial dysfunction in aging blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Dan E.; White, Ron; Li, Dechun; Minhas, Khalid M.; Cernetich, Amy; Kim, Soonyul; Burke, Sean; Shoukas, Artin A.; Nyhan, Daniel; Champion, Hunter C.; Hare, Joshua M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although abnormal L-arginine NO signaling contributes to endothelial dysfunction in the aging cardiovascular system, the biochemical mechanisms remain controversial. L-arginine, the NO synthase (NOS) precursor, is also a substrate for arginase. We tested the hypotheses that arginase reciprocally regulates NOS by modulating L-arginine bioavailability and that arginase is upregulated in aging vasculature, contributing to depressed endothelial function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inhibition of arginase with (S)-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine, HCl (BEC) produced vasodilation in aortic rings from young (Y) adult rats (maximum effect, 46.4+/-9.4% at 10(-5) mol/L, Pendothelium and was prevented by 1H-oxadiazole quinoxalin-1-one (Pdysfunction of aging and may therefore be a therapeutic target.

  3. Epimerase and Reductase Activities of Polyketide Synthase Ketoreductase Domains Utilize the Same Conserved Tyrosine and Serine Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xinqiang; Garg, Ashish; Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T; Khosla, Chaitan; Cane, David E

    2016-03-01

    The role of the conserved active site tyrosine and serine residues in epimerization catalyzed by polyketide synthase ketoreductase (PKS KR) domains has been investigated. Both mutant and wild-type forms of epimerase-active KR domains, including the intrinsically redox-inactive EryKR3° and PicKR3° as well as redox-inactive mutants of EryKR1, were incubated with [2-(2)H]-(2R,3S)-2-methyl-3-hydroxypentanoyl-SACP ([2-(2)H]-2) and 0.05 equiv of NADP(+) in the presence of the redox-active, epimerase-inactive EryKR6 domain. The residual epimerase activity of each mutant was determined by tandem equilibrium isotope exchange, in which the first-order, time-dependent washout of isotope from 2 was monitored by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with quantitation of the deuterium content of the diagnostic pantetheinate ejection fragment (4). Replacement of the active site Tyr or Ser residues, alone or together, significantly reduced the observed epimerase activity of each KR domain with minimal effect on substrate binding. Our results demonstrate that the epimerase and reductase activities of PKS KR domains share a common active site, with both reactions utilizing the same pair of Tyr and Ser residues. PMID:26863427

  4. S-2-amino-5-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)pentanoic acid: a model for potential bioreductively activated prodrugs for inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulhaq, S; Naylor, M A; Chinje, E C; Threadgill, M D; Stratford, I J

    1997-01-01

    Treatment of 1,1-dimethylethyl S-(2-1,1-dimethylethoxycarbonylamino)-5-bromopentanoate with 1-potassio-2-nitroimidazole, followed by deprotection, afforded S-2-amino-5-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)pentanoic acid, which was reduced to S-2-amino-5-(2-aminoimidazol-1-yl)pentanoic acid. This aminoimadazole inhibited rat brain nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity 3.2 times more potently than did the nitro analogue. Thus S-2-amino-5-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)pentanoic acid is a potent prodrug which may be bioreductively activated to a NOS inhibitor in hypoxic solid tumours. PMID:9051114

  5. Disruption of ATCSLD5 results in reduced growth, reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity and altered xylan occurrence in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal Giraldo, Adriana Jimena; Jensen, Jacob Krüger; Harholt, Jesper; Sørensen, Susanne Oxenbøll; Moller, Isabel Eva; Blaukopf, Claudia; Johansen, Bo Buchholt; Delotto, Robert; Pauly, Markus; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Willats, William George Tycho

    2007-01-01

    unknown. Here we report the effects of disrupting ATCSLD5 expression in Arabidopsis. Both stem and root growth were significantly reduced in ATCSLD5 knock-out plants, and these plants also had increased susceptibility to the cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben. Antibody and carbohydrate-binding module...... labelling indicated a reduction in the level of xylan in stems, and in vitro GT assays using microsomes from stems revealed that ATCSLD5 knock-out plants also had reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity. Expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of ATCSLD5 and ATCSLD3, fluorescently tagged at either...

  6. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity improves focal cerebral damage induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in normotensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nitric oxide seems to play a dual role in ischemia/reperfusion injury. Few studies have investigated whether it exacerbates or improves brain edema. In the present study, we inhibited the activity of nitric oxide synthase by L-NAME and evaluated the cerebral infarct volume, tissue swelling and brain edema, alongside the measurement of blood flow of the ischemic region. Methods: Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 12 hours reperfusion in rat. Experiments were performed in three groups of rats (n=12 each Sham, control ischemic, and L-NAME pretreated (1 mg/kg IP. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure the regional blood flow. After neurological deficit score (NDS testing, the brains were prepared for TTC staining or brain water content technique to measure the infarct volume and brain edema. Results: Pretreatment with L-NAME significantly reduced NDS (3.66 ± 0.33 to 1.5 ± 0.34, infarct volume of cortex (374 ± 34 to 160 ± 41 mm3 and striatum (158 ± 15 to 87 ± 16 mm3, tissue swelling (7.35 ± 1.27% to 4.05 ± 0.91% and brain edema (3.5 ± 0.48% to 1.6 ± 0.6% without significant alteration of blood flow of the ischemic region. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity reduces infarct volume and brain edema of the ischemic region induced during 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion. This effect is not accompanied with any alteration in the blood flow of the ischemic region.

  7. A Selective Assay to Detect Chitin and Biologically Active Nano-Machineries for Chitin-Biosynthesis with Their Intrinsic Chitin-Synthase Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildgund Schrempf

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A new assay system for chitin has been developed. It comprises the chitin-binding protein ChbB in fusion with a His-tag as well as with a Strep-tag, the latter of which was chemically coupled to horseradish peroxidase. With the resulting complex, minimal quantities of chitin are photometrically detectable. In addition, the assay allows rapid scoring of the activity of chitin-synthases. As a result, a refined procedure for the rapid purification of yeast chitosomes (nano-machineries for chitin biosynthesis has been established. Immuno-electronmicroscopical studies of purified chitosomes, gained from a yeast strain carrying a chitin-synthase gene fused to that for GFP (green-fluorescence protein, has led to the in situ localization of chitin-synthase-GFP molecules within chitosomes.

  8. Important differences in nitric oxide synthase activity and predominant isoform in reproductive tissues from human and rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hijji J

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the extrapolation of data obtained from experimental animals to the human situation, it is important to know the similarities and differences between human and animal species. Some important characteristics of nitric oxide synthase (NOS in myometrium and vagina from human and rat were compared. NOS-activity was measured by the formation of 14C-citrulline from 14C-arginine and the expression of NOS isoforms was examined by Western blotting. NOS activity in human uterus and vagina was significantly lower than in the tissues from rat. In contrast to the rat where NOS activity was predominantly found in the cytosolic fractions, NOS activity in particulate and cytosolic fractions from both human myometrium and vagina was similar. Data from Western blots confirmed that eNOS and nNOS isoforms were concentrated in the particulate and cytosolic fractions, respectively. Estrogen treatment of rats resulted in a down regulation of uterine cytosolic NOS activity. A down regulation of NOS in the cytosolic fraction was also seen in the human pregnant myometrium as compared with the nonpregnant myometrium. The vaginal NOS activity was considerably higher than the uterus in both species. In spite of some clear-cut qualitative and other differences between human and rat tissues, there are some interesting similarities. Downregulation in pregnancy of human uterine NOS is probably due to, at least in part, the influence of estrogen and progesterone.

  9. Triterpenoic Acids from Apple Pomace Enhance the Activity of the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbauer, Katharina; Seiringer, Gnter; Nguyen, Dieu Linh; Winkler, Johannes; Blaschke, Michael; McKinnon, Ruxandra; Urban, Ernst; Ladurner, Angela; Dirsch, Verena M; Zehl, Martin; Kopp, Brigitte

    2016-01-13

    Pomace is an easy-accessible raw material for the isolation of fruit-derived compounds. Fruit consumption is associated with health-promoting effects, such as the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Increased vascular nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, for example, due to an enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, could be one molecular mechanism mediating this effect. To identify compounds from apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) pomace that have the potential to amplify NO bioavailability via eNOS activation, a bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol/water (70:30) extract has been performed using the (14)C-l-arginine to (14)C-l-citrulline conversion assay (ACCA) in the human endothelium-derived cell line EA.hy926. Phytochemical characterization of the active fractions was performed using the spectrophotometric assessment of the total phenolic content, as well as TLC, HPLC-DAD-ELSD, and HPLC-MS analyses. Eleven triterpenoic acids, of which one is a newly discovered compound, were identified as the main constituents in the most active fraction, accompanied by only minor contents of phenolic compounds. When tested individually, none of the tested compounds exhibited significant eNOS activation. Nevertheless, cell stimulation with the reconstituted compound mixture restored eNOS activation, validating the potential of apple pomace as a source of bioactive components. PMID:26682617

  10. Distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, nitric oxide synthase, and their receptors in human and rat sphenopalatine ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csati, A; Tajti, J; Kuris, A; Tuka, B; Edvinsson, L; Warfvinge, K

    2012-01-01

    demonstration of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), glutamine synthetase (GS), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), VIP and PACAP common receptors (VPAC1, VPAC2), and PACAP receptor (PAC1). In addition, double labeling was...

  11. Polyhydroxyalkanoate film formation and synthase activity during in vitro and in situ polymerization on hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shun; Ono, Yusuke; Mochiyama, Yukiko; Sivaniah, Easan; Kikkawa, Yoshihiro; Sudesh, Kumar; Hiraishi, Tomohiro; Doi, Yoshiharu; Abe, Hideki; Tsuge, Takeharu

    2008-10-01

    In vitro and in situ enzymatic polymerization of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) on two hydrophobic surfaces, a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM), was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), using purified Ralstonia eutropha PHA synthase (PhaC(Re)) as a biocatalyst. (R)-Specific enoyl-CoA hydratase was used to prepare R-enantiomer monomers [(R)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA] with an acyl chain length of 4-6 carbon atoms. PHA homopolymers with different side-chain lengths, poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] [P(3HB)] and poly[(R)-3-hydroxyvalerate] [P(3HV)] were successfully synthesized from such R-enantiomer monomers on HOPG substrates. After the reaction, the surface morphologies were analyzed by AFM, revealing a nanometer thick PHA film. The same biochemical polymerization process was observed on an alkanethiol (C18) SAM surface fabricated on a gold electrode using QCM. This analysis showed that a complex sequence of PhaC(Re) adsorption and PHA polymerization has occurred on the hydrophobic surface. On the basis of these observations, the possible mechanisms of the PhaC(Re)-catalyzed polymerization reaction on the surface of hydrophobic substrates are proposed. PMID:18771315

  12. Fluctuations in Cytosolic Calcium Regulate the Neuronal Malate-Aspartate NADH Shuttle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satrústegui, Jorgina; Bak, Lasse K

    2015-01-01

    The malate-aspartate NADH shuttle (MAS) operates in neurons and other cells to translocate reducing equivalents from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix, thus allowing a continued flux through the glycolytic pathway and metabolism of extracellular lactate. Recent discoveries have taught us that...... MAS is regulated by fluctuations in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, and that this regulation is required to maintain a tight coupling between neuronal activity and mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. At cytosolic Ca(2+) fluctuations below the threshold of the mitochondrial calcium...

  13. Silencing of Long Non-Coding RNA MALAT1 Promotes Apoptosis of Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jianping; Guo, Shifeng; Jiang, Shuling; Xu, Yuelong; Li, Jiwei; Li, Li; Xiang, Jinyu

    2016-05-01

    The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcription 1 (MALAT1) is a highly conserved long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) gene. However, little is known about the pathological role of lncRNA MALAT1 in glioma. In the present study, we explored the expression level of lncRNA MALAT1 in primary glioma tissues as well as in U87 and U251 glioma cell lines. Using qRT-PCR, we found that the expression of lncRNA MALAT1 was significantly increased in glioma tissues compared with that of paracancerous tissues. Meanwhile, the expression of MALAT1 was highly expressed in U98 and U251 cells. In order to explore the function of MALAT1, the expression of MALAT1 was greatly reduced in U87 and U251 cells transfected with siRNA specifically targeting MALAT1. Consequently, cell viability of U87 and U251 cells were drastically decreased after the knockdown of MALAT1. Concomitantly, the apoptosis rate of the two cell lines was dramatically increased. Furthermore, the expression levels of some tumor markers were reduced after the knockdown of MALAT1, such as CCND1 and MYC. In summary, the current study indicated a promoting role of MALAT1 in the development of glioma cell. PMID:27134488

  14. Plants defective for soluble starch synthase IV (SSIV) activity, methods for obtaining the same, ans uses thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Planchot, Veronique; Mérida, Ángel; d'Hulst, Christophe; Roldán, Isaac; Wattebled, Fabrice; Delvallé, David; Lucas, M. Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    The use of a plant which is modified so as to be rendered defective for Soluble Starch Synthase IV (SSIV), for obtaining starch granules having an increased granule size and a similar starch amylose content, as compared to the same plant that is not defective for Soluble Starch Synthase IV (SSIV).

  15. Expression analysis and functional characterization of apple MdVHP1 gene reveals its involvement in Na(+), malate and soluble sugar accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu-Xin; Dong, Qing-Long; You, Chun-Xiang; Zhai, Heng; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2011-10-01

    The vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase (VHP) is a proton pump, which energizes transport across the tonoplast. The contributions of VHP to ion, organic acid and sugar storage are unclear in fruit. Here we characterized the role of an apple vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase gene (MdVHP1) in Na(+), malate and soluble sugar accumulation. MdVHP1 expression was consistent with VHP activities in apple fruits at most developmental stages, and highly significantly correlated with Na(+) concentration during fruit development. In apple fruits treated in vitro (i.e., fruit-bearing branches were cultured in Hoagland solution containing each of salt, malate and sucrose, respectively, or irradiated by blue light), MdVHP1 expression was significantly correlated with Na(+) and malate transporter genes MdNHX1 and MdtDT, while subunit A of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (MdVHA-A) was significantly correlated with MdtDT and sucrose transporter gene (MdSUT1). In addition, MdVHP1 overexpression noticeably promoted Na(+) and malate accumulation, but slightly increased soluble sugar accumulation in transgenic apple callus and tomato fruit, partially by regulating transporter genes MdNHX1, MdtDT and MdSUT1. Taken together, it appears that MdVHP1 favorably contributes to Na(+), malate and soluble sugar accumulation in apple fruit. PMID:21696976

  16. Involvement of Salicylic Acid on Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties, Anthocyanin Production and Chalcone Synthase Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2012-01-01

    The effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (10−3 M and 10−5 M) was investigated on the production of secondary metabolites (flavonoids), chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity (against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) in two varieties of Malaysian ginger, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that application of SA induced t...

  17. Rate of hydrolysis in ATP synthase is fine-tuned by  -subunit motif controlling active site conformation

    KAUST Repository

    Beke-Somfai, T.

    2013-01-23

    Computer-designed artificial enzymes will require precise understanding of how conformation of active sites may control barrier heights of key transition states, including dependence on structure and dynamics at larger molecular scale. F(o)F(1) ATP synthase is interesting as a model system: a delicate molecular machine synthesizing or hydrolyzing ATP using a rotary motor. Isolated F(1) performs hydrolysis with a rate very sensitive to ATP concentration. Experimental and theoretical results show that, at low ATP concentrations, ATP is slowly hydrolyzed in the so-called tight binding site, whereas at higher concentrations, the binding of additional ATP molecules induces rotation of the central γ-subunit, thereby forcing the site to transform through subtle conformational changes into a loose binding site in which hydrolysis occurs faster. How the 1-Å-scale rearrangements are controlled is not yet fully understood. By a combination of theoretical approaches, we address how large macromolecular rearrangements may manipulate the active site and how the reaction rate changes with active site conformation. Simulations reveal that, in response to γ-subunit position, the active site conformation is fine-tuned mainly by small α-subunit changes. Quantum mechanics-based results confirm that the sub-Ångström gradual changes between tight and loose binding site structures dramatically alter the hydrolysis rate.

  18. Prolactin promotes oxytocin and vasopressin release by activating neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Claudia; Moreno-Carranza, Bibiana; Zamorano, Miriam; Quintanar-Stéphano, Andrés; Méndez, Isabel; Thebault, Stéphanie; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Prolactin (PRL) stimulates the secretion of oxytocin (OXT) and arginine AVP as part of the maternal adaptations facilitating parturition and lactation. Both neurohormones are under the regulation of nitric oxide. Here, we investigate whether the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system mediates the effect of PRL on OXT and AVP release and whether these effects operate in males. Plasma levels of OXT and AVP were measured in male rats after the intracerebroventricular injection of PRL or after inducing hyperprolactinemia by placing two anterior pituitary glands under the kidney capsule. NOS activity was evaluated in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) hypothalamic nuclei by NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry and in hypothalamic extracts by the phosphorylation/inactivation of nNOS at Ser(847). Elevated central and systemic PRL correlated with increased NOS activity in the PVN and SON and with higher OXT and AVP circulating levels. Notably, treatment with 7-nitroindazole, a selective inhibitor of nNOS, prevented PRL-induced stimulation of the release of both neurohormones. Also, phosphorylation of nNOS was reduced in hyperprolactinemic rats, and treatment with bromocriptine, an inhibitor of anterior pituitary PRL secretion, suppressed this effect. These findings suggest that PRL enhances nNOS activity in the PVN and SON, thereby contributing to the regulation of OXT and AVP release. This mechanism likely contributes to the regulation of processes beyond those of female reproduction. PMID:20943859

  19. Mechanistic insights into the bifunctional non-heme iron oxygenase carbapenem synthase by active site saturation mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Ryan M; Townsend, Craig A

    2013-05-22

    The carbapenem class of ?-lactam antibiotics is known for its remarkable potency, antibacterial spectrum, and resistance to ?-lactamase-mediated inactivation. While the biosynthesis of structurally "complex" carbapenems, such as thienamycin, share initial biochemical steps with carbapenem-3-carboxylate ("simple" carbapenem), the requisite inversion at C5 and formation of the characteristic ?,?-unsaturated carboxylate are different in origin between the two groups. Here, we consider carbapenem synthase, a mechanistically distinct bifunctional non-heme iron ?-ketoglutarate-dependent enzyme responsible for the terminal reactions, C5 epimerization and desaturation, in simple carbapenem production. Interestingly, this enzyme accepts two stereoisomeric substrates and transforms each to a common active antibiotic. Owing both to enzyme and product instability, resorting to saturation mutagenesis of active site and selected second-sphere residues gave clearly differing profiles of CarC tolerance to structural modification. Guided by a crystal structure and the mutational data, in silico docking was used to suggest the positioning of each disastereomeric substrate in the active site. The two orientations relative to the reactive iron-oxo center are manifest in the two distinct reactions, C5-epimerization and C2/3-desaturation. These observations favor a two-step reaction scheme involving two complete oxidative cycles as opposed to a single catalytic cycle in which an active site tyrosine, Tyr67, after hydrogen donation to achieve bicyclic ring inversion, is further hypothesized to serve as a radical carrier. PMID:23611403

  20. Selenoprotein-dependent Up-regulation of Hematopoietic Prostaglandin D2 Synthase in Macrophages Is Mediated through the Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR) γ*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Ujjawal H.; Kaushal, Naveen; Ravindra, Kodihalli C.; Hegde, Shailaja; Nelson, Shakira M.; Narayan, Vivek; Vunta, Hema; Paulson, Robert F.; Prabhu, K. Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    The plasticity of macrophages is evident from their dual role in inflammation and resolution of inflammation that are accompanied by changes in the transcriptome and metabolome. Along these lines, we have previously demonstrated that the micronutrient selenium increases macrophage production of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived anti-inflammatory 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and decreases the proinflammatory PGE2. Here, we hypothesized that selenium modulated the metabolism of AA by a differential regulation of various prostaglandin (PG) synthases favoring the production of PGD2 metabolites, Δ12-PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2. A dose-dependent increase in the expression of hematopoietic-PGD2 synthase (H-PGDS) by selenium and a corresponding increase in Δ12-PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2 in RAW264.7 macrophages and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages was observed. Studies with organic non-bioavailable forms of selenium and the genetic manipulation of cellular selenium incorporation machinery indicated that selenoproteins were necessary for H-PGDS expression and 15d-PGJ2 production. Treatment of selenium-deficient macrophages with rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ligand, up-regulated H-PGDS. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated the presence of an active peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-response element in murine Hpgds promoter suggesting a positive feedback mechanism of H-PGDS expression. Alternatively, the expression of nuclear factor-κB-dependent thromboxane synthase and microsomal PGE2 synthase was down-regulated by selenium. Using a Friend virus infection model of murine leukemia, the onset of leukemia was observed only in selenium-deficient and indomethacin-treated selenium-supplemented mice but not in the selenium-supplemented group or those treated with 15d-PGJ2. These results suggest the importance of selenium in the shunting of AA metabolism toward the production of PGD2 metabolites, which may have clinical implications. PMID:21669866

  1. Structural insight into the molecular mechanism of allosteric activation of human cystathionine ?-synthase by S-adenosylmethionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereo-Orbea, June; Majtan, Tomas; Oyenarte, Iker; Kraus, Jan P; Martnez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2014-09-16

    Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) is a heme-dependent and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent protein that controls the flux of sulfur from methionine to cysteine, a precursor of glutathione, taurine, and H2S. Deficiency of CBS activity causes homocystinuria, the most frequent disorder of sulfur amino acid metabolism. In contrast to CBSs from lower organisms, human CBS (hCBS) is allosterically activated by S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), which binds to the regulatory domain and triggers a conformational change that allows the protein to progress from the basal toward the activated state. The structural basis of the underlying molecular mechanism has remained elusive so far. Here, we present the structure of hCBS with bound AdoMet, revealing the activated conformation of the human enzyme. Binding of AdoMet triggers a conformational change in the Bateman module of the regulatory domain that favors its association with a Bateman module of the complementary subunit to form an antiparallel CBS module. Such an arrangement is very similar to that found in the constitutively activated insect CBS. In the presence of AdoMet, the autoinhibition exerted by the regulatory region is eliminated, allowing for improved access of substrates to the catalytic pocket. Based on the availability of both the basal and the activated structures, we discuss the mechanism of hCBS activation by AdoMet and the properties of the AdoMet binding site, as well as the responsiveness of the enzyme to its allosteric regulator. The structure described herein paves the way for the rational design of compounds modulating hCBS activity and thus transsulfuration, redox status, and H2S biogenesis. PMID:25197074

  2. Changes in lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activities during hypoxia and after temperature acclimation in the armored fish, Rhinelepis strigosa (Siluriformes, Loricariidae Mudanas na atividade da lactato desidrogenase e malato desidrogenase durante hipxia e aps aclimatao a diferentes temperaturas no cascudo, Rhinelepis strigosa (Siluriformes, Loricariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. PANEPUCCI

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactate (LDH and malate dehydrogenase (MDH of white skeletal muscle of fishes acclimated to 20, 25 and 30C and thereafter submitted to hypoxia were studied in different substrate concentrations. Significant differences for LDH and MDH of white muscle enzyme activities are described here for the first time in Rhinelepis strigosa of fishes acclimated to 20C and submitted to hypoxia for six hours. LDH presented a significant decrease in enzyme affinity for pyruvate in acute hypoxia, for fishes acclimated to 20C and an increase for fishes acclimated to 30C.Foram estudadas a lactato desidrogenase (LDH e malato desidrogenase (MDH de msculo branco de peixes aclimatados a 20, 25 e 30C em diferentes concentraes de substrato e submetidos hipxia. Diferenas significativas em atividade enzimtica para LDH e MDH so descritas aqui pela primeira vez em Rhinelepis strigosa em peixes aclimatados a 20C e submetidos hipxia por seis horas. A LDH apresentou uma diminuio significativa na afinidade enzimtica ao piruvato em hipxia severa de peixes aclimatados a 20C e um aumento significativo na afinidade enzimtica ao piruvato em peixes aclimatados a 30C.

  3. The stimulating role of subunit F in ATPase activity inside the A1-complex of the Methanosarcina mazei G1 A1AO ATP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dhirendra; Sielaff, Hendrik; Sundararaman, Lavanya; Bhushan, Shashi; Grber, Gerhard

    2016-02-01

    A1AO ATP synthases couple ion-transport of the AO sector and ATP synthesis/hydrolysis of the A3B3-headpiece via their stalk subunits D and F. Here, we produced and purified stable A3B3D- and A3B3DF-complexes of the Methanosarcina mazei G1 A-ATP synthase as confirmed by electron microscopy. Enzymatic studies with these complexes showed that the M. mazei G1 A-ATP synthase subunit F is an ATPase activating subunit. The maximum ATP hydrolysis rates (Vmax) of A3B3D and A3B3DF were determined by substrate-dependent ATP hydrolysis experiments resulting in a Vmax of 7.9s(-1) and 30.4s(-1), respectively, while the KM is the same for both. Deletions of the N- or C-termini of subunit F abolished the effect of ATP hydrolysis activation. We generated subunit F mutant proteins with single amino acid substitutions and demonstrated that the subunit F residues S84 and R88 are important in stimulating ATP hydrolysis. Hybrid formation of the A3B3D-complex with subunit F of the related eukaryotic V-ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae or subunit ? of the F-ATP synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed that subunit F of the archaea and eukaryotic enzymes are important in ATP hydrolysis. PMID:26682760

  4. Plasmodium Infection Is Associated with Impaired Hepatic Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase Activity and Disruption of Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor/Substrate Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Glenn; Ikeda, Allison K.; Cunnington, Aubrey J.; Okebe, Joseph; Ebonyi, Augustine O.; Njie, Madi; Correa, Simon; Jayasooriya, Shamanthi; Casals-Pascual, Climent; Billker, Oliver; Conway, David J.; Walther, Michael; Ackerman, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) signaling may contribute to pathological activation of the vascular endothelium during severe malaria infection. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) regulates endothelial NO synthesis by maintaining homeostasis between asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, and arginine, the NOS substrate. We carried out a community-based case-control study of Gambian children to determine whether ADMA and arginine homeostasis is disrupted during severe or uncomplicated malaria infections. Circulating plasma levels of ADMA and arginine were determined at initial presentation and 28 days later. Plasma ADMA/arginine ratios were elevated in children with acute severe malaria compared to 28-day follow-up values and compared to children with uncomplicated malaria or healthy children (p<0.0001 for each comparison). To test the hypothesis that DDAH1 is inactivated during Plasmodium infection, we examined DDAH1 in a mouse model of severe malaria. Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection inactivated hepatic DDAH1 via a post-transcriptional mechanism as evidenced by stable mRNA transcript number, decreased DDAH1 protein concentration, decreased enzyme activity, elevated tissue ADMA, elevated ADMA/arginine ratio in plasma, and decreased whole blood nitrite concentration. Loss of hepatic DDAH1 activity and disruption of ADMA/arginine homeostasis may contribute to severe malaria pathogenesis by inhibiting NO synthesis. PMID:26407009

  5. Flavone inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, nitric oxide production and protein S-nitrosylation in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the core structure of flavonoids, flavone has been proved to possess anticancer effects. Flavone's growth inhibitory functions are related to NO. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and generally increased in a variety of cancer cells. NO regulates multiple cellular responses by S-nitrosylation. In this study, we explored flavone-induced regulations on nitric oxide (NO)-related cellular processes in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that, flavone suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Flavone restrains NO synthesis by does-dependent inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity. The decrease of NO generation was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Flavone-induced inhibitory effect on NOS activity is dependent on intact cell structure. For the NO-induced protein modification, flavone treatment significantly down-regulated protein S-nitrosylation, which was detected by “Biotin-switch” method. The present study provides a novel, NO-related mechanism for the anticancer function of flavone. - Highlights: • Flavone inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. • Flavone decreases nitric oxide production by inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity in breast cancer cells. • Flavone down-regulates protein S-nitrosylation

  6. Flavone inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, nitric oxide production and protein S-nitrosylation in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Yang, Bingwu; Fu, Huiling; Ma, Long; Liu, Tingting; Chai, Rongfei; Zheng, Zhaodi [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resistant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Zhang, Qunye, E-mail: wz.zhangqy@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Li, Guorong, E-mail: grli@sdnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resistant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2015-03-13

    As the core structure of flavonoids, flavone has been proved to possess anticancer effects. Flavone's growth inhibitory functions are related to NO. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and generally increased in a variety of cancer cells. NO regulates multiple cellular responses by S-nitrosylation. In this study, we explored flavone-induced regulations on nitric oxide (NO)-related cellular processes in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that, flavone suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Flavone restrains NO synthesis by does-dependent inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity. The decrease of NO generation was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Flavone-induced inhibitory effect on NOS activity is dependent on intact cell structure. For the NO-induced protein modification, flavone treatment significantly down-regulated protein S-nitrosylation, which was detected by “Biotin-switch” method. The present study provides a novel, NO-related mechanism for the anticancer function of flavone. - Highlights: • Flavone inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. • Flavone decreases nitric oxide production by inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity in breast cancer cells. • Flavone down-regulates protein S-nitrosylation.

  7. Potential Role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3? in Regulation of Myocardin Activity in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Xia; Shi, Zhan; Singh, Pavneet; Yin, Hao; Yu, Yan-Ni; Li, Long; Walsh, Michael P; Gui, Yu; Zheng, Xi-Long

    2016-02-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3?, a serine/threonine kinase with an inhibitory role in glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes and skeletal muscle, is also expressed in cardiac and smooth muscles. Inhibition of GSK-3? results in cardiac hypertrophy through reducing phosphorylation and increasing transcriptional activity of myocardin, a transcriptional co-activator for serum response factor. Myocardin plays critical roles in differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). This study, therefore, aimed to examine whether and how inhibition of GSK-3? regulates myocardin activity in human vascular SMCs. Treatment of SMCs with the GSK-3? inhibitors AR-A014418 and TWS 119 significantly reduced endogenous myocardin activity, as indicated by lower expression of myocardin target genes (and gene products), CNN1 (calponin), TAGLN1 (SM22), and ACTA2 (SM ?-actin). In human SMCs overexpressing myocardin through the T-REx system, treatment with either GSK-3? inhibitor also inhibited the expression of CNN1, TAGLN1, and ACTA2. These effects of GSK-3? inhibitors were mimicked by transfection with GSK-3? siRNA. Notably, both AR-A014418 and TWS 119 decreased the serine/threonine phosphorylation of myocardin. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that AR-A014418 treatment reduced myocardin occupancy of the promoter of the myocardin target gene ACTA2. Overexpression of a dominant-negative GSK-3? mutant in myocardin-overexpressing SMCs reduced the expression of calponin, SM22, and SM ?-actin. As expected, overexpression of constitutively active or wild-type GSK-3? in SMCs without myocardin overexpression increased expression of these proteins. In summary, our results indicate that inhibition of GSK-3? reduces myocardin transcriptional activity, suggesting a role for GSK-3? in myocardin transcriptional activity and smooth muscle differentiation. PMID:26129946

  8. Lipopolysaccharide induces nitric oxide synthase expression and platelet-activating factor increases nitric oxide production in human fetal membranes in culture

    OpenAIRE

    Seyffarth Gunter; Nelson Paul N; Dunmore Simon J; Rodrigo Nalinda; Murphy Damian J; Carson Ray J

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Platelet-activating factor and nitric oxide may be involved in the initiation of human labour as inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study was to test whether platelet-activating factor and lipopolysaccharide were able to induce nitric oxide synthase expression and stimulate the production of nitric oxide in human fetal membrane explants in culture. Methods Fetal membranes were collected from Caesarean sections at term. RNA was extracted from membranes and subjected to...

  9. Pharmacologic Inhibition of Sphingomyelin Synthase (SMS) Activity Reduces Apolipoprotein-B Secretion from Hepatocytes and Attenuates Endotoxin-Mediated Macrophage Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Bin; Dong, Jibin; LI, YALI; Ding, Tingbo; Bi, Tingting; Li, Yue; Deng, Xiaodong; Ye, Deyong; Jiang, Xian-cheng

    2014-01-01

    Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) plays an important role in plasma atherogenic lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation, and the development of atherosclerosis. To understand whether the impaired apoB secretion and inflammation response is a direct result from lack of SMS activity, in this study, we prepared a series of compounds that inhibit SMS activity. Further, we characterized Dy105, the most potent inhibitor. We found that Dy105 treatment significantly reduces SM levels in SM-rich microdomain o...

  10. Aurone synthase is a catechol oxidase with hydroxylase activity and provides insights into the mechanism of plant polyphenol oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette

    2016-03-29

    Tyrosinases and catechol oxidases belong to the family of polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). Tyrosinases catalyze theo-hydroxylation and oxidation of phenolic compounds, whereas catechol oxidases were so far defined to lack the hydroxylation activity and catalyze solely the oxidation ofo-diphenolic compounds. Aurone synthase fromCoreopsis grandiflora(AUS1) is a specialized plant PPO involved in the anabolic pathway of aurones. We present, to our knowledge, the first crystal structures of a latent plant PPO, its mature active and inactive form, caused by a sulfation of a copper binding histidine. Analysis of the latent proenzyme's interface between the shielding C-terminal domain and the main core provides insights into its activation mechanisms. As AUS1 did not accept common tyrosinase substrates (tyrosine and tyramine), the enzyme is classified as a catechol oxidase. However, AUS1 showed hydroxylase activity toward its natural substrate (isoliquiritigenin), revealing that the hydroxylase activity is not correlated with the acceptance of common tyrosinase substrates. Therefore, we propose that the hydroxylase reaction is a general functionality of PPOs. Molecular dynamics simulations of docked substrate-enzyme complexes were performed, and a key residue was identified that influences the plant PPO's acceptance or rejection of tyramine. Based on the evidenced hydroxylase activity and the interactions of specific residues with the substrates during the molecular dynamics simulations, a novel catalytic reaction mechanism for plant PPOs is proposed. The presented results strongly suggest that the physiological role of plant catechol oxidases were previously underestimated, as they might hydroxylate their-so far unknown-natural substrates in vivo. PMID:26976571

  11. Sp1 cooperates with Sp3 to upregulate MALAT1 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ziling; Huang, Lanshan; Shen, Siqiao; Li, Jia; Lu, Huiping; Mo, Weijia; Dang, Yiwu; Luo, Dianzhong; Chen, Gang; Feng, Zhenbo

    2015-11-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), also known as nuclear-enriched transcript 2 (NEAT2), is highly conserved among mammals and highly expressed in the nucleus. It was first identified in lung cancer as a prognostic marker for metastasis but is also associated with several other solid tumors. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), MALAT1 is a novel biomarker for predicting tumor recurrence after liver transplantation. The mechanism of overexpression in tumor progression remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of specificity protein 1/3 (Sp1/3) in regulation of MALAT1 transcription in HCC cells. The results showed a high expression of Sp1, Sp3 and MALAT1 in HCC vs. paired non-tumor liver tissues, which was associated with the AFP level (Sp1, r=7.44, P=0.0064; MALAT1, r=12.37, P=0.0004). Co-silencing of Sp1 and Sp3 synergistically repressed MALAT1 expression. Sp1 binding inhibitor, mithramycin A (MIT), also inhibited MALAT1 expression in HCC cells. In conclusion, the upstream of MALAT1 contains five Sp1/3 binding sites, which may be responsible for MALAT1 transcription. Inhibitors, such as MIT, provide a potential therapeutic strategy for HCC patients with MALAT1 overexpression. PMID:26352013

  12. Inter-domain communication of human cystathionine ?-synthase: structural basis of S-adenosyl-L-methionine activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorvie, Thomas J; Kopec, Jolanta; Hyung, Suk-Joon; Fitzpatrick, Fiona; Feng, Xidong; Termine, Daniel; Strain-Damerell, Claire; Vollmar, Melanie; Fleming, James; Janz, Jay M; Bulawa, Christine; Yue, Wyatt W

    2014-12-26

    Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) is a key enzyme in sulfur metabolism, and its inherited deficiency causes homocystinuria. Mammalian CBS is modulated by the binding of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to its regulatory domain, which activates its catalytic domain. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we performed x-ray crystallography, mutagenesis, and mass spectrometry (MS) on human CBS. The 1.7 structure of a AdoMet-bound CBS regulatory domain shows one AdoMet molecule per monomer, at the interface between two constituent modules (CBS-1, CBS-2). AdoMet binding is accompanied by a reorientation between the two modules, relative to the AdoMet-free basal state, to form interactions with AdoMet via residues verified by mutagenesis to be important for AdoMet binding (Phe(443), Asp(444), Gln(445), and Asp(538)) and for AdoMet-driven inter-domain communication (Phe(443), Asp(538)). The observed structural change is further supported by ion mobility MS, showing that as-purified CBS exists in two conformational populations, which converged to one in the presence of AdoMet. We therefore propose that AdoMet-induced conformational change alters the interface and arrangement between the catalytic and regulatory domains within the CBS oligomer, thereby increasing the accessibility of the enzyme active site for catalysis. PMID:25336647

  13. Flavone inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, nitric oxide production and protein S-nitrosylation in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Yang, Bingwu; Fu, Huiling; Ma, Long; Liu, Tingting; Chai, Rongfei; Zheng, Zhaodi; Zhang, Qunye; Li, Guorong

    2015-03-13

    As the core structure of flavonoids, flavone has been proved to possess anticancer effects. Flavone's growth inhibitory functions are related to NO. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and generally increased in a variety of cancer cells. NO regulates multiple cellular responses by S-nitrosylation. In this study, we explored flavone-induced regulations on nitric oxide (NO)-related cellular processes in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that, flavone suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Flavone restrains NO synthesis by does-dependent inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity. The decrease of NO generation was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Flavone-induced inhibitory effect on NOS activity is dependent on intact cell structure. For the NO-induced protein modification, flavone treatment significantly down-regulated protein S-nitrosylation, which was detected by "Biotin-switch" method. The present study provides a novel, NO-related mechanism for the anticancer function of flavone. PMID:25680459

  14. Nitric Oxide Synthase Activation as a Trigger of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-Induced Photoreceptor Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Suguru; Koriyama, Yoshiki; Ogai, Kazuhiro; Sugitani, Kayo; Kato, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Retinal degeneration (RD) such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration are major causes of blindness in adulthood. As one of the model for RD, intraperitoneal injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) is widely used because of its selective photoreceptor cell death. It has been reported that MNU increases intracellular calcium ions in the retina and induces photoreceptor cell death. Although calcium ion influx triggers the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activation, the role of nNOS on photoreceptor cell death by MNU has not been reported yet. In this study, we investigated the contribution of nNOS on photoreceptor cell death induced by MNU in mice. MNU significantly increased NOS activation at 3 day after treatment. Then, we evaluated the effect of nNOS specific inhibitor, ethyl[4-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl]carbamimidothioate (ETPI) on the MNU-induced photoreceptor cell death. At 3 days, ETPI clearly inhibited the MNU-induced cell death in the ONL. These data indicate that nNOS is a key molecule for pathogenesis of MNU-induced photoreceptor cell death. PMID:26427435

  15. Synthesis of alkyl-ether glycerophospholipids in rat glomerular mesangial cells: evidence for alkyldihydroxyacetone phosphate synthase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the ability of rat glomerular mesangial cells and their microsomal fractions to incorporate 1-[14C]hexadecanol to glycerophospholipids via an O-alkyl ether linkage and assessed the presence and activity of the required enzyme: alkyl-dihydroxy acetone phosphate synthase. Suspensions of cultured mesangial cells incorporated 1-[14C]hexadecanol to the phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl choline lipid pools, via a bond resistant to acid and base hydrolysis. When cell homogenates or microsomal fractions were incubated with palmitoyl-DHAP and 1-[14C]hexadecanol, alkyl-DHAP and 1-O-alkyl glycerol were formed (alkyl:hexadecyl). The activity of the enzyme responsible for the O-alkyl product formation was calculated to be 2.5 +/- 0.3 and 544 +/- 50 pmoles/min/mg protein for mesangial cell homogenates and mesangial cell microsomes, respectively. These observations provide evidence that mesangial cells may elaborate either linked lipid precursors de novo for the biosynthesis of O-alkyl glycerophospholipids

  16. Changes in the profile of NO synthases affect coronary blood flow autoregulation and myocardial contractile activity during restraint stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodkov, A P; Lazuko, S S; Knyazev, E N; Nechaev, I N; Krainova, N A

    2014-12-01

    The efficiency of autoregulation of the coronary blood flow and contractile activity of the myocardium in the presence of inhibitors of constitutive and inducible NO synthases was studied in rats exposed to 6-h restraint stress. Intracoronary administration of S-methylisothiourea (10 μmol/liter), but not L-NAME (60 μmol/liter) fully prevented post-stress increase in the volume coronary blood flow rate, intensity of heart perfusion, and reduction of ventricular developed pressure at all levels of perfusion pressure. Real-time PCR showed 6-fold increased expression of inducible NO-synthase mRNA in the heart tissue against the background of unchanged expression of neuronal and endothelial NO synthases and 2-3-fold elevated content of transcripts of stress-inducible genes Hspa1a and Hspbp1. It was shown that the hypotension of coronary vessels and reduced contractile function of the myocardium are related to NO production by inducible NO synthase in endotheliocytes of coronary vessels and cardiomyocytes. PMID:25430647

  17. Decarboxylation of Malate in the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) fedtschenkoi (Role of NAD-Malic Enzyme).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. M.; Lindsay, J. G.; Wilkins, M. B.; Nimmo, H. G.

    1995-12-01

    The role of NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) in the Crassulacean acid metabolism plant Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) fedtschenkoi was investigated using preparations of intact and solubilized mitochondria from fully expanded leaves. Intact, coupled mitochondria isolated during the day or night did not differ in their ability to take up [14C]malic acid from the surrounding medium or to respire using malate or succinate as substrate. However, intact mitochondria isolated from plants during the day decarboxylated added malate to pyruvate significantly faster than mitochondria isolated from plants at night. NAD-ME activity in solubilized mitochondrial extracts showed hysteretic kinetics and was stimulated by a number of activators, including acetyl-coenzyme A, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, and sulfate ions. In the absence of these effectors, reaction progress curves were nonlinear, with a pronounced acceleration phase. The lag period before a steady-state rate was reached in assays of mitochondrial extracts decreased during the photoperiod and increased slowly during the period of darkness. However, these changes in the kinetic properties of the enzyme could not account for the changes in the rate of decarboxylation of malate by intact mitochondria. Gel-filtration experiments showed that mitochondrial extracts contained three forms of NAD-ME with different molecular weights. The relative proportions of the three forms varied somewhat throughout the light/dark cycle, but this did not account for the changes in the kinetics behavior of the enzyme during the diurnal cycle. PMID:12228671

  18. Observation of cytoplasmic and vacuolar malate in maize root tips by 13C-NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of malate by maize (Zea mays L.) root tips perfused with KH13CO3 was followed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectra contained distinct signals from two pools of malate in maize root tips, one at a pH ?5.3 (assigned to the vacuole) and one at a pH > 6.5 (assigned to the cytoplasm). The ratio of cytoplasmic to vacuolar malate was lower in 12 millimeter long root tips than in 2 millimeter root tips. The relatively broad width of the signals from C1- and C4-labeled vacuolar malate indicated heterogeneity in vacuolar pH. During the 3 hour KH13CO3 treatment, 13C-malate accumulated first primarily in the cytoplasm, increasing to a fairly constant level of ?6 millimolar by 1 hour. After a lag, vacuolar malate increased throughout the experiment. (author)

  19. Up-regulation of fatty acid synthase induced by EGFR/ERK activation promotes tumor growth in pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Yong, E-mail: drbiany@126.com [Department of Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 210023 (China); Yu, Yun [College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 210023 (China); Wang, Shanshan; Li, Lin [Department of Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 210023 (China)

    2015-08-07

    Lipid metabolism is dysregulated in many human diseases including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cancers. Fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key lipogenic enzyme involved in de novo lipid biosynthesis, is significantly upregulated in multiple types of human cancers and associates with tumor progression. However, limited data is available to understand underlying biological functions and clinical significance of overexpressed FASN in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here, upregulated FASN was more frequently observed in PDAC tissues compared with normal pancreas in a tissue microarray. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that high expression level of FASN resulted in a significantly poor prognosis of PDAC patients. Knockdown or inhibition of endogenous FASN decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis in HPAC and AsPC-1 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that EGFR/ERK signaling accounts for elevated FASN expression in PDAC as ascertained by performing siRNA assays and using specific pharmacological inhibitors. Collectively, our results indicate that FASN exhibits important roles in tumor growth and EGFR/ERK pathway is responsible for upregulated expression of FASN in PDAC. - Highlights: • Increased expression of FASN indicates a poor prognosis in PDAC. • Elevated FASN favors tumor growth in PDAC in vitro. • Activation of EGFR signaling contributes to elevated FASN expression.

  20. Nitric oxide synthase-dependent NADPH-diaphorase activity in the optic lobes of male and female Ceratitis capitata mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Roda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is acknowledged as a messenger molecule in the nervous system with a pivotal role in the modulation of the chemosensory information. It has been shown to be present in the optic lobes of several insect species. In the present study, we used males and females from four different strains of the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae: or; or,wp (both orange eyed; w,M360 and w,Heraklion (both white eyed, as models to further clarify the involvement of NO in the mutants visual system and differences in its activity and localization in the sexes. Comparison of the localization pattern of NO synthase (NOS, through NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd staining, in the optic lobes of the four strains, revealed a stronger reaction intensity in the retina and in the neuropile region lamina than in medulla and lobula. Interestingly, the intensity of NADPHd staining differs, at least in some strains, in the optic lobes of the two sexes; all the areas are generally strongly labelled in the males of the or and w,M360 strains, whereas the w,Heraklion and or,wp mutants do not show evident sexdependent NADPHd staining. Taken as a whole, our data point to NO as a likely transmitter candidate in the visual information processes in insects, with a possible correlation among NOS distribution, eye pigmentation and visual function in C. capitata males. Moreover, NO could influence behavioural differences linked to vision in the two sexes.

  1. Up-regulation of fatty acid synthase induced by EGFR/ERK activation promotes tumor growth in pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipid metabolism is dysregulated in many human diseases including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cancers. Fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key lipogenic enzyme involved in de novo lipid biosynthesis, is significantly upregulated in multiple types of human cancers and associates with tumor progression. However, limited data is available to understand underlying biological functions and clinical significance of overexpressed FASN in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here, upregulated FASN was more frequently observed in PDAC tissues compared with normal pancreas in a tissue microarray. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that high expression level of FASN resulted in a significantly poor prognosis of PDAC patients. Knockdown or inhibition of endogenous FASN decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis in HPAC and AsPC-1 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that EGFR/ERK signaling accounts for elevated FASN expression in PDAC as ascertained by performing siRNA assays and using specific pharmacological inhibitors. Collectively, our results indicate that FASN exhibits important roles in tumor growth and EGFR/ERK pathway is responsible for upregulated expression of FASN in PDAC. - Highlights: • Increased expression of FASN indicates a poor prognosis in PDAC. • Elevated FASN favors tumor growth in PDAC in vitro. • Activation of EGFR signaling contributes to elevated FASN expression

  2. Distinct parts of leukotriene C{sub 4} synthase interact with 5-lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase activating protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strid, Tobias; Svartz, Jesper; Franck, Niclas; Hallin, Elisabeth; Ingelsson, Bjoern; Soederstroem, Mats [Division of Cell biology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hammarstroem, Sven, E-mail: sven.hammarstrom@liu.se [Division of Cell biology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2009-04-17

    Leukotriene C{sub 4} is a potent inflammatory mediator formed from arachidonic acid and glutathione. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) and leukotriene C{sub 4} synthase (LTC{sub 4}S) participate in its biosynthesis. We report evidence that LTC{sub 4}S interacts in vitro with both FLAP and 5-LO and that these interactions involve distinct parts of LTC{sub 4}S. FLAP bound to the N-terminal part/first hydrophobic region of LTC{sub 4}S. This part did not bind 5-LO which bound to the second hydrophilic loop of LTC{sub 4}S. Fluorescent FLAP- and LTC{sub 4}S-fusion proteins co-localized at the nuclear envelope. Furthermore, GFP-FLAP and GFP-LTC{sub 4}S co-localized with a fluorescent ER marker. In resting HEK293/T or COS-7 cells GFP-5-LO was found mainly in the nuclear matrix. Upon stimulation with calcium ionophore, GFP-5-LO translocated to the nuclear envelope allowing it to interact with FLAP and LTC{sub 4}S. Direct interaction of 5-LO and LTC{sub 4}S in ionophore-stimulated (but not un-stimulated) cells was demonstrated by BRET using GFP-5-LO and Rluc-LTC{sub 4}S.

  3. L-Malate content in irradiated onions (Allium Cepa L.) cv. Valenciana sintetica 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of L-malate evaluation in control and irradiated onions, (v. 'Valenciana sintetica 14') and its correlation with sprouting cumulative values are reported. It was concluded that if on the 150th day of storage, the malate content reaches a maximum value and the sprouting is 1 per cent or less, then it would indicate that the samples have been irradiated. L-malate values are positively correlated to sprouting in control samples, while for irradiated ones correlation was negative. (author)

  4. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon) and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of fatty-acid synthase gene (FASN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Park, Hyejin; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Koh, Dong-In; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Choong-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Osborne, Timothy F; Hur, Man-Wook

    2008-10-24

    FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a proto-oncogenic transcription factor of the BTB/POZ (bric-à-brac, tramtrack, and broad complex and pox virus zinc finger) domain family. Recent evidence suggested that FBI-1 might be involved in adipogenic gene expression. Coincidentally, expression of FBI-1 and fatty-acid synthase (FASN) genes are often increased in cancer and immortalized cells. Both FBI-1 and FASN are important in cancer cell proliferation. SREBP-1 is a major regulator of many adipogenic genes, and FBI-1 and SREBP-1 (sterol-responsive element (SRE)-binding protein 1) interact with each other directly via their DNA binding domains. FBI-1 enhanced the transcriptional activation of SREBP-1 on responsive promoters, pGL2-6x(SRE)-Luc and FASN gene. FBI-1 and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of the FASN gene by acting on the proximal GC-box and SRE/E-box. FBI-1, Sp1, and SREBP-1 can bind to all three SRE, GC-box, and SRE/E-box. Binding competition among the three transcription factors on the GC-box and SRE/E-box appears important in the transcription regulation. FBI-1 is apparently changing the binding pattern of Sp1 and SREBP-1 on the two elements in the presence of induced SREBP-1 and drives more Sp1 binding to the proximal promoter with less of an effect on SREBP-1 binding. The changes induced by FBI-1 appear critical in the synergistic transcription activation. The molecular mechanism revealed provides insight into how proto-oncogene FBI-1 may attack the cellular regulatory mechanism of FASN gene expression to provide more phospholipid membrane components needed for rapid cancer cell proliferation. PMID:18682402

  5. Increased nitric oxide synthase activity despite lack of response to endothelium-dependent vasodilators in postischemic acute renal failure in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Conger, J; Robinette, J; A Villar; Raij, L; Shultz, P

    1995-01-01

    Lack of response to endothelium-dependent vasodilators generally has been considered to be evidence for decreased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and NO generation after ischemic or hypoxic injury to vital organs including the kidney. In this study, renal blood flow (RBF) responses to endothelium-dependent vasodilators acetylcholine and bradykinin and the endothelium-independent vasodilator prostacyclin, the nonselective NOS inhibitor L-NAME (without and with L-arginine), the inducible N...

  6. Changes in Phytochemical Synthesis, Chalcone Synthase Activity and Pharmaceutical Qualities of Sabah Snake Grass (Clinacanthus nutans L.) in Relation to Plant Age

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ghasemzadeh; Alireza Nasiri; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ali Baghdadi; Izham Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, changes in secondary metabolite synthesis and the pharmaceutical quality of sabah snake grass leaves and buds were considered in relation to plant age (1 month, 6 months, and 1 year old). The activity of the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS, EC 2.3.1.74) was measured, as it is a key enzyme for flavonoid production. Significant differences in total flavonoid (TF) production were observed between the three plant growth periods and the different plant parts. The highest conten...

  7. The N-terminal portion of autoinhibitory element modulates human endothelial nitric-oxide synthase activity through coordinated controls of phosphorylation at Thr495 and Ser1177

    OpenAIRE

    Pei‑Rung Wu; Bo‑Rui Chen; Chi‑Chun Hsieh; Wei‑Chung Lin; Kenneth K. Wu; Yeukuang Hwu; Pei‑Feng Chen

    2014-01-01

    NO production catalysed by eNOS (endothelial nitric-oxide synthase) plays an important role in the cardiovascular system. A variety of agonists activate eNOS through the Ser1177 phosphorylation concomitant with Thr495 dephosphorylation, resulting in increased ·NO production with a basal level of calcium. To date, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We have previously demonstrated that perturbation of the AIE (autoinhibitory element) in the FMN-binding subdomain can also lead to eNOS act...

  8. Tl+ induces the permeability transition pore in Ca2+-loaded rat liver mitochondria energized by glutamate and malate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, Sergey M; Emelyanova, Larisa V; Konovalova, Svetlana A; Brailovskaya, Irina V

    2015-08-01

    It is known that Ca2+ and heavy metals more actively induce MPTP opening in mitochondria, energized by the I complex substrates. Thus, a rise in a Tl+-induced MPTP was proposed in experiments on isolated rat liver mitochondria energized by the complex I substrate (glutamate and malate). Expose of the mitochondria to Ca2+ into a medium containing TlNO3, glutamate, and malate as well as sucrose or KNO3 resulted in a decrease in state 3, state 4, or DNP-stimulated respiration as well as an increase of both mitochondrial swelling and ??mito dissipation. The MPTP inhibitors, CsA and ADP, almost completely eliminated the effect of Ca2+, which was more pronounced in the presence of the complex I substrates than the complex II substrate (succinate) and rotenone (Korotkov and Saris, 2011). The present study concludes that Tl+-induced MPTP opening is more appreciable in mitochondria energized by glutamate and malate but not succinate in the presence of rotenone. We assume that the Tl+-induced MPTP opening along with followed swelling and possible structural deformations of the complex I in Ca2+-loaded mitochondria may be a part of the thallium toxicity mechanism on mitochondria in living organisms. At the same time, oxidation of Tl+ to Tl3+ by mitochondrial oxygen reactive species is proposed for the mechanism. PMID:25910914

  9. Long Non-Coding RNA Malat-1 Is Dispensable during Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Remodeling and Failure in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Tim; Hermans-Beijnsberger, Steffie; Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Bitsch, Nicole; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V.; de Windt, Leon J.; van Oort, Ralph J.; Heymans, Stephane; Schroen, Blanche

    2016-01-01

    Background Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of RNA molecules with diverse regulatory functions during embryonic development, normal life, and disease in higher organisms. However, research on the role of lncRNAs in cardiovascular diseases and in particular heart failure is still in its infancy. The exceptionally well conserved nuclear lncRNA Metastasis associated in lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (Malat-1) is a regulator of mRNA splicing and highly expressed in the heart. Malat-1 modulates hypoxia-induced vessel growth, activates ERK/MAPK signaling, and scavenges the anti-hypertrophic microRNA-133. We therefore hypothesized that Malat-1 may act as regulator of cardiac hypertrophy and failure during cardiac pressure overload induced by thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) in mice. Results Absence of Malat-1 did not affect cardiac hypertrophy upon pressure overload: Heart weight to tibia length ratio significantly increased in WT mice (sham: 5.780.55, TAC 9.791.82 g/mm; p<0.001) but to a similar extend also in Malat-1 knockout (KO) mice (sham: 6.211.12, TAC 8.911.74 g/mm; p<0.01) with no significant difference between genotypes. As expected, TAC significantly reduced left ventricular fractional shortening in WT (sham: 38.816.53%, TAC: 23.1411.99%; p<0.01) but to a comparable degree also in KO mice (sham: 37.014.19%, TAC: 25.989.75%; p<0.05). Histological hallmarks of myocardial remodeling, such as cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, increased interstitial fibrosis, reduced capillary density, and immune cell infiltration, did not differ significantly between WT and KO mice after TAC. In line, the absence of Malat-1 did not significantly affect angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy, dysfunction, and overall remodeling. Above that, pressure overload by TAC significantly induced mRNA levels of the hypertrophy marker genes Nppa, Nppb and Acta1, to a similar extend in both genotypes. Alternative splicing of Ndrg2 after TAC was apparent in WT (isoform ratio; sham: 2.970.26, TAC 1.570.40; p<0.0001) and KO mice (sham: 3.640.37; TAC: 2.240.76; p<0.0001) and interestingly differed between genotypes both at baseline and after pressure overload (p<0.05 each). Conclusion These findings confirm a role for the lncRNA Malat-1 in mRNA splicing. However, no critical role for Malat-1 was found in pressure overload-induced heart failure in mice, despite its reported role in vascularization, ERK/MAPK signaling, and regulation of miR-133. PMID:26919721

  10. Efficient heterocyclisation by (di)terpene synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafu, S; Potter, K C; Hillwig, M L; Schulte, S; Criswell, J; Peters, R J

    2015-09-11

    While cyclic ether forming terpene synthases are known, the basis for such heterocyclisation is unclear. Here it is reported that numerous (di)terpene synthases, particularly including the ancestral ent-kaurene synthase, efficiently produce isomers of manoyl oxide from the stereochemically appropriate substrate. Accordingly, such heterocyclisation is easily accomplished by terpene synthases. Indeed, the use of single residue changes to induce production of the appropriate substrate in the upstream active site leads to efficient bifunctional enzymes producing isomers of manoyl oxide, representing novel enzymatic activity. PMID:26214384

  11. Hypoxia-induced endothelial NO synthase gene transcriptional activation is mediated through the tax-responsive element in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jiho; Jin, Yoon-Mi; Moon, Je-Sung; Sung, Min-Sun; Jo, Sangmee Ahn; Jo, Inho

    2006-06-01

    Although hypoxia is known to induce upregulation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) gene expression, the underlying mechanism is largely unclear. In this study, we show that hypoxia increases eNOS gene expression through the binding of phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein (pCREB) to the eNOS gene promoter. Hypoxia (1% O2) increased both eNOS expression and NO production, peaking at 24 hours, in bovine aortic endothelial cells, and these increases were accompanied by increases in pCREB. Treatment with the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 or transfection with dominant-negative inhibitor of CREB reversed the hypoxia-induced increases in eNOS expression and NO production, with concomitant inhibition of the phosphorylation of CREB induced by hypoxia, suggesting an involvement of protein kinase A/pCREB-mediated pathway. To map the regulatory elements of the eNOS gene responsible for pCREB binding under hypoxia, we constructed an eNOS gene promoter (-1600 to +22 nucleotides) fused with a luciferase reporter gene [pGL2-eNOS(-1600)]. Hypoxia (for 24-hour incubation) increased the promoter activity by 2.36+/-0.18-fold in the bovine aortic endothelial cells transfected with pGL2-eNOS(-1600). However, progressive 5'-deletion from -1600 to -873 completely attenuated the hypoxia-induced increase in promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift, anti-pCREB antibody supershift, and site-specific mutation analyses showed that pCREB is bound to the Tax-responsive element (TRE) site, a cAMP-responsive element-like site, located at -924 to -921 of the eNOS promoter. Our data demonstrate that the interaction between pCREB and the Tax-responsive element site within the eNOS promoter may represent a novel mechanism for the mediation of hypoxia-stimulated eNOS gene expression. PMID:16651461

  12. Reduced spinal microglial activation and neuropathic pain after nerve injury in mice lacking all three nitric oxide synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimokawa Hiroaki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated the involvement of nitric oxide (NO in acute and chronic pain using mice lacking a single NO synthase (NOS gene among the three isoforms: neuronal (nNOS, inducible (iNOS and endothelial (eNOS. However, the precise role of NOS/NO in pain states remains to be determined owing to the substantial compensatory interactions among the NOS isoforms. Therefore, in this study, we used mice lacking all three NOS genes (n/i/eNOS-/-mice and investigated the behavioral phenotypes in a series of acute and chronic pain assays. Results In a model of tissue injury-induced pain, evoked by intraplantar injection of formalin, both iNOS-/-and n/i/eNOS-/-mice exhibited attenuations of pain behaviors in the second phase compared with that in wild-type mice. In a model of neuropathic pain, nerve injury-induced behavioral and cellular responses (tactile allodynia, spinal microglial activation and Src-family kinase phosphorylation were reduced in n/i/eNOS-/-but not iNOS-/-mice. Tactile allodynia after nerve injury was improved by acute pharmacological inhibition of all NOSs and nNOS. Furthermore, in MG-5 cells (a microglial cell-line, interferon-? enhanced NOSs and Mac-1 mRNA expression, and the Mac-1 mRNA increase was suppressed by L-NAME co-treatment. Conversely, the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, markedly increased mRNA expression of Mac-1, interleukin-6, toll-like receptor 4 and P2X4 receptor. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that the NOS/NO pathway contributes to behavioral pain responses evoked by tissue injury and nerve injury. In particular, nNOS may be important for spinal microglial activation and tactile allodynia after nerve injury.

  13. Inibio da atividade da citrato sintase cerebral em um modelo animal de sepse / Inhibition of brain citrate synthase activity in an animal model of sepsis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giselli, Scaini; Natlia, Rochi; Joana, Benedet; Gabriela Kozuchovski, Ferreira; Brena Pereira, Teodorak; Clarissa Martinelli, Comim; Larissa de Souza, Constantino; Francieli, Vuolo; Leandra Celso, Constantino; Joo, Quevedo; Emilio Luiz, Streck; Felipe, Dal-Pizzol.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Um amplo corpo de evidncia oriundo de estudos experimentais indica que a sepse se associa com um aumento da produo de espcies de oxignio reativo, depleo de antioxidantes, e acmulo de marcadores de estresse oxidativo. Alm disto, a disfuno mitocondrial foi implicada na patognese [...] da sndrome de disfuno de mltiplos rgos. A citrato sintase uma enzima que se localiza no interior das clulas, na matriz mitocondrial, sendo uma etapa importante do ciclo de Krebs; esta enzima foi utilizada como um marcador enzimtico quantitativo da presena de mitocndrias intactas. Assim, investigamos a atividade da citrato sintase no crebro de ratos submetidos ao modelo sepse com de ligadura e puno do ceco. MTODOS: Em diferentes horrios (3, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas) aps cirurgia de ligadura e puno do ceco, seis ratos foram sacrificados por decapitao, sendo seus crebros removidos e dissecados o hipocampo, estriato, cerebelo, crtex cerebral e crtex pr-frontal, e utilizados para determinao da atividade de citrato sintase. RESULTADOS: Verificamos que a atividade de citrato sintase no crtex pr-frontal estava inibida aps 12, 24 e 48 horas da ligadura e puno do ceco. No crtex cerebral, esta atividade estava inibida aps 3, 12, 24 e 48 horas da ligadura e puno do ceco. Por outro lado a citrato sintase no foi afetada no hipocampo, estriato e cerebelo at 48 horas aps a ligadura e puno do ceco. CONCLUSO: Considerando-se que bem descrito o comprometimento da energia decorrente da disfuno mitocondrial na sepse, e que o estresse oxidativo desempenha um papel essencial no desenvolvimento da sepse, acreditamos que o comprometimento da energia pode tambm estar evolvido nestes processos. Se a inibio da citrato sintase tambm ocorre em um modelo de sepse, tentador especular que a reduo do metabolismo cerebral pode provavelmente estar relacionada com a fisiopatologia desta doena. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: An extensive body of evidence from experimental studies indicates that sepsis is associated with increased reactive oxygen species production, depletion of antioxidants, and accumulation of markers of oxidative stress. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathoge [...] nesis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Citrate synthase is an enzyme localized in the mitochondrial matrix and an important component of the Krebs cycle; consequently, citrate synthase has been used as a quantitative enzyme marker for the presence of intact mitochondria. Thus, we investigated citrate synthase activity in the brains of rats submitted to a cecal ligation puncture model of sepsis. METHODS: At several times points (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours) after the cecal ligation puncture operation, six rats were killed by decapitation. Their brains were removed, and the hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, cerebral cortex and prefrontal cortex were dissected and used to determine citrate synthase activity. RESULTS: We found that citrate synthase activity in the prefrontal cortex was inhibited 12, 24 and 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. In the cerebral cortex, citrate synthase activity was inhibited 3, 12, 24 and 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. Citrate synthase was not affected in the hippocampus, striatum or cerebellum up to 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. CONCLUSION: Considering that energy impairment due to mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis has been well described and that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in sepsis development, we believe that energy impairment may also be involved in these processes. If citrate synthase inhibition also occurs in a sepsis model, it is tempting to speculate that a reduction in brain metabolism may be related to the pathophysiology of this disease.

  14. A stable blue-light-derived signal modulates ultraviolet-light-induced activation of the chalcone-synthase gene in cultured parsley cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Run-off transcription assays were used to demonstrate that both the ultraviolet (UV)-B and blue-light receptors control transcription rates for chalcone-synthase mRNA in the course of light-induced flavonoid synthesis in parsley (Petroselinum crispum Miller (A.W. Hill)) cell-suspension cultures. Blue and red light alone, presumably acting via a blue-light receptor and active phytochrome (far-red absorbing form) respectively, can induce accumulation of chalcone-synthase mRNA. The extent of the response is however considerably smaller than that obtained when these wavebands are applied in combination with UV light. A preirradiation with blue light strongly increases the response to a subsequent UV pulse and this modulating effect of blue light is stable for at least 20 h. The modulating effect is abolished by a UV induction but can be reestablished by a second irradiation with blue light. (author)

  15. Production of novel fusarielins by ectopic activation of the polyketide synthase 9 cluster in Fusarium graminearum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Hansen, Frederik Teilfeldt; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Staerk, Dan; Lee, T. Verne; Wimmer, Reinhard; Klitgaard, Louise Graabæk; Purup, Stig; Giese, Henriette; Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand

    2012-01-01

    Like many other filamentous fungi, Fusarium graminearum has the genetic potential to produce a vast array of unknown secondary metabolites. A promising approach to determine the nature of these is to activate silent secondary metabolite gene clusters through constitutive expression of cluster spe...... compounds has not previously been reported from F. graminearum or linked to a biosynthetic gene in any fungal species. The toxicity of the three novel fusarielins was examined against colorectal cancer cell lines where fusarielin H was more potent than fusarielin F and G.......Like many other filamentous fungi, Fusarium graminearum has the genetic potential to produce a vast array of unknown secondary metabolites. A promising approach to determine the nature of these is to activate silent secondary metabolite gene clusters through constitutive expression of cluster...... metabolite analyses where aurofusarin and its intermediates are normally among the most abundant compounds. The system was used for constitutive expression of the local transcription factor from the PKS9 cluster (renamed FSL) leading to production of three novel fusarielins, F, G and H. This group of...

  16. The activity of NADH-, NADPH- and Fd-dependent glutamate synthase in the plastids and cytosol of Pisum arvense L. root cells

    OpenAIRE

    Genowefa Kubik-Dobosz

    2014-01-01

    Three forms of glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT, NADPH-GOGAT and Fd-(ferredoxin) GOGAT) were found in the plastids and cytosol of Pisum arvense root cells. The activities of the enzymes of both fractions decreased with increasing age of the plants, with the exception of plastid NADPH-GOGAT which exhibited markedly stable activity. NADH-GOGAT dominated in the cytosol of root cells of several day-old plants but after 14 days of cultivation, the activities of all of the GOGAT forms equalized. Plas...

  17. PhaC and PhaR Are Required for Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acid Synthase Activity in Bacillus megaterium

    OpenAIRE

    McCool, Gabriel J.; Maura C. Cannon

    2001-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHAs) are a class of polyesters stored in inclusion bodies and found in many bacteria and in some archaea. The terminal step in the synthesis of PHA is catalyzed by PHA synthase. Genes encoding this enzyme have been cloned, and the primary sequence of the protein, PhaC, is deduced from the nucleotide sequences of more than 30 organisms. PHA synthases are grouped into three classes based on substrate range, molecular mass, and whether or not there is a requirement fo...

  18. Antifungal Activity of Salvia miltiorrhiza Against Candida albicans Is Associated with the Alteration of Membrane Permeability and (1,3)-β-D-Glucan Synthase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heung-Shick; Kim, Younhee

    2016-03-28

    Candidiasis has posed a serious health risk to immunocompromised patients owing to the increase in resistant yeasts, and Candida albicans is the prominent pathogen of fungal infections. Therefore, there is a critical need for the discovery and characterization of novel antifungals to treat infections caused by C. albicans. In the present study, we report on the antifungal activity of the ethanol extract from Salvia miltiorrhiza against C. albicans and the possible mode of action against C. albicans. The increase in the membrane permeability was evidenced by changes in diphenylhexatriene binding and release of both 260-nm-absorbing intracellular materials and protein. In addition, inhibition of cell wall synthesis was demonstrated by the enhanced minimal inhibitory concentration in the presence of sorbitol and reduced (1,3)-β-D-glucan synthase activity. The above evidence supports the notion that S. miltiorrhiza has antifungal activity against C. albicans by the synergistic activity of targeting the cell membrane and cell wall. These findings indicate that S. miltiorrhiza displays effective activity against C. albicans in vitro and merits further investigation to treat C. albicansassociated infections. PMID:26699747

  19. Multiple soluble malate dehydrogenase of Geophagus brasiliensis (Cichlidae, Perciformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino-Silva Maria Regina de; Schwantes Maria Luiza B.; Schwantes Arno Rudi

    1998-01-01

    A recent locus duplication hypothesis for sMDH-B* was proposed to explain the complex electrophoretic pattern of six bands detected for the soluble form of malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) in 84% of the Geophagus brasiliensis (Cichlidae, Perciformes) analyzed (AB1B2 individuals). Klebe's serial dilutions were carried out in skeletal muscle extracts. B1 and B2 subunits had the same visual end-points, reflecting a nondivergent pattern for these B-duplicated genes. Since there is no evide...

  20. Spectroscopic, thermal and structural studies on manganous malate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J., E-mail: smartlabindia@gmail.com; Lincy, A., E-mail: lincymaria@gmail.com; Mahalakshmi, V.; Saban, K. V. [Smart Materials Analytic Research and Technology (SMART), Department of Physics, St. Berchmans College (India)

    2013-01-15

    Prismatic crystals of manganous malate have been prepared by controlled ionic diffusion in hydrosilica gel. The structure was elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystals are orthorhombic with space group Pbca. Vibrations of the functional groups were identified by the FTIR spectrum. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA) were carried out to explore the thermal decomposition pattern of the material. Structural information derived from FTIR and TG-DTA studies is in conformity with the single crystal XRD data.

  1. The time-dependent effect of provinolsTM on brain NO synthase activity in L-NAME-induced hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jendeková, L.; Kojšová, S.; Andriantsitohaina, R.; Pecháňová, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. S1 (2006), S31-S37. ISSN 0862-8408 Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/6148/26; VEGA(SK) 1/342906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : red wine polyphenols * oxidative damage * nitric oxide synthase Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006

  2. A heterodimer of human 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases is a new sulphate activating complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3'-Phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases are fundamental to mammalian sulphate metabolism. These enzymes have recently been linked to a rising number of human diseases. Despite many studies, it is not yet understood how the mammalian PAPS synthases 1 and 2 interact with each other. We provide first evidence for heterodimerisation of these two enzymes by pull-down assays and Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Kinetics of dimer dissociation/association indicates that these heterodimers form as soon as PAPSS1 and -S2 encounter each other in solution. Affinity of the homo- and heterodimers were found to be in the low nanomolar range using anisotropy measurements employing proteins labelled with the fluorescent dye IAEDANS that - in spite of its low quantum yield - is well suited for anisotropy due to its large Stokes shift. Within its kinase domain, the PAPS synthase heterodimer displays similar substrate inhibition by adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (APS) as the homodimers. Due to divergent catalytic efficacies of PAPSS1 and -S2, the heterodimer might be a way of regulating PAPS synthase function within mammalian cells.

  3. OVEREXPRESSION OF A NODULE-ENHANCED MALATE DEHYDROGENASE INCREASES NITROGEN FIXATION IN ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malate is crucial for symbiotic dinitrogen (N2) fixation, occurring in high concentrations in N2-fixing nodules as the major carbon source for bacteroid respiration. Malate also provides carbon skeletons for the assimilation of fixed nitrogen from ammonia into amino acids and is proposed to be invol...

  4. H2-dependent anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli on L-malate: succinate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, J; Kulla, H; Gottschalk, G

    1976-02-01

    Escherichia coli grew anaerobically on L-malate only in the presence of H2; 91% of the L-malate utilized was converted to succinate. Anaerobically isolated membrane vesicles catalyzed the reduction of fumarate with H2 and contained a b-type cytochrome. Cytochrome c552 was present in the "periplasmic space." PMID:1107323

  5. Independent fluctuations of malate and citrate in the CAM species Clusia hilariana Schltdl. under low light and high light in relation to photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszalski, Zbigniew; Kornas, Andrzej; Rozpądek, Piotr; Fischer-Schliebs, Elke; Lüttge, Ulrich

    2013-03-15

    Clusia hilariana Schltdl. is described in literature as an obligate Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. In the present study we assessed the effect of irradiance with low light (LL, 200μmolm(-2)s(-1)) and high light (HL, 650-740μmolm(-2)s(-1)), on the interdependency of citrate and malate diurnal fluctuations. In plants grown at HL CAM-type oscillations of concentration of citrate and malate were obvious. However, at LL daily courses of both acids do not seem to indicate efficient utilization of these compounds as CO2 and NADPH sources. One week after transferring plants from LL to HL decarboxylation of malate was accelerated. Thus, in the CAM plant C. hilariana two independent rhythms of accumulation and decarboxylation of malate and citrate take place, which appear to be related to photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. Non photochemical quenching (NPQ) of photosystem II, especially well expressed during the evening hours was enhanced. Exposure to HL for 7 d activated oxidative stress protection mechanisms such as the interconversion of violaxanthin (V), antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z) (epoxydation/de-epoxydation) measured as epoxydation state (EPS). This was accompanied by a slight increase in the total amount of these pigments. However, all these changes were not observed in plants exposed to HL for only 2 d. Besides violaxanthin cycle components also lutein, which shows a small, but not significant increase, may be involved in dissipating excess light energy in C. hilariana. PMID:23253483

  6. Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hien, Tran Thi [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Myung Ho [Heart Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon, E-mail: taecheon@ynu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyungsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-{alpha} induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-{alpha}-induced nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

  7. Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-α induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-α-induced nuclear factor-κB activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. ► Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca2+-dependent AMPK. ► Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. ► Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

  8. Protein kinase G inhibits basal and stimulated nitric oxide synthase activity in neonatal ovine lung microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, T A

    2010-06-01

    Protein kinase G (PKG) is abundant in neonatal ovine lung microvascular endothelial cells (LMVECs) but its various functions are not known. To test the hypothesis that PKG plays a role in feedback regulation of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, we studied the effects of modulators of PKG signaling on real time NO release from LMVECs microcultures in 96-well clusters. We used 0.5 - 2.43 microM DAF FM and DAF-FM diacetate to measure amount of NO present in the cells and in the cell bathing medium. We found a dose-response relationship between 8-Br-cGMP (0.02 - 2 microM), a stimulator of PKG activity, and inhibition of basal NO production. The time-course of the effect of 2 microM 8-Br-cGMP on NO production exhibited a parallel shift downwards in the presence of PKG receptor inhibitor, 100 ng/ml DT-2, indicating that 8-Br-cGMP acts through PKG to inhibit NOS. PKG also decreased stimulated NO production: acetylcholine produced raw fluorescence of 59999 +/- 702 and in the presence of 1 mM 8-Br-cGMP the value was 20645 +/- 292 (p < 0.0001) while carbachol produced raw fluorescence of 60600 +/- 890 and in the presence of 1 mM 8-Br-cGMP was 30442 +/- 2000 (p < 0.01). The PKG inhibitor 125 nM guanosine 3'-5'-cyclic-monophosphorothionate-8-Br-Rp isomer increased basal NO production (p < 0.01). NO synthase inhibitor, L-NNA reversed this effect (p < 0.05) as well as that of another PKG inhibitor 25 microM Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS but enhanced the effect of 25 microM 8-Br-cGMP. Both basal and stimulated NO production is regulated by the downstream activation of PKG by NO-induced 8-Br-cGMP production in endothelial cells. PMID:21117404

  9. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants......, while expression of the nahG salicylate hydroxylase reduces AtGsl5 mRNA levels in the mpk4 mutant. These results indicate that AtGsl5 is likely involved in callose synthesis in flowering tissues and in the mpk4 mutant....

  10. Changes in apoplastic pH and membrane potential in leaves in relation to stomatal responses to CO2, malate, abscisic acid or interruption of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrich, R; Neimanis, S; Savchenko, G; Felle, H H; Kaiser, W M; Heber, U

    2001-08-01

    Low CO2 concentrations open CO2-sensitive stomata whereas elevated CO2 levels close them. This CO2 response is maintained in the dark. To elucidate mechanisms underlying the dark CO2 response we introduced pH- and potential-sensitive dyes into the apoplast of leaves. After mounting excised leaves in a gas-exchange chamber, changes in extracellular proton concentration and transmembrane potential differences as well as transpiration and respiration were simultaneously monitored. Upon an increase in CO2 concentration transient changes in apoplastic pH (occasionally brief acidification, but always followed by alkalinization) and in membrane potential (brief hyperpolarization followed by depolarization) accompanied stomatal closure. Alkalinization and depolarization were also observed when leaves were challenged with abscisic acid or when water flow was interrupted. During stomatal opening in response to CO2-free air the apoplastic pH increased while the membrane potential initially depolarized before it transiently hyperpolarized. To examine whether changes in apoplastic malate concentrations represent a closing signal for stomata, malate was fed into the transpiration stream. Although malate caused apoplastic alkalinization and membrane depolarization reminiscent of the effects observed with CO2 and abscisic acid, this dicarboxylate closed the stomata only partially and less effectively than CO2. Apoplastic alkalinization was also observed and stomata closed partially when KCl was fed to the leaves. Respiration increased on feeding of malate or KCl, or while abscisic acid closed the stomate. From these results we conclude that CO2 signals modulate the activity of plasma-membrane ion channels and of plasmalemma H+-ATPases during changes in stomatal aperture. Responses to potassium malate and KCl are not restricted to guard cells and neighbouring cells. PMID:11556792

  11. In-silico docking based design and synthesis of [1H,3H] imidazo[4,5-b] pyridines as lumazine synthase inhibitors for their effective antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil L Harer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The imidazopyridine moiety is important pharmacophore that has proven to be useful for a number of biologically relevant targets, also reported to display antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral properties. Riboflavin biosynthesis involving catalytic step of Lumazine synthase is absent in animals and human, but present in microorganism, one of marked advantage of this study. Still, this path is not exploited as antiinfective target. Here, we proposed different interactions between [1H,3H] imidazo[4,5-b] pyridine test ligands and target protein Lumazine synthase (protein Data Bank 2C92, one-step synthesis of title compounds and further evaluation of them for in vitro antimicrobial activity. Materials and Methods: Active pocket of the target protein involved in the interaction with the test ligands molecules was found using Biopredicta tools in VLifeMDS 4.3 Suite. In-silico docking suggests H-bonding, hydrophobic interaction, charge interaction, aromatic interaction, and Vanderwaal forces responsible for stabilizing enzyme-inhibitor complex. Disc diffusion assay method was used for in vitro antimicrobial screening. Results and Discussion: Investigation of possible interaction between test ligands and target lumazine synthase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggested 1i and 2f as best fit candidates showing hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic, aromatic and Vanderwaal′s forces. Among all derivatives 1g, 1j, 1k, 1l, 2a, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2h, and 2j exhibited potent activities against bacteria and fungi compared to the standard Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole, respectively. The superiority of 1H imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine compounds having R′ = Cl >No 2 > NH 2 at the phenyl/aliphatic moiety resident on the imidazopyridine, whereas leading 3H imidazo[4,5-b] pyridine compounds containing R/Ar = Cl > No 2 > NH 2> OCH 3 substituents on the 2 nd position of imidazole.

  12. Fluvoxamine alters the activity of energy metabolism enzymes in the brain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela K., Ferreira; Mariane R., Cardoso; Isabela C., Jeremias; Cinara L., Gonalves; Karolina V., Freitas; Rafaela, Antonini; Giselli, Scaini; Gislaine T., Rezin; Joo, Quevedo; Emilio L., Streck.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies support the hypothesis that metabolism impairment is involved in the pathophysiology of depression and that some antidepressants act by modulating brain energy metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and cre [...] atine kinase in the brain of rats subjected to prolonged administration of fluvoxamine. Methods: Wistar rats received daily administration of fluvoxamine in saline (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) for 14 days. Twelve hours after the last administration, rats were killed by decapitation and the prefrontal cortex, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were rapidly isolated. Results: The activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV were decreased after prolonged administration of fluvoxamine in rats. However, the activities of complex II, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase were increased. Conclusions: Alterations in activity of energy metabolism enzymes were observed in most brain areas analyzed. Thus, we suggest that the decrease in citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV can be related to adverse effects of pharmacotherapy, but long-term molecular adaptations cannot be ruled out. In addition, we demonstrated that these changes varied according to brain structure or biochemical analysis and were not dose-dependent.

  13. Fluvoxamine alters the activity of energy metabolism enzymes in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela K. Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies support the hypothesis that metabolism impairment is involved in the pathophysiology of depression and that some antidepressants act by modulating brain energy metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and creatine kinase in the brain of rats subjected to prolonged administration of fluvoxamine. Methods: Wistar rats received daily administration of fluvoxamine in saline (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg for 14 days. Twelve hours after the last administration, rats were killed by decapitation and the prefrontal cortex, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were rapidly isolated. Results: The activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV were decreased after prolonged administration of fluvoxamine in rats. However, the activities of complex II, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase were increased. Conclusions: Alterations in activity of energy metabolism enzymes were observed in most brain areas analyzed. Thus, we suggest that the decrease in citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV can be related to adverse effects of pharmacotherapy, but long-term molecular adaptations cannot be ruled out. In addition, we demonstrated that these changes varied according to brain structure or biochemical analysis and were not dose-dependent.

  14. Bisphosphonate Inhibition of a Plasmodium Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase and a General Method for Predicting Cell-Based Activity from Enzyme Data

    OpenAIRE

    Mukkamala, Dushyant; No, Joo Hwan; Cass, Lauren M.; Chang, Ting-Kai; Oldfield, Eric

    2008-01-01

    We screened 26 bisphosphonates against a farnesyl diphosphate synthase from Plasmodium vivax, finding a poor correlation between enzyme and cell growth inhibition (R2 = 0.06). To better predict cell activity data, we then used a combinatorial descriptor search in which pIC50(cell) = a pIC50(enzyme) + bB + cC + d, where B and C are descriptors (such as SlogP), and a—d are coefficients. R2 increased from 0.01 to 0.74 (for a leave-two-out test set of 26 predictions). The method was then further ...

  15. Hoogsteen-position pyrimidines promote the stability and function of the MALAT1 RNA triple helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessica A; Kinzig, Charles G; DeGregorio, Suzanne J; Steitz, Joan A

    2016-05-01

    Triple-stranded RNA was first deduced to form in vitro more than 50 years ago and has since been implicated in RNA catalysis, stability, and small molecule binding. Despite the emerging biological significance of RNA triple helices, it remains unclear how their nucleotide composition contributes to their thermodynamic stability and cellular function. To investigate these properties, we used in vitro RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and in vivo intronless β-globin reporter assays to measure the relative contribution of 20 RNA base triples (N•A-U, N•G-C, N•C-G, N•U-A, and N•G-U) to triple-helical stability. These triples replaced a single internal U•A-U within the known structure of the triple-helical RNA stability element of human metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), which contains 10 major-groove base triples. In addition to the canonical C•G-C triple, the noncanonical base triples U•G-C, U•G-U, C•C-G, and U•C-G exhibited at least 30% stability relative to the wild-type U•A-U base triple in both assays. Of these triples, only U•A-U, C•G-C, and U•G-C, when tested as four successive triples, formed stabilizing structures that allowed accumulation of the intronless β-globin reporter. Overall, we find that Hoogsteen-position pyrimidines support triple helix stability and function and that thermodynamic stability, based on EMSA results, is necessary but not sufficient for stabilization activity of the MALAT1 triple helix in cells. These results suggest that additional RNA triple helices containing noncanonical triples likely exist in nature. PMID:26952103

  16. Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendahan, D; Mattei, J; Ghattas, B; Confort-Gouny, S; Le Guern, M E; Cozzone, P

    2002-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown an antiasthenic effect of citrulline/malate (CM) but the mechanism of action at the muscular level remains unknown. Objective: To investigate the effects of CM supplementation on muscle energetics. Methods: Eighteen men complaining of fatigue but with no documented disease were included in the study. A rest-exercise (finger flexions)-recovery protocol was performed twice before (D-7 and D0), three times during (D3, D8, D15), and once after (D22) 15 days of oral supplementation with 6 g/day CM. Metabolism of the flexor digitorum superficialis was analysed by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4.7 T. Results: Metabolic variables measured twice before CM ingestion showed no differences, indicating good reproducibility of measurements and no learning effect from repeating the exercise protocol. CM ingestion resulted in a significant reduction in the sensation of fatigue, a 34% increase in the rate of oxidative ATP production during exercise, and a 20% increase in the rate of phosphocreatine recovery after exercise, indicating a larger contribution of oxidative ATP synthesis to energy production. Considering subjects individually and variables characterising aerobic function, extrema were measured after either eight or 15 days of treatment, indicating chronological heterogeneity of treatment induced changes. One way analysis of variance confirmed improved aerobic function, which may be the result of an enhanced malate supply activating ATP production from the tricarboxylic acid cycle through anaplerotic reactions. Conclusion: The changes in muscle metabolism produced by CM treatment indicate that CM may promote aerobic energy production. PMID:12145119

  17. MdMYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin and Malate Accumulation by Directly Facilitating Their Transport into Vacuoles in Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Da-Gang; Sun, Cui-Hui; Ma, Qi-Jun; You, Chun-Xiang; Cheng, Lailiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2016-03-01

    Tonoplast transporters, including proton pumps and secondary transporters, are essential for plant cell function and for quality formation of fleshy fruits and ornamentals. Vacuolar transport of anthocyanins, malate, and other metabolites is directly or indirectly dependent on the H(+)-pumping activities of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (VHA) and/or vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase, but how these proton pumps are regulated in modulating vacuolar transport is largely unknown. Here, we report a transcription factor, MdMYB1, in apples that binds to the promoters of two genes encoding the B subunits of VHA, MdVHA-B1 and MdVHA-B2, to transcriptionally activate its expression, thereby enhancing VHA activity. A series of transgenic analyses in apples demonstrates that MdMYB1/10 controls cell pH and anthocyanin accumulation partially by regulating MdVHA-B1 and MdVHA-B2. Furthermore, several other direct target genes of MdMYB10 are identified, including MdVHA-E2, MdVHP1, MdMATE-LIKE1, and MdtDT, which are involved in H(+)-pumping or in the transport of anthocyanins and malates into vacuoles. Finally, we show that the mechanism by which MYB controls malate and anthocyanin accumulation in apples also operates in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). These findings provide novel insights into how MYB transcription factors directly modulate the vacuolar transport system in addition to anthocyanin biosynthesis, consequently controlling organ coloration and cell pH in plants. PMID:26637549

  18. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of E5700 and ER-119884, Two Novel Orally Active Squalene Synthase Inhibitors, against Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Julio A.; Concepcion, Juan Luis; Caldera, Aura; Payares, Gilberto; Sanoja, Cristina; Otomo, Takeshi; Hiyoshi, Hironobu

    2004-01-01

    Chagas' disease is a serious public health problem in Latin America, and no treatment is available for the prevalent chronic stage. Its causative agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, requires specific endogenous sterols for survival, and we have recently demonstrated that squalene synthase (SQS) is a promising target for antiparasitic chemotherapy. E5700 and ER-119884 are quinuclidine-based inhibitors of mammalian SQS that are currently in development as cholesterol- and triglyceride-lowering agents in humans. These compounds were found to be potent noncompetitive or mixed-type inhibitors of T. cruzi SQS with Ki values in the low nanomolar to subnanomolar range in the absence or presence of 20 ?M inorganic pyrophosphate. The antiproliferative 50% inhibitory concentrations of the compounds against extracellular epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes were ca. 10 nM and 0.4 to 1.6 nM, respectively, with no effects on host cells. When treated with these compounds at the MIC, all of the parasite's sterols disappeared from the parasite cells. In vivo studies indicated that E5700 was able to provide full protection against death and completely arrested the development of parasitemia when given at a concentration of 50 mg/kg of body weight/day for 30 days, while ER-119884 provided only partial protection. This is the first report of an orally active SQS inhibitor that is capable of providing complete protection against fulminant, acute Chagas' disease. PMID:15215084

  19. Direct Evidence That Genetic Variation in Glycerol-3-Phosphate and Malate Dehydrogenase Genes (Gpdh and Mdh1) Affects Adult Ethanol Tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Eanes, Walter F.; Merritt, Thomas J. S.; Flowers, Jonathan M.; Kumagai, Seiji; Zhu, Chen-Tseh

    2009-01-01

    Many studies of alcohol adaptation in Drosophila melanogaster have focused on the Adh polymorphism, yet the metabolic elimination of alcohol should involve many enzymes and pathways. Here we evaluate the effects of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gpdh) and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (Mdh1) genotype activity on adult tolerance to ethanol. We have created a set of P-element-excision-derived Gpdh, Mdh1, and Adh alleles that generate a range of activity phenotypes from full to zero activi...

  20. Sucrose Synthase: Expanding Protein Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucrose synthase (SUS: EC 2.4.1.13), a key enzyme in plant sucrose catabolism, is uniquely able to mobilize sucrose into multiple pathways involved in metabolic, structural, and storage functions. Our research indicates that the biological function of SUS may extend beyond its catalytic activity. Th...

  1. Chamomile, an anti-inflammatory agent inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by blocking RelA/p65 activity

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Shukla, Sanjeev; Srivastava, Janmejai K; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Chamomile has long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation-related disorders. In this study we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of chamomile on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and to explore its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms using RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chamomile treatment inhibited LPS-induced NO production and significantly blocked IL-1β , IL-6 and TNFα-induced NO levels in RAW 264.7 macropha...

  2. Constitutive glycogen synthase kinase-3α/β activity protects against chronic β-adrenergic remodelling of the heart

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Ian G.; Nishino, Yasuhiro; Clark, James E.; Murdoch, Colin; Walker, Simon J.; Makowski, Marcus R; Botnar, Rene M.; Redwood, Simon R; Shah, Ajay M.; Marber, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) signalling is implicated in the growth of the heart during development and in response to stress. However, its precise role remains unclear. We set out to characterize developmental growth and response to chronic isoproterenol (ISO) stress in knockin (KI) mice lacking the critical N-terminal serines, 21 of GSK-3α and 9 of GSK-3β respectively, required for inactivation by upstream kinases. Methods and results Between 5 and 15 weeks, KI mice grew more rap...

  3. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked mole-rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziegelewska, Maja; Holtze, Susanne; Vole, Christiane; Wachter, Ulrich; Menzel, Uwe; Morhart, Michaela; Groth, Marco; Szafranski, Karol; Sahm, Arne; Sponholz, Christoph; Dammann, Philip; Huse, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Platzer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration. PMID:26803480

  4. Phytoene synthase activity controls the biosynthesis of carotenoids and the supply of their metabolic precursors in dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villalón, Antía; Gas, Elisabet; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2009-11-01

    Carotenoids are plastidial isoprenoids essential for plant life. In Arabidopsis thaliana carotenoid biosynthesis is strongly upregulated when seedlings that germinate in the dark (etiolated) emerge from the soil and light derepresses photomorphogenesis, causing etioplasts to become chloroplasts. We found that carotenoid biosynthesis is also induced when deetiolation is derepressed in the absence of actual light, eventually resulting in improved greening (chlorophyll accumulation) upon illumination. The increased production of carotenoids in the dark correlates with an upregulated activity of phytoene synthase (PSY; the first committed enzyme of carotenogenesis) and the induction of PSY gene expression in cotyledons (where carotenoids accumulate in dark-grown seedlings). The metabolic precursors for carotenoid synthesis under these conditions are mostly supplied by the plastidial methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Accumulation of flux-controlling MEP pathway enzymes, such as deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), is post-transcriptionally increased when deetiolation is derepressed in the dark. Unlike the situation observed in light-grown plants, however, the sole overexpression of DXS in dark-grown seedlings does not increase carotenoid accumulation. By contrast, induced expression of a PSY-encoding transgene results in increased carotenoid levels and a concomitant post-transcriptional accumulation of DXS. These data provide evidence for a feedback mechanism by which PSY controls metabolic flux to the carotenoid pathway in plants. PMID:19594711

  5. Sunitinib Malate Synergistically Potentiates Anti-Tumor Effect of Gemcitabine in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Cheol Yong; Lee, Jung Sun; Kim, Bo Sun; Jeong, Seong Jin; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Sunitinib malate (Sutent; Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) is a highly selective multi-targeted agent and has been reported to have potent anti-tumor effects against various tumors, including renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. In this study, we explored in vitro the anti-tumor effect and related molecular mechanisms of sunitinib malate against human bladder cancer cell lines. We also determined the synergistic anti-tumor effect between sunitinib and conventional cytot...

  6. Scavenging of peroxynitrite-derived radicals by flavonoids may support endothelial NO synthase activity, contributing to the vascular protection associated with high fruit and vegetable intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2008-01-01

    Ample intakes of fruit and vegetables have been linked epidemiologically with reduced risk for coronary disease, stroke, hypertension, obesity, many types of cancer, chronic pulmonary disease, osteoporosis, and various ocular disorders. The favorable impact of diets rich in fruit and vegetables on coronary risk has been confirmed in meta-analyses, and is thought to be largely attributable to the folk acid and potassium supplied by these foods. Although high intakes of vitamin C appear to confer some cardiovascular protection, the amounts supplied by typical diets may be too low to be of much benefit in this regard. High flavonoid intakes emerge as protective in some epidemiological studies, albeit the dose-response pattern observed is often L-shaped - seemingly more consistent with low intakes being harmful, than with high intakes being protective. Nonetheless, flavonoids have shown anti-atherogenic activity in rodent models, and both clinical and rodent supplementation studies with foods and food extracts rich in flavonoids demonstrate improvements in endothelium-dependent vasodilation traceable to increased endothelial nitric oxide synthesis. However, flavonoids do not appear to increase the expression of endothelial NO synthase, nor do they modify endothelial superoxide production. A likely explanation is that, even in nanomolar concentrations achievable in vivo, flavonoids can act as efficient scavengers of peroxynitrite-derived radicals, thereby protecting the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin, crucial for NO synthase activity. Studies with cultured endothelial cells should be useful for evaluating this possibility. It would also be appropriate to assess the effects of flavonoids on prostacylin synthetase activity, on endothelial catabolism of asymmetric dimethylarginine, and on signaling mechanisms that activate NO synthase. Since peroxynitrite can induce mutagenic damage to DNA, it is conceivable that scavenging of peroxynitrite-derived radicals contributes to the reduction in mutagenesis associated with high intakes of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids also have the potential to prevent peroxynitrite-mediated damage, although, as contrasted with flavonoids, there is comparatively little evidence that these compounds are anti-atherogenic or beneficial for endothelial function; a recent meta-analysis of epidemiological studies suggests that high lutein intakes may modestly reduce coronary risk. PMID:17825500

  7. Role of malate transporter in lipid accumulation of oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Cánovas-Márquez, José T; Tang, Xin; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2016-02-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis in oleaginous fungi requires the supply of reducing power, NADPH, and the precursor of fatty acids, acetyl-CoA, which is generated in the cytosol being produced by ATP: citrate lyase which requires citrate to be, transported from the mitochondrion by the citrate/malate/pyruvate transporter. This transporter, which is within the mitochondrial membrane, transports cytosolic malate into the mitochondrion in exchange for mitochondrial citrate moving into the cytosol (Fig. 1). The role of malate transporter in lipid accumulation in oleaginous fungi is not fully understood, however. Therefore, the expression level of the mt gene, coding for a malate transporter, was manipulated in the oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides to analyze its effect on lipid accumulation. The results showed that mt overexpression increased the lipid content for about 70 % (from 13 to 22 % dry cell weight, CDW), whereas the lipid content in mt knockout mutant decreased about 27 % (from 13 to 9.5 % CDW) compared with the control strain. Furthermore, the extracellular malate concentration was decreased in the mt overexpressing strain and increased in the mt knockout strain compared with the wild-type strain. This work suggests that the malate transporter plays an important role in regulating lipid accumulation in oleaginous fungus M. circinelloides. PMID:26512004

  8. Processes of malate catabolism during the anaerobic metabolism of grape berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to precise malate fate during the anaerobic metabolism of grape, malate-3-14C was injected into Carignan berries kept in darkness at 350C under carbon dioxide atmosphere. The injection of labelled malate was effected in presence or not of non-labelled oxalate which inhibits malic enzyme (EC I.I.I.40). The analyses of the samples fixed after 3 and 7 days anaerobiosis concerned the titration of various substrates, organic acids, amino-acids and glycolysis products, and the measuring of the NADP+-malic enzyme (EC I.I.I.40) and malate dehydrogenase (EC I.I.I.40). Radioactivity is mainly observed in ethanol, amino-butyrate the non-separated group glycerate-shikimate and succinate. Malic enzyme acts in the first sequence of a process leading from malate to ethanol. Alanin synthesis seems to be stimulated in presence of oxalate. The results obtained and some hypotheses presented in the literature induce to suggest a utilization scheme for malate in the anaerobic metabolism of grape

  9. Long Noncoding RNA MALAT-1 Can Predict Poor Prognosis: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ruixue; Jiang, Mengtong; Liang, Lu; Xiong, Dandan; Dang, Yiwu; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Background MALAT-1 is a highly conserved nuclear long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). The overexpression of MALAT-1 has been reported in several types of cancers. This meta-analysis was conducted to further investigate its potential role as a prognostic indicator in various cancers. Material/Methods The meta-analysis was performed by use of systematic search terms in 13 databases for qualified papers on prognosis in cancer from inception to June 30, 2015. The combined hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were computed to demonstrate the effect of MALAT-1 on prognosis of cancers. Results A total of 590 papers were initially identified, and 17 studies were finally included in this paper. Meta-analysis was accomplished with a total of 1626 patients. Combined HRs and 95% CI were calculated by fixed-effects or random-effects models. The quality assessment of included studies was performed by the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). High expression of MALAT-1 was found to be an indicator of poor prognosis in overall survival (OS) (HR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.272.67) and disease-free survival (DFS) (HR=2.37, 95% CI: 1.553.62). In subgroups, the associations between MALAT-1 and survival were also apparent, for instance, in country subgroup: China (HR=1.85, 95% CI: 1.142.99). Conclusions The overexpression of MALAT-1 may be a potential prognostic indicator for various human cancers. PMID:26821178

  10. Biochemistry: Acetohydroxyacid Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Ngoc Chien

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6; formerly known as acetolactate synthase, ALS is a thiamin-and FAD-dependent enzyme which catalyses the first common step in the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA isoleucine, leucine and valine. The enzyme is inhibited by several commercial herbicides and has been studied over the last 20 to 30 years. A short introductory note about acetohydroxyacid synthase has been provided.

  11. cAMP regulates the functional activity, coupling efficiency and structural organization of mammalian FOF1 ATP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rasmo, Domenico; Micelli, Loris; Santeramo, Arcangela; Signorile, Anna; Lattanzio, Paolo; Papa, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    The present study shows that in isolated mitochondria and myoblast cultures depletion of cAMP, induced by sAC inhibition, depresses both ATP synthesis and hydrolysis by the FOF1 ATP synthase (complex V) of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). These effects are accompanied by the decrease of the respiratory membrane potential, decreased level of FOF1 connecting subunits and depressed oligomerization of the complex. All these effects of sAC inhibition are prevented by the addition of the membrane-permeant 8-Br-cAMP. These results show, for the first time, that cAMP promotes ATP production by complex V and prevents, at the same time, its detour to a mitochondrial membrane leak conductance, which is involved in cell death. PMID:26775111

  12. Piperine Inhibits the Activities of Platelet Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 and Thromboxane A2 Synthase without Affecting Cyclooxygenase-1 Activity: Different Mechanisms of Action Are Involved in the Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation and Macrophage Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ju Son

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Piperine, a major alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum and long pepper (Piper longum, was shown to have anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 gene expression and enzyme activity. It is also reported to exhibit anti-platelet activity, but the mechanism underlying this action remains unknown. In this study, we investigated a putative anti-platelet aggregation mechanism involving arachidonic acid (AA metabolism and how this compares with the mechanism by which it inhibits macrophage inflammatory responses; METHODS: Rabbit platelets and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated with piperine, and the effect of piperine on the activity of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2, COX-1, COX-2, and thromboxane A2 (TXA2 synthase, as well as its effect on AA liberation from the plasma membrane components, were assessed using isotopic labeling methods and enzyme immunoassay kit; RESULTS: Piperine significantly suppressed AA liberation by attenuating cPLA2 activity in collagen-stimulated platelets. It also significantly inhibited the activity of TXA2 synthase, but not of COX-1, in platelets. These results suggest that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation by attenuating cPLA2 and TXA2 synthase activities, rather than through the inhibition of COX-1 activity. On the other hand, piperine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of prostaglandin (PGE2 and PGD2 in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activity of COX-2, without effect on cPLA2; CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation and macrophage inflammatory response by different mechanisms.

  13. Properties of prostacyclin synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, V; Brugger, R; Lottspeich, F; Siegle, I

    1997-01-01

    Prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) was isolated from bovine aortic microsomes after detergent solubilisation following purification by DEAE-Sephacel, immobilized metal affinity, and hydroxy apatite chromatography. The homogenous protein exhibited spectral characteristics of a heme-thiolate protein (P450) like the enzyme purified earlier from porcine microsomes and had an apparent mass of 52 kDa on SDS/PAGE. Three peptides from an endoproteinase Lys-C digest were isolated and sequenced. An antiserum was prepared from rabbits and purified by affinity chromatography. This allowed Western blots of microsomes from cultured endothelial cells. After treatment with IL-1 the activity of the cells in producing 6-keto-PGF1 alpha increased about threefold over 27 h which was accompanied by an increase in PGIS mass. A monoclonal antibody was used to set up an ELISA which served for the quantitation of PGIS in bovine tissues. PMID:9547545

  14. BAK activation is necessary and sufficient to drive ceramide synthase-dependent ceramide accumulation following inhibition of BCL2-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, Levi J; Howell, Lauren A; Hernandez-Corbacho, Maria; Casson, Lavona; Chipuk, Jerry E; Siskind, Leah J

    2013-05-15

    Determining mechanistic details about how drugs kill cancer cells is critical for predicting which cancers will respond to given therapeutic regimens and for identifying effective combinations of drugs that more potently kill cancer cells while sparing normal cells. The BCL2 family of proteins and bioactive sphingolipids are intricately linked during apoptotic cell death. In fact, many chemotherapeutic drugs are known to cause accumulation of the pro-apoptotic sphingolipid ceramide; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is not completely understood. In the present study we demonstrate that direct inhibition of anti-apoptotic BCL2 proteins with ABT-263 is sufficient to induce C(16)-ceramide synthesis in multiple cell lines, including human leukaemia and myeloma cells. ABT-263 activates CerS (ceramide synthase) activity only in cells expressing BAK or in cells capable of activating BAK. Importantly, recombinant BAK is sufficient to increase in vitro CerS activity in microsomes purified from Bak-KO (knockout) cells and activated BAK more potently activates CerS than inactive BAK. Likewise, ABT-263 addition to wild-type, but not Bak-deficient, microsomes increases CerS in vitro activity. Furthermore, we present a feed-forward model by which BAK activation of CerS by chemotherapeutic drugs leads to elevated ceramide levels that result in synergistic channel formation by ceramide (or one of its metabolites) and BAX/BAK. PMID:23480852

  15. Citrulline malate supplementation increases muscle efficiency in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannesini, Benot; Le Fur, Yann; Cozzone, Patrick J; Verleye, Marc; Le Guern, Marie-Emmanuelle; Bendahan, David

    2011-09-30

    Citrulline malate (CM; CAS 54940-97-5, Stimol) is known to limit the deleterious effect of asthenic state on muscle function, but its effect under healthy condition remains poorly documented. The aim of this longitudinal double-blind study was to investigate the effect of oral ingestion of CM on muscle mechanical performance and bioenergetics in normal rat. Gastrocnemius muscle function was investigated strictly non-invasively using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. A standardized rest-stimulation- (5.7 min of repeated isometric contractions electrically induced by transcutaneous stimulation at a frequency of 3.3 Hz) recovery-protocol was performed twice, i.e., before (t(0)-24 h) and after (t(0)+48 h) CM (3 g/kg/day) or vehicle treatment. CM supplementation did not affect PCr/ATP ratio, [PCr], [Pi], [ATP] and intracellular pH at rest. During the stimulation period, it lead to a 23% enhancement of specific force production that was associated to significant decrease in both PCr (28%) and oxidative (32%) costs of contraction, but had no effect on the time-courses of phosphorylated compounds and intracellular pH. Furthermore, both the rate of PCr resynthesis during the post-stimulation period (VPCr(rec)) and the oxidative ATP synthesis capacity (Q(max)) remained unaffected by CM treatment. These data demonstrate that CM supplementation under healthy condition has an ergogenic effect associated to an improvement of muscular contraction efficiency. PMID:21664351

  16. Mycocerosic acid synthase exemplifies the architecture of reducing polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Dominik A; Jakob, Roman P; Zähringer, Franziska; Maier, Timm

    2016-03-24

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are biosynthetic factories that produce natural products with important biological and pharmacological activities. Their exceptional product diversity is encoded in a modular architecture. Modular PKSs (modPKSs) catalyse reactions colinear to the order of modules in an assembly line, whereas iterative PKSs (iPKSs) use a single module iteratively as exemplified by fungal iPKSs (fiPKSs). However, in some cases non-colinear iterative action is also observed for modPKSs modules and is controlled by the assembly line environment. PKSs feature a structural and functional separation into a condensing and a modifying region as observed for fatty acid synthases. Despite the outstanding relevance of PKSs, the detailed organization of PKSs with complete fully reducing modifying regions remains elusive. Here we report a hybrid crystal structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis mycocerosic acid synthase based on structures of its condensing and modifying regions. Mycocerosic acid synthase is a fully reducing iPKS, closely related to modPKSs, and the prototype of mycobacterial mycocerosic acid synthase-like PKSs. It is involved in the biosynthesis of C20-C28 branched-chain fatty acids, which are important virulence factors of mycobacteria. Our structural data reveal a dimeric linker-based organization of the modifying region and visualize dynamics and conformational coupling in PKSs. On the basis of comparative small-angle X-ray scattering, the observed modifying region architecture may be common also in modPKSs. The linker-based organization provides a rationale for the characteristic variability of PKS modules as a main contributor to product diversity. The comprehensive architectural model enables functional dissection and re-engineering of PKSs. PMID:26976449

  17. Involvement of Salicylic Acid on Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties, Anthocyanin Production and Chalcone Synthase Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA at different concentrations (10−3 M and 10−5 M was investigated on the production of secondary metabolites (flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity (against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 in two varieties of Malaysian ginger, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis showed that application of SA induced the synthesis of anthocyanin and fisetin in both varieties. Anthocyanin and fisetin were not detected in the control plants. Accordingly, the concentrations of some flavonoids (rutin and apigenin decreased significantly in plants treated with different concentrations of SA. The present study showed that SA enhanced the chalcone synthase (CHS enzyme activity (involving flavonoid synthesis and recorded the highest activity value of 5.77 nkat /mg protein in Halia Bara with the 10−5 M SA treatment. As the SA concentration was decreased from 10−3 M to 10−5 M, the free radical scavenging power (FRAP increased about 23% in Halia Bentong and 10.6% in Halia Bara. At a concentration of 350 μg mL−1, the DPPH antioxidant activity recorded the highest value of 58.30%–72.90% with the 10−5 M SA treatment followed by the 10−3 M SA (52.14%–63.66% treatment. The lowest value was recorded in the untreated control plants (42.5%–46.7%. These results indicate that SA can act not only as an inducer but also as an inhibitor of secondary metabolites. Meanwhile, the highest anticancer activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines was observed for H. Bara extracts treated with 10−5 M SA with values of 61.53 and 59.88%, respectively. The results suggest that the high anticancer activity in these varieties may be related to the high concentration of potent anticancer components including fisetin and anthocyanin. The results thus indicate that the synthesis of flavonoids in ginger can be increased by foliar application of SA in a controlled environment and that the anticancer activity in young ginger extracts could be improved.

  18. Retinoic acid activates human inducible nitric oxide synthase gene through binding of RAR?/RXR? heterodimer to a novel retinoic acid response element in the promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human inducible nitric oxide synthase (hiNOS) catalyzes nitric oxide (NO) which has a significant effect on tumor suppression and cancer therapy. Here we revealed the detailed molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of hiNOS expression induced by retinoic acid (RA). We showed that RAR?/RXR? heterodimer was important in hiNOS promoter activation, hiNOS protein expression, and NO production. Serial deletion and site-directed mutation analysis revealed two half-sites of retinoic acid response element (RARE) spaced by 5 bp located at -172 to -156 in the hiNOS promoter. EMSA and ChIP assays demonstrated that RAR?/RXR? directly bound to this RARE of hiNOS promoter. Our results suggested the identification of a novel RARE in the hiNOS promoter and the roles of the nuclear receptors (RAR?/RXR?) in the induction of hiNOS by RA

  19. Nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase expression and activity in response to different nitrogen sources in nitrogen-starved wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balotf, Sadegh; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Kholdebarin, Bahman

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the expression and activity of nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.7.1.1), nitrite reductase (NiR, EC 1.7.2.2), glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT, EC 1.4.7.1) in response to potassium nitrate, ammonium chloride, and ammonium nitrate in nitrogen-starved wheat seedlings. Plants were grown in standard nutrient solution for 17 days and then subjected to nitrogen starvation for 7 days. The starved plants were supplied with potassium nitrate ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride (50 mM) for 4 days and the leaves were harvested. The relative expression of NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT as well as the enzyme activities were investigated. Nitrogen starvation caused a significant decrease both in transcript levels and in NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities. Potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate treatments restored NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT expressions and activities. Ammonium chloride increased only the expressions and activities of GS and GOGAT in a dose-dependent manner. The results of our study highlight the differential effects between the type and the amount of nitrogen salts on NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities in wheat seedlings while potassium nitrate being more effective. PMID:25676153

  20. Effect of simulated microgravity and centrifugation on nitric oxide synthase activity of osteocyte-like cell line MLO-Y4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lian-Wen; Yang, Xiao; Fan, Yu-Bo

    Bone is a highly mechanosensitive tissue, which can adapt functionally to varying levels of mechanical loads throughout a lifetime. Osteocytes are thought to be the most mechanically sensitive bone cell population. In order to understand the mechanism of microgravity-induced bone loss, it's very important to research the behavior of osteocytes under microgravity. In this study, rotary cell culture system was used to simulate microgravity. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in osteocyte-like cell MLO-Y4 was investigated under simulated microgravity. And the effect of centrifugation on NOS activity in sedentary and rotary culture cell was also investi-gated. The cultured cells were divided into four groups, including sedentary control (CON), sedentary control and centrifugation (CONC), rotary culture (RT), rotary and centrifugation (RTC). In CONC and RTC, NOS activity was determined after centrifugation (1100g 5min). The results showed NOS activity decreased significantly in RT compared with CON. However, this difference disappeared after centrifugation. On the other hand, NOS activity increased significant in RTC compared with RT while there was no difference between CON and CONC. These results indicate the normal centrifugation could counter the effect of simulated micro-gravity on NOS activity. However, it has no effect on the cells cultured under 1G. In general, osteocytes under simulated microgravity are more sensitive to centrifugation than that under 1G.

  1. Determination of cystathionine beta-synthase activity in human plasma by LC-MS/MS: potential use in diagnosis of CBS deficiency.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Krijt, Jakub

    2011-02-01

    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is usually confirmed by assaying the enzyme activity in cultured skin fibroblasts. We investigated whether CBS is present in human plasma and whether determination of its activity in plasma could be used for diagnostic purposes. We developed an assay to measure CBS activity in 20 μL of plasma using a stable isotope substrate - 2,3,3-(2)H serine. The activity was determined by measurement of the product of enzyme reaction, 3,3-(2)H-cystathionine, using LC-MS\\/MS. The median enzyme activity in control plasma samples was 404 nmol\\/h\\/L (range 66-1,066; n = 57). In pyridoxine nonresponsive CBS deficient patients, the median plasma activity was 0 nmol\\/ho\\/L (range 0-9; n = 26), while in pyridoxine responsive patients the median activity was 16 nmol\\/hour\\/L (range 0-358; n = 28); this overlapped with the enzyme activity from control subject. The presence of CBS in human plasma was confirmed by an in silico search of the proteome database, and was further evidenced by the activation of CBS by S-adenosyl-L-methionine and pyridoxal 5\\'-phosphate, and by configuration of the detected reaction product, 3,3-(2)H-cystathionine, which was in agreement with the previously observed CBS reaction mechanism. We hypothesize that the CBS enzyme in plasma originates from liver cells, as the plasma CBS activities in patients with elevated liver aminotransferase activities were more than 30-fold increased. In this study, we have demonstrated that CBS is present in human plasma and that its catalytic activity is detectable by LC-MS\\/MS. CBS assay in human plasma brings new possibilities in the diagnosis of pyridoxine nonresponsive CBS deficiency.

  2. Activation of vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase-1 expression by electrophilic nitro-fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Nicholas K H; Rudolph, Volker; Cole, Marsha P; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Schopfer, Francisco J; Woodcock, Steven R; Batthyany, Carlos; Freeman, Bruce A

    2010-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species mediate a decrease in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and endothelial dysfunction, with secondary oxidized and nitrated by-products of these reactions contributing to the pathogenesis of numerous vascular diseases. While oxidized lipids and lipoproteins exacerbate inflammatory reactions in the vasculature, in stark contrast the nitration of polyunsaturated fatty acids and complex lipids yields electrophilic products that exhibit pluripotent anti-inflammatory signaling capabilities acting via both cGMP-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Herein we report that nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO(2)) treatment increases expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the vasculature, thus transducing vascular protective effects associated with enhanced NO production. Administration of OA-NO(2) via osmotic pump results in a significant increase in eNOS and HO-1 mRNA in mouse aortas. Moreover, HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that NO(2)-FAs are rapidly metabolized in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) and treatment with NO(2)-FAs stimulated the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser(1179). These posttranslational modifications of eNOS, in concert with elevated eNOS gene expression, contributed to an increase in endothelial NO production. In aggregate, OA-NO(2)-induced eNOS and HO-1 expression by vascular cells can induce beneficial effects on endothelial function and provide a new strategy for treating various vascular inflammatory and hypertensive disorders. PMID:19857569

  3. Rhizobacteria activates (+)-δ-cadinene synthase genes and induces systemic resistance in cotton against beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebelo, Simon; Song, Yuanyuan; Kloepper, Joseph W; Fadamiro, Henry

    2016-04-01

    Gossypol is an important allelochemical produced by the subepidermal glands of some cotton varieties and important for their ability to respond to changing biotic stress by exhibiting antibiosis against some cotton pests. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are root-colonizing bacteria that increase plant growth and often elicit defence against plant pathogens and insect pests. Little is known about the effect of PGPR on cotton plant-insect interactions and the potential biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which PGPR enhance cotton plant defence. Here, we report that PGPR (Bacillus spp.) treated cotton plants showed significantly higher levels of gossypol compared with untreated plants. Similarly, the transcript levels of the genes (i.e. (+)-δ-cadinene synthase gene family) involved in the biosynthesis of gossypol were higher in PGPR-treated plants than in untreated plants. Furthermore, the levels of jasmonic acid, an octadecanoid-derived defence-related phytohormone and the transcript level of jasmonic acid responsive genes were higher in PGPR-treated plants than in untreated plants. Most intriguingly, Spodoptera exigua showed reduced larval feeding and development on PGPR-treated plants. These findings demonstrate that treatment of plants with rhizobacteria may induce significant biochemical and molecular changes with potential ramifications for plant-insect interactions. PMID:26715260

  4. 6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase expression through the inhibition of Janus kinase 2-mediated JNK pathway in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uto, Takuhiro; Fujii, Makoto; Hou, De-Xing

    2005-10-15

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) is an active ingredient of Wasabi (Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsumura), which is a very popular pungent spice in Japan. To clarify the cellular signaling mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory action of 6-MITC, we investigated the effects of 6-MITC on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW264 cells. 6-MITC showed a dose-dependent inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), iNOS mRNA and protein. LPS caused the c-Jun phosphorylation (a major component of AP-1) and IkappaB-alpha degradation. 6-MITC suppressed LPS-induced c-Jun phosphorylation, but did not inhibit IkappaB-alpha degradation. Cellular signaling analysis using MAPK-(U0126 for MEK1/2, SB203580 for p38 kinase and SP600125 for JNK) and Jak2-specific (AG490) inhibitors demonstrated that LPS stimulated iNOS expression via activating Jak2-mediated JNK, but not ERK and p38, pathway. 6-MITC suppressed iNOS expression through the inhibition of Jak2-mediated JNK signaling cascade with the attendant to AP-1 activation. In addition, the structure-activity study revealed that the inhibitory potency of methylsulfinyl isothiocyanates (MITCs) depended on the methyl chain length. These findings provide the molecular basis for the first time that 6-MITC is an effective agent to attenuate iNOS production. PMID:16139249

  5. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from 14C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as 14C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We compare utilization of fatty acids produced by FASN to those derived exogenously. • Cancer cells do not have a specific requirement for fatty acids produced by FASN. • Fatty acids produced by FASN are in excess of cell requirements and are excreted. • Increased FASN activity is not required to sustain elevations in glycolysis

  6. Induction of human microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 by activated oncogene RhoA GTPase in A549 human epithelial cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → As a target of oncogene RhoA-linked signal, a prostaglandin metabolism is assessed. → RhoA activation increases PGE2 levels and its metabolic enzyme mPGES-1. → RhoA-activated NF-κB and EGR-1 are positively involved in mPGES-1 induction. -- Abstract: Oncogenic RhoA GTPase has been investigated as a mediator of pro-inflammatory responses and aggressive carcinogenesis. Among the various targets of RhoA-linked signals, pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major prostaglandin metabolite, was assessed in epithelial cancer cells. RhoA activation increased PGE2 levels and gene expression of the rate-limiting PGE2 producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1). In particular, human mPGES-1 was induced by RhoA via transcriptional activation in control and interleukin (IL)-1β-activated cancer cells. To address the involvement of potent signaling pathways in RhoA-activated mPGES-1 induction, various signaling inhibitors were screened for their effects on mPGES-1 promoter activity. RhoA activation enhanced basal and IL-1β-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 proteins, all of which were positively involved in RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1. As one potent down-stream transcription factor of ERK1/2 signals, early growth response gene 1 product also mediated RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1 by enhancing transcriptional activity. Since oncogene-triggered PGE2 production is a critical modulator of epithelial tumor cells, RhoA-associated mPGES-1 represents a promising chemo-preventive or therapeutic target for epithelial inflammation and its associated cancers.

  7. Induction of human microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 by activated oncogene RhoA GTPase in A549 human epithelial cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hye Jin [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Hyung [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Juil; Do, Kee Hun [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); An, Tae Jin; Ahn, Young Sup; Park, Chung Berm [Department of Herbal Crop Research, NIHHS, RDA, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Yuseok, E-mail: moon@pnu.edu [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Institute and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-30

    Highlights: {yields} As a target of oncogene RhoA-linked signal, a prostaglandin metabolism is assessed. {yields} RhoA activation increases PGE{sub 2} levels and its metabolic enzyme mPGES-1. {yields} RhoA-activated NF-{kappa}B and EGR-1 are positively involved in mPGES-1 induction. -- Abstract: Oncogenic RhoA GTPase has been investigated as a mediator of pro-inflammatory responses and aggressive carcinogenesis. Among the various targets of RhoA-linked signals, pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), a major prostaglandin metabolite, was assessed in epithelial cancer cells. RhoA activation increased PGE{sub 2} levels and gene expression of the rate-limiting PGE{sub 2} producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1). In particular, human mPGES-1 was induced by RhoA via transcriptional activation in control and interleukin (IL)-1{beta}-activated cancer cells. To address the involvement of potent signaling pathways in RhoA-activated mPGES-1 induction, various signaling inhibitors were screened for their effects on mPGES-1 promoter activity. RhoA activation enhanced basal and IL-1{beta}-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-{kappa}B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 proteins, all of which were positively involved in RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1. As one potent down-stream transcription factor of ERK1/2 signals, early growth response gene 1 product also mediated RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1 by enhancing transcriptional activity. Since oncogene-triggered PGE{sub 2} production is a critical modulator of epithelial tumor cells, RhoA-associated mPGES-1 represents a promising chemo-preventive or therapeutic target for epithelial inflammation and its associated cancers.

  8. Development of a biomarker for Geobacter activity and strain composition; Proteogenomic analysis of the citrate synthase protein during bioremediation of U(VI).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Miletto, Marzia; Williams, Kenneth H.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Lovely, Derek R.; Long, Philip E.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the activity of target microorganisms during stimulated bioremediation is a key problem for the development of effective remediation strategies. At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, CO, the stimulation of Geobacter growth and activity via subsurface acetate addition leads to precipitation of U(VI) from groundwater as U(IV). Citrate synthase (gltA) is a key enzyme in Geobacter central metabolism that controls flux into the TCA cycle. Here, we utilize shotgun proteomic methods to demonstrate that the measurement of gltA peptides can be used to track Geobacter activity and strain evolution during in situ biostimulation. Abundances of conserved gltA peptides tracked Fe(III) reduction and changes in U(VI) concentrations during biostimulation, whereas changing patterns of unique peptide abundances between samples suggested sample-specific strain shifts within the Geobacter population. Abundances of unique peptides indicated potential differences at the strain level between Fe(III)-reducing populations stimulated during in situ biostimulation experiments conducted a year apart at the Rifle IFRC. These results offer a novel technique for the rapid screening of large numbers of proteomic samples for Geobacter species and will aid monitoring of subsurface bioremediation efforts that rely on metal reduction for desired outcomes.

  9. Development of a biomarker for Geobacter activity and strain composition: Proteogenomic analysis of the citrate synthase protein during bioremediation of U(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, M.J.; Callister, S.J.; Miletto, M.; Williams, K.H.; Nicora, C.D.; Lovley, D.R.; Long, P.E.; Lipton, M.S.

    2010-02-15

    Monitoring the activity of target microorganisms during stimulated bioremediation is a key problem for the development of effective remediation strategies. At the US Department of Energy's Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, CO, the stimulation of Geobacter growth and activity via subsurface acetate addition leads to precipitation of U(VI) from groundwater as U(IV). Citrate synthase (gltA) is a key enzyme in Geobacter central metabolism that controls flux into the TCA cycle. Here, we utilize shotgun proteomic methods to demonstrate that the measurement of gltA peptides can be used to track Geobacter activity and strain evolution during in situ biostimulation. Abundances of conserved gltA peptides tracked Fe(III) reduction and changes in U(VI) concentrations during biostimulation, whereas changing patterns of unique peptide abundances between samples suggested sample-specific strain shifts within the Geobacter population. Abundances of unique peptides indicated potential differences at the strain level between Fe(III)-reducing populations stimulated during in situ biostimulation experiments conducted a year apart at the Rifle IFRC. These results offer a novel technique for the rapid screening of large numbers of proteomic samples for Geobacter species and will aid monitoring of subsurface bioremediation efforts that rely on metal reduction for desired outcomes.

  10. Constitutive activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? correlates with better prognosis and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in human gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Yu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3? has been implicated in several human cancers; however, it has not been reported in the gastric cancer tissues to date. The present study was performed to determine the expression status of active form of GSK-3? phosphorylated at Tyr216 (pGSK-3? and its relationship with other tumor-associated proteins in human gastric cancers. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue array slides containing 281 human gastric carcinoma specimens. In addition, gastric cancer cells were cultured and treated with a GSK-3? inhibitor lithium chloride (LiCl for immunoblot analysis. Results We found that pGSK-3? was expressed in 129 (46% of 281 cases examined, and was higher in the early-stages of pathologic tumor-node-metastasis (P P P P P Conclusions GSK-3? activation was frequently observed in early-stage gastric carcinoma and was significantly correlated with better prognosis. Thus, these findings suggest that GSK-3? activation is a useful prognostic marker for the early-stage gastric cancer.

  11. Role of interferon regulatory factor-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in the induction of nitric oxide synthase-2 in retinal pigmented epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, V; Hecquet, C; Courtois, Y; Goureau, O

    1999-02-19

    Bovine retinal pigmented epithelial cells express an inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS-2) after activation with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Experiments were performed to investigate the involvement of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) on NOS-2 induction and its regulation by NOS-2 inhibitors such as pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an antioxidant, or protein kinase inhibitors. Analysis by transitory transfections showed that LPS, alone or with IFN-gamma, stimulated activity of the murine NOS-2 promoter fragment linked upstream of luciferase and its suppression by PDTC and by the different protein kinase inhibitors, genistein (tyrosine kinase inhibitor), PD98059 (mitogen-actived protein (MAP) kinase kinase inhibitor), and SB 203580 (p38 MAP inhibitor). Using specific antibodies, we have confirmed that extracellular signal-regulated kinases and p38 MAP kinase were activated by LPS and IFN-gamma in retinal pigmented epithelial cells. Analysis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that IFN-gamma alone or combined with LPS induced an accumulation of IRF-1 mRNA and protein and IRF-1 DNA binding. Transfections assays with the IRF-1 promoter showed an induction of this promoter with IFN-gamma, potentiated by LPS. The decrease of LPS/IFN-gamma-induced IRF-1 promoter activity, IRF-1 synthesis, and IRF-1 activation, by PDTC, genistein, PD98059, and SB 203580, could explained in part the inhibition of the NOS-2 induction by these compounds. Our results demonstrate that IRF-1 is necessary for NOS-2 induction by LPS and IFN-gamma and that its synthesis requires the involvement of a redox-sensitive step, the activation of tyrosine kinases, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and p38 MAP kinases. PMID:9988718

  12. Differential Activity of NO Synthase Inhibitors as Chemopreventive Agents in a Primary Rat Tracheal Epithelial Cell Transformation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Sharma

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A model to study the effectiveness of potential chemopreventive agents that inhibit neoplastic process by different mechanisms has been used to test the efficacy of seven nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitors. Five selective inducible NOS (iNOS inhibitors: S-methyl isothiourea (S-MITU, S-2-aminoethyl isothiourea (S-2-AEITU, S-ethyl isothiourea (S-EITU, aminoguanidine (AG, 2-amino-4-methyl pyridine (2AMP, and two non selective general NOS inhibitors: L-N6-(1-iminoethyl lysine (IEL and Nω-nitro-L-arginine (NNLA, were tested for efficacy against a carcinogen, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P-induced primary rat tracheal epithelial (RTE cell transformation assay. RTE cells were treated with B[a]P alone or with five nontoxic concentrations of an NOS inhibitor and the resulting foci at the end of 30 days were scored for inhibition of transformation. The results indicate that all three isothiourea compounds inhibited B[a]Pinduced RTE foci in a dose-dependent manner. SAEITU was the most effective inhibitor with an IC50 (the molar concentration that inhibits transformation by 50% of 9.1 μM and 100% inhibition at the highest dose tested (30 μM. However, both S-EITU and SMITU showed a maximum percent inhibition of 81% and 100% at 1 mM with an IC50 of 84 and 110 μM, respectively. 2-AMP did not show any dose-dependent response, but was highly effective (57% inhibition at an intermediate dose of 30 μM and an IC50 of 25 μM. Similar to thiourea compounds, AG exhibited good dose-dependent inhibition with a maximum inhibition of 86% at 1 mM. NNLA and IEL were negative in this assay. Based on the IC50 values, NOS inhibitors were rated for efficacy from high to low as follows: S-2AEITU<2-AMP

  13. Higher plant cellulose synthases

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, Todd

    2000-01-01

    The sole function of cellulose synthases, which are found in plants bacteria, fungi, and animals, is to produce the biopolymer cellulose. Although no crystal structure has yet been solved, a considerable amount is known about their structure, function and evolution.

  14. Bacterial infection induces nitric oxide synthase in human neutrophils.

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, M A; Smith, S. D.; Garca-Cardea, G; Nathan, C. F.; Weiss, R.M.; Sessa, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The identification of human inflammatory cells that express inducible nitric oxide synthase and the clarification of the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in human infectious or inflammatory processes have been elusive. In neutrophil-enriched fractions from urine, we demonstrate a 43-fold increase in nitric oxide synthase activity in patients with urinary tract infections compared with that in neutrophil-enriched fractions from noninfected controls. Partially purified inducible nitric o...

  15. microRNA-9 targets the long non-coding RNA MALAT1 for degradation in the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leucci, Eleonora; Patella, Francesca; Waage, Johannes; Holmstrøm, Kim; Lindow, Morten; Porse, Bo; Kauppinen, Sakari; Lund, Anders H.

    2013-01-01

    -coding RNAs. Here we report that microRNA-9 (miR-9) regulates the expression of the Metastasis Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma Transcript 1 (MALAT-1), one of the most abundant and conserved long non-coding RNAs. Intriguingly, we find that miR-9 targets AGO2-mediated regulation of MALAT1 in the nucleus. Our...

  16. Effect of black currant anthocyanins on the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in vitro in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirisinghe, Indika; Banaszewski, Katarzyna; Cappozzo, Jack; McCarthy, Danielle; Burton-Freeman, Britt M

    2011-08-24

    Polyphenols are known to induce vasodilatory function via activation of the redox-sensitive phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway. Black currant fruits have appreciable amounts of polyphenolic compounds including cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside. It was hypothesized that black currant fruit extracts would cause activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through activation of redox-sensitive PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway. To test this hypothesis, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with different concentrations/times of black currant juice concentrates (Ben Gairn and Ben Hope) and the activation of Akt and eNOS was measured using immunoblotting. Vitamin C is also known to activate Akt and eNOS in in vitro models, and black currants are rich in vitamin C. Therefore, the effect of black currant extracts with and without coexisting vitamin C was investigated, using SPE columns to eliminate vitamin C content. The individual (and combined) effects of the major anthocyanins present in black currant juice samples with and without vitamin C were investigated and compared to the effects of the whole extract. Black currant juice samples (1 ?L/mL) significantly increased the phosphorylation of Akt (p-Akt) and eNOS (p-eNOS) (P Vitamin C alone significantly increased the p-Akt and p-eNOS (P vitamin C from black currant did not significantly affect p-Akt and p-eNOS compared to black currant with vitamin C. Assessment of individual anthocyanins also showed significant effects on p-Akt and p-eNOS. In summary, in the present study data suggested that black currant concentrates, Ben Gairn and Ben Hope, activated eNOS via Akt/PI3 kinase pathway in vitro in HUVECs and that the effect was not dependent on vitamin C. PMID:21761876

  17. Protective Effects of L-Malate against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Shiao; Yang, Yang; MEI, JU

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the protective effects of L-malate against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham (sham), an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model group (model), an DMF pretreated group (DMF), and 5 L-malate pretreated groups (15, 60, 120, 240, or 480?mg/kg, gavage) before inducing myocardial ischemia. Plasma LDH, cTn-I, TNF-?, hs-CRP, SOD, and GSH-PX were measured 3?h later I/R. Areas o...

  18. Development and validation of HPTLC method for the estimation of almotriptan malate in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneetha A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, precise and accurate high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been proposed for the determination of almotriptan malate in a tablet dosage form. The drug was separated on aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 GF 254 with butanol:acetic acid:water (3:1:1 was used as mobilephase. Quantitative analysis was performed by densitometric scanning at 300 nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The calibration plot was linear over the range of 100-700 ng/band for almotriptan malate. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of drug in a pharmaceutical dosage form.

  19. Imidazolinones and Acetohydroxyacid Synthase from Higher Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhitch, Michael J.; Shaner, Dale L.; Stidham, Mark A.

    1987-01-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase has been purified from maize (Zea mays, var Black Mexican Sweet) suspension culture cells 49-fold by a combination of ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. Use of the nondenaturing, zwitterionic detergent 3-([3-cholamidopropyl]dimethyl-ammonio)-1-propanesulfonate was necessary to dissociate the enzyme from the heterogeneous, high molecular weight aggregates in which it appears to reside in vitro. The solubilized maize acetohydroxyacid synthase had a relative molecular mass of 440,000. The purified enzyme was highly unstable. Acetohydroxyacid synthase activities in crude extracts of excised maize leaves and suspension cultured cells were reduced 85 and 58%, respectively, by incubation of the tissue with 100 micromolar (excised leaves) and 5 micromolar (suspension cultures) of the imidazolinone imazapyr prior to enzyme extraction, suggesting that the inhibitor binds tightly to the enzyme in vivo. Binding of imazapyr to maize acetohydroxyacid synthase could also be demonstrated in vitro. Evidence is presented which suggests that the interaction between imazapyr and the enzyme is reversible. Imazapyr also exhibited slow-binding properties when incubated with maize cell acetohydroxyacid synthase in extended time course experiments. Initial and final Ki values for the inhibition were 15 and 0.9 micromolar, respectively. The results suggest that imazapyr is a slow, tight-binding inhibitor of acetohydroxyacid synthase. PMID:16665267

  20. Phylogenetic diversity of culturable endophytic fungi in Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff), detection of polyketide synthase gene and their antagonistic activity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Gao, Bo Liang; Li, Xi Xi; Zhang, Zhi Bin; Yan, Ri Ming; Yang, Hui Lin; Zhu, Du

    2015-11-01

    The biodiversity of plant endophytic fungi is enormous, numerous competent endophytic fungi are capable of providing different forms of fitness benefits to host plants and also could produce a wide array of bioactive natural products, which make them a largely unexplored source of novel compounds with potential bioactivity. In this study, we provided a first insights into revealing the diversity of culturable endophytic fungi in Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) from China using rDNA-ITS phylogenetic analysis. Here, the potential of fungi in producing bioactive natural products was estimated based on the beta-ketosynthase detected in the polyketide synthase (PKS) gene cluster and on the bioassay of antagonistic activity against two rice phytopathogens Thanatephorus cucumeris and Xanthomonas oryzae. A total of 229 endophytic fungal strains were validated in 19 genera. Among the 24 representative strains, 13 strains displayedantagonistic activity against the phytopathogens. Furthermore, PKS genes were detected in 9 strains, indicating their potential for synthesising PKS compounds. Our study confirms the phylogenetic diversity of endophytic fungi in O. rufipogon G. and highlights that endophytic fungi are not only promising resources of biocontrol agents against phytopathogens of rice plants, but also of bioactive natural products and defensive secondary metabolites. PMID:26466878

  1. Glycogen synthase kinase 3? regulation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells isoform c1 in the vascular smooth muscle cell response to injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) are critical events in neointima formation during atherosclerosis and restenosis. The transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells-isoform c1 (NFATc1) is regulated by atherogenic cytokines, and has been implicated in the migratory and proliferative responses of vSMCs through the regulation of gene expression. In T-cells, calcineurin de-phosphorylates NFATc1, leading to its nuclear import, while glycogen synthase kinase 3 ? (GSK3?) phosphorylates NFATc1 and promotes its nuclear export. However, the relationship between NFATc1 and GSK3? has not been studied during SMC migration and proliferation. We investigated this by scrape wounding vSMCs in vitro, and studying wound repair. NFATc1 protein was transiently increased, reaching a peak at 8 h after wounding. Cell fractionation and immunocytochemistry revealed that NFATc1 accumulation in the nucleus was maximal at 4 h after injury, and this was coincident with a significant 9 fold increase in transcriptional activity. Silencing NFATc1 expression with siRNA or inhibition of NFAT with cyclosporin A (CsA) attenuated wound closure by vSMCs. Phospho-GSK3? (inactive) increased to a peak at 30 min after injury, preceding the nuclear accumulation of NFATc1. Overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of GSK3? delayed the nuclear accumulation of NFATc1, caused a 50% decrease in NFAT transcriptional activity, and attenuated vSMC wound repair. We conclude that NFATc1 promotes the vSMC response to injury, and that inhibition of GSK3? is required for the activation of NFAT during wound repair

  2. Evaluation of the Activities of Pyrimethamine Analogs against Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Dihydrofolate Reductase-Thymidylate Synthase Using In Vitro Enzyme Inhibition and Bacterial Complementation Assays▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bunyarataphan, Sasinee ; Leartsakulpanich, Ubolsree; Taweechai, Supannee; Tarnchompoo, Bongkoch; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee; Yuthavong, Yongyuth

    2006-01-01

    Pyrimethamine analogs were examined as potential agents against vivax malaria using a bacterial surrogate system carrying Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (PvDHFR-TS), in which the PvDHFR complemented chemically knocked out host dihydrofolate reductase. The system was initially tested with P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase and was found to have good correlation with the parasite-based system. The 50% inhibitory concentrations derived from ...

  3. Topographic studies of microsomal and pure prostaglandin H synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmacz, R J; Wu, K K

    1989-02-01

    Prostaglandin H synthase catalyzes the first step in the conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and prostacyclins. The enzyme is normally bound to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, but can be purified to homogeneity after solubilization with detergent. The topologies of the microsomal and the pure detergent-solubilized forms of the synthase were compared by an examination of their sensitivity to degradation by proteases, of the effect of heme on this protease sensitivity, and of the sizes of proteolytic fragments produced. For the microsomal synthase, the localization of proteolytic fragments was also determined. Analysis of the microsomal proteins after proteolytic digests involved separation by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and selective detection of the synthase-derived polypeptides with a polyclonal antibody against the pure synthase. With both the microsomal and the pure synthase, incubation with trypsin led to a progressive loss of cyclooxygenase activity and cleavage of the synthase subunit (70K Da) into two fragments of 38K and 33K Da. Incubation of the detergent-solubilized form of the synthase with proteinase K and chymotrypsin also produced a very similar pair of fragments (38K and 33K Da). After incubation of the microsomes with trypsin both the 38K and 33K Da fragments from the synthase remained bound to the membrane; no cyclooxygenase activity was released in soluble form from the microsomes by trypsin. Further, neither trypsin nor proteinase K released soluble radiolabeled peptides from microsomes whose synthase had been labeled with [acetyl-14C]-aspirin. With the microsomal synthase the sensitivity to protease (66% of the cyclooxygenase activity was lost after 90 min incubation with proteinase K) was enhanced by depletion of heme (84% of activity lost) and was decreased by addition of heme (only 20% of activity lost), just as had been previously demonstrated for the detergent-solubilized synthase. At each of several intervals during an incubation of the pure synthase with trypsin the extent of cleavage of the synthase polypeptide correlated reasonably well with the extent of loss of cyclooxygenase activity; a similar relation between proteolytic cleavage and loss of activity was observed in digests of the pure synthase supplemented with differing amounts of heme.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2492419

  4. The N-terminal portion of autoinhibitory element modulates human endothelial nitric-oxide synthase activity through coordinated controls of phosphorylation at Thr495 and Ser1177

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei‑Rung Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available NO production catalysed by eNOS (endothelial nitric-oxide synthase plays an important role in the cardiovascular system. A variety of agonists activate eNOS through the Ser1177 phosphorylation concomitant with Thr495 dephosphorylation, resulting in increased ·NO production with a basal level of calcium. To date, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We have previously demonstrated that perturbation of the AIE (autoinhibitory element in the FMN-binding subdomain can also lead to eNOS activation with a basal level of calcium, implying that the AIE might regulate eNOS activation through modulating phosphorylation at Thr495 and Ser1177. Here we generated stable clones in HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney 293 cells with a series of deletion mutants in both the AIE (Δ594–604, Δ605–612 and Δ626–634 and the C-terminal tail (Δ14; deletion of 1164–1177. The expression of Δ594–604 and Δ605–612 mutants in non-stimulated HEK-293 cells substantially increased nitrate/nitrite release into the culture medium; the other two mutants, Δ626–634 and Δ1164–1177, displayed no significant difference when compared with WTeNOS (wild-type eNOS. Intriguingly, mutant Δ594–604 showed close correlation between Ser1177 phosphorylation and Thr495 dephosphorylation, and NO production. Our results have indicated that N-terminal portion of AIE (residues 594–604 regulates eNOS activity through coordinated phosphorylation on Ser1177 and Thr495.

  5. The intracellular localization of malate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in Pisum arvense roots

    OpenAIRE

    Genowefa Kubik-Dorosz

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria and plastids were isolated from Pisum arvense root cells by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The individual subcellular fractions so obtained were subjected to isoelectric focusing on cellulose acetate strips. Mitochondria and plastids each contained one NAD -malate dehydrogenase, while three isoenzymes were associated with the supernatant.

  6. The intracellular localization of malate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in Pisum arvense roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genowefa Kubik-Dorosz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria and plastids were isolated from Pisum arvense root cells by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The individual subcellular fractions so obtained were subjected to isoelectric focusing on cellulose acetate strips. Mitochondria and plastids each contained one NAD -malate dehydrogenase, while three isoenzymes were associated with the supernatant.

  7. Alterations of nitric-oxide synthase and xanthine-oxidase activities of human keratinocytes by ultraviolet-B radiation -potential role for peroxynitrite in skin inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we demonstrated that NO synthase (cNOS) and xanthine oxidase (XO) of human keratinocytes can be activated to release NO, superoxide (O-2(-)) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) following exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. We defined that this photo induced response may be involved in the pathogenesis of sunburn erythema and inflammation. Treatment of human keratinocytes with UVB (290-320 nm) radiation (up to 200 mJ/cm(2)) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in NO and ONOO-release that was inhibited by N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). NO and ONOO- release from keratinocytes was accompanied by an increase in intracellular cGMP levels. Treatment of human keratinocyte cytosol with various doses of UVB (up to 100 mJ/cm(2)) resulted in an increase in XO activity that was inhibited by oxypurinol. In in vivo experiments, when experimental animals were subjected to UVB radiation, a protection factor (PF) of 6.5 ± 1.8 was calculated when an emulsified cream formulation containing nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) (2%) and L-NMMA (2%) was applied to their skin. The present study indicates that UVB radiation acts as a potent stimulator of cNOS and XO activities in human keratinocytes. NO and ONOO- may exert cytotoxic effects in keratinocytes themselves, as well as in their neighbouring endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This may be a major part of the integrated response leading to erythema production and the inflammation process. (UK)

  8. Homochiral Cu(II) and Ni(II) malates with tunable structural features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four new homochiral metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) based on S-malate anions and N-donor linkers of different length have been prepared under solvothermal conditions. [Cu(mal)(bpy)]·H2O (1), [Cu(mal)(bpe)]·2H2O (2), [Ni(mal)(bpy)]·1.3CH3OH (3) and [Ni(mal)(bpe)]·4H2O (4) (mal=S-malate, bpy=4,4′-bipyridil, bpe=trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene) were characterized by a number of analytical methods including powder X-ray diffraction, elemental, thermogravimetric analyses, IR spectroscopy. Compounds 1–3 were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The absence of the chiral ligand racemization under synthetic conditions was unambiguously confirmed by polarimetry experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 contain metal-malate layered motives, connected by N-donor linkers and contribute to the family of isoreticular Cu(II) malates and tartrates [Cu(mal)L] and [Cu(tart)L], (tart=tartrate; L=ditopic rigid organic ligand). The Ni-based compounds 3 and 4 share 1D chiral (Ni(mal)) motives and possess novel type of the chiral framework, previously unknown for chiral carboxylates. The linear N-donor linkers connect these chiral chains, thus controlling the channel diameter and guest accessible volume of the homochiral structure, which exceeds 60 %. - Graphical abstract: Four new homochiral metal–organic frameworks are built from Ni2+ or Cu2+ cations, S-malate anions and N-donor linkers of different length, which controls the size of pores and guest accessible volume of the homochiral structure. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Four new homohiral metal–organic frameworks based on Ni2+ and Cu2+. • Cu(II)–malate layers and Ni(II)–malate chains are connected by N-donor linkers. • N-donor linkers of different length control the size of pores

  9. Changes in Phytochemical Synthesis, Chalcone Synthase Activity and Pharmaceutical Qualities of Sabah Snake Grass (Clinacanthus nutans L. in Relation to Plant Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, changes in secondary metabolite synthesis and the pharmaceutical quality of sabah snake grass leaves and buds were considered in relation to plant age (1 month, 6 months, and 1 year old. The activity of the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS, EC 2.3.1.74 was measured, as it is a key enzyme for flavonoid production. Significant differences in total flavonoid (TF production were observed between the three plant growth periods and the different plant parts. The highest contents of TF (6.32 mg/g dry weight [DW] and total phenolic (TP (18.21 mg/g DW were recorded in 6-month-old buds. Among the flavonoids isolated in this study the most important ones based on concentration were from high to low as follows: catechin > quercetin > kaempferol > luteolin. Production of phenolic acids increased from 1 to 6 months, but after 6 months up to 1 year of age, they decreased significantly. The highest contents of caffeic acid (0.307 mg/g DW and gallic acid (5.96 mg/g DW were recorded in 1-year and 6-month-old buds, respectively. The lowest and highest activity of CHS was recorded in 1-month and 6-month-old buds with values of 3.6 and 9.5 nkat/mg protein, respectively. These results indicate that the increment in flavonoids and phenolic acids in 6-month-old buds can be attributed to an increase in CHS activity. The highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH activity was observed in the extract of 1-year-old buds followed by 6-month-old buds, with 50% of free radical scavenging (IC50 values of 64.6 and 73.5 µg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay showed a higher activity in 6-month-old buds (488 μM of Fe(II/g than in 1-year-old buds (453 μM of Fe(II/g, in contrast to the DPPH result. Significant correlations (p < 0.05 were observed between CHS enzyme activity and FRAP activity, TF, catechin, and kaempferol content. Extracts of 6-month-old bud exhibited a significant in vitro anticancer activity against HeLa cancer cells with IC50 value of 56.8 µg/mL. These results indicate that early harvesting of snake grass (6-month-old may yield increased concentrations of secondary metabolites, which are potent antioxidant compounds.

  10. Aciculatin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression via suppressing NF-κB and JNK/p38 MAPK activation pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chien-Chih

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Natural products have played a significant role in drug discovery and development. Inflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 have been suggested to connect with various inflammatory diseases. In this study, we explored the anti-inflammatory potential of aciculatin (8-((2R,4S,5S,6R-tetrahydro-4,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-yl-5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl-7-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one, one of main components of Chrysopogon aciculatis, by examining its effects on the expression and activity of iNOS and COX-2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated macrophages. Methods We used nitrate and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 assays to examine inhibitory effect of aciculatin on nitric oxide (NO and PGE2 levels in LPS-activated mouse RAW264.7 macrophages and further investigated the mechanisms of aciculatin suppressed LPS-mediated iNOS/COX-2 expression by western blot, RT-PCR, reporter gene assay and confocal microscope analysis. Results Aciculatin remarkably decreased the LPS (1 μg/mL-induced mRNA and protein expression of iNOS and COX-2 as well as their downstream products, NO and PGE2 respectively, in a concentration-dependent manner (1-10 μM. Such inhibition was found, via immunoblot analyses, reporter gene assays, and confocal microscope observations that aciculatin not only acts through significant suppression of LPS-induced NF-κB activation, an effect highly correlated with its inhibitory effect on LPS-induced IκB kinase (IKK activation, IκB degradation, NF-κB phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and binding of NF-κB to the κB motif of the iNOS and COX-2 promoters, but also suppressed phosphorylation of JNK/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that aciculatin exerts potent anti-inflammatory activity through its dual inhibitory effects on iNOS and COX-2 by regulating NF-κB and JNK/p38 MAPK pathways.

  11. The Pb-hyperaccumulator aquatic fern Salvinia minima Baker, responds to Pb(2+) by increasing phytochelatins via changes in SmPCS expression and in phytochelatin synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella-Gmez, N; Mendoza-Czatl, D; Moreno-Snchez, R; Gonzlez-Mendoza, D; Zapata-Prez, O; Martnez-Hernndez, A; Santamara, J M

    2009-03-01

    The relationship between accumulation of Pb(2+) and the activation of chelation and metal sequestration mechanisms mediated by phytochelatins (PC) was analyzed in the Pb(2+) hyperaccumulator aquatic fern Salvinia minima, after exposure to 40microM Pb(NO(3))(2). The tissue accumulation pattern of lead and the phytochelatin biosynthesis responses were analyzed in both, S. minima submerged root-like modified fronds (here named "roots"), and in its aerial leaf-like fronds ("leaves"). S. minima roots accumulated a significantly higher concentrations of Pb(+2) than leaves did. Accumulation of Pb(2+) in roots was bi-phasic with a first uptake phase reached after 3h exposure and a second higher uptake phase reached after 24h exposure. In leaves, a single delayed, smaller uptake phase was attained only after 9h of exposure. In roots lead accumulation correlated with an increased phytochelatin synthase (PCS) activity and an enhanced PC production. A higher proportion of polymerized PC(4) was observed in both tissues of exposed S. minima plants relative to unexposed ones, although a higher concentration of PC(4) was found in roots than in leaves. PCS activity and Pb(2+) accumulation was also higher in roots than in leaves. The expression levels of the S. minima PCS gene (SmPCS), in response to Pb(2+) treatment, were also evaluated. In S. minima leaves, the accumulation of Pb(2+) correlated with a marked increase in expression of SmPCS, suggesting a transcriptional regulation in the PCS activation and PC accumulation in this S. minima tissue. However, in roots, the basal expression of SmPCS was down-regulated after Pb(2+) treatment. This fact did not correlate with the later but strong increase in both, PCS activity and PC production; suggesting that the PC biosynthesis activation in S. minima roots occurs only by post-translational activation of PCS. Taken together, our data suggest that the accumulation of PC in S. minima is a direct response to Pb(2+) accumulation, and phytochelatins do participate as one of the mechanism to cope with Pb(2+) of this Pb-hyperaccumulator aquatic fern. PMID:19110323

  12. The tomato terpene synthase gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falara, Vasiliki; Akhtar, Tariq A; Nguyen, Thuong T H; Spyropoulou, Eleni A; Bleeker, Petra M; Schauvinhold, Ines; Matsuba, Yuki; Bonini, Megan E; Schilmiller, Anthony L; Last, Robert L; Schuurink, Robert C; Pichersky, Eran

    2011-10-01

    Compounds of the terpenoid class play numerous roles in the interactions of plants with their environment, such as attracting pollinators and defending the plant against pests. We show here that the genome of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains 44 terpene synthase (TPS) genes, including 29 that are functional or potentially functional. Of these 29 TPS genes, 26 were expressed in at least some organs or tissues of the plant. The enzymatic functions of eight of the TPS proteins were previously reported, and here we report the specific in vitro catalytic activity of 10 additional tomato terpene synthases. Many of the tomato TPS genes are found in clusters, notably on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 8, and 10. All TPS family clades previously identified in angiosperms are also present in tomato. The largest clade of functional TPS genes found in tomato, with 12 members, is the TPS-a clade, and it appears to encode only sesquiterpene synthases, one of which is localized to the mitochondria, while the rest are likely cytosolic. A few additional sesquiterpene synthases are encoded by TPS-b clade genes. Some of the tomato sesquiterpene synthases use z,z-farnesyl diphosphate in vitro as well, or more efficiently than, the e,e-farnesyl diphosphate substrate. Genes encoding monoterpene synthases are also prevalent, and they fall into three clades: TPS-b, TPS-g, and TPS-e/f. With the exception of two enzymes involved in the synthesis of ent-kaurene, the precursor of gibberellins, no other tomato TPS genes could be demonstrated to encode diterpene synthases so far. PMID:21813655

  13. Temperature Response of Isoprene Emission in Vivo Reflects a Combined Effect of Substrate Limitations and Isoprene Synthase Activity: A Kinetic Analysis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasulov, Bahtijor; Hve, Katja; Bichele, Irina; Laisk, Agu; Niinemets, lo

    2010-01-01

    The responses of isoprene emission rate to temperature are characterized by complex time-dependent behaviors that are currently not entirely understood. To gain insight into the temperature dependencies of isoprene emission, we studied steady-state and transient responses of isoprene emission from hybrid aspen (Populus tremula Populus tremuloides) leaves using a fast-response gas-exchange system coupled to a proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometer. A method based on postillumination isoprene release after rapid temperature transients was developed to determine the rate constant of isoprene synthase (IspS), the pool size of its substrate dimethylallyldiphosphate (DMADP), and to separate the component processes of the temperature dependence of isoprene emission. Temperature transients indicated that over the temperature range 25C to 45C, IspS was thermally stable and operated in the linear range of its substrate DMADP concentration. The in vivo rate constant of IspS obeyed the Arrhenius law, with an activation energy of 42.8 kJ mol?1. In contrast, steady-state isoprene emission had a significantly lower temperature optimum than IspS and higher activation energy. The reversible temperature-dependent decrease in the rate of isoprene emission between 35C and 44C was caused by decreases in DMADP concentration, possibly reflecting reduced pools of energetic metabolites generated in photosynthesis, particularly of ATP. Strong control of isoprene temperature responses by the DMADP pool implies that transient temperature responses under fluctuating conditions in the field are driven by initial DMADP pool size as well as temperature-dependent modifications in DMADP pool size during temperature transients. These results have important implications for the development of process-based models of isoprene emission. PMID:20837700

  14. Temperature response of isoprene emission in vivo reflects a combined effect of substrate limitations and isoprene synthase activity: a kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasulov, Bahtijor; Hve, Katja; Bichele, Irina; Laisk, Agu; Niinemets, Ulo

    2010-11-01

    The responses of isoprene emission rate to temperature are characterized by complex time-dependent behaviors that are currently not entirely understood. To gain insight into the temperature dependencies of isoprene emission, we studied steady-state and transient responses of isoprene emission from hybrid aspen (Populus tremula Populus tremuloides) leaves using a fast-response gas-exchange system coupled to a proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometer. A method based on postillumination isoprene release after rapid temperature transients was developed to determine the rate constant of isoprene synthase (IspS), the pool size of its substrate dimethylallyldiphosphate (DMADP), and to separate the component processes of the temperature dependence of isoprene emission. Temperature transients indicated that over the temperature range 25C to 45C, IspS was thermally stable and operated in the linear range of its substrate DMADP concentration. The in vivo rate constant of IspS obeyed the Arrhenius law, with an activation energy of 42.8 kJ mol(-1). In contrast, steady-state isoprene emission had a significantly lower temperature optimum than IspS and higher activation energy. The reversible temperature-dependent decrease in the rate of isoprene emission between 35C and 44C was caused by decreases in DMADP concentration, possibly reflecting reduced pools of energetic metabolites generated in photosynthesis, particularly of ATP. Strong control of isoprene temperature responses by the DMADP pool implies that transient temperature responses under fluctuating conditions in the field are driven by initial DMADP pool size as well as temperature-dependent modifications in DMADP pool size during temperature transients. These results have important implications for the development of process-based models of isoprene emission. PMID:20837700

  15. Increased nitric oxide synthase activity despite lack of response to endothelium-dependent vasodilators in postischemic acute renal failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, J; Robinette, J; Villar, A; Raij, L; Shultz, P

    1995-01-01

    Lack of response to endothelium-dependent vasodilators generally has been considered to be evidence for decreased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and NO generation after ischemic or hypoxic injury to vital organs including the kidney. In this study, renal blood flow (RBF) responses to endothelium-dependent vasodilators acetylcholine and bradykinin and the endothelium-independent vasodilator prostacyclin, the nonselective NOS inhibitor L-NAME (without and with L-arginine), the inducible NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine, and the NO-donor sodium nitroprusside were examined in 1-wk norepinephrine-induced (NE) and sham-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. Compared with sham-ARF, there was no increase in RBF to intrarenal acetylcholine and bradykinin, but a comparable RBF increase to prostacyclin in NE-ARF kidneys. However, there was a significantly greater decline in RBF to intravenous L-NAME in NE- than sham-ARF rats (-65 +/- 8 vs. -37 +/- 5%, P < 0.001) which was completely blocked by prior L-arginine infusion. There was no change in RBF to the inducible NOS specific inhibitor aminoguanidine. Unlike sham-ARF, there was no increase in RBF to intrarenal sodium nitroprusside in NE-ARF. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence detection of constitutive (c) NOS using mouse monoclonal antibody were carried out to positively determine the presence of cNOS in NE-ARF. 90% of renal resistance vessels showed evidence of endothelial cNOS in both sham- and NE-ARF. Taken together, results of these experiments are consistent with the conclusion that NOS/NO activity is, in fact, maximal at baseline in 1-wk NE-ARF and cannot be increased further by exogenous stimuli of NOS activity. The increased NOS is likely of the constitutive form and of endothelial origin. It is suggested that the increased NOS activity is in response to ischemia-induced renal vasoconstrictor activity. Attenuated response to endothelium-dependent vasodilators cannot be interpreted only as evidence for decreased NOS activity. Images PMID:7542287

  16. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta activity with lithium prevents and attenuates paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain

    OpenAIRE

    GAO, MEI; Yan, Xisheng; Weng, Han-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is a first-line chemotherapy-drug used to treat many types of cancers. Neuropathic pain and sensory dysfunction are the major toxicities, which are dose-limiting and significantly reduce the quality of life in patients. Two known critical spinal mechanisms underlying taxol-induced neuropathic pain are an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and suppressed glial glutamate transporter activities. In this study, we uncovered that ...

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of isomultiflorenol synthase, a new triterpene synthase from Luffa cylindrica, involved in biosynthesis of bryonolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H; Huang, P; Inoue, K; Hiraoka, N; Ikeshiro, Y; Yazaki, K; Tanaka, S; Kushiro, T; Shibuya, M; Ebizuka, Y

    2001-12-01

    An oxidosqualene cyclase cDNA, LcIMS1, was isolated from cultured cells of Luffa cylindrica Roem. by heterologous hybridization with cDNA of Glycyrrhiza glabra beta-amyrin synthase. Expression of LcIMS1 in yeast lacking endogenous oxidosqualene cyclase activity resulted in the accumulation of isomultiflorenol, a triterpene. This is consistent with LcIMS1 encoding isomultiflorenol synthase, an oxidosqualene cyclase involved in bryonolic acid biosynthesis in cultured Luffa cells. The deduced amino-acid sequence of LcIMS1 shows relatively low identity with other triterpene synthases, suggesting that isomultiflorenol synthase should be classified into a new group of triterpene synthases. The levels of isomultiflorenol synthase and cycloartenol synthase mRNAs, which were measured with gene-specific probes, correlated with the accumulation of bryonolic acid and phytosterols over a growth cycle of the Luffa cell cultures. Isomultiflorenol synthase mRNA was low during the early stages of cell growth and accumulated to relatively high levels in the late stages. Induction of this mRNA preceded accumulation of bryonolic acid. In contrast, cycloartenol synthase mRNA accumulated in the early stages of the culture cycle, whereas phytosterols accumulated at the same relative rate throughout the whole growth cycle. These results suggest independent regulation of these two genes and of the accumulation of bryonolic acid and phytosterols. PMID:11733028

  18. A pH Control System Based on Malate Decarboxylation for the Cultivation of Lactic Acid Bacteria †

    OpenAIRE

    Daeschel, M A

    1988-01-01

    Most species of lactic acid bacteria decarboxylate l-malate to lactate and CO2 if an energy source such as glucose is present. A proton is taken up in the reaction, which prevents pH decreases in the growth medium caused by lactic acid production from glucose fermentation. MRS broth (pH 7.0) (Difco Laboratories) containing 10 mM glucose and various concentrations of l-malate (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mM) was used to cultivate Lactobacillus plantarum. After 72 h at 37°C, all malate was decarboxy...

  19. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.B.; Wildung, M.R.; Burke, C.C.; Gershenzon, J.

    1999-03-02

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate. 5 figs.

  20. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wildung, Mark Raymond; Burke, Charles Cullen; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate.

  1. Regional age-related changes in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, messenger RNA levels and activity in SAMP8 brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidon Grard

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO is a multifunctional molecule synthesized by three isozymes of the NO synthase (NOSs acting as a messenger/modulator and/or a potential neurotoxin. In rodents, the role of NOSs in sleep processes and throughout aging is now well established. For example, sleep parameters are highly deteriorated in senescence accelerated-prone 8 (SAMP8 mice, a useful animal model to study aging or age-associated disorders, while the inducible form of NOS (iNOS is down-regulated within the cortex and the sleep-structures of the brainstem. Evidence is now increasing for a role of iNOS and resulting oxidative stress but not for the constitutive expressed isozyme (nNOS. To better understand the role of nNOS in the behavioural impairments observed in SAMP8 versus SAMR1 (control animals, we evaluated age-related variations occurring in the nNOS expression and activity and nitrites/nitrates (NOx- levels, in three brain areas (n = 7 animals in each group. Calibrated reverse transcriptase (RT and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and biochemical procedures were used. Results We found that the levels of nNOS mRNA decreased in the cortex and the hippocampus of 8- vs 2-month-old animals followed by an increase in 12-vs 8-month-old animals in both strains. In the brainstem, levels of nNOS mRNA decreased in an age-dependent manner in SAMP8, but not in SAMR1. Regional age-related changes were also observed in nNOS activity. Moreover, nNOS activity in hippocampus was found lower in 8-month-old SAMP8 than in SAMR1, while in the cortex and the brainstem, nNOS activities increased at 8 months and afterward decreased with age in SAMP8 and SAMR1. NOx- levels showed profiles similar to nNOS activities in the cortex and the brainstem but were undetectable in the hippocampus of SAMP8 and SAMR1. Finally, NOx- levels were higher in the cortex of 8 month-old SAMP8 than in age-matched SAMR1. Conclusion Concomitant variations occurring in NO levels derived from nNOS and iNOS at an early age constitute a major factor of risk for sleep and/or memory impairments in SAMP8.

  2. Laser microdissection of conifer stem tissues: Isolation and analysis of high quality RNA, terpene synthase enzyme activity and terpenoid metabolites from resin ducts and cambial zone tissue of white spruce (Picea glauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamberger Bjrn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser microdissection (LMD has been established for isolation of individual tissue types from herbaceous plants. However, there are few reports of cell- and tissue-specific analysis in woody perennials. While microdissected tissues are commonly analyzed for gene expression, reports of protein, enzyme activity and metabolite analysis are limited due in part to an inability to amplify these molecules. Conifer stem tissues are organized in regular patterns with xylem, phloem and cortex development controlled by the activity of the cambial zone (CZ. Defense responses of conifer stems against insects and pathogens involve increased accumulation of terpenoids in cortical resin ducts (CRDs and de novo formation of traumatic resin ducts from CZ initials. These tissues are difficult to isolate for tissue-specific molecular and biochemical characterization and are thus good targets for application of LMD. Results We describe robust methods for isolation of individual tissue-types from white spruce (Picea glauca stems for analysis of RNA, enzyme activity and metabolites. A tangential cryosectioning approach was important for obtaining large quantities of CRD and CZ tissues using LMD. We report differential expression of genes involved in terpenoid metabolism between CRD and CZ tissues and in response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA. Transcript levels of ?-pinene synthase and levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase were constitutively higher in CRDs, but induction was stronger in CZ in response to MeJA. 3-Carene synthase was more strongly induced in CRDs compared to CZ. A differential induction pattern was observed for 1-deoxyxyulose-5-phosphate synthase, which was up-regulated in CRDs and down-regulated in CZ. We identified terpene synthase enzyme activity in CZ protein extracts and terpenoid metabolites in both CRD and CZ tissues. Conclusions Methods are described that allow for analysis of RNA, enzyme activity and terpenoid metabolites in individual tissues isolated by LMD from woody conifer stems. Patterns of gene expression are demonstrated in specific tissues that may be masked in analysis of heterogenous samples. Combined analysis of transcripts, proteins and metabolites of individual tissues will facilitate future characterization of complex processes of woody plant development, including periodic stem growth and dormancy, cell specialization, and defense and may be applied widely to other plant species.

  3. Conformational stability and activity analysis of two hydroxymethylbilane synthase mutants, K132N and V215E, with different phenotypic association with acute intermittent porphyria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Martinez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The autosomal dominantly inherited disease AIP (acute intermittent porphyria is caused by mutations in HMBS [hydroxymethylbilane synthase; also known as PBG (porphobilinogen deaminase], the third enzyme in the haem biosynthesis pathway. Enzyme-intermediates with increasing number of PBG molecules are formed during the catalysis of HMBS. In this work, we studied the two uncharacterized mutants K132N and V215E comparative with wt (wild-type HMBS and to the previously reported AIP-associated mutants R116W, R167W and R173W. These mainly present defects in conformational stability (R116W, enzyme kinetics (R167W or both (R173W. A combination of native PAGE, CD, DSF (differential scanning fluorimetry and ion-exchange chromatography was used to study conformational stability and activity of the recombinant enzymes. We also investigated the distribution of intermediates corresponding to specific elongation stages. It is well known that the thermostability of HMBS increases when the DPM (dipyrromethane cofactor binds to the apoenzyme and the holoenzyme is formed. Interestingly, a decrease in thermal stability was measured concomitant to elongation of the pyrrole chain, indicating a loosening of the structure prior to product release. No conformational or kinetic defect was observed for the K132N mutant, whereas V215E presented lower conformational stability and probably a perturbed elongation process. This is in accordance with the high association of V215E with AIP. Our results contribute to interpret the molecular mechanisms for dysfunction of HMBS mutants and to establish genotype–phenotype relations for AIP.

  4. Structure determination of glycogen synthase kinase-3 from Leishmania major and comparative inhibitor structure-activity relationships with Trypanosoma brucei GSK-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojo, Kayode K; Arakaki, Tracy L; Napuli, Alberto J; Inampudi, Krishna K; Keyloun, Katelyn R; Zhang, Li; Hol, Wim G.J.; Verlind, Christophe L.M.J.; Merritt, Ethan A; Van Voorhis, Wesley C [UWASH

    2012-04-24

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a drug target under intense investigation in pharmaceutical companies and constitutes an attractive piggyback target for eukaryotic pathogens. Two different GSKs are found in trypanosomatids, one about 150 residues shorter than the other. GSK-3 short (GeneDB: Tb927.10.13780) has previously been validated genetically as a drug target in Trypanosoma brucei by RNAi induced growth retardation; and chemically by correlation between enzyme and in vitro growth inhibition. Here, we report investigation of the equivalent GSK-3 short enzymes of L. major (LmjF18.0270) and L. infantum (LinJ18_V3.0270, identical in amino acid sequences to LdonGSK-3 short) and a crystal structure of LmajGSK-3 short at 2 Å resolution. The inhibitor structure-activity relationships (SARs) of L. major and L. infantum are virtually identical, suggesting that inhibitors could be useful for both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmania spp. GSK-3 short has different inhibitor SARs than TbruGSK-3 short, which can be explained mostly by two variant residues in the ATP-binding pocket. Indeed, mutating these residues in the ATP-binding site of LmajGSK-3 short to the TbruGSK-3 short equivalents results in a mutant LmajGSK-3 short enzyme with SAR more similar to that of TbruGSK-3 short. The differences between human GSK-3β (HsGSK-3β) and LmajGSK-3 short SAR suggest that compounds which selectively inhibit LmajGSK-3 short may be found.

  5. Wall stretch and thromboxane A2 activate NO synthase (eNOS) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells via H2O2 and Akt-dependent phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Jin; Yoo, Hae Young; Jang, Ji Hyun; Lin, Hai Yue; Seo, Eun Yeong; Zhang, Yin Hua; Kim, Sung Joon

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary arteries (PAs) have high compliance, buffering the wide ranges of blood flow. Here, we addressed a hypothesis that PA smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) express nitric oxide synthases (NOS) that might be activated by mechanical stress and vasoactive agonists. In the myograph study of endothelium-denuded rat PAs, NOS inhibition (L-NAME) induced strong contraction (96 % of 80 mM KCl-induced contraction (80K)) in the presence of 5 nM U46619 (thromboxane A2 (TXA2) analogue) with relatively high basal stretch (2.94 mN, S(+)). With lower basal stretch (0.98 mN, S(-)), however, L-NAME application following U46619 (TXA2/L-NAME) induced weak contraction (27 % of 80K). Inhibitors of nNOS and iNOS had no such effect in S(+) PAs. In endothelium-denuded S(+) mesenteric and renal arteries, TXA2/L-NAME-induced contraction was only 18 and 21 % of 80K, respectively. Expression of endothelial-type NOS (eNOS) in rat PASMCs was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Even in S(-) PAs, pretreatment with H2O2 (0.1-10 μM) effectively increased the sensitivity to TXA2/L-NAME (105 % of 80K). Vice versa, NADPH oxidase inhibitors, reactive oxygen species scavengers, or an Akt inhibitor (SC-66) suppressed TXA2/L-NAME-induced contraction in S(+) PAs. In a human PASMC line, immunoblot analysis showed the following: (1) eNOS expression, (2) Ser(1177) phosphorylation by U46619 and H2O2, and (3) Akt activation (Ser(473) phosphorylation) by U46619. In the cell-attached patch clamp study, H2O2 facilitated membrane stretch-activated cation channels in rat PASMCs. Taken together, the muscular eNOS in PAs can be activated by TXA2 and mechanical stress via H2O2 and Akt-mediated signaling, which may counterbalance the contractile signals from TXA2 and mechanical stimuli. PMID:26729266

  6. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition disrupts nuclear factor-kappaB activity in pancreatic cancer, but fails to sensitize to gemcitabine chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberrant activation NF-kappaB has been proposed as a mechanism of drug resistance in pancreatic cancer. Recently, inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 has been shown to exert anti-tumor effects on pancreatic cancer cells by suppressing NF-kappaB. Consequently, we investigated whether inhibition of GSK-3 sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine. GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using the pharmacological agent AR-A014418 or siRNA against GSK-3 alpha and beta isoforms. Cytotoxicity was measured using a Sulphorhodamine B assay and clonogenic survival following exposure of six different pancreatic cancer cell lines to a range of doses of either gemcitabine, AR-A014418 or both for 24, 48 and 72 h. We measured protein expression levels by immunoblotting. Basal and TNF-alpha induced activity of NF-kappaB was assessed using a luciferase reporter assay in the presence or absence of GSK-3 inhibition. GSK-3 inhibition reduced both basal and TNF-alpha induced NF-kappaB luciferase activity. Knockdown of GSK-3 beta reduced nuclear factor kappa B luciferase activity to a greater extent than GSK-3 alpha, and the greatest effect was seen with dual knockdown of both GSK-3 isoforms. GSK-3 inhibition also resulted in reduction of the NF-kappaB target proteins XIAP, Bcl-XL, and cyclin D1, associated with growth inhibition and decreased clonogenic survival. In all cell lines, treatment with either AR-A014418, or gemcitabine led to growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, with the exception of PANC-1 where drug synergy occurred with some dose schedules, the inhibitory effect of combined drug treatment was additive, sub-additive, or even antagonistic. GSK-3 inhibition has anticancer effects against pancreatic cancer cells with a range of genetic backgrounds associated with disruption of NF-kappaB, but does not significantly sensitize these cells to the standard chemotherapy agent gemcitabine. This lack of synergy might be context or cell line dependent, but could also be explained on the basis that although NF-kappaB is an important mediator of pancreatic cancer cell survival, it plays a minor role in gemcitabine resistance. Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms of this effect, including the potential for rational combination of GSK3 inhibitors with other targeted agents for the treatment of pancreatic cancer

  7. Lupus Nephritis: Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Promotion of Renal Damage Through Activation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Lupus-Prone Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jijun; Wang, Hongyue; Huang, Yuefang; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Shuang; Gaskin, Felicia; Yang, Niansheng; Fu, Shu Man

    2015-01-01

    Objective Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) has been demonstrated to be involved in immune and inflammatory responses via multiple signaling pathways, leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of GSK-3β in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis in 2 mouse models. Methods Thiadiazolidinone 8 (TDZD-8), a selective inhibitor of GSK-3β, was administered intraperitoneally to 12-week-old MRL/lpr mice for 8 weeks or to 22-week-old (NZB × NZW)F1 mice for 12 weeks. The expression of GSK-3β and NLRP3 inflammasome components was analyzed. Proteinuria, biochemical parameters, proinflammatory cytokines, anti–double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody levels, and renal pathology were examined. In vitro, the effect of GSK-3β–directed small interfering RNA (siRNA) on NLRP3 inflammasome activation was evaluated in bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMMs) from the mice and in the J774A.1 macrophage cell line. Results The incidence of severe proteinuria and renal inflammation was significantly attenuated in both models, with a significant reduction in anti-dsDNA antibody production, immune complex deposition in the kidney, and circulating proinflammatory cytokine levels. TDZD-8 inhibited the activation of GSK-3β and caspase 1, with a concomitant decrease in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) synthesis. In vitro, GSK-3β siRNA transfection of mouse BMMs and the J774A.1 cell line with GSK-3β siRNA inhibited the expression of GSK-3β, the activation of caspase 1, and the production of IL-1β. Conclusion These results show that GSK-3β promotes lupus nephritis at least partly by activating the NLRP3/IL-1β pathway. The linking of GSK-3β to the NLRP3/IL-1β pathway is a novel observation in our study. Our results suggest that the GSK-3β/NLRP3/IL-1β pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for lupus in humans. PMID:25512114

  8. Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by dietary isoflavones: role of NO in Nrf2-mediated antioxidant gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Giovanni E; Rowlands, David J; Li, Francois Y L; de Winter, Patricia; Siow, Richard C M

    2007-07-15

    The endothelium plays a key role in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis, and increased oxidative stress in vascular disease leads to reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of resistance vessels. Although epidemiological evidence suggests that diets containing high amounts of natural antioxidants afford protection against coronary heart disease (CHD), antioxidant supplementation trials have largely reported only marginal health benefits. There is controversy concerning the cardiovascular benefits of prolonged estrogen/progestin or soy isoflavone therapy for postmenopausal women and patients with an increased risk of CHD. Research on the potential health benefits of soy isoflavones and other polyphenols contained in red wine, green and black tea and dark chocolate developed rapidly during the 1990's, and recent clinical trials and studies in animal models and cultured endothelial cells provide important and novel insights into the mechanisms by which dietary polyphenols afford protection against oxidative stress. In this review, we highlight that NO and reactive oxygen radicals may mediate dietary polyphenol induced activation of Nrf2, which in turn triggers antioxidant response element (ARE) driven transcription of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant defense enzymes in vascular cells. PMID:17498676

  9. Nitric oxide synthase, calcitonin gene-related peptide and NK-1 receptor mechanisms are involved in GTN-induced neuronal activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, Roshni; Bhatt, Deepak Kumar; Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Gupta, Saurabh; Olesen, Jes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Infusion of glyceryltrinitrate (GTN), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, in awake, freely moving rats closely mimics a universally accepted human model of migraine and responds to sumatriptan treatment. Here we analyse the effect of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and calcitonin gene...

  10. Involvement of nitric oxide synthase in matrix metalloproteinase-9- and/or urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-mediated glioma cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Src tyrosine kinase activates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and, in turn, nitric oxide production as a means to transduce cell migration. Src tyrosine kinase plays a key proximal role to control α9β1 signaling. Our recent studies have clearly demonstrated the role of α9β1 integrin in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and/or urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)-mediated glioma cell migration. In the present study, we evaluated the involvement of α9β1 integrin-iNOS pathway in MMP-9- and/or uPAR-mediated glioma cell migration. MMP-9 and uPAR shRNAs and overexpressing plasmids were used to downregulate and upregulate these molecules, respectively in U251 glioma cells and 5310 glioma xenograft cells. The effect of treatments on migration and invasion potential of these glioma cells were assessed by spheroid migration, wound healing, and Matrigel invasion assays. In order to attain the other objectives we also performed immunocytochemical, immunohistochemical, RT-PCR, Western blot and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the prominent association of iNOS with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Immunofluorescence analysis showed prominent expression of iNOS in glioma cells. MMP-9 and/or uPAR knockdown by respective shRNAs reduced iNOS expression in these glioma cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed elevated iNOS mRNA expression in either MMP-9 or uPAR overexpressed glioma cells. The migration potential of MMP-9- and/or uPAR-overexpressed U251 glioma cells was significantly inhibited after treatment with L-NAME, an inhibitor of iNOS. Similarly, a significant inhibition of the invasion potential of the control or MMP-9/uPAR-overexpressed glioma cells was noticed after L-NAME treatment. A prominent reduction of iNOS expression was observed in the tumor regions of nude mice brains, which were injected with 5310 glioma cells, after MMP-9 and/or uPAR knockdown. Protein expressions of cSrc, phosphoSrc and p130Cas were reduced with simultaneous knockdown of both MMP-9 and uPAR. Taken together, our results from the present and earlier studies clearly demonstrate that α9β1 integrin-mediated cell migration utilizes the iNOS pathway, and inhibition of the migratory potential of glioma cells by simultaneous knockdown of MMP-9 and uPAR could be attributed to the reduced α9β1 integrin and iNOS levels

  11. Enzyme activities of demersal fishes from the shelf to the abyssal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Friedman, Jason R.; Condon, Nicole E.; Aus, Erica J.; Gerringer, Mackenzie E.; Keller, Aimee A.; Elizabeth Clarke, M.

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined metabolic enzyme activities of 61 species of demersal fishes (331 individuals) trawled from a 3000 m depth range. Citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase activities were measured as proxies for aerobic and anaerobic activity and metabolic rate. Fishes were classified according to locomotory mode, either benthic or benthopelagic. Fishes with these two locomotory modes were found to exhibit differences in metabolic enzyme activity. This was particularly clear in the overall activity of citrate synthase, which had higher activity in benthopelagic fishes. Confirming earlier, less comprehensive studies, enzyme activities declined with depth in benthopelagic fishes. For the first time, patterns in benthic species could be explored and these fishes also exhibited depth-related declines in enzyme activity, contrary to expectations of the visual interactions hypothesis. Trends were significant when using depth parameters taken from the literature as well as from the present trawl information, suggesting a robust pattern regardless of the depth metric used. Potential explanations for the depth trends are discussed, but clearly metabolic rate does not vary simply as a function of mass and habitat temperature in fishes as shown by the substantial depth-related changes in enzymatic activities.

  12. Allosteric Inhibition of Human Porphobilinogen Synthase*

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Sarah H.; Ramirez, Ursula D.; Selwood, Trevor; Stith, Linda; Jaffe, Eileen K.

    2009-01-01

    Porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) catalyzes the first common step in tetrapyrrole (e.g. heme, chlorophyll) biosynthesis. Human PBGS exists as an equilibrium of high activity octamers, low activity hexamers, and alternate dimer configurations that dictate the stoichiometry and architecture of further assembly. It is posited that small molecules can be found that inhibit human PBGS activity by stabilizing the hexamer. Such molecules, if present in the environment, could potentiate disease states ...

  13. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND MOLECULAR DYNAMICS STUDY OF PHB SYNTHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Femlin Blessia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB is a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA, a polymer belonging to polyesters class and is composed of hydroxy fatty acids. PHB is produced by microorganisms apparently in response to conditions of physiological stress. PHB synthases are the key enzymes of PHB biosynthesis. The PHB synthases obtained from Chromobacterium violaceum, belongs to the class I PHA synthases. Due to the limited structural information of PHB synthase, its functional properties including catalysis are unknown. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the structural and functional properties of PHB synthase (phaC by predicting its three dimensional structure using bioinformatics methods. Present 15 ns molecular dynamics study provides an overall insight about some of the parameters such as energy, RMSD (Root Mean Square Deviation, SASA (Solvent Accessible Surface Area, hydrogen bonds, etc., Protein-protein docking reveals the binding mode of the protein in the active dimer state.

  14. Catalase induces the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase through activation of NF-kappaB and PI3K signaling pathway in Raw 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Byeong-Churl; Paik, Ji-Hye; Kim, Sang-Pyo; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Mun, Kyo-Chul; Song, Dae-Kyu; Cho, Chi-Heum; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Park, Jong-Wook; Park, Jong-Gu; Baek, Won-Ki; Suh, Min-Ho; Lee, Soo Hwan; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Lee, In-Seon; Suh, Seong-Il

    2004-12-01

    It has been reported that macrophages produce substantial amounts of nitrite and nitrate after addition of catalase, but the mechanism associated remains unclear. In present study, we investigated whether catalase modulates the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), an enzyme that produces nitric oxide. Exposure of Raw 264.7 macrophages (Raw cells) to catalase induced high expression of iNOS mRNA as well as protein with enzymatic activity. Data of mechanical analyses, such as iNOS promoter-driven luciferase assay and actinomycin D chase experiments demonstrated that the induction was due to increased iNOS transcription and post-transcriptional iNOS mRNA stability. Of interest, catalase-induced iNOS protein expression was abrogated through inactivation of NF-kappaB pathway by MG132 or BAY 11-7085 and PI3K pathway by LY294002 or wortmannin, respectively. In particular, blockage of PI3K pathway by LY294002 down-regulated iNOS transcription and steady-state iNOS mRNA levels as well as iNOS mRNA stability induced by catalase, suggesting regulation of PI3K pathway in catalase-induced iNOS expression at the levels of iNOS transcription, steady-state mRNA status, and mRNA stability. Additional cell culture works in different types of cells indicated that iNOS expression by catalase might be cell type-specific, based on the facts that catalase induced iNOS expression in BV2 microglial macrophage-like cells, but not in HT-29 or A549, human colon or lung cancer epithelial-like cells. Together, these results demonstrate for the first time that catalase induces iNOS expression in Raw cells, which seems to be associated with the increase of iNOS transcription and mRNA stability as well as the activation of NF-kappaB and PI3K signaling pathways. PMID:15498507

  15. Protein kinase A-dependent Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Activation Mediates the Enhancement of Baroreflex Response by Adrenomedullin in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho I-Chun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adrenomedullin (ADM exerts its biological functions through the receptor-mediated enzymatic mechanisms that involve protein kinase A (PKA, or neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. We previously demonstrated that the receptor-mediated cAMP/PKA pathway involves in ADM-enhanced baroreceptor reflex (BRR response. It remains unclear whether ADM may enhance BRR response via activation of nNOS-dependent mechanism in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS. Methods Intravenous injection of phenylephrine was administered to evoke the BRR before and at 10, 30, and 60 min after microinjection of the test agents into NTS of Sprague-Dawley rats. Western blotting analysis was used to measure the level and phosphorylation of proteins that involved in BRR-enhancing effects of ADM (0.2 pmol in NTS. The colocalization of PKA and nNOS was examined by immunohistochemical staining and observed with a laser confocal microscope. Results We found that ADM-induced enhancement of BRR response was blunted by microinjection of NPLA or Rp-8-Br-cGMP, a selective inhibitor of nNOS or protein kinase G (PKG respectively, into NTS. Western blot analysis further revealed that ADM induced an increase in the protein level of PKG-I which could be attenuated by co-microinjection with the ADM receptor antagonist ADM22-52 or NPLA. Moreover, we observed an increase in phosphorylation at Ser1416 of nNOS at 10, 30, and 60 min after intra-NTS administration of ADM. As such, nNOS/PKG signaling may also account for the enhancing effect of ADM on BRR response. Interestingly, biochemical evidence further showed that ADM-induced increase of nNOS phosphorylation was prevented by co-microinjection with Rp-8-Br-cAMP, a PKA inhibitor. The possibility of PKA-dependent nNOS activation was substantiated by immunohistochemical demonstration of co-localization of PKA and nNOS in putative NTS neurons. Conclusions The novel finding of this study is that the signal transduction cascade that underlies the enhancement of BRR response by ADM in NTS is composed sequentially of cAMP/PKA and nNOS/PKG pathways.

  16. Hybrid polyketide synthases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Hagen, Andrew; Katz, Leonard; Keasling, Jay D.; Poust, Sean; Zhang, Jingwei; Zotchev, Sergey

    2016-05-10

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing an even-chain or odd-chain diacid or lactam or diamine. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the even-chain diacid, odd-chain diacid, or KAPA. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS capable of synthesizing a pimelic acid or KAPA, and when cultured produces biotin.

  17. Direct evidence that genetic variation in glycerol-3-phosphate and malate dehydrogenase genes (Gpdh and Mdh1) affects adult ethanol tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eanes, Walter F; Merritt, Thomas J S; Flowers, Jonathan M; Kumagai, Seiji; Zhu, Chen-Tseh

    2009-02-01

    Many studies of alcohol adaptation in Drosophila melanogaster have focused on the Adh polymorphism, yet the metabolic elimination of alcohol should involve many enzymes and pathways. Here we evaluate the effects of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gpdh) and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (Mdh1) genotype activity on adult tolerance to ethanol. We have created a set of P-element-excision-derived Gpdh, Mdh1, and Adh alleles that generate a range of activity phenotypes from full to zero activity. Comparisons of paired Gpdh genotypes possessing 10 and 60% normal activity and 66 and 100% normal activity show significant effects where higher activity increases tolerance. Mdh1 null allele homozygotes show reductions in tolerance. We use piggyBac FLP-FRT site-specific recombination to create deletions and duplications of Gpdh. Duplications show an increase of 50% in activity and an increase of adult tolerance to ethanol exposure. These studies show that the molecular polymorphism associated with GPDH activity could be maintained in natural populations by selection related to adaptation to alcohols. Finally, we examine the interactions between activity genotypes for Gpdh, Mdh1, and Adh. We find no significant interlocus interactions. Observations on Mdh1 in both Gpdh and Adh backgrounds demonstrate significant increases in ethanol tolerance with partial reductions (50%) in cytosolic MDH activity. This observation strongly suggests the operation of pyruvate-malate and, in particular, pyruvate-citrate cycling in adaptation to alcohol exposure. We propose that an understanding of the evolution of tolerance to alcohols will require a system-level approach, rather than a focus on single enzymes. PMID:19033156

  18. Fluctuations in Cytosolic Calcium Regulate the Neuronal Malate-Aspartate NADH Shuttle: Implications for Neuronal Energy Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satrústegui, Jorgina; Bak, Lasse K

    2015-12-01

    The malate-aspartate NADH shuttle (MAS) operates in neurons and other cells to translocate reducing equivalents from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix, thus allowing a continued flux through the glycolytic pathway and metabolism of extracellular lactate. Recent discoveries have taught us that MAS is regulated by fluctuations in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, and that this regulation is required to maintain a tight coupling between neuronal activity and mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. At cytosolic Ca(2+) fluctuations below the threshold of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter, there is a positive correlation between Ca(2+) and MAS activity; however, if cytosolic Ca(2+) increases above the threshold, MAS activity is thought to be reduced by an intricate mechanism. The latter forces the neurons to partly rely on anaerobic glycolysis producing lactate that may be metabolized subsequently, by neurons or other cells. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for Ca(2+)-mediated regulation of MAS that have been uncovered over the last decade or so, together with the need for further verification, and examine the metabolic ramifications for neurons. PMID:26138554

  19. Analysis of the conversion of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-alpha-aminobutyrate by active-site mutants of Aspergillus nidulans isopenicillin N synthase.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, CJ; Shorrock, CP; Claridge, TD; Sutherland, JD

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Penicillins and cephalosporins constitute a major class of clinically useful antibiotics. A key step in their biosynthesis involves the oxidative cyclisation of delta-(Lalpha-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine to isopenicillin N by isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS). This chemically remarkable transformation has been extensively studied using substrate analogues. The conversion of an analogue in which the valine is replaced by alpha-aminobutyrate results in three products, two epimer...

  20. Polyphosphoester-based cationic nanoparticles serendipitously release integral biologically-active components to serve as novel degradable inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuefei; Zhang, Shiyi; Zhang, Fuwu; Loftis, Alexander; Pavía-Sanders, Adriana; Zou, Jiong; Fan, Jingwei; Taylor, John-Stephen A; Wooley, Karen L

    2013-10-18

    A degradable polyphosphoester (PPE)-based cationic nanoparticle (cSCK), which is integrated constructed as a novel degradable drug device, demonstrates surprisingly efficient inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) transcription, and eventually inhibits nitric oxide (NO) over-production, without loading of any specific therapeutic drugs. This system may serve as a promising anti-inflammatory agent toward the treatment of acute lung injury. PMID:23999874

  1. BcsA and BcsB form the catalytically active core of bacterial cellulose synthase sufficient for in vitro cellulose synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Omadjela, Okako; Narahari, Adishesh; Strumillo, Joanna; Mélida, Hugo; Mazur, Olga; Bulone, Vincent; Zimmer, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, primarily formed by vascular plants, but also by some bacteria. Bacterial extracellular polysaccharides, such as cellulose and alginate, are an important component of biofilms, which are multicellular, usually sessile, aggregates of bacteria. Biofilms exhibit a greater resistance to antimicrobial treatments compared with isolated bacteria and thus are a particular concern to human health. Cellulose synthases synthesize cellulose by polymeriz...

  2. [Enzyme activity in the subcellular fractions of the liver of rats following a flight on board the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigranian, R A; Vetrova, E G; Abraham, S; Lin, C; Klein, H

    1983-01-01

    The activities of malate, isocitrate, and lactate dehydrogenases were measured in the liver mitochondrial and cytoplasmatic fractions of rats flown for 18.5 days onboard Cosmos-1129. The activities of the oxidative enzymes, malate and isocitrate dehydrogenases, in the mitochondrial fraction and those of the glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, in the cytoplasmatic fraction were found to decrease. PMID:6855177

  3. Human platelet nitric oxide synthase activity: an optimized method Atividade da óxido nítrico sintase em plaquetas humanas: um método otimizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Mitiko Kawamato

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the kinetic analysis of human platelet Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS activity by the rate of conversion of [³H] arginine to [³H]-citrulline in unstimulated fresh platelets. NOS activity was present in the membrane fraction and cytosol, and was Ca2+- and calmodulin dependent which is a characteristic of endothelial NOS. NOS activity was also dependent of NADPH since the omission of this cofactor induced an important decrease (85,2% in the enzyme activity. The kinetic varied with protein and arginine concentration but optimum concentrations were found up to 60 minutes, and up to 80 µg of protein at 120 nM of arginine and 0.5 µCi of ³H-arginine. NOS activity in the absence of FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide, FMN (flavin mononucleotide and BH4 (tetrahydrobiopterin was only 2.8% of the activity measured in the presence of these three cofactors. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by L-NAME (1 mM (98.1 % and EGTA (5 mM (98.8 %. Trifluoperazine (TFP caused 73.2% inhibition of the enzyme activity at 200 µM and 83.8 % at 500 µM. Under basal conditions, NOS Km for L-arginine was 0.84 ± 0.08 µM and mean Vmax values were 0.122 ± 0.025 pmol.mg-1.min-1. Mean human NOS platelet activity was 0.020 ± 0.010 pmol.mg-1.min-1. Results indicate that the eNOS in human platelet can be evaluated by conversion of [³H]-arginine to [³H]citrulline in an optimized method, which provide reproducible and accurate results with good sensitivity to clinical experiments involving neurological and psychiatric diseases.A análise cinética da atividade da óxido nítrico sintase (NOS plaquetária foi avaliada pela conversão de [³H]-arginina em [³H]-citrulina em plaquetas humanas frescas não estimuladas. A atividade da NOS foi detectada na fração citosólica e na membrana, além de ser dependente de Ca2+-calmodulina, que é uma característica da NOS endotelial (eNOS. A omissão de NADPH levou à diminuição da atividade da NOS dependente da dose causando redução de 85,2% da atividade enzimática. A cinética variou de acordo com as concentrações de proteína e de arginina, sendo que as melhores leituras foram obtidas com 80 µg de proteína, 120 nM de arginina em 0,5 µCi de ³H arginina, em 60 minutos de incubação. A atividade da NOS na ausência de FAD (flavina adenina dinucleotídeo, FMN (flavina mononucleotídeo e BH4 (tetrahidrobiopterina foi de apenas 2,8% da atividade medida na presença destes três cofatores. A atividade da enzima foi completamente inibida pelo L-NAME (1 mM; 98,1 %, EGTA (5 mM; 98,8 % e adição de trifluoperazina (TFP, nas concentrações de 200 µM e 500 µM, inibiu a atividade da enzima em 73,2% e 83,8 %, respectivamente. Em condições basais, o Km da NOS para Larginina foi de 0,84 ± 0,08 µM e o valor de Vmax foi de 0,122 ± 0,025 pmol.mg-1.min-1. A atividade média da NOS plaquetária humana foi de 0,020 ± 0,010 pmol.mg-1.min-1. Os resultados indicam que a eNOS em plaquetas humanas pode ser avaliada pelo método da conversão de [³H]-arginina em [³H]-citrulina, que em condições otimizadas, fornece resultados reprodutíveis e precisos com ótima sensibilidade para experimentos clínicos envolvendo doenças neurológicas e psiquiátricas.

  4. Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in hyaluronan synthase 2 transcripts through an AMP-activated protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in HAS2 transcripts. ? Adiponectin also increases the phosphorylation of AMPK. ? A pharmacological activator of AMPK increases mRNA levels of PPAR? and HAS2. ? Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression is blocked by a PPAR? antagonist. ? Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis via an AMPK/PPAR?-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Although adipocytokines affect the functions of skin, little information is available on the effect of adiponectin on the skin. In this study, we investigated the effect of adiponectin on hyaluronan synthesis and its regulatory mechanisms in human dermal fibroblasts. Adiponectin promoted hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in the mRNA levels of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), which plays a primary role in hyaluronan synthesis. Adiponectin also increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). A pharmacological activator of AMPK, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1?-ribofuranoside (AICAR), increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), which enhances the expression of HAS2 mRNA. In addition, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of HAS2. Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression was blocked by GW6471, a PPAR? antagonist, in a concentration-dependent manner. These results show that adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in HAS2 transcripts through an AMPK/PPAR?-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts. Thus, our study suggests that adiponectin may be beneficial for retaining moisture in the skin, anti-inflammatory activity, and the treatment of a variety of cutaneous diseases.

  5. Mutations Derived from the Thermophilic Polyhydroxyalkanoate Synthase PhaC Enhance the Thermostability and Activity of PhaC from Cupriavidus necator H16

    OpenAIRE

    Sheu, Der-Shyan; Chen, Wen-ming; Lai, Yung-Wei; Chang, Rey-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The thermophile Cupriavidus sp. strain S-6 accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from glucose at 50C. A 9.0-kbp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genomic DNA of Cupriavidus sp. S-6 enabled Escherichia coli XL1-Blue to synthesize PHB at 45C. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed a pha locus in the clone. The thermophilic polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase (PhaCCsp) shared 81% identity with mesophilic PhaC of Cupriavidus necator H16. The diversity between these two strains was found dominantly on...

  6. Genetic organization of the cellulose synthase operon in Acetobacter xylinum.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, H C; Fear, A L; Calhoon, R D; Eichinger, G H; Mayer, R; Amikam, D; Benziman, M; Gelfand, D H; Meade, J H; Emerick, A W

    1990-01-01

    An operon encoding four proteins required for bacterial cellulose biosynthesis (bcs) in Acetobacter xylinum was isolated via genetic complementation with strains lacking cellulose synthase activity. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that the cellulose synthase operon is 9217 base pairs long and consists of four genes. The four genes--bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, and bcsD--appear to be translationally coupled and transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA with an initiation site 97 bases upstream of the co...

  7. NADP-malate Dehydrogenase Isoforms of Wheat Leaves under Drought: Their Localization, and Some physicochemical and Kinetic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Babayev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in sub-cellular localization, isoenzyme spectrum and kinetic characteristics of NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH, EC 1.1.1.82 in Triticum durum Desf. genotypes with contrasting drought tolerance have been studied. In chloroplast and cytosol fractions of mesophyll cells of wheat flag leaves 70-75% and 25-30% of the total NADP-MDH activity were found to be localized, respectively. Three isoforms of NADP-MDH with molecular weights of 66, 74 and 86 kDa were revealed in the chloroplast fraction, whereas in the cytosolic fraction molecular weights of the isoenzymes were found to be 42, 66 and 74 kDa. Drought caused the formation of a new 90 kDa isoform of the enzyme in the chloroplast fraction in anthesis phase of ontogenesis. In the drought-tolerant genotype the appearance of the new isoform in the chloroplast fraction was accompanied by a more rapid increase in Km and Vmax contrary to the chloroplast fraction of the drought-sensitive genotype manifesting a slight decrease in these parameters, suggesting one of the adaptive traits in forming drought tolerance in C3 plants.

  8. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC 1.1.1.37) isozymes in tissues and callus cultures of Cereus peruvianus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M F; Prioli, A J; Mangolin, C A

    1993-04-01

    Malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC 1.1.1.37) isozymes were investigated in seeds and in seedlings and calli cultures of C. peruvianus to determine if the changes in MDH isozyme banding patterns could be used as biochemical markers to identify the origin of regenerated plants from callus tissues. Four cytoplasmic MDH isozymes (sMDH), five mitochondrial MDH isozymes (mMDH), and one glyoxysomal MDH isozyme (gMDH) were detected and showed tissue- and stage-specific expression. A relationship of mMDH and gMDH isozyme patterns with callus tissues subcultured in three hormonal combinations and with the plants regenerated from these callus tissues was demonstrated. Furthermore, temperature and mechanical stress were found to be closely related to mMDH-1 activity in callus culture. Therefore, the different patterns of MDH isozymes in the various tissues of C. peruvianus can be used as biochemical markers for the study of gene expression during development and as powerful tools in monitoring studies on callus cultures. PMID:8363555

  9. Differential alcohol dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase isozyme expression in long-term callus tissue cultures of Cereus peruvianus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, E F; Prioli, A J; Machado, M F

    1995-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) isozymes were tested as markers to study the effect of a high kinetin concentration on isozyme phenotypes and on the development of Cereus peruvianus callus tissue culture. Three-year-old callus tissues were used as samples. Callus tissue samples grown on 4.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and on 4.0 and 8.0 mg/L N-(2-furanylmethyl)-1H-purine-6 amine (kinetin) were cut and transferred to fresh medium containing 4.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 4.0, 8.0, 16.0, and 32 mg/L kinetin combinations. The pattern of changes observed in the ADH and mMDH isozymes as well as the growth of callus tissues was independent of the concentrations tested. The various ADH and mMDH isozymes seem to be products of differential association of subunits of the two Adh and two mMdh genes. Both genes are active throughout callus tissue development; however, gene expression changed with various callus culture condictions. This study addresses how long-term callus culture condictions affect constitutive and differential gene expression of the Adh and mMdh genes in C. peruvianus. PMID:8825939

  10. Sunitinib Malate plus Lomustine for Patients with Temozolomide-refractory Recurrent Anaplastic or Low-grade Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerinck, Johnny; Du Four, Stephanie; Sander, Wilhelm; Van Binst, Anne-Marie; Everaert, Hendrik; Michotte, Alex; Hau, Peter; Neyns, Bart

    2015-10-01

    Tyrosine kinase signaling through the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor- ? (PDGFR-?) and KIT cell surface receptors mediates neo-angiogenesis and contributes to cancer cell survival in recurrent anaplastic and low-grade glioma. Thirteen patients with temozolomide-refractory recurrent anaplastic or low-grade glioma were treated with sunitinib malate, a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the VEGFR, PDGFR, and KIT receptors, in combination with lomustine. The most frequent grade 3 and 4 adverse events were fatigue, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and lymphopenia. The best objective tumor response by Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria was one complete response, one unconfirmed partial response and three cases of stable disease. The median progression-free survival was 1.8 months (95% confidence interval=1.0-2.7 months) with 6-month progression-free survival of 15% (95% confidence interval=0-35%). The median overall survival was 6.7 months (95% confidence interval=0.7-12 months). The investigated combination regimen of sunitinib and lomustine is well-tolerated but insufficiently active to warrant further investigation in an unselected population of patients with temozolomide-refractory recurrent anaplastic and low-grade glioma. PMID:26408725

  11. Long non-coding RNA MALAT-1 is downregulated in preeclampsia and regulates proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of JEG-3 trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiying; Meng, Tao; Liu, Xuemin; Sun, Manni; Tong, Chunxiao; Liu, Jing; Wang, He; Du, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), as a newly identified subset of the transcriptome, has been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT-1), a lncRNA that was initially detected in the metastatic lung cancer, was reported to be overexpressed in placenta previa increta/percreta (I/P), which is caused by excessive trophoblast invasion. However, the role of MALAT-1 in the regulation of trophoblast behavior is not fully understood. In this study, we first examined the expression of MALAT-1 in the placentas from the patients with preeclampsia, the pathology of which is associated with inadequate trophoblast invasion, and found that the expression of MALAT-1 was downregulated in the preeclamptic placentas as compared to the normal placentas. We further investigated the function of MALAT-1 in JEG-3 trophoblast cell line using short interfering RNA (siRNA) against MALAT-1 transcripts. Silencing of MALAT-1 in JEG-3 cells suppressed proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Reduced expression of MALAT-1 by RNA interference resulted in enhanced apoptosis in JEG-3 cells, accompanied with elevated levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins including cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Moreover, the migration rate and the invasiveness of JEG-3 cells were suppressed when MALAT-1 was downregulated. In summary, our results suggest that MALAT-1 may play an important role in the regulation of proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion of trophoblast cells, and under-expression of MALAT-1 during early placentation may be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. PMID:26722461

  12. Molecular cloning, purification and immunogenicity of recombinant Brucella abortus 544 malate dehydrogenase protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon

    2016-01-01

    The Brucella mdh gene was successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant malate dehydrogenase protein (rMDH) was reactive to Brucella-positive bovine serum in the early stage, but not reactive in the middle or late stage, and was reactive to Brucella-positive mouse serum in the late stage, but not in the early or middle stage of infection. In addition, rMDH did not react with Brucella-negative bovine or mouse sera. These results suggest that rMDH has the potential for use as a specific antigen in serological diagnosis for early detection of bovine brucellosis.

  13. Nitric oxide synthase in the pineal gland

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Figueroa, M.O.; Moller, M.

    1996-01-01

    The recent discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as a biological messenger molecule with unique characteristics has opened a new field in pineal research. This free radical gas is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. The activation of adrenoreceptors in the membrane of the pinealocytes mediates the increase in NO through a mechanism that involves G proteins. In the pinealocyte, NO stimulates guanylyl cyclase resulting in an increased ...

  14. Thymoquinone Inhibits Escherichia coli ATP Synthase and Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F; Kady, Ismail O

    2015-01-01

    We examined the thymoquinone induced inhibition of purified F1 or membrane bound F1FO E. coli ATP synthase. Both purified F1 and membrane bound F1FO were completely inhibited by thymoquinone with no residual ATPase activity. The process of inhibition was fully reversible and identical in both membrane bound F1Fo and purified F1 preparations. Moreover, thymoquinone induced inhibition of ATP synthase expressing wild-type E. coli cell growth and non-inhibition of ATPase gene deleted null control cells demonstrates that ATP synthase is a molecular target for thymoquinone. This also links the beneficial dietary based antimicrobial and anticancer effects of thymoquinone to its inhibitory action on ATP synthase. PMID:25996607

  15. Thymoquinone Inhibits Escherichia coli ATP Synthase and Cell Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F.; Kady, Ismail O.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the thymoquinone induced inhibition of purified F1 or membrane bound F1FO E. coli ATP synthase. Both purified F1 and membrane bound F1FO were completely inhibited by thymoquinone with no residual ATPase activity. The process of inhibition was fully reversible and identical in both membrane bound F1Fo and purified F1 preparations. Moreover, thymoquinone induced inhibition of ATP synthase expressing wild-type E. coli cell growth and non-inhibition of ATPase gene deleted null control cells demonstrates that ATP synthase is a molecular target for thymoquinone. This also links the beneficial dietary based antimicrobial and anticancer effects of thymoquinone to its inhibitory action on ATP synthase. PMID:25996607

  16. Inibição da atividade da citrato sintase cerebral em um modelo animal de sepse Inhibition of brain citrate synthase activity in an animal model of sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselli Scaini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Um amplo corpo de evidência oriundo de estudos experimentais indica que a sepse se associa com um aumento da produção de espécies de oxigênio reativo, depleção de antioxidantes, e acúmulo de marcadores de estresse oxidativo. Além disto, a disfunção mitocondrial foi implicada na patogênese da síndrome de disfunção de múltiplos órgãos. A citrato sintase é uma enzima que se localiza no interior das células, na matriz mitocondrial, sendo uma etapa importante do ciclo de Krebs; esta enzima foi utilizada como um marcador enzimático quantitativo da presença de mitocôndrias intactas. Assim, investigamos a atividade da citrato sintase no cérebro de ratos submetidos ao modelo sepse com de ligadura e punção do ceco. MÉTODOS: Em diferentes horários (3, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas após cirurgia de ligadura e punção do ceco, seis ratos foram sacrificados por decapitação, sendo seus cérebros removidos e dissecados o hipocampo, estriato, cerebelo, córtex cerebral e córtex pré-frontal, e utilizados para determinação da atividade de citrato sintase. RESULTADOS: Verificamos que a atividade de citrato sintase no córtex pré-frontal estava inibida após 12, 24 e 48 horas da ligadura e punção do ceco. No córtex cerebral, esta atividade estava inibida após 3, 12, 24 e 48 horas da ligadura e punção do ceco. Por outro lado a citrato sintase não foi afetada no hipocampo, estriato e cerebelo até 48 horas após a ligadura e punção do ceco. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando-se que é bem descrito o comprometimento da energia decorrente da disfunção mitocondrial na sepse, e que o estresse oxidativo desempenha um papel essencial no desenvolvimento da sepse, acreditamos que o comprometimento da energia pode também estar evolvido nestes processos. Se a inibição da citrato sintase também ocorre em um modelo de sepse, é tentador especular que a redução do metabolismo cerebral pode provavelmente estar relacionada com a fisiopatologia desta doença.OBJECTIVE: An extensive body of evidence from experimental studies indicates that sepsis is associated with increased reactive oxygen species production, depletion of antioxidants, and accumulation of markers of oxidative stress. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS. Citrate synthase is an enzyme localized in the mitochondrial matrix and an important component of the Krebs cycle; consequently, citrate synthase has been used as a quantitative enzyme marker for the presence of intact mitochondria. Thus, we investigated citrate synthase activity in the brains of rats submitted to a cecal ligation puncture model of sepsis. METHODS: At several times points (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after the cecal ligation puncture operation, six rats were killed by decapitation. Their brains were removed, and the hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, cerebral cortex and prefrontal cortex were dissected and used to determine citrate synthase activity. RESULTS: We found that citrate synthase activity in the prefrontal cortex was inhibited 12, 24 and 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. In the cerebral cortex, citrate synthase activity was inhibited 3, 12, 24 and 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. Citrate synthase was not affected in the hippocampus, striatum or cerebellum up to 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. CONCLUSION: Considering that energy impairment due to mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis has been well described and that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in sepsis development, we believe that energy impairment may also be involved in these processes. If citrate synthase inhibition also occurs in a sepsis model, it is tempting to speculate that a reduction in brain metabolism may be related to the pathophysiology of this disease.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of malate dehydrogenase from Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection of X-ray diffraction data from malate dehydrogenase from P. falciparum to a resolution of 2.2 Å is reported. The expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction characterization of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) from the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfMDH) are reported. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the function and role of PfMDH, the protein was purified to homogeneity. The purified protein crystallized in space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 72, b = 157, c = 159 Å, α = 105, β = 101, γ = 95°. The resulting crystals diffracted to a maximal resolution of 2.24 Å and the structure has been solved by molecular replacement, with 16 monomers in the asymmetric unit. The 16 monomers are arranged into four independent tetramers, in agreement with previous reports demonstrating the tetrameric solution state of PfMDH. The X-ray structure of PfMDH is expected to clarify the differences in catalysis by PfMDH compared with other MDH family members and to provide a basis for the structure-based design of specific PfMDH inhibitors as well as general MDH inhibitors

  18. Identification of avian wax synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biester Eva-Maria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bird species show a high degree of variation in the composition of their preen gland waxes. For instance, galliform birds like chicken contain fatty acid esters of 2,3-alkanediols, while Anseriformes like goose or Strigiformes like barn owl contain wax monoesters in their preen gland secretions. The final biosynthetic step is catalyzed by wax synthases (WS which have been identified in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Results Sequence similarities enabled us to identify six cDNAs encoding putative wax synthesizing proteins in chicken and two from barn owl and goose. Expression studies in yeast under in vivo and in vitro conditions showed that three proteins from chicken performed WS activity while a sequence from chicken, goose and barn owl encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis. Mono- and bifunctional WS were found to differ in their substrate specificities especially with regard to branched-chain alcohols and acyl-CoA thioesters. According to the expression patterns of their transcripts and the properties of the enzymes, avian WS proteins might not be confined to preen glands. Conclusions We provide direct evidence that avian preen glands possess both monofunctional and bifunctional WS proteins which have different expression patterns and WS activities with different substrate specificities.

  19. Structure of a cephalosporin synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Valegård, Karin; Terwisscha Van Scheltinga, Anke C; Lloyd, Matthew D.; Hara, Takane; Ramaswamy, S; Perrakis, Anastassis; Thompson, Andy; Lee, Hwei-Jen; Baldwin, Jack E.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Hajdu, Janos; Andersson, Inger

    1998-01-01

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used therapeutic agents. These antibiotics are produced from fermentation-derived materials as their chemical synthesis is not commercially viable. Unconventional steps in their biosynthesis are catalysed by Fe(II)-dependent oxidases/oxygenases; isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) creates in one step the bicyclic nucleus of penicillins, and deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS) catalyses the expansion of the penicillin nucleus into the ...

  20. Understanding structure, function, and mutations in the mitochondrial ATP synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial ATP synthase is a multimeric enzyme complex with an overall molecular weight of about 600,000 Da. The ATP synthase is a molecular motor composed of two separable parts: F1 and Fo. The F1 portion contains the catalytic sites for ATP synthesis and protrudes into the mitochondrial matrix. Fo forms a proton turbine that is embedded in the inner membrane and connected to the rotor of F1. The flux of protons flowing down a potential gradient powers the rotation of the rotor driving the synthesis of ATP. Thus, the flow of protons though Fo is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. This review will discuss the structure/function relationship in the ATP synthase as determined by biochemical, crystallographic, and genetic studies. An emphasis will be placed on linking the structure/function relationship with understanding how disease causing mutations or putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes encoding the subunits of the ATP synthase, will affect the function of the enzyme and the health of the individual. The review will start by summarizing the current understanding of the subunit composition of the enzyme and the role of the subunits followed by a discussion on known mutations and their effect on the activity of the ATP synthase. The review will conclude with a summary of mutations in genes encoding subunits of the ATP synthase that are known to be responsible for human disease, and a brief discussion on SNPs.

  1. Thermal stability of soluble malate dehydrogenase isozymes of subtropical fish belonging to the orders Characiformes, Siluriformes and Perciformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Maria do Carmo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic thermostability tests of soluble malate dehydrogenases (sMDH isozymes in tissue extracts of 21 subtropical fish belonging to the orders Characiformes, Siluriformes and Perciformes showed three distinct results. The first, characterized by thermal stability of the slowest-migrating band or A-isoform, was detected in 52% of all species. The second, exhibited in 29% of the species analyzed, had a bidirectionally divergent pattern of their sMDH locus expression, and was characterized by a nondivergent thermostability pattern of both sMDH-A* and B*. In the third category, obtained in 19% of the species studied (the four Siluriformes species, thermostability of the fastest-migrating bands, or B-isoforms, was observed. Comparison of the effects of habitat temperature on the activity of paralogous and orthologous isoforms in tissue extracts of two of these species with different thermostability properties (Leporinus friderici - thermostable sMDH-A*, and Pimelodus maculatus - reverse thermostability properties or reverse electrophoretic pattern, collected during winter and summer months, showed that A and B subunits were present at different quantitative levels and their activities were nearly season independent. Differences in susceptibility to temperature (50°C of both sMDH loci from tissue extracts of these species were found. In P. maculatus, these susceptibilities helped strengthen one of the hypotheses: the reverse thermostability pattern, where the fastest-migrating band or the B-isoform was the thermostable sMDH. Thus, temperature differences among orthologous homologues of sMDH seem to have occurred in these acclimatized species, where the fastest-migrating band, usually muscle specific and thermolabile in most teleosts, appeared in P. maculatus as the thermostable isoform.

  2. Topography of prostaglandin H synthase. Antiinflammatory agents and the protease-sensitive arginine 253 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmacz, R J

    1989-08-25

    Prostaglandin H synthase catalyzes two reactions: the bis-dioxygenation of arachidonic acid to form prostaglandin G2 (cyclooxygenase activity), and the reduction of hydroperoxides to the corresponding alcohols (peroxidase activity). The cyclooxygenase activity can be selectively inhibited by many nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents including indomethacin. In the native synthase, there is a single prominent protease-sensitive region, located near Arg253; binding of the heme prosthetic group makes the synthase resistant to proteases. To investigate the spatial relationship between the area of the synthase which interacts with indomethacin and the protease-sensitive region, the effects of indomethacin and similar agents on the protease sensitivity of the two enzymatic activities and of the synthase polypeptide were examined. Incubation of the synthase apoenzyme with trypsin (3.6% w/w) resulted in the time-dependent coordinate loss (75% at 1 h) of both enzymatic activities and the cleavage (85% at 1 h) of the 70-kDa subunit into 38- and 33-kDa fragments, indicating that proteolytic cleavage of the polypeptide at Arg253, destroyed both activities of the synthase simultaneously. Indomethacin, (S)-flurbiprofen, or meclofenamate (each at 20 microM) rendered both activities and the synthase polypeptide (at 5 microM subunit) resistant to attack by trypsin or proteinase K; these agents also inhibited the cyclooxygenase activity of the intact synthase. Two reversible cyclooxygenase inhibitors, ibuprofen and flufenamate, also made both of the activities and the synthase polypeptide more resistant to trypsin. Titration of the apoenzyme with indomethacin (0-3 mol/mol of synthase dimer) resulted in proportional increases in the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase and in the resistance to attack by trypsin. (R)-Flurbiprofen did not increase the resistance to protease or appreciably inhibit the cyclooxygenase. These results suggest that the same stereospecific interaction of these agents with the synthase that produced inhibition of the cyclooxygenase led to a decreased accessibility of the Arg253 region to proteases. Aspirin treatment made the synthase less resistant to trypsin; aspirin-treated synthase became more resistant to trypsin when it was incubated with indomethacin before addition of the protease. The presence of 50 microM arachidonate during digestion of apoenzyme or aspirin-treated apoenzyme with trypsin did not decrease the cleavage of the synthase subunit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2503512

  3. Single-Molecule Stochastic Analysis of Channeling Enzyme Tryptophan Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutchko, Dimitri; Gonze, Didier; Mikhailov, Alexander S

    2016-03-10

    The channeling enzyme tryptophan synthase provides a paradigmatic example of a chemical nanomachine. It possesses two active centers and, as a single molecule, catalyzes 13 different reaction steps with a complex pattern of allosteric regulation and with an intermediate product channeled from one active center to another. Here, the first single-molecule stochastic model of the enzyme is proposed and analyzed. All its transition rate constants were deduced from the experimental data available, and no fitting parameters were thus employed. Numerical simulations reveal strong correlations in the states of the active centers and the emergent synchronization of intramolecular processes in tryptophan synthase. PMID:26863529

  4. Analysis of Quaternary Structure of a [LDH-like] Malate Dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum with Oligomeric Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    L-Malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) from Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent for the most severe form of malaria, has shown remarkable similarities to L-lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH). PfMDH is more closely related to [LDH-like] MDHs characterized in archea and other prokaryotes. Initial sequence a...

  5. Structure and Function of Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase: Role of Critical Amino Acids in C-substrate Binding Procket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaria parasite thrives on anaerobic fermentation of glucose for energy. Earlier studies from our lab have demonstrated that a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) with striking similarity to lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) might complement PfLDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. The N-terminal g...

  6. Identification of a Malate Chemoreceptor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Screening for Chemotaxis Defects in an Energy Taxis-Deficient Mutant▿

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Ortega, Carolina; Harwood, Caroline S.

    2007-01-01

    We found that a robust energy taxis response mediated by the Aer receptor can sometimes mask chemotaxis mediated by other methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We identified PA2652 as a chemoreceptor for malate by screening aer mcp double mutants by using swarm plate assays.

  7. Fungal type III polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Nonaka, Takamasa; Fujii, Isao

    2014-10-01

    This article covers the literature on fungal type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) published from 2005 to 2014. Since the first discovery of fungal type III PKS genes in Aspergillus oryzae, reported in 2005, putative genes for type III PKSs have been discovered in fungal genomes. Compared with type I PKSs, type III PKSs are much less abundant in fungi. However, type III PKSs could have some critical roles in fungi. This article summarizes the studies on fungal type III PKS functional analysis, including Neurospora crassa ORAS, Aspergillus niger AnPKS, Botrytis cinerea BPKS and Aspergillus oryzae CsyA and CsyB. It is mostly in vitro analysis using their recombinant enzymes that has revealed their starter and product specificities. Of these, CsyB was found to be a new kind of type III PKS that catalyses the coupling of two β-keto fatty acyl CoAs. Homology modelling reported in this article supports the importance of the capacity of the acyl binding tunnel and active site cavity in fungal type III PKSs. PMID:25182423

  8. 17β-Estradiol treatment inhibits breast cell proliferation, migration and invasion by decreasing MALAT-1 RNA level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ziyi [Key Laboratory of Bioresources and Ecoenvironment (Ministry of Education), College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen, Changjin [Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Yu [Key Laboratory of Bioresources and Ecoenvironment (Ministry of Education), College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wu, Chuanfang, E-mail: 879413966@qq.com [Key Laboratory of Bioresources and Ecoenvironment (Ministry of Education), College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • E2 affects not only estrogen-receptor α positive breast cells but also negative ones. • 100 nM E2 treatment affects breast cells proliferation, migration. • 100 nM E2 treatment functions in an estrogen-receptor α-independent way. • E2 treatment decreases MALAT-1 RNA level by post-transcriptional regulation. - Abstract: Breast cancer cells, which express estrogen receptor α (ERα), respond to estrogen in a concentration dependent fashion, resulting in proliferation or apoptosis. But breast cancer cells without ERα show no effect on low concentration of estrogen treatment. Proliferation, migration and invasion of MCF10a, MCF7 and MB231 cells treated with low (1 nM) or high (100 nM) dose of 17β-Estradiol (E2) was performed. We identified the effects of E2 on these breast cell lines, and looked for the difference in the presence and absence of ERα. Specifically, we looked for the changes of long non-coding RNA metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT-1), which is found extensively and highly expressed in several kinds of tumor cells, including breast carcinoma. It was observed that proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cells were greatly affected by high concentration E2 treatment and were not affected by low concentration E2 treatment in an ERα independent way. We found that the high concentration E2 treatment largely decreased MALAT-1 RNA level. Interestingly, MALAT-1 decreasing by knocking down showed similar effects on proliferation, migration and invasion. E2 treatment affects breast tumor or non-tumor cells proliferation, migration and invasion in an ERα -independent, but a dose-dependent way by decreasing the MALAT-1 RNA level.

  9. 17β-Estradiol treatment inhibits breast cell proliferation, migration and invasion by decreasing MALAT-1 RNA level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • E2 affects not only estrogen-receptor α positive breast cells but also negative ones. • 100 nM E2 treatment affects breast cells proliferation, migration. • 100 nM E2 treatment functions in an estrogen-receptor α-independent way. • E2 treatment decreases MALAT-1 RNA level by post-transcriptional regulation. - Abstract: Breast cancer cells, which express estrogen receptor α (ERα), respond to estrogen in a concentration dependent fashion, resulting in proliferation or apoptosis. But breast cancer cells without ERα show no effect on low concentration of estrogen treatment. Proliferation, migration and invasion of MCF10a, MCF7 and MB231 cells treated with low (1 nM) or high (100 nM) dose of 17β-Estradiol (E2) was performed. We identified the effects of E2 on these breast cell lines, and looked for the difference in the presence and absence of ERα. Specifically, we looked for the changes of long non-coding RNA metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT-1), which is found extensively and highly expressed in several kinds of tumor cells, including breast carcinoma. It was observed that proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cells were greatly affected by high concentration E2 treatment and were not affected by low concentration E2 treatment in an ERα independent way. We found that the high concentration E2 treatment largely decreased MALAT-1 RNA level. Interestingly, MALAT-1 decreasing by knocking down showed similar effects on proliferation, migration and invasion. E2 treatment affects breast tumor or non-tumor cells proliferation, migration and invasion in an ERα -independent, but a dose-dependent way by decreasing the MALAT-1 RNA level

  10. MALAT1 long ncRNA promotes gastric cancer metastasis by suppressing PCDH10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Ying; Ooi, Hong Sain; Wu, Jun; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoli; Tan, Sheng; Yu, Qing; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Kang, Yani; Li, Hua; Xiong, Zirui; Zhu, Tao; Liu, Bingya; Shao, Zhifeng; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    EZH2, the catalytic component of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), is frequently overexpressed in human cancers and contributes to tumor initiation and progression, in part through transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes. A number of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) recruit EZH2 to specific...... chromatin loci, where they modulate gene expression. Here, we used RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (RIP-seq) to profile EZH2-associated transcripts in human gastric cancer cell lines. We identified 8,256 transcripts, including both noncoding and coding transcripts, some of which were derived from cancer......-related loci. In particular, we found that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) MALAT1 binds EZH2, suppresses the tumor suppressor PCDH10, and promotes gastric cellular migration and invasion. Our work thus provides a global view of the EZH2-associated transcriptome and offers new insight into the function of EZH2 in...

  11. Synthesis, crystal growth and physical characterizations of organic nonlinear optical crystal: Ammonium hydrogen L-malate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, K; Ramasamy, P

    2014-05-21

    An organic nonlinear optical crystal ammonium hydrogen l-malate (AHM) has been synthesized. Single crystals of AHM have successfully been grown by the slow evaporation solution method. Optically clear single crystals having dimensions up to 23×9×4mm(3) have been grown. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirms that the AHM crystallizes in orthorhombic crystal system with space group P212121. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern of the grown crystal has been recorded. FT-IR spectrum was recorded to identify the various functional groups of AHM. The UV-vis-NIR transmission was analyzed for grown crystal. Thermal analysis was performed to find out thermal stability of the compound. Vickers microhardness measurements were carried and also work hardening coefficient has been found. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal has been analyzed by HRXRD measurements. The second harmonic efficiency of AHM was found to be 1.2 times that of KDP. PMID:24583470

  12. Septal localization by membrane targeting sequences and a conserved sequence essential for activity at the COOH-terminus of Bacillus subtilis cardiolipin synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Jin; Shuto, Satoshi; Imai, Yukiko; Ishikawa, Kazuki; Saito, Tomo; Natori, Kohei; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Hara, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kouji

    2016-04-01

    The acidic phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) is localized on polar and septal membranes and plays an important physiological role in Bacillus subtilis cells. ClsA, the enzyme responsible for CL synthesis, is also localized on septal membranes. We found that GFP fusion proteins of the enzyme with NH2-terminal and internal deletions retained septal localization. However, derivatives with deletions starting from the COOH-terminus (Leu482) ceased to localize to the septum once the deletion passed the Ile residue at 448, indicating that the sequence responsible for septal localization is confined within a short distance from the COOH-terminus. Two sequences, Ile436-Leu450 and Leu466-Leu478, are predicted to individually form an amphipathic α-helix. This configuration is known as a membrane targeting sequence (MTS) and we therefore refer to them as MTS2 and MTS1, respectively. Either one has the ability to affect septal localization, and each of these sequences by itself localizes to the septum. Membrane association of the constructs of this enzyme containing the MTSs was verified by subcellular fractionation of the cells. CL synthesis, in contrast, was abolished after deleting just the last residue, Leu482, in the COOH-terminal four amino acid residue sequence, Ser-Pro-Ile-Leu, which is highly conserved among bacterial CL synthases. PMID:26708983

  13. Insulin like growth factor-1 prevents 1-mentyl-4-phenylphyridinium-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells through activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopaminergic neurons are lost mainly through apoptosis in Parkinson's disease. Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) inhibits apoptosis in a wide variety of tissues. Here we have shown that IGF-1 protects PC12 cells from toxic effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniumion (MPP+). Treatment of PC12 cells with recombinant human IGF-1 significantly decreased apoptosis caused by MPP+ as measured by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. IGF-1 treatment induced sustained phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) as shown by western blot analysis. The anti-apoptotic effect of IGF-1 was abrogated by LY294002, which indirectly inhibits phosphorylation of GSK-3beta. Lithium chloride (LiCl), a known inhibitor of GSK-3beta, also blocked MPP+-induced apoptosis. Finally, although IGF-1 enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and 2 (ERK1/2), PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2, did not alter the survival effect of IGF-1. Thus, our findings indicate that IGF-1 protects PC12 cells exposed to MPP+ from apoptosis via the GSK-3beta signaling pathway.

  14. Evaluation of the Reproductive Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Glycometabolism-Related Enzyme Levels and Lipid Metabolism of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhang, Weijie; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Wu, Xueshan; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Huang, Jing; Bao, Yongtuan; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats and then inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, and lipid metabolism. The results showed that no pathological, toxic feces and urine changes were observed in clinical signs of parental and fetal rats in chromium malate groups. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of chromium malate groups have no significant change compared with control group and chromium picolinate group. The serum and organ contents of Cr in chromium malate groups have no significant change when compared with control group. No measurable damage on liver, brain, kidney, and testis/uterus of chromium malate groups was found. No significant change in body mass, absolute and relative organ weights, and hematological and biochemical changes of rats were observed compared with the control and chromium picolinate groups. The results indicated that supplements with chromium malate does not cause obvious damage and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme, and lipid metabolism on female and male rats. The results of this study suggested that chromium malate is safe for human consumption and has the potential for application as a functional food ingredient and dietary supplement. PMID:25876088

  15. Purification and characterization of the cytokine-induced macrophage nitric oxide synthase: an FAD- and FMN-containing flavoprotein.

    OpenAIRE

    Stuehr, D. J.; Cho, H.J.; Kwon, N S; Weise, M. F.; Nathan, C F

    1991-01-01

    A soluble nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity was purified 426-fold from a mouse macrophage cell line activated with interferon gamma and bacterial lipopolysaccharide by sequential anion-exchange, affinity, and gel filtration chromatography. SDS/PAGE of the purified NO synthase gave three closely spaced silver-staining protein bands between 125 and 135 kDa. When assayed in the presence of L-arginine, NADPH, tetrahydrobiopterin, FAD, and reduced thiol, purified NO synthase had a specific activ...

  16. Ginsenoside Rg3 increases nitric oxide production via increases in phosphorylation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: Essential roles of estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and AMP-activated protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously showed that ginsenosides increase nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelium and that ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) is the most active one among ginseng saponins. However, the mechanism for Rg3-mediated nitric oxide production is still uncertain. In this study, we determined whether Rg3 affects phosphorylation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in ECV 304 human endothelial cells. Rg3 increased both the phosphorylation and the expression of eNOS in a concentration-dependent manner and a maximal effect was found at 10 ?g/ml of Rg3. The enzyme activities of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 kinase were enhanced as were estrogen receptor (ER)- and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent reporter gene transcriptions in Rg3-treated endothelial cells. Rg3-induced eNOS phosphorylation required the ER-mediated PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Moreover, Rg3 activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through up-regulation of CaM kinase II and Rg3-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation was reversed by AMPK inhibition. The present results provide a mechanism for Rg3-stimulated endothelial NO production.

  17. Tryptophan synthase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens 8628: isolation and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekoslavskaya, N I; Kuznetsova, E V; Vysotskaya, E F; Salyaev, R K

    1997-04-01

    Tryptophan synthase was isolated from a highly virulent strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens 8628 (octopine type). Separation of tryptophan synthase from thermolabile protease was accomplished using fractionation with polyethylene glycol-6000 followed by ion-exchange chromatography with a pH gradient. Molecular weights of alpha- and beta-subunits are 33 and 51 kD, respectively. The tryptophan synthase is stable at 60 degrees C because of heat-tolerance beta-subunits. After heating the activity of tryptophan synthase increased up to 20 times while temperature-labile proteases lost their activities. Reaction with antibodies showed the presence of four protein bands, one of which was coeluted with nucleic acids during ion-exchange chromatography. It is suggested that the basic tryptophan synthase is encoded by trp genes in a plasmid and its role is to provide the precursor with the prokaryotic pathway of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis, which determines the virulence of A. tumefaciens. There is perhaps a cooperation between iaaM, iaaH, and trp genes in the plasmid during plant cell transformation. PMID:9275281

  18. Characterisation of the tryptophan synthase alpha subunit in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gierl Alfons

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bacteria, such as Salmonella typhimurium, tryptophan is synthesized from indole-3-glycerole phosphate (IGP by a tryptophan synthase αββα heterotetramer. Plants have evolved multiple α (TSA and β (TSB homologs, which have probably diverged in biological function and their ability of subunit interaction. There is some evidence for a tryptophan synthase (TS complex in Arabidopsis. On the other hand maize (Zea mays expresses the TSA-homologs BX1 and IGL that efficiently cleave IGP, independent of interaction with TSB. Results In order to clarify, how tryptophan is synthesized in maize, two TSA homologs, hitherto uncharacterized ZmTSA and ZmTSAlike, were functionally analyzed. ZmTSA is localized in plastids, the major site of tryptophan biosynthesis in plants. It catalyzes the tryptophan synthase α-reaction (cleavage of IGP, and forms a tryptophan synthase complex with ZmTSB1 in vitro. The catalytic efficiency of the α-reaction is strongly enhanced upon complex formation. A 160 kD tryptophan synthase complex was partially purified from maize leaves and ZmTSA was identified as native α-subunit of this complex by mass spectrometry. ZmTSAlike, for which no in vitro activity was detected, is localized in the cytosol. ZmTSAlike, BX1, and IGL were not detectable in the native tryptophan synthase complex in leaves. Conclusion It was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro that maize forms a tryptophan synthase complex and ZmTSA functions as α-subunit in this complex.

  19. The cystathionine-β-synthase domains on the guanosine 5''-monophosphate reductase and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase enzymes from Leishmania regulate enzymatic activity in response to guanylate and adenylate nucleotide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sabrina; Boitz, Jan; Chidambaram, Ehzilan Subramanian; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Ait-Tihyaty, Maria; Ullman, Buddy; Jardim, Armando

    2016-06-01

    The Leishmania guanosine 5'-monophosphate reductase (GMPR) and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) are purine metabolic enzymes that function maintaining the cellular adenylate and guanylate nucleotide. Interestingly, both enzymes contain a cystathionine-β-synthase domain (CBS). To investigate this metabolic regulation, the Leishmania GMPR was cloned and shown to be sufficient to complement the guaC (GMPR), but not the guaB (IMPDH), mutation in Escherichia coli. Kinetic studies confirmed that the Leishmania GMPR catalyzed a strict NADPH-dependent reductive deamination of GMP to produce IMP. Addition of GTP or high levels of GMP induced a marked increase in activity without altering the Km values for the substrates. In contrast, the binding of ATP decreased the GMPR activity and increased the GMP Km value 10-fold. These kinetic changes were correlated with changes in the GMPR quaternary structure, induced by the binding of GMP, GTP, or ATP to the GMPR CBS domain. The capacity of these CBS domains to mediate the catalytic activity of the IMPDH and GMPR provides a regulatory mechanism for balancing the intracellular adenylate and guanylate pools. PMID:26853689

  20. Properties of phosphorylated thymidylate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frączyk, Tomasz; Ruman, Tomasz; Wilk, Piotr; Palmowski, Paweł; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Cieśla, Joanna; Zieliński, Zbigniew; Nizioł, Joanna; Jarmuła, Adam; Maj, Piotr; Gołos, Barbara; Wińska, Patrycja; Ostafil, Sylwia; Wałajtys-Rode, Elżbieta; Shugar, David; Rode, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) may undergo phosphorylation endogenously in mammalian cells, and as a recombinant protein expressed in bacterial cells, as indicated by the reaction of purified enzyme protein with Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain (PGS). With recombinant human, mouse, rat, Trichinella spiralis and Caenorhabditis elegans TSs, expressed in Escherichia coli, the phosphorylated, compared to non-phosphorylated recombinant enzyme forms, showed a decrease in Vmax(app), bound their cognate mRNA (only rat enzyme studied), and repressed translation of their own and several heterologous mRNAs (human, rat and mouse enzymes studied). However, attempts to determine the modification site(s), whether endogenously expressed in mammalian cells, or recombinant proteins, did not lead to unequivocal results. Comparative ESI-MS/analysis of IEF fractions of TS preparations from parental and FdUrd-resistant mouse leukemia L1210 cells, differing in sensitivity to inactivation by FdUMP, demonstrated phosphorylation of Ser(10) and Ser(16) in the resistant enzyme only, although PGS staining pointed to the modification of both L1210 TS proteins. The TS proteins phosphorylated in bacterial cells were shown by (31)P NMR to be modified only on histidine residues, like potassium phosphoramidate (KPA)-phosphorylated TS proteins. NanoLC-MS/MS, enabling the use of CID and ETD peptide fragmentation methods, identified several phosphohistidine residues, but certain phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues were also implicated. Molecular dynamics studies, based on the mouse TS crystal structure, allowed one to assess potential of several phosphorylated histidine residues to affect catalytic activity, the effect being phosphorylation site dependent. PMID:26315778

  1. Engineering of chimeric class II polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Delamarre, Soazig C; Kim, Young-Rok; Batt, Carl A

    2004-11-01

    PHA synthase is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Using a combinatorial genetic strategy to create unique chimeric class II PHA synthases, we have obtained a number of novel chimeras which display improved catalytic properties. To engineer the chimeric PHA synthases, we constructed a synthetic phaC gene from Pseudomonas oleovorans (phaC1Po) that was devoid of an internal 540-bp fragment. Randomly amplified PCR products (created with primers based on conserved phaC sequences flanking the deleted internal fragment) were generated using genomic DNA isolated from soil and were substituted for the 540-bp internal region. The chimeric genes were expressed in a PHA-negative strain of Ralstonia eutropha, PHB(-)4 (DSM 541). Out of 1,478 recombinant clones screened for PHA production, we obtained five different chimeric phaC1Po genes that produced more PHA than the native phaC1Po. Chimeras S1-71, S4-8, S5-58, S3-69, and S3-44 exhibited 1.3-, 1.4-, 2.0-, 2.1-, and 3.0-fold-increased levels of in vivo activity, respectively. All of the mutants mediated the synthesis of PHAs with a slightly increased molar fraction of 3-hydroxyoctanoate; however, the weight-average molecular weights (Mw) of the PHAs in all cases remained almost the same. Based upon DNA sequence analyses, the various phaC fragments appear to have originated from Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aureofaciens. The amino acid sequence analyses showed that the chimeric proteins had 17 to 20 amino acid differences from the wild-type phaC1Po, and these differences were clustered in the same positions in the five chimeric clones. A threading model of PhaC1Po, developed based on homology of the enzyme to the Burkholderia glumae lipase, suggested that the amino acid substitutions found in the active chimeras were located mostly on the protein model surface. Thus, our combinatorial genetic engineering strategy proved to be broadly useful for improving the catalytic activities of PHA synthase enzymes. PMID:15528546

  2. A rapid, radiometric assay for sucrose synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of sucrose synthase in maize root tips have required development of a means to circumvent the rapid decline of activity observed after extraction dialysis and either synthetic or degradative assays. Several protease inhibitors were tested; although PMSF increased initial activity, no inhibitor prevented the drop in activity with time. Western blot analysis indicated that activity decline was not associated with protein degradation. Therefore, a procedure was developed which (1) shortened extraction-to-assay period from ca. 24 hours to 7 minutes, (2) simplified previous assays and (3) reduced the amount of tissue required. Extract was desalted with spun columns and the 14C-UDPG product recovered with DEAE ion exchange paper. The minute quantities of product recovered can be concealed by the presence of trace impurities in the 14C-sucrose utilized. DEAE ion exchange paper was used to remove interfering radio-labelled compounds from the 14C-sucrose prior to assay

  3. Thymoquinone Inhibits Escherichia coli ATP Synthase and Cell Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Thomas F. Laughlin; Kady, Ismail O

    2015-01-01

    We examined the thymoquinone induced inhibition of purified F1 or membrane bound F1FO E. coli ATP synthase. Both purified F1 and membrane bound F1FO were completely inhibited by thymoquinone with no residual ATPase activity. The process of inhibition was fully reversible and identical in both membrane bound F1Fo and purified F1 preparations. Moreover, thymoquinone induced inhibition of ATP synthase expressing wild-type E. coli cell growth and non-inhibition of ATPase gene deleted null cont...

  4. Utility of Aspergillus niger citrate synthase promoter for heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Kashyap; Punekar, Narayan S

    2011-09-10

    Citrate synthase is a central player in the acidogenic metabolism of Aspergillus niger. The 5' upstream sequence (0.9kb DNA) of citrate synthase gene (citA) from A. niger NCIM 565 was analyzed and its promoter function demonstrated through the heterologous expression of two proteins. The cloned citrate synthase promoter (PcitA) sequence was able to express bar coding sequence thereby conferring phosphinothricin resistance. This sequence was further analyzed by systematic deletions to define an effective but compact functional promoter. The PcitA driven egfp expression showed that PcitA was active in all differentiation cell-stages of A. niger. EGFP expression was highest on non-repressible carbon sources like acetate and glycerol. Mycelial EGFP levels increased during acidogenic growth suggesting that PcitA is functional throughout this cultivation. A. niger PcitA is the first Krebs cycle gene promoter used to express heterologous proteins in filamentous fungi. PMID:21723343

  5. Hit Optimization of 5-Substituted-N-(piperidin-4-ylmethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamides: Potent Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) Inhibitors with in Vivo Activity in Model of Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlotti, Guido; Alisi, Maria Alessandra; Cazzolla, Nicola; Dragone, Patrizia; Durando, Lucia; Magar, Gabriele; Mancini, Francesca; Mangano, Giorgina; Ombrato, Rosella; Vitiello, Marco; Armirotti, Andrea; Capurro, Valeria; Lanfranco, Massimiliano; Ottonello, Giuliana; Summa, Maria; Reggiani, Angelo

    2015-11-25

    Novel treatments for bipolar disorder with improved efficacy and broader spectrum of activity are urgently needed. Glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) has been suggested to be a key player in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. A series of novel GSK-3? inhibitors having the common N-[(1-alkylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl]-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide scaffold were prepared taking advantage of an X-ray cocrystal structure of compound 5 with GSK-3?. We probed different substitutions at the indazole 5-position and at the piperidine-nitrogen to obtain potent ATP-competitive GSK-3? inhibitors with good cell activity. Among the compounds assessed in the in vivo PK experiments, 14i showed, after i.p. dosing, encouraging plasma PK profile and brain exposure, as well as efficacy in a mouse model of mania. Compound 14i was selected for further in vitro/in vivo pharmacological evaluation, in order to elucidate the use of ATP-competitive GSK-3? inhibitors as new tools in the development of new treatments for mood disorders. PMID:26486317

  6. Superior aluminium (Al) tolerance of Stylosanthes is achieved mainly by malate synthesis through an Al-enhanced malic enzyme, SgME1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lili; Liang, Cuiyue; Chen, Zhijian; Liu, Pandao; Tian, Jiang; Liu, Guodao; Liao, Hong

    2014-04-01

    Stylosanthes (stylo) is a dominant leguminous forage in the tropics. Previous studies suggest that stylo has great potential for aluminium (Al) tolerance, but little is known about the underlying mechanism. A novel malic enzyme, SgME1, was identified from the Al-tolerant genotype TPRC2001-1 after 72h Al exposure by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and the encoding gene was cloned and characterized via heterologous expression in yeast, Arabidopsis thaliana and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) hairy roots. Internal Al detoxification might be mainly responsible for the 72h Al tolerance of TPRC2001-1, as indicated by 5.8-fold higher root malate concentrations and approximately two-fold higher Al concentrations in roots and root symplasts of TPRC2001-1 than those of the Al-sensitive genotype Fine-stem. An accompanying increase in malate secretion might also reduce a fraction of Al uptake in TPRC2001-1. Gene and protein expression of SgME1 was only enhanced in TPRC2001-1 after 72h Al exposure. Overexpressing SgME1 enhanced malate synthesis and rescued yeast, A.thaliana and bean hairy roots from Al toxicity via increasing intracellular malate concentrations and/or accompanied malate exudation. These results provide strong evidence that superior Al tolerance of stylo is mainly conferred by Al-enhanced malate synthesis, functionally controlled by SgME1. PMID:24325195

  7. Malate as a key carbon source of leaf dark-respired CO2 across different environmental conditions in potato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marco M; Rinne, Katja T; Blessing, Carola; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Buchmann, Nina; Werner, Roland A

    2015-09-01

    Dissimilation of carbon sources during plant respiration in support of metabolic processes results in the continuous release of CO2. The carbon isotopic composition of leaf dark-respired CO2 (i.e. ? (13) C R ) shows daily enrichments up to 14.8 under different environmental conditions. However, the reasons for this (13)C enrichment in leaf dark-respired CO2 are not fully understood, since daily changes in ?(13)C of putative leaf respiratory carbon sources (? (13) C RS ) are not yet clear. Thus, we exposed potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) to different temperature and soil moisture treatments. We determined ? (13) C R with an in-tube incubation technique and ? (13) C RS with compound-specific isotope analysis during a daily cycle. The highest ? (13) C RS values were found in the organic acid malate under different environmental conditions, showing less negative values compared to ? (13) C R (up to 5.2) and compared to ? (13) C RS of soluble carbohydrates, citrate and starch (up to 8.8). Moreover, linear relationships between ? (13) C R and ? (13) C RS among different putative carbon sources were strongest for malate during daytime (r(2)=0.69, P?0.001) and nighttime (r(2)=0.36, P?0.001) under all environmental conditions. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed ? (13) C RS of malate as the most important carbon source influencing ? (13) C R . Thus, our results strongly indicate malate as a key carbon source of (13)C enriched dark-respired CO2 in potato plants, probably driven by an anapleurotic flux replenishing intermediates of the Krebs cycle. PMID:26139821

  8. Structure and Function of Fusicoccadiene Synthase, a Hexameric Bifunctional Diterpene Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengbin; Chou, Wayne K W; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Cane, David E; Christianson, David W

    2016-04-15

    Fusicoccin A is a diterpene glucoside phytotoxin generated by the fungal pathogen Phomopsis amygdali that causes the plant disease constriction canker, first discovered in New Jersey peach orchards in the 1930s. Fusicoccin A is also an emerging new lead in cancer chemotherapy. The hydrocarbon precursor of fusicoccin A is the tricyclic diterpene fusicoccadiene, which is generated by a bifunctional terpenoid synthase. Here, we report X-ray crystal structures of the individual catalytic domains of fusicoccadiene synthase: the C-terminal domain is a chain elongation enzyme that generates geranylgeranyl diphosphate, and the N-terminal domain catalyzes the cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to form fusicoccadiene. Crystal structures of each domain complexed with bisphosphonate substrate analogues suggest that three metal ions and three positively charged amino acid side chains trigger substrate ionization in each active site. While in vitro incubations reveal that the cyclase domain can utilize farnesyl diphosphate and geranyl diphosphate as surrogate substrates, these shorter isoprenoid diphosphates are mainly converted into acyclic alcohol or hydrocarbon products. Gel filtration chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments indicate that full-length fusicoccadiene synthase adopts hexameric quaternary structure, and small-angle X-ray scattering data yield a well-defined molecular envelope illustrating a plausible model for hexamer assembly. PMID:26734760

  9. Characterization of spermidine synthase and spermine synthase--The polyamine-synthetic enzymes that induce early flowering in Gentiana triflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tomohiro; Fujita, Kohei; Tasaki, Keisuke; Higuchi, Atsumi; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2015-08-01

    Polyamines are essential for several living processes in plants. However, regulatory mechanisms of polyamines in herbaceous perennial are almost unknown. Here, we identified homologs of two Arabidopsis polyamine-synthetic enzymes, spermidine synthase (SPDS) and spermine synthase (SPMS) denoted as GtSPDS and GtSPMS, from the gentian plant, Gentiana triflora. Our results showed that recombinant proteins of GtSPDS and GtSPMS possessed SPDS and SPMS activities, respectively. The expression levels of GtSPDS and GtSPMS increased transiently during vegetative to reproductive growth phase and overexpression of the genes hastened flowering, suggesting that these genes are involved in flowering induction in gentian plants. PMID:26056006

  10. Growth, crystal structure and thermal properties of calcium bis(malate) dihydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new coordination compound crystal of calcium with malic acid is prepared by gel aided solution growth. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the structural formula of the compound is Ca(C4H4O5)2.2H2O. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c, Z = 4, with unit cell parameters a = 15.916(9) A, b = 5.886(3) A, c = 13.046(6) A and ? = 90.678(4)o. Data were collected by oscillation method and full-matrix least squares refinement was applied to the model converging to final R indices R 1 = 0.0416 and ?R 2 = 0.1255. Compound forms a layer-type polymeric structure, stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Ca2+ is eight-fold coordinated. Malate is coordinated to Ca2+ tridendate-bidendate through two carboxylates and monodendate through oxygen atom of the hydroxyl group. Thermal behavior investigated using TG and DTA studies is in conformity with the proposed structure

  11. Growth, crystal structure and thermal properties of calcium bis(malate) dihydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jini, T. [Department of Physics, St. Berchmans College, Changanassery 686 101, Kerala (India); Saban, K.V. [Department of Physics, St. Berchmans College, Changanassery 686 101, Kerala (India); Varghese, G. [Department of Physics, St. Berchmans College, Changanassery 686 101, Kerala (India); Naveen, S. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Sridhar, M.A. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India)]. E-mail: mas@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in; Prasad, J.S. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India)

    2007-05-16

    A new coordination compound crystal of calcium with malic acid is prepared by gel aided solution growth. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the structural formula of the compound is Ca(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 5}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c, Z = 4, with unit cell parameters a = 15.916(9) A, b = 5.886(3) A, c = 13.046(6) A and {beta} = 90.678(4){sup o}. Data were collected by oscillation method and full-matrix least squares refinement was applied to the model converging to final R indices R {sub 1} = 0.0416 and {omega}R {sub 2} = 0.1255. Compound forms a layer-type polymeric structure, stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Ca{sup 2+} is eight-fold coordinated. Malate is coordinated to Ca{sup 2+} tridendate-bidendate through two carboxylates and monodendate through oxygen atom of the hydroxyl group. Thermal behavior investigated using TG and DTA studies is in conformity with the proposed structure.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus lactate- and malate-quinone oxidoreductases contribute to nitric oxide resistance and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahich, Nicole A; Vitko, Nicholas P; Thurlow, Lance R; Temple, Brenda; Richardson, Anthony R

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen that resists many facets of innate immunity including nitric oxide (NO·). Staphylococcus aureus NO-resistance stems from its ability to evoke a metabolic state that circumvents the negative effects of reactive nitrogen species. The combination of l-lactate and peptides promotes S. aureus growth at moderate NO-levels, however, neither nutrient alone suffices. Here, we investigate the staphylococcal malate-quinone and l-lactate-quinone oxidoreductases (Mqo and Lqo), both of which are critical during NO-stress for the combined utilization of peptides and l-lactate. We address the specific contributions of Lqo-mediated l-lactate utilization and Mqo-dependent amino acid consumption during NO-stress. We show that Lqo conversion of l-lactate to pyruvate is required for the formation of ATP, an essential energy source for peptide utilization. Thus, both Lqo and Mqo are essential for growth under these conditions making them attractive candidates for targeted therapeutics. Accordingly, we exploited a modelled Mqo/Lqo structure to define the catalytic and substrate-binding residues.We also compare the S. aureus Mqo/Lqo enzymes to their close relatives throughout the staphylococci and explore the substrate specificities of each enzyme. This study provides the initial characterization of the mechanism of action and the immunometabolic roles for a newly defined staphylococcal enzyme family. PMID:26851155

  13. Akt2 influences glycogen synthase activity in human skeletal muscle through regulation of NH2-terminal (sites 2+2a) phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Richter, Erik; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Pehmøller, Christian; Hansen, Bo Falck; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Hirshman, Michael F; Goodyear, Laurie J; Vaag, Allan; Poulsen, Pernille; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with excision of muscle biopsies. Insulin signaling was evaluated at the levels of the insulin receptor, IRS-1-associated PI3K (IRS-1-PI3K), Akt, and GS employing kinase activity assays and phospho-specific western blotting. The insulin-stimulated GS activity was...

  14. Polyhydroyxalkanoate Synthase Fusions as a Strategy for Oriented Enzyme Immobilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Hooks

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA is a carbon storage polymer produced by certain bacteria in unbalanced nutrient conditions. The PHA forms spherical inclusions surrounded by granule associate proteins including the PHA synthase (PhaC. Recently, the intracellular formation of PHA granules with covalently attached synthase from Ralstonia eutropha has been exploited as a novel strategy for oriented enzyme immobilisation. Fusing the enzyme of interest to PHA synthase results in a bifunctional protein able to produce PHA granules and immobilise the active enzyme of choice to the granule surface. Functionalised PHA granules can be isolated from the bacterial hosts, such as Escherichia coli, and maintain enzymatic activity in a wide variety of assay conditions. This approach to oriented enzyme immobilisation has produced higher enzyme activities and product levels than non-oriented immobilisation techniques such as protein inclusion based particles. Here, enzyme immobilisation via PHA synthase fusion is reviewed in terms of the genetic designs, the choices of enzymes, the control of enzyme orientations, as well as their current and potential applications.

  15. Expression, crystallization and structure elucidation of γ-terpinene synthase from Thymus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Kristin; Parthier, Christoph; Egerer-Sieber, Claudia; Geiger, Daniel; Muller, Yves A; Kreis, Wolfgang; Müller-Uri, Frieder

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of γ-terpinene, a precursor of the phenolic isomers thymol and carvacrol found in the essential oil from Thymus sp., is attributed to the activitiy of γ-terpinene synthase (TPS). Purified γ-terpinene synthase from T. vulgaris (TvTPS), the Thymus species that is the most widely spread and of the greatest economical importance, is able to catalyze the enzymatic conversion of geranyl diphosphate (GPP) to γ-terpinene. The crystal structure of recombinantly expressed and purified TvTPS is reported at 1.65 Å resolution, confirming the dimeric structure of the enzyme. The putative active site of TvTPS is deduced from its pronounced structural similarity to enzymes from other species of the Lamiaceae family involved in terpenoid biosynthesis: to (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase and 1,8-cineole synthase from Salvia sp. and to (4S)-limonene synthase from Mentha spicata. PMID:26750479

  16. A single residue switch converts abietadiene synthase into a pimaradiene specific cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderman, P Ross; Peters, Reuben J

    2007-12-26

    Terpene synthases often catalyze complex cyclization reactions that typically represent the committed step in particular biosynthetic pathways, leading to great interest in their enzymatic mechanisms. We have recently demonstrated that substitution of a specific Ile with Thr was sufficient to "short circuit" the complex cyclization reaction normally catalyzed by ent-kaurene synthases to instead produce ent-pimaradiene. Here we report that the complex cyclization/rearrangement reaction catalyzed by abietadiene synthase can be similarly cut short to produce pimaradienes by an analogous Ser for Ala change, albeit with a slight shift in active site location to accommodate the difference in substrate stereochemistry. This result has mechanistic implications for enzymatic catalysis of abietadiene cyclization, and terpene synthases more broadly. Furthermore, these defined single residue switches may be useful in engineering product outcome in diterpene synthases more generally. PMID:18052062

  17. Alternative Oxidase Pathway Optimizes Photosynthesis During Osmotic and Temperature Stress by Regulating Cellular ROS, Malate Valve and Antioxidative Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakar, Challabathula; Vishwakarma, Abhaypratap; Raghavendra, Agepati S; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2016-01-01

    The present study reveals the importance of alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway in optimizing photosynthesis under osmotic and temperature stress conditions in the mesophyll protoplasts of Pisum sativum. The responses of photosynthesis and respiration were monitored at saturating light intensity of 1000 μmoles m(-2) s(-1) at 25°C under a range of sorbitol concentrations from 0.4 to 1.0 M to induce hyper-osmotic stress and by varying the temperature of the thermo-jacketed pre-incubation chamber from 25 to 10°C to impose sub-optimal temperature stress. Compared to controls (0.4 M sorbitol and 25°C), the mesophyll protoplasts showed remarkable decrease in NaHCO3-dependent O2 evolution (indicator of photosynthetic carbon assimilation), under both hyper-osmotic (1.0 M sorbitol) and sub-optimal temperature stress conditions (10°C), while the decrease in rates of respiratory O2 uptake were marginal. The capacity of AOX pathway increased significantly in parallel to increase in intracellular pyruvate and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels under both hyper-osmotic stress and sub-optimal temperature stress under the background of saturating light. The ratio of redox couple (Malate/OAA) related to malate valve increased in contrast to the ratio of redox couple (GSH/GSSG) related to antioxidative system during hyper-osmotic stress. Further, the ratio of GSH/GSSG decreased in the presence of sub-optimal temperature, while the ratio of Malate/OAA showed no visible changes. Also, the redox ratios of pyridine nucleotides increased under hyper-osmotic (NADH/NAD) and sub-optimal temperature (NADPH/NADP) stresses, respectively. However, upon restriction of AOX pathway by using salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), the observed changes in NaHCO3-dependent O2 evolution, cellular ROS, redox ratios of Malate/OAA, NAD(P)H/NAD(P) and GSH/GSSG were further aggravated under stress conditions with concomitant modulations in NADP-MDH and antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, the results indicated the importance of AOX pathway in optimizing photosynthesis under both hyper-osmotic stress and sub-optimal temperatures. Regulation of ROS through redox couples related to malate valve and antioxidant system by AOX pathway to optimize photosynthesis under these stresses are discussed. PMID:26904045

  18. Activation of β-catenin by inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 ameliorates cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in HEI-OC1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Cisplatin is used in the treatment of a wide variety of solid tumors, but its use is limited by its serious adverse effects, including ototoxicity. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase that regulates a variety of cellular functions by phosphorylating its substrates. However, the otoprotective effect of GSK-3 inhibitors is poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether GSK-3 is involved in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in HEI-OC1 cells and organs of Corti (OCs). GSK-3 inhibitors suppressed cisplatin-induced apoptosis determined by decreased p53 activity, and also decreased expression of PARP and p53 target genes such as p21 and PUMA. The effect of GSK-3 inhibitors was mediated by markedly increased nuclear β-catenin that in turn blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB. siRNA-mediated β-catenin knockdown markedly increased the expression of NF-κB target genes, such as TNF-α and IL-6. Our data suggest that the GSK-3/β-catenin pathway may play a central role in cisplatin-mediated cytotoxicity in HEI-OC1 cells and hair cells of OCs in vitro

  19. Candesartan ameliorates acute myocardial infarctioninrats through inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclearfactor??B, monocyte chemoattractant protein?1, activatorprotein?1 and restoration of heat shock protein 72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xuefeng; Wu, Min; Liu, Bo; Wang, Junkui; Guan, Gongchang; Ma, Aiqun; Zhang, Yong

    2015-12-01

    Candesartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, has a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, anti?inflammatory and anticancer activities, with specific pharmacological effects. The present study investigated the mechanisms and protective effect of candesartan on acute myocardial infarction in rats. Male Wistar rats (8?week?old) were induced as a model of acute myocardial infarction and treated with candesartan (0.25mg/kg) for 2weeks. The present study first measured the activities of casein kinase (CK), the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK?MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the level of cardiac troponinT (cTnT) and infarct size. Subsequently, western blot analysis was performed to analyze the protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and heat shock protein72 (HSP72) in the rats. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect iNOS and nuclear factor??B (NF??B) activity. In addition, gene expression levels of monocyte chemotactic protein?1 (MCP?1) and activating protein?1 (AP?1) were determined using reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Finally, the activities of caspase?3 and caspase?9 were examined using colorimetric assay kits. In the serum of the rat model of acute myocardial infarction, candesartan significantly increased the activities of CK, CK?MB and LDH, and the level of cTnT. The infarction size was perfected by candesartan treatment. Candesartan significantly reduced the protein expression and activity of iNOS, the activity of NF??B p65, and the gene expression levels of MCP?1 and AP?1 in the rat model of acute myocardial infarction. Candesartan increased the protein expression of HSP?72 in the acute myocardial infarction rat model. However, candesartan did not effect the levels of caspase?3 or caspase?9 in the rat model of acute myocardial infarction. These results suggested that candesartan ameliorates acute myocardial infarction in rats through iNOS, NF??B, MCP?1 and AP?1, and the restoration of HSP72. PMID:26499133

  20. (/sup 3/H)Tetrahydrocerulenin, a specific reagent for radio-labelling fatty acid synthases and related enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, G.; Leadlay, P.F. (Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1983-08-08

    The authors have synthesised (/sup 3/H)tetrahydrocerulenin, a radiolabelled derivative of cerulenin, an antibiotic from Cephalosporium caerulens which specifically inhibits the condensing enzyme of fatty acid synthases and polyketide synthases from various sources. (/sup 3/H)Tetrahydrocerulenin binds to fatty acid synthase from pig liver with the same specificity as cerulenin. They also used (/sup 3/H)tetrahydrocerulenin to monitor condensing enzyme activity in cell-free extracts of the erythromycin-producing organism Streptomyces erythreus.

  1. [3H]Tetrahydrocerulenin, a specific reagent for radio-labelling fatty acid synthases and related enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have synthesised [3H]tetrahydrocerulenin, a radiolabelled derivative of cerulenin, an antibiotic from Cephalosporium caerulens which specifically inhibits the condensing enzyme of fatty acid synthases and polyketide synthases from various sources. [3H]Tetrahydrocerulenin binds to fatty acid synthase from pig liver with the same specificity as cerulenin. They also used [3H]tetrahydrocerulenin to monitor condensing enzyme activity in cell-free extracts of the erythromycin-producing organism Streptomyces erythreus. (Auth.)

  2. Cloning the mRNA encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase, the key enzyme for ethylene biosynthesis in plants.

    OpenAIRE

    SATO, T.; Theologis, A

    1989-01-01

    Ethylene is the plant hormone that controls several features of plant growth and development. The rate-limiting step in its synthesis is the formation of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), catalyzed by ACC synthase. We have isolated a complementary DNA sequence encoding ACC synthase from zucchini (Cucurbita) fruits. The biological activity of the clone was confirmed by the ability of the cloned sequence to direct ACC synthase...

  3. Towards Biochemical Conversion of CO2 to Higher Value Chemicals Using Enzyme Design and Engineered Polyketide Synthases

    OpenAIRE

    Poust, Sean Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Polyketide synthases produce a remarkable number of diverse products. Many medicines have been produced either directly from polyketide products found in nature, or with limited modification via organic semisynthesis. However, we remain in the early days of engineering the biosynthesis of polyketide synthases. Despite being an active area of research for over 20 years, no commercial application of an engineered polyketide synthase exists. Rapidly advancing technologies like next generation se...

  4. The diabetic phenotype is conserved in myotubes established from diabetic subjects: evidence for primary defects in glucose transport and glycogen synthase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael; Petersen, Ingrid; Højlund, Kurt; Poulsen, Pernille; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2002-01-01

    (GS) activity; the content of glucose-6-phosphate, glucose, and glycogen; and the glucose transport in satellite cell cultures established from diabetic and control subjects. Myotubes were precultured in increasing insulin concentrations for 4 days and subsequently stimulated acutely by insulin. The...... present study shows that the basal glucose uptake as well as insulin-stimulated GS activity is reduced in satellite cell cultures established from patients with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, increasing insulin concentrations could compensate for the reduced GS activity to a certain extent, whereas chronic...... and a reduced GS activity under acute insulin stimulation, implicating a reduced glucose uptake in the fasting state and a diminished insulin-mediated storage of glucose as glycogen after a meal....

  5. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence for the complete coding region of human UMP synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last two steps in the de novo biosynthesis of UMP are catalyzed by orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase. In mammals these two activities are found in a single, bifunctional protein called UMP synthase. A human T-lymphoblastic cell cDNA library constructed in λgt10 was screened with a UMP synthase-specific rat cDNA probe. Human UMP synthase cDNAs were isolated and then used to select UMP synthase gene fragments. The complete coding sequence of the mRNA for UMP synthase was determined by analysis of overlapping cDNA and genomic fragments. One of the cDNAs appears to have been synthesized from an incompletely or alternatively processed form of the UMP synthase mRNA. This cDNA lacks a poly(A) tail and has an extended 3'-nontranslated region that hybridizes with larger forms of the UMP synthase mRNA. The UMP synthase protein is composed of 480 amino acids with a molecular weight of 52,199. The two activities of UMP synthase reside in distinct domains encoded by the 3' and 5' halves of the mRNA. The COOH-terminal 258 amino acids of the human UMP synthase protein contain the orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase catalytic domain. This region is highly homologous to the mouse orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase sequence. The NH2-terminal 214 amino acids contain the OPRT domain. There is amino acid homology between this protein domain and specific regions of the Escherichia coli OPRT. The human OPRT domain also contains the putative catalytic site common to other human phosphoribosyltransferases

  6. Detailed characterization of the substrate specificity of mouse wax synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklaszewska, Magdalena; Kawiński, Adam; Banaś, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Wax synthases are membrane-associated enzymes catalysing the esterification reaction between fatty acyl-CoA and a long chain fatty alcohol. In living organisms, wax esters function as storage materials or provide protection against harmful environmental influences. In industry, they are used as ingredients for the production of lubricants, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Currently the biological sources of wax esters are limited to jojoba oil. In order to establish a large-scale production of desired wax esters in transgenic high-yielding oilseed plants, enzymes involved in wax esters synthesis from different biological resources should be characterized in detail taking into consideration their substrate specificity. Therefore, this study aims at determining the substrate specificity of one of such enzymes -- the mouse wax synthase. The gene encoding this enzyme was expressed heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the in vitro assays (using microsomal fraction from transgenic yeast), we evaluated the preferences of mouse wax synthase towards a set of combinations of 11 acyl-CoAs with 17 fatty alcohols. The highest activity was observed for 14:0-CoA, 12:0-CoA, and 16:0-CoA in combination with medium chain alcohols (up to 5.2, 3.4, and 3.3 nmol wax esters/min/mg microsomal protein, respectively). Unsaturated alcohols longer than 18°C were better utilized by the enzyme in comparison to the saturated ones. Combinations of all tested alcohols with 20:0-CoA, 22:1-CoA, or Ric-CoA were poorly utilized by the enzyme, and conjugated acyl-CoAs were not utilized at all. Apart from the wax synthase activity, mouse wax synthase also exhibited a very low acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. However, it displayed neither acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase, nor acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferase activity. PMID:23730681

  7. Functional reconstitution of cellulose synthase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Tomoya; Sun, Shi-Jing; Horikawa, Yoshiki; Wada, Masahisa; Sugiyama, Junji

    2014-11-10

    Cellulose is a high molecular weight polysaccharide of ?1 ? 4-d-glucan widely distributed in nature-from plant cell walls to extracellular polysaccharide in bacteria. Cellulose synthase, together with other auxiliary subunit(s) in the cell membrane, facilitates the fibrillar assembly of cellulose polymer chains into a microfibril. The gene encoding the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase is cesA and has been identified in many cellulose-producing organisms. Very few studies, however, have shown that recombinant CesA protein synthesizes cellulose polymer, but the mechanism by which CesA protein synthesizes cellulose microfibrils is not known. Here we show that cellulose-synthesizing activity is successfully reconstituted in Escherichia coli by expressing the bacterial cellulose synthase complex of Gluconacetobacter xylinus: CesA and CesB (formerly BcsA and BcsB, respectively). Cellulose synthase activity was, however, only detected when CesA and CesB were coexpressed with diguanyl cyclase (DGC), which synthesizes cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP), which in turn activates cellulose-synthesizing activity in bacteria. Direct observation by electron microscopy revealed extremely thin fibrillar structures outside E. coli cells, which were removed by cellulase treatment. This fiber structure is not likely to be the native crystallographic form of cellulose I, given that it was converted to cellulose II by a chemical treatment milder than ever described. We thus putatively conclude that this fine fiber is an unprecedented structure of cellulose. Despite the inability of the recombinant enzyme to synthesize the native structure of cellulose, the system described in this study, named "CESEC (CEllulose-Synthesizing E. Coli)", represents a useful tool for functional analyses of cellulose synthase and for seeding new nanomaterials. PMID:25285473

  8. Sphingomyelin synthase SMS2 displays dual activity as ceramide phosphoethanolamine synthase[S

    OpenAIRE

    Ternes, Philipp; Brouwers, Jos F H M; Van Den Dikkenberg, Joep; Holthuis, Joost C M

    2009-01-01

    Sphingolipids are vital components of eukaryotic membranes involved in the regulation of cell growth, death, intracellular trafficking, and the barrier function of the plasma membrane (PM). While sphingomyelin (SM) is the major sphingolipid in mammals, previous studies indicate that mammalian cells also produce the SM analog ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE). Little is known about the biological role of CPE or the enzyme(s) responsible for CPE biosynthesis. SM production is mediated by the S...

  9. Increased hippocampal nitric oxide synthase activity and stress responsiveness after imipramine discontinuation: role of 5HT 2A/C-receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Brian H; Retief, Rench; Korff, An; Wegener, Gregers

    dependence of any biobehavioral changes following IMI withdrawal on 5HT(2A/C) receptor-mediated events was studied using the 5HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist, ritanserin (RIT; 4 mg/kg/day ip x 7 days), administered alone or during IMI withdrawal. IMI significantly inhibited the situational stress response to...... NOS hyper-function during IMI withdrawal, although alone it increased NOS activity. Antidepressant discontinuation therefore increases stress responsiveness together with disinhibition of hippocampal NOS through a mechanism involving 5HT(2A/C) receptor activation. The resulting increased nitrergic...

  10. Upregulation of Cysteine Synthase and Cystathionine ?-Synthase Contributes to Leishmania braziliensis Survival under Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ibeth; Tllez, Jair; Romanha, Alvaro Jos; Steindel, Mario; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Cysteine metabolism is considered essential for the crucial maintenance of a reducing environment in trypanosomatids due to its importance as a precursor of trypanothione biosynthesis. Expression, activity, functional rescue, and overexpression of cysteine synthase (CS) and cystathionine ?-synthase (C?S) were evaluated in Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes under in vitro stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, or antimonial compounds. Our results demonstrate a stage-specific increase in the levels of protein expression and activity of L. braziliensis CS (LbrCS) and L. braziliensis C?S (LbrC?S), resulting in an increment of total thiol levels in response to both oxidative and nitrosative stress. The rescue of the CS activity in Trypanosoma rangeli, a trypanosome that does not perform cysteine biosynthesis de novo, resulted in increased rates of survival of epimastigotes expressing the LbrCS under stress conditions compared to those of wild-type parasites. We also found that the ability of L. braziliensis promastigotes and amastigotes overexpressing LbrCS and LbrC?S to resist oxidative stress was significantly enhanced compared to that of nontransfected cells, resulting in a phenotype far more resistant to treatment with the pentavalent form of Sb in vitro. In conclusion, the upregulation of protein expression and increment of the levels of LbrCS and LbrC?S activity alter parasite resistance to antimonials and may influence the efficacy of antimony treatment of New World leishmaniasis. PMID:26033728

  11. Dual-level regulation of ACC synthase activity by MPK3/MPK6 cascade and its downstream WRKY transcription factor during ethylene induction in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guojing; Meng, Xiangzong; Wang, Ruigang; Mao, Guohong; Han, Ling; Liu, Yidong; Zhang, Shuqun

    2012-06-01

    Plants under pathogen attack produce high levels of ethylene, which plays important roles in plant immunity. Previously, we reported the involvement of ACS2 and ACS6, two Type I ACS isoforms, in Botrytis cinerea-induced ethylene biosynthesis and their regulation at the protein stability level by MPK3 and MPK6, two Arabidopsis pathogen-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The residual ethylene induction in the acs2/acs6 double mutant suggests the involvement of additional ACS isoforms. It is also known that a subset of ACS genes, including ACS6, is transcriptionally induced in plants under stress or pathogen attack. However, the importance of ACS gene activation and the regulatory mechanism(s) are not clear. In this report, we demonstrate using genetic analysis that ACS7 and ACS11, two Type III ACS isoforms, and ACS8, a Type II ACS isoform, also contribute to the B. cinerea-induced ethylene production. In addition to post-translational regulation, transcriptional activation of the ACS genes also plays a critical role in sustaining high levels of ethylene induction. Interestingly, MPK3 and MPK6 not only control the stability of ACS2 and ACS6 proteins via direct protein phosphorylation but also regulate the expression of ACS2 and ACS6 genes. WRKY33, another MPK3/MPK6 substrate, is involved in the MPK3/MPK6-induced ACS2/ACS6 gene expression based on genetic analyses. Furthermore, chromatin-immunoprecipitation assay reveals the direct binding of WRKY33 to the W-boxes in the promoters of ACS2 and ACS6 genes in vivo, suggesting that WRKY33 is directly involved in the activation of ACS2 and ACS6 expression downstream of MPK3/MPK6 cascade in response to pathogen invasion. Regulation of ACS activity by MPK3/MPK6 at both transcriptional and protein stability levels plays a key role in determining the kinetics and magnitude of ethylene induction. PMID:22761583

  12. Changes in the level of cytosolic calcium, nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase activity during platelet aggregation: an in vitro study in platelets from normal subjects and those with cirrhosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sam Annie-JeyachristYn; Arumugam Geetha; Rajagopal Surendran

    2008-03-01

    Variceal bleeding due to abnormal platelet function is a well-known complication of cirrhosis. Nitric oxide-related stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis. In the present investigation, we evaluated the level of platelet aggregation and concomitant changes in the level of platelet cytosolic calcium (Ca2+), nitric oxide (NO) and NO synthase (NOS) activity in liver cirrhosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the production of NO by NOS and level of cytosolic Ca2+ influence the aggregation of platelets in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Agonist-induced aggregation and the simultaneous changes in the level of cytosolic Ca2+, NO and NOS were monitored in platelets of patients with cirrhosis. Platelet aggregation was also measured in the presence of the eNOS inhibitor, diphenylene iodinium chloride (DIC). The level of agonist-induced platelet aggregation was significantly low in the platelets of patients with cirrhosis compared with that in platelets from normal subjects. During the course of platelet aggregation, concomitant elevation in the level of cytosolic Ca2+ was observed in normal samples, whereas the elevation was not significant in platelets of patients with cirrhosis. A parallel increase was observed in the levels of NO and NOS activity. In the presence of the eNOS inhibitor, platelet aggregation was enhanced and accompanied by an elevated calcium level. The inhibition of platelet aggregation in liver cirrhosis might be partly due to greater NO formation by eNOS. Defective Ca2+ release from the internal stores to the cytosol may account for inhibition of aggregation of platelets in cirrhosis. The NO-related defective aggregation of platelets in patients with cirrhosis found in our study is of clinical importance, and the underlying mechanism of such changes suggests a possible therapeutic strategy with cell-specific NO blockers.

  13. Dual-Level Regulation of ACC Synthase Activity by MPK3/MPK6 Cascade and Its Downstream WRKY Transcription Factor during Ethylene Induction in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guojing; Meng, Xiangzong; Wang, Ruigang; Mao, Guohong; Han, Ling; Liu, Yidong; Zhang, Shuqun

    2012-01-01

    Plants under pathogen attack produce high levels of ethylene, which plays important roles in plant immunity. Previously, we reported the involvement of ACS2 and ACS6, two Type I ACS isoforms, in Botrytis cinerea–induced ethylene biosynthesis and their regulation at the protein stability level by MPK3 and MPK6, two Arabidopsis pathogen-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The residual ethylene induction in the acs2/acs6 double mutant suggests the involvement of additional ACS ...

  14. Activation of the protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase-3 signalling pathway during transient differentiation of human colon cancer HT-29 cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tuháčková, Zdena; Šloncová, Eva; Hlaváček, Jan; Sovová, Vlasta; Velek, Jiří

    Ústav organické chemie a biochemie AV ČR, v. v. i.. Roč. 3, - (1999), s. 19-22 ISSN 0010-0765. [Biologically Active Peptides /6./. 21.04.1999-23.04.1999, Praha] R&D Projects: GA MZd IZ3517; GA ČR GA312/97/1188; GA ČR GV312/96/K205 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  15. Angelica Sinensis Polysaccharides Stimulated UDP-Sugar Synthase Genes through Promoting Gene Expression of IGF-1 and IGF1R in Chondrocytes: Promoting Anti-Osteoarthritic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yinxian; Li, Jing; Tan, Yang; Qin, Jun; Xie, Xianfei; Wang, Linlong; Mei, Qibing; Wang, Hui; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joints disease characterized by progressive degeneration of articular cartilage due to the loss of cartilage matrix. Previously, we found, for the first time, that an acidic glycan from Angelica Sinensis Polysaccharides (APSs), namely the APS-3c, could protect rat cartilage from OA due to promoting glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis in chondrocytes. In the present work, we tried to further the understanding of ASP-3c’s anti-OA activity. Methodology/P...

  16. Inhibition of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase in rats causes hyperhomocysteinemia and reduces liver cystathionine β-synthase activity and methylation capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Strakova, Jana; Gupta, Sapna; Kruger, Warren D.; Dilger, Ryan N.; Tryon, Katherine; Li, Lucas; Garrow, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Methylation of homocysteine (Hcy) by betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) produces methionine, which is required for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis. We have recently shown that short term dietary intake of S-(-δ-carboxybutyl)-DL-homocysteine (CBHcy), a potent and specific inhibitor of BHMT, significantly decreases liver BHMT activity and SAM concentrations but does not have an adverse affect on liver histopathology, plasma markers of liver damage or DNA methylation in rats. T...

  17. Domain loss has independently occurred multiple times in plant terpene synthase evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillwig, Matthew L; Xu, Meimei; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Tiernan, Mollie S; Wei, Gao; Cui, Guanghong; Huang, Luqi; Peters, Reuben J

    2011-12-01

    The extensive family of plant terpene synthases (TPSs) generally has a bi-domain structure, yet phylogenetic analyses consistently indicate that these synthases have evolved from larger diterpene synthases. In particular, that duplication of the diterpene synthase genes required for gibberellin phytohormone biosynthesis provided an early predecessor, whose loss of a approximately 220 amino acid 'internal sequence element' (now recognized as the ? domain) gave rise to the precursor of the modern mono- and sesqui-TPSs found in all higher plants. Intriguingly, TPSs are conserved by taxonomic relationships rather than function. This relationship demonstrates that such functional radiation has occurred both repeatedly and relatively recently, yet phylogenetic analyses assume that the 'internal/?' domain loss represents a single evolutionary event. Here we provide evidence that such a loss was not a singular event, but rather has occurred multiple times. Specifically, we provide an example of a bi-domain diterpene synthase from Salvia miltiorrhiza, along with a sesquiterpene synthase from Triticum aestivum (wheat) that is not only closely related to diterpene synthases, but retains the ent-kaurene synthase activity relevant to the ancestral gibberellin metabolic function. Indeed, while the wheat sesquiterpene synthase clearly no longer contains the 'internal/?' domain, it is closely related to rice diterpene synthase genes that retain the ancestral tri-domain structure. Thus, these findings provide examples of key evolutionary intermediates that underlie the bi-domain structure observed in the expansive plant TPS gene family, as well as indicating that 'internal/?' domain loss has occurred independently multiple times, highlighting the complex evolutionary history of this important enzymatic family. PMID:21999670

  18. A functional cellulose synthase from ascidian epidermis

    OpenAIRE

    Matthysse, Ann G; Deschet, Karine; Williams, Melanie; Marry, Mazz; White, Alan R.; William C. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Among animals, urochordates (e.g., ascidians) are unique in their ability to biosynthesize cellulose. In ascidians cellulose is synthesized in the epidermis and incorporated into a protective coat know as the tunic. A putative cellulose synthase-like gene was first identified in the genome sequences of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. We describe here a cellulose synthase gene from the ascidian Ciona savignyi that is expressed in the epidermis. The predicted C. savignyi cellulose synthase ami...

  19. Engineering of Chimeric Class II Polyhydroxyalkanoate Synthases

    OpenAIRE

    Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Delamarre, Soazig C.; Kim, Young-Rok; Carl A. Batt

    2004-01-01

    PHA synthase is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Using a combinatorial genetic strategy to create unique chimeric class II PHA synthases, we have obtained a number of novel chimeras which display improved catalytic properties. To engineer the chimeric PHA synthases, we constructed a synthetic phaC gene from Pseudomonas oleovorans (phaC1Po) that was devoid of an internal 540-bp fragment. Randomly amplified PCR products (created with primers based on co...

  20. Biosynthesis of P(3HB-co-3HV-co-3HHp terpolymer by Cupriavidus necator PHB-4 transformant harboring the highly active PHA synthase gene of Chromobacterium sp. USM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi, D-N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluates potentials of Cupriavidus necator PHB4 transformant harboring the highly activepolyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene (phaC of a locally isolated Chromobacterium sp. USM2 for its ability toincorporate 3-hydroxyheptanoate (3HHp monomer.Methodology and results: A mixture of fructose and sodium heptanoate fed to the culture gave rise to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyheptanoate, [P(3HB-co-3HV-co-3HHp] terpolymer synthesis, withtraces of 3HHp monomers confirmed through gas chromatography (GC, proton (1H and carbon (13C NMR spectra.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This study has revealed that the PHA synthase of Chromobacteriumsp. USM2 has a broad range of substrate specificity. The synthase is able to polymerize 3-hydroxyalkanoate monomershaving 4–7 carbon atoms.

  1. New bidentate non-centrosymmetric borate-malate: Synthesis, structure and characterization of RbB(DL-C4H4O5)2.H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We obtained a new nonlinear optical compound, RbB(DL-C4H4O5)2.H2O, with a bidentate structure. → The crystal structure, thermal behaviour and second order nonlinear optical properties were presented. → RbB(DL-C4H4O5)2.H2O exhibits a strong SHG signal about 2 times that of produced by KH2PO4. - Abstract: A single crystal of RbB(DL-C4H4O5)2.H2O (RBC) has been grown with a size of up to 11 mm x 8 mm x 3 mm through slow evaporation of its precursors' solution at room temperature. The structure of RBC was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystal data: RBC, Mr = 378.44; orthorhombic, space group Pna21 (No. 33); cell parameters, a = 11.4938(9) A, b = 5.4021(5) A, c = 21.1696(12) A and Z = 4. It exhibits a two-dimensional layer structure down the b axis, consisting of RbO7 polyhedra, BO4 tetrahedra, malate groups, and H2O molecules. The material is second harmonic generation (SHG) active; its SHG intensity is about 2 times that of KH2PO4 (KDP).

  2. Nitrite reductase and nitric-oxide synthase activity of the mitochondrial molybdopterin enzymes mARC1 and mARC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney E; Tejero, Jess; Sun, Bin; Gauthier, Marc C; Thomas, John; Ragireddy, Venkata; Merchant, Bonnie A; Wang, Jun; Azarov, Ivan; Basu, Partha; Gladwin, Mark T

    2014-04-11

    Mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component (mARC) proteins are molybdopterin-containing enzymes of unclear physiological function. Both human isoforms mARC-1 and mARC-2 are able to catalyze the reduction of nitrite when they are in the reduced form. Moreover, our results indicate that mARC can generate nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite when forming an electron transfer chain with NADH, cytochrome b5, and NADH-dependent cytochrome b5 reductase. The rate of NO formation increases almost 3-fold when pH was lowered from 7.5 to 6.5. To determine if nitrite reduction is catalyzed by molybdenum in the active site of mARC-1, we mutated the putative active site cysteine residue (Cys-273), known to coordinate molybdenum binding. NO formation was abolished by the C273A mutation in mARC-1. Supplementation of transformed Escherichia coli with tungsten facilitated the replacement of molybdenum in recombinant mARC-1 and abolished NO formation. Therefore, we conclude that human mARC-1 and mARC-2 are capable of catalyzing reduction of nitrite to NO through reaction with its molybdenum cofactor. Finally, expression of mARC-1 in HEK cells using a lentivirus vector was used to confirm cellular nitrite reduction to NO. A comparison of NO formation profiles between mARC and xanthine oxidase reveals similar Kcat and Vmax values but more sustained NO formation from mARC, possibly because it is not vulnerable to autoinhibition via molybdenum desulfuration. The reduction of nitrite by mARC in the mitochondria may represent a new signaling pathway for NADH-dependent hypoxic NO production. PMID:24500710

  3. Pseudouridines and pseudouridine synthases of the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofengand, J; Malhotra, A; Remme, J; Gutgsell, N S; Del Campo, M; Jean-Charles, S; Peil, L; Kaya, Y

    2001-01-01

    psi are ubiquitous in ribosomal RNA. Eubacteria, Archaea, and eukaryotes all contain psi, although their number varies widely, with eukaryotes having the most. The small ribosomal subunit can apparently do without psi in some organisms, even though others have as many as 40 or more. Large subunits appear to need at least one psi but can have up to 50-60. psi is made by a set of site-specific enzymes in eubacteria, and in eukaryotes by a single enzyme complexed with auxiliary proteins and specificity-conferring guide RNAs. The mechanism is not known in Archaea, but based on an analysis of the kinds of psi synthases found in sequenced archaeal genomes, it is likely to involve use of guide RNAs. All psi synthases can be classified into one of four related groups, virtually all of which have a conserved aspartate residue in a conserved sequence motif. The aspartate is essential for psi formation in all twelve synthases examined so far. When the need for psi in E. coli was examined, the only synthase whose absence caused a major decrease in growth rate under normal conditions was RluD, the synthase that makes psi 1911, psi 1915, and psi 1917 in the helix 69 end-loop. This growth defect was the result of a major failure in assembly of the large ribosomal subunit. The defect could be prevented by supplying the rluD structural gene in trans, and also by providing a point mutant gene that made a synthase unable to make psi. Therefore, the RluD synthase protein appears to be directly involved in 50S subunit assembly, possibly as an RNA chaperone, and this activity is independent of its ability to form psi. This result is not without precedent. Depletion of PET56, a 2'-O-methyltransferase specific for G2251 (E. coli numbering) in yeast mitochondria virtually blocks 50S subunit assembly and mitochondrial function (Sirum-Connolly et al. 1995), but the methylation activity of the enzyme is not required (T. Mason, pers. comm.). The absence of FtsJ, a heat shock protein that makes Um2552 in E. coli, makes the 50S subunit less stable at 1 mM Mg++ (Bügl et al. 2000) and inhibits subunit joining (Caldas et al. 2000), but, in this case, it is not yet known whether the effects are due to the lack of 2'-O-methylation or to the absence of the enzyme itself. Is there any role for the psi residues themselves? First, as noted above, the 3 psi made by RluD which cluster in the end-loop of helix 69 are highly conserved, with one being universal (Fig. 2B). In the 70S-tRNA structure (Yusupov et al. 2001), the loop of this helix containing the psi supports the anticodon arm of A-site tRNA near its juncture with the amino acid arm. The middle of helix 69 does the same thing for P-site tRNA. Unfortunately, the resolution is not yet sufficient to provide a more precise alignment of the psi residues with the other structural elements of the tRNA-ribosome complex so that one cannot yet determine what role, if any, is played by the N-1 H that distinguishes psi from U. Second, and more generally, some psi residues in the LSU appear to be near the site of peptide-bond formation or tRNA binding but not actually at it (Fig. 2B) (Nissen et al. 2000; Yusupov et al. 2001). For example, position 2492 is commonly psi and is only six residues away from A2486, the A postulated to catalyze peptide-bond formation. Position 2589 is psi in all the eukaryotes and is next to 2588, which base-pairs with the C75 of A-site tRNA. Residue 2620, which interacts with the A76 of A-site-bound tRNA, is a psi or is next to a psi in eukaryotes and Archaea, and is five residues away from psi 2580 in E. coli. A2637, which is between the two CCA ends of P- and A-site tRNA, is near psi 2639, psi 2640, and psi 2641, found in a number of organisms. Residue 2529, which contacts the backbone of A-site tRNA residues 74-76, is near psi 2527 psi 2528 in H. marismortui. Residues 2505-2507, which contact A-site tRNA residues 50-53, are near psi 2509 in higher eukaryotes, and residues 2517-2519 in contact with A-site tRNA residues 64-65 are within 1-3 nucleotides of psi 2520 in higher eukaryotes and psi 2514 in H. marismortui. A way to rationalize this might be to invoke the concept suggested in the Introduction that psi acts as a molecular glue to hold loose elements in a more rigid configuration. It may well be that this is more important near the site of peptide-bond formation and tRNA binding, accounting for the preponderance of psi in this vicinity. What might be the role of all the other psi in eukaryotes? One can only surmise that cells, having once acquired the ability to make psi with guide RNAs, took advantage of the system to inexpensively place psi wherever an undesirable loose region was found. It might be that in some of these cases, psi performs the role played by proteins in other regions, namely that of holding the rRNA in its proper configuration. Confirmation of this hypothesis will have to await structural determination of eukaryotic ribosomes. PMID:12762017

  4. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  5. DHEA and non-alcoholic fat liver disease: increased gene expression of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and fatty acid synthase (FAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Natali Almeida

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroespiandrosterone (DHEA is associated with improvements in chronic degenerative diseases, including obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, it is observed an increase in its concentration in individuals with liver lipid infiltration, but it is not precise if this condition emerges as a cause or a consequence. In this way, we aimed to identify gene expression alterations in lipid and glucose liver metabolism markers, as well as oxidative stress markers. For this purpose, male Wistar rats, 12-14 months old were treated with subcutaneous injections of DHEA (only dose of 10 mg kg-1; and after 7 days, hepatic gene expression by PCR real time were performed for the following genes:  G6Pase, PEPCK, FAS, PPARγ, malic enzyme, ChREBP, LXR, catalase, GPx, iNOS, NADPH oxidase subunits and PCNA. We observed a tendency of reduction in G6Pase gene expression in treated group (p = 0.08. In addition, it was identified an increase in liver PPARγ and FAS gene expressions, two markers of increased activity of lipogenic pathway. We also observed an increase in iNOS gene expression, a known inductor of systemic and hepatic insulin resistance. In conclusion, our data indicates that the treatment with DHEA can be associated with the development of liver lipid infiltration and hepatic insulin resistance.

  6. New hypotheses for the binding mode of 4- and 7-substituted indazoles in the active site of neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohou, Elodie; Sopkova-de Oliveira Santos, Jana; Schumann-Bard, Pascale; Boulouard, Michel; Stiebing, Silvia; Rault, Sylvain; Collot, Valérie

    2012-09-01

    Taking into account the potency of 4- and 7-nitro and haloindazoles as nNOS inhibitors previously reported in the literature by our team, a multidisciplinary study, described in this article, has recently been carried out to elucidate their binding mode in the enzyme active site. Firstly, nitrogenous fastening points on the indazole building block have been investigated referring to molecular modeling hypotheses and thanks to the in vitro biological evaluation of N(1)- and N(2)-methyl and ethyl-4-substituted indazoles on nNOS. Secondly, we attempted to confirm the importance of the substitution in position 4 or 7 by a hydrogen bond acceptor group thanks to the synthesis and the in vitro biological evaluation of a new analogous 4-substituted derivative, the 4-cyanoindazole. Finally, by opposition to previous hypotheses describing NH function in position 1 of the indazole as a key fastening point, the present work speaks in favour of a crucial role of nitrogen in position 2. PMID:22831803

  7. Mutation in cysteine bridge domain of the gamma-subunit affects light regulation of the ATP synthase in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chloroplast ATP synthase functions to synthesize ATP from ADP and free phosphate coupled by the electrochemical potential across the thylakoid membrane in the light. The light-dependent regulation of ATP synthase activity is carried out in part through redox modulation of a cysteine bridge in CF...

  8. The role of NO synthase isoforms in PDT-induced injury of neurons and glial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, V. D.; Berezhnaya, E. V.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2015-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important second messenger, involved in the implementation of various cell functions. It regulates various physiological and pathological processes such as neurotransmission, cell responses to stress, and neurodegeneration. NO synthase is a family of enzymes that synthesize NO from L-arginine. The activity of different NOS isoforms depends both on endogenous and exogenous factors. In particular, it is modulated by oxidative stress, induced by photodynamic therapy (PDT). We have studied the possible role of NOS in the regulation of survival and death of neurons and surrounding glial cells under photo-oxidative stress induced by photodynamic treatment (PDT). The crayfish stretch receptor consisting of a single identified sensory neuron enveloped by glial cells is a simple but informative model object. It was photosensitized with alumophthalocyanine photosens (10 nM) and irradiated with a laser diode (670 nm, 0.4 W/cm2). Antinecrotic and proapoptotic effects of NO on the glial cells were found using inhibitory analysis. We have shown the role of inducible NO synthase in photoinduced apoptosis and involvement of neuronal NO synthase in photoinduced necrosis of glial cells in the isolated crayfish stretch receptor. The activation of NO synthase was evaluated using NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, a marker of neurons expressing the enzyme. The activation of NO synthase in the isolated crayfish stretch receptor was evaluated as a function of time after PDT. Photodynamic treatment induced transient increase in NO synthase activity and then slowly inhibited this enzyme.

  9. Mechanism of Germacradien-4-ol Synthase-Controlled Water Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Daniel J; Chen, Mengbin; González, Verónica; Leoni, Stefano; Miller, David J; Christianson, David W; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2016-04-12

    The sesquiterpene synthase germacradiene-4-ol synthase (GdolS) from Streptomyces citricolor is one of only a few known high-fidelity terpene synthases that convert farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) into a single hydroxylated product. Crystals of unliganded GdolS-E248A diffracted to 1.50 Å and revealed a typical class 1 sesquiterpene synthase fold with the active site in an open conformation. The metal binding motifs were identified as D(80)DQFD and N(218)DVRSFAQE. Some bound water molecules were evident in the X-ray crystal structure, but none were obviously positioned to quench a putative final carbocation intermediate. Incubations in H2(18)O generated labeled product, confirming that the alcohol functionality arises from nucleophilic capture of the final carbocation by water originating from solution. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues from both within the metal binding motifs and without identified by sequence alignment with aristolochene synthase from Aspergillus terreus generated mostly functional germacradien-4-ol synthases. Only GdolS-N218Q generated radically different products (∼50% germacrene A), but no direct evidence of the mechanism of incorporation of water into the active site was obtained. Fluorinated FDP analogues 2F-FDP and 15,15,15-F3-FDP were potent noncompetitive inhibitors of GdolS. 12,13-DiF-FDP generated 12,13-(E)-β-farnesene upon being incubated with GdolS, suggesting stepwise formation of the germacryl cation during the catalytic cycle. Incubation of GdolS with [1-(2)H2]FDP and (R)-[1-(2)H]FDP demonstrated that following germacryl cation formation a [1,3]-hydride shift generates the final carbocation prior to nucleophilic capture. The stereochemistry of this shift is not defined, and the deuteron in the final product was scrambled. Because no clear candidate residue for binding of a nucleophilic water molecule in the active site and no significant perturbation of product distribution from the replacement of active site residues were observed, the final carbocation may be captured by a water molecule from bulk solvent. PMID:26998816

  10. Mechanism of germacradien-4-ol synthase controlled water capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Daniel J.; Chen, Mengbin; González, Verónica; Leoni, Stefano; Miller, David J.; Christianson, David W.; Allemann, Rudolf K.

    2016-01-01

    The sesquiterpene synthase germacradiene-4-ol synthase (GdolS) from Streptomyces citricolor is one of only a few known high fidelity terpene synthases that convert farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) into a single hydroxylated product. Crystals of unliganded GdolS-E248A diffracted to 1.50 Å and revealed a typical class-1 sesquiterpene synthase fold with the active site in an open conformation. The metal binding motifs were identified as D80DQFD and N218DVRSFAQE. Some bound water molecules were evident in the X-ray crystal structure but none were obviously positioned to quench a putative final carbocation intermediate. Incubations in H218O generated labeled product confirming that the alcohol functionality arises from nucleophilic capture of the final carbocation by water originating from solution. Site directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues from both within the metal binding motifs and without identified by sequence alignment with aristolochene synthase from Aspergillus terreus generated mostly functional germacradien-4-ol synthases. Only GdolS-N218Q generated radically different products (~50% germacrene A) but no direct evidence was obtained about the mechanism of water incorporation in the active site. Fluorinated FDP analogues 2F-FDP and 15,15,15-F3-FDP were potent non-competitive inhibitors of GdolS. 12,13-diF-FDP generated 12,13-(E)-β-farnesene when incubated with GdolS, suggesting stepwise formation of the germacryl cation during the catalytic cycle. Incubation of GdolS with 1-2H2-FDP and (R)-1-2H-FDP demonstrated that following germacryl cation formation a [1,3]-hydride shift generates the final carbocation prior to nucleophilic capture. The stereochemistry of this shift is not defined and the deuteron in the final product was scrambled. Since no clear candidate residue for binding of a nucleophilic water molecule in the active site and no significant perturbation of product distribution from the replacement of active site residues were observed, the final carbocation may be captured by a water molecule from bulk solvent. PMID:26998816

  11. Heterooligomeric phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains five phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase-homologous genes (PRS1-5), which specify PRPP synthase subunits 1-5. Expression of the five S. cerevisiae PRS genes individually in an Escherichia coli PRPP-less strain (Deltaprs) showed that a single PRS...

  12. Properties of phosphorylated thymidylate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frączyk, Tomasz; Ruman, Tomasz; Wilk, Piotr; Palmowski, Pawel; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Cieśla, Joanna; Zieliński, Zbigniew; Nizioł, Joanna; Jarmuła, Adam; Maj, Piotr; Gołos, Barbara; Wińska, Patrycja; Ostafil, Sylwia; Wałajtys-Rode, Elżbieta; Shugar, David; Rode, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) may undergo phosphorylation endogenously in mammalian cells, and as a recombinant protein expressed in bacterial cells, as indicated by the reaction of purified enzyme protein with Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain (PGS). With recombinant human, mouse, rat, Trichin......Thymidylate synthase (TS) may undergo phosphorylation endogenously in mammalian cells, and as a recombinant protein expressed in bacterial cells, as indicated by the reaction of purified enzyme protein with Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain (PGS). With recombinant human, mouse, rat......, Trichinella spiralis and Caenorhabditis elegans TSs, expressed in Escherichia coli, the phosphorylated, compared to non-phosphorylated recombinant enzyme forms, showed a decrease in Vmax(app), bound their cognate mRNA (only rat enzyme studied), and repressed translation of their own and several heterologous m......RNAs (human, rat and mouse enzymes studied). However, attempts to determine the modification site(s), whether endogenously expressed in mammalian cells, or recombinant proteins, did not lead to unequivocal results. Comparative ESI-MS/analysis of IEF fractions of TS preparations from parental and Fd...

  13. Bacillus subtilis YxkJ Is a Secondary Transporter of the 2-Hydroxycarboxylate Transporter Family That Transports l-Malate and Citrate

    OpenAIRE

    Krom, Bastiaan P; Aardema, Ronald; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2001-01-01

    The genome of Bacillus subtilis contains two genes that code for membrane proteins that belong to the 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter family. Here we report the functional characterization of one of the two, yxkJ, which codes for a transporter protein named CimHbs. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and complemented the citrate-negative phenotype of wild-type E. coli and the malate-negative phenotype of the E. coli strain JRG4008, which is defective in malate uptake. Subse...

  14. Isoenzyme composition of lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, esterase and acid phosphatase of rat brain at various times after external 1 Gy ?-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of external single ?-irradiation with a dose of 1 Gy on the isoenzyme composition of lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, sterase and acid phosphatase in the cytoplasm of rat brain cells was investigated. Irradiation was shown to cause differently directed changes in the ratio of the isoenzymes under study at different times after exposure. The isoenzyme spectrum of lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase was shown to be normalized on day 30 after irradiation, wheras the isoform composition of esterase and acid phosphatase was not stabilized at that time

  15. Biochemical complementation of chalcone synthase mutants defines a role for flavonols in functional pollen.

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Y; Nagel, C.; Taylor, L P

    1992-01-01

    Chalcone synthase catalyzes the initial step of that branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway that leads to flavonoids. A lack of chalcone synthase activity has a pleiotropic effect in maize and petunia mutants: pollen fertility as well as flavonoid synthesis is disrupted. Both maize and petunia mutants are self-sterile due to a failure to produce a functional pollen tube. The finding that the mutant pollen is partially functional on wild-type stigmas led to the isolation and identification of k...

  16. Biochemical, immunological, and immunocytochemical evidence for the association of chalcone synthase with endoplasmic reticulum membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hrazdina, G.; Zobel, A M; Hoch, H C

    1987-01-01

    Chalcone synthase [naringenin-chalcone synthase; malonyl-CoA:4-coumaroyl-CoA malonyltransferase (cyclizing), E.C. 2.3.1.74], the key enzyme of flavonoid pathways that was believed to be soluble, has been localized on ribosome-bearing endoplasmic reticulum membranes in the epidermis of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) hypocotyls. Enzyme activity measurement and immunoblots of buckwheat hypocotyl homogenates that were fractionated on linear sucrose density gradients and developed with a spec...

  17. Inhibition of corneal neovascularization with new Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors: Sunitinib malate and Sorafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delnia Arshadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Corneal neovascularization (NV is a significant, sight-threatening, complication of many ocular surface disorders. Presence of new vessels in cornea can compromise clarity and thus vision. The data supporting a causal role for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in corneal NV are extensive. Inhibition of VEGF remains as a main strategy for treating corneal NV. There is a growing body of evidence that corneal NV can be reduced by using anti-VEGF agents. Sunitinib malate and Sorafenib are new orally bio-available anti-angiogenic agents undergoing tests of efficacy in the treatment of various types of cancers. The main mechanism of these drugs is inhibiting angiogenesis by diminishing signaling through VEGF receptor1 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and platelet-derived growth factor receptors. Since VEGF exerts its angiogenic effects through tyrosine kinase receptors in cornea, any mechanisms which reduce VEGF signaling may inhibit corneal NV or at least attenuate it. Based on this fact we herein hypothesize that Sunitinib malate and Sorafenib can be prepared in topical form and be used in corneal neovascularization states. These approaches offer new hope for the successful treatment of corneal NV. Further investigations in animal models are needed to place these two drugs alongside corneal NV therapeutics.

  18. QUANTITATIVE ASSAY OF ALMOTRIPTAN MALATE IN PURE DRUG AND PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS USING SIMPLE AND CONVENIENT VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. VIPLOVA PRASAD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two direct, simple and sensitive visible spectrophotometric methods (M1&M2 are described for the assay of almotripan malate in pure and solid dosage forms. The method M1 involves oxidative coupling of drug with brucine in presence of sodium meta periodate and purple red colored species is formed and exhibits absorption maxima at 520nm. The method M2 is based on the formation of yellowish brown colored species by the drug with Folin reagent and exhibits absorption maxima at 450nm. Regression analysis of Beer-Lambert plots showed good correlation in the concentration ranges (8.0-24 μg/ml for method M1, (16-48 μg/ml for method M2 respectively. The proposed methods are applied to commercial available tablets and the results are statistically compared with those obtained by the reported UV reference method and validated by recovery studies. The results are found satisfactory and reproducible. These methods are applied successfully for the estimation of the almotriptan malate in the presence of other ingredients that are usually present in dosageforms. These methods offer the advantages of rapidity, simplicity and sensitivity and normal cost and can be easily applied to resource-poor settings without the need for expensive instrumentation and reagents.

  19. The lncRNA MALAT1 protects the endothelium against ox-LDL-induced dysfunction via upregulating the expression of the miR-22-3p target genes CXCR2 and AKT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Jin, Xian; Xiang, Yin; Chen, Yu; Shen, Cheng-xing; Zhang, Ya-chen; Li, Yi-gang

    2015-10-01

    CXCR2 plays a key role in protecting the integrity of the endothelium. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that the long ncRNAs (lncRNA) Human metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) participates in the regulation of the pathophysiological processes. However, whether there is crosstalk between CXCR2 and MALAT1 remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that MALAT1 was upregulated in patients with unstable angina. MALAT1 silencing significantly downregulated the expression of the miR-22-3p target gene CXCR2 via reversing the effect of the miR-22-3p, resulting in the aggravation of Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced endothelial injury; this process was associated with the AKT pathway. Thus, MALAT1 protects the endothelium from ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction partly through competing with miR-22-3p for endogenous RNA. PMID:26364720

  20. Flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase X limits chromosomal DNA replication

    OpenAIRE

    Escartin, Frédéric; Skouloubris, Stéphane; Liebl, Ursula; Myllykallio, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the hitherto unexplored possibility that differences in the catalytic efficiencies of thymidylate synthases ThyX and ThyA, enzymes that produce the essential DNA precursor dTMP, have influenced prokaryotic genome evolution. We demonstrate that DNA replication speed in bacteria and archaea that contain the low-activity ThyX enzyme is up to 10-fold decreased compared with species that contain the catalytically more efficient ThyA. Our statistical studies of >400 genomes ind...

  1. Discovery of two new inhibitors of Botrytis cinerea chitin synthase by a chemical library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magellan, Hervé; Boccara, Martine; Drujon, Thierry; Soulié, Marie-Christine; Guillou, Catherine; Dubois, Joëlle; Becker, Hubert F

    2013-09-01

    Chitin synthases polymerize UDP-GlcNAC to form chitin polymer, a key component of fungal cell wall biosynthesis. Furthermore, chitin synthases are desirable targets for fungicides since chitin is absent in plants and mammals. Two potent Botrytis cinerea chitin synthase inhibitors, 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl-d-ribose (compound 1) and a 2,5-functionalized imidazole (compound 2) were identified by screening a chemical library. We adapted the wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) test for chitin synthase activity detection to allow miniaturization and robotization of the screen. Both identified compounds inhibited chitin synthases in vitro with IC50 values of 1.8 and 10μM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their antifungal activity and were found to be active against B. cinerea BD90 strain with MIC values of 190 and 100μM, respectively. Finally, we discovered that both compounds confer resistance to plant leaves against the attack of the fungus by reducing the propagation of lesions by 37% and 23%, respectively. Based on the inhibitory properties found in different assays, compounds 1 and 2 can be considered as antifungal hit inhibitors of chitin synthase, allowing further optimization of their pharmacological profile to improve their antifungal properties. PMID:23886809

  2. Posttranscriptional silencing of the lncRNA MALAT1 by miR-217 inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via enhancer of zeste homolog 2 in the malignant transformation of HBE cells induced by cigarette smoke extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Luo, Fei; Liu, Yi; Liu, Xinlu; Shi, Le; Lu, Xiaolin; Liu, Qizhan

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is regarded as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and cigarette smoking is one of the strongest risk factors for the development of lung cancer. However, the mechanisms for cigarette smoke-induced lung carcinogenesis remain unclear. The present study investigated the effects of an miRNA (miR-217) on levels of an lncRNA (MALAT1) and examined the role of these factors in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. In these cells, CSE caused decreases of miR-217 levels and increases in lncRNA MALAT1 levels. Over-expression of miR-217 with a mimic attenuated the CSE-induced increase of MALAT1 levels, and reduction of miR-217 levels by an inhibitor enhanced expression of MALAT1. Moreover, the CSE-induced increase of MALAT1 expression was blocked by an miR-217 mimic, indicating that miR-217 negatively regulates MALAT1 expression. Knockdown of MALAT1 reversed CSE-induced increases of EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2) and H3K27me3 levels. In addition to the alteration from epithelial to spindle-like mesenchymal morphology, chronic exposure of HBE cells to CSE increased the levels of EZH2, H3K27me3, vimentin, and N-cadherin and decreased E-cadherin levels, effects that were reversed by MALAT1 siRNA or EZH2 siRNA. The results indicate that miR-217 regulation of EZH2/H3K27me3 via MALAT1 is involved in CSE-induced EMT and malignant transformation of HBE cells. The posttranscriptional silencing of MALAT1 by miR-217 provides a link, through EZH2, between ncRNAs and the EMT and establishes a mechanism for CSE-induced lung carcinogenesis. PMID:26415832

  3. Overexpression of the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle member Aralar1 in the clonal beta-cell line BRIN-BD11 enhances amino-acid-stimulated insulin secretion and cell metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Katrin; Maechler, Pierre; McClenaghan, Neville H; Flatt, Peter R; Newsholme, Philip

    2009-11-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the effects of the transduction with recombinant adenovirus AdCA-Aralar1 (aspartate-glutamate carrier 1) on the metabolism, function and secretory properties of the glucose- and amino-acid-responsive clonal insulin-secreting cell line BRIN-BD11. Aralar1 overexpression increased long-term (24 h) and acute (20 min) glucose- and amino-acid-stimulated insulin secretion, cellular glucose metabolism, L-alanine and L-glutamine consumption, cellular ATP and glutamate concentrations, and stimulated glutamate release. However, cellular triacylglycerol and glycogen contents were decreased as was lactate production. These findings indicate that increased malate-aspartate shuttle activity positively shifted beta-cell metabolism, thereby increasing glycolysis capacity, stimulus-secretion coupling and, ultimately, enhancing insulin secretion. We conclude that Aralar1 is a key metabolic control site in insulin-secreting cells. PMID:19344310

  4. Arabidopsis cortical microtubules position cellulose synthase delivery to the plasma membrane and interact with cellulose synthase trafficking compartments.

    OpenAIRE

    R. GUTIERREZ; Lindeboom, J.J.; Paredez, A.R.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ehrhardt, D W

    2009-01-01

    Plant cell morphogenesis relies on the organization and function of two polymer arrays separated by the plasma membrane: the cortical microtubule cytoskeleton and cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. Studies using in vivo markers confirmed that one function of the cortical microtubule array is to drive organization of cellulose microfibrils by guiding the trajectories of active cellulose synthase (CESA) complexes in the plasma membrane, thus orienting nascent microfibrils. Here we provide...

  5. Unchanged gene expression of glycogen synthase in muscle from patients with NIDDM following sulphonylurea-induced improvement of glycaemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Lund, S; Bjrbaek, C; Pedersen, O

    1995-01-01

    metabolism (p=0.02) was demonstrated in teh gliclazide-treated patients when compared to pre-treatment values. In biopsies obtained from vastus lateralis muscle during insulin infusion, the half-maximal activation of glycogen synthase was achieved at a significantly lower concentration of the allosteric...... activator glucose 6-phosphate (p=0.01). However, despite significant increases in both insulin-stimulated non-oxidative glucose metabolism and muscle glycogen synthase activation in gliclazide-treated patients no changes were found in levels of glycogen synthase mRNA or immunoreactive protein in muscle. In...

  6. Structure of isochorismate synthase DhbC from Bacillus anthracis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of B. anthracis isochorismate synthase DhbC, which is involved in the biosynthesis of bacillibactin, was determined at 2.4 Å resolution. It was compared with other chorismate-utilizing enzymes and both structural and bioinformatics analyses were performed. The putative active site was pinpointed. The isochorismate synthase DhbC from Bacillus anthracis is essential for the biosynthesis of the siderophore bacillibactin by this pathogenic bacterium. The structure of the selenomethionine-substituted protein was determined to 2.4 Å resolution using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. B. anthracis DhbC bears the strongest resemblance to the Escherichia coli isochorismate synthase EntC, which is involved in the biosynthesis of another siderophore, namely enterobactin. Both proteins adopt the characteristic fold of other chorismate-utilizing enzymes, which are involved in the biosynthesis of various products, including siderophores, menaquinone and tryptophan. The conservation of the active-site residues, as well as their spatial arrangement, suggests that these enzymes share a common Mg2+-dependent catalytic mechanism

  7. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors isolated from Punica granatum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is the isolation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors from the ethyl acetate extracts of fruit peels of Punica granatum L. Bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the fruit peels resulted in the isolation of seventeen compounds mainly including triterpenoids and phenolic compounds, from which one new oleanane-type triterpene (punicaone) along with fourteen known compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. Seven isolates were evaluated for inhibitory activities of FAS and two compounds showed to be active. Particularly, flavogallonic acid exhibited strong FAS inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 10.3 ?mol L-1. (author)

  8. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors isolated from Punica granatum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, He-Zhong [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Liang, Wen-Juan; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Dai, Hao-Fu; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhaoyx1011@163.com [Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou (China); Fan, Hui-Jin; Ma, Xiao-Feng, E-mail: maxiaofeng@gucas.ac.cn [College of Life Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-05-15

    The aim of this work is the isolation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors from the ethyl acetate extracts of fruit peels of Punica granatum L. Bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the fruit peels resulted in the isolation of seventeen compounds mainly including triterpenoids and phenolic compounds, from which one new oleanane-type triterpene (punicaone) along with fourteen known compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. Seven isolates were evaluated for inhibitory activities of FAS and two compounds showed to be active. Particularly, flavogallonic acid exhibited strong FAS inhibitory activity with IC{sub 50} value of 10.3 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. (author)

  9. Evaluation of hydrogen production by Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001 and its hupSL deficient mutant using acetate and malate as carbon sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kars, Goekhan [Department of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Guenduez, Ufuk; Yuecel, Meral [Department of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Rakhely, Gabor; Kovacs, Kornel L. [Department of Biotechnology, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Eroglu, inci [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001 is one of the candidates for photobiological hydrogen production among purple non-sulfur bacteria. Hydrogen is produced by Mo-nitrogenase from organic acids such as malate or lactate. A hupSL in frame deletion mutant strain was constructed without using any antibiotic resistance gene. The hydrogen production potential of the R. sphaeroides O.U.001 and its newly constructed hupSL deleted mutant strain in acetate media was evaluated and compared with malate containing media. The hupSL{sup -}R. sphaeroides produced 2.42 l H{sub 2}/l culture and 0.25 l H{sub 2}/l culture in 15 mM malate and 30 mM acetate containing media, respectively, as compared to the wild type cells which evolved 1.97 l H{sub 2}/l culture and 0.21 l H{sub 2}/l culture in malate and acetate containing media, correspondingly. According to the results, hupSL{sup -}R. sphaeroides is a better hydrogen producer but acetate alone does not seem to be an efficient carbon source for photoheterotrophic H{sub 2} production by R. sphaeroides. (author)

  10. Effects of Malate and Yeast Supplementation in Concentrate Containing High Cassava Chip on Rumen Ecology and Digestibility of Nutrients in Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittisak KHAMPA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Four, 1-year old beef cattle were randomly assigned according to a 2 ´ 2 Factorial arrangement in a 4 ´ 4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 and 1,000 g with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 1,000 and 2,000 g in concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip. The treatments were as follows: T1 is supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T2 is supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 2,000 g; T3 is supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T4 is supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate, respectively. The animals were offered the treatment concentrate at 1 % BW of dry matter basis and urea-treated rice straw. The results revealed that rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. However, the digestibility of nutrients were significantly different for the diets, especially digestible nutrient intake of crude protein (CP which was higher for cows fed cassava-based diets with T4 rather than T3, T2 and T1 (74.3, 72.5, 71.1 and 68.9 %, respectively. In addition, the concentration of volatile fatty acid was significantly different especially the concentration of propionic acid which was slightly higher in cattle receiving T4 than T3, T2 and T1 (23.3, 21.9, 20.9 and 18.0 %, respectively. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate and yeast levels. In conclusion, the combined use of concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip at 70 % DM with malate at 1,000 g and yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate with urea-treated rice straw as a roughage improved rumen fermentation and digestibility of nutrients in beef cattle.

  11. Concerted versus stepwise mechanism in thymidylate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Zahidul; Strutzenberg, Timothy S; Gurevic, Ilya; Kohen, Amnon

    2014-07-16

    Thymidylate synthase (TSase) catalyzes the intracellular de novo formation of thymidylate (a DNA building block) in most living organisms, making it a common target for chemotherapeutic and antibiotic drugs. Two mechanisms have been proposed for the rate-limiting hydride transfer step in TSase catalysis: a stepwise mechanism in which the hydride transfer precedes the cleavage of the covalent bond between the enzymatic cysteine and the product and a mechanism where both happen concertedly. Striking similarities between the enzyme-bound enolate intermediates formed in the initial and final step of the reaction supported the first mechanism, while QM/MM calculations favored the concerted mechanism. Here, we experimentally test these two possibilities using secondary kinetic isotope effect (KIE), mutagenesis study, and primary KIEs. The findings support the concerted mechanism and demonstrate the critical role of an active site arginine in substrate binding, activation of enzymatic nucleophile, and the hydride transfer studied here. The elucidation of this reduction/substitution sheds light on the critical catalytic step in TSase and may aid future drug or biomimetic catalyst design. PMID:24949852

  12. Radiolabeling of a wound-inducible pyridoxal phosphate utilizing protein from tomato: evidence for its identification as ACC synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, a pyridoxal phosphate utilizing enzyme, catalyzes the conversion of S-adenosylmethionine to ACC, the rate limiting step in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone, ethylene. Ethylene, besides being involved in normal plant growth processes, is also produced in response to stress, e.g. wounding, pathogen infection, etc. The authors report the partial purification (400 fold) of ACC synthase from wounded pink tomato pericarp by classical techniques including ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange and phenyl sepharose chromatography. Further purification results in a decrease in specific activity apparently due to the instability of the enzyme and the low levels present in plant tissue. Radiolabeling of a pyridoxal phosphate-utilizing protein in the ACC synthase enriched fraction was achieved. Evidence that this radiolabeled protein is ACC synthase will be presented. Amino acid sequence determination of putative ACC synthase-derived peptides is underway

  13. Genetics Home Reference: GM3 synthase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some affected individuals have changes in skin coloring (pigmentation), including dark freckle-like spots on the arms ... shortage of GM3 synthase and changes in skin pigmentation is also unknown. Read more about the ST3GAL5 ...

  14. Examination of methylphenidate-mediated behavior regulation by glycogen synthase kinase-3 in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mines, Marjelo A.; Beurel, Eleonore; Jope, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in dopaminergic activity have been implicated in psychiatric diseases, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and are treated with therapeutic stimulants, commonly methylphenidate or amphetamine. Amphetamine administration increases glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) activation, which is necessary for certain acute behavioral responses to amphetamine, including increased locomotor activity and impaired sensorimotor gating. Here, we tested if modulating GSK3 by a...

  15. TALEN mediated targeted editing of GM2/GD2-synthase gene modulates anchorage independent growth by reducing anoikis resistance in mouse tumor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mahata, Barun; Banerjee, Avisek; Kundu, Manjari; Bandyopadhyay, Uday; Biswas, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Complex ganglioside expression is highly deregulated in several tumors which is further dependent on specific ganglioside synthase genes. Here, we designed and constructed a pair of highly specific transcription-activator like effector endonuclease (TALENs) to disrupt a particular genomic locus of mouse GM2-synthase, a region conserved in coding sequence of all four transcript variants of mouse GM2-synthase. Our designed TALENs effectively work in different mouse cell lines and TALEN induced ...

  16. The contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism of ripening peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) flesh is negligible. Implications for the occurrence of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiani, Franco; Farinelli, Daniela; Moscatello, Stefano; Battistelli, Alberto; Leegood, Richard C; Walker, Robert P

    2016-04-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine the contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism in the ripening flesh of the peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivar Adriatica. In the flesh, stored malate accumulated before ripening could contribute little or nothing to the net substrate requirements of metabolism. This was because there was synthesis and not dissimilation of malate throughout ripening. Stored citrate could potentially contribute a very small amount (about 5.8%) of the substrate required by metabolism when the whole ripening period was considered, and a maximum of about 7.5% over the latter part of ripening. The second aim of this study was to investigate why phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) an enzyme utilised in gluconeogenesis from malate and citrate is present in peach flesh. The occurrence and localisation of enzymes utilised in the metabolism of malate, citrate and amino acids were determined in peach flesh throughout its development. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (essential for the synthesis of malate and citrate) was present in the same cells and at the same time as PEPCK and NADP-malic enzyme (both utilised in the dissimilation of malate and citrate). A hypothesis is presented to explain the presence of these enzymes and to account for the likely occurrence of gluconeogenesis. PMID:26852108

  17. Variation in copolymer composition and molecular weight of polyhydroxyalkanoate generated by saturation mutagenesis of Aeromonas caviae PHA synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Takeharu; Watanabe, Shinko; Sato, Shun; Hiraishi, Tomohiro; Abe, Hideki; Doi, Yoshiharu; Taguchi, Seiichi

    2007-06-01

    Amino acid substitutions at two residues downstream from the active-site histidine of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases are effective for changing the composition and the molecular weight of PHA. In this study, saturation mutagenesis at the position Ala505 was applied to PHA synthase (PhaCAc) from Aeromonas caviae to investigate the effects on the composition and the molecular weight of PHA synthesized in Ralstonia eutropha. The copolymer composition and molecular weight of PHA were varied by association with amino acid substitutions. There was a strong relationship between copolymer composition and PHA synthase activity of the cells. This finding will serve as a rationale for producing tailor-made PHAs. PMID:17541931

  18. Valencene synthase from the heartwood of Nootka cypress (Callitropsis nootkatensis) for biotechnological production of valencene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekwilder, Jules; van Houwelingen, Adèle; Cankar, Katarina; van Dijk, Aalt D J; de Jong, René M; Stoopen, Geert; Bouwmeester, Harro; Achkar, Jihane; Sonke, Theo; Bosch, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Nootkatone is one of the major terpenes in the heartwood of the Nootka cypress Callitropsis nootkatensis. It is an oxidized sesquiterpene, which has been postulated to be derived from valencene. Both valencene and nootkatone are used for flavouring citrus beverages and are considered among the most valuable terpenes used at commercial scale. Functional evaluation of putative terpene synthase genes sourced by large-scale EST sequencing from Nootka cypress wood revealed a valencene synthase gene (CnVS). CnVS expression in different tissues from the tree correlates well with nootkatone content, suggesting that CnVS represents the first dedicated gene in the nootkatone biosynthetic pathway in C. nootkatensis The gene belongs to the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily of terpenes synthases and its protein sequence has low similarity to known citrus valencene synthases. In vitro, CnVS displays high robustness under different pH and temperature regimes, potentially beneficial properties for application in different host and physiological conditions. Biotechnological production of sesquiterpenes has been shown to be feasible, but productivity of microbial strains expressing valencene synthase from Citrus is low, indicating that optimization of valencene synthase activity is needed. Indeed, expression of CnVS in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated potential for higher yields. In an optimized Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain, expression of CnVS increased valencene yields 14-fold to 352 mg/L, bringing production to levels with industrial potential. PMID:24112147

  19. Identification, Functional Characterization, and Evolution of Terpene Synthases from a Basal Dicot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Matsuba, Yuki; Brandt, Wolfgang; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Bar, Einat; McClain, Alan; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Pichersky, Eran; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2015-01-01

    Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) is an agriculturally and economically important dioecious tree in the basal dicot family Lauraceae used in food and drugs and in the cosmetics industry. Bay leaves, with their abundant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, are used to impart flavor and aroma to food, and have also drawn attention in recent years because of their potential pharmaceutical applications. To identify terpene synthases (TPSs) involved in the production of these volatile terpenes, we performed RNA sequencing to profile the transcriptome of L. nobilis leaves. Bioinformatic analysis led to the identification of eight TPS complementary DNAs. We characterized the enzymes encoded by three of these complementary DNAs: a monoterpene synthase that belongs to the TPS-b clade catalyzes the formation of mostly 1,8-cineole; a sesquiterpene synthase belonging to the TPS-a clade catalyzes the formation of mainly cadinenes; and a diterpene synthase of the TPS-e/f clade catalyzes the formation of geranyllinalool. Comparison of the sequences of these three TPSs indicated that the TPS-a and TPS-b clades of the TPS gene family evolved early in the evolution of the angiosperm lineage, and that geranyllinalool synthase activity is the likely ancestral function in angiosperms of genes belonging to an ancient TPS-e/f subclade that diverged from the kaurene synthase gene lineages before the split of angiosperms and gymnosperms. PMID:26157114

  20. Identification, Functional Characterization, and Evolution of Terpene Synthases from a Basal Dicot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Matsuba, Yuki; Brandt, Wolfgang; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Bar, Einat; McClain, Alan; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Pichersky, Eran; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2015-11-01

    Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) is an agriculturally and economically important dioecious tree in the basal dicot family Lauraceae used in food and drugs and in the cosmetics industry. Bay leaves, with their abundant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, are used to impart flavor and aroma to food, and have also drawn attention in recent years because of their potential pharmaceutical applications. To identify terpene synthases (TPSs) involved in the production of these volatile terpenes, we performed RNA sequencing to profile the transcriptome of L. nobilis leaves. Bioinformatic analysis led to the identification of eight TPS complementary DNAs. We characterized the enzymes encoded by three of these complementary DNAs: a monoterpene synthase that belongs to the TPS-b clade catalyzes the formation of mostly 1,8-cineole; a sesquiterpene synthase belonging to the TPS-a clade catalyzes the formation of mainly cadinenes; and a diterpene synthase of the TPS-e/f clade catalyzes the formation of geranyllinalool. Comparison of the sequences of these three TPSs indicated that the TPS-a and TPS-b clades of the TPS gene family evolved early in the evolution of the angiosperm lineage, and that geranyllinalool synthase activity is the likely ancestral function in angiosperms of genes belonging to an ancient TPS-e/f subclade that diverged from the kaurene synthase gene lineages before the split of angiosperms and gymnosperms. PMID:26157114

  1. Crystal structure of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase from the ESKAPE pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Kristin A; Breen, Jennifer; Russo, Thomas A; Schultz, L Wayne; Umland, Timothy C

    2016-03-01

    The enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase catalyzes the sixth step of the seven-step shikimate pathway. Chorismate, the product of the pathway, is a precursor for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids, siderophores and metabolites such as folate, ubiquinone and vitamin K. The shikimate pathway is present in bacteria, fungi, algae, plants and apicomplexan parasites, but is absent in humans. The EPSP synthase enzyme produces 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and phosphate from phosphoenolpyruvate and shikimate 3-phosphate via a transferase reaction, and is the target of the herbicide glyphosate. The Acinetobacter baumannii gene encoding EPSP synthase, aroA, has previously been demonstrated to be essential during host infection for the growth and survival of this clinically important drug-resistant ESKAPE pathogen. Prephenate dehydrogenase is also encoded by the bifunctional A. baumannii aroA gene, but its activity is dependent upon EPSP synthase since it operates downstream of the shikimate pathway. As part of an effort to evaluate new antimicrobial targets, recombinant A. baumannii EPSP (AbEPSP) synthase, comprising residues Ala301-Gln756 of the aroA gene product, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystal structure, determined to 2.37 Å resolution, is described in the context of a potential antimicrobial target and in comparison to EPSP synthases that are resistant or sensitive to the herbicide glyphosate. PMID:26919521

  2. (-)-Epicatechin-induced recovery of mitochondria from simulated diabetes: Potential role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Israel; Rodríguez, Alonso; Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    (-)-Epicatechin increases indicators associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells and myocardium. We investigated endothelial nitric oxide synthase involvement on (-)-epicatechin-induced increases in indicators associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in human coronary artery endothelial cells cultured in normal-glucose and high-glucose media, as well as to restore indicators of cardiac mitochondria from the effects of simulated diabetes. Here, we demonstrate the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase on (-)-epicatechin-induced increases in mitochondrial proteins, transcription factors and sirtuin 1 under normal-glucose conditions. In simulated diabetes endothelial nitric oxide synthase function, mitochondrial function-associated and biogenesis-associated indicators were adversely impacted by high glucose, effects that were reverted by (-)-epicatechin. As an animal model of type 2 diabetes, 2-month old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Fasting and fed blood glucose levels were increased and NO plasma levels decreased. High-fat-diet-fed mice myocardium revealed endothelial nitric oxide synthase dysfunction, reduced mitochondrial activity and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. The administration of 1 mg/kg (-)-epicatechin for 15 days by oral gavage shifted these endpoints towards control mice values. Results suggest that endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates (-)-epicatechin-induced increases of indicators associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells. (-)-Epicatechin also counteracts the negative effects that high glucose or simulated type 2 diabetes has on endothelial nitric oxide synthase function. PMID:26993496

  3. Aspirin inhibits interleukin 1-induced prostaglandin H synthase expression in cultured endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.K.; Sanduja, R.; Tsai, A.L.; Ferhanoglu, B.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S. (Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxane, and prostacyclin. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, interleukin 1 (IL-1) is known to induce the synthesis of this enzyme, thereby raising the level of PGH synthase protein severalfold over the basal level. Pretreatment with aspirin at low concentrations inhibited more than 60% of the enzyme mass and also the cyclooxygenase activity in IL-1-induced cells with only minimal effects on the basal level of the synthase enzyme in cells without IL-1. Sodium salicylate exhibited a similar inhibitory action whereas indomethacin had no apparent effect. Similarly low levels of aspirin inhibited the increased L-({sup 35}S)methionine incorporation into PGH synthase that was induced by IL0-1 and also suppressed expression of the 2.7-kilobase PGH synthase mRNA. These results suggest that in cultured endothelial cells a potent inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthetic capacity can be effected by aspirin or salicylate at the level of PGH synthase gene expression. The aspirin effect may well be due to degradation of salicylate.

  4. Aspirin inhibits interleukin 1-induced prostaglandin H synthase expression in cultured endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxane, and prostacyclin. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, interleukin 1 (IL-1) is known to induce the synthesis of this enzyme, thereby raising the level of PGH synthase protein severalfold over the basal level. Pretreatment with aspirin at low concentrations inhibited more than 60% of the enzyme mass and also the cyclooxygenase activity in IL-1-induced cells with only minimal effects on the basal level of the synthase enzyme in cells without IL-1. Sodium salicylate exhibited a similar inhibitory action whereas indomethacin had no apparent effect. Similarly low levels of aspirin inhibited the increased L-[35S]methionine incorporation into PGH synthase that was induced by IL0-1 and also suppressed expression of the 2.7-kilobase PGH synthase mRNA. These results suggest that in cultured endothelial cells a potent inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthetic capacity can be effected by aspirin or salicylate at the level of PGH synthase gene expression. The aspirin effect may well be due to degradation of salicylate

  5. Effects of Supplemental Citrulline-Malate Ingestion on Blood Lactate, Cardiovascular Dynamics, and Resistance Exercise Performance in Trained Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Benjamin; Kavazis, Andreas N; Luckett, William

    2016-05-01

    Citrulline-malate (CM) has been proposed to provide an ergogenic effect during resistance exercise; however, there is a paucity of research investigating these claims. Therefore, we investigated the impact that CM supplementation would have on repeated bouts of resistance exercise. Fourteen resistance-trained males participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind study. Subjects were randomly assigned to placebo (PL) or CM (8g) and performed three sets each of chin-ups, reverse chin-ups, and push-ups to failure. One week later, subjects ingested the other supplement and performed the same protocol. Blood lactate (BLa), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) were measured preexercise, with BLa measured a second time immediately following the last set, while HR and BP were measured 5 and 10min postexercise. Citrulline-malate ingestion significantly increased the amount of repetitions performed for each exercise (chin-ups: PL = 28.4 7.1, CM = 32.2 5.6, p = .003; reverse chin-ups: PL = 26.6 5.6, CM = 32.1 7.1, p = .017; push-ups: PL = 89.1 37.4, CM = 97.7 36.1, p Blood lactate data indicated a time effect (p < .001), but no treatment differences (p = .935). Systolic BP data did not show differences for time (p = .078) or treatment (p = .119). Diastolic BP data did not show differences for time (p = .069), but indicated treatment differences (p = .014) for subjects ingesting CM. Collectively, these findings suggests that CM increased upper-body resistance performance in trained college-age males. PMID:25674699

  6. Cellulose Microfibril Formation by Surface-Tethered Cellulose Synthase Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Snehasish; Omadjela, Okako; Gaddes, David; Tadigadapa, Srinivas; Zimmer, Jochen; Catchmark, Jeffrey M

    2016-02-23

    Cellulose microfibrils are pseudocrystalline arrays of cellulose chains that are synthesized by cellulose synthases. The enzymes are organized into large membrane-embedded complexes in which each enzyme likely synthesizes and secretes a β-(1→4) glucan. The relationship between the organization of the enzymes in these complexes and cellulose crystallization has not been explored. To better understand this relationship, we used atomic force microscopy to visualize cellulose microfibril formation from nickel-film-immobilized bacterial cellulose synthase enzymes (BcsA-Bs), which in standard solution only form amorphous cellulose from monomeric BcsA-B complexes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques show that surface-tethered BcsA-Bs synthesize highly crystalline cellulose II in the presence of UDP-Glc, the allosteric activator cyclic-di-GMP, as well as magnesium. The cellulose II cross section/diameter and the crystal size and crystallinity depend on the surface density of tethered enzymes as well as the overall concentration of substrates. Our results provide the correlation between cellulose microfibril formation and the spatial organization of cellulose synthases. PMID:26799780

  7. Mechanism of Action and Inhibition of dehydrosqualene Synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F Lin; C Liu; Y Liu; Y Zhang; K Wang; W Jeng; T Ko; R Cao; A Wang; E Oldfield

    2011-12-31

    'Head-to-head' terpene synthases catalyze the first committed steps in sterol and carotenoid biosynthesis: the condensation of two isoprenoid diphosphates to form cyclopropylcarbinyl diphosphates, followed by ring opening. Here, we report the structures of Staphylococcus aureus dehydrosqualene synthase (CrtM) complexed with its reaction intermediate, presqualene diphosphate (PSPP), the dehydrosqualene (DHS) product, as well as a series of inhibitors. The results indicate that, on initial diphosphate loss, the primary carbocation so formed bends down into the interior of the protein to react with C2,3 double bond in the prenyl acceptor to form PSPP, with the lower two-thirds of both PSPP chains occupying essentially the same positions as found in the two farnesyl chains in the substrates. The second-half reaction is then initiated by the PSPP diphosphate returning back to the Mg{sup 2+} cluster for ionization, with the resultant DHS so formed being trapped in a surface pocket. This mechanism is supported by the observation that cationic inhibitors (of interest as antiinfectives) bind with their positive charge located in the same region as the cyclopropyl carbinyl group; that S-thiolo-diphosphates only inhibit when in the allylic site; activity results on 11 mutants show that both DXXXD conserved domains are essential for PSPP ionization; and the observation that head-to-tail isoprenoid synthases as well as terpene cyclases have ionization and alkene-donor sites which spatially overlap those found in CrtM.

  8. Molecular and biochemical characterization of benzalacetone synthase and chalcone synthase genes and their proteins from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Desen; Hrazdina, Geza

    2008-02-15

    Two new members of the polyketide synthase (PKS) gene family (RiPKS4 and RiPKS5) were cloned from raspberry fruits (Rubus idaeus L., cv Royalty) and expressed in Escherichia coli. Characterization of the recombinant enzyme products indicated that RiPKS4 is a bifunctional polyketide synthase producing both 4-hydroxybenzalacetone and naringenin chalcone. The recombinant RiPKS4 protein, like the native protein from raspberry fruits [W. Borejsza-Wysocki, G. Hrazdina, Plant Physiol. 1996;110: 791-799] accepted p-coumaryl-CoA and ferulyl-CoA as starter substrates and catalyzed the formation of both naringenin chalcone, 4-hydroxy-benzalacetone and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzalacetone. Although activity of RiPKS4 was higher with ferulyl-CoA than with p-coumaryl-CoA, the corresponding product, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy phenylbutanone could not be detected in raspberries to date. Sequence analysis of the genes and proteins suggested that this feature of RiPKS4 was created by variation in the C-terminus due to DNA recombination at the 3' region of its coding sequence. RiPKS5 is a typical chalcone synthase (CHS) that uses p-coumaryl-CoA only as starter substrate and produces naringenin chalcone exclusively as the reaction product. PMID:18068110

  9. The promoter activities of sucrose phosphate synthase genes in rice, OsSPS1 and OsSPS11, are controlled by light and circadian clock, but not by sucrose

    OpenAIRE

    Yonekura, Madoka; Aoki, Naohiro; Hirose, Tatsuro; Onai, Kiyoshi; Ishiura, Masahiro; Okamura, Masaki; Ohsugi, Ryu; Ohto, Chikara

    2013-01-01

    Although sucrose plays a role in sugar sensing and its signaling pathway, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of the expressions of plant sucrose-related genes. Our previous study on the expression of the sucrose phosphate synthase gene family in rice (OsSPSs) suggested the involvement of sucrose sensing and/or circadian rhythm in the transcriptional regulation of OsSPS. To examine whether the promoters of OsSPSs can be controlled by sugars and circadian clock, we produced transge...

  10. Structure, function and inhibition of ent-kaurene synthase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenting; Feng, Xinxin; Zheng, Yingying; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Nakano, Chiaki; Hoshino, Tsutomu; Bogue, Shannon; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Chen, Chun-Chi; Cui, Yunfeng; Li, Jian; Wang, Iren; Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Oldfield, Eric; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2014-01-01

    We report the first X-ray crystal structure of ent-kaur-16-ene synthase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum, together with the results of a site-directed mutagenesis investigation into catalytic activity. The structure is very similar to that of the ? domains of modern plant terpene cyclases, a result that is of interest since it has been proposed that many plant terpene cyclases may have arisen from bacterial diterpene cyclases. The ent-copalyl diphosphate substrate binds to a hydrophobic pocket near a cluster of Asp and Arg residues that are essential for catalysis, with the carbocations formed on ionization being protected by Leu, Tyr and Phe residues. A bisphosphonate inhibitor binds to the same site. In the kaurene synthase from the moss Physcomitrella patens, 16-?-hydroxy-ent-kaurane as well as kaurene are produced since Leu and Tyr in the P. patens kaurene synthase active site are replaced by smaller residues enabling carbocation quenching by water. Overall, the results represent the first structure determination of a bacterial diterpene cyclase, providing insights into catalytic activity, as well as structural comparisons with diverse terpene synthases and cyclases which clearly separate the terpene cyclases from other terpene synthases having highly ?-helical structures. PMID:25269599

  11. Identification and functional analysis of bifunctional ent-kaurene synthase from the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Notomi, Miho; Sakigi, Yuka; Matsuo, Akihiko; Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2006-11-13

    ent-Kaurene is the key intermediate in biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs), plant hormones. In higher plants, ent-kaurene is synthesized successively by copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) and ent-kaurene synthase (KS) from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP). On the other hand, fungal ent-kaurene synthases are bifunctional cyclases with both CPS and KS activity in a single polypeptide. The moss Physcomitrella patens is a model organism for the study of genetics and development in an early land plant. We identified ent-kaurene synthase (PpCPS/KS) from P. patens and analyzed its function. PpCPS/KS cDNA encodes a 101-kDa polypeptide, and shows high similarity with CPSs and abietadiene synthase from higher plants. PpCPS/KS is a bifunctional cyclase and, like fungal CPS/KS, directly synthesizes the ent-kaurene skeleton from GGDP. PpCPS/KS has two aspartate-rich DVDD and DDYFD motifs observed in CPS and KS, respectively. The mutational analysis of two conserved motifs in PpCPS/KS indicated that the DVDD motif is responsible for CPS activity (GGDP to CDP) and the DDYFD motif for KS activity (CDP to ent-kaurene and ent-16alpha-hydroxykaurene). PMID:17064690

  12. Molecular evolution of dihydrouridine synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprzak Joanna M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrouridine (D is a modified base found in conserved positions in the D-loop of tRNA in Bacteria, Eukaryota, and some Archaea. Despite the abundant occurrence of D, little is known about its biochemical roles in mediating tRNA function. It is assumed that D may destabilize the structure of tRNA and thus enhance its conformational flexibility. D is generated post-transcriptionally by the reduction of the 5,6-double bond of a uridine residue in RNA transcripts. The reaction is carried out by dihydrouridine synthases (DUS. DUS constitute a conserved family of enzymes encoded by the orthologous gene family COG0042. In protein sequence databases, members of COG0042 are typically annotated as predicted TIM-barrel enzymes, possibly dehydrogenases, nifR3 family. Results To elucidate sequence-structure-function relationships in the DUS family, a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis was carried out. We performed extensive database searches to identify all members of the currently known DUS family, followed by clustering analysis to subdivide it into subfamilies of closely related sequences. We analyzed phylogenetic distributions of all members of the DUS family and inferred the evolutionary tree, which suggested a scenario for the evolutionary origin of dihydrouridine-forming enzymes. For a human representative of the DUS family, the hDus2 protein suggested as a potential drug target in cancer, we generated a homology model. While this article was under review, a crystal structure of a DUS representative has been published, giving us an opportunity to validate the model. Conclusions We compared sequences and phylogenetic distributions of all members of the DUS family and inferred the phylogenetic tree, which provides a framework to study the functional differences among these proteins and suggests a scenario for the evolutionary origin of dihydrouridine formation. Our evolutionary and structural classification of the DUS family provides a background to study functional differences among these proteins that will guide experimental analyses.

  13. The molecular motor F-ATP synthase is targeted by the tumoricidal protein HAMLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, James; Sielaff, Hendrik; Nadeem, Aftab; Svanborg, Catharina; Grber, Gerhard

    2015-05-22

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) interacts with multiple tumor cell compartments, affecting cell morphology, metabolism, proteasome function, chromatin structure and viability. This study investigated if these diverse effects of HAMLET might be caused, in part, by a direct effect on the ATP synthase and a resulting reduction in cellular ATP levels. A dose-dependent reduction in cellular ATP levels was detected in A549 lung carcinoma cells, and by confocal microscopy, co-localization of HAMLET with the nucleotide-binding subunits ? (non-catalytic) and ? (catalytic) of the energy converting F1F0 ATP synthase was detected. As shown by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, HAMLET binds to the F1 domain of the F1F0 ATP synthase with a dissociation constant (KD) of 20.5?M. Increasing concentrations of the tumoricidal protein HAMLET added to the enzymatically active ?3?3? complex of the F-ATP synthase lowered its ATPase activity, demonstrating that HAMLET binding to the F-ATP synthase effects the catalysis of this molecular motor. Single-molecule analysis was applied to study HAMLET-?3?3? complex interaction. Whereas the ?3?3? complex of the F-ATP synthase rotated in a counterclockwise direction with a mean rotational rate of 3.80.7s(-1), no rotation could be observed in the presence of bound HAMLET. Our findings suggest that direct effects of HAMLET on the F-ATP synthase may inhibit ATP-dependent cellular processes. PMID:25681694

  14. Molecular characterization of the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthase from Ralstonia eutropha: in vitro evolution, site-specific mutagenesis and development of a PHB synthase protein model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Bernd H A; Antonio, Regina V; Spiekermann, Patricia; Amara, Amro A; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2002-01-31

    A threading model of the Ralstonia eutropha polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase was developed based on the homology to the Burkholderia glumae lipase, whose structure has been resolved by X-ray analysis. The lid-like structure in the model was discussed. In this study, various R. eutropha PHA synthase mutants were generated employing random as well as site-specific mutagenesis. Four permissive mutants (double and triple mutations) were obtained from single gene shuffling, which showed reduced activity and whose mutation sites mapped at variable surface-exposed positions. Six site-specific mutations were generated in order to identify amino acid residues which might be involved in substrate specificity. Replacement of residues T323 (I/S) and C438 (G), respectively, which are located in the core structure of the PHA synthase model, abolished PHA synthase activity. Replacement of the two amino acid residues Y445 (F) and L446 (K), respectively, which are located at the surface of the protein model and adjacent to W425, resulted in reduced activity without changing substrate specificity and indicating a functional role of these residues. The E267K mutant exhibited only slightly reduced activity with a surface-exposed mutation site. Four site-specific deletions were generated to evaluate the role of the C-terminus and variant amino acid sequence regions, which link highly conserved regions. Deleted regions were D281-D290, A372-C382, E578-A589 and V585-A589 and the respective PHA synthases showed no detectable activity, indicating an essential role of the variable C-terminus and the linking regions between conserved blocks 2 and 3 as well as 3 and 4. Moreover, the N-terminal part of the class II PHA synthase (PhaC(Pa)) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the C-terminal part of the class I PHA synthase (PhaC(Re)) from R. eutropha were fused, respectively, resulting in three fusion proteins with no detectable in vivo activity. However, the fusion protein F1 (PhaC(Pa)-1-265-PhaC(Re)-289-589) showed 13% of wild type in vitro activity with the fusion point located at a surface-exposed loop region. PMID:11825620

  15. F1-dependent translation of mitochondrially encoded Atp6p and Atp8p subunits of yeast ATP synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Rak, Malgorzata; Tzagoloff, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The ATP synthase of yeast mitochondria is composed of 17 different subunit polypeptides. We have screened a panel of ATP synthase mutants for impaired expression of Atp6p, Atp8p, and Atp9p, the only mitochondrially encoded subunits of ATP synthase. Our results show that translation of Atp6p and Atp8p is activated by F1 ATPase (or assembly intermediates thereof). Mutants lacking the α or β subunits of F1, or the Atp11p and Atp12p chaperones that promote F1 assembly, have normal levels of the b...

  16. Rational conversion of substrate and product specificity in a Salvia monoterpene synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampranis, Sotirios C; Ioannidis, Daphne; Purvis, Alan; Mahrez, Walid; Ninga, Ederina; Katerelos, Nikolaos A; Anssour, Samir; Dunwell, Jim M; Degenhardt, Jörg; Makris, Antonios M; Goodenough, Peter W; Johnson, Christopher B

    2007-01-01

    Terpene synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of the complex chemical defense arsenal of plants and microorganisms. How do these enzymes, which all appear to share a common terpene synthase fold, specify the many different products made almost entirely from one of only three substrates...... to come from a local deformation within one of the helices forming the active site. This deformation is observed in all other mono- or sesquiterpene structures available, pointing to a conserved mechanism. Moreover, a single amino acid substitution enlarged the active-site cavity enough to...

  17. Bifunctional cis-abienol synthase from Abies balsamea discovered by transcriptome sequencing and its implications for diterpenoid fragrance production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Yuen, Macaire; Hamberger, Bjrn; Hamberger, Britta; Draper, Jason A; Britton, Robert; Bohlmann, Jrg

    2012-04-01

    The labdanoid diterpene alcohol cis-abienol is a major component of the aromatic oleoresin of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and serves as a valuable bioproduct material for the fragrance industry. Using high-throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing and metabolite profiling of balsam fir bark tissue, we identified candidate diterpene synthase sequences for full-length cDNA cloning and functional characterization. We discovered a bifunctional class I/II cis-abienol synthase (AbCAS), along with the paralogous levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase and isopimaradiene synthase, all of which are members of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily. The AbCAS-catalyzed formation of cis-abienol proceeds via cyclization and hydroxylation at carbon C-8 of a postulated carbocation intermediate in the class II active site, followed by cleavage of the diphosphate group and termination of the reaction sequence without further cyclization in the class I active site. This reaction mechanism is distinct from that of synthases of the isopimaradiene- or levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase type, which employ deprotonation reactions in the class II active site and secondary cyclizations in the class I active site, leading to tricyclic diterpenes. Comparative homology modeling suggested the active site residues Asp-348, Leu-617, Phe-696, and Gly-723 as potentially important for the specificity of AbCAS. As a class I/II bifunctional enzyme, AbCAS is a promising target for metabolic engineering of cis-abienol production. PMID:22337889

  18. Bifunctional cis-Abienol Synthase from Abies balsamea Discovered by Transcriptome Sequencing and Its Implications for Diterpenoid Fragrance Production*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Yuen, Macaire; Hamberger, Bjrn; Hamberger, Britta; Draper, Jason A.; Britton, Robert; Bohlmann, Jrg

    2012-01-01

    The labdanoid diterpene alcohol cis-abienol is a major component of the aromatic oleoresin of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and serves as a valuable bioproduct material for the fragrance industry. Using high-throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing and metabolite profiling of balsam fir bark tissue, we identified candidate diterpene synthase sequences for full-length cDNA cloning and functional characterization. We discovered a bifunctional class I/II cis-abienol synthase (AbCAS), along with the paralogous levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase and isopimaradiene synthase, all of which are members of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily. The AbCAS-catalyzed formation of cis-abienol proceeds via cyclization and hydroxylation at carbon C-8 of a postulated carbocation intermediate in the class II active site, followed by cleavage of the diphosphate group and termination of the reaction sequence without further cyclization in the class I active site. This reaction mechanism is distinct from that of synthases of the isopimaradiene- or levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase type, which employ deprotonation reactions in the class II active site and secondary cyclizations in the class I active site, leading to tricyclic diterpenes. Comparative homology modeling suggested the active site residues Asp-348, Leu-617, Phe-696, and Gly-723 as potentially important for the specificity of AbCAS. As a class I/II bifunctional enzyme, AbCAS is a promising target for metabolic engineering of cis-abienol production. PMID:22337889

  19. Purification and characterization of prostaglandin F synthase from bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L Y; Watanabe, K; Hayaishi, O

    1992-07-01

    Prostaglandin D2 11-ketoreductase activity of bovine liver was purified 340-fold to apparent homogeneity. The purified enzyme was a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of about 36 kDa, and had a broad substrate specificity for porstaglandins D1, D2, D3, and H2, and various carbonyl compounds (e.g., phenanthrenequinone and nitrobenzaldehyde, etc.). Prostaglandin D2 was reduced to 9 alpha,11 beta-prostaglandin F2 and prostaglandin H2 to prostaglandin F2 alpha with NADPH as a cofactor. Phenanthrenequinone competitively inhibited the reduction of prostaglandin D2, while it did not inhibit that of prostaglandin H2. Moreover, chloride ion stimulated the reduction of prostaglandin D2 and carbonyl compounds, while it had no effect on that of prostaglandin H2. Besides, the enzyme was inhibited by flavonoids (e.g., quercetin) that inhibit carbonyl reductase, but was not inhibited by barbital and sorbinil, which are the inhibitors of aldehyde and aldose reductases, respectively. These results indicate that the bovine liver enzyme has two different active sites, i.e., one for prostaglandin D2 and carbonyl compounds and the other for prostaglandin H2, and appears to be a kind of carbonyl reductase like bovine lung prostaglandin F synthase (Watanabe, K., Yoshida, R., Shimizu, T., and Hayaishi, O., 1985, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 7035-7041). However, the bovine liver enzyme was different from prostaglandin F synthase of bovine lung with regard to the Km value for prostaglandin D2 (10 microM for the liver enzyme and 120 microM for the lung enzyme), the sensitivity to chloride ion (threefold greater activation for the liver enzyme) and the inhibition by CuSO4 and HgCl2 (two orders of magnitude more resistant in the case of the liver enzyme). These results suggest that the bovine liver enzyme is a subtype of bovine lung prostaglandin F synthase. PMID:1605628

  20. Squalene synthase-deficient mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfute, D L; Silva, C J; Simoni, R D

    1992-09-15

    Squalene synthase (farnesyldiphosphate:farnesyldiphosphate farnesyltransferase, EC 2.5.1.21) converts farnesyl pyrophosphate to squalene, the first metabolic step committed solely to the biosynthesis of sterols. Using a fluorescence-activated cell sorting technique designed to screen for cells defective in the regulated degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, we isolated a squalene synthase-deficient mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells. The mutant cell line, designated SSD, exhibits less than 7% of the squalene synthase activity of the parental cell line, CHO-HMGal. Both the SSD and the parental cells stably express HMGal, a model protein for studying the regulated degradation of HMG-CoA reductase, which consists of the membrane domain of HMG-CoA reductase fused to bacterial beta-galactosidase (Skalnik, D. G., Narita, H., Kent, C., and Simoni, R. D. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 6836-6841). In this study, the regulatory effects of mevalonate and compactin on the activity levels of HMGal are substantially reduced in SSD cells as compared to the parental cell line. In lipid-poor medium, SSD cell growth is arrested. The rate of [3H]acetate incorporation into cholesterol for the mutant SSD cells is less than 2% of the rate for the parental cells. However, the incorporation of [3H] squalene into sterols is essentially wild type for SSD cells. When the mutant SSD cells are fed [3H]acetate, radioactivity accumulates in farnesol, much of which is secreted into the medium. By growing SSD cells in lipid-poor medium, a revertant cell type, designated SSR, was isolated. In every assay performed the revertant SSR cells exhibited a phenotype that was essentially wild type, demonstrating that the SSD mutant phenotype was the result of a single mutation. PMID:1526971

  1. CTP Limitation Increases Expression of CTP Synthase in Lactococcus lactis

    OpenAIRE

    Jrgensen, Casper Mller; Hammer, Karin; Martinussen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    CTP synthase is encoded by the pyrG gene and catalyzes the conversion of UTP to CTP. A Lactococcus lactis pyrG mutant with a cytidine requirement was constructed, in which ?-galactosidase activity in a pyrG-lacLM transcriptional fusion was used to monitor gene expression of pyrG. A 10-fold decrease in the CTP pool induced by cytidine limitation was found to immediately increase expression of the L. lactis pyrG gene. The final level of expression of pyrG is 37-fold higher than the uninduced le...

  2. Inter-domain Communication of Human Cystathionine β-Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    McCorvie, Thomas J; Kopec, Jolanta; Hyung, Suk-Joon; Fitzpatrick, Fiona; Feng, Xidong; Termine, Daniel; Strain-Damerell, Claire; Vollmar, Melanie; Fleming, James; Janz, Jay M.; Bulawa, Christine; Yue, Wyatt W

    2014-01-01

    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a key enzyme in sulfur metabolism, and its inherited deficiency causes homocystinuria. Mammalian CBS is modulated by the binding of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to its regulatory domain, which activates its catalytic domain. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we performed x-ray crystallography, mutagenesis, and mass spectrometry (MS) on human CBS. The 1.7 Å structure of a AdoMet-bound CBS regulatory domain shows one AdoMet molecule per monomer, at t...

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of tetrameric malate dehydrogenase from the novel Antarctic psychrophile Flavobacterium frigidimaris KUC-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tomomi [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Oikawa, Tadao; Muraoka, Ikuo [Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Soda, Kenji [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Hata, Yasuo, E-mail: hata@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2007-11-01

    A psychrophilic malate dehydrogenase from the novel Antarctic bacterium F. frigidimaris KUC-1 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals contained one tetrameric molecule per asymmetric unit. The best crystal diffracted to 1.8 resolution. Flavobacterium frigidimaris KUC-1 is a novel psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from Antarctic seawater. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) is an essential metabolic enzyme in the citric acid cycle and has been cloned, overexpressed and purified from F. frigidimaris KUC-1. In contrast to the already known dimeric form of MDH from the psychrophile Aquaspirillium arcticum, F. frigidimaris MDH exists as a tetramer. It was crystallized at 288 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as the precipitating agent. The crystal diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.80 . It contains one tetrameric molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  4. The mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 1 gene GhmMDH1 is involved in plant and root growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-An; Li, Qing; Ge, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Lin; Luo, Xiao-Li; Zhang, An-Hong; Xiao, Juan-Li; Tian, Ying-Chuan; Xia, Gui-Xian; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Li, Fu-Guang; Wu, Jia-He

    2015-01-01

    Cotton, an important commercial crop, is cultivated for its natural fibers, and requires an adequate supply of soil nutrients, including phosphorus, for its growth. Soil phosporus exists primarily in insoluble forms. We isolated a mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene, designated as GhmMDH1, from Gossypium hirsutum L. to assess its effect in enhancing P availability and absorption. An enzyme kinetic assay showed that the recombinant GhmMDH1 possesses the capacity to catalyze the interconversion of oxaloacetate and malate. The malate contents in the roots, leaves and root exudates was significantly higher in GhmMDH1-overexpressing plants and lower in knockdown plants compared with the wild-type control. Knockdown of GhmMDH1 gene resulted in increased respiration rate and reduced biomass whilst overexpression of GhmMDH1 gave rise to decreased respiration rate and higher biomass in the transgenic plants. When cultured in medium containing only insoluble phosphorus, Al-phosphorus, Fe-phosphorus, or Ca-phosphorus, GhmMDH1-overexpressing plants produced significantly longer roots and had a higher biomass and P content than WT plants, however, knockdown plants showed the opposite results for these traits. Collectively, our results show that GhmMDH1 is involved in plant and root growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions in cotton, owing to its functions in leaf respiration and P acquisition. PMID:26179843

  5. Enhancement of vascular targeting by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study investigates the enhancement of the vascular targeting activity of the tubulin-binding agent combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) by various inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases. Methods and Materials: The syngeneic tumors CaNT and SaS growing in CBA mice were used for this study. Reduction in perfused vascular volume was measured by injection of Hoechst 33342 24 h after drug administration. Necrosis (hematoxylin and eosin stain) was assessed also at 24 h after treatment. Combretastatin A4 phosphate was synthesized by a modification of the published procedure and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors L-NNA, L-NMMA, L-NIO, L-NIL, S-MTC, S-EIT, AMP, AMT, and L-TC, obtained from commercial sources. Results: A statistically significant augmentation of the reduction in perfused vascular volume by CA4P in the CaNT tumor was observed with L-NNA, AMP, and AMT. An increase in CA4P-induced necrosis in the same tumor achieved significance with L-NNA, L-NMMA, L-NIL, and AMT. CA4P induced little necrosis in the SaS tumor, but combination with the inhibitors L-NNA, L-NMMA, L-NIO, S-EIT, and L-TC was effective. Conclusions: Augmentation of CA4P activity by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors of different structural classes supports a nitric oxide-related mechanism for this effect. L-NNA was the most effective inhibitor studied

  6. Cloning, Molecular Analysis, and Expression of the Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acid Synthase (phaC) Gene from Chromobacterium violaceum

    OpenAIRE

    Kolibachuk, Dana; Miller, Andrea; Dennis, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    The polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthase gene from Chromobacterium violaceum (phaCCv) was cloned and characterized. A 6.3-kb BamHI fragment was found to contain both phaCCv and the polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA)-specific 3-ketothiolase (phaACv). Escherichia coli strains harboring this fragment produced significant levels of PHA synthase and 3-ketothiolase, as judged by their activities. While C. violaceum accumulated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) or poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) when gr...

  7. Venom peptides cathelicidin and lycotoxin cause strong inhibition of Escherichia coli ATP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Sofiya; McDowell, Derek; Cartagena, Alec; Rodriguez, Ricky; Laughlin, Thomas F; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2016-06-01

    Venom peptides are known to have strong antimicrobial activity and anticancer properties. King cobra cathelicidin or OH-CATH (KF-34), banded krait cathelicidin (BF-30), wolf spider lycotoxin I (IL-25), and wolf spider lycotoxin II (KE-27) venom peptides were found to strongly inhibit Escherichia coli membrane bound F1Fo ATP synthase. The potent inhibition of wild-type E. coli in comparison to the partial inhibition of null E. coli by KF-34, BF-30, Il-25, or KE-27 clearly links the bactericidal properties of these venom peptides to the binding and inhibition of ATP synthase along with the possibility of other inhibitory targets. The four venom peptides KF-34, BF-30, IL-25, and KE-27, caused ≥85% inhibition of wild-type membrane bound E.coli ATP synthase. Venom peptide induced inhibition of ATP synthase and the strong abrogation of wild-type E. coli cell growth in the presence of venom peptides demonstrates that ATP synthase is a potent membrane bound molecular target for venom peptides. Furthermore, the process of inhibition was found to be fully reversible. PMID:26930579

  8. Implication of citrate, malate and histidine in the accumulation and transport of nickel in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Taoufik; Lutts, Stanley; Taamali, Manel; Lucchini, Giorgio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2016-04-01

    Citrate, malate and histidine have been involved in many processes including metal tolerance and accumulation in plants. These molecules have been frequently reported to be the potential nickel chelators, which most likely facilitate metal transport through xylem. In this context, we assess here, the relationship between organics acids and histidine content and nickel accumulation in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Brassica juncea grown in hydroponic media added with 25, 50 and 100M NiCl2. Results showed that M. crystallinum is relatively more tolerant to Ni toxicity than B. juncea. For both species, xylem transport rate of Ni increased with increasing Ni supply. A positive correlation was established between nickel and citrate concentrations in the xylem sap. In the shoot of B. juncea, citric and malic acids concentrations were significantly higher than in the shoot of M. crystallinum. Also, the shoots and roots of B. juncea accumulated much more histidine. In contrast, a higher root citrate concentration was observed in M. crystallinum. These findings suggest a specific involvement of malic and citric acid in Ni translocation and accumulation in M. crystallinum and B. juncea. The high citrate and histidine accumulation especially at 100M NiCl2, in the roots of M. crystallinum might be among the important factors associated with the tolerance of this halophyte to toxic Ni levels. PMID:26745003

  9. Multiple isotope effects as a probe of the tartrate dehydrogenase-catalysed oxidative decarboxylation of D-malate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A change in the dinucleotide reactant from NAD+ to more oxidizing APAD+ in the maleic enzyme reaction results in a change in the mechanism of oxidative decarboxylation of malate from stepwise to concerted. In order to determine w heather this is a phenomenon general to metal ion dependent ?-hydroxy acid oxidative decarboxylases, tartrate dehydrogenase, which catalyses a reaction diastereotopic to maleic enzyme, was studied using the technique of multiple isotope effects. A primary deuterium isotope effect of 1.41 on V/Kmaleate was measured as well as a primary 13C-isotope effect of 1.0096. A decrease in the measured value of the 13C-isotope effect to 1.0078 is consistent with a stepwise mechanism, as observed in maleic enzyme. The 13C-isotope effect with thioNAD+ also decreases from a value of 1.0053 using D-maleate to 1.0009 using D-maleate-2-D, consistent with stepwise oxidative decarboxylation with this alternative dinucleotide substrate. The data suggest that the change from a stepwise to a concerted mechanism with maleic enzyme may be a unique phenomenon. (author)

  10. Conversion of aminodeoxychorismate synthase into anthranilate synthase with Janus mutations: mechanism of pyruvate elimination catalyzed by chorismate enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Justin E; Chung, Dong hee; Ziebart, Kristin T; Espiritu, Eduardo; Toney, Michael D

    2015-04-14

    The central importance of chorismate enzymes in bacteria, fungi, parasites, and plants combined with their absence in mammals makes them attractive targets for antimicrobials and herbicides. Two of these enzymes, anthranilate synthase (AS) and aminodeoxychorismate synthase (ADCS), are structurally and mechanistically similar. The first catalytic step, amination at C2, is common between them, but AS additionally catalyzes pyruvate elimination, aromatizing the aminated intermediate to anthranilate. Despite prior attempts, the conversion of a pyruvate elimination-deficient enzyme into an elimination-proficient one has not been reported. Janus, a bioinformatics method for predicting mutations required to functionally interconvert homologous enzymes, was employed to predict mutations to convert ADCS into AS. A genetic selection on a library of Janus-predicted mutations was performed. Complementation of an AS-deficient strain of Escherichia coli grown on minimal medium led to several ADCS mutants that allow growth in 6 days compared to 2 days for wild-type AS. The purified mutant enzymes catalyze the conversion of chorismate to anthranilate at rates that are ∼50% of the rate of wild-type ADCS-catalyzed conversion of chorismate to aminodeoxychorismate. The residues mutated do not contact the substrate. Molecular dynamics studies suggest that pyruvate elimination is controlled by the conformation of the C2-aminated intermediate. Enzymes that catalyze elimination favor the equatorial conformation, which presents the C2-H to a conserved active site lysine (Lys424) for deprotonation and maximizes stereoelectronic activation. Acid/base catalysis of pyruvate elimination was confirmed in AS and salicylate synthase by showing incorporation of a solvent-derived proton into the pyruvate methyl group and by solvent kinetic isotope effects on pyruvate elimination catalyzed by AS. PMID:25710100

  11. Loop residues and catalysis in OMP synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Gary P.; Hansen, Michael Riis; Grubmeyer, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Residue-to-alanine mutations and a two-amino acid deletion have been made in the highly conserved catalytic loop (residues 100?109) of Salmonella typhimurium OMP synthase (orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.10). As described previously, the K103A mutant enzyme exhibited a 104-fold decrease...

  12. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-05-26

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  13. Nuclear genetic defects of mitochondrial ATP synthase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houštěk, Josef; Kmoch, S.; Mayr, J. A.; Sperl, W.; Zeman, J.

    Bari : University of Bari, 2008. L5.3-L5.3. [IUBMB Symposium S1. 22.06.2008-26.06.2008, Bari] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spr2 * mitochondrial disease * ATP synthase defects * nuclear mutation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  14. Aspirin inhibits interleukin 1-induced prostaglandin H synthase expression in cultured endothelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, K.K.; Sanduja, R; Tsai, A. L.; Ferhanoglu, B; Loose-Mitchell, D S

    1991-01-01

    Prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase (EC 1.14.99.1) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxane, and prostacyclin. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, interleukin 1 (IL-1) is known to induce the synthesis of this enzyme, thereby raising the level of PGH synthase protein severalfold over the basal level. Pretreatment with aspirin at low concentrations (0.1-1 micrograms/ml) inhibited more than 60% of the enzyme mass and also the cyclooxygenase activity in IL-1-i...

  15. Reviewing Ligand-Based Rational Drug Design: The Search for an ATP Synthase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Fen Juan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Following major advances in the field of medicinal chemistry, novel drugs can now be designed systematically, instead of relying on old trial and error approaches. Current drug design strategies can be classified as being either ligand- or structure-based depending on the design process. In this paper, by describing the search for an ATP synthase inhibitor, we review two frequently used approaches in ligand-based drug design: The pharmacophore model and the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR method. Moreover, since ATP synthase ligands are potentially useful drugs in cancer therapy, pharmacophore models were constructed to pave the way for novel inhibitordesigns.

  16. Biochemical predetermination of the NO synthase and nitrite reductase components of the nitric oxide cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutov, V P

    1999-05-01

    This review presents some aspects of a concept of cellular evolution bearing a relationship to nitrate--nitrite respiration, the endosymbiosis theory, and the origin of NO synthase and nitrite reductase activity in heme-containing proteins. Analysis of structural and functional unity of the NO synthase and nitrite reductase systems suggests that these systems did not arise without any relation to evolutionarily ancient energetic systems of cells. The use of symmetry principles reveals commonalities among many electron transport chains which in the language of physics is called "invariance". This work also comparatively analyzes the nitric oxide cycle and the known nitrogen cycle. The ideas about evolution of the NO synthase and nitrite reductase systems developed here are clearly compatible with the endosymbiotic theory and the hypothesis that nitrate--nitrite respiration was a precursor of oxygen-dependent respiration. PMID:10381613

  17. Surface exposed amino acid differences between mesophilic and thermophilic phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; McGuire, James N

    2004-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribosyl 1-diphosphate synthase from the thermophile Bacillus caldolyticus is 81% identical to the amino acid sequence of 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribosyl 1-diphosphate synthase from the mesophile Bacillus subtilis. Nevertheless the enzyme from the two organisms......+, but only at 30% of the activity obtained with Mg2+. ADP and GDP inhibit the B. caldolyticus enzyme in a cooperative fashion with Hill coefficients of 2.9 for ADP and 2.6 for GDP. Ki values are determined as 113 and 490 microm for ADP and GDP, respectively. At low concentrations ADP inhibition is...... linearly competitive with respect to ATP. A predicted structure of the B. caldolyticus enzyme based on homology modelling with the structure of B. subtilis 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribosyl 1-diphosphate synthase shows 92% of the amino acid differences to be on solvent exposed surfaces in the hexameric structure....

  18. Additional diterpenes from Physcomitrella patens synthesized by copalyl diphosphate/kaurene synthase (PpCPS/KS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xin; Bach, Sren Spanner; Hansen, Nikolaj Lervad; Lunde, Christina; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2015-11-01

    The bifunctional diterpene synthase, copalyl diphosphate/kaurene synthase from the moss Physcomitrella patens (PpCPS/KS), catalyses the formation of at least four diterpenes, including ent-beyerene, ent-sandaracopimaradiene, ent-kaur-16-ene, and 16-hydroxy-ent-kaurene. The enzymatic activity has been confirmed through generation of a targeted PpCPS/KS knock-out mutant in P. patens via homologous recombination, through transient expression of PpCPS/KS in Nicotiana benthamiana, and expression of PpCPS/KS in E. coli. GC-MS analysis of the knock-out mutant shows that it lacks the diterpenoids, supporting that all are products of PpCPS/KS as observed in N. benthamiana and E. coli. These results provide additional knowledge of the mechanism of this bifunctional diterpene synthase, and are in line with proposed reaction mechanisms in kaurene biosynthesis. PMID:26248039

  19. Mutants of human colon adenocarcinoma, selected for thymidylate synthase deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GC3/c1 human colon adenocarcinoma cells were treated with the mutagen ethyl methane sulfonate, and three clones deficient in thymidylate synthase activity were selected and characterized. Growth in medium deficient in thymidine caused cell death in two clones (TS-c1 and TS-c3), whereas one clone (TS-c2) showed limited growth. Growth correlated with thymidine synthase activity and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate-binding capacity and with incorporation of 2'-deoxy[6-3H]uridine into DNA. In the presence of optimal thymidine, growth rates were only 5-18% that of the parental clone (GC3/c1), which grew equally well in thymidine-deficient or -replete medium. Analysis of poly(A)+ RNA showed normal levels of a 1.6-kilobase transcript in TS-c1 and TSminusc2 but decreased levels in TS-c3. Clone TSminusc3 was 32-, 750-, and >100,000-fold more resistant than the parental clone to 5-fluorouracil, 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, and methotrexate, respectively. When inoculated into athymic nude mice, each TS- clone produced tumors, demonstrating continued ability to proliferate in vivo

  20. Assembly line polyketide synthases: mechanistic insights and unsolved problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Chaitan; Herschlag, Daniel; Cane, David E; Walsh, Christopher T

    2014-05-13

    Two hallmarks of assembly line polyketide synthases have motivated an interest in these unusual multienzyme systems, their stereospecificity and their capacity for directional biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge regarding the mechanistic origins of these two remarkable features, using the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase as a prototype. Of the 10 stereocenters in 6-deoxyerythronolide B, the stereochemistry of nine carbon atoms is directly set by ketoreductase domains, which catalyze epimerization and/or diastereospecific reduction reactions. The 10th stereocenter is established by the sequential action of three enzymatic domains. Thus, the problem has been reduced to a challenge in mainstream enzymology, where fundamental gaps remain in our understanding of the structural basis for this exquisite stereochemical control by relatively well-defined active sites. In contrast, testable mechanistic hypotheses for the phenomenon of vectorial biosynthesis are only just beginning to emerge. Starting from an elegant theoretical framework for understanding coupled vectorial processes in biology [Jencks, W. P. (1980) Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas Mol. Biol. 51, 75-106], we present a simple model that can explain assembly line polyketide biosynthesis as a coupled vectorial process. Our model, which highlights the important role of domain-domain interactions, not only is consistent with recent observations but also is amenable to further experimental verification and refinement. Ultimately, a definitive view of the coordinated motions within and between polyketide synthase modules will require a combination of structural, kinetic, spectroscopic, and computational tools and could be one of the most exciting frontiers in 21st Century enzymology. PMID:24779441

  1. Cowpea chloroplastic ATP synthase is the source of multiple plant defense elicitors during insect herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant responses to damage vary dependant upon the nature of the biotic and abiotic stresses. We recently described an elicitor, from Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) oral secretions (OS) termed inceptin, derived from chloroplastic ATP synthase '-subunit (cATPC) proteins that activate phytohormo...

  2. Purification and characterization of CDP-diacylglycerol synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The membrane-associated phospholipid biosynthetic enzyme CDP-diacylglycerol synthase (CTP:phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase was purified 2300-fold from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The purification procedure included Triton X-100 solubilization of mitochondrial membranes, CDP-diacylglycerol-Sepharose affinity chromatography, and hydroxylapatite chromatography. The procedure resulted in a nearly homogeneous enzyme preparation as determined by native and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Radiation inactivation of mitochondrial associated and purified CDP-diacylglycerol synthase suggested that the molecular weight of the native enzyme was 114,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme preparation yielded two subunits with molecular weights of 56,000 and 54,000. Antibodies prepared against the purified enzyme immunoprecipitated CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity and subunits. CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity was dependent on magnesium ions and Triton X-100 at pH 6.5. Thio-reactive agents inhibited activity. The activation energy for the reaction was 9 kcal/mol, and the enzyme was thermally labile above 30 degrees C. The Km values for CTP and phosphatidate were 1 and 0.5 mM, respectively, and the Vmax was 4700 nmol/min/mg. Results of kinetic and isotopic exchange reactions suggested that the enzyme catalyzes a sequential Bi Bi reaction mechanism

  3. Structure Prediction of Dihydroflavonol 4- Reductase and Anthocyanidin Synthase from Spinach

    OpenAIRE

    Sahay, Archna; Shakya, Madhvi

    2010-01-01

    Spinach is an important dietary vegetable associated with beneficial health effects. Flavonoids have various biological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer effect Flavonoid including anthocyanin provides brilliant and colored pigments in different plant tissues. Anthocyanidin synthase and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase are responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis. They contributed in plant protection against UV-B radiation, microbial and herbivore pathogens....

  4. Two Distinct Waxy Alleles Impact the Granule-Bound Starch Synthase in Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) is the enzyme responsible for amylose synthesis in starch granules. Loss of GBSS activity results in starch granules containing mostly amylopectin and little or no amylose, a phenotype described as waxy. Previously, two phenotypic classes of waxy alleles we...

  5. Asymmetric dimethylarginine, oxidative stress, and vascular nitric oxide synthase in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dan; Strandgaard, Svend; Iversen, Jens; Wilcox, Christopher S

    2009-01-01

    We reported impaired endothelium-derived relaxation factor/nitric oxide (EDRF/NO) responses and constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) activity in subcutaneous vessels dissected from patients with essential hypertension (n = 9) compared with normal controls (n = 10). We now test the hypothesis...... hypertensive patients could contribute to the associated microvascular endothelial dysfunction and elevated blood pressure....

  6. Temporal Phosphoproteome Dynamics Induced by an ATP Synthase Inhibitor Citreoviridin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Wei; Hsu, Chia-Lang; Wang, Yu-Chao; Ishihama, Yasushi; Ku, Wei-Chi; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2015-12-01

    Citreoviridin, one of toxic mycotoxins derived from fungal species, can suppress lung cancer cell growth by inhibiting the activity of ectopic ATP synthase, but has limited effect on normal cells. However, the mechanism of citreoviridin triggering dynamic molecular responses in cancer cells remains unclear. Here, we performed temporal phosphoproteomics to elucidate the dynamic changes after citreoviridin treatment in cells and xenograft model. We identified a total of 829 phosphoproteins and demonstrated that citreoviridin treatment affects protein folding, cell cycle, and cytoskeleton function. Furthermore, response network constructed by mathematical modeling shows the relationship between the phosphorylated heat shock protein 90 ? and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. This work describes that citreoviridin suppresses cancer cell growth and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling by site-specific dephosphorylation of HSP90AB1 on Serine 255 and provides perspectives in cancer therapeutic strategies. PMID:26503892

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of several dephosphonated analogues of CMP-Neu5Ac as inhibitors of GM3-synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paola; Cirillo, Federica; Piccoli, Marco; Gregorio, Antonio; Tettamanti, Guido; Allevi, Pietro; Anastasia, Luigi

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that reducing the GM3 content in myoblasts increased the cell resistance to hypoxic stress, suggesting that a pharmacological inhibition of the GM3 synthesis could be instrumental for the development of new treatments for ischemic diseases. Herein, the synthesis of several dephosphonated CMP-Neu5Ac congeners and their anti-GM3-synthase activity is reported. Biological activity testes revealed that some inhibitors almost completely blocked the GM3-synthase activity in vitro and reduced the GM3 content in living embryonic kidney 293A cells, eventually activating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling cascade. PMID:26397189

  8. Dual promoter of Agrobacterium tumefaciens mannopine synthase genes is regulated by plant growth hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Langridge, W H R; Fitzgerald, K. J.; Koncz, C.; Schell, J; Szalay, A. A.

    1989-01-01

    Temporal and spacial distribution of mannopine synthase (mas) promoter activity was determined throughout the development of transgenic tobacco plants using bacterial luciferase luxA and luxB as reporter genes. Luciferase activity was determined by luminometry in vitro and visualized by computer-enhanced single-photon video imaging in vivo. The activity of the mas dual promoters increased basipetally in developing plants and was wound-inducible in leaf and stem tissue. Hormone bioassays with ...

  9. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro Dae-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes as well. Conclusion This study functionally identified sesquiterpene synthase genes predominantly expressed in sunflower trichomes. Evidence for the transcriptional regulation of sesquiterpene synthase genes in trichome cells suggest a potential use for these specialized cells for the identification of further genes involved in the biosynthesis, transport, and regulation of sesquiterpene lactones.

  10. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase: the Cinderella of inflammation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Giuseppe; Fiorucci, Stefano; Sessa, William C

    2003-02-01

    A hallmark of inflammation is increased vascular permeability. Increases in vascular permeability and the migration of inflammatory cells are linked to complex interactions of inflammatory mediators with the vascular endothelium. Normally, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) produces a tonic amount of nitric oxide (NO), which is responsible for the homeostasis between the endothelium and surrounding tissues. However, most agonists that act on endothelial cells cause a series of post-translational modifications that influence eNOS activity. Furthermore, stimulation by shear stress, autacoids or growth factors either induces eNOS or shifts it to a more active state, which produces a burst of NO. Here, we highlight recent findings about eNOS and propose how new pharmacological tools can be used to dissect the involvement and contribution of eNOS to inflammatory responses. PMID:12559774

  11. Caffeine synthase and related methyltransferases in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misako, Kato; Kouichi, Mizuno

    2004-05-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a purine alkaloid present in high concentrations in tea and coffee and it is also found in a number of beverages such as coca cola. It is necessary to elucidate the caffeine biosynthetic pathway and to clone the genes related to the production of caffeine not only to determine the metabolism of the purine alkaloid but also to control the content of caffeine in tea and coffee. The available data support the operation of a xanthosine-->7-methylxanthosine-->7-methylxanthine-->theobromine-->caffeine pathway as the major route to caffeine. Since the caffeine biosynthetic pathway contains three S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) dependent methylation steps, N-methyltransferases play important roles. This review focuses on the enzymes and genes involved in the methylation of purine ring. Caffeine synthase, the SAM-dependent methyltransferase involved in the last two steps of caffeine biosynthesis, was originally purified from young tea leaves (Camellia sinensis). The isolated cDNA, termed TCS1, consists of 1,483 base pairs and encodes a protein of 369 amino acids. Subsequently, the homologous genes that encode caffeine biosynthetic enzymes from coffee (Coffea arabica) were isolated. The recombinant proteins are classified into the three types on the basis of their substrate specificity i.e. 7-methylxanthosine synthase, theobromine synthase and caffeine synthase. The predicted amino acid sequences of caffeine biosynthetic enzymes derived from C. arabica exhibit more than 80% homology with those of the clones and but show only 40% homology with TCS1 derived from C. sinensis. In addition, they share 40% homology with the amino acid sequences of salicylic carboxyl methyltransferase, benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase and jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase which belong to a family of motif B' methyltransferases which are novel plant methyltransferases with motif B' instead of motif B as the conserved region. PMID:14977590

  12. (R)-Citramalate Synthase in Methanogenic Archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, David M.; Xu, Huimin; White, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    The Methanococcus jannaschii gene MJ1392 was cloned, and its protein product was hyperexpressed in Escherichia coli. The resulting protein was purified and shown to catalyze the condensation of pyruvate and acetyl coenzyme A, with the formation of (R)-citramalate. Thus, this gene (cimA) encodes an (R)-citramalate synthase (CimA). This is the first identification of this enzyme, which is likely involved in the biosynthesis of isoleucine.

  13. The Eucalyptus terpene synthase gene family

    OpenAIRE

    Külheim, Carsten; Padovan, Amanda; Hefer, Charles; Krause, Sandra T; Köllner, Tobias G; Myburg, Alexander A.; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Terpenoids are abundant in the foliage of Eucalyptus, providing the characteristic smell as well as being valuable economically and influencing ecological interactions. Quantitative and qualitative inter- and intra- specific variation of terpenes is common in eucalypts. Results The genome sequences of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus were mined for terpene synthase genes (TPS) and compared to other plant species. We investigated the relative expression of TPS in seven plant tissu...

  14. Tertiary model of a plant cellulose synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda; Haigler, Candace H.; Kubicki, James D; Zimmer, Jochen; Bonetta, Dario; DeBolt, Seth; Yingling, Yaroslava G.

    2013-01-01

    A 3D atomistic model of a plant cellulose synthase (CESA) has remained elusive despite over forty years of experimental effort. Here, we report a computationally predicted 3D structure of 506 amino acids of cotton CESA within the cytosolic region. Comparison of the predicted plant CESA structure with the solved structure of a bacterial cellulose-synthesizing protein validates the overall fold of the modeled glycosyltransferase (GT) domain. The coaligned plant and bacterial GT domains share a ...

  15. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus

  16. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Ke-Mian [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Chang, Chia-Chun [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Qing-Ji [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); Sung, Li-Ying, E-mail: liyingsung@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  17. Cloning, expression and functional characterization of two sesquiterpene synthase genes from moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Wang, Yuwei; Sun, Jia; Wang, Jin; Xun, Hang; Tang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize the functions of two sesquiterpene synthase genes from moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis). Two novel sesquiterpene synthase genes, belonging to the Tpsa subfamily, were isolated from moso bamboo. MoTPS2 was 1641 bp in length and encoded a protein of 63 kDa, whereas MoTPS6 was 1626 bp in length, encoded protein 62.4 kDa. Both genes were expressed in Pichia pastoris for heterologous expression, and protein contents reached 0.243 μg μL(-1) for MoTPS2 and 0.088 μg μL(-1) for MoTPS6. The soluble enzymes were catalytically active, and capable of converting farnesyl pyrophosphate to two distinct sesquiterpene compounds. The MoTPS2 gene encoded a farnesol synthase which was responsible for the production of (E, E)-farnesol. MoTPS6 showed nerolidol synthase activity, catalyzing the formation of (E)-nerolidol. Functional characterization of both MoTPSs should prove beneficial for future research into large-scale fermentation of sesquiterpenes. PMID:26626450

  18. SUMO-fusion, purification, and characterization of a (+)-zizaene synthase from Chrysopogon zizanioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, S; Frister, T; Alemdar, S; Li, Z; Scheper, T; Beutel, S

    2015-03-20

    An uncharacterized plant cDNA coding for a polypeptide presumably having sesquiterpene synthase activity, was expressed in soluble and active form. Two expression strategies were evaluated in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was fused to a highly soluble SUMO domain, in addition to being produced in an unfused form by a cold-shock expression system. Yields up to ∼325 mg/L(-1) were achieved in batch cultivations. The 6x-His-tagged enzyme was purified employing an Ni(2+)-IMAC-based procedure. Identity of the protein was established by Western Blot analysis as well as peptide mass fingerprinting. A molecular mass of 64 kDa and an isoelectric point of pI 4.95 were determined by 2D gel electrophoresis. Cleavage of the fusion domain was possible by digestion with specific SUMO protease. The synthase was active in Mg(2+) containing buffer and catalyzed the production of (+)-zizaene (syn. khusimene), a precursor of khusimol, from farnesyl diphosphate. Product identity was confirmed by GC-MS and comparison of retention indices. Enzyme kinetics were determined by measuring initial reaction rates for the product, using varying substrate concentrations. By assuming a Michaelis-Menten model, kinetic parameters of KM = 1.111 μM (±0.113), vmax = 0.3245 μM min(-1) (±0.0035), kcat = 2.95 min(-1), as well as a catalytic efficiency kcat/KM = 4.43 × 10(4) M(-1)s(-1) were calculated. Fusion to a SUMO moiety can substantially increase soluble expression levels of certain hard to express terpene synthases in E. coli. The kinetic data determined for the recombinant synthase are comparable to other described plant sesquiterpene synthases and in the typical range of enzymes belonging to the secondary metabolism. This leaves potential for optimizing catalytic parameters through methods like directed evolution. PMID:25701786

  19. SUMO-fusion, purification, and characterization of a (+)-zizaene synthase from Chrysopogon zizanioides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An uncharacterized plant cDNA coding for a polypeptide presumably having sesquiterpene synthase activity, was expressed in soluble and active form. Two expression strategies were evaluated in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was fused to a highly soluble SUMO domain, in addition to being produced in an unfused form by a cold-shock expression system. Yields up to ∼325 mg/L−1 were achieved in batch cultivations. The 6x-His-tagged enzyme was purified employing an Ni2+-IMAC-based procedure. Identity of the protein was established by Western Blot analysis as well as peptide mass fingerprinting. A molecular mass of 64 kDa and an isoelectric point of pI 4.95 were determined by 2D gel electrophoresis. Cleavage of the fusion domain was possible by digestion with specific SUMO protease. The synthase was active in Mg2+ containing buffer and catalyzed the production of (+)-zizaene (syn. khusimene), a precursor of khusimol, from farnesyl diphosphate. Product identity was confirmed by GC–MS and comparison of retention indices. Enzyme kinetics were determined by measuring initial reaction rates for the product, using varying substrate concentrations. By assuming a Michaelis–Menten model, kinetic parameters of KM = 1.111 μM (±0.113), vmax = 0.3245 μM min−1 (±0.0035), kcat = 2.95 min−1, as well as a catalytic efficiency kcat/KM = 4.43 × 104 M−1 s−1 were calculated. Fusion to a SUMO moiety can substantially increase soluble expression levels of certain hard to express terpene synthases in E. coli. The kinetic data determined for the recombinant synthase are comparable to other described plant sesquiterpene synthases and in the typical range of enzymes belonging to the secondary metabolism. This leaves potential for optimizing catalytic parameters through methods like directed evolution. - Highlights: • Uncharacterized (+)-zizaene synthase from C. zizanoides was cloned and expressed. • Fusion to SUMO and cold-shock induction enhanced soluble yields in E. coli. • Ni2+-IMAC purification of the SUMO-fused and unfused enzyme. • (+)-Zizaene identified as main cyclization product by GC–MS. • Enzyme kinetic parameters comparable to related sesquiterpene synthases

  20. SUMO-fusion, purification, and characterization of a (+)-zizaene synthase from Chrysopogon zizanioides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, S.; Frister, T.; Alemdar, S.; Li, Z.; Scheper, T.; Beutel, S., E-mail: beutel@iftc.uni-hannover.de

    2015-03-20

    An uncharacterized plant cDNA coding for a polypeptide presumably having sesquiterpene synthase activity, was expressed in soluble and active form. Two expression strategies were evaluated in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was fused to a highly soluble SUMO domain, in addition to being produced in an unfused form by a cold-shock expression system. Yields up to ∼325 mg/L{sup −1} were achieved in batch cultivations. The 6x-His-tagged enzyme was purified employing an Ni{sup 2+}-IMAC-based procedure. Identity of the protein was established by Western Blot analysis as well as peptide mass fingerprinting. A molecular mass of 64 kDa and an isoelectric point of pI 4.95 were determined by 2D gel electrophoresis. Cleavage of the fusion domain was possible by digestion with specific SUMO protease. The synthase was active in Mg{sup 2+} containing buffer and catalyzed the production of (+)-zizaene (syn. khusimene), a precursor of khusimol, from farnesyl diphosphate. Product identity was confirmed by GC–MS and comparison of retention indices. Enzyme kinetics were determined by measuring initial reaction rates for the product, using varying substrate concentrations. By assuming a Michaelis–Menten model, kinetic parameters of K{sub M} = 1.111 μM (±0.113), v{sub max} = 0.3245 μM min{sup −1} (±0.0035), k{sub cat} = 2.95 min{sup −1}, as well as a catalytic efficiency k{sub cat}/K{sub M} = 4.43 × 10{sup 4} M{sup −1} s{sup −1} were calculated. Fusion to a SUMO moiety can substantially increase soluble expression levels of certain hard to express terpene synthases in E. coli. The kinetic data determined for the recombinant synthase are comparable to other described plant sesquiterpene synthases and in the typical range of enzymes belonging to the secondary metabolism. This leaves potential for optimizing catalytic parameters through methods like directed evolution. - Highlights: • Uncharacterized (+)-zizaene synthase from C. zizanoides was cloned and expressed. • Fusion to SUMO and cold-shock induction enhanced soluble yields in E. coli. • Ni{sup 2+}-IMAC purification of the SUMO-fused and unfused enzyme. • (+)-Zizaene identified as main cyclization product by GC–MS. • Enzyme kinetic parameters comparable to related sesquiterpene synthases.

  1. Cellulose synthase interacting protein: A new factor in cellulose synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Ying; Somerville, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth. The great abundance of cellulose places it at the forefront as a primary source of biomass for renewable biofuels. However, the knowledge of how plant cells make cellulose remains very rudimentary. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane by hexameric protein complexes, also known as cellulose synthase complexes. The only known components of cellulose synthase complexes are cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins until the re...

  2. Geranyl diphosphate synthase molecules, and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Burke, Charles Cullen

    2008-06-24

    In one aspect, the present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules that each encode a geranyl diphosphate synthase protein, wherein each isolated nucleic acid molecule hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule consisting of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 under conditions of 5.times.SSC at 45.degree. C. for one hour. The present invention also provides isolated geranyl diphosphate synthase proteins, and methods for altering the level of expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase protein in a host cell.

  3. In Vivo Enzyme Immobilization by Use of Engineered Polyhydroxyalkanoate Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Verena; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrated that engineered polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases can be employed as molecular tools to covalently immobilize enzymes at the PHA granule surface. The ?-galactosidase was fused to the N terminus of the class II PHA synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The open reading frame was confirmed to encode the complete fusion protein by T7 promoter-dependent overexpression. Restoration of PHA biosynthesis in the PHA-negative mutant of P. aeruginosa PAO1 showed a PHA synthase...

  4. Classification, Prediction, and Verification of the Regioselectivity of Fungal Polyketide Synthase Product Template Domains*

    OpenAIRE

    Li(李, Na, 钠); De Xu; Tang

    2010-01-01

    The fungal iterative nonreducing polyketide synthases (NRPKSs) synthesize aromatic polyketides, many of which have important biological activities. The product template domains (PT) embedded in the multidomain NRPKSs mediate the regioselective cyclization of the highly reactive polyketide backbones and dictate the final structures of the products. Understanding the sequence-activity relationships of different PT domains is therefore an important step toward the prediction of polyketide struct...

  5. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in Human Colorectal Cancer : Correlation with Tumor Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cianchi, Fabio; Cortesini, Camillo; Fantappiè, Ornella; Messerini, Luca; Schiavone, Nicola; Vannacci, Alfredo; Nistri, Silvia; SARDI, IACOPO; BARONI, GIANNA; Marzocca, Cosimo; Perna, Federico; Mazzanti, Roberto; Bechi, Paolo; Masini, Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the potential involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway in colorectal carcinogenesis, we correlated the expression and the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) with the degree of tumor angiogenesis in human colorectal cancer. Tumor samples and adjacent normal mucosa were obtained from 46 surgical specimens. Immunohistochemical expression of iNOS, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and CD31 was analyzed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections. iNOS activity...

  6. Requirement of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase for Skeletal Muscle Regeneration after Acute Damage

    OpenAIRE

    A.A.;; E; P; De, S.; T.

    2013-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle regeneration results from activation, proliferation, and fusion of muscle stem cells, such as myogenic precursor cells. Macrophages are consistently present in regenerating skeletal muscles and participate into the repair process. The signals involved in the cross-talk between various macrophage populations and myogenic precursor cells have been only partially identified. In this study, we show a key role of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), expressed by classically activate...

  7. H+-ATP synthase from rat liver mitochondria. A simple, rapid purification method of the functional complex and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel, simple, and rapid preparative method for purification of rat liver H+-ATP synthase by anion-exchange HPLC was developed. The H+-ATP synthase purified had higher ATPase activity in the absence of added phospholipids than any preparation reported previously, and this activity was completely inhibited by oligomycin. When reconstituted into proteoliposomes, the H+-ATP synthase showed an ATP-dependent 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate response and ATP-Pi exchange activity, both of which were also completely inhibited by oligomycin and an uncoupler, indicating the intactness of the H+-ATP synthase. An immunochemical study and a labeling experiment with N,N'-[14C]dicyclohexylcarbondiimide ([14C]DCCD) demonstrated the presence of chargerin II (a product of mitochondrial A6L DNA) and DCCD-binding protein (subunit c) in the complex. The subunits of the complex were separated into 11 main fractions by reverse-phase HPLC, and 3 of them and the ? subunit in F1 were partially sequenced. A search for sequence homologies indicated that these components were subunit b, coupling factor 6, subunit ?, and subunit e. This is the first report of the existence of subunit b, factor 6, and chargerin II in K+-ATP synthase purified from rat liver mitochondria

  8. H sup + -ATP synthase from rat liver mitochondria. A simple, rapid purification method of the functional complex and its characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshihara, Yutaka; Nagase, Hideki; Yamane, Takeshi; Oka, Hideki; Tani, Isamu; Higuti, Tomihiko (Univ. of Tokushima (Japan))

    1991-07-16

    A novel, simple, and rapid preparative method for purification of rat liver H{sup +}-ATP synthase by anion-exchange HPLC was developed. The H{sup +}-ATP synthase purified had higher ATPase activity in the absence of added phospholipids than any preparation reported previously, and this activity was completely inhibited by oligomycin. When reconstituted into proteoliposomes, the H{sup +}-ATP synthase showed an ATP-dependent 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate response and ATP-P{sub i} exchange activity, both of which were also completely inhibited by oligomycin and an uncoupler, indicating the intactness of the H{sup +}-ATP synthase. An immunochemical study and a labeling experiment with N,N{prime}-({sup 14}C)dicyclohexylcarbondiimide (({sup 14}C)DCCD) demonstrated the presence of chargerin II (a product of mitochondrial A6L DNA) and DCCD-binding protein (subunit c) in the complex. The subunits of the complex were separated into 11 main fractions by reverse-phase HPLC, and 3 of them and the {sigma} subunit in F{sub 1} were partially sequenced. A search for sequence homologies indicated that these components were subunit b, coupling factor 6, subunit {sigma}, and subunit e. This is the first report of the existence of subunit b, factor 6, and chargerin II in K{sup +}-ATP synthase purified from rat liver mitochondria.

  9. Clinical significance of Phosphatidyl Inositol Synthase overexpression in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported increased levels of Phosphatidyl Inositol synthase (PI synthase), (enzyme that catalyses phosphatidyl inositol (PI) synthesis-implicated in intracellular signaling and regulation of cell growth) in smokeless tobacco (ST) exposed oral cell cultures by differential display. This study determined the clinical significance of PI synthase overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and premalignant lesions (leukoplakia), and identified the downstream signaling proteins in PI synthase pathway that are perturbed by smokeless tobacco (ST) exposure. Tissue microarray (TMA) Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, Confocal laser scan microscopy, RT-PCR were performed to define the expression of PI synthase in clinical samples and in oral cell culture systems. Significant increase in PI synthase immunoreactivity was observed in premalignant lesions and OSCCs as compared to oral normal tissues (p = 0.000). Further, PI synthase expression was significantly associated with de-differentiation of OSCCs, (p = 0.005) and tobacco consumption (p = 0.03, OR = 9.0). Exposure of oral cell systems to smokeless tobacco (ST) in vitro confirmed increase in PI synthase, Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and cyclin D1 levels. Collectively, increased PI synthase expression was found to be an early event in oral cancer and a target for smokeless tobacco

  10. Postillumination Isoprene Emission: In Vivo Measurements of Dimethylallyldiphosphate Pool Size and Isoprene Synthase Kinetics in Aspen Leaves1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasulov, Bahtijor; Copolovici, Lucian; Laisk, Agu; Niinemets, lo

    2009-01-01

    The control of foliar isoprene emission is shared between the activity of isoprene synthase, the terminal enzyme catalyzing isoprene formation from dimethylallyldiphosphate (DMADP), and the pool size of DMADP. Due to limited in vivo information of isoprene synthase kinetic characteristics and DMADP pool sizes, the relative importance of these controls is under debate. In this study, the phenomenon of postillumination isoprene release was employed to develop an in vivo method for estimation of the DMADP pool size and to determine isoprene synthase kinetic characteristics in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula Populus tremuloides) leaves. The method is based on observations that after switching off the light, isoprene emission continues for 250 to 300 s and that the integral of the postillumination isoprene emission is strongly correlated with the isoprene emission rate before leaf darkening, thus quantitatively estimating the DMADP pool size associated with leaf isoprene emission. In vitro estimates demonstrated that overall leaf DMADP pool was very large, almost an order of magnitude larger than the in vivo pool. Yet, the difference between total DMADP pools in light and in darkness (light-dependent DMADP pool) was tightly correlated with the in vivo estimates of the DMADP pool size that is responsible for isoprene emission. Variation in in vivo DMADP pool size was obtained by varying light intensity and atmospheric CO2 and O2 concentrations. From these experiments, the in vivo kinetic constants of isoprene synthase were determined. In vivo isoprene synthase kinetic characteristics suggested that isoprene synthase mainly operates under substrate limitation and that short-term light, CO2, and O2 dependencies of isoprene emission result from variation in DMADP pool size rather than from modifications in isoprene synthase activity. PMID:19129417

  11. Postillumination isoprene emission: in vivo measurements of dimethylallyldiphosphate pool size and isoprene synthase kinetics in aspen leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasulov, Bahtijor; Copolovici, Lucian; Laisk, Agu; Niinemets, Ulo

    2009-03-01

    The control of foliar isoprene emission is shared between the activity of isoprene synthase, the terminal enzyme catalyzing isoprene formation from dimethylallyldiphosphate (DMADP), and the pool size of DMADP. Due to limited in vivo information of isoprene synthase kinetic characteristics and DMADP pool sizes, the relative importance of these controls is under debate. In this study, the phenomenon of postillumination isoprene release was employed to develop an in vivo method for estimation of the DMADP pool size and to determine isoprene synthase kinetic characteristics in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides) leaves. The method is based on observations that after switching off the light, isoprene emission continues for 250 to 300 s and that the integral of the postillumination isoprene emission is strongly correlated with the isoprene emission rate before leaf darkening, thus quantitatively estimating the DMADP pool size associated with leaf isoprene emission. In vitro estimates demonstrated that overall leaf DMADP pool was very large, almost an order of magnitude larger than the in vivo pool. Yet, the difference between total DMADP pools in light and in darkness (light-dependent DMADP pool) was tightly correlated with the in vivo estimates of the DMADP pool size that is responsible for isoprene emission. Variation in in vivo DMADP pool size was obtained by varying light intensity and atmospheric CO(2) and O(2) concentrations. From these experiments, the in vivo kinetic constants of isoprene synthase were determined. In vivo isoprene synthase kinetic characteristics suggested that isoprene synthase mainly operates under substrate limitation and that short-term light, CO(2), and O(2) dependencies of isoprene emission result from variation in DMADP pool size rather than from modifications in isoprene synthase activity. PMID:19129417

  12. Farnesyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors with unique ligand-binding geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Liang; Cao, Rong; Wang, Yang; Oldfield, Eric

    2015-03-12

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is an important drug target for bone resorption, cancer, and some infectious diseases. Here, we report five new structures including two having unique bound ligand geometries. The diamidine inhibitor 7 binds to human FPPS close to the homoallylic (S2) and allosteric (S3) sites and extends into a new site, here called S4. With the bisphosphonate inhibitor 8, two molecules bind to Trypanosoma brucei FPPS, one molecule in the allylic site (S1) and the other close to S2, the first observation of two bisphosphonate molecules bound to FPPS. We also report the structures of apo-FPPS from T. brucei, together with two more bisphosphonate-bound structures (2,9), for purposes of comparison. The diamidine structure is of particular interest because 7 could represent a new lead for lipophilic FPPS inhibitors, while 8 has low micromolar activity against T. brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis. PMID:25815158

  13. Catalysis and Sulfa Drug Resistance in Dihydropteroate Synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Mi-Kyung; Wu, Yinan; Li, Zhenmei; Zhao, Ying; Waddell, M. Brett; Ferreira, Antonio M.; Lee, Richard E.; Bashford, Donald; White, Stephen W. (SJCH)

    2013-04-08

    The sulfonamide antibiotics inhibit dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), a key enzyme in the folate pathway of bacteria and primitive eukaryotes. However, resistance mutations have severely compromised the usefulness of these drugs. We report structural, computational, and mutagenesis studies on the catalytic and resistance mechanisms of DHPS. By performing the enzyme-catalyzed reaction in crystalline DHPS, we have structurally characterized key intermediates along the reaction pathway. Results support an S{sub N}1 reaction mechanism via formation of a novel cationic pterin intermediate. We also show that two conserved loops generate a substructure during catalysis that creates a specific binding pocket for p-aminobenzoic acid, one of the two DHPS substrates. This substructure, together with the pterin-binding pocket, explains the roles of the conserved active-site residues and reveals how sulfonamide resistance arises.

  14. The N-Acetylglutamate Synthase Family: Structures, Function and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashuang Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS catalyzes the production of N-acetylglutamate (NAG from acetyl-CoA and l-glutamate. In microorganisms and plants, the enzyme functions in the arginine biosynthetic pathway, while in mammals, its major role is to produce the essential co-factor of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1 in the urea cycle. Recent work has shown that several different genes encode enzymes that can catalyze NAG formation. A bifunctional enzyme was identified in certain bacteria, which catalyzes both NAGS and N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK activities, the first two steps of the arginine biosynthetic pathway. Interestingly, these bifunctional enzymes have higher sequence similarity to vertebrate NAGS than those of the classical (mono-functional bacterial NAGS. Solving the structures for both classical bacterial NAGS and bifunctional vertebrate-like NAGS/K has advanced our insight into the regulation and catalytic mechanisms of NAGS, and the evolutionary relationship between the two NAGS groups.

  15. Flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase X limits chromosomal DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escartin, Frédéric; Skouloubris, Stéphane; Liebl, Ursula; Myllykallio, Hannu

    2008-07-22

    We have investigated the hitherto unexplored possibility that differences in the catalytic efficiencies of thymidylate synthases ThyX and ThyA, enzymes that produce the essential DNA precursor dTMP, have influenced prokaryotic genome evolution. We demonstrate that DNA replication speed in bacteria and archaea that contain the low-activity ThyX enzyme is up to 10-fold decreased compared with species that contain the catalytically more efficient ThyA. Our statistical studies of >400 genomes indicated that ThyA proteins are preferred for the replication of large genomes, providing further evidence that the thymidylate metabolism is limiting expansion of prokaryotic genomes. Because both ThyX and ThyA participate in frequent reciprocal gene replacement events, our observations indicate that the bacterial metabolism continues to modulate the size and composition of prokaryotic genomes. We also propose that the increased kinetic efficiency of thymidylate synthesis has contributed to extending the prokaryotic evolutionary potential. PMID:18621705

  16. Molecular and biochemical characterization of caffeine synthase and purine alkaloid concentration in guarana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpl, Flávia Camila; Kiyota, Eduardo; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Gonçalves, José Francisco de Carvalho; da Silva, José Ferreira; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Guarana seeds have the highest caffeine concentration among plants accumulating purine alkaloids, but in contrast with coffee and tea, practically nothing is known about caffeine metabolism in this Amazonian plant. In this study, the levels of purine alkaloids in tissues of five guarana cultivars were determined. Theobromine was the main alkaloid that accumulated in leaves, stems, inflorescences and pericarps of fruit, while caffeine accumulated in the seeds and reached levels from 3.3% to 5.8%. In all tissues analysed, the alkaloid concentration, whether theobromine or caffeine, was higher in young/immature tissues, then decreasing with plant development/maturation. Caffeine synthase activity was highest in seeds of immature fruit. A nucleotide sequence (PcCS) was assembled with sequences retrieved from the EST database REALGENE using sequences of caffeine synthase from coffee and tea, whose expression was also highest in seeds from immature fruit. The PcCS has 1083bp and the protein sequence has greater similarity and identity with the caffeine synthase from cocoa (BTS1) and tea (TCS1). A recombinant PcCS allowed functional characterization of the enzyme as a bifunctional CS, able to catalyse the methylation of 7-methylxanthine to theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine), and theobromine to caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), respectively. Among several substrates tested, PcCS showed higher affinity for theobromine, differing from all other caffeine synthases described so far, which have higher affinity for paraxanthine. When compared to previous knowledge on the protein structure of coffee caffeine synthase, the unique substrate affinity of PcCS is probably explained by the amino acid residues found in the active site of the predicted protein. PMID:24856135

  17. The Oligomycin-Sensitivity Conferring Protein of Mitochondrial ATP Synthase: Emerging New Roles in Mitochondrial Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Antoniel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP of the mitochondrial FOF1 ATP synthase has long been recognized to be essential for the coupling of proton transport to ATP synthesis. Located on top of the catalytic F1 sector, it makes stable contacts with both F1 and the peripheral stalk, ensuring the structural and functional coupling between FO and F1, which is disrupted by the antibiotic, oligomycin. Recent data have established that OSCP is the binding target of cyclophilin (CyP D, a well-characterized inducer of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP, whose opening can precipitate cell death. CyPD binding affects ATP synthase activity, and most importantly, it decreases the threshold matrix Ca2+ required for PTP opening, in striking analogy with benzodiazepine 423, an apoptosis-inducing agent that also binds OSCP. These findings are consistent with the demonstration that dimers of ATP synthase generate Ca2+-dependent currents with features indistinguishable from those of the PTP and suggest that ATP synthase is directly involved in PTP formation, although the underlying mechanism remains to be established. In this scenario, OSCP appears to play a fundamental role, sensing the signal(s that switches the enzyme of life in a channel able to precipitate cell death.

  18. Binding and inhibition of human spermidine synthase by decarboxylated S-adenosylhomocysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Še; #269; kut; #279; , Jolita; McCloskey, Diane E.; Thomas, H. Jeanette; Secrist III, John A.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell); (Southern Research); (UPENN-MED)

    2011-11-17

    Aminopropyltransferases are essential enzymes that form polyamines in eukaryotic and most prokaryotic cells. Spermidine synthase (SpdS) is one of the most well-studied enzymes in this biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme uses decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine and a short-chain polyamine (putrescine) to make a medium-chain polyamine (spermidine) and 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine as a byproduct. Here, we report a new spermidine synthase inhibitor, decarboxylated S-adenosylhomocysteine (dcSAH). The inhibitor was synthesized, and dose-dependent inhibition of human, Thermatoga maritima, and Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthases, as well as functionally homologous human spermine synthase, was determined. The human SpdS/dcSAH complex structure was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.0 {angstrom} resolution and showed consistent active site positioning and coordination with previously known structures. Isothermal calorimetry binding assays confirmed inhibitor binding to human SpdS with K{sub d} of 1.1 {+-} 0.3 {mu}M in the absence of putrescine and 3.2 {+-} 0.1 {mu}M in the presence of putrescine. These results indicate a potential for further inhibitor development based on the dcSAH scaffold.

  19. Antisense repression of sucrose phosphate synthase in transgenic muskmelon alters plant growth and fruit development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hongmei; Ma, Leyuan; Zhao, Cong; Hao, Hui; Gong, Biao [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China); Yu, Xiyan, E-mail: yuxiyan@sdau.edu.cn [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China); Wang, Xiufeng, E-mail: xfwang@sdau.edu.cn [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China)

    2010-03-12

    To unravel the roles of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), we reduced its activity in transgenic muskmelon plants by an antisense approach. For this purpose, an 830 bp cDNA fragment of muskmelon sucrose phosphate synthase was expressed in antisense orientation behind the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus. The phenotype of the antisense plants clearly differed from that of control plants. The transgenic plant leaves were markedly smaller, and the plant height and stem diameter were obviously shorter and thinner. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the membrane degradation of chloroplast happened in transgenic leaves and the numbers of grana and grana lamella in the chloroplast were significantly less, suggesting that the slow growth and weaker phenotype of transgenic plants may be due to the damage of the chloroplast ultrastructure, which in turn results in the decrease of the net photosynthetic rate. The sucrose concentration and levels of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in transgenic mature fruit, and the fruit size was smaller than the control fruit. Together, our results suggest that sucrose phosphate synthase may play an important role in regulating the muskmelon plant growth and fruit development.

  20. Antisense repression of sucrose phosphate synthase in transgenic muskmelon alters plant growth and fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To unravel the roles of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), we reduced its activity in transgenic muskmelon plants by an antisense approach. For this purpose, an 830 bp cDNA fragment of muskmelon sucrose phosphate synthase was expressed in antisense orientation behind the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus. The phenotype of the antisense plants clearly differed from that of control plants. The transgenic plant leaves were markedly smaller, and the plant height and stem diameter were obviously shorter and thinner. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the membrane degradation of chloroplast happened in transgenic leaves and the numbers of grana and grana lamella in the chloroplast were significantly less, suggesting that the slow growth and weaker phenotype of transgenic plants may be due to the damage of the chloroplast ultrastructure, which in turn results in the decrease of the net photosynthetic rate. The sucrose concentration and levels of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in transgenic mature fruit, and the fruit size was smaller than the control fruit. Together, our results suggest that sucrose phosphate synthase may play an important role in regulating the muskmelon plant growth and fruit development.