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1

Thermostable malate synthase of Streptomyces thermovulgaris.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The gene, encoding malate synthase (MS), aceB, was cloned from the thermophilic bacterium Streptomyces thermovulgaris by homology-based PCR. The 1,626-bp cloned fragment encodes a protein consisting of 541 amino acids. S. thermovulgaris malate synthase (stMS) gene was over-expressed in Escherichia coli using a glutathione-S transferase (GST) fusion vector (pGEX-6P-1), purified by affinity chromatography, and subsequently cleaved from its GST fusion partner. The purified stMS was characterized and compared to a mesophilic malate synthase (scMS) from Streptomyces coelicolor. stMS exhibited higher temperature optima (40-60 degrees C) than those of scMS (28-37 degrees C). It was more thermostable and very resistant to the chemical denaturant urea. Amino acid sequence comparison of stMS with four mesophilic streptomycete MSs indicated that they share 70.9-91.4% amino acid identities, with stMS possessing slightly more charged residues (approximately 31%) than its mesophilic counterparts (approximately 28-29%). Seven charged residues (E85, R187, R209, H239, H364, R382 and K520) that were unique to stMS may be selectively and strategically placed to support its peculiar characteristics.

Goh LL; Koh R; Loke P; Sim TS

2003-10-01

2

[Regulation of glyoxylate cycle enzymes in Saccharomycopsis lipolytica. I. Effect of the carbon source on isocitrate lyase and malate synthase activity  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Comparative studies on the activities of isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS) were carried out with Saccharomycopsis lipolytica incubating the yeast on media with different carbon sources. When cells were incubated in minimal medium with glucose, the activities of both enzymes were very low. In contrast, in minimal medium with acetate enhanced enzyme activities could be demonstrated. It is probably that the synthesis of ICL is repressed in presence of glucose. Furthermore the activity of ICL was inhibited by tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates like succinic acid and oxalacetic acid. It was concluded that the syntheses of enzymes are derepressed. When cells of Sm. lipolytica were incubated in minimal medium with acetate, a high enzyme activity is evident. Synthesis of ICL on acetate was inhibited by cycloheximide and actinomycin D. The results were discussed comparing them with data obtained from other organisms.

Hönes I

1983-01-01

3

Intermolecular interactions of the malate synthase of Paracoccidioides spp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The fungus Paracoccidioides spp is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a pulmonary mycosis acquired by the inhalation of fungal propagules. Paracoccidioides malate synthase (PbMLS) is important in the infectious process of Paracoccidioides spp because the transcript is up-regulated during the transition from mycelium to yeast and in yeast cells during phagocytosis by murine macrophages. In addition, PbMLS acts as an adhesin in Paracoccidioides spp. The evidence for the multifunctionality of PbMLS indicates that it could interact with other proteins from the fungus and host. The objective of this study was to identify and analyze proteins that possibly bind to PbMLS (PbMLS-interacting proteins) because protein interactions are intrinsic to cell processes, and it might be possible to infer the function of a protein through the identification of its ligands. RESULTS: The search for interactions was performed using an in vivo assay with a two-hybrid library constructed in S. cerevisiae; the transcripts were sequenced and identified. In addition, an in vitro assay using pull-down GST methodology with different protein extracts (yeast, mycelium, yeast-secreted proteins and macrophage) was performed, and the resulting interactions were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Some of the protein interactions were confirmed by Far-Western blotting using specific antibodies, and the interaction of PbMLS with macrophages was validated by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. In silico analysis using molecular modeling, dynamics and docking identified the amino acids that were involved in the interactions between PbMLS and PbMLS-interacting proteins. Finally, the interactions were visualized graphically using Osprey software. CONCLUSION: These observations indicate that PbMLS interacts with proteins that are in different functional categories, such as cellular transport, protein biosynthesis, modification and degradation of proteins and signal transduction. These data suggest that PbMLS could play different roles in the fungal cell.

de Oliveira KM; da Silva Neto BR; Parente JA; da Silva RA; Quintino GO; Voltan AR; Mendes-Giannini MJ; de Almeida Soares CM; Pereira M

2013-01-01

4

Characterization of a bifunctional glyoxylate cycle enzyme, malate synthase/isocitrate lyase, of Euglena gracilis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The glyoxylate cycle is a modified form of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which enables organisms to synthesize carbohydrates from C2 compounds. In the protozoan Euglena gracilis, the key enzyme activities of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS), are conferred by a single bifunctional protein named glyoxylate cycle enzyme (Euglena gracilis glyoxylate cycle enzyme [EgGCE]). We analyzed the enzymatic properties of recombinant EgGCE to determine the functions of its different domains. The 62-kDa N-terminal domain of EgGCE was sufficient to provide the MS activity as expected from an analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence. In contrast, expression of the 67-kDa C-terminal domain of EgGCE failed to yield ICL activity even though this domain was structurally similar to ICL family enzymes. Analyses of truncation mutants suggested that the N-terminal residues of EgGCE are critical for both the ICL and MS activities. The ICL activity of EgGCE increased in the presence of micro-molar concentrations of acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Acetyl-CoA also increased the activity in a mutant type EgGCE with a mutation at the acetyl-CoA binding site in the MS domain of EgGCE. This suggests that acetyl-CoA regulates the ICL reaction by binding to a site other than the catalytic center of the MS reaction. PMID:21332878

Nakazawa, Masami; Nishimura, Masaaki; Inoue, Kengo; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Inui, Hiroshi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Miyatake, Kazutaka

2011-02-18

5

Characterization of a bifunctional glyoxylate cycle enzyme, malate synthase/isocitrate lyase, of Euglena gracilis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The glyoxylate cycle is a modified form of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which enables organisms to synthesize carbohydrates from C2 compounds. In the protozoan Euglena gracilis, the key enzyme activities of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS), are conferred by a single bifunctional protein named glyoxylate cycle enzyme (Euglena gracilis glyoxylate cycle enzyme [EgGCE]). We analyzed the enzymatic properties of recombinant EgGCE to determine the functions of its different domains. The 62-kDa N-terminal domain of EgGCE was sufficient to provide the MS activity as expected from an analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence. In contrast, expression of the 67-kDa C-terminal domain of EgGCE failed to yield ICL activity even though this domain was structurally similar to ICL family enzymes. Analyses of truncation mutants suggested that the N-terminal residues of EgGCE are critical for both the ICL and MS activities. The ICL activity of EgGCE increased in the presence of micro-molar concentrations of acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Acetyl-CoA also increased the activity in a mutant type EgGCE with a mutation at the acetyl-CoA binding site in the MS domain of EgGCE. This suggests that acetyl-CoA regulates the ICL reaction by binding to a site other than the catalytic center of the MS reaction.

Nakazawa M; Nishimura M; Inoue K; Ueda M; Inui H; Nakano Y; Miyatake K

2011-03-01

6

Malate dehydrogenase activity in human seminal plasma and spermatozoa homogenates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Malate Dehydrogenase is an important enzyme of the Krebs cycle, most cells require this enzyme for their metabolic activity. We evaluated the Malate Dehydrogenase (NAD/NADP) activity in human seminal plasma and sperm homogenates in normozoospermic, fertile and infertile males. Also glucose and fructose concentrations were determined in the seminal plasma samples. Material and Methods: Malate Dehydrogenase (NAD/NADP) activity in human seminal plasma and sperm homogenates of normozoospermic and infertile males was determined by spectrophotometric method. Semen analysis was considered according to the WHO Criteria. Results: Malat Dehydrogenase-NAD value in seminal plasma (the mean ± SD, mU/ml) of asthenoteratospermic (40.0±25.7) and azospermic (38.0±43.6) groups were significantly lower than normozoospermic, (93.9±52.1) males. Malat Dehydrogenase-NAD value in sperm homogenates (the mean ± SD, mU/ 20x106 sperm) of teratospermic group (136.8±61.8) was significantly higher compared to the normozoospermic (87.3±26.5) males. Glucose concentration (mg/dl) in asthenoteratospermic (4.0±1.4) and azospermic (15.4±6.4) groups were significantly higher than fertile (2.0±2.1) males. Also fructose concentration (mg/dl) in asthenoteratospermic (706.6±143.3) and azospermic (338.1±228.2) groups were significantly high compared to the normozoospermic (184.7±124.8) group. Conclusion: Sperm may be some part of the source of Malat Dehydrogenase activity in semen. Malat Dehydrogenase activity in seminal plasma has an important role on energy metabolism of sperm. Intermediate substrates of Krebs cycle might have been produced under the control of Malat Dehydrogenase and these substrates may be important for sperm motility and male infertility. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000): 648-658

Hulya Leventerler; Safiye Taga; Ibrahim Ferhat Urunsak; Ismail Atilla Aridogan; Suna Solmaz; Mehmet Turan Cetin; Nurten Dikmen

2013-01-01

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Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters from the MATE and ALMT families function independently to confer Arabidopsis aluminum tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

Aluminum (Al) activated root malate and citrate exudation play an important role in Al tolerance in many plant species. AtALMT1, an Al-activated malate transporter, is a major contributor to Arabidopsis Al tolerance. Here, we demonstrate that a second, unrelated gene, AtMATE, encodes an Arabidopsi...

8

Effect of lipids on enzymatic activity of pig heart mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase monomolecular films.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of various lipids on the enzymatic activity of pig heart mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase monomolecular films was studied using the subphase exchange technique described previously. Surface pressure-surface area (pi-A) curves of mixed films of enzyme with dipalmitoyllecithin, egg lecithin, cholesterol, and phospholipids extracted from pig hearts showed that the enzyme interacted with all of the lipids and that the enzyme remained in the film at pressures well above the collapse pressure of malate dehydrogenase in the absence of lipid. The surface enzyme activity was dependent on surface pressure for each lipid; in all cases, the lipids greatly broadened the range of surface pressures where surface enzyme activity was observed. The pi-A and enzyme activity data showed good correlation. Although the simple model system employed does not simulate the complexity of the biological membrane, it gives some evidence for the role of lipids in the stability of membrane-bound enzymes.

Malick AW; Weiner ND

1977-10-01

9

MALATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY POST EXPOSURE RECOVERY FROM LEAD INTOXICATED FRESHWATER FISH ANABAS TESTUDINEUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malate dehydrogenase activity are important amongst the several enzymes available in the cells, Carbohydrates play an important role in the cellular process  Under extreme stress conditions, carbohydrate enzyme such as Malate dehydrogenase  have been known to act as the energy supplier in metabolic pathways and biochemical reactions. In the present investigation fish  treated with an equitoxic dose of 10 ppm of lead nitrate and lead acetate intoxicated fish After a period of 15 days of exposure a batch from lead nitrate exposed fish and a batch from lead acetate exposed fish were transfered to lead-free water. Fishes were scarified on 1, 4, 8, 12 and 15 days for the analysis of of recovery pattern  in tissues viz. liver, muscle, kidney, gill and brain .It is found that lead toxicated fishes were recovered after 15 days depends upon physical condition of the fish.

Afsar Shaikh

2012-01-01

10

Dicreatine Malate  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention relates to a novel compound, dicreatine malate, comprising approximately two moles of creatine cations per one mole of malate anion. The creatine salt of this invention has been found to increase the bioavailability of both the creatine and malic acid moieties over and above the individual bioavailabilities of creatine monohydrate and malic acid base. Dicreatine malate vastly improves the production of Adenosine TriPhosphate (ATP) beyond the level of creatine monohydrate or any other creatine derivative. It also has a much greater efficacy in uses such as increasing muscle mass, increasing cell volumization, decreasing adipose stores, and for increasing overall strength and endurance.

CORNELIUS DEREK WAYNE; HAYNES GARY LEE

11

Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme is activated by L-malate and fumarate binding to separate allosteric sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The kinetic mechanism of activation of the mitochondrial NAD-malic enzyme from the parasitic roundworm Ascaris suum has been studied using a steady-state kinetic approach. The following conclusions are suggested. First, malate and fumarate increase the activity of the enzyme in both reaction directions as a result of binding to separate allosteric sites, i.e., sites that exist in addition to the active site. The binding of malate and fumarate is synergistic with the K(act) decreasing by >or=10-fold at saturating concentrations of the other activator. Second, the presence of the activators decreases the K(m) for pyruvate 3-4-fold, and the K(i) (Mn) >or=20-fold in the direction of reductive carboxylation; similar effects are obtained with fumarate in the direction of oxidative decarboxylation. The greatest effect of the activators is thus expressed at low reactant concentrations, i.e., physiologic concentrations of reactant, where activation of >or=15-fold is observed. A recent crystallographic structure of the human mitochondrial NAD malic enzyme [13] shows fumarate bound to an allosteric site. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to change R105, homologous to R91 in the fumarate activator site of the human enzyme, to alanine. The R105A mutant enzyme exhibits the same maximum rate and V/K(NAD) as does the wild-type enzyme, but 7-8-fold decrease in both V/K(malate) and V/K(Mg), indicating the importance of this residue in the activator site. In addition, neither fumarate nor malate activates the enzyme in either reaction direction. Finally, a change in K143 (a residue in a positive pocket adjacent to that which contains R105), to alanine results in an increase in the K(act) for malate by about an order of magnitude such that it is now of the same magnitude as the K(m) for malate. The K143A mutant enzyme also exhibits an increase in the K(act) for fumarate (in the absence of malate) from 200 microM to about 25 mM. PMID:12911313

Karsten, William E; Pais, June E; Rao, G S Jagannatha; Harris, Ben G; Cook, Paul F

2003-08-19

12

Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme is activated by L-malate and fumarate binding to separate allosteric sites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The kinetic mechanism of activation of the mitochondrial NAD-malic enzyme from the parasitic roundworm Ascaris suum has been studied using a steady-state kinetic approach. The following conclusions are suggested. First, malate and fumarate increase the activity of the enzyme in both reaction directions as a result of binding to separate allosteric sites, i.e., sites that exist in addition to the active site. The binding of malate and fumarate is synergistic with the K(act) decreasing by >or=10-fold at saturating concentrations of the other activator. Second, the presence of the activators decreases the K(m) for pyruvate 3-4-fold, and the K(i) (Mn) >or=20-fold in the direction of reductive carboxylation; similar effects are obtained with fumarate in the direction of oxidative decarboxylation. The greatest effect of the activators is thus expressed at low reactant concentrations, i.e., physiologic concentrations of reactant, where activation of >or=15-fold is observed. A recent crystallographic structure of the human mitochondrial NAD malic enzyme [13] shows fumarate bound to an allosteric site. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to change R105, homologous to R91 in the fumarate activator site of the human enzyme, to alanine. The R105A mutant enzyme exhibits the same maximum rate and V/K(NAD) as does the wild-type enzyme, but 7-8-fold decrease in both V/K(malate) and V/K(Mg), indicating the importance of this residue in the activator site. In addition, neither fumarate nor malate activates the enzyme in either reaction direction. Finally, a change in K143 (a residue in a positive pocket adjacent to that which contains R105), to alanine results in an increase in the K(act) for malate by about an order of magnitude such that it is now of the same magnitude as the K(m) for malate. The K143A mutant enzyme also exhibits an increase in the K(act) for fumarate (in the absence of malate) from 200 microM to about 25 mM.

Karsten WE; Pais JE; Rao GS; Harris BG; Cook PF

2003-08-01

13

Malate inhibition of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from crassula.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase partially purified from leaves of Crassula and rendered insensitive to malate by storage without adjuvants can be altered to the form sensitive to malate inhibition by brief, 5-minute preincubation with 5 millimolar malate. The induction of malate sensitivity is reversible by lowering the malate(2-) concentration. Of the reaction components only HCO(3) (-) increases the sensitivity to malate in subsequent assay. Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), which itself tends to lower sensitivity to subsequent malate inhibition, also reduces the effect of malate in the assay, as does glucose-6-phosphate. PEP isotherms showed that the insensitive or unpreincubated enzyme, responds to the presence of 5 millimolar malate during assay with a 3-fold increase in K(m), but no effect on V(max). Enzyme preincubated with malate shows the same effect of malate on K(m), but in addition V(max) is inhibited 72%. It thus appears that both sensitive and insensitive forms of PEP carboxylase are subject to K-type inhibition by malate, but only the sensitive form also shows V-type inhibition. Preincubation with malate at different pH values showed that at pH 6.15, the inhibition by malate in subsequent assay at pH 7 was much lower than at pH 7 or 8. When the reaction is prerun for 30 minutes with increasing concentrations of PEP, subsequent assay with malate shows progressively less inhibition due to malate. When 0.3 millimolar PEP either alone or with 0.1 millimolar ATP and 0.3 millimolar NaF is present during preincubation, the effect of malate in a following assay is to activate the reaction. These results may indicate an effect of phosphorylation of the enzyme on sensitivity to malate.

Wedding RT; Black MK

1986-12-01

14

Malate inhibition of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from crassula.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase partially purified from leaves of Crassula and rendered insensitive to malate by storage without adjuvants can be altered to the form sensitive to malate inhibition by brief, 5-minute preincubation with 5 millimolar malate. The induction of malate sensitivity is reversible by lowering the malate(2-) concentration. Of the reaction components only HCO(3) (-) increases the sensitivity to malate in subsequent assay. Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), which itself tends to lower sensitivity to subsequent malate inhibition, also reduces the effect of malate in the assay, as does glucose-6-phosphate. PEP isotherms showed that the insensitive or unpreincubated enzyme, responds to the presence of 5 millimolar malate during assay with a 3-fold increase in K(m), but no effect on V(max). Enzyme preincubated with malate shows the same effect of malate on K(m), but in addition V(max) is inhibited 72%. It thus appears that both sensitive and insensitive forms of PEP carboxylase are subject to K-type inhibition by malate, but only the sensitive form also shows V-type inhibition. Preincubation with malate at different pH values showed that at pH 6.15, the inhibition by malate in subsequent assay at pH 7 was much lower than at pH 7 or 8. When the reaction is prerun for 30 minutes with increasing concentrations of PEP, subsequent assay with malate shows progressively less inhibition due to malate. When 0.3 millimolar PEP either alone or with 0.1 millimolar ATP and 0.3 millimolar NaF is present during preincubation, the effect of malate in a following assay is to activate the reaction. These results may indicate an effect of phosphorylation of the enzyme on sensitivity to malate. PMID:16665178

Wedding, R T; Black, M K

1986-12-01

15

AGC1-malate aspartate shuttle activity is critical for dopamine handling in the nigrostriatal pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mitochondrial transporter of aspartate-glutamate Aralar/AGC1 is a regulatory component of the malate-aspartate shuttle. Aralar deficiency in mouse and human causes a shutdown of brain shuttle activity and global cerebral hypomyelination. A lack of neurofilament-labeled processes is detected in the cerebral cortex, but whether different types of neurons are differentially affected by Aralar deficiency is still unknown. We have now found that Aralar-knockout (Aralar-KO) post-natal mice show hyperactivity, anxiety-like behavior, and hyperreactivity with a decrease of dopamine (DA) in terminal-rich regions. The striatum is the brain region most affected in terms of size, amino acid and monoamine content. We find a decline in vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) levels associated with increased DA metabolism through MAO activity (DOPAC/DA ratio) in Aralar-KO striatum. However, no decrease in DA or in the number of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells was detected in Aralar-KO brainstem. Adult Aralar-hemizygous mice presented also increased DOPAC/DA ratio in striatum and enhanced sensitivity to amphetamine. Our results suggest that Aralar deficiency causes a fall in GSH/GSSG ratio and VMAT2 in striatum that might be related to a failure to produce mitochondrial NADH and to an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cytosol. The results indicate that the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is a target of Aralar deficiency. PMID:23216354

Llorente-Folch, Irene; Sahún, Ignasi; Contreras, Laura; Casarejos, María José; Grau, Josep María; Saheki, Takeyori; Mena, María Angeles; Satrústegui, Jorgina; Dierssen, Mara; Pardo, Beatriz

2013-02-01

16

AGC1-malate aspartate shuttle activity is critical for dopamine handling in the nigrostriatal pathway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mitochondrial transporter of aspartate-glutamate Aralar/AGC1 is a regulatory component of the malate-aspartate shuttle. Aralar deficiency in mouse and human causes a shutdown of brain shuttle activity and global cerebral hypomyelination. A lack of neurofilament-labeled processes is detected in the cerebral cortex, but whether different types of neurons are differentially affected by Aralar deficiency is still unknown. We have now found that Aralar-knockout (Aralar-KO) post-natal mice show hyperactivity, anxiety-like behavior, and hyperreactivity with a decrease of dopamine (DA) in terminal-rich regions. The striatum is the brain region most affected in terms of size, amino acid and monoamine content. We find a decline in vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) levels associated with increased DA metabolism through MAO activity (DOPAC/DA ratio) in Aralar-KO striatum. However, no decrease in DA or in the number of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells was detected in Aralar-KO brainstem. Adult Aralar-hemizygous mice presented also increased DOPAC/DA ratio in striatum and enhanced sensitivity to amphetamine. Our results suggest that Aralar deficiency causes a fall in GSH/GSSG ratio and VMAT2 in striatum that might be related to a failure to produce mitochondrial NADH and to an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cytosol. The results indicate that the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is a target of Aralar deficiency.

Llorente-Folch I; Sahún I; Contreras L; Casarejos MJ; Grau JM; Saheki T; Mena MA; Satrústegui J; Dierssen M; Pardo B

2013-02-01

17

Nitrate reductase- and nitric oxide-dependent activation of sinapoylglucose:malate sinapoyltransferase in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitrate reductase (NR) activity is necessary for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), a key signaling molecule in plants. Here, we investigated the effect of NR deficiency on NO production and phenylpropanoid metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. HPLC-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the NR double mutant (nia1 nia2) is deficient in the synthesis of sinapoylmalate (SM), the main phenylpropanoid end-product in wild-type leaves, resulting in accumulation of its precursor sinapoylglucose (SG). While real-time PCR analysis revealed no significant difference at the transcript level, sinapoylglucose:malate sinapoyltransferase (SMT) activity in leaf extracts was reduced in the mutant compared with the wild type. The low levels of SM in nia1 nia2 leaves do not result from the deficient nitrogen incorporation into amino acids, since the recovery of the amino acid content of nia1 nia2 by irrigating the plants with glutamine did not change the metabolic profile of this mutant. In contrast, an increased supply of nitrate stimulated NR activity and NO production, and enhanced SM and decreased SG levels in both genotypes. Nevertheless, sinapic acid esters in nia1 nia2 were not recovered when compared with those detected in the leaves of the wild-type plant. Mutant plants grown in medium supplemented with malate and an NO donor recovered SM to the levels of wild-type leaves. Overall, the results suggest that SMT activity is dependent on the NR-dependent steady-state levels of NO during plant development.

Santos-Filho PR; Vitor SC; Frungillo L; Saviani EE; Oliveira HC; Salgado I

2012-09-01

18

Chloroplast NADP-malate dehydrogenase: structural basis of light-dependent regulation of activity by thiol oxidation and reduction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.82) is a light-activated chloroplast enzyme that functions in the C4 pathway of photosynthesis. The light regulation is believed to be mediated in vivo by thioredoxin-catalyzed reduction and re-oxidation of cystine residues. The rates of reversible activation and inactivation of the enzyme are strongly influenced by the coenzyme substrates that seem to ultimately determine the steady-state extent of activation in vivo. RESULTS: The X-ray structure of the inactive, oxidized enzyme was determined at 2.8 A resolution. The core structure is homologous to AND-dependent malate dehydrogenases. Two surface-exposed and thioredoxin-accessible disulfide bonds are present, one in the N-terminal extension and the other in the C-terminal extension. The C-terminal peptide of the inactive, oxidized enzyme is constrained by its disulfide bond to fold into the active site over NADP+, hydrogen bonding to the catalytic His225 as well as obstructing access of the C4 acid substrate. Two loops flanking the active site, termed the Arg2 and Trp loops, that contain the C4 acid substrate binding residues are prevented from closing by the C-terminal extension. CONCLUSIONS: The structure explains the role of the C-terminal extension in inhibiting activity. The negative C terminus will interact more strongly with the positively charged nicotinamide of NADP+ than NADPH, explaining why the coenzyme-binding affinities of the enzyme differ so markedly from those of all other homologous alpha-hydroxy acid dehydrogenases. NADP+ may also slow dissociation of the C terminus upon reduction, providing a mechanism for the inhibition of activation by NADP+ but not NADPH.

Carr PD; Verger D; Ashton AR; Ollis DL

1999-04-01

19

Malate Inhibition of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase from Crassula1  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase partially purified from leaves of Crassula and rendered insensitive to malate by storage without adjuvants can be altered to the form sensitive to malate inhibition by brief, 5-minute preincubation with 5 millimolar malate. The induction of malate sensitivity is reversible by lowering the malate2? concentration. Of the reaction components only HCO3? increases the sensitivity to malate in subsequent assay. Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), which itself tends to lower sensitivity to subsequent malate inhibition, also reduces the effect of malate in the assay, as does glucose-6-phosphate. PEP isotherms showed that the insensitive or unpreincubated enzyme, responds to the presence of 5 millimolar malate during assay with a 3-fold increase in Km, but no effect on Vmax. Enzyme preincubated with malate shows the same effect of malate on Km, but in addition Vmax is inhibited 72%. It thus appears that both sensitive and insensitive forms of PEP carboxylase are subject to K-type inhibition by malate, but only the sensitive form also shows V-type inhibition. Preincubation with malate at different pH values showed that at pH 6.15, the inhibition by malate in subsequent assay at pH 7 was much lower than at pH 7 or 8. When the reaction is prerun for 30 minutes with increasing concentrations of PEP, subsequent assay with malate shows progressively less inhibition due to malate. When 0.3 millimolar PEP either alone or with 0.1 millimolar ATP and 0.3 millimolar NaF is present during preincubation, the effect of malate in a following assay is to activate the reaction. These results may indicate an effect of phosphorylation of the enzyme on sensitivity to malate.

Wedding, Randolph T.; Black, M. Kay

1986-01-01

20

ATP synthase: activating versus catalytic proton transfer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ATP synthase (F-ATPase) of chloroplasts, CF0CF1, is both activated and driven by transmembrane protonmotive force. We dichotomized between activating and driving proton transfer by specific inhibitors, tentoxin and venturicidin. Thylakoids membranes were submitted to voltage steps (by flashing light) superimposed to a steady pH-difference. Transient proton intake, transfer and release by CF0CF1 was monitored by spectroscopic probes. Both activities, activation and catalysis, required all three partial reactions of the proton, however, activating proton transfer rose first (monophasically, tau 1/2 approximately 15 ms) followed by another phase of equal magnitude with a time lag of about 15 ms. Both types of consecutive proton transfer reactions contribute free energy for ATP synthesis.

Groth G; Junge W

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

ATP synthase: activating versus catalytic proton transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

ATP synthase (F-ATPase) of chloroplasts, CF0CF1, is both activated and driven by transmembrane protonmotive force. We dichotomized between activating and driving proton transfer by specific inhibitors, tentoxin and venturicidin. Thylakoids membranes were submitted to voltage steps (by flashing light) superimposed to a steady pH-difference. Transient proton intake, transfer and release by CF0CF1 was monitored by spectroscopic probes. Both activities, activation and catalysis, required all three partial reactions of the proton, however, activating proton transfer rose first (monophasically, tau 1/2 approximately 15 ms) followed by another phase of equal magnitude with a time lag of about 15 ms. Both types of consecutive proton transfer reactions contribute free energy for ATP synthesis. PMID:7828724

Groth, G; Junge, W

1995-01-23

22

[Malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in trematodes and turbellarians].  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have been made on the activity and properties of malate and lactate dehydrogenases from the cattle rumen trematodes Eurytrema pancreaticum, Calicophoron ijimai and the turbellarian Phagocata sibirica which has a common free-living ancestor with the trematodes. All the species studied have a highly active malate dehydrogenase, its activity in the reaction of reducing oxaloacetate being 6-14 times higher than in the reaction of malate oxidation. The affinity of malate dehydrogenase to oxaloacetate was found to be higher than that to malate. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (reducing the pyruvate) was lower than the activity of malate dehydrogenase, the difference being 50 times for C. ijimai, 4 times for E. pancreaticum and 10 times for P. sibirica. PMID:3962529

Vykhrestiuk, N P; Burenina, E A; Iarygina, G V

23

[Malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in trematodes and turbellarians  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies have been made on the activity and properties of malate and lactate dehydrogenases from the cattle rumen trematodes Eurytrema pancreaticum, Calicophoron ijimai and the turbellarian Phagocata sibirica which has a common free-living ancestor with the trematodes. All the species studied have a highly active malate dehydrogenase, its activity in the reaction of reducing oxaloacetate being 6-14 times higher than in the reaction of malate oxidation. The affinity of malate dehydrogenase to oxaloacetate was found to be higher than that to malate. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (reducing the pyruvate) was lower than the activity of malate dehydrogenase, the difference being 50 times for C. ijimai, 4 times for E. pancreaticum and 10 times for P. sibirica.

Vykhrestiuk NP; Burenina EA; Iarygina GV

1986-01-01

24

Malate and fumarate extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malate, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolite, increased lifespan and thermotolerance in the nematode C. elegans. Malate can be synthesized from fumarate by the enzyme fumarase and further oxidized to oxaloacetate by malate dehydrogenase with the accompanying reduction of NAD. Addition of fumarate also extended lifespan, but succinate addition did not, although all three intermediates activated nuclear translocation of the cytoprotective DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor and protected from paraquat-induced oxidative stress. The glyoxylate shunt, an anabolic pathway linked to lifespan extension in C. elegans, reversibly converts isocitrate and acetyl-CoA to succinate, malate, and CoA. The increased longevity provided by malate addition did not occur in fumarase (fum-1), glyoxylate shunt (gei-7), succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein (sdha-2), or soluble fumarate reductase F48E8.3 RNAi knockdown worms. Therefore, to increase lifespan, malate must be first converted to fumarate, then fumarate must be reduced to succinate by soluble fumarate reductase and the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex II. Reduction of fumarate to succinate is coupled with the oxidation of FADH2 to FAD. Lifespan extension induced by malate depended upon the longevity regulators DAF-16 and SIR-2.1. Malate supplementation did not extend the lifespan of long-lived eat-2 mutant worms, a model of dietary restriction. Malate and fumarate addition increased oxygen consumption, but decreased ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential suggesting a mild uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. Malate also increased NADPH, NAD, and the NAD/NADH ratio. Fumarate reduction, glyoxylate shunt activity, and mild mitochondrial uncoupling likely contribute to the lifespan extension induced by malate and fumarate by increasing the amount of oxidized NAD and FAD cofactors.

Edwards CB; Copes N; Brito AG; Canfield J; Bradshaw PC

2013-01-01

25

Structure of starch synthase I from barley: insight into regulatory mechanisms of starch synthase activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Starch, a polymer of glucose, is the major source of calories in the human diet. It has numerous industrial uses, including as a raw material for the production of first-generation bioethanol. Several classes of enzymes take part in starch biosynthesis, of which starch synthases (SSs) carry out chain elongation of both amylose and amylopectin. Plants have five classes of SS, each with different roles. The products of the reaction of SS are well known, but details of the reaction mechanism remain obscure and even less is known of how different SSs select different substrates for elongation, how they compete with each other and how their activities are regulated. Here, the first crystal structure of a soluble starch synthase is presented: that of starch synthase I (SSI) from barley refined to 2.7 Å resolution. The structure captures an open conformation of the enzyme with a surface-bound maltooligosaccharide and a disulfide bridge that precludes formation of the active site. The maltooligosaccharide-binding site is involved in substrate recognition, while the disulfide bridge is reflective of redox regulation of SSI. Activity measurements on several SSI mutants supporting these roles are also presented.

Cuesta-Seijo JA; Nielsen MM; Marri L; Tanaka H; Beeren SR; Palcic MM

2013-06-01

26

[Glucose utilization and activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in rat erythrocytes after treatment with tuberculostatic agents  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Metazamide, phthivazid, larusan and rifamycin were shown to inhibit activities of glucose-6-phosphate-, isocitrate- and malate dehydrogenases in male rats within 10-14 days by 14-32%; as a result of this, the rate of glucose consumption was decreased in blood, as shown by the shape of sugar plots after loading with 300 mg of glucose. Administration of these drugs led to elevation of sugar curves by 11-18% as compared with controls. p-Amino-salicylic acid, isoniazid and protionamide inhibited the enzymatic activity but affected the rate of glucose consumption only slightly. Ethambutal activated these enzymes by 13-29%; the highest rate of glucose consumption was observed in presence of the drug.

Storozhuk PG; Skliar VA; Korochanskaia SP; Gontmakher IuV

1986-09-01

27

Mannan synthase activity in the CSLD family.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cellulose Synthase Like (CSL) proteins are a group of plant glycosyltransferases that are predicted to synthesize ?-1,4-linked polysaccharide backbones. CSLC, CSLF and CSLH families have been confirmed to synthesize xyloglucan and mixed linkage ?-glucan, while CSLA family proteins have been shown to synthesize mannans. The polysaccharide products of the five remaining CSL families have not been determined. Five CSLD genes have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana and a role in cell wall biosynthesis has been demonstrated by reverse genetics. We have extended past research by producing a series of double and triple Arabidopsis mutants and gathered evidence that CSLD2, CSLD3 and CSLD5 are involved in mannan synthesis and that their products are necessary for the transition between early developmental stages in Arabidopsis. Moreover, our data revealed a complex interaction between the three glycosyltransferases and brought new evidence regarding the formation of non-cellulosic polysaccharides through multimeric complexes.

Verhertbruggen Y; Yin L; Oikawa A; Scheller HV

2011-10-01

28

Mannan synthase activity in the CSLD family.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulose Synthase Like (CSL) proteins are a group of plant glycosyltransferases that are predicted to synthesize ?-1,4-linked polysaccharide backbones. CSLC, CSLF and CSLH families have been confirmed to synthesize xyloglucan and mixed linkage ?-glucan, while CSLA family proteins have been shown to synthesize mannans. The polysaccharide products of the five remaining CSL families have not been determined. Five CSLD genes have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana and a role in cell wall biosynthesis has been demonstrated by reverse genetics. We have extended past research by producing a series of double and triple Arabidopsis mutants and gathered evidence that CSLD2, CSLD3 and CSLD5 are involved in mannan synthesis and that their products are necessary for the transition between early developmental stages in Arabidopsis. Moreover, our data revealed a complex interaction between the three glycosyltransferases and brought new evidence regarding the formation of non-cellulosic polysaccharides through multimeric complexes. PMID:21904114

Verhertbruggen, Yves; Yin, Lan; Oikawa, Ai; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

2011-10-01

29

Phosphorylation at S384 regulates the activity of the TaALMT1 malate transporter that underlies aluminum resistance in wheat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study we examined the role of protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in the transport properties of the wheat (Triticum aestivum) root malate efflux transporter underlying Al resistance, TaALMT1. Pre-incubation of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing TaALMT1 with protein kinase inhibitors (K252a and staurosporine) strongly inhibited both basal and Al(3+)-enhanced TaALMT1-mediated inward currents (malate efflux). Pre-incubation with phosphatase inhibitors (okadaic acid and cyclosporine A) resulted in a modest inhibition of the TaALMT1-mediated currents. Exposure to the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), enhanced TaALMT1-mediated inward currents. Since these observations suggest that TaALMT1 transport activity is regulated by PKC-mediated phosphorylation, we proceeded to modify candidate amino acids in the TaALMT1 protein in an effort to identify structural motifs underlying the process regulating phosphorylation. The transport properties of eight single point mutations (S56A, S183A, S324A, S337A, S351-352A, S384A, T323A and Y184F) generated in amino acid residues predicted to be phosphorylation sites and examined electrophysiologically. The basic transport properties of mutants S56A, S183A, S324A, S337A, S351-352A, T323A and Y184F were not altered relative to the wild-type TaALMT1. Likewise the sensitivity of these mutants to staurosporine resembled that observed for the wild-type transporter. However, the mutation S384A was noticeable, as in oocytes expressing this mutant protein TaALMT1-mediated basal and Al-enhanced currents were significantly inhibited, and the currents were insensitive to staurosporine or PMA. These findings indicate that S384 is an essential residue regulating TaALMT1 activity via direct protein phosphorylation, which precedes Al(3+) enhancement of transport activity.

Ligaba A; Kochian L; Piñeros M

2009-11-01

30

Sucrose Synthase, a Cytosolic Enzyme in Protoplasts of Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The exact subcellular location of sucrose synthase (UDP-d-glucose: d-fructose 2-alpha-d-glucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.13) in Helianthus tuberosus tubers was studied by comparison of its activity in protoplasts with that of vacuoles isolated from them. Assuming 100% of the beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity to be of vacuolar origin, less than 5% of both the sucrose synthase activity and the extravacuolar marker NAD-malate dehydrogenase was detected in the vacuole preparations. Sucrose synthase is therefore an extravacuolar enzyme. Its role in the inulin metabolism of H. tuberosus is discussed.

Keller F; Frehner M; Wiemken A

1988-10-01

31

Modification of a thiol at the active site of the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme results in changes in the rate-determining steps for oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A thiol group at the malate-binding site of the NAD-malic enzyme from Ascaris suum has been modified to thiocyanate. The modified enzyme generally exhibits slight increases in K{sub NAD} and K{sub i metal} and decreases in V{sub max} as the metal size increases from Mg{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} to Cd{sup 2+}, indicative of crowding in the site. The K{sub malate} value increases 10- to 30-fold, suggesting that malate does not bind optimally to the modified enzyme. Deuterium isotope effects on V and V/K{sub malate} increase with all three metal ions compared to the native enzyme concomitant with a decrease in the {sup 13}C isotope effect, suggesting a switch in the rate limitation of the hydride transfer and decarboxylation steps with hydride transfer becoming more rate limiting. The {sup 13}C effect decreases only slightly when obtained with deuterated malate, suggestive of the presence of a secondary {sup 13}C effect in the hydride transfer step, similar to data obtained with non-nicotinamide-containing dinucleotide substrates for the native enzyme (see the preceding paper in this issue). The native enzyme is inactivated in a time-dependent manner by Cd{sup 2+}. This inactivation occurs whether the enzyme alone is present or whether the enzyme is turning over with Cd{sup 2+} as the divalent metal activator. Upon inactivation, only Cd{sup 2+} ions are bound at high stoichiometry to the enzyme, which eventually becomes denatured. Conversion of the active-site thiol to thiocyanate makes it more difficult to inactivate the enzyme by treatment with Cd{sup 2+}.

Gavva, S.R.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F. (Texas Coll. of Osteopathic Medicine, Fort Worth (United States)); Weiss, P.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

1991-06-11

32

Oxidase activity of a flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flavin-dependent thymidylate synthases (FDTS) catalyze the production of dTMP from dUMP and N(5),N(10)-methylene-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate (CH(2)H(4)folate). In contrast to human and other classical thymidylate synthases, the activity of FDTS depends on a FAD coenzyme, and its catalytic mechanism is very different. Several human pathogens rely on this recently discovered enzyme, making it an attractive target for novel antibiotics. Like many other flavoenzymes, FDTS can function as an oxidase, which catalyzes the reduction of O(2) to H(2)O(2), using reduced NADPH or other reducing agents. In this study, we exploit the oxidase activity of FDTS from Thermatoga maritima to probe the binding and release features of the substrates and products during its synthase activity. Results from steady-state and single-turnover experiments suggest a sequential kinetic mechanism of substrate binding during FDTS oxidase activity. CH(2)H(4)folate competitively inhibits the oxidase activity, which indicates that CH(2)H(4)folate and O(2) compete for the same reduced and dUMP-activated enzymatic complex (FDTS-FADH(2)-NADP(+)-dUMP). These studies imply that the binding of CH(2)H(4)folate precedes NADP(+) release during FDTS activity. The inhibition constant of CH(2)H(4)folate towards the oxidase activity was determined to be rather small (2 microm), which indicates a tight binding of CH(2)H(4)folate to the FDTS-FADH(2)-NADP(+)-dUMP complex. PMID:19459936

Wang, Zhen; Chernyshev, Anatoly; Koehn, Eric M; Manuel, Tony D; Lesley, Scott A; Kohen, Amnon

2009-05-01

33

Oxidase activity of a flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Flavin-dependent thymidylate synthases (FDTS) catalyze the production of dTMP from dUMP and N(5),N(10)-methylene-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate (CH(2)H(4)folate). In contrast to human and other classical thymidylate synthases, the activity of FDTS depends on a FAD coenzyme, and its catalytic mechanism is very different. Several human pathogens rely on this recently discovered enzyme, making it an attractive target for novel antibiotics. Like many other flavoenzymes, FDTS can function as an oxidase, which catalyzes the reduction of O(2) to H(2)O(2), using reduced NADPH or other reducing agents. In this study, we exploit the oxidase activity of FDTS from Thermatoga maritima to probe the binding and release features of the substrates and products during its synthase activity. Results from steady-state and single-turnover experiments suggest a sequential kinetic mechanism of substrate binding during FDTS oxidase activity. CH(2)H(4)folate competitively inhibits the oxidase activity, which indicates that CH(2)H(4)folate and O(2) compete for the same reduced and dUMP-activated enzymatic complex (FDTS-FADH(2)-NADP(+)-dUMP). These studies imply that the binding of CH(2)H(4)folate precedes NADP(+) release during FDTS activity. The inhibition constant of CH(2)H(4)folate towards the oxidase activity was determined to be rather small (2 microm), which indicates a tight binding of CH(2)H(4)folate to the FDTS-FADH(2)-NADP(+)-dUMP complex.

Wang Z; Chernyshev A; Koehn EM; Manuel TD; Lesley SA; Kohen A

2009-05-01

34

PHALLONOPTIC MALATE: A CRITICAL GAZE AT SPACE, VISUAL CULTURE AND PERFORMANCE IN THE STREETS OF OROSA AND BOCOBO, MALATE, MANILA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phallonopticism comes from the confluence of the term “phallus” and “panopticon.” I define Phallonotpicism as the configuration of gaze, power and desires specific to but not limited to male performances. By utilizing the term phallonopticism as a heuristic category for analysis, this paper attempts to analyze how Malate’s urban spaces of consumption are gendered. It attempts to map the topography of male homosocial intersubjectivities and the production of desire, power and gaze through male performances, visual culture and structures. Orosa Street is known as the GLTB consumption district of Malate while just a block away, is Bocobo Street, where a “straight” and “heterosexual” male population dwell. The dominance of male homosociality along the said streets has been established through research findings from 2002 - 2009. Through the confluence of political- economic discourse and psychoanalysis this paper will argue that Malate’s urban spaces inform the male subject construction and formation. Furthermore, male homosocialities in both streets activate the production and consumption of gendered spatial politics through complex forms of surveillance, discipline, resistance, and subversion from its stakeholders such as state institutions, the market and Malate’s public.

Clod Marlan Krister V. Yambao

2009-01-01

35

Structural basis for glucose-6-phosphate activation of glycogen synthase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Regulation of the storage of glycogen, one of the major energy reserves, is of utmost metabolic importance. In eukaryotes, this regulation is accomplished through glucose-6-phosphate levels and protein phosphorylation. Glycogen synthase homologs in bacteria and archaea lack regulation, while the eukaryotic enzymes are inhibited by protein kinase mediated phosphorylation and activated by protein phosphatases and glucose-6-phosphate binding. We determined the crystal structures corresponding to the basal activity state and glucose-6-phosphate activated state of yeast glycogen synthase-2. The enzyme is assembled into an unusual tetramer by an insertion unique to the eukaryotic enzymes, and this subunit interface is rearranged by the binding of glucose-6-phosphate, which frees the active site cleft and facilitates catalysis. Using both mutagenesis and intein-mediated phospho-peptide ligation experiments, we demonstrate that the enzyme's response to glucose-6-phosphate is controlled by Arg583 and Arg587, while four additional arginine residues present within the same regulatory helix regulate the response to phosphorylation.

Baskaran, Sulochanadevi; Roach, Peter J.; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A.; Hurley, Thomas D. (Indiana-Med)

2010-11-22

36

Malate-Induced Hysteresis of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase from Crassula argentea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hysteretic behavior of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase from Crassula argentea has been investigated. Incubation of the purified enzyme with the inhibitor malate prior to starting the reaction by the addition of PEP resulted in a kinetic lag of several minutes duration. The length of the lag was inversely proportional to the enzyme concentration, suggesting subunit association-dissociation as the hysteretic mechanism, rather than a mechanism based on a slow conformational change in the enzyme. Dynamic laser light scattering measurements also support this conclusion, showing that the diffusion coefficient of malate-incubated enzyme slowly decreased after the reaction was started by the addition of PEP. Lags were observed only at pH values of 7.5 or lower. Maximum lags were observed after 10 min of preincubation with malate. Fumarate and succinate, which like malate caused mixed inhibition, also caused lags. In contrast, no lag was induced by malate in the presence of PEP or by the competitive inhibitor phosphoglycolate. The activators glucose 6-phosphate and malonate decreased the malate-induced lag. PMID:16667161

Ngam-Ek, A; Seery, T A; Amis, E J; Grover, S D

1989-11-01

37

Malate-Induced Hysteresis of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase from Crassula argentea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The hysteretic behavior of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase from Crassula argentea has been investigated. Incubation of the purified enzyme with the inhibitor malate prior to starting the reaction by the addition of PEP resulted in a kinetic lag of several minutes duration. The length of the lag was inversely proportional to the enzyme concentration, suggesting subunit association-dissociation as the hysteretic mechanism, rather than a mechanism based on a slow conformational change in the enzyme. Dynamic laser light scattering measurements also support this conclusion, showing that the diffusion coefficient of malate-incubated enzyme slowly decreased after the reaction was started by the addition of PEP. Lags were observed only at pH values of 7.5 or lower. Maximum lags were observed after 10 min of preincubation with malate. Fumarate and succinate, which like malate caused mixed inhibition, also caused lags. In contrast, no lag was induced by malate in the presence of PEP or by the competitive inhibitor phosphoglycolate. The activators glucose 6-phosphate and malonate decreased the malate-induced lag.

Ngam-Ek A; Seery TA; Amis EJ; Grover SD

1989-11-01

38

Modification of a thiol at the active site of the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme results in changes in the rate-determining steps for oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A thiol group at the malate-binding site of the NAD-malic enzyme from Ascaris suum has been modified to thiocyanate. The modified enzyme generally exhibits slight increases in KNAD and Ki metal and decreases in Vmax as the metal size increases from Mg2+ to Mn2+ to Cd2+, indicative of crowding in the site. The Kmalate value increases 10- to 30-fold, suggesting that malate does not bind optimally to the modified enzyme. Deuterium isotope effects on V and V/Kmalate increase with all three metal ions compared to the native enzyme concomitant with a decrease in the 13C isotope effect, suggesting a switch in the rate limitation of the hydride transfer and decarboxylation steps with hydride transfer becoming more rate limiting. The 13C effect decreases only slightly when obtained with deuterated malate, suggestive of the presence of a secondary 13C effect in the hydride transfer step, similar to data obtained with non-nicotinamide-containing dinucleotide substrates for the native enzyme (see the preceding paper in this issue). The native enzyme is inactivated in a time-dependent manner by Cd2+. This inactivation occurs whether the enzyme alone is present or whether the enzyme is turning over with Cd2+ as the divalent metal activator. Upon inactivation, only Cd2+ ions are bound at high stoichiometry to the enzyme, which eventually becomes denatured. Conversion of the active-site thiol to thiocyanate makes it more difficult to inactivate the enzyme by treatment with Cd2+.

1991-01-01

39

Methylene blue inhibits hippocampal nitric oxide synthase activity in vivo  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, on the hippocampal nitric oxide synthase activity in vivo. We used a microdialysis-based technique of measuring conversion of [3H]l-arginine to [3H]l-citrulline in freely moving rats. The administration of methylene blue (0.1 and 1 mM) via the microdialysis probe caused a dose-dependent decrease in [3H]l-citrulline efflux comparable with the effect of unselective NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (2 mM). We conclude that methylene blue inhibits brain NOS activity in vivo and thus interferes with NO-cGMP cascade in different levels.

Volke, V; Wegener, Gregers

1999-01-01

40

Mechanism of inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthase by 17?-estradiol.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

17?-estradiol (E2) is considered to modulate the ATP synthase activity through direct binding to the oligomycin sensitive-conferring protein. We have previously demonstrated that E2 increases the amplitude of depolarization associated with the addition of ADP to energized mitochondria (i.e., to initiate a phosphorylative cycle) suggesting a direct action on the phosphorylative system of mitochondria. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for this effect. We show here that E2 modulates the activity of mitochondrial ATP synthase by promoting the intrinsic uncoupling ("slipping") of the ATP synthase. E2 depressed RCR, ADP/O ratio and state 3 respiration, whereas state 4 respiration was increased and VFCCP (uncoupled respiration) remained unaltered. In contrast to the stimulatory effect on state 4 respiration, state 2 respiration and Volig were not affected by E2. The effect of E2 appeared to be directed towards ATP synthase, since glutamate/malate respiration, uncoupled from the electron transport chain, was unaffected by E2. Apparently, E2 allows a proton back-leak through the Fo component of ATP synthase. This action of E2 is dependent on the presence of ATP, is more pronounced at high membrane potentials, and it is reversed by oligomycin (a Fo-ATP synthase inhibitor) but not by resveratrol (a F1-ATP synthase inhibitor). Altogether, our data provide a mechanistic explanation for the effect of E2 at the level of mitochondrial ATP synthase.

Moreno AJ; Moreira PI; Custódio JB; Santos MS

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity in Clostridium perfingens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CTP: phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase (CDP-diacylglycerol synthase; EC 2.7.7.41) was identified in the cell envelope fraction of the gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium perfringens. The association of this enzyme with the cell envelope fraction of cell extracts was demonstrated by glycerol density gradient centrifugation and by activity sedimenting with the 100,000 x g pellet. The enzyme exhibited a broad pH optimium between pH 6.5 and pH 7.5. Enzyme activity was dependent on magnesium (5 mM) or manganese (1 mM) ions. Activity was also dependent on the addition on the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 (5 mM). The apparent Km values for CTP and phosphatidic acid were 0.18 mM and 0.22 mM respectively. Thioreactive agents inhibited activity, indicating that a sulfhydryl group is essential for activity. Maximal enzyme activity was observed at 50 degrees C. (Refs. 24).

Carmen, G.M.; Zaniewski, R.L.; Cousminer, J.J.

1982-01-01

42

CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity in Clostridium perfringens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CTP:phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase (CDP-diacylglycerol synthase; EC 2.7.7.41) was identified in the cell envelope fraction of the gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium perfringens. The association of this enzyme with the cell envelope fraction of cell extracts was demonstrated by glycerol density gradient centrifugation and by activity sedimenting with the 100,000 x g pellet. The enzyme exhibited a broad pH optimum between pH 6.5 and pH 7.5. Enzyme activity was dependent on magnesium (5 mM) or manganese (1 mM) ions. Activity was also dependent on the addition of the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 (5 mM). The apparent Km values for CTP and phosphatidic acid were 0.18 mM and 0.22 mM, respectively. Thioreactive agents inhibited activity, indicating that a sulfhydryl group is essential for activity. Maximal enzyme activity was observed at 50 degrees C.

Carman GM; Zaniewski RL; Cousminer JJ

1982-01-01

43

L-malate production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Escherichia coli strains (KJ060 and KJ073) that were previously developed for succinate production have now been modified for malate production. Many unexpected changes were observed during this investigation. The initial strategy of deleting fumarase isoenzymes was ineffective, and succinate continued to accumulate. Surprisingly, a mutation in fumarate reductase alone was sufficient to redirect carbon flow into malate even in the presence of fumarase. Further deletions were needed to inactivate malic enzymes (typically gluconeogenic) and prevent conversion to pyruvate. However, deletion of these genes (sfcA and maeB) resulted in the unexpected accumulation of D-lactate despite the prior deletion of mgsA and ldhA and the absence of apparent lactate dehydrogenase activity. Although the metabolic source of this D-lactate was not identified, lactate accumulation was increased by supplementation with pyruvate and decreased by the deletion of either pyruvate kinase gene (pykA or pykF) to reduce the supply of pyruvate. Many of the gene deletions adversely affected growth and cell yield in minimal medium under anaerobic conditions, and volumetric rates of malate production remained low. The final strain (XZ658) produced 163 mM malate, with a yield of 1.0 mol (mol glucose(-1)), half of the theoretical maximum. Using a two-stage process (aerobic cell growth and anaerobic malate production), this engineered strain produced 253 mM malate (34 g liter(-1)) within 72 h, with a higher yield (1.42 mol mol(-1)) and productivity (0.47 g liter(-1) h(-1)). This malate yield and productivity are equal to or better than those of other known biocatalysts.

Zhang X; Wang X; Shanmugam KT; Ingram LO

2011-01-01

44

The noncoding RNA MALAT1 is a critical regulator of the metastasis phenotype of lung cancer cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The long noncoding RNA MALAT1 (metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1), also known as MALAT-1 or NEAT2 (nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 2), is a highly conserved nuclear noncoding RNA (ncRNA) and a predictive marker for metastasis development in lung cancer. To uncover its functional importance, we developed a MALAT1 knockout model in human lung tumor cells by genomically integrating RNA destabilizing elements using zinc finger nucleases. The achieved 1,000-fold MALAT1 silencing provides a unique loss-of-function model. Proposed mechanisms of action include regulation of splicing or gene expression. In lung cancer, MALAT1 does not alter alternative splicing but actively regulates gene expression including a set of metastasis-associated genes. Consequently, MALAT1-deficient cells are impaired in migration and form fewer tumor nodules in a mouse xenograft. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) blocking MALAT1 prevent metastasis formation after tumor implantation. Thus, targeting MALAT1 with ASOs provides a potential therapeutic approach to prevent lung cancer metastasis with this ncRNA serving as both predictive marker and therapeutic target. Finally, regulating gene expression, but not alternative splicing, is the critical function of MALAT1 in lung cancer metastasis. In summary, 10 years after the discovery of the lncRNA MALAT1 as a biomarker for lung cancer metastasis, our loss-of-function model unravels the active function of MALAT1 as a regulator of gene expression governing hallmarks of lung cancer metastasis.

Gutschner T; Hämmerle M; Eissmann M; Hsu J; Kim Y; Hung G; Revenko A; Arun G; Stentrup M; Gross M; Zörnig M; MacLeod AR; Spector DL; Diederichs S

2013-02-01

45

Proteolytic cleavage confers nitric oxide synthase inducing activity upon prolactin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prolactin (PRL), originally associated with milk secretion, is now known to possess a wide variety of biological actions and diverse sites of production beyond the pituitary. Proteolytic cleavage is a common post-translational modification that can either activate precursor proteins or confer upon the peptide fragment unique biological actions not exerted by the parent molecule. Recent studies have demonstrated that the 16-kDa N-terminal proteolytic cleavage product of PRL (16K-PRL) acts as a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Despite previous demonstrations of 16K-PRL production in vivo, biological functions beyond its antiangiogenic actions remain unknown. Here we show that 16K-PRL, but not full-length PRL, acts to promote the expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (*NO) production by pulmonary fibroblasts and alveolar type II cells with potency comparable with the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta, interferon gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. The differential effect of 16K-PRL versus PRL occurs through a receptor distinct from known PRL receptors. Additionally, pulmonary fibroblasts express the PRL gene and endogenously produce 16K-PRL, suggesting that this pathway may serve both autocrine and paracrine roles in the regulation of *NO production. These results reveal that proteolytic cleavage of PRL confers upon this classical hormone potent iNOS inducing activity, suggesting its role in inflammatory/immune processes.

Corbacho AM; Nava G; Eiserich JP; Noris G; Macotela Y; Struman I; Martinez De La Escalera G; Freeman BA; Clapp C

2000-05-01

46

Plasma nitrite reflects constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity in mammals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in plasma nitrite concentration in the human forearm circulation have recently been shown to reflect acute changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-activity. Whether basal plasma nitrite is a general marker of constitutive NOS-activity in vivo is yet unclear. Due to the rapid metabolism of nitrite in blood and the difficulties in its analytical determination literature data on levels of nitrite in mammals are largely inconsistent. We hypothesized that constitutive NOS-activity in the circulatory system is relatively uniform throughout the mammalian kingdom. If true, this should result in comparable systemic plasma nitrite levels in different species. Using three different analytical approaches we determined plasma nitrite concentration to be in a nanomolar range in a variety of species: humans (305 +/- 23 nmol/l), monkeys (367 +/- 62 nmol/l), minipigs (319 +/- 24 nmol/l), dogs (305 +/- 50 nmol/l), rabbits (502 +/- 21 nmol/l), guinea pigs (412 +/- 44 nmol/l), rats (191 +/- 43 nmol/l), and mice (457 +/- 51 nmol/l). Application of different NOS-inhibitors in humans, minipigs, and dogs decreased NOS-activity and thereby increased vascular resistance. This was accompanied by a significant, up to 80%, decrease in plasma nitrite concentration. A comparison of plasma nitrite concentrations between eNOS(-/-) and NOS-inhibited wild-type mice revealed that 70 +/- 5% of plasma nitrite is derived from eNOS. These results provide evidence for a uniform constitutive vascular NOS-activity across mammalian species. PMID:14583343

Kleinbongard, Petra; Dejam, André; Lauer, Thomas; Rassaf, Tienush; Schindler, Achim; Picker, Olaf; Scheeren, Thomas; Gödecke, Axel; Schrader, Jürgen; Schulz, Rainer; Heusch, Gerd; Schaub, Günter A; Bryan, Nathan S; Feelisch, Martin; Kelm, Malte

2003-10-01

47

Enhancing human spermine synthase activity by engineered mutations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spermine synthase (SMS) is an enzyme which function is to convert spermidine into spermine. It was shown that gene defects resulting in amino acid changes of the wild type SMS cause Snyder-Robinson syndrome, which is a mild-to-moderate mental disability associated with osteoporosis, facial asymmetry, thin habitus, hypotonia, and a nonspecific movement disorder. These disease-causing missense mutations were demonstrated, both in silico and in vitro, to affect the wild type function of SMS by either destabilizing the SMS dimer/monomer or directly affecting the hydrogen bond network of the active site of SMS. In contrast to these studies, here we report an artificial engineering of a more efficient SMS variant by transferring sequence information from another organism. It is confirmed experimentally that the variant, bearing four amino acid substitutions, is catalytically more active than the wild type. The increased functionality is attributed to enhanced monomer stability, lowering the pKa of proton donor catalytic residue, optimized spatial distribution of the electrostatic potential around the SMS with respect to substrates, and increase of the frequency of mechanical vibration of the clefts presumed to be the gates toward the active sites. The study demonstrates that wild type SMS is not particularly evolutionarily optimized with respect to the reaction spermidine ? spermine. Having in mind that currently there are no variations (non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism, nsSNP) detected in healthy individuals, it can be speculated that the human SMS function is precisely tuned toward its wild type and any deviation is unwanted and disease-causing.

Zhang Z; Zheng Y; Petukh M; Pegg A; Ikeguchi Y; Alexov E

2013-01-01

48

Studies on poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate synthase activity of Nostoc muscorum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compares the PHB synthase activity of Nostoc muscorum, a N(2)-fixing cyanobacterium under control (grown in usual BG-11 medium), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deprivation and chemoheterotrophic conditions. Specific activity of PHB synthase did not depict significant variations in the latter three types of cultures, except for the control one, where a significantly lower activity was recorded. PHB synthase activity was detected only in the soluble fractions of both the control as well as cells incubated under chemoheterotrophic conditions. A K(m) of 80.2 microM DL-beta-hydroxybutyryl-CoA and V(max) of 197.5 nmol thiobenzoate (TNB) mg protein(-1)min(-1) were observed for the enzyme. PHB synthase remained insensitive to acetyl-CoA, ATP, NADP, NADPH supplementation under in vitro condition. Addition of acetyl phosphate was found to activate the enzyme and the level of activation was dependent on the concentration of acetyl phosphate supplementation. Inhibition of PHB synthase in 2,3-butanedione supplemented cultures and reactivation following acetyl phosphate addition proved the post-translational control of acetyl phosphate over PHB synthase.

Sharma L; Panda B; Singh AK; Mallick N

2006-08-01

49

Production of fully assembled and active Aquifex aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase in Escherichia coli.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: F1FO ATP synthases catalyze the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate driven by ion motive forces across the membrane. A number of ATP synthases have been characterized to date. The one from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus presents unique features, i.e. a putative heterodimeric stalk. To complement previous work on the native form of this enzyme, we produced it heterologously in Escherichia coli. METHODS: We designed an artificial operon combining the nine genes of A. aeolicus ATP synthase, which are split into four clusters in the A. aeolicus genome. We expressed the genes and purified the enzyme complex by affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. We characterized the complex by native gel electrophoresis, Western blot, and mass spectrometry. We studied its activity by enzymatic assays and we visualized its structure by single-particle electron microscopy. RESULTS: We show that the heterologously produced complex has the same enzymatic activity and the same structure as the native ATP synthase complex extracted from A. aeolicus cells. We used our expression system to confirm that A. aeolicus ATP synthase possesses a heterodimeric peripheral stalk unique among non-photosynthetic bacterial F1FO ATP synthases. CONCLUSIONS: Our system now allows performing previously impossible structural and functional studies on A. aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: More broadly, our work provides a valuable platform to characterize many other membrane protein complexes with complicated stoichiometry, i.e. other respiratory complexes, the nuclear pore complex, or transporter systems.

Zhang C; Allegretti M; Vonck J; Langer JD; Marcia M; Peng G; Michel H

2013-09-01

50

Fluorescence Immunohistochemical Localization of Malate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes in Watermelon Cotyledons 1  

Science.gov (United States)

Monospecific antibodies to glyoxysomal, mitochondrial, and cytosolic I malate dehydrogenase were used for the fluorescence immunohistochemical localization of these isoenzymes in dark-grown watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) cotyledons. It was demonstrated that, with cell organelles isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, antibodies to glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase were specific markers for glyoxysomes, and similarly, antibodies to mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase were markers for mitochondria. The time course of the glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase appearance and decline was not synchronous for the individual tissues and differed completely from that of the mitochondria. The cytosolic malate dehydrogenase I was confined to restricted regions of the lower epidermis. The activity which was definitively localized outside the cell organelles decreased during the first days of germination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Sautter, Christof; Hock, Bertold

1982-01-01

51

Immunopresence and functional activity of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases and nitric oxide synthases in bovine corpora lutea during diestrus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and the activity of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (PTGS1), PTGS2, and endothelial, neuronal, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (e-, n-, and iNOS) in early, mid, late, and regressive corpora lutea (CL) of bovines during diestrus. PTGS1 immunoreactivity was localised mainly in the cytoplasm of small luteal cells, whereas PTGS2 was detected in the cytoplasm of large luteal cells during early, mid, and late stages. The immunoexpression of all NOS isoforms was observed in the nuclei of luteal cells in the CL stages examined. PTGS1 enzyme activity was higher in late CL and lower in regressive ones; PTGS2 increased from early to late CL and lowered in regressive ones. Constitutive NOS enzymatic activity (eNOS plus nNOS) was higher in late CL and lower in regressive ones; iNOS was lower in regressive CL. These results support the idea that PTGSs and NOSs regulate the bovine CL life span mainly during the transition from the luteotrophic to the luteolytic phase.

Zerani M; Catone G; Betti G; Parillo F

2013-02-01

52

Interaction between DAHP synthase and chorismate mutase endows new regulation on DAHP synthase activity in Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous research on Corynebacterium glutamicum revealed that 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DSCg, formerly DS2098) interacts with chorismate mutase (CMCg, formerly CM0819). In this study, we investigated the interaction by means of structure-guided mutation and enzymatic assays. Our results show that the interaction imparted a new mechanism for regulation of DAHP activity: In the absence of CMCg, DSCg activity was not regulated by prephenate, whereas in the presence of CMCg, prephenate markedly inhibited DSCg activity. Prephenate competed with the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate, and the inhibition constant (K i) was determined to be 0.945 mM. Modeling based on the structure of the complex formed between DAHP synthase and chorismate mutase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis predicted the interaction surfaces of the putative DSCg-CMCg complex. The amino acid residues and structural domains that contributed to the interaction surfaces were experimentally identified to be the (212)SPAGARYE(219) sequence of DSCg and the (60)SGGTR(64) loop and C-terminus ((97)RGKLG(101)) of CMCg.

Li PP; Li DF; Liu D; Liu YM; Liu C; Liu SJ

2013-03-01

53

Aggregation states of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The oligomeric state of fluorescein-labeled mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (L-malate NAD+ oxidoreductase; mMDH; EC 1.1.1.37), as a function of protein concentration, has been examined using steady-state and dynamic polarization methodologies. A "global" rotational relaxation time of 103 +/- 7 ns...

Sánchez, S. A.; Hazlett, T. L.; Brunet, J. E.; Jameson, D. M.

54

A fluorescence-based assay for Core 1 ?3galactosyltransferase (T-synthase) activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mucin-type O-glycans on glycoproteins in animal cells play important roles in many biological processes. Core 1 ?3galactosyltransferase (Core 1 ?3GalT, T-synthase) is a key enzyme in the O-glycan biosynthetic pathway. Emerging evidence has shown the importance of O-glycans and the absolute requirement of T-synthase in this pathway. The assessment of the T-synthase activity has historically been conducted using a radioactive method. Here we describe a fluorescence-based assay procedure for T-synthase activity. T-synthase utilizes the acceptor substrate 4-methylumbelliferone-?-GalNAc (GalNAc?-(4-MU)) and the donor substrate UDP-Gal to synthesize the disaccharide product Gal?1,3GalNAc?-(4-MU) structure. This product is specifically hydrolyzed by endo-?-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (O-glycosidase) releasing free 4-MU. Free 4-MU is highly fluorescent at pH 9.6-10 and can be easily measured by a fluorescent detector (Ex: 355 nm; Em: 460 nm). This fluorescence-based T-synthase assay is simple, sensitive, reproducible, not affected by enzyme source, and adaptable for high-throughput assays.

Ju T; Cummings RD

2013-01-01

55

Long Noncoding RNA MALAT1 Controls Cell Cycle Progression by Regulating the Expression of Oncogenic Transcription Factor B-MYB  

Science.gov (United States)

The long noncoding MALAT1 RNA is upregulated in cancer tissues and its elevated expression is associated with hyper-proliferation, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We demonstrate that MALAT1 levels are regulated during normal cell cycle progression. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses in normal human diploid fibroblasts reveal that MALAT1 modulates the expression of cell cycle genes and is required for G1/S and mitotic progression. Depletion of MALAT1 leads to activation of p53 and its target genes. The cell cycle defects observed in MALAT1-depleted cells are sensitive to p53 levels, indicating that p53 is a major downstream mediator of MALAT1 activity. Furthermore, MALAT1-depleted cells display reduced expression of B-MYB (Mybl2), an oncogenic transcription factor involved in G2/M progression, due to altered binding of splicing factors on B-MYB pre-mRNA and aberrant alternative splicing. In human cells, MALAT1 promotes cellular proliferation by modulating the expression and/or pre-mRNA processing of cell cycle–regulated transcription factors. These findings provide mechanistic insights on the role of MALAT1 in regulating cellular proliferation.

Tripathi, Vidisha; Shen, Zhen; Chakraborty, Arindam; Giri, Sumanprava; Freier, Susan M.; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yongqing; Gorospe, Myriam; Prasanth, Supriya G.; Lal, Ashish; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V.

2013-01-01

56

Regulation of callose synthase activity in situ in alamethicin-permeabilized Arabidopsis and tobacco suspension cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The cell wall component callose is mainly synthesized at certain developmental stages and after wounding or pathogen attack. Callose synthases are membrane-bound enzymes that have been relatively well characterized in vitro using isolated membrane fractions or purified enzyme. However, little is known about their functional properties in situ, under conditions when the cell wall is intact. To allow in situ investigations of the regulation of callose synthesis, cell suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0), and tobacco (BY-2), were permeabilized with the channel-forming peptide alamethicin. Results Nucleic acid-binding dyes and marker enzymes demonstrated alamethicin permeabilization of plasma membrane, mitochondria and plastids, also allowing callose synthase measurements. In the presence of alamethicin, Ca2+ addition was required for callose synthase activity, and the activity was further stimulated by Mg2+ Cells pretreated with oryzalin to destabilize the microtubules prior to alamethicin permeabilization showed significantly lower callose synthase activity as compared to non-treated cells. As judged by aniline blue staining, the callose formed was deposited both at the cell walls joining adjacent cells and at discrete punctate locations earlier described as half plasmodesmata on the outer walls. This pattern was unaffected by oryzalin pretreatment, showing a quantitative rather than a qualitative effect of polymerized tubulin on callose synthase activity. No callose was deposited unless alamethicin, Ca2+ and UDP-glucose were present. Tubulin and callose synthase were furthermore part of the same plasma membrane protein complex, as judged by two-dimensional blue native SDS-PAGE. Conclusion Alamethicin permeabilization allowed determination of callose synthase regulation and tubulin interaction in the natural crowded cellular environment and under conditions where contacts between the cell wall, the plasma membrane and cytoskeletal macromolecules remained. The results also suggest that alamethicin permeabilization induces a defense response mimicking the natural physical separation of cells (for example when intercellulars are formed), during which plasmodesmata are transiently left open.

Aidemark Mari; Andersson Carl-Johan; Rasmusson Allan G; Widell Susanne

2009-01-01

57

CHS8-a fourth chitin synthase gene of Candida albicans contributes to in vitro chitin synthase activity, but is dispensable for growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

In silico analysis of the genome sequence of the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans identified an open reading frame encoding a putative fourth member of the chitin synthase gene family. This gene, named CaCHS8, encodes an 1105 amino acid open reading frame with the conserved motifs characteristic of class I zymogenic chitin synthases with closest sequence similarity to the non-essential C. albicans class I CHS2 gene. Although the CaCHS8 gene was expressed in both yeast and hyphal cells, homozygous chs8 Delta null mutants had normal growth rates, cellular morphologies and chitin contents. The null mutant strains had a 25% reduction in chitin synthase activity and were hypersensitive to Calcofluor White. A chs2 Delta chs8 Delta double mutant had less than 3% of normal chitin synthase activity and had increased wall glucan and decreased mannan but was unaffected in growth or cell morphology. The C. albicans class I double mutant did not exhibit a bud-lysis phenotype as found in the class I chs1 Delta mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, C. albicans has four chitin synthases with two non-essential class I Chs isoenzymes that contribute collectively to more than 97% of the in vitro chitin synthase activity. PMID:14516767

Munro, Carol A; Whitton, Rhian K; Hughes, H Bleddyn; Rella, Monika; Selvaggini, Serena; Gow, Neil A R

2003-11-01

58

Inhibitory activity for chitin synthase II from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by tannins and related compounds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the course of search for potent inhibitors of chitin synthase II from natural resources, seven tannins and related compounds were isolated from the aerial part of Euphorbia pekinensis and identified as gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), 3-O-galloyl-(-)-shikimic acid (3), corilagin (4), geraniin (5), quercetin-3-O-(2"-O-galloyl)-beta-D-glucoside (6), and kaempferol-3-O-(2"-O-galloyl)-beta-D-glucoside (7). These and nine related compounds, (-)-quinic acid (8), (-)-shikimic acid (9), ellagic acid (10), kaempferol (11), quercetin (12), quercitrin (13), rutin (14), quercetin-3-O-(2"-O-galloyl)-beta-D-rutinoside (15) and 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (16), were evaluated for the inhibitory activity against chitin synthase II and III. They inhibited chitin synthase II with IC(50) values of 18-206 microM, except for two organic acids, (-)-quinic acid (8) and (-)-shikimic acid (9). Among them, 3-O-galloyl-(-)-shikimic acid (3) was the most potent inhibitor against chitin synthase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with an IC(50) value of 18 microM. The inhibition appears to be selective for chitin synthase II, as they did not appreciably inhibit chitin synthase III.

Hwang EI; Ahn BT; Lee HB; Kim YK; Lee KS; Bok SH; Kim YT; Kim SU

2001-08-01

59

Inhibitory activity for chitin synthase II from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by tannins and related compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the course of search for potent inhibitors of chitin synthase II from natural resources, seven tannins and related compounds were isolated from the aerial part of Euphorbia pekinensis and identified as gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), 3-O-galloyl-(-)-shikimic acid (3), corilagin (4), geraniin (5), quercetin-3-O-(2"-O-galloyl)-beta-D-glucoside (6), and kaempferol-3-O-(2"-O-galloyl)-beta-D-glucoside (7). These and nine related compounds, (-)-quinic acid (8), (-)-shikimic acid (9), ellagic acid (10), kaempferol (11), quercetin (12), quercitrin (13), rutin (14), quercetin-3-O-(2"-O-galloyl)-beta-D-rutinoside (15) and 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (16), were evaluated for the inhibitory activity against chitin synthase II and III. They inhibited chitin synthase II with IC(50) values of 18-206 microM, except for two organic acids, (-)-quinic acid (8) and (-)-shikimic acid (9). Among them, 3-O-galloyl-(-)-shikimic acid (3) was the most potent inhibitor against chitin synthase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with an IC(50) value of 18 microM. The inhibition appears to be selective for chitin synthase II, as they did not appreciably inhibit chitin synthase III. PMID:11509967

Hwang, E I; Ahn, B T; Lee, H B; Kim, Y K; Lee, K S; Bok, S H; Kim, Y T; Kim, S U

2001-08-01

60

Expression and activity of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in methamphetamine-induced striatal dopamine toxicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitric oxide is implicated in methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity; however, the source of the nitric oxide has not been identified. Previous work has also revealed that animals with partial dopamine loss induced by a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine fail to exhibit further decreases in striatal dopamine when re-exposed to methamphetamine 7-30 days later. The current study examined nitric oxide synthase expression and activity and protein nitration in striata of animals administered saline or neurotoxic regimens of methamphetamine at postnatal days 60 and/or 90, resulting in four treatment groups: Saline:Saline, METH:Saline, Saline:METH, and METH:METH. Acute administration of methamphetamine on postnatal day 90 (Saline:METH and METH:METH) increased nitric oxide production, as evidenced by increased protein nitration. Methamphetamine did not, however, change the expression of endothelial or inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, nor did it change the number of cells positive for neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression or the amount of neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA per cell. However, nitric oxide synthase activity in striatal interneurons was increased in the Saline:METH and METH:METH animals. These data suggest that increased nitric oxide production after a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine results from increased nitric oxide synthase activity, rather than an induction of mRNA, and that constitutively expressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase is the most likely source of nitric oxide after methamphetamine administration. Of interest, animals rendered resistant to further methamphetamine-induced dopamine depletions still show equivalent degrees of methamphetamine-induced nitric oxide production, suggesting that nitric oxide production alone in response to methamphetamine is not sufficient to induce acute neurotoxic injury.

Friend DM; Son JH; Keefe KA; Fricks-Gleason AN

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
61

Expression of enzymatically active cloned strictosidine synthase from the higher plant Rauvolfia serpentina in Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cDNA for strictosidine synthase, the enzyme catalyzing the stereospecific condensation of tryptamine with secologanin producing strictosidine, the key intermediate in indole alkaloid biosynthesis, has been expressed in an enzymatically active form in Escherichia coli. The cDNA trimmed of its 3'- and 5'-flanking regions was inserted into the vector pKK223-3 by addition of a synthetic adapter containing the ribosome binding site derived from the beta-galactosidase gene. Strictosidine synthase activity (138 nkat.l-1) could be measured in both whole bacteria and in bacterial protein extracts. Strictosidine synthase represents the first enzyme of plant secondary metabolism to be actively expressed in a microorganism. PMID:2680603

Kutchan, T M

1989-10-23

62

Expression of enzymatically active cloned strictosidine synthase from the higher plant Rauvolfia serpentina in Escherichia coli.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cDNA for strictosidine synthase, the enzyme catalyzing the stereospecific condensation of tryptamine with secologanin producing strictosidine, the key intermediate in indole alkaloid biosynthesis, has been expressed in an enzymatically active form in Escherichia coli. The cDNA trimmed of its 3'- and 5'-flanking regions was inserted into the vector pKK223-3 by addition of a synthetic adapter containing the ribosome binding site derived from the beta-galactosidase gene. Strictosidine synthase activity (138 nkat.l-1) could be measured in both whole bacteria and in bacterial protein extracts. Strictosidine synthase represents the first enzyme of plant secondary metabolism to be actively expressed in a microorganism.

Kutchan TM

1989-10-01

63

Assembly of melleolide antibiotics involves a polyketide synthase with cross-coupling activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about polyketide biosynthesis in mushrooms (basidiomycota). In this study, we investigated the iterative type I polyketide synthase (PKS) ArmB of the tree pathogen Armillaria mellea, a producer of cytotoxic melleolides (i.e., polyketides esterified with various sesquiterpene alcohols). Heterologously produced ArmB showed orsellinic acid (OA) synthase activity in vitro. Further, we demonstrate cross-coupling activity of ArmB, which forms OA esters with various alcohols. Using a tricyclic Armillaria sesquiterpene alcohol, we reconstituted the biosynthesis of melledonol. Intermolecular transesterification reactions may represent a general mechanism of fungal PKSs to create structural diversity of small molecules. Phylogenetic network construction of thioesterase domains of both basidiomycetes and ascomycetes suggests that the fungal nonreducing PKS family has likely evolved from an ancient OA synthase and has gained versatility by adopting Claisen-like cyclase or transferase activity. PMID:23993460

Lackner, Gerald; Bohnert, Markus; Wick, Jonas; Hoffmeister, Dirk

2013-08-29

64

Assembly of melleolide antibiotics involves a polyketide synthase with cross-coupling activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Little is known about polyketide biosynthesis in mushrooms (basidiomycota). In this study, we investigated the iterative type I polyketide synthase (PKS) ArmB of the tree pathogen Armillaria mellea, a producer of cytotoxic melleolides (i.e., polyketides esterified with various sesquiterpene alcohols). Heterologously produced ArmB showed orsellinic acid (OA) synthase activity in vitro. Further, we demonstrate cross-coupling activity of ArmB, which forms OA esters with various alcohols. Using a tricyclic Armillaria sesquiterpene alcohol, we reconstituted the biosynthesis of melledonol. Intermolecular transesterification reactions may represent a general mechanism of fungal PKSs to create structural diversity of small molecules. Phylogenetic network construction of thioesterase domains of both basidiomycetes and ascomycetes suggests that the fungal nonreducing PKS family has likely evolved from an ancient OA synthase and has gained versatility by adopting Claisen-like cyclase or transferase activity.

Lackner G; Bohnert M; Wick J; Hoffmeister D

2013-09-01

65

Kei1: a novel subunit of inositolphosphorylceramide synthase, essential for its enzyme activity and Golgi localization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal sphingolipids have inositol-phosphate head groups, which are essential for the viability of cells. These head groups are added by inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase, and AUR1 has been thought to encode this enzyme. Here, we show that an essential protein encoded by KEI1 is a novel subunit of IPC synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that Kei1 is localized in the medial-Golgi and that Kei1 is cleaved by Kex2, a late Golgi processing endopeptidase; therefore, it recycles between the medial- and late Golgi compartments. The growth defect of kei1-1, a temperature-sensitive mutant, is effectively suppressed by the overexpression of AUR1, and Aur1 and Kei1 proteins form a complex in vivo. The kei1-1 mutant is hypersensitive to aureobasidin A, a specific inhibitor of IPC synthesis, and the IPC synthase activity in the mutant membranes is thermolabile. A part of Aur1 is missorted to the vacuole in kei1-1 cells. We show that the amino acid substitution in kei1-1 causes release of Kei1 during immunoprecipitation of Aur1 and that Aur1 without Kei1 has hardly detectable IPC synthase activity. From these results, we conclude that Kei1 is essential for both the activity and the Golgi localization of IPC synthase. PMID:19726565

Sato, Keisuke; Noda, Yoichi; Yoda, Koji

2009-09-02

66

Kei1: a novel subunit of inositolphosphorylceramide synthase, essential for its enzyme activity and Golgi localization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fungal sphingolipids have inositol-phosphate head groups, which are essential for the viability of cells. These head groups are added by inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase, and AUR1 has been thought to encode this enzyme. Here, we show that an essential protein encoded by KEI1 is a novel subunit of IPC synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that Kei1 is localized in the medial-Golgi and that Kei1 is cleaved by Kex2, a late Golgi processing endopeptidase; therefore, it recycles between the medial- and late Golgi compartments. The growth defect of kei1-1, a temperature-sensitive mutant, is effectively suppressed by the overexpression of AUR1, and Aur1 and Kei1 proteins form a complex in vivo. The kei1-1 mutant is hypersensitive to aureobasidin A, a specific inhibitor of IPC synthesis, and the IPC synthase activity in the mutant membranes is thermolabile. A part of Aur1 is missorted to the vacuole in kei1-1 cells. We show that the amino acid substitution in kei1-1 causes release of Kei1 during immunoprecipitation of Aur1 and that Aur1 without Kei1 has hardly detectable IPC synthase activity. From these results, we conclude that Kei1 is essential for both the activity and the Golgi localization of IPC synthase.

Sato K; Noda Y; Yoda K

2009-10-01

67

Hypobaric hypoxia modifies constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity and protein nitration in the rat cerebellum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ischemic hypoxia provokes alterations in the production system of nitric oxide in the cerebellum. We hypothesize that the nitric oxide system may undergo modifications due to hypobaric hypoxia and that may play a role in high altitude pathophysiology. Therefore, changes in the nitric oxide system of the cerebellum of rats submitted to acute hypobaric hypoxia were investigated. Adult rats were exposed for 7 h to a simulated altitude of 8235 m (27000 ft.) and then killed after 0 h or 1, 3, 5 and 10 days of reoxygenation. Nitric oxide synthase calcium-dependent and -independent activity, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry of neuronal, endothelial, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nitrotyrosine were evaluated. Immunoreactivity for neuronal nitric oxide synthase slightly increased in the baskets of the Purkinje cell layer and in the granule cells, after 0 h of reoxygenation, although no changes in neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoblotting densitometry were detected. Calcium-dependent activity significantly rose after 0 h of reoxygenation, reaching control levels in the following points, and being coincident with a peak of eNOS expression. Nitrotyrosine formation showed significant increments after 0 h and 1 day of reoxygenation. Nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity showed an intracellular location change in the neurons of the cerebellar nuclei and in addition, an appearance of nitration in the soma of the Purkinje cells was detected. No changes in inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, immunoblotting or immunohistochemistry were detected. We conclude that at least part of the nitric oxide system is involved in cerebellum responses to hypobaric hypoxia.

Serrano J; Encinas JM; Salas E; Fernández AP; Castro-Blanco S; Fernández-Vizarra P; Bentura ML; Rodrigo J

2003-06-01

68

Crystal Structure of Albaflavenone Monooxygenase Containing a Moonlighting Terpene Synthase Active Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Albaflavenone synthase (CYP170A1) is a monooxygenase catalyzing the final two steps in the biosynthesis of this antibiotic in the soil bacterium, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Interestingly, CYP170A1 shows no stereo selection forming equal amounts of two albaflavenol epimers, each of which is oxidized in turn to albaflavenone. To explore the structural basis of the reaction mechanism, we have studied the crystal structures of both ligand-free CYP170A1 (2.6 {angstrom}) and complex of endogenous substrate (epi-isozizaene) with CYP170A1 (3.3 {angstrom}). The structure of the complex suggests that the proximal epi-isozizaene molecules may bind to the heme iron in two orientations. In addition, much to our surprise, we have found that albaflavenone synthase also has a second, completely distinct catalytic activity corresponding to the synthesis of farnesene isomers from farnesyl diphosphate. Within the cytochrome P450 {alpha}-helical domain both the primary sequence and x-ray structure indicate the presence of a novel terpene synthase active site that is moonlighting on the P450 structure. This includes signature sequences for divalent cation binding and an {alpha}-helical barrel. This barrel is unusual because it consists of only four helices rather than six found in all other terpene synthases. Mutagenesis establishes that this barrel is essential for the terpene synthase activity of CYP170A1 but not for the monooxygenase activity. This is the first bifunctional P450 discovered to have another active site moonlighting on it and the first time a terpene synthase active site is found moonlighting on another protein.

Zhao, Bin; Lei, Li; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.; Lin, Xin; Cane, David E.; Kelly, Steven L.; Yuan, Hang; Lamb, David C.; Waterman, Michael R.; (Vanderbilt); (UAB); (Brown); (Swansea)

2010-01-08

69

Chloroquine stimulates glucose uptake and glycogen synthase in muscle cells through activation of Akt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chloroquine is a pharmaceutical agent that has been widely used to treat patients with malaria. Chloroquine has also been reported to have hypoglycemic effects on humans and animal models of diabetes. Despite many previous studies, the mechanism responsible for its hypoglycemic effect is still unclear. Chloroquine was recently reported to be an activator of ATM, the protein deficient in the Ataxia-telagiectasia (A-T) disease. Since ATM is also known as an insulin responsive protein that mediates Akt activation, we tested the effect of chloroquine on the activity of Akt and its downstream targets. In L6 muscle cells treated with insulin and chloroquine, the phosphorylation of Akt and glucose uptake were dramatically increased compared to cells treated with insulin alone, suggesting that chloroquine is a potent activator of Akt and glucose uptake in these cells. We also found that the reduction of insulin-mediated Akt activity in muscle tissues of insulin resistant rats was partially reversed by chloroquine treatment. Moreover, insulin-mediated phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? in L6 cells was greatly enhanced by chloroquine. A substantial decrease in phosphorylation of glycogen synthase was also observed in chloroquine-treated L6 cells, indicating enhanced activity of glycogen synthase. Taken together, our results not only show that chloroquine is a novel activator of Akt that stimulates glucose uptake and glycogen synthase, but also validate chloroquine as a potential therapeutic agent for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Halaby MJ; Kastein BK; Yang DQ

2013-06-01

70

Calcium (hydrogen-1-malate) hexahydrate on Echeveria gibbiflora leaves and its effect on sperm cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Echeveria gibbiflora is a plant widely used for its contraceptive activity in traditional Mexican medicine. Data on calcium crystals in plants are not outstanding. In the case of the Echeveria gibbiflora leaves, however, its quality, quantity, and salt type are quite surprising; one striking result of its X-ray crystallographic data shows the presence of calcium bis (hydrogen-1-malate) hexahydrate [2(C4H5O(5)1), Ca(1)2+, 6(H2O1)]. This highly soluble compound might explain the rapid shape changes of calcium crystals. Because SEM-EDS analysis shows that calcium malate crystals were obtained in a highly pure state and the immobilization and agglutination pattern that OBACE show on human and bull spermatozoa are not found even when high concentrations of calcium bis (hydrogen-1-malate) hexahydrate salt are present it is not feasible to involucrate molecules as calcium malate as part of the OBACE contraceptive activity.

Reyes R; Sánchez-Vázquez ML; Merchant Larios H; Ortega Hernández A; Delgado NM

2005-11-01

71

Calcium (hydrogen-1-malate) hexahydrate on Echeveria gibbiflora leaves and its effect on sperm cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Echeveria gibbiflora is a plant widely used for its contraceptive activity in traditional Mexican medicine. Data on calcium crystals in plants are not outstanding. In the case of the Echeveria gibbiflora leaves, however, its quality, quantity, and salt type are quite surprising; one striking result of its X-ray crystallographic data shows the presence of calcium bis (hydrogen-1-malate) hexahydrate [2(C4H5O(5)1), Ca(1)2+, 6(H2O1)]. This highly soluble compound might explain the rapid shape changes of calcium crystals. Because SEM-EDS analysis shows that calcium malate crystals were obtained in a highly pure state and the immobilization and agglutination pattern that OBACE show on human and bull spermatozoa are not found even when high concentrations of calcium bis (hydrogen-1-malate) hexahydrate salt are present it is not feasible to involucrate molecules as calcium malate as part of the OBACE contraceptive activity. PMID:16214732

Reyes, R; Sánchez-Vázquez, M L; Merchant Larios, H; Ortega Hernández, A; Delgado, N M

72

Structural basis for substrate activation and regulation by cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) domains in cystathionine [beta]-synthase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The catalytic potential for H{sub 2}S biogenesis and homocysteine clearance converge at the active site of cystathionine {beta}-synthase (CBS), a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme. CBS catalyzes {beta}-replacement reactions of either serine or cysteine by homocysteine to give cystathionine and water or H{sub 2}S, respectively. In this study, high-resolution structures of the full-length enzyme from Drosophila in which a carbanion (1.70 {angstrom}) and an aminoacrylate intermediate (1.55 {angstrom}) have been captured are reported. Electrostatic stabilization of the zwitterionic carbanion intermediate is afforded by the close positioning of an active site lysine residue that is initially used for Schiff base formation in the internal aldimine and later as a general base. Additional stabilizing interactions between active site residues and the catalytic intermediates are observed. Furthermore, the structure of the regulatory 'energy-sensing' CBS domains, named after this protein, suggests a mechanism for allosteric activation by S-adenosylmethionine.

Koutmos, Markos; Kabil, Omer; Smith, Janet L.; Banerjee, Ruma (Michigan-Med)

2011-08-17

73

Circadian variation of nitric oxide synthase activity and cytosolic protein levels in rat brain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The circadian variation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and cytosolic protein content in the cerebellum, brainstem, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and the remainder of the brain were studied in rats. Both NOS activity and cytosolic protein concentrations were the highest during the dark period and lowest in the light period. Hypothalamic NOS activity exhibited the most pronounced change in activity with time increasing by approximately 120% from mid-light to mid-dark.

Ayers NA; Kapás L; Krueger JM

1996-01-01

74

Characterization of deficient heme synthase activity in protoporphyria with cultured skin fibroblasts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Heme synthase (ferrochelatase) activity, as determined by the chelation of ferrous iron to protoporphyrin or deuteroporphyrin, is reduced to 10-25% of normal in tissues of patients with protoporphyria. With cultured skin fibroblasts from seven patients with protoporphyria and six normal individuals, the present studies examined the enzymatic defect.Heme synthase activity in normal and protoporphyria fibroblasts had the same pH optimum, showed similar inhibition by divalent metals, and had the highest specific activity in the mitochondrial-enriched fraction. The ultrastructural features and other biochemical parameters of mitochondria were normal in protoporphyria cells, excluding a general mitochondrial defect. Measurement of the rate of deuteroheme formation at different concentrations of substrate demonstrated a significant reduction in the apparent K(m) for deuteroporphyrin in detergent-treated sonicates of protoporphyria fibroblasts compared to normal (7.5 +/- 0.9 muM, mean +/- SEM, vs. 17.4 +/- 1.8), as well as a decrease in the velocity of reaction (mean level was 21% of normal). Studies with intact cells, in which heme synthase activity was estimated indirectly, also indicated that the apparent K(m) for porphyrin substrate was significantly lower in protoporphyria lines. These data show that heme synthase in protoporphyria fibroblasts has markedly reduced catalytic activity despite an increased affinity for porphyrin substrate. This could be caused by either a change in the enzyme protein, or an alteration of its micro-environment.

Bloomer JR

1980-02-01

75

Phosphatidylinositol synthase activity from plant membrane fractions and from E. coli-expressed recombinant peptides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) synthase is a lipid-synthesizing enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the phospholipid, PtdIns. Its enzymatic properties have been studied in in vitro assays using either membrane-enriched fractions or the purified protein in reconstituted lipid vesicles as a source of enzyme. More recently the specificities in terms of substrate preferences have also been studied using the recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli. This chapter deals with the purification of membranes as a source of PtdIns synthase before focusing on the in vitro assays of the enzymatic activities of the protein and, briefly, on the analysis of the product.

Collin S; Cochet F

2013-01-01

76

Efficient production of active polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase in Escherichia coli by coexpression of molecular chaperones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The type I polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase from Cupriavidus necator was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli with simultaneous overexpression of chaperone proteins. Compared to expression of synthase alone (14.55 mg liter(-1)), coexpression with chaperones resulted in the production of larger total quantities of enzyme, including a larger proportion in the soluble fraction. The largest increase was seen when the GroEL/GroES system was coexpressed, resulting in approximately 6-fold-greater enzyme yields (82.37 mg liter(-1)) than in the absence of coexpressed chaperones. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was unaffected by coexpression with chaperones. Therefore, the increase in yield was attributed to an enhanced soluble fraction of synthase. Chaperones were also coexpressed with a polyhydroxyalkanoate production operon, resulting in the production of polymers with generally reduced molecular weights. This suggests a potential use for chaperones to control the physical properties of the polymer.

Thomson NM; Saika A; Ushimaru K; Sangiambut S; Tsuge T; Summers DK; Sivaniah E

2013-03-01

77

Efficient production of active polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase in Escherichia coli by coexpression of molecular chaperones.  

Science.gov (United States)

The type I polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase from Cupriavidus necator was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli with simultaneous overexpression of chaperone proteins. Compared to expression of synthase alone (14.55 mg liter(-1)), coexpression with chaperones resulted in the production of larger total quantities of enzyme, including a larger proportion in the soluble fraction. The largest increase was seen when the GroEL/GroES system was coexpressed, resulting in approximately 6-fold-greater enzyme yields (82.37 mg liter(-1)) than in the absence of coexpressed chaperones. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was unaffected by coexpression with chaperones. Therefore, the increase in yield was attributed to an enhanced soluble fraction of synthase. Chaperones were also coexpressed with a polyhydroxyalkanoate production operon, resulting in the production of polymers with generally reduced molecular weights. This suggests a potential use for chaperones to control the physical properties of the polymer. PMID:23335776

Thomson, Nicholas M; Saika, Azusa; Ushimaru, Kazunori; Sangiambut, Smith; Tsuge, Takeharu; Summers, David K; Sivaniah, Easan

2013-01-18

78

Photosynthetic metabolism of malate and aspartate in Flaveria trinervia a C/sub 4/ dicot  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

C/sub 4/ species are known to vary in their apparent relative use of malate and aspartate to mediate carbon flux through the C/sub 4/ cycle. These studies investigate some of the adjustments in photosynthetic carbon metabolism that occur during a dark to light transition and during expansion of leaves of Flaveria trinervia, a C/sub 4/ dicot. Enzyme localization studies with isolated leaf mesophyll and bundle sheath protoplasts, indicated that both C/sub 4/ acids are formed in the mesophyll chloroplast, and that aspartate is metabolized to malate in the bundle sheath chloroplast prior to decaroxylation there. During photosynthetic induction, the partitioning of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ between malate and aspartate showed a single oscillation of increased aspartate labelling after 5 min of illumination. Turnover of (4-14C) (malate plus aspartate) was slow initially during illumination, prior to establishment of active pools of C/sub 4/ cycle metabolites.

Moore, B.A.

1986-01-01

79

Photosynthetic metabolism of malate and aspartate in Flaveria trinervia a C4 dicot  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

C4 species are known to vary in their apparent relative use of malate and aspartate to mediate carbon flux through the C4 cycle. These studies investigate some of the adjustments in photosynthetic carbon metabolism that occur during a dark to light transition and during expansion of leaves of Flaveria trinervia, a C4 dicot. Enzyme localization studies with isolated leaf mesophyll and bundle sheath protoplasts, indicated that both C4 acids are formed in the mesophyll chloroplast, and that aspartate is metabolized to malate in the bundle sheath chloroplast prior to decaroxylation there. During photosynthetic induction, the partitioning of 14CO2 between malate and aspartate showed a single oscillation of increased aspartate labelling after 5 min of illumination. Turnover of [4-14C] (malate plus aspartate) was slow initially during illumination, prior to establishment of active pools of C4 cycle metabolites

1986-01-01

80

Inhibition of Thromboxane Synthase Activity Improves Glioblastoma Response to Alkylation Chemotherapy1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thromboxane synthase (TXSA), an enzyme of the arachidonic acid metabolism, is upregulated in human glial tumors and is involved in glioma progression. Here, we analyzed the in vitro and in vivo effects of pharmacological inhibition of TXSA activity on human glioblastoma cells. Furegrelate, a specifi...

Schmidt, Nils Ole; Ziu, Mateo; Cargioli, Theresa; Westphal, Manfred; Giese, Alf; Black, Peter M; Carroll, Rona S

 
 
 
 
81

LIGHT REGULATION OF SUCROSE-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE ACTIVITY IN THE GRASS DESCHAMPSIA ANTARCTICA  

Science.gov (United States)

Deschampsia antarctica, a freezing-tolerant grass that has colonized the Maritime Antarctic, has an unusually high content of sucrose in leaves, reaching up to 36% of dry weight. Sucrose (Suc) accumulation has often been linked with increased sucrose phosphate synthase SPS (EC: 2.4.1.1.14) activity...

82

Active site mutagenesis of the putative Diels-Alderase macrophomate synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the macrophomate synthase active site is rich in potential functional groups, site-directed mutagenesis shows that only three residues are absolutely required for catalysis of oxaloacetate decarboxylation and trapping of the resulting enolate with a 2-pyrone; the other residues that line the binding pocket are surprisingly tolerant to substitution. PMID:17457413

Serafimov, Jörg M; Lehmann, Hans Christian; Oikawa, Hideaki; Hilvert, Donald

2007-03-28

83

Active site mutagenesis of the putative Diels-Alderase macrophomate synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the macrophomate synthase active site is rich in potential functional groups, site-directed mutagenesis shows that only three residues are absolutely required for catalysis of oxaloacetate decarboxylation and trapping of the resulting enolate with a 2-pyrone; the other residues that line the binding pocket are surprisingly tolerant to substitution.

Serafimov JM; Lehmann HC; Oikawa H; Hilvert D

2007-05-01

84

Conjugated bile acids regulate hepatocyte glycogen synthase activity in vitro and in vivo via Galphai signaling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The regulation of glycogen synthase activity by bile acids in primary hepatocytes and in the intact liver was investigated. Bile acids (deoxycholic acid, DCA; taurocholic acid, TCA) activated AKT and glycogen synthase (GS) in primary rat hepatocytes. Incubation with a phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase inhibitor or expression of dominant-negative AKT in primary rat hepatocytes abolished activation of AKT and GS by DCA and TCA. TCA, but not DCA, activated Galpha(i) proteins in primary rat hepatocytes. Treatment of cells with pertussis toxin or expression of dominant-negative Galpha(i) blocked TCA-induced activation of AKT and of GS but did not alter AKT or GS activation caused by DCA. TCA caused activation of AKT and GS in intact rat liver. Expression of dominant-negative Galpha(i) reduced TCA-induced activation of AKT and of GS in intact rat liver. Together, our findings demonstrate that bile acids are physiological regulators of glycogen synthase in rat liver and that conjugated bile acids use a Galpha(i)-coupled G protein-coupled receptor to regulate GS activity in vitro and in vivo.

Fang Y; Studer E; Mitchell C; Grant S; Pandak WM; Hylemon PB; Dent P

2007-04-01

85

Functional identification of valerena-1,10-diene synthase, a terpene synthase catalyzing a unique chemical cascade in the biosynthesis of biologically active sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Valerian is an herbal preparation from the roots of Valeriana officinalis used as an anxiolytic and sedative and in the treatment of insomnia. The biological activities of valerian are attributed to valerenic acid and its putative biosynthetic precursor valerenadiene, sesquiterpenes, found in V. officinalis roots. These sesquiterpenes retain an isobutenyl side chain whose origin has been long recognized as enigmatic because a chemical rationalization for their biosynthesis has not been obvious. Using recently developed metabolomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified seven V. officinalis terpene synthase genes (VoTPSs), two that were functionally characterized as monoterpene synthases and three that preferred farnesyl diphosphate, the substrate for sesquiterpene synthases. The reaction products for two of the sesquiterpene synthases exhibiting root-specific expression were characterized by a combination of GC-MS and NMR in comparison to the terpenes accumulating in planta. VoTPS7 encodes for a synthase that biosynthesizes predominately germacrene C, whereas VoTPS1 catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to valerena-1,10-diene. Using a yeast expression system, specific labeled [(13)C]acetate, and NMR, we investigated the catalytic mechanism for VoTPS1 and provide evidence for the involvement of a caryophyllenyl carbocation, a cyclobutyl intermediate, in the biosynthesis of valerena-1,10-diene. We suggest a similar mechanism for the biosynthesis of several other biologically related isobutenyl-containing sesquiterpenes.

Yeo YS; Nybo SE; Chittiboyina AG; Weerasooriya AD; Wang YH; Góngora-Castillo E; Vaillancourt B; Buell CR; DellaPenna D; Celiz MD; Jones AD; Wurtele ES; Ransom N; Dudareva N; Shaaban KA; Tibrewal N; Chandra S; Smillie T; Khan IA; Coates RM; Watt DS; Chappell J

2013-02-01

86

Respiratory properties and malate metabolism in Percoll-purified mitochondria isolated from pineapple, Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. cv. smooth cayenne.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An investigation was made of the respiratory properties and the role of the mitochondria isolated from one phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK)-CAM plant Ananas comosus (pineapple) in malate metabolism during CAM phase III. Pineapple mitochondria showed very high malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and low malic enzyme (ME) and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activities. The mitochondria readily oxidized succinate and NADH with high rates and coupling, while they only oxidized NADPH in the presence of Ca(2+). Pineapple mitochondria oxidized malate with low rates under most assay conditions, despite increasing malate concentrations, optimizing pH, providing cofactors such as coenzyme A, thiamine pyrophosphate, and NAD(+), and supplying individually external glutamate or GOT. However, providing glutamate and GOT simultaneously strongly increased the rates of malate oxidation. The OAA easily permeated the mitochondrial membranes to import into or export out of pineapple mitochondria during malate oxidation, but the mitochondria did not consume external Asp or alpha-KG. These results suggest that OAA played a significant role in the mitochondrial malate metabolism of pineapple, in which malate was mainly oxidized by active mMDH to produce OAA which could be exported outside the mitochondria via a malate-OAA shuttle. Cytosolic GOT then consumed OAA by transamination in the presence of glutamate, leading to a large increase in respiration rates. The malate-OAA shuttle might operate as a supporting system for decarboxylation in phase III of PCK-CAM pineapple. This shuttle system may be important in pineapple to provide a source of energy and substrate OAA for cytosolic PCK activity during the day when cytosolic OAA and ATP was limited for the overall decarboxylation process.

Hong HT; Nose A; Agarie S

2004-10-01

87

Fluorescence immunohistochemical localization of malate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in watermelon cotyledons : a developmental study of glyoxysomes and mitochondria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Monospecific antibodies to glyoxysomal, mitochondrial, and cytosolic I malate dehydrogenase were used for the fluorescence immunohistochemical localization of these isoenzymes in dark-grown watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) cotyledons. It was demonstrated that, with cell organelles isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, antibodies to glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase were specific markers for glyoxysomes, and similarly, antibodies to mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase were markers for mitochondria. The time course of the glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase appearance and decline was not synchronous for the individual tissues and differed completely from that of the mitochondria. The cytosolic malate dehydrogenase I was confined to restricted regions of the lower epidermis. The activity which was definitively localized outside the cell organelles decreased during the first days of germination.

Sautter C; Hock B

1982-10-01

88

Fluorescence immunohistochemical localization of malate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in watermelon cotyledons : a developmental study of glyoxysomes and mitochondria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monospecific antibodies to glyoxysomal, mitochondrial, and cytosolic I malate dehydrogenase were used for the fluorescence immunohistochemical localization of these isoenzymes in dark-grown watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) cotyledons. It was demonstrated that, with cell organelles isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, antibodies to glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase were specific markers for glyoxysomes, and similarly, antibodies to mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase were markers for mitochondria. The time course of the glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase appearance and decline was not synchronous for the individual tissues and differed completely from that of the mitochondria. The cytosolic malate dehydrogenase I was confined to restricted regions of the lower epidermis. The activity which was definitively localized outside the cell organelles decreased during the first days of germination. PMID:16662632

Sautter, C; Hock, B

1982-10-01

89

Reduced activity of ATP synthase in mitochondria causes cytoplasmic male sterility in chili pepper.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait characterized by the inability to produce functional pollen. The CMS-associated protein Orf507 (reported as Orf456 in previous researches) was previously identified as a candidate gene for mediating male sterility in pepper. Here, we performed yeast two-hybrid analysis to screen for interacting proteins, and found that the ATP synthase 6 kDa subunit containing a mitochondrial signal peptide (MtATP6) specifically interacted with Orf507. In addition, the two proteins were found to be interacted in vivo using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays. Further functional characterization of Orf507 revealed that the encoded protein is toxic to bacterial cells. Analysis of tissue-specific expression of ATP synthase 6 kDa showed that the transcription level was much lower in anthers of the CMS line than in their wild type counterparts. In CMS plants, ATP synthase activity and content were reduced by more than half compared to that of the normal plants. Taken together, it can be concluded that reduced ATP synthase activity and ATP content might have affected pollen development in CMS plants. Here, we hypothesize that Orf507 might cause MtATP6 to be nonfunctional by changing the latter's conformation or producing an inhibitor that prevents the normal functioning of MtATP6. Thus, further functional analysis of mitochondrial Orf507 will provide insights into the mechanisms underlying CMS in plants.

Li J; Pandeya D; Jo YD; Liu WY; Kang BC

2013-04-01

90

Malate-Induced Hysteresis of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase from Crassula argentea1  

Science.gov (United States)

The hysteretic behavior of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase from Crassula argentea has been investigated. Incubation of the purified enzyme with the inhibitor malate prior to starting the reaction by the addition of PEP resulted in a kinetic lag of several minutes duration. The length of the lag was inversely proportional to the enzyme concentration, suggesting subunit association-dissociation as the hysteretic mechanism, rather than a mechanism based on a slow conformational change in the enzyme. Dynamic laser light scattering measurements also support this conclusion, showing that the diffusion coefficient of malate-incubated enzyme slowly decreased after the reaction was started by the addition of PEP. Lags were observed only at pH values of 7.5 or lower. Maximum lags were observed after 10 min of preincubation with malate. Fumarate and succinate, which like malate caused mixed inhibition, also caused lags. In contrast, no lag was induced by malate in the presence of PEP or by the competitive inhibitor phosphoglycolate. The activators glucose 6-phosphate and malonate decreased the malate-induced lag.

Ngam-ek, Apinya; Seery, Thomas A.P.; Amis, Eric J.; Grover, Scott D.

1989-01-01

91

Spermine synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spermine is present in many organisms including animals, plants, some fungi, some archaea, and some bacteria. It is synthesized by spermine synthase, a highly specific aminopropyltransferase. This review describes spermine synthase structure, genetics, and function. Structural and biochemical studies reveal that human spermine synthase is an obligate dimer. Each monomer contains a C-terminal domain where the active site is located, a central linking domain that also forms the lid of the catalytic domain, and an N-terminal domain that is structurally very similar to S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. Gyro mice, which have an X-chromosomal deletion including the spermine synthase (SMS) gene, lack all spermine and have a greatly reduced size, sterility, deafness, neurological abnormalities, and a tendency to sudden death. Mutations in the human SMS lead to a rise in spermidine and reduction of spermine causing Snyder-Robinson syndrome, an X-linked recessive condition characterized by mental retardation, skeletal defects, hypotonia, and movement disorders.

Pegg AE; Michael AJ

2010-01-01

92

Factors influencing the utilisation of L-malate by yeasts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utilisation of L-malate and the effect of glucose concentration on malate utilisation under semi-anaerobic conditions were investigated in three yeasts unable to grow on malate as sole carbon source (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces malidevorans, Zygosaccharomyces bailii) and two yeasts able to utilise the TCA cycle intermediate as sole carbon source (Pichia stipitis and Pachysolen tannophilus). Utilisation of malate by both Schiz. malidevorans and Z. bailii was reduced at high and low levels of glucose. In the absence of glucose, P. stipitis and Pa. tannophilus utilised malate rapidly; however, their utilisation was drastically reduced in the presence of glucose, suggesting that malate utilisation is under catabolite repression.

Rodriguez SB; Thornton RJ

1990-10-01

93

Constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) activity in Langerhans islets from streptozotocin diabetic rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nitric oxide synthase activity was measured in Langerhans islets isolated from control and streptozotocin diabetic rats. The activity of the enzyme was linear up to 150 µg of protein from control rats and was optimal at 0.1 µM calcium, when it was measured after 45 min of incubation at 37oC in the presence of 200 µM arginine. Specific activity of the enzyme was 25 x 10-4 nmol [3H]citrulline 45 min-1 mg protein-1. Streptozotocin diabetic rats exhibited less enzyme activity both in total pancreas homogenate and in isolated Langerhans islets when compared to control animals. Nitric oxide synthase activity measured in control and diabetic rats 15 days after the last streptozotocin injection in the second group of animals corresponded only to a constitutive enzyme since it was not inhibited by aminoguanidine in any of the mentioned groups. Hyperglycemia in diabetic rats may be the consequence of impaired insulin release caused at least in part by reduced positive modulation mediated by constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity, which was dramatically reduced in islets severely damaged after streptozotocin treatment.

Fonovich de Schroeder T.M.; Carattino M.D.; Frontera M.; Catanzaro O.L.

1998-01-01

94

Metal active site elasticity linked to activation of homocysteine in methionine synthases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Enzymes possessing catalytic zinc centers perform a variety of fundamental processes in nature, including methyl transfer to thiols. Cobalamin-independent (MetE) and cobalamin-dependent (MetH) methionine synthases are two such enzyme families. Although they perform the same net reaction, transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine (Hcy) to form methionine, they display markedly different catalytic strategies, modular organization, and active site zinc centers. Here we report crystal structures of zinc-replete MetE and MetH, both in the presence and absence of Hcy. Structural investigation of the catalytic zinc sites of these two methyltransferases reveals an unexpected inversion of zinc geometry upon binding of Hcy and displacement of an endogenous ligand in both enzymes. In both cases a significant movement of the zinc relative to the protein scaffold accompanies inversion. These structures provide new information on the activation of thiols by zinc-containing enzymes and have led us to propose a paradigm for the mechanism of action of the catalytic zinc sites in these and related methyltransferases. Specifically, zinc is mobile in the active sites of MetE and MetH, and its dynamic nature helps facilitate the active site conformational changes necessary for thiol activation and methyl transfer.

Koutmos, Markos; Pejchal, Robert; Bomer, Theresa M.; Matthews, Rowena G.; Smith, Janet L.; Ludwig, Martha L. (Michigan)

2008-04-02

95

Factors affecting the activity of citrate synthase of Acetobacter xylinum and its possible regulatory role.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The citrate synthase activity of Acetobacter xylinum cells grown on glucose was the same as of cells grown on intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The activity of citrate synthase in extracts is compatible with the overall rate of acetate oxidation in vivo. The enzyme was purified 47-fold from sonic extracts and its molecular weight was determined to be 280000 by gel filtration. It has an optimum activity at pH 8.4. Reaction rates with the purified enzyme were hyperbolic functions of both acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. The Km for acetyl-CoA is 18 mum and that for oxaloacetate 8.7 mum. The enzyme is inhibited by ATP according to classical kinetic patterns. This inhibition is competitive with respect to acetyl-CoA (Ki = 0.9 mM) and non-competitive with respect to oxaloacetate. It is not affected by changes in pH and ionic strength and is not relieved by an excess of Mg2+ ions. Unlike other Gram-negative bacteria, the A. xylinum enzyme is not inhibited by NADH, but is inhibited by high concentrations of NADPH. The activity of the enzyme varies with energy charge in a manner consistent with its role in energy metabolism. It is suggested that the flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle in A. xylinum is regulated by modulation of citrate synthase activity in response to the energy state of the cells.

Swissa M; Benziman M

1976-02-01

96

Role of Arginine-304 in the Diphosphate-Triggered Active Site Closure Mechanism of Trichodiene Synthase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The X-ray crystal structures of R304K trichodiene synthase and its complexes with inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and aza analogues of the bisabolyl carbocation intermediate are reported. The R304K substitution does not cause large changes in the overall structure in comparison with the wild-type enzyme. The complexes with (R)- and (S)-azabisabolenes and PPi bind three Mg2+ ions, and each undergoes a diphosphate-triggered conformational change that caps the active site cavity. This conformational change is only slightly attenuated compared to that of the wild-type enzyme complexed with Mg{sup 2+}{sub 3-}PP{sub i}, in which R304 donates hydrogen bonds to PP{sub i} and D101. In R304K trichodiene synthase, K304 does not engage in any hydrogen bond interactions in the unliganded state and it donates a hydrogen bond to only PP{sub i} in the complex with (R)-azabisabolene; K304 makes no hydrogen bond contacts in its complex with PP{sub i} and (S)-azabisabolene. Thus, although the R304-D101 hydrogen bond interaction stabilizes diphosphate-triggered active site closure, it is not required for Mg{sup 2+}{sub 3-}PP{sub i} binding. Nevertheless, since R304K trichodiene synthase generates aberrant cyclic terpenoids with a 5000-fold reduction in kcat/KM, it is clear that a properly formed R304-D101 hydrogen bond is required in the enzyme-substrate complex to stabilize the proper active site contour, which in turn facilitates cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate for the exclusive formation of trichodiene. Structural analysis of the R304K mutant and comparison with the monoterpene cyclase (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase suggest that the significant loss in activity results from compromised activation of the PP{sub i} leaving group.

Vedula,L.; Cane, D.; Christianson, D.

2005-01-01

97

Are rod outer segment ATP-ase and ATP-synthase activity expression of the same protein?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vertebrate retinal rod outer segments (OS) consist of a stack of disks surrounded by the plasma membrane, where phototransduction takes place. Energetic metabolism in rod OS remains obscure. Literature described a so-called Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activity, while our previous results demonstrated the presence of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in OS, sustained by an ATP synthetic activity. Here we propose that the OS ATPase and ATP synthase are the expression of the same protein, i.e., of F1Fo-ATP synthase. Imaging on bovine retinal sections showed that some OXPHOS proteins are expressed in the OS. Biochemical data on bovine purified rod OS, characterized for purity, show an ATP synthase activity, inhibited by classical F1Fo-ATP synthase inhibitors. Moreover, OS possess a pH-dependent ATP hydrolysis, inhibited by pH values below 7, suggestive of the functioning of the inhibitor of F1 (IF1) protein. WB confirmed the presence of IF1 in OS, substantiating the expression of F1Fo ATP synthase in OS. Data suggest that the OS F1Fo ATP synthase is able to hydrolyze or synthesize ATP, depending on in vitro or in vivo conditions and that the role of IF1 would be pivotal in the prevention of the reversal of ATP synthase in OS, for example during hypoxia, granting photoreceptor survival.

Calzia D; Candiani S; Garbarino G; Caicci F; Ravera S; Bruschi M; Manni L; Morelli A; Traverso CE; Candiano G; Tacchetti C; Panfoli I

2013-07-01

98

Growth of Ca-D-malate crystals in a bioreactor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To develop a bioreactor for solid-to-solid conversions, the conversion of solid Ca-maleate to solid Ca-D-malate by permeabilized Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes was studied. In a bioreactor seeded with product (Ca-D-malate) crystals, growth of Ca-D-malate crystals is the last step in the solid-to-soli...

Michielsen, M.J.F.; Frielink, C.; Wijffels, R.H.; Tramper, J.; Beeftink, H.H.

99

Modulation of nitric oxide synthase activity by ibuprofen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inhibition of NO synthesis represents a new therapeutical approach in the treatment of inflammation. Clinical use of NOS inhibitors will necessitate the design of drugs selective for iNOS, because inhibition of constitutive endothelial NOS may cause adverse cardiovascular side effects. This study examines the effect of ibuprofen and its stereoeisomeric components on the activation of iNOS and cNOS as well as on the NO production by human umbilical vein endothelial cells. At therapeutic concentrations Ibuprofen activated iNOS and inhibited NOS. In endothelial cell culture experiments activation of NO production was seen especially at supratherapeutic ibuprofen concentrations. Both stereoisomeric components of ibuprofen showed comparable effects. This drug can therefore not be used for the selective inhibition of iNOS. PMID:9276767

Menzel, J E; Kolarz, G

1997-08-01

100

Regulation of aerobic and anaerobic D-malate metabolism of Escherichia coli by the LysR-type regulator DmlR (YeaT).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Escherichia coli K-12 is able to grow under aerobic conditions on D-malate using DctA for D-malate uptake and the D-malate dehydrogenase DmlA (formerly YeaU) for converting D-malate to pyruvate. Induction of dmlA encoding DmlA required an intact dmlR (formerly yeaT) gene, which encodes DmlR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator. Induction of dmlA by DmlR required the presence of D-malate or L- or meso-tartrate, but only D-malate supported aerobic growth. The regulator of general C(4)-dicarboxylate metabolism (DcuS-DcuR two-component system) had some effect on dmlA expression. The anaerobic L-tartrate regulator TtdR or the oxygen sensors ArcB-ArcA and FNR did not have a major effect on dmlA expression. DmlR has a high level of sequence identity (49%) with TtdR, the L- and meso-tartrate-specific regulator of L-tartrate fermentation in E. coli. dmlA was also expressed at high levels under anaerobic conditions, and the bacteria had D-malate dehydrogenase activity. These bacteria, however, were not able to grow on D-malate since the anaerobic pathway for D-malate degradation has a predicted yield of < or = 0 ATP/mol D-malate. Slow anaerobic growth on D-malate was observed when glycerol was also provided as an electron donor, and D-malate was used in fumarate respiration. The expression of dmlR is subject to negative autoregulation. The network for regulation and coordination of the central and peripheral pathways for C(4)-dicarboxylate metabolism by the regulators DcuS-DcuR, DmlR, and TtdR is discussed.

Lukas H; Reimann J; Kim OB; Grimpo J; Unden G

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity involves in the protective effect of ascorbic acid against penicillin-induced epileptiform activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ascorbic acid and nitric oxide are known to play important roles in epilepsy. The aim of present study was to identify the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the anticonvulsant effects of ascorbic acid on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. Intracortical injection of penicillin (500, International Units (IU)) into the left sensorimotor cortex induced epileptiform activity within 2-5 min. Thirty minutes after penicillin injection, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 100mg/kg), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, 40 mg/kg), NO substrate, l-arginine (500 mg/kg) were administered with the most effective dose of ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.). The administration of l-arginine significantly decreased the frequency of epileptiform activity while administration of l-NAME did not influence the mean frequency of epileptiform activity. Injection of 7-NI decreased the mean frequency of epileptiform activity but did not influence amplitude. Ascorbic acid decreased both the mean frequency and amplitude of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. The application of l-NAME partially and temporarily reversed the anticonvulsant effects of ascorbic acid. The results support the hypothesis of neuro-protective role for NO and ascorbic acid. The protective effect of ascorbic acid against epileptiform activity was partially and temporarily reversed by nonspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NAME, but not selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-NI, indicating that ascorbic acid needs endothelial-NOS/NO route to decrease penicillin-induced epileptiform activity.

Yildirim M; Ayyildiz M; Agar E

2010-03-01

102

Correlation of Transcription of MALAT-1, a Novel Noncoding RNA, with Deregulated Expression of Tumor Suppressor p53 in Small DNA Tumor Virus Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript (MALAT)-1 is known to be consistently upregulated in several epithelial malignancies, little is known about its function or regulation. We therefore examined the relationship between MALAT-1 expression and candidate modulators such as DNA tumor virus oncoproteins human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 E6 and E7, BK virus T antigen (BKVTAg), mouse polyoma virus middle T antigen (MPVmTAg) and tumor suppressor genes p53 and pRb. Using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, MALAT-1 was shown to be increased in viral oncongene-expressing salivary gland biopsies from humans and mice. The results also indicated that MALAT-1 transcripts and promoter activity were increased in vitro when viral oncongene-expressing plasmids were introduced into different cell types. These same viral oncogenes in addition to increasing MALAT-1 transcription have also been shown to inhibit p53 and/or pRb function. In p53 mutant or inactive cell lines MALAT-1 was also shown to be highly upregulated. We hypothesize that there is a correlation between MALAT-1 over-expression and p53 deregulation. In conclusion, we show that disruption of p53, by both polyoma and papilloma oncoproteins appear to play an important role in the up-regulation of MALAT-1. MALAT-1 might therefore represent a biomarker for p53 deregulation within malignancies.

Liesl K. Jeffers; Kaiwen Duan; Lesley G. Ellies; William T. Seaman; Raquel A. Burger-Calderon; Luda B. Diatchenko; Jennifer Webster-Cyriaque

2013-01-01

103

Aristolochene synthase: mechanistic analysis of active site residues by site-directed mutagenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incubation of farnesyl diphosphate (1) with Penicillium roqueforti aristolochene synthase yielded (+)-aristolochene (4), accompanied by minor quantities of the proposed intermediate (S)-(-)germacrene A (2) and the side-product (-)-valencene (5) in a 94:4:2 ratio. By contrast, the closely related aristolochene synthase from Aspergillus terreus cyclized farnesyl diphosphate only to (+)-aristolochene (4). Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues in two highly conserved Mg(2+)-binding domains led in most cases to reductions in both k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m) as well as increases in the proportion of (S)-(-)germacrene A (2), with the E252Q mutant of the P. roqueforti aristolochene synthase producing only (-)-2. The P. roqueforti D115N, N244L, and S248A/E252D mutants were inactive, as was the A. terreus mutant E227Q. The P. roqueforti mutant Y92F displayed a 100-fold reduction in k(cat) that was offset by a 50-fold decrease in K(m), resulting in a relatively minor 2-fold decrease in catalytic efficiency, k(cat)/K(m). The finding that Y92F produced (+)-aristolochene (4) as 81% of the product, accompanied by 7% 5 and 12% 2, rules out Tyr-92 as the active site Lewis acid that is responsible for protonation of the germacrene A intermediate in the formation of aristolochene (4). PMID:15186158

Felicetti, Brunella; Cane, David E

2004-06-16

104

Aristolochene synthase: mechanistic analysis of active site residues by site-directed mutagenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Incubation of farnesyl diphosphate (1) with Penicillium roqueforti aristolochene synthase yielded (+)-aristolochene (4), accompanied by minor quantities of the proposed intermediate (S)-(-)germacrene A (2) and the side-product (-)-valencene (5) in a 94:4:2 ratio. By contrast, the closely related aristolochene synthase from Aspergillus terreus cyclized farnesyl diphosphate only to (+)-aristolochene (4). Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues in two highly conserved Mg(2+)-binding domains led in most cases to reductions in both k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m) as well as increases in the proportion of (S)-(-)germacrene A (2), with the E252Q mutant of the P. roqueforti aristolochene synthase producing only (-)-2. The P. roqueforti D115N, N244L, and S248A/E252D mutants were inactive, as was the A. terreus mutant E227Q. The P. roqueforti mutant Y92F displayed a 100-fold reduction in k(cat) that was offset by a 50-fold decrease in K(m), resulting in a relatively minor 2-fold decrease in catalytic efficiency, k(cat)/K(m). The finding that Y92F produced (+)-aristolochene (4) as 81% of the product, accompanied by 7% 5 and 12% 2, rules out Tyr-92 as the active site Lewis acid that is responsible for protonation of the germacrene A intermediate in the formation of aristolochene (4).

Felicetti B; Cane DE

2004-06-01

105

Methods for measuring Class I membrane-bound hyaluronan synthase activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Detecting and quantifying hyaluronan (HA) made by Class I HA synthase (HAS) and determining the level of activity of these membrane-bound enzymes is critical in studies to understand the normal biology of HA and how changes in HAS activity and HA levels or size are important in inflammatory and other diseases, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Unlike the products made by the vast majority of glycosyltransferases, HA products are more complicated since they are made as a heterogeneous population of sizes spanning a broad mass range. Three radioactive and nonradioactive assay methods are described that can give the amount of HA made with or without information about the distribution of product sizes.

Weigel PH; Padgett-McCue AJ; Baggenstoss BA

2013-01-01

106

Nitric oxide synthase activity and endogenous inhibitors in rats recovered from allergic encephalomyelitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english We have previously reported that in comparison with normal rats, the presence of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) leads to decreased endogenous inhibitory activity (EIA) of Ca2+-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in both brain and serum, and increased expression of protein 3-nitrotyrosine (NT) in brain. In this work we show that animals recovered from the clinical signs of EAE are not different from controls in terms of either brain NOS activity, EIA of NO (more) S, or NT expression. These results suggest that parallel to the reversal of the disease symptoms, a normalization of the production of nitric oxide and related species occurs.

Teixeira, SA; Varriano, AA; Dias, AA; Martins Porto, R; Muscará, MN

2005-03-01

107

Nitric oxide synthase activity and endogenous inhibitors in rats recovered from allergic encephalomyelitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have previously reported that in comparison with normal rats, the presence of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) leads to decreased endogenous inhibitory activity (EIA) of Ca2+-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in both brain and serum, and increased expression of protein 3-nitrotyrosine (NT) in brain. In this work we show that animals recovered from the clinical signs of EAE are not different from controls in terms of either brain NOS activity, EIA of NOS, or NT expression. These results suggest that parallel to the reversal of the disease symptoms, a normalization of the production of nitric oxide and related species occurs.

SA Teixeira; AA Varriano; AA Dias; R Martins Porto; MN Muscará

2005-01-01

108

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha phosphorylates and regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Osteoblast-specific transcription factor Osterix is a zinc-finger transcription factor that required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation. The function of Osterix can be modulated by post-translational modification. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha (GSK3?) is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in the Wnt signaling pathways and is implicated in the control of several regulatory proteins and transcription factors. In the present study, we investigated how GSK3? regulates Osterix during osteoblast differentiation. Wide type GSK3? up-regulated the protein level, protein stability and transcriptional activity of Osterix. These results suggest that GSK3? regulates osteogenic activity of Osterix.

Li H; Jeong HM; Choi YH; Lee SH; Jeong HG; Jeong TC; Lee KY

2013-05-01

109

Angiostatin-like activity of a monoclonal antibody to the catalytic subunit of F1F0 ATP synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antiangiogenic protein angiostatin inhibits ATP synthase on the endothelial cell surface, blocking cellular proliferation. To examine the specificity of this interaction, we generated monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against ATP synthase. mAb directed against the beta-catalytic subunit of ATP synthase (MAb3D5AB1) inhibits the activity of the F(1) domain of ATP synthase and recognizes the catalytic beta-subunit of ATP synthase. We located the antibody recognition site of MAb3D5AB1 in domains containing the active site of the beta-subunit. MAb3D5AB1 also binds to purified Escherichia coli F(1) with an affinity 25-fold higher than the affinity of angiostatin for this protein. MAb3D5AB1 inhibits the hydrolytic activity of F(1) ATP synthase at lower concentrations than angiostatin. Like angiostatin, MAb3D5AB1 inhibits ATP generation by ATP synthase on the endothelial cell surface in acidic conditions, the typical tumor microenvironment where cell surface ATP synthase exhibits greater activity. MAb3D5AB1 disrupts tube formation and decreases intracellular pH in endothelial cells exposed to low extracellular pH. Neither angiostatin nor MAb3D5AB1 showed an antiangiogenic effect in the corneal neovascularization assay; however, both were effective in the low-pH environment of the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay. Thus, MAb3D5AB1 shows angiostatin-like properties superior to angiostatin and may be exploited in cancer chemotherapy.

Chi SL; Wahl ML; Mowery YM; Shan S; Mukhopadhyay S; Hilderbrand SC; Kenan DJ; Lipes BD; Johnson CE; Marusich MF; Capaldi RA; Dewhirst MW; Pizzo SV

2007-05-01

110

[Characterization of Escherichia hermannii by electrophoresis of esterases, acid phosphatase and glutamate and malate dehydrogenases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Esterases, acid phosphatase and glutamate and malate dehydrogenases of 11 strains of Escherichia hermannii were analysed by horizontal electrophoresis in polyacrylamide agarose gel. Seven esterase bands were defined by their range of activity on synthetic substrates and their sensitivity or resistance to di-isopropyl fluorophosphate. These bands were different in activity and in mobility from those produced by E. coli strains. On the basis of variations in mobility of glutamate and malate dehydrogenases and in the number and mobility of esterases, the strains were divided into 3 zymotypes. PMID:3426158

Goullet, P; Picard, B; Richard, C

111

[Characterization of Escherichia hermannii by electrophoresis of esterases, acid phosphatase and glutamate and malate dehydrogenases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Esterases, acid phosphatase and glutamate and malate dehydrogenases of 11 strains of Escherichia hermannii were analysed by horizontal electrophoresis in polyacrylamide agarose gel. Seven esterase bands were defined by their range of activity on synthetic substrates and their sensitivity or resistance to di-isopropyl fluorophosphate. These bands were different in activity and in mobility from those produced by E. coli strains. On the basis of variations in mobility of glutamate and malate dehydrogenases and in the number and mobility of esterases, the strains were divided into 3 zymotypes.

Goullet P; Picard B; Richard C

1986-05-01

112

Characterization and sequencing of the active site of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase the key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis, is inactivated by its substrate S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Apple ACC synthase was purified with an immunoaffinity gel, and its active site was probed with NaB3H4 or Ado[14C]Met. Peptide sequencing of both 3H- and 14C-labeled peptides revealed a common dodecapeptide of Ser-Leu-Ser-Xaa-Asp-Leu-Gly-Leu-Pro-Gly-Phe-Arg, where Xaa was the modified, radioactive residue in each case. Acid hydrolysis of the 3H-labeled enzyme released radioactive N-pyridoxyllysine, indicating that the active-site peptide contained lysine at position 4. Mass spectrometry of the 14C-labeled peptide indicated a protonated molecular ion at m/z 1390.6, from which the mass of Xaa was calculated to be 229, a number that is equivalent to the mass of a lysine residue alkylated by the 2-aminobutyrate portion of AdoMet, as we previously proposed. These results indicate that the same active-site lysine binds the PLP and convalently links to the 2-aminobutyrate portion of AdoMet during inactivation. The active site of tomato ACC synthase was probed in the same manner with Ado [14C]Met. Sequencing of the tomato active-site peptide revealed two highly conserved dodecapeptides; the minor peptide possessed a sequence identical to that of the apple enzyme, whereas the major peptide differed from the minor peptide in that methionine replaced leucine at position 6.

1990-01-01

113

A novel aphrodisiac compound from an orchid that activates nitric oxide synthases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitric oxide (NO) is known to have roles in several crucial biological functions including vasodilation and penile erection. There are neuronal, endothelial and inducible NO synthases that influence the levels of NO in tissues and blood. NO activates guanylate cyclase and thereby increases the levels of cyclic GMP (cGMP). Viagra (sildenafil), a top selling drug in the world for erectile dysfunction, inhibits phosphodiesterase-5, which hydrolyses cGMP to GMP. Thus, it fosters an NO-mediated increase in the levels of cGMP, which mediates erectile function. Here, we show the aphrodisiac activity of a novel chemical isolate from the flowers of an epiphytic orchid, Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) ex Don, which activates neuronal and endothelial, but not inducible, NO synthases. The aphrodisiac activity is caused by an increase in the level of NO in corpus cavernosum. The drug increases blood levels of NO as early as 30?min after oral administration. The active compound was isolated by column chromatography. Based on the spectral data, the active compound is found to be a new compound, 2,7,7-tri methyl bicyclo [2.2.1] heptane. We anticipate that our findings could lead to the development of a commercially viable and valuable drug for erectile dysfunction.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 18 April 2013; doi:10.1038/ijir.2013.18.

Subramoniam A; Gangaprasad A; Sureshkumar PK; Radhika J; Arun BK

2013-04-01

114

A novel aphrodisiac compound from an orchid that activates nitric oxide synthases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitric oxide (NO) is known to have roles in several crucial biological functions including vasodilation and penile erection. There are neuronal, endothelial and inducible NO synthases that influence the levels of NO in tissues and blood. NO activates guanylate cyclase and thereby increases the levels of cyclic GMP (cGMP). Viagra (sildenafil), a top selling drug in the world for erectile dysfunction, inhibits phosphodiesterase-5, which hydrolyses cGMP to GMP. Thus, it fosters an NO-mediated increase in the levels of cGMP, which mediates erectile function. Here, we show the aphrodisiac activity of a novel chemical isolate from the flowers of an epiphytic orchid, Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) ex Don, which activates neuronal and endothelial, but not inducible, NO synthases. The aphrodisiac activity is caused by an increase in the level of NO in corpus cavernosum. The drug increases blood levels of NO as early as 30?min after oral administration. The active compound was isolated by column chromatography. Based on the spectral data, the active compound is found to be a new compound, 2,7,7-tri methyl bicyclo [2.2.1] heptane. We anticipate that our findings could lead to the development of a commercially viable and valuable drug for erectile dysfunction.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 18 April 2013; doi:10.1038/ijir.2013.18. PMID:23595103

Subramoniam, A; Gangaprasad, A; Sureshkumar, P K; Radhika, J; Arun, B K

2013-04-18

115

Evidence for two catalytically independent clusters of active sites in a functional modular polyketide synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Modular polyketide synthases (PKSs), such as the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase (DEBS), catalyze the biosynthesis of structurally complex and medicinally important natural products. These large multifunctional enzymes are organized into "modules", where each module contains active sites homologous to those of higher eucaryotic fatty acid synthases (FASs). Like FASs, modular PKSs are known to be dimers. Here we provide functional evidence for the existence of two catalytically independent clusters of active sites within a modular PKS. In three bimodular derivatives of DEBS, the ketosynthase domain of module 1 (KS-1) or module 2 (KS-2) or the acyl carrier protein domain of module 2 (ACP-2) was inactivated via site-directed mutagenesis. As expected, the purified proteins were unable to catalyze polyketide synthesis (although the KS-1 mutant could convert a diketide thioester into the predicted triketide lactone). Remarkably however, the KS-1/KS-2 and the KS-2/ACP-2 mutant pairs could efficiently complement each other and catalyze polyketide formation. In contrast, the KS-1 and ACP-2 mutants did not complement each other. On the basis of these and other results, a model is proposed in which the individual modules of a PKS dimer form head-to-tail homodimers, thereby generating two equivalent and independent clusters of active sites for polyketide biosynthesis. Specifically, each subunit contributes half of the KS and ACP domains in each cluster. A similar complementation approach should also be useful in dissecting the organization of the remaining types of active sites within this family of multienzyme assemblies. Finally, blocked systems, such as the KS-1 mutant described here, present a new strategy for the noncompetitive conversion of unnatural substrates into polyketides by modular PKSs.

Kao CM; Pieper R; Cane DE; Khosla C

1996-09-01

116

Activities of respiratory chain complexes and citrate synthase influenced by pharmacologically different antidepressants and mood stabilizers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunctions, impaired bioenergetics and dysfunction of neurotrophins are included in many neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. We investigated in vitro effects of pharmacologically different antidepressants and mood stabilizers on mitochondrial enzymes to discover, which mitochondrial functions could be involved in pathophysiology of mood disorders. METHODS: In vitro effects of eight pharmacologically different antidepressants (desipramine, amitriptyline, imipramine, citalopram, venlafaxine, mirtazapine, tianeptine, and moclobemide) and three mood stabilizers (lithium, valproate, and olanzapine) on the activities of mitochondrial enzymes (citrate synthase and enzymes in electron transport chain, i.e. complexes I, II, IV) were measured in crude mitochondrial fraction isolated from pig brain. RESULTS: Most of the antidepressants and mood stabilizers inhibited the activities of respiratory electron transport chain complexes, complexes I and IV were the most affected. Statistically significant decrease of the complex I activity was caused by desipramine, amitriptyline, imipramine, citalopram, mirtazapine, valproate and olanzapine. Complex II was significantly inhibited only by amitriptyline, imipramine, citalopram and venlafaxine. Complex IV was significantly inhibited by all tested drugs except for citalopram and moclobemide. Unchanged or slightly increased citrate synthase activity was observed; significant activation of the enzyme was observed after citalopram, tianeptine and olanzapine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that antidepressants may act generally as inhibitors of complex I and complex IV of the electron transport chain. These mitochondrial enzymes are suggested as proper candidates in searching of new biological markers of mood disorders, targets of new antidepressants or predictors of response to pharmacotherapy.

Hroudova J; Fisar Z

2010-01-01

117

Bile acids enhance the activity of the insulin receptor and glycogen synthase in primary rodent hepatocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previously, we demonstrated that deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced ERK1/2 and AKT signaling in primary hepatocytes is a protective response. In the present study, we examined the regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3) kinase/AKT/glycogen synthase (kinase) 3 (GSK3)/glycogen synthase (GS) pathway by bile acids. In primary hepatocytes, DCA activated ERBB1 (the epidermal growth factor receptor), ERBB2, and the insulin receptor, but not the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor. DCA-induced activation of the insulin receptor correlated with enhanced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1, effects that were both blocked by the insulin receptor inhibitor AG1024 and by expression of the dominant negative IGF-1 receptor (K1003R), which inhibited in trans. Expression of the dominant negative IGF-1 receptor (K1003R) also abolished DCA-induced AKT activation. Bile acid-induced activation of AKT and phosphorylation of GSK3 were blunted by the ERBB1 inhibitor AG1478 and abolished by AG1024. Bile acids caused activation of GS to a similar level induced by insulin (50 nM); both were blocked by inhibition of insulin receptor function and the PI3 kinase/AKT/GSK3 pathway. In conclusion, these findings suggest that bile acids and insulin may cooperate to regulate glucose storage in hepatocytes.

Han SI; Studer E; Gupta S; Fang Y; Qiao L; Li W; Grant S; Hylemon PB; Dent P

2004-02-01

118

Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase regulates senescence in human fibroblasts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carbohydrate metabolism changes during cellular senescence. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (MDH1) catalyzes the reversible reduction of oxaloacetate to malate at the expense of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Here, we show that MDH1 plays a critical role in the cellular senescence of human fibroblasts. We observed that the activity of MDH1 was reduced in old human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) [population doublings (PD) 56], suggesting a link between decreased MDH1 protein levels and aging. Knockdown of MDH1 in young HDFs (PD 20) and the IMR90 human fibroblast cell line resulted in the appearance of significant cellular senescence features, including senescence-associated ?-galactosidase staining, flattened and enlarged morphology, increased population doubling time, and elevated p16(INK4A) and p21(CIP1) protein levels. Cytosolic NAD/NADH ratios were decreased in old HDFs to the same extent as in MDH1 knockdown HDFs, suggesting that cytosolic NAD depletion is related to cellular senescence. We found that AMP-activated protein kinase, a sensor of cellular energy, was activated in MDH1 knockdown cells. We also found that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase, a controller of cellular senescence, was decreased in MDH1 knockdown cells. These results indicate that the decrease in MDH1 and subsequent reduction in NAD/NADH ratio, which causes SIRT1 inhibition, is a likely carbohydrate metabolism-controlled cellular senescence mechanism.

Lee SM; Dho SH; Ju SK; Maeng JS; Kim JY; Kwon KS

2012-10-01

119

Immobilized bovine lactose synthase. A method of topographical analysis of the active site.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bovine galactosyltransferase (UDPgalactose: D-glucose 4beta-galactosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.22) was covalently coupled to Sepharose 4B by reaction at pH 5.0 with the activated mixed disulfide Sepharose-glutathione-2(5-nitropyridyl)-disulfide. The Sepharose-protein conjugate was presumably coupled via the unique highly reactive cysteine of those thiols on the bovine enzyme. The gel-bound N-acetyllactosamine and lactose synthase activity of about 0.4% was consistent with the affects of diffusion and the 90% activity reduction noted upon thiol modification of the dissolved enzyme. The residual lactose biosynthetic activity of the bound enzyme appeared possible only if the reactive thiol were physically distinct from the active site since the bulky Sepharose-glutathione group must not obscure the alpha-lactalbumin binding region.

Grunwald J; Berliner LJ

1978-03-01

120

Structure-based inhibitors exhibit differential activities against Helicobacter pylori and Escherichia coli undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human gastric epithelium and causes diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcers, and stomach cancer. Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPS), which catalyzes consecutive condensation reactions of farnesyl pyrophosphate with eight isopentenyl pyrophosphate to form lipid carrier for bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis, represents a potential target for developing new antibiotics. In this study, we solved the crystal structure of H. pylori UPPS and performed virtual screening of inhibitors from a library of 58,635 compounds. Two hits were found to exhibit differential activities against Helicobacter pylori and Escherichia coli UPPS, giving the possibility of developing antibiotics specially targeting pathogenic H. pylori without killing the intestinal E. coli.

Kuo CJ; Guo RT; Lu IL; Liu HG; Wu SY; Ko TP; Wang AH; Liang PH

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Structure-Based Inhibitors Exhibit Differential Activities against Helicobacter pylori and Escherichia coli Undecaprenyl Pyrophosphate Synthases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human gastric epithelium and causes diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcers, and stomach cancer. Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPS), which catalyzes consecutive condensation reactions of farnesyl pyrophosphate with eight isopentenyl pyrophosphate to form lipid carrier for bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis, represents a potential target for developing new antibiotics. In this study, we solved the crystal structure of H. pylori UPPS and performed virtual screening of inhibitors from a library of 58,635 compounds. Two hits were found to exhibit differential activities against Helicobacter pylori and Escherichia coli UPPS, giving the possibility of developing antibiotics specially targeting pathogenic H. pylori without killing the intestinal E. coli.

Chih-Jung Kuo; Rey-Ting Guo; I-Lin Lu; Hun-Ge Liu; Su-Ying Wu; Tzu-Ping Ko; Andrew H.-J. Wang; Po-Huang Liang

2008-01-01

122

Malate plays a crucial role in starch metabolism, ripening, and soluble solid content of tomato fruit and affects postharvest softening.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the fact that the organic acid content of a fruit is regarded as one of its most commercially important quality traits when assessed by the consumer, relatively little is known concerning the physiological importance of organic acid metabolism for the fruit itself. Here, we evaluate the effect of modifying malate metabolism in a fruit-specific manner, by reduction of the activities of either mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase or fumarase, via targeted antisense approaches in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). While these genetic perturbations had relatively little effect on the total fruit yield, they had dramatic consequences for fruit metabolism, as well as unanticipated changes in postharvest shelf life and susceptibility to bacterial infection. Detailed characterization suggested that the rate of ripening was essentially unaltered but that lines containing higher malate were characterized by lower levels of transitory starch and a lower soluble sugars content at harvest, whereas those with lower malate contained higher levels of these carbohydrates. Analysis of the activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase revealed that it correlated with the accumulation of transitory starch. Taken together with the altered activation state of the plastidial malate dehydrogenase and the modified pigment biosynthesis of the transgenic lines, these results suggest that the phenotypes are due to an altered cellular redox status. The combined data reveal the importance of malate metabolism in tomato fruit metabolism and development and confirm the importance of transitory starch in the determination of agronomic yield in this species.

Centeno DC; Osorio S; Nunes-Nesi A; Bertolo AL; Carneiro RT; Araújo WL; Steinhauser MC; Michalska J; Rohrmann J; Geigenberger P; Oliver SN; Stitt M; Carrari F; Rose JK; Fernie AR

2011-01-01

123

Trichothecenes induce accumulation of glucosylceramide in neural cells by interfering with lactosylceramide synthase activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid metabolites produced by several fungal strains that impair human and animal health. Since sphingolipids were connected with fungal toxicity the aim of the present study was to test the influence of fungal metabolites on sphingolipid metabolism in neural cells. The crude extract of fungal strain Spicellum roseum induced accumulation of glucosylceramide (GlcCer), and simultaneous reduction of the formation of lactosylceramide (LacCer) and complex gangliosides in primary cultured neurons. Following a bioassay-guided fractionation of the respective fungal extract we could demonstrate that the two isolated trichothecene derivatives, 8-deoxy-trichothecin (8-dT) and trichodermol (Td-ol) were responsible for this effect. Thus, incubation of primary cultured neurons as well as of neuroblastoma B104 cells for 24 h with 30 ?M of either of the two fungal metabolites resulted in uncoupling of sphingolipid biosynthesis at the level of LacCer. For the observed reduction of LacCer synthase activity by about 90% cell integrity was crucial in both cell types. In neuroblastoma cells the amount of LacCer synthase mRNA was reduced in the presence of trichothecenes, whereas in primary cultured neurons this was not the case, suggesting a post-transcriptional mechanism of action in the latter cell type. The data also show that the compounds did not interfere with the translocation of GlcCer in neuroblastoma cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that trichodermol and 8-deoxy-trichothecin inhibit LacCer synthase activity in a cell-type-specific manner.

2007-11-15

124

Accommodation of GDP-Linked Sugars in the Active Site of GDP-Perosamine Synthase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Perosamine (4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-d-mannose), or its N-acetylated form, is one of several dideoxy sugars found in the O-antigens of such infamous Gram-negative bacteria as Vibrio cholerae O1 and Escherichia coli O157:H7. It is added to the bacterial O-antigen via a nucleotide-linked version, namely GDP-perosamine. Three enzymes are required for the biosynthesis of GDP-perosamine starting from mannose 1-phosphate. The focus of this investigation is GDP-perosamine synthase from Caulobacter crescentus, which catalyzes the final step in GDP-perosamine synthesis, the conversion of GDP-4-keto-6-deoxymannose to GDP-perosamine. The enzyme is PLP-dependent and belongs to the aspartate aminotransferase superfamily. It contains the typically conserved active site lysine residue, which forms a Schiff base with the PLP cofactor. Two crystal structures were determined for this investigation: a site-directed mutant protein (K186A) complexed with GDP-perosamine and the wild-type enzyme complexed with an unnatural ligand, GDP-3-deoxyperosamine. These structures, determined to 1.6 and 1.7 {angstrom} resolution, respectively, revealed the manner in which products, and presumably substrates, are accommodated within the active site pocket of GDP-perosamine synthase. Additional kinetic analyses using both the natural and unnatural substrates revealed that the K{sub m} for the unnatural substrate was unperturbed relative to that of the natural substrate, but the k{sub cat} was lowered by a factor of approximately 200. Taken together, these studies shed light on why GDP-perosamine synthase functions as an aminotransferase whereas another very similar PLP-dependent enzyme, GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-mannose 3-dehydratase or ColD, catalyzes a dehydration reaction using the same substrate.

Cook, Paul D.; Carney, Amanda E.; Holden, Hazel M. (UW)

2009-01-12

125

Protein phosphorylation as a mechanism for regulation of spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase activity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Protein phosphorylation has been identified as a mechanism for the light-dark regulation of spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) activity, previously shown to involve some type of covalent modification of the enzyme. The 120 kD subunit of SPS in extracts of light-treated leaves was labeled with {sup 32}P in the presence of ({gamma}-{sup 32}P) ATP. In this in vitro system, {sup 32}P incorporation into light-activated SPS was dependent upon ATP and magnesium concentrations as well as time, and was closely paralleled by inactivation of the enzyme. The soluble protein kinase involved in the interconversion of SPS between activated and deactivated forms may be specific for SPS as it co-purifies with SPS during partial purification of the enzyme. The kinase appears not to be calcium activated and no evidence has been obtained for metabolite control of SPS phosphorylation/inactivation.

Huber, J.L.A.; Huber, S.C. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

1989-04-01

126

The anaerobic metabolism of malate of Saccharomyces bailii and the partial purification and characterization of malic enzyme.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. The main pathway of the anaerobic metabolism of L-malate in Saccharomyces bailii is catalyzed by a L-malic enzyme. 2. The enzyme was purified more than 300-fold. During the purification procedure fumarase and pyruvate decarboxylase were removed completely, and malate dehydrogenase and oxalacetate decarboxylase were removed to a very large extent. 3. Manganese ions are not required for the reaction of malic enzyme of Saccharomyces bailii, but the activity of the enzyme is increased by manganese. 4. The reaction of L-malic enzyme proceeds with the coenzymes NAD and (to a lesser extent) NADP. 5. The Km-values of the malic enzyme of Saccharomyces bailii were 10 mM for L-malate and 0.1 mM for NAD. 6. A model based on the activity and substrate affinity of malic enzyme, the intracellular concentration of malate and phosphate, and its action on fumarase, is proposed to explain the complete anaerobic degradation of malate in Saccharomyces bailii as compared with the partial decomposition of malate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Kuczynski JT; Radler F

1982-05-01

127

Syntheses and herbicidal activity of new triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonamides as acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilide, discovered from preparing bioisosteres of the sulfonylurea herbicides, is an important class of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 4.1.3.18) inhibitors. At least over ten triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilides have been commercialized as herbicides for the control of broadleaf weeds and grass with cereal crop selectivity. Herein, a series of triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilides were designed and synthesized with the aim of discovery of new herbicides with higher activity. The assay results of the inhibition activity of the synthesized compounds against Arabidopsis thatiana AHAS indicated that some compounds showed a little higher activity against flumetsulam (FS), the first commercial triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilide-type herbicide. The ki values of two promising compounds 3d and 8h are respectively, 1.61 and 1.29 microM, while that of FS is 1.85 microM. Computational simulation results indicated the ester group of compound 3d formed hydrogen bonds with the surrounding residues Arg'198 and Ser653, which accounts for its 11.5-folds higher AHAS inhibition activity than Y6610. Further green house assay showed that compound 3d has comparable herbicidal activity as FS. Even at the concentration of 37.5g.ai/ha, 3d showed excellent herbicidal activity against Galium aparine, Cerastium arvense, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Rmumex acetasa, moderate herbicidal activity against Polygonum humifusum, Cyperus iria, and Eclipta prostrate. The combination of in vitro and in vivo assay indicated that 3d could be regarded as a new potential acetohydroxyacid synthase-inhibiting herbicide candidate for further study.

Chen CN; Chen Q; Liu YC; Zhu XL; Niu CW; Xi Z; Yang GF

2010-07-01

128

Syntheses and herbicidal activity of new triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonamides as acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilide, discovered from preparing bioisosteres of the sulfonylurea herbicides, is an important class of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 4.1.3.18) inhibitors. At least over ten triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilides have been commercialized as herbicides for the control of broadleaf weeds and grass with cereal crop selectivity. Herein, a series of triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilides were designed and synthesized with the aim of discovery of new herbicides with higher activity. The assay results of the inhibition activity of the synthesized compounds against Arabidopsis thatiana AHAS indicated that some compounds showed a little higher activity against flumetsulam (FS), the first commercial triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilide-type herbicide. The ki values of two promising compounds 3d and 8h are respectively, 1.61 and 1.29 microM, while that of FS is 1.85 microM. Computational simulation results indicated the ester group of compound 3d formed hydrogen bonds with the surrounding residues Arg'198 and Ser653, which accounts for its 11.5-folds higher AHAS inhibition activity than Y6610. Further green house assay showed that compound 3d has comparable herbicidal activity as FS. Even at the concentration of 37.5g.ai/ha, 3d showed excellent herbicidal activity against Galium aparine, Cerastium arvense, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Rmumex acetasa, moderate herbicidal activity against Polygonum humifusum, Cyperus iria, and Eclipta prostrate. The combination of in vitro and in vivo assay indicated that 3d could be regarded as a new potential acetohydroxyacid synthase-inhibiting herbicide candidate for further study. PMID:20598554

Chen, Chao-Nan; Chen, Qiong; Liu, Yu-Chao; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Niu, Cong-Wei; Xi, Zhen; Yang, Guang-Fu

2010-06-11

129

Characterization of a bifunctional enzyme with (p)ppGpp-hydrolase/synthase activity in Leptospira interrogans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alarmone Guanosine 5'-diphosphate (or 5'-triphosphate) 3'-diphosphate [(p)ppGpp], is the key component which globally regulates stringent control in bacteria. There are two homologous enzymes, RelA and SpoT in E. coli, which are responsible for fluctuations in (p)ppGpp concentration inside the cell, whereas there exists only a single RelA/SpoT enzyme in Gram-positive bacteria. We have identified a bifunctional enzyme with (p)ppGpp-hydrolase/synthase activity in Leptospira interrogans. We show that the relLin gene (LA_3085) encodes a protein that fully complements the relA/spoT double mutants in E. coli. The protein functions as a (p)ppGpp degradase as well as a (p)ppGpp synthase when the cells encounter amino acid stress and deprivation of carbon sources. N terminus HD and RSD domains of relLin (relLinN ) were observed to restore growth of double mutants of E. coli. Finally, We demonstrate that purified RelLin and RelLinN show high (p)ppGpp synthesis activity in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest that L. interrogans contain a single Rel-like bi-functional protein, RelLin , which plays an important role in maintaining the basal level of (p)ppGpp in the cell potentially contributing to the regulation of bacterial stress response. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

He P; Deng C; Liu B; Zeng L; Zhao W; Zhang Y; Jiang X; Guo X; Qin J

2013-09-01

130

Malate dehydrogenase of the cytosol. Preparation and reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide-binding studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Two methods of preparing pig heart soluble malate dehydrogenase are described. A slow method yields an enzyme composed of three electrophoretically separable subforms. The more rapid method reproducibly gives a high yield of an enzyme that consists predominantly of the least acid subform. 2. The A(1%) (1cm) of the protein was redetermined as 15 at 280nm. By using this value the enzyme molecule was found to contain two independent and indistinguishable NADH-binding sites in titrations with NADH. 3. No evidence was found for the dissociation of the enzyme in the concentration range 0.02-7.2mum. 4. l-Malate (0.1m) tightened the binding of NADH to both pig and ox heart enzyme (2-fold), but, in contrast with the report by Mueggler, Dahlquist & Wolfe [(1975) Biochemistry14, 3490-3497], did not cause co-operative interactions between the binding sites. 5. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate had no effect on the binding of NADH to the pig heart enzyme, but with the ox heart enzyme the NADH is slowly oxidized. This slow oxidation explains the ;sigmoidal' binding curves obtained when NADH was added to ox heart soluble malate dehydrogenase in the presence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate [Cassman (1973) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.53, 666-672] without the postulate of site-site interactions. 6. It is concluded that neither l-malate nor fructose 1,6-bisphosphate could in vivo modulate the activity of soluble malate dehydrogenase and alter the rates of transport of NADH between the cytosol and the mitochondrion. 7. Details of the preparation of soluble malate dehydrogenase have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50080 (8 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem. J. (1978) 169, 5.

Lodola A; Spragg SP; Holbrook JJ

1978-03-01

131

Malate dehydrogenase of the cytosol. Preparation and reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide-binding studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Two methods of preparing pig heart soluble malate dehydrogenase are described. A slow method yields an enzyme composed of three electrophoretically separable subforms. The more rapid method reproducibly gives a high yield of an enzyme that consists predominantly of the least acid subform. 2. The A(1%) (1cm) of the protein was redetermined as 15 at 280nm. By using this value the enzyme molecule was found to contain two independent and indistinguishable NADH-binding sites in titrations with NADH. 3. No evidence was found for the dissociation of the enzyme in the concentration range 0.02-7.2mum. 4. l-Malate (0.1m) tightened the binding of NADH to both pig and ox heart enzyme (2-fold), but, in contrast with the report by Mueggler, Dahlquist & Wolfe [(1975) Biochemistry14, 3490-3497], did not cause co-operative interactions between the binding sites. 5. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate had no effect on the binding of NADH to the pig heart enzyme, but with the ox heart enzyme the NADH is slowly oxidized. This slow oxidation explains the ;sigmoidal' binding curves obtained when NADH was added to ox heart soluble malate dehydrogenase in the presence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate [Cassman (1973) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.53, 666-672] without the postulate of site-site interactions. 6. It is concluded that neither l-malate nor fructose 1,6-bisphosphate could in vivo modulate the activity of soluble malate dehydrogenase and alter the rates of transport of NADH between the cytosol and the mitochondrion. 7. Details of the preparation of soluble malate dehydrogenase have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50080 (8 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem. J. (1978) 169, 5. PMID:206258

Lodola, A; Spragg, S P; Holbrook, J J

1978-03-01

132

Complete tracking of transient proton flow through active chloroplast ATP synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proton pumping in thylakoid membranes and backflow of protons through the active ATP synthase CF0-CF1 (where CF0 is the proton channel and CF1 is the catalytic portion) were investigated by flash spectrophotometry. A steady pH difference across the membrane was generated by continuous measuring light, supplemented by voltage transients that were generated by flashing light. In the presence of P(i) and ADP, the electric potential transients elicited transients of proton flow via CF0-CF1, typically 1.3 H(+) per CF1 and flash group. Proton flow was blocked by CF0-CF1 inhibitors: N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, acting on the channel component CF0, and tentoxin, acting on the catalytic component CF1. The half-rise time was 40 ms in (1)H(2)O and 78 ms in (2)H(2)O. ATP synthesis under conditions of flashing light and transient proton flow was characterized by a K(m)(P(i)) of only 14 muM, contrasting with a K(m) of several hundred micromolar for continuous ATP synthesis at high rate. This might reflect a resistance to P(i) diffusion. The degree of proton delocalization in the chemiosmotic coupling between redox reactions and ATP synthesis is under debate. In thylakoids, it has been proposed that intramembrane proton buffering domains act as ducts for protons between pumps and ATP synthases. In this work, transient proton flow by way of CF0-CF1 was completely tracked from the lumen, across the membrane, and into the suspending medium. Proton uptake from the lumen and charge flow across the membrane occurred synchronously and in stoichiometric proportion. The uptake of protons from the lumen by CF0-CF1, half completed in 40 ms, was preceded by release of protons from water oxidation into the lumen, half completed in <1 ms. Hence, pumps and ATP synthases were coupled through the lumen without involvement of intramembrane domains.

Junge W

1987-10-01

133

Complete tracking of transient proton flow through active chloroplast ATP synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proton pumping in thylakoid membranes and backflow of protons through the active ATP synthase CF0-CF1 (where CF0 is the proton channel and CF1 is the catalytic portion) were investigated by flash spectrophotometry. A steady pH difference across the membrane was generated by continuous measuring light, supplemented by voltage transients that were generated by flashing light. In the presence of P(i) and ADP, the electric potential transients elicited transients of proton flow via CF0-CF1, typically 1.3 H(+) per CF1 and flash group. Proton flow was blocked by CF0-CF1 inhibitors: N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, acting on the channel component CF0, and tentoxin, acting on the catalytic component CF1. The half-rise time was 40 ms in (1)H(2)O and 78 ms in (2)H(2)O. ATP synthesis under conditions of flashing light and transient proton flow was characterized by a K(m)(P(i)) of only 14 muM, contrasting with a K(m) of several hundred micromolar for continuous ATP synthesis at high rate. This might reflect a resistance to P(i) diffusion. The degree of proton delocalization in the chemiosmotic coupling between redox reactions and ATP synthesis is under debate. In thylakoids, it has been proposed that intramembrane proton buffering domains act as ducts for protons between pumps and ATP synthases. In this work, transient proton flow by way of CF0-CF1 was completely tracked from the lumen, across the membrane, and into the suspending medium. Proton uptake from the lumen and charge flow across the membrane occurred synchronously and in stoichiometric proportion. The uptake of protons from the lumen by CF0-CF1, half completed in 40 ms, was preceded by release of protons from water oxidation into the lumen, half completed in <1 ms. Hence, pumps and ATP synthases were coupled through the lumen without involvement of intramembrane domains. PMID:16593881

Junge, W

1987-10-01

134

Changes in Carbohydrate Content and the Activities of Acid Invertase, Sucrose Synthase and Sucrose Phosphate Synthase in Vegetable Soybean During Fruit Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the changes in carbohydrate content and activities of acid invertase, sucrose synthase (SS) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in two vegetable soybean cultivars (Glycine max (L.) Merr. vars. Ajigen and Fuuki) during fruit development ranging from 28 to 63 days after anthesis. In both cultivars, sucrose was the predominant sugar while fructose and glucose were found in trace amounts. Sucrose accumulation was highest at 35 and 42 days after anthesis in Fuuki and Ajigen, respectively. On the other hand, fructose and glucose were almost maintained throughout the experimental period. The activity of soluble acid invertase was highest at the 42 days but was not maintained until the 63 days after anthesis. The acid invertase activity in cell wall-bound fraction was highest in young fruit (28 days after anthesis) and gradually decreased throughout development. Ajigen had higher activity than Fuuki. SS activity showed a continuous increase with time while SPS activity did not show specific inclining or declining pattern. SS and SPS activities in Fuuki were higher than Ajigen. There was a highly significant negative correlation observed between the acid invertase activity in cell wall-bound fraction and sucrose content in Ajigen. A significant positive correlation was also found between the SS and SPS activities and sucrose content in Fuuki. However, a highly significant negative correlation was observed between SS activity and other soluble sugars (glucose and fructose) in both cultivars except glucose content in Fuuki. No significant correlation was found between the SPS activity and other soluble sugars (glucose and fructose) in both cultivars.

Kassinee Sitthiwong; Toshiyuki Matsui; Nobuyuki Okuda; Haruo Suzuki

2005-01-01

135

Modulation of fatty acid synthase enzyme activity and expression during hepatitis C virus replication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces alterations of host cells to facilitate its life cycle. Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is a multidomain enzyme that plays a key role in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and is upregulated during HCV infection. Herein, we applied activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) that allows for the identification of differentially active enzymes in complex proteomic samples, to study the changes in activity of FASN during HCV replication. For this purpose, we used an activity-based probe based on the FASN inhibitor Orlistat, and observed an increase in the activity of FASN in the presence of a subgenomic and a genomic HCV replicon as well as in chimeric SCID/Alb-uPA mice infected with HCV genotype 1a. To study the molecular basis for this increase in FASN activity, we overexpressed individual HCV proteins in Huh7 cells and observed increased expression and activity of FASN in the presence of core and NS4B, as measured by western blots and ABPP, respectively. Triglyceride levels were also elevated in accordance with FASN expression and activity. Lastly, immunofluorescence and ABPP imaging analyses demonstrated that while the abundance and activity of FASN increases significantly in the presence of HCV, its localization does not change. Together these data suggest that the HCV-induced production of fatty acids and neutral lipids is provided by an increase in FASN abundance and activity that is sufficient to allow HCV propagation without transporting FASN to the replication complexes.

Nasheri N; Joyce M; Rouleau Y; Yang P; Yao S; Tyrrell DL; Pezacki JP

2013-04-01

136

Modulation of fatty acid synthase enzyme activity and expression during hepatitis C virus replication.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces alterations of host cells to facilitate its life cycle. Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is a multidomain enzyme that plays a key role in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and is upregulated during HCV infection. Herein, we applied activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) that allows for the identification of differentially active enzymes in complex proteomic samples, to study the changes in activity of FASN during HCV replication. For this purpose, we used an activity-based probe based on the FASN inhibitor Orlistat, and observed an increase in the activity of FASN in the presence of a subgenomic and a genomic HCV replicon as well as in chimeric SCID/Alb-uPA mice infected with HCV genotype 1a. To study the molecular basis for this increase in FASN activity, we overexpressed individual HCV proteins in Huh7 cells and observed increased expression and activity of FASN in the presence of core and NS4B, as measured by western blots and ABPP, respectively. Triglyceride levels were also elevated in accordance with FASN expression and activity. Lastly, immunofluorescence and ABPP imaging analyses demonstrated that while the abundance and activity of FASN increases significantly in the presence of HCV, its localization does not change. Together these data suggest that the HCV-induced production of fatty acids and neutral lipids is provided by an increase in FASN abundance and activity that is sufficient to allow HCV propagation without transporting FASN to the replication complexes. PMID:23601646

Nasheri, Neda; Joyce, Michael; Rouleau, Yanouchka; Yang, Pengyu; Yao, Shao; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Pezacki, John Paul

2013-04-18

137

Expression Patterns, Activities and Carbohydrate-Metabolizing Regulation of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase, Sucrose Synthase and Neutral Invertase in Pineapple Fruit during Development and Ripening.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI) activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582) and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581) were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated distinct patterns related to sugar accumulation and composition of pineapple fruits. It suggests that differential expressions of multiple gene families are necessary for sugar metabolism in various parts and developmental stages of pineapple fruit. A cycle of sucrose breakdown in the cytosol of sink tissues could be mediated through both Ac-SuSy and Ac-NI, and Ac-NI could be involved in regulating crucial steps by generating sugar signals to the cells in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion.

Zhang XM; Wang W; Du LQ; Xie JH; Yao YL; Sun GM

2012-01-01

138

A natural mutation-led truncation in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes at the Ma locus is associated with low fruit acidity in apple.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acidity levels greatly affect the taste and flavor of fruit, and consequently its market value. In mature apple fruit, malic acid is the predominant organic acid. Several studies have confirmed that the major quantitative trait locus Ma largely controls the variation of fruit acidity levels. The Ma locus has recently been defined in a region of 150 kb that contains 44 predicted genes on chromosome 16 in the Golden Delicious genome. In this study, we identified two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes, designated Ma1 and Ma2, as strong candidates of Ma by narrowing down the Ma locus to 65-82 kb containing 12-19 predicted genes depending on the haplotypes. The Ma haplotypes were determined by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosome clones from G.41 (an apple rootstock of genotype Mama) that cover the two distinct haplotypes at the Ma locus. Gene expression profiling in 18 apple germplasm accessions suggested that Ma1 is the major determinant at the Ma locus controlling fruit acidity as Ma1 is expressed at a much higher level than Ma2 and the Ma1 expression is significantly correlated with fruit titratable acidity (R (2) = 0.4543, P = 0.0021). In the coding sequences of low acidity alleles of Ma1 and Ma2, sequence variations at the amino acid level between Golden Delicious and G.41 were not detected. But the alleles for high acidity vary considerably between the two genotypes. The low acidity allele of Ma1, Ma1-1455A, is mainly characterized by a mutation at base 1455 in the open reading frame. The mutation leads to a premature stop codon that truncates the carboxyl terminus of Ma1-1455A by 84 amino acids compared with Ma1-1455G. A survey of 29 apple germplasm accessions using marker CAPS(1455) that targets the SNP(1455) in Ma1 showed that the CAPS(1455A) allele was associated completely with high pH and highly with low titratable acidity, suggesting that the natural mutation-led truncation is most likely responsible for the abolished function of Ma for low pH or high acidity in apple.

Bai Y; Dougherty L; Li M; Fazio G; Cheng L; Xu K

2012-08-01

139

Metabolite profiling of alkaloids and strictosidine synthase activity in camptothecin producing plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Camptothecin derivatives are clinically used anti-neoplastic alkaloids that biogenetically belong to monoterpenoid indole alkaloids. Camptothecin-related alkaloids from the methanol extracts of Ophiorrhiza pumila, Camptotheca acuminata and Nothapodytes foetida plants were profiled and identified using a reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with on-line photodiode array detection and electrospray-ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry. A natural 10-glycosyloxy camptothecin, chaboside, was accumulated in tissues of O. pumila but not in C. acuminata and N. foetida. Anthraquinones regarded as phytoalexins were present in the extracts of hairy roots and calli but not in the differentiated plants of O. pumila. These findings demonstrated a remarkable difference in the constituents between the differentiated plants and the hairy roots or calli tissues. The activity of strictosidine synthase, a key enzyme of camptothecin biosynthesis, was detected in the protein extracts of stems and roots of O. pumila, being correlated with the pattern of strictosidine synthase mRNA expression. PMID:12620359

Yamazaki, Yasuyo; Urano, Akiko; Sudo, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Yamazaki, Mami; Aimi, Norio; Saito, Kazuki

2003-02-01

140

Ferutinin stimulates nitric oxide synthase activity in median eminence of the rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several species of Ferula genus have been used in folk medicine in digestive disorders, rheumatism, headache, arthritis, and as tranquilizers, antispasmodic and aphrodisiac. From the dry and powdered roots of Ferula hermonis Boiss was extracted the oxygenated sesquiterpene 1,5-trans-daucane type: ferutinine (1). The structure of (1) was established by spectroscopic methods as: IR, (1)H RMN, (13)C RMN, COSY, HMBC, HMQC, NOESY, EIMS, and CIMS. The possible signaling pathway of ferutinin (1) in nervous tissue in vitro was assessed and the results showed that this compound is able to increase nitric oxide synthase activity and inositol monophosphate accumulation (49%, each) in the median eminence of the rat brain, suggesting that compound (1) is associated to the activation of phosphoinositide breakdown and nitric oxide production (NO), the last is a gaseous intercellular messenger known to play a broad role in human biology from homeostasis to pathology.

Colman-Saizarbitoria T; Boutros P; Amesty A; Bahsas A; Mathison Y; Garrido Mdel R; Israel A

2006-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

Cloning, expression and functional activity of deoxyhypusine synthase from Plasmodium vivax  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread human malaria parasite. However, genetic information about its pathogenesis is limited at present, due to the lack of a reproducible in vitro cultivation method. Sequencing of the Plasmodium vivax genome suggested the presence of a homolog of deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) from P. falciparum, the key regulatory enzyme in the first committed step of hypusine biosynthesis. DHS is involved in cell proliferation, and thus a valuable drug target for the human malaria parasite P. falciparum. A comparison of the enzymatic properties of the DHS enzymes between the benign and severe Plasmodium species should contribute to our understanding of the differences in pathogenicity and phylogeny of both malaria parasites. Results We describe the cloning of a 1368 bp putative deoxyhypusine synthase gene (dhs) sequence from genomic DNA of P. vivax PEST strain Salvador I (Accession number AJ549098) after touchdown PCR. The corresponding protein was expressed and functionally characterized as deoxyhypusine synthase by determination of its specific activity and cross-reactivity to human DHS on a Western blot. The putative DHS protein from P. vivax displays a FASTA score of 75 relative to DHS from rodent malaria parasite, P. yoelii, and 74 relative to that from the human parasite, P. falciparum strain 3D7. The ORF encoding 456 amino acids was expressed under control of IPTG-inducible T7 promoter, and expressed as a protein of approximately 50 kDa (theoretically 52.7 kDa) in E. coli BL21 DE3 cells. The N-terminal histidine-tagged protein was purified by Nickel-chelate affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions. DHS with a theoretical pI of 6.0 was present in both eluate fractions. The specific enzymatic activity of DHS was determined as 1268 U/mg protein. The inhibitor, N-guanyl-1, 7-diaminoheptane (GC7), suppressed specific activity by 36-fold. Western blot analysis performed with a polyclonal anti-human DHS antibody revealed cross-reactivity to DHS from P. vivax, despite an amino acid identity of 44% between the proteins. Conclusion We identify a novel DHS protein in the more benign malaria parasite,P. vivax, on the basis of specific enzymatic activity, cross-reactivity with a polyclonal antibody against human DHS, and amino acid identity with DHS homologs from the rodent malaria parasite, P. yoelii, and human P. falciparum strains.

Njuguna James T; Nassar Marwa; Hoerauf Achim; Kaiser Annette E

2006-01-01

142

Depolarization of mitochondria in endothelial cells promotes cerebral artery vasodilation by activation of nitric oxide synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial depolarization after ATP-sensitive potassium channel activation has been shown to induce cerebral vasodilation by the generation of calcium sparks in smooth muscle. It is unclear, however, whether mitochondrial depolarization in endothelial cells is capable of promoting vasodilation by releasing vasoactive factors. Therefore, we studied the effect of endothelial mitochondrial depolarization by mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel activators, BMS-191095 (BMS) and diazoxide, on endothelium-dependent vasodilation. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Diameter studies in isolated rat cerebral arteries showed BMS- and diazoxide-induced vasodilations that were diminished by endothelial denudation. Mitochondrial depolarization-induced vasodilation was reduced by inhibition of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels, phosphoinositide-3 kinase, or nitric oxide synthase. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species, however, diminished vasodilation induced by diazoxide, but not by BMS. Fluorescence studies in cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells showed that BMS elicited mitochondrial depolarization and enhanced nitric oxide production; diazoxide exhibited largely similar effects, but unlike BMS, increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Measurements of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) in cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells and arteries showed that both diazoxide and BMS increased endothelial [Ca(2+)]i. Western blot analyses revealed increased phosphorylation of protein kinase B and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by BMS and diazoxide. Increased phosphorylation of eNOS by diazoxide was abolished by phosphoinositide-3 kinase inhibition. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy confirmed vascular nitric oxide generation in response to diazoxide and BMS. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacological depolarization of endothelial mitochondria promotes activation of eNOS by dual pathways involving increased [Ca(2+)]i as well as by phosphoinositide-3 kinase-protein kinase B-induced eNOS phosphorylation. Both mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-dependent and -independent mechanisms mediate activation of eNOS by endothelial mitochondrial depolarization.

Katakam PV; Wappler EA; Katz PS; Rutkai I; Institoris A; Domoki F; Gáspár T; Grovenburg SM; Snipes JA; Busija DW

2013-04-01

143

Glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase activities in relation to nitrogen fixation in Lotus spp.  

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Full Text Available Lotus corniculatus, L. tenuis, L. pedunculatus, and L. subbiflorus inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti NZP2037 strain were grown in a growth chamber. The plants dry weight (DW), the nodule fresh weight (FW), the nitrogenase activity, the nodule glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities, as well as the leghemoglobin content and the amino acid in the stem were measured 28 days after inoculation. The highest DW of plants was measured in L. tenuis and the highest FW of nodules was measured in L. pedunculatus. Nitrogenase activity in L. tenuis, L. pedunculatus and L. subbiflorus was six fold the activity in L. corniculatus. Nodule GS and GOGAT activities did not follow this same pattern. L. tenuis had the highest values of GS and GOGAT activities in the nodule, and a high nitrogenase activity which is consistent with its high plant DW. The four species of Lotus were compared and no correlation between nitrogen fixation parameters and ammonia assimilation enzymes was found, but the GS/GOGAT ratio has a positive and significant correlation (r²=0.82**) with the amino acid content in stems.

GONNET SUSANA; DÍAZ PEDRO

2000-01-01

144

Sphingomyelin synthase 1 activity is regulated by the BCR-ABL oncogene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) produces sphingomyelin while consuming ceramide (a negative regulator of cell proliferation) and forming diacylglycerol (DAG) (a mitogenic factor). Therefore, enhanced SMS activity could favor cell proliferation. To examine if dysregulated SMS contributes to leukemogenesis, we measured SMS activity in several leukemic cell lines and found that it is highly elevated in K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells. The increased SMS in K562 cells was caused by the presence of Bcr-abl, a hallmark of CML; stable expression of Bcr-abl elevated SMS activity in HL-60 cells while inhibition of the tyrosine kinase activity of Bcr-abl with Imatinib mesylate decreased SMS activity in K562 cells. The increased SMS activity was the result of up-regulation of the Sms1 isoform. Inhibition of SMS activity with D609 (a pharmacological SMS inhibitor) or down-regulation of SMS1 expression by siRNA selectively inhibited the proliferation of Bcr-abl-positive cells. The inhibition was associated with an increased production of ceramide and a decreased production of DAG, conditions that antagonize cell proliferation. A similar change in lipid profile was also observed upon pharmacological inhibition of Bcr-abl (K526 cells) and siRNA-mediated down-regulation of BCR-ABL (HL-60/Bcr-abl cells). These findings indicate that Sms1 is a downstream target of Bcr-abl, involved in sustaining cell proliferation of Bcr-abl-positive cells.

Burns TA; Subathra M; Signorelli P; Choi Y; Yang X; Wang Y; Villani M; Bhalla K; Zhou D; Luberto C

2013-03-01

145

Mechanical control of ATP synthase function: activation energy difference between tight and loose binding sites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite exhaustive chemical and crystal structure studies, the mechanistic details of how F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase can convert mechanical energy to chemical, producing ATP, are still not fully understood. On the basis of quantum mechanical calculations using a recent high-resolution X-ray structure, we conclude that formation of the P-O bond may be achieved through a transition state (TS) with a planar PO(3)(-) ion. Surprisingly, there is a more than 40 kJ/mol difference between barrier heights of the loose and tight binding sites of the enzyme. This indicates that even a relatively small change in active site conformation, induced by the gamma-subunit rotation, may effectively block the back reaction in beta(TP) and, thus, promote ATP.

Beke-Somfai T; Lincoln P; Nordén B

2010-01-01

146

Genetic Control of Malate Dehydrogenase Isozymes in Maize  

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At least six nuclear loci are responsible for the genetic control of malate dehydrogenase (L-malate: NAD oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.37; MDH) in coleoptiles of maize. Three independently segregating loci (Mdh1, Mdh2, Mdh3) govern the production of MDH isozymes resistant to inactivation by ascorbic acid...

Goodman, M. M.; Stuber, C. W.; Lee, C. N.; Johnson, F. M.

147

Inducible in vivo DNA footprints define sequences necessary for UV light activation of the parsley chalcone synthase gene.  

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We began characterization of the protein--DNA interactions necessary for UV light induced transcriptional activation of the gene encoding chalcone synthase (CHS), a key plant defense enzyme. Three light dependent in vivo footprints appear on a 90 bp stretch of the CHS promoter with a time course cor...

Schulze-Lefert, P; Dangl, J L; Becker-André, M; Hahlbrock, K; Schulz, W

148

Effect of hydrogen peroxide on rabbit urinary bladder citrate synthase activity in the presence and absence of a grape suspension  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english PURPOSE: The etiology of obstructive bladder dysfunction includes free radical damage to mitochondria. Feeding rabbits a standardized grape suspension protects the ability of the bladder to contract and empty in part by preventing mitochondrial damage, thus maintaining smooth muscle and mucosal metabolism. The objective of the current study is to determine the direct effect of this grape suspension on the response of mitochondria to the oxidative effects of hydrogen perox (more) ide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six male rabbits were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and the bladders excised. Four full thickness strips were obtained for contractile studies and the balance separated into smooth muscle and mucosa compartments by blunt dissection. The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the contractile response to field stimulation was quantitated. Each tissue was homogenized and the effects of increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in the presence and absence of grape suspension on citrate synthase activity was determined. RESULTS: Citrate synthase activity was significantly higher in the mucosa than in the muscle. The grape suspension had no effect on control citrate synthase activity. However, the grape suspension provided significant protection of both smooth muscle and mucosal citrate synthase activity. CONCLUSIONS: These studies support the conclusion that the grape suspension provides direct protection of mitochondrial function.

Venugopal, Vijay; Leggett, Robert E.; Schuler, Catherine; Levin, Robert M.

2010-12-01

149

Effect of hydrogen peroxide on rabbit urinary bladder citrate synthase activity in the presence and absence of a grape suspension  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: The etiology of obstructive bladder dysfunction includes free radical damage to mitochondria. Feeding rabbits a standardized grape suspension protects the ability of the bladder to contract and empty in part by preventing mitochondrial damage, thus maintaining smooth muscle and mucosal metabolism. The objective of the current study is to determine the direct effect of this grape suspension on the response of mitochondria to the oxidative effects of hydrogen peroxide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six male rabbits were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and the bladders excised. Four full thickness strips were obtained for contractile studies and the balance separated into smooth muscle and mucosa compartments by blunt dissection. The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the contractile response to field stimulation was quantitated. Each tissue was homogenized and the effects of increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in the presence and absence of grape suspension on citrate synthase activity was determined. RESULTS: Citrate synthase activity was significantly higher in the mucosa than in the muscle. The grape suspension had no effect on control citrate synthase activity. However, the grape suspension provided significant protection of both smooth muscle and mucosal citrate synthase activity. CONCLUSIONS: These studies support the conclusion that the grape suspension provides direct protection of mitochondrial function.

Vijay Venugopal; Robert E. Leggett; Catherine Schuler; Robert M. Levin

2010-01-01

150

The ATP synthase a-subunit of extreme alkaliphiles is a distinct variant: mutations in the critical alkaliphile-specific residue Lys-180 and other residues that support alkaliphile oxidative phosphorylation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A lysine residue in the putative proton uptake pathway of the ATP synthase a-subunit is found only in alkaliphilic Bacillus species and is proposed to play roles in proton capture, retention and passage to the synthase rotor. Here, Lys-180 was replaced with alanine (Ala), glycine (Gly), cysteine (Cys), arginine (Arg), or histidine (His) in the chromosome of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4. All mutants exhibited octylglucoside-stimulated ATPase activity and ?-subunit levels at least as high as wild-type. Purified mutant F(1)F(0)-ATP synthases all contained substantial a-subunit levels. The mutants exhibited diverse patterns of native (no octylglucoside) ATPase activity and a range of defects in malate growth and in vitro ATP synthesis at pH 10.5. ATP synthesis by the Ala, Gly, and His mutants was also impaired at pH 7.5 in the presence of a protonophoric uncoupler. Thus Lys-180 plays a role when the protonmotive force is reduced at near neutral, not just at high pH. The Arg mutant exhibited no ATP synthesis activity in the alkaliphile setting although activity was reported for a K180R mutant of a thermoalkaliphile synthase (McMillan, D. G., Keis, S., Dimroth, P., and Cook, G. M. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 17395-17404). The hypothesis that a-subunits from extreme alkaliphiles and the thermoalkaliphile represent distinct variants was supported by demonstration of the importance of additional alkaliphile-specific a-subunit residues, not found in the thermoalkaliphile, for malate growth of B. pseudofirmus OF4. Finally, a mutant B. pseudofirmus OF4 synthase with switched positions of Lys-180 (helix 4) and Gly-212 (helix 5) retained significant coupled synthase activity accompanied by proton leakiness. PMID:20716528

Fujisawa, Makoto; Fackelmayer, Oliver J; Liu, Jun; Krulwich, Terry A; Hicks, David B

2010-08-17

151

The ATP synthase a-subunit of extreme alkaliphiles is a distinct variant: mutations in the critical alkaliphile-specific residue Lys-180 and other residues that support alkaliphile oxidative phosphorylation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A lysine residue in the putative proton uptake pathway of the ATP synthase a-subunit is found only in alkaliphilic Bacillus species and is proposed to play roles in proton capture, retention and passage to the synthase rotor. Here, Lys-180 was replaced with alanine (Ala), glycine (Gly), cysteine (Cys), arginine (Arg), or histidine (His) in the chromosome of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4. All mutants exhibited octylglucoside-stimulated ATPase activity and ?-subunit levels at least as high as wild-type. Purified mutant F(1)F(0)-ATP synthases all contained substantial a-subunit levels. The mutants exhibited diverse patterns of native (no octylglucoside) ATPase activity and a range of defects in malate growth and in vitro ATP synthesis at pH 10.5. ATP synthesis by the Ala, Gly, and His mutants was also impaired at pH 7.5 in the presence of a protonophoric uncoupler. Thus Lys-180 plays a role when the protonmotive force is reduced at near neutral, not just at high pH. The Arg mutant exhibited no ATP synthesis activity in the alkaliphile setting although activity was reported for a K180R mutant of a thermoalkaliphile synthase (McMillan, D. G., Keis, S., Dimroth, P., and Cook, G. M. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 17395-17404). The hypothesis that a-subunits from extreme alkaliphiles and the thermoalkaliphile represent distinct variants was supported by demonstration of the importance of additional alkaliphile-specific a-subunit residues, not found in the thermoalkaliphile, for malate growth of B. pseudofirmus OF4. Finally, a mutant B. pseudofirmus OF4 synthase with switched positions of Lys-180 (helix 4) and Gly-212 (helix 5) retained significant coupled synthase activity accompanied by proton leakiness.

Fujisawa M; Fackelmayer OJ; Liu J; Krulwich TA; Hicks DB

2010-10-01

152

Lid L11 of the glutamine amidotransferase domain of CTP synthase mediates allosteric GTP activation of glutaminase activity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

GTP is an allosteric activator of CTP synthase and acts to increase the k(cat) for the glutamine-dependent CTP synthesis reaction. GTP is suggested, in part, to optimally orient the oxy-anion hole for hydrolysis of glutamine that takes place in the glutamine amidotransferase class I (GATase) domain of CTP synthase. In the GATase domain of the recently published structures of the Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus CTP synthases a loop region immediately proceeding amino acid residues forming the oxy-anion hole and named lid L11 is shown for the latter enzyme to be flexible and change position depending on the presence or absence of glutamine in the glutamine binding site. Displacement or rearrangement of this loop may provide a means for the suggested role of allosteric activation by GTP to optimize the oxy-anion hole for glutamine hydrolysis. Arg359, Gly360 and Glu362 of the Lactococcus lactis enzyme are highly conserved residues in lid L11 and we have analyzed their possible role in GTP activation. Characterization of the mutant enzymes R359M, R359P, G360A and G360P indicated that both Arg359 and Gly360 are involved in the allosteric response to GTP binding whereas the E362Q enzyme behaved like wild-type enzyme. Apart from the G360A enzyme, the results from kinetic analysis of the enzymes altered at position 359 and 360 showed a 10- to 50-fold decrease in GTP activation of glutamine dependent CTP synthesis and concomitant four- to 10-fold increases in K(A) for GTP. The R359M, R359P and G360P also showed no GTP activation of the uncoupled glutaminase reaction whereas the G360A enzyme was about twofold more active than wild-type enzyme. The elevated K(A) for GTP and reduced GTP activation of CTP synthesis of the mutant enzymes are in agreement with a predicted interaction of bound GTP with lid L11 and indicate that the GTP activation of glutamine dependent CTP synthesis may be explained by structural rearrangements around the oxy-anion hole of the GATase domain

Willemoës, Martin; MØlgaard, Anne

2005-01-01

153

Diel activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in rice. [Oryza sativa L  

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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) was grown in growth chambers at 28/23C day/night temperatures with 16-h photoperiod at 600 umol m{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. Diel sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity, at 21 days after planting, was measured at saturating substrate concentrations. Data suggests that SPS activity increased during illumination to a maximum of 0.8 nmol mg{sup {minus}1} protein min{sup {minus}1} after 5h. Throughout the remainder of the light period there was a slow decline in activity. Upon darkening, activity further declined to 0.4 nmol mg{sup {minus}1} protein min{sup {minus}1}, a basal level that was maintained throughout the night. It appears that rice SPS undergoes light/dark transitions, suggesting there may be two kinetic forms of SPS. Changes in SPS activity will be discussed in relation to kinetic studies, and also CO{sub 2} enrichment of rice during growth.

Hussain, M.W.; Bowes, G.; Rowland-Bamford, A.J.; Allen, L.H. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

1991-05-01

154

Sucrose phosphate synthase activity in rice grown at elevated CO sub 2 and temperature  

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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) was grown at 330 and 660 {mu}L CO{sub 2} L{sup {minus}1} and at 40/33/37, 34/27/31, and 28/21/25{degree}C day/night/paddy water temperatures respectively. Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity was measured at saturating substrate concentrations at 59 days after planting. SPS activity increased 2 and 3 fold with increasing CO{sub 2} at 28 and 34{degree}C air temperatures respectively. At 40{degree}C SPS activity decreased by 37% at elevated CO{sub 2} and most plants failed to reach maturity. Similar responses were found in leaf samples taken in the dark. These results indicate that SPS, an enzyme involved in the regulation of C partitioning in leaves, increases in activity at elevated CO{sub 2}. This is in contrast to previous results with soybean. The changes in SPS activity will also be discussed in relation to leaf starch/sucrose ratios.

Hussain, W.; Rowland-Bamford, A.J.; Baker, J.T.; Allen, L.H. Jr.; Bowes, G. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA) USDA-ARS, Gainesville, FL (USA))

1990-05-01

155

Soybean seed galactinol synthase activity as determined by a novel colorimetric assay  

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Full Text Available Galactinol synthase (GS) is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of raffinose oligosaccharides (RO) which are the flatulence factors present in soybean seeds and several other legumes. Understanding of soybean seed GS properties is, therefore, of biotechnological interest. The GS enzyme catalyses formation of galactinol and UDP from UDP-gal and myo-inositol. This enzyme is currently assayed by an isotopic method. We have then idealized a more convenient method for GS assay based on the indirect colorimetric determination of the UDP formed which is then hydrolyzed by exogenous apyrase and the resulting Pi quantified by a modification of the colorimetric method of Fiske & SubbaRow. The color developed is stable, and the method is suitable for detection of very low GS activity. The GS activity profiles of developing soybean seeds determined by the isotopic and the colorimetric methods are closely related. The GS enzyme was partially purified (46-fold) by treatment of seed extract with MnCl2, sequential chromatographies on DEAE-Sepharose, Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B and Q-Sepharose columns. The crude and the partially purified enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 7.0 and 50 ºC. Dithiothreitol and MnCl2 enhanced considerably the activity of the partially purified enzyme. While UDP-glc could be hydrolyzed by the enzyme at a reative activity corresponding to 49% of that calculated for UDP-gal, UDP-man and sucrose were completely ineffective as alternative substrates.

RIBEIRO MARLUCI; FELIX CARLOS R.; LOZZI SILENE DE PAULINO

2000-01-01

156

Calreticulin transacetylase catalyzed activation of rat tracheal smooth muscle cell nitric oxide synthase by acetoxycoumarins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Transacetylase function of Calreticulin (CR) catalyzing the transfer of acetyl groups from acetoxycoumarins (AC) to certain proteins was identified for the first time in our laboratory. Protein acetyltransferase action of CR was termed Calreticulin Transacetylase (CRTAase). In the present work, CRTAase of rat tracheal smooth muscle cells (TSMC) was characterized with respect to the specificity for various AC and its role in the activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). 7,8-Diacetoxy-4-methylcoumarin (DAMC), a model AC, when incubated with TSMC along with L-arginine caused profound activation of NOS as compared to that with L-arginine alone. Further, the inclusion of N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) along with DAMC resulted in the reduction of NO levels of TSMC to that of control, there by confirming the activation of TSMC NOS. Also, several AC were found to activate TSMC NOS in tune with their specificities to CRTAase. The results presented in this paper bear evidence for the activation of TSMC NOS by AC and their effectiveness to enhance NO of airway cells may be expected to find useful applications in respiratory diseases. PMID:18379067

Arora, Shvetambri; Vohra, Parag; Kumar, Ajit; Tyagi, Yogesh Kumar; Raj, Hanumantharao Guru; Dawarkanath, Bilekere Srinivasarao; Saluja, Daman; Saso, Luciano; Parmar, Virinder Singh

2008-04-01

157

Calreticulin transacetylase catalyzed activation of rat tracheal smooth muscle cell nitric oxide synthase by acetoxycoumarins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Transacetylase function of Calreticulin (CR) catalyzing the transfer of acetyl groups from acetoxycoumarins (AC) to certain proteins was identified for the first time in our laboratory. Protein acetyltransferase action of CR was termed Calreticulin Transacetylase (CRTAase). In the present work, CRTAase of rat tracheal smooth muscle cells (TSMC) was characterized with respect to the specificity for various AC and its role in the activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). 7,8-Diacetoxy-4-methylcoumarin (DAMC), a model AC, when incubated with TSMC along with L-arginine caused profound activation of NOS as compared to that with L-arginine alone. Further, the inclusion of N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) along with DAMC resulted in the reduction of NO levels of TSMC to that of control, there by confirming the activation of TSMC NOS. Also, several AC were found to activate TSMC NOS in tune with their specificities to CRTAase. The results presented in this paper bear evidence for the activation of TSMC NOS by AC and their effectiveness to enhance NO of airway cells may be expected to find useful applications in respiratory diseases.

Arora S; Vohra P; Kumar A; Tyagi YK; Raj HG; Dawarkanath BS; Saluja D; Saso L; Parmar VS

2008-04-01

158

Oligomerization of rice granule-bound starch synthase 1 modulates its activity regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Granule-bound starch synthase 1 (GBSS1) is responsible for amylose synthesis in cereals, and this enzyme is regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this study, we show that GBSS1 from Oryza sativa L. (OsGBSS1) can form oligomers in rice endosperm, and oligomerized OsGBSS1 exhibits much higher specific enzymatic activity than the monomer. A monomer-oligomer transition equilibrium for OsGBSS1 occurs in the endosperm during development. Redox potential is a key factor affecting the oligomer percentage as well as the enzymatic activity of OsGBSS1. Adenosine diphosphate glucose, the direct donor of glucose, also impacts OsGBSS1 oligomerization in a concentration-dependent manner. OsGBSS1 oligomerization is influenced by phosphorylation status, which was strongly enhanced by Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and ATP treatment and was sharply weakened by protein phosphatase (PPase) treatment. The activity of OsGBSS1 affects the ratio of amylose to amylopectin and therefore the eating quality of rice. Understanding the regulation of OsGBSS1 activity may lead to the improvement of rice eating quality. PMID:23849121

Liu, De-Rui; Huang, Wei-Xue; Cai, Xiu-Ling

2013-06-10

159

Light regulation of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity in the freezing-tolerant grass Deschampsia antarctica.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Deschampsia antarctica, a freezing-tolerant grass that has colonized the Maritime Antarctic, has an unusually high content of sucrose (Suc) in leaves, reaching up to 36% of dry weight. Suc accumulation has often been linked with increased activity of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC: 2.4.1.1.14). SPS, a key enzyme in sucrose biosynthesis, is controlled by an intricate hierarchy of regulatory mechanisms including allosteric modulators, reversible covalent modification in response to illumination, and transcriptional regulation. We hypothesized that during long day conditions in the Antarctic summer D. antarctica can maintain high SPS activity longer by indirect light regulation, thereby leading to a high sucrose accumulation in the leaves. The objectives of this study were to investigate a possible indirect light regulation of SPS activity and the effect of cold and day length on transcriptional and protein level of SPS in D. antarctica. Although SPS activity did not display an endogenous rhythm of activity in continuous light, activation of SPS at the end of the dark period was observed in D. antarctica. This activation of SPS is possibly controlled by covalent modification, because it was inhibited by okadaic acid while the SPS protein level did not significantly change. The highest SPS activity increase was observed after 21 days of cold-acclimation under long day conditions. This increased activity was not related to an increase in SPS gene expression or protein content. High SPS activity in cold long days leading to hyper accumulation of Suc appears to be among the features that permit D. antarctica to survive in the harsh Antarctic conditions.

Zúñiga-Feest A; Ort DR; Gutiérrez A; Gidekel M; Bravo LA; Corcuera LJ

2005-01-01

160

Light regulation of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity in the freezing-tolerant grass Deschampsia antarctica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deschampsia antarctica, a freezing-tolerant grass that has colonized the Maritime Antarctic, has an unusually high content of sucrose (Suc) in leaves, reaching up to 36% of dry weight. Suc accumulation has often been linked with increased activity of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC: 2.4.1.1.14). SPS, a key enzyme in sucrose biosynthesis, is controlled by an intricate hierarchy of regulatory mechanisms including allosteric modulators, reversible covalent modification in response to illumination, and transcriptional regulation. We hypothesized that during long day conditions in the Antarctic summer D. antarctica can maintain high SPS activity longer by indirect light regulation, thereby leading to a high sucrose accumulation in the leaves. The objectives of this study were to investigate a possible indirect light regulation of SPS activity and the effect of cold and day length on transcriptional and protein level of SPS in D. antarctica. Although SPS activity did not display an endogenous rhythm of activity in continuous light, activation of SPS at the end of the dark period was observed in D. antarctica. This activation of SPS is possibly controlled by covalent modification, because it was inhibited by okadaic acid while the SPS protein level did not significantly change. The highest SPS activity increase was observed after 21 days of cold-acclimation under long day conditions. This increased activity was not related to an increase in SPS gene expression or protein content. High SPS activity in cold long days leading to hyper accumulation of Suc appears to be among the features that permit D. antarctica to survive in the harsh Antarctic conditions. PMID:16143909

Zúñiga-Feest, Alejandra; Ort, Donald R; Gutiérrez, Ana; Gidekel, Manuel; Bravo, León A; Corcuera, Luis J

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Conjugated Bile Acids Regulate Hepatocyte Glycogen Synthase Activity In Vitro and In Vivo via G?i Signaling  

Science.gov (United States)

The regulation of glycogen synthase activity by bile acids in primary hepatocytes and in the intact liver was investigated. Bile acids (deoxycholic acid, DCA; taurocholic acid, TCA) activated AKT and glycogen synthase (GS) in primary rat hepatocytes. Incubation with a phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase inhibitor or expression of dominant-negative AKT in primary rat hepatocytes abolished activation of AKT and GS by DCA and TCA. TCA, but not DCA, activated G?i proteins in primary rat hepatocytes. Treatment of cells with pertussis toxin or expression of dominant-negative G?i blocked TCA-induced activation of AKT and of GS but did not alter AKT or GS activation caused by DCA. TCA caused activation of AKT and GS in intact rat liver. Expression of dominant-negative G?i reduced TCA-induced activation of AKT and of GS in intact rat liver. Together, our findings demonstrate that bile acids are physiological regulators of glycogen synthase in rat liver and that conjugated bile acids use a G?i-coupled G protein-coupled receptor to regulate GS activity in vitro and in vivo.

Fang, Youwen; Studer, Elaine; Mitchell, Clint; Grant, Steven; Pandak, William M.; Hylemon, Philip B.; Dent, Paul

2012-01-01

162

Complete tracking of transient proton flow through active chloroplast ATP synthase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proton pumping in thylakoid membranes and backflow of protons through the active ATP synthase CF0-CF1 were investigated by flash spectrophotometry. A steady pH difference across the membrane was generated by continuous measuring light, supplemented by voltage transients that were generated by flashing light. In the presence of P/sub i/ and ADP, the electric potential transients elicited transients of proton flow via CF0-CF1. Proton flow was blocked by CF0-CF1 inhibitors: N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, acting on the channel component CF0, and tentoxin, acting on the catalytic component CF1. The half-rise time was 40 ms in /sup 1/H/sub 2/O and 78 ms in /sup 2/H/sub 2/O. ATP synthesis under conditions of flashing light and transient proton flow was characterized by a K/sub m/(P/sub i/) of only 14 ..mu..M, contrasting with a K/sub m/ of several hundred micromolar for continuous ATP synthesis at high rate. This might reflect a resistance to P/sub i/ diffusion. The degree of proton delocalization in the chemiosmotic coupling between redox reactions and ATP synthesis is under debate. In this work, transient proton flow by way of CF0-CF1 was completely tracked from the lumen, across the membrane, and into the suspending medium. Proton uptake from the lumen and charge flow across the membrane occurred synchronously and in stoichiometric proportion. Pumps and ATP synthase were coupled through the lumen without involvement of intramembrane domains.

Junge, W.

1987-10-01

163

A novel electron paramagnetic resonance-based assay for prostaglandin H synthase-1 activity  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostaglandin H2 synthase (PGHS) is the enzyme that catalyses the two-stage conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) prior to formation of prostanoids that are important in inflammation. PGHS isozymes (-1 and -2) are the target for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Given the rekindled interest in specific anti-inflammatory PGHS inhibitors with reduced unwanted side effects, it is of paramount importance that there are reliable and efficient techniques to test new inhibitors. Here, we describe a novel in vitro electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based assay for measuring the activity of PGHS-1. Methods We validated a novel in vitro PGHS-1 activity assay based on the oxidation of spin-trap agent, 1-hydroxy-3-carboxy-pyrrolidine (CPH) to 3-carboxy-proxy (CP) under the action of the peroxidase element of PGHS-1. This quantifiable spin-adduct, CP, yields a characteristic 3-line electron paramagnetic (EPR) spectrum. Results The assay is simple, reproducible and facilitates rapid screening of inhibitors of PGHS-1. Aspirin (100 ?M, 1 mM) caused significant inhibition of spin-adduct formation (72 ± 11 and 100 ± 16% inhibition of control respectively; P 0.05). Conclusion We have demonstrated and validated a simple, reproducible, quick and specific assay for detecting PGHS-1 activity and inhibition. The EPR-based assay described represents a novel approach to measuring PGHS activity and provides a viable and competitive alternative to existing assays.

Turnbull Catriona M; McClure Danny; Rossi Adriano G; Megson Ian L

2006-01-01

164

[Change of the nitric oxide synthase activity after administration of neurotoxic compounds in mice].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The possible contribution of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) to the development of the neurode-generation came up after the investigations with neurotoxic compounds. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and methamphetamine (METH) have detrimental effect on the dopaminergic neurons. The aim of our study was to examine whether altered nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme activity can be involved in the damage induced by these neurotoxins. The other goal of the study was to investigate the applicability of the measurement of the ratio of NADP+/L-citrulline formed by the enzyme to assess the coupled state of the NOS. Elevated NOS activity in mouse striatum and declined enzyme activity in mouse hippocampus have been found after administration of MPTP Decreased NOS activity in mouse striatum and hippocampus was observed after administration of METH. The ratio of the NADP+/L-citrulline produced by the enzyme provides useful information about the coupling state of the NOS. The ratio in the presence of saturating substrate concentration measured in our experiments was comparable with the data found in the literature. Dramatically increased ratio could be observed in case of decreasing substrate concentration indicating the uncoupled function of the enzyme.

Halász AS; Pálfi M; Tábi T; Magyar K; Szöko E

2006-01-01

165

Biochemical characterization of chitin synthase activity and inhibition in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract? Chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzyme catalyzing the formation of chitin polymers in all chitin containing organisms and a potential target site for insect pest control. However, our understanding of biochemical properties of insect CHSs has been very limited. We here report enzymatic and inhibitory properties of CHS prepared from the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Our study, which represents the first time to use a nonradioactive method to assay CHS activity in an insect species, determined the optimal conditions for measuring the enzyme activity, including pH, temperature, and concentrations of the substrate uridine diphosphate N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and Mg(++) . The optimal pH was about 6.5-7.0, and the highest activity was detected at temperatures between 37°C and 44°C. Dithithreitol is required to prevent melanization of the enzyme extract. CHS activity was enhanced at low concentration of GlcNAc, but inhibited at high concentrations. Proteolytic activation of the activity is significant both in the 500 ×g supernatant and the 40?000 ×g pellet. Our study revealed only slight in vitro inhibition of A. gambiae CHS activity by diflubenzuron and nikkomycin Z at the highest concentration (2.5 ?mol/L) examined. There was no in vitro inhibition by polyoxin D at any concentration examined. Furthermore, we did not observe any in vivo inhibition of CHS activity by any of these chemicals at any concentration examined. Our results suggest that the inhibition of chitin synthesis by these chemicals is not due to direct inhibition of CHS in A. gambiae.

Zhang X; Yan Zhu K

2013-04-01

166

Feedback limitation of photosynthesis at high CO? acts by modulating the activity of the chloroplast ATP synthase  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It was previously shown that photosynthetic electron transfer is controlled under low CO? via regulation of the chloroplast ATP synthase. In the current work, we studied the regulation of photosynthesis under feedback limiting conditions, where photosynthesis is limited by the capacity to utilise triose-phosphate for synthesis of end products (starch or sucrose), in a starch-deficient mutant of Nicotiana sylvestris Speg. & Comes. At high CO?, we observed feedback control that was progressively reversed by increasing O? levels from 2 to 40%. The activity of the ATP synthase, probed in vivo by the dark-interval relaxation kinetics of the electrochromic shift, was proportional to the O?-induced increases in O? evolution from PSII (JO?), as well as the sum of Rubisco oxygenation (vo) and carboxylation (vc) rates. The altered ATP synthase activity led to changes in the light-driven proton motive force, resulting in regulation of the rate of plastoquinol oxidation at the cytochrome b?f complex, quantitatively accounting for the observed control of photosynthetic electron transfer. The ATP content of the cell decreases under feedback limitation, suggesting that the ATP synthesis was downregulated to a larger extent than ATP consumption. This likely resulted in slowing of ribulose bisphosphate regeneration and JO?). Overall, our results indicate that, just as at low CO?, feedback limitations control the light reactions of photosynthesis via regulation of the ATP synthase, and can be reconciled with regulation via stromal Pi, or an unknown allosteric affector.

Kiirats Olavi; Cruz JeffreyA; Edwards GeraldE; Kramer DavidM

2009-01-01

167

Methylene green electrodeposited on SWNTs-based "bucky" papers for NADH and l-malate oxidation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research introduces a cavity anode design based on new single-walled nanotube (SWNTs) papers, "bucky" papers, used for the oxidation (and regeneration) of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and the oxidation of l-malate. The materials designed are paper-like processed composites containing also additives: BP11 sample contains SWNTs and isopropanol (IPA); the BPMG sample contains SWNTs, IPA, and methylene green (MG). NADH/NAD(+) is the cofactor responsible for the oxidation of l-malate by malate dehydrogenase (MDH), in the Krebs' cycle. Because of the high overpotential of NADH oxidation, poly methylene green (PMG) was utilized as the electrocatalyst to produce NAD(+). The electrocatalyst was deposited on the surface of the "bucky" papers by electropolymerization by means of 10 voltammetric cycles in a range of -0.5 V and +1.3 V (vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode) at a scan rate of 5 mV/s. The catalytic performance of PMG was evaluated by chronoamperometric measurements of NADH oxidation at 0.3 V in phosphate buffer and l-malate oxidation at 0.1 V in the presence of MDH. For both "bucky" papers, the chronoamperometric curves of PMG, current vs NADH concentration, show a linear relationship demonstrating to have a first order Fick's law behavior for concentrations of NADH lower than 6 mM. The chronoamperometric curves in the presence of MDH, current against l-malate concentration, show a Michaelis-Menten behavior where no inhibition or competitive reaction are detected. Additionally, the anodic materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), the polymerization of MG is effectively observed in the form of particles nucleation. The anodes show an excellent electrocatalytic activity toward NADH oxidation. The electrode design is feasible, reproducible, and overall stable. PMID:21667995

Narváez Villarrubia, Claudia W; Rincón, Rosalba A; Radhakrishnan, Vinod K; Davis, Virginia; Atanassov, Plamen

2011-06-30

168

Methylene green electrodeposited on SWNTs-based "bucky" papers for NADH and l-malate oxidation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This research introduces a cavity anode design based on new single-walled nanotube (SWNTs) papers, "bucky" papers, used for the oxidation (and regeneration) of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and the oxidation of l-malate. The materials designed are paper-like processed composites containing also additives: BP11 sample contains SWNTs and isopropanol (IPA); the BPMG sample contains SWNTs, IPA, and methylene green (MG). NADH/NAD(+) is the cofactor responsible for the oxidation of l-malate by malate dehydrogenase (MDH), in the Krebs' cycle. Because of the high overpotential of NADH oxidation, poly methylene green (PMG) was utilized as the electrocatalyst to produce NAD(+). The electrocatalyst was deposited on the surface of the "bucky" papers by electropolymerization by means of 10 voltammetric cycles in a range of -0.5 V and +1.3 V (vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode) at a scan rate of 5 mV/s. The catalytic performance of PMG was evaluated by chronoamperometric measurements of NADH oxidation at 0.3 V in phosphate buffer and l-malate oxidation at 0.1 V in the presence of MDH. For both "bucky" papers, the chronoamperometric curves of PMG, current vs NADH concentration, show a linear relationship demonstrating to have a first order Fick's law behavior for concentrations of NADH lower than 6 mM. The chronoamperometric curves in the presence of MDH, current against l-malate concentration, show a Michaelis-Menten behavior where no inhibition or competitive reaction are detected. Additionally, the anodic materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), the polymerization of MG is effectively observed in the form of particles nucleation. The anodes show an excellent electrocatalytic activity toward NADH oxidation. The electrode design is feasible, reproducible, and overall stable.

Narváez Villarrubia CW; Rincón RA; Radhakrishnan VK; Davis V; Atanassov P

2011-07-01

169

NMR Crystallography of Enzyme Active Sites: Probing Chemically Detailed, Three-Dimensional Structure in Tryptophan Synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

NMR crystallography-the synergistic combination of X-raydiffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and computational chemistry-offers unprecedented insight into three-dimensional, chemically detailed structure. Initially, researchers used NMR crystallography to refine diffraction data from organic and inorganic solids. Now we are applying this technique to explore active sites in biomolecules, where it reveals chemically rich detail concerning the interactions between enzyme site residues and the reacting substrate. Researchers cannot achieve this level of detail from X-ray, NMR,or computational methodologies in isolation. For example, typical X-ray crystal structures (1.5-2.5 Å resolution) of enzyme-bound intermediates identify possible hydrogen-bonding interactions between site residues and substrate but do not directly identify the protonation states. Solid-state NMR can provide chemical shifts for selected atoms of enzyme-substrate complexes, but without a larger structural framework in which to interpret them only empirical correlations with local chemical structure are possible. Ab initio calculations and molecular mechanics can build models for enzymatic processes, but they rely on researcher-specified chemical details. Together, however, X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and computational chemistry can provide consistent and testable models for structure and function of enzyme active sites: X-ray crystallography provides a coarse framework upon which scientists can develop models of the active site using computational chemistry; they can then distinguish these models by comparing calculated NMR chemical shifts with the results of solid-state NMR spectroscopy experiments. Conceptually, each technique is a puzzle piece offering a generous view of the big picture. Only when correctly pieced together, however, can they reveal the big picture at the highest possible resolution. In this Account, we detail our first steps in the development of NMR crystallography applied to enzyme catalysis. We begin with a brief introduction to NMR crystallography and then define the process that we have employed to probe the active site in the ?-subunit of tryptophan synthase with unprecedented atomic-level resolution. This approach has resulted in a novel structural hypothesis for the protonation state of the quinonoid intermediate in tryptophan synthase and its surprising role in directing the next step in the catalysis of l-Trp formation.

Mueller LJ; Dunn MF

2013-03-01

170

Inheritance of malate dehydrogenase in wild pepper  

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Full Text Available Leaf extracts from wild pepper (Capsicum flexuosum Sendt) were analysed for the presence of malate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.37; MDH) isozymes using starch gel electrophoresis. Seven phenotypes for MDH isozymes were observed in the genitors. Genetic analysis in F1 progenies revealed five loci coding for MDH. Isozyme banding patterns of hybrids indicated that MDH-3 and MDH-4 genes code for monomeric enzymes, while MDH-5 for a dimeric isoform. In MDH-2 loci, one particular F1 progeny showed a significant deviation from the expected isozyme pattern. It is possible that other genes are controlling the expression of MDH-2 in pepper. Also, there are two alleles coding for MDH-2 isozyme. On the other hand, MDH-1 was monomorphic for all genotypes used in the experiment.

SCHUELTER ADILSON RICKEN; CASALI VICENTE WAGNER DIAS; FINGER FERNANDO LUIZ

1999-01-01

171

Curcumin ameliorates ethanol-induced memory deficits and enhanced brain nitric oxide synthase activity in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ethanol consumption has well-known deleterious effects on memory. However, the mechanism by which ethanol exerts its effects on memory has received little attention, which has retarded the identification and development of effective therapeutic strategies against ethanol toxicity. The aim of this study was to explore the neuronal mechanisms underlying the protective action of curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound of Curcuma longa, against ethanol-induced memory deficits. Adult mice were pretreated with curcumin (40 mg/kg, i.p.) before administration of ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) for the memory acquisition measurement, or were sacrificed 30 min later for evaluation of regional brain differences in the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) concentration. The results showed that pretreatment with curcumin significantly ameliorated the memory deficits resulting from acute ethanol administration to mice in the novel object recognition and inhibitory avoidance tasks. Furthermore, acute ethanol treatment increased the NOS activity and NO production in brain regions associated with memory including prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala and hippocampus, while this enhancement was suppressed by pretreatment with curcumin. Taken together, these results suggest that the protective effects of curcumin on acute ethanol-induced memory deficits are mediated, at least in part, by suppressing NOS activity in the brain of mice. Thus, manipulation of the NOS/NO signaling pathway might be beneficial for the prevention of ethanol toxicity.

Yu SY; Gao R; Zhang L; Luo J; Jiang H; Wang S

2013-07-01

172

Curcumin ameliorates ethanol-induced memory deficits and enhanced brain nitric oxide synthase activity in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanol consumption has well-known deleterious effects on memory. However, the mechanism by which ethanol exerts its effects on memory has received little attention, which has retarded the identification and development of effective therapeutic strategies against ethanol toxicity. The aim of this study was to explore the neuronal mechanisms underlying the protective action of curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound of Curcuma longa, against ethanol-induced memory deficits. Adult mice were pretreated with curcumin (40 mg/kg, i.p.) before administration of ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) for the memory acquisition measurement, or were sacrificed 30 min later for evaluation of regional brain differences in the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) concentration. The results showed that pretreatment with curcumin significantly ameliorated the memory deficits resulting from acute ethanol administration to mice in the novel object recognition and inhibitory avoidance tasks. Furthermore, acute ethanol treatment increased the NOS activity and NO production in brain regions associated with memory including prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala and hippocampus, while this enhancement was suppressed by pretreatment with curcumin. Taken together, these results suggest that the protective effects of curcumin on acute ethanol-induced memory deficits are mediated, at least in part, by suppressing NOS activity in the brain of mice. Thus, manipulation of the NOS/NO signaling pathway might be beneficial for the prevention of ethanol toxicity. PMID:23500667

Yu, Shu Yan; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Lin; Luo, Junxia; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Shuanglian

2013-03-14

173

Inactivation of highly activated spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase by dephosphorylation. [Spinacia oleracea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) can be phosphorylated and inactivated in vitro with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP. Thus, it was surprising to find that SPS, extracted from leaves fed mannose in the light to highly activate the enzyme, could be inactivated in an ATP-independent manner when desalted crude extracts were preincubated at 25{degrees}C before assay. The spontaneous inactivation involved a loss in activity measured with limiting substrate concentrations in the presence of the inhibitor, Pi, without affecting maximum catalytic activity. The spontaneous inactivation was unaffected by exogenous carrier proteins and protease inhibitors, but was inhibited by inorganic phosphate, fluoride, and molybdate, suggesting that a phosphatase may be involved. Okadaic acid, a potent inhibitor of mammalian type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases, had no effect up to 5 micromolar. Inactivation was stimulated about twofold by exogenous Mg{sup 2+} and was relatively insensitive to Ca{sup 2+} and to pH over the range pH 6.5 to 8.5. Radioactive phosphate incorporated into SPS during labeling of excised leaves with ({sup 32}P)Pi (initially in the dark and then in the light with mannose) was lost with time when desalted crude extracts were incubated at 25 C, and the loss in radiolabel was substantially reduced by fluoride. These results provide direct evidence for action of an endogenous phosphatase(s) using SPS as substrate.

Huber, J.L. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States)); Huber, S.C. (Dept. of Agriculture, Raleigh, NC (United States) North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States)); Hite, D.R.C.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (United States))

1991-01-01

174

Nitric oxide synthase activity in tissues of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala: Fabricius, 1794  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Although insects lack the adaptive immune response of the mammalians, they manifest effective innate immune responses, which include both cellular and humoral components. Cellular responses are mediated by hemocytes, and humoral responses include the activation of proteolytic cascades that initiate many events, including NO production. In mammals, nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are also present in the endothelium, the brain, the adrenal glands, and the platelets. Studies o (more) n the distribution of NO-producing systems in invertebrates have revealed functional similarities between NOS in this group and vertebrates. We attempted to localize NOS activity in tissues of naïve (UIL), yeast-injected (YIL), and saline-injected (SIL) larvae of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala, using the NADPH diaphorase technique. Our findings revealed similar levels of NOS activity in muscle, fat body, Malpighian tubule, gut, and brain, suggesting that NO synthesis may not be involved in the immune response of these larval systems. These results were compared to many studies that recorded the involvement of NO in various physiological functions of insects.

Faraldo, A. C.; Sá-Nunes, A; Faccioli, L. H.; Del Bel, E. A.; Lello, E

2007-08-01

175

Nitric oxide synthase activity in tissues of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala: Fabricius, 1794  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although insects lack the adaptive immune response of the mammalians, they manifest effective innate immune responses, which include both cellular and humoral components. Cellular responses are mediated by hemocytes, and humoral responses include the activation of proteolytic cascades that initiate many events, including NO production. In mammals, nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are also present in the endothelium, the brain, the adrenal glands, and the platelets. Studies on the distribution of NO-producing systems in invertebrates have revealed functional similarities between NOS in this group and vertebrates. We attempted to localize NOS activity in tissues of naïve (UIL), yeast-injected (YIL), and saline-injected (SIL) larvae of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala, using the NADPH diaphorase technique. Our findings revealed similar levels of NOS activity in muscle, fat body, Malpighian tubule, gut, and brain, suggesting that NO synthesis may not be involved in the immune response of these larval systems. These results were compared to many studies that recorded the involvement of NO in various physiological functions of insects.

A. C. Faraldo; A Sá-Nunes; L. H. Faccioli; E. A. Del Bel; E Lello

2007-01-01

176

Ammonium assimilation by Candida albicans and other yeasts: evidence for activity of glutamate synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activities and properties of the ammonium assimilation enzymes NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) were determined in batch and continuous cultures of Candida albicans. NADP+-dependent GDH activity showed allosteric kinetics, with an S0.5 for 2-oxoglutarate of 7.5 mM and an apparent Km for ammonium of 5.0 mM. GOGAT activity was affected by the buffer used for extraction and assay, but in phosphate buffer, kinetics were hyperbolic, yielding Km values for glutamine of 750 microM and for 2-oxoglutarate of 65 microM. The enzymes GOGAT and NADP+-dependent GDH were also assayed in batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and three other pathogenic Candida spp.: Candida tropicalis, Candida pseudotropicalis and Candida parapsilosis. Evidence is presented that GS/GOGAT is a major pathway for ammonium assimilation in Candida albicans and that this pathway is also significant in other Candida species. PMID:2575653

Holmes, A R; Collings, A; Farnden, K J; Shepherd, M G

1989-06-01

177

Hydrogen sulfide production and fermentative gas production by Salmonella typhimurium require F0F1 ATP synthase activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A previously isolated mutant of Salmonella typhimurium lacking hydrogen sulfide production from both thiosulfate and sulfite was shown to have a single mutation which also caused the loss of fermentative gas production and the ability to grow on nonfermentable substrates and which mapped in the vicinity of the atp chromosomal locus. The implication that F0F1 ATP synthase might be essential for H2S and fermentative gas production was explored. The phs plasmid conferring H2S production on wild-type Escherichia coli failed to confer this ability on seven of eight E. coli atp point mutants representing, collectively, the eight genes encoding the subunits of F0F1 ATP synthase. However, it did confer some thiosulfate reductase activity on all except the mutant with a lesion in the ATP synthase catalytic subunit. Localized mutagenesis of the Salmonella atp chromosomal region yielded 500 point mutants unable to reduce thiosulfate to H2S or to produce gas from glucose, but differing in the extents of their ability to grow on succinate, to perform proton translocation as measured in a fluorescence quenching assay, and to reduce sulfite to H2S. Biochemical assays showed that all mutants were completely devoid of both methyl viologen and formate-linked thiosulfate reductase and that N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide blocked thiosulfate reductase activity by the wild type, suggesting that thiosulfate reductase activity has an absolute requirement for F0F1 ATP synthase. Hydrogenase-linked formate dehydrogenase was also affected, but not as severely as thiosulfate reductase. These results imply that in addition to linking oxidation with phosphorylation, F0F1 ATP synthase plays a key role in the proton movement accompanying certain anaerobic reductions and oxidations.

Sasahara KC; Heinzinger NK; Barrett EL

1997-11-01

178

Hydrogen sulfide production and fermentative gas production by Salmonella typhimurium require F0F1 ATP synthase activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A previously isolated mutant of Salmonella typhimurium lacking hydrogen sulfide production from both thiosulfate and sulfite was shown to have a single mutation which also caused the loss of fermentative gas production and the ability to grow on nonfermentable substrates and which mapped in the vicinity of the atp chromosomal locus. The implication that F0F1 ATP synthase might be essential for H2S and fermentative gas production was explored. The phs plasmid conferring H2S production on wild-type Escherichia coli failed to confer this ability on seven of eight E. coli atp point mutants representing, collectively, the eight genes encoding the subunits of F0F1 ATP synthase. However, it did confer some thiosulfate reductase activity on all except the mutant with a lesion in the ATP synthase catalytic subunit. Localized mutagenesis of the Salmonella atp chromosomal region yielded 500 point mutants unable to reduce thiosulfate to H2S or to produce gas from glucose, but differing in the extents of their ability to grow on succinate, to perform proton translocation as measured in a fluorescence quenching assay, and to reduce sulfite to H2S. Biochemical assays showed that all mutants were completely devoid of both methyl viologen and formate-linked thiosulfate reductase and that N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide blocked thiosulfate reductase activity by the wild type, suggesting that thiosulfate reductase activity has an absolute requirement for F0F1 ATP synthase. Hydrogenase-linked formate dehydrogenase was also affected, but not as severely as thiosulfate reductase. These results imply that in addition to linking oxidation with phosphorylation, F0F1 ATP synthase plays a key role in the proton movement accompanying certain anaerobic reductions and oxidations. PMID:9352924

Sasahara, K C; Heinzinger, N K; Barrett, E L

1997-11-01

179

Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase expression in activated microglia and peroxynitrite scavenging activity by Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activated microglia by neuronal injury or inflammatory stimulation overproduce nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion, resulting in neurodegenerative diseases. The toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO-), the reaction product of NO and superoxide anion further contributes to oxidative neurotoxicity. A butanol fraction obtained from 50% ethanol extracts of Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten (Cactaceae) stem (SK OFB901) and its hydrolysis product (SK OFB901H) inhibited the production of NO in LPS-activated microglia in a dose dependent manner (IC50 15.9, 4.2 microg/mL, respectively). They also suppressed the expression of protein and mRNA of iNOS in LPS-activated microglial cells at higher than 30 microg/mL as observed by western blot analysis and RT-PCR experiment. They also inhibited the degradation of I-kappaB-alpha in activated microglia. Moreover, they showed strong activity of peroxynitrite scavenging in a cell free bioassay system. These results imply that Opuntia ficus indica may have neuroprotective activity through the inhibition of NO production by activated microglial cells and peroxynitrite scavenging activity. PMID:16807879

Lee, Ming Hong; Kim, Jae Yeon; Yoon, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Tae Hee; Jin, Changbae; Kwak, Wie-Jong; Han, Chang-Kyun; Ryu, Jae-Ha

2006-09-01

180

Insights into the glycyl radical enzyme active site of benzylsuccinate synthase: a computational study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fumarate addition reaction, catalyzed by the enzyme benzylsuccinate synthase (BSS), is considered to be one of the most intriguing and energetically challenging reactions in biology. BSS belongs to the glycyl radical enzyme family and catalyzes the fumarate addition reaction, which enables microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons as an energy source under anaerobic conditions. Unfortunately, the extreme sensitivity of the glycyl radical to oxygen has hampered the structural and kinetic characterization of BSS, thereby limiting our knowledge on this enzyme. To enhance our molecular-level understanding of BSS, a computational approach involving homology modeling, docking studies, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been used to deduce the structure of BSS's catalytic subunit (BSS?) and illuminate the molecular basis for the fumarate addition reaction. We have identified two conserved and distinct binding pockets at the BSS? active site: a hydrophobic pocket for toluene binding and a polar pocket for fumaric acid binding. Subsequent dynamical and energetic evaluations have identified Glu509, Ser827, Leu390, and Phe384 as active site residues critical for substrate binding. The orientation of substrates at the active site observed in MD simulations is consistent with experimental observations of the syn addition of toluene to fumaric acid. It is also found that substrate binding tightens the active site and restricts the conformational flexibility of the thiyl radical, leading to hydrogen transfer distances conducive to the proposed reaction mechanism. The stability of substrates at the active site and the occurrence of feasible radical transfer distances between the thiyl radical, substrates, and the active site glycine indicate a substrate-assisted radical transfer pathway governing fumarate addition.

Bharadwaj VS; Dean AM; Maupin CM

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Insights into the glycyl radical enzyme active site of benzylsuccinate synthase: a computational study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fumarate addition reaction, catalyzed by the enzyme benzylsuccinate synthase (BSS), is considered to be one of the most intriguing and energetically challenging reactions in biology. BSS belongs to the glycyl radical enzyme family and catalyzes the fumarate addition reaction, which enables microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons as an energy source under anaerobic conditions. Unfortunately, the extreme sensitivity of the glycyl radical to oxygen has hampered the structural and kinetic characterization of BSS, thereby limiting our knowledge on this enzyme. To enhance our molecular-level understanding of BSS, a computational approach involving homology modeling, docking studies, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been used to deduce the structure of BSS's catalytic subunit (BSS?) and illuminate the molecular basis for the fumarate addition reaction. We have identified two conserved and distinct binding pockets at the BSS? active site: a hydrophobic pocket for toluene binding and a polar pocket for fumaric acid binding. Subsequent dynamical and energetic evaluations have identified Glu509, Ser827, Leu390, and Phe384 as active site residues critical for substrate binding. The orientation of substrates at the active site observed in MD simulations is consistent with experimental observations of the syn addition of toluene to fumaric acid. It is also found that substrate binding tightens the active site and restricts the conformational flexibility of the thiyl radical, leading to hydrogen transfer distances conducive to the proposed reaction mechanism. The stability of substrates at the active site and the occurrence of feasible radical transfer distances between the thiyl radical, substrates, and the active site glycine indicate a substrate-assisted radical transfer pathway governing fumarate addition. PMID:23865732

Bharadwaj, Vivek S; Dean, Anthony M; Maupin, C Mark

2013-08-07

182

Nitric oxide synthase activity in human trophoblast, term placenta and pregnant myometrium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract To investigate the possible role of nitric oxide (NO) produced locally or intramurally in the quiescence of the pregnant myometrium, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was measured in samples from first trimester (villous, and non villous-trophoblast), term placenta and pregnant myometrium. Trophoblast tissue was obtained from psychosocial termination of pregnancy (9 – 12 weeks' gestation) whereas placenta and myometrium, from the same patient, at deliveries by Caesarean section. NOS activity was measured in both cytosolic and particulate fractions by the formation of 14C-citrulline from 14C-arginine. Western immunoblotting was used to identify the endothelial NOS (eNOS) and neuronal (nNOS) isoforms. The activity of NOS in particulate fractions from all preparations was considerably higher than the cytosolic fractions. Activity in all fractions except the myometrium was highly Ca-dependent. More than 50% of particulate NOS from the myometrium was Ca-independent. NOS activity was highest in the villous trophoblast and there was a significant difference between the villous and non-villous trophoblast. In placenta and myometrium, NOS was 2–4 fold and 20–28-fold lower than the villous trophoblast, respectively. Western blot analysis showed clearly eNOS in the particulate fraction and a weak eNOS band in the cytosolic fractions, whereas nNOS was not detectable in any of the fractions. In view of the marginal activity of NOS in the myometrium, NO produced by the trophoblast and placenta could play a significant role in maintaining uterine quiescence by paracrine effect.

Al-Hijji J; Andolf Ellika; Laurini Ricardo; Batra Satish

2003-01-01

183

GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE-3 NEGATIVELY REGULATES TISSUE FACTOR EXPRESSION IN MONOCYTES INTERACTING WITH ACTIVATED PLATELETS  

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Background At the site of vascular injury monocytes (MN) interacting with activated platelets (PLT) synthesize tissue factor (TF) and promote thrombus formation. Intracellular signals necessary for the expression of TF in MN, in the context of a developing thrombus, remain unknown. Objective The study was designed to investigate the role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a serine-threonine kinase, down-stream insulin receptor pathway, on PLT-induced TF expression in MN. Methods To this purpose we used a well characterized in vitro model of human MN-PLT interactions that allows detailed analysis of TF activity, TF protein and gene expression. Results The results demonstrated that, in MN interacting with activated PLT: 1) TF activity, antigen and mRNA were low until 8–10 hours and dramatically increased thereafter, up to 24 hours. 2) According to the kinetics of TF expression in MN, GSK3? undergoes phosphorylation on serine 9, a process associated with down-regulation of enzyme activity. 3) Pharmacological blockade of GSK3 further increased TF expression and was accompanied by increased accumulation of NF-kB, in the nucleus. 4) Blockade of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI(3)K) by wortmannin inhibited PLT-induced TF expression. 5) According to the established role of GSK3 down-stream insulin receptor, insulin increased PLT-induced TF expression in a PI(3)K-dependent manner. Conclusion GSK3 acts as molecular brake of the signaling pathway leading to TF expression in MN interacting with activated PLT. PI(3)K, through Akt-dependent phosphorylation of GSK3, relieves this brake and allows TF gene expression. This study identifies a novel molecular link between thrombotic risk and metabolic disorders.

Di Santo, A.; Amore, C.; Dell'Elba, G.; Manarini, S.; Evangelista, V.

2011-01-01

184

Disruption of ATCSLD5 results in reduced growth, reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity and altered xylan occurrence in Arabidopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Members of a large family of cellulose synthase-like genes (CSLs) are predicted to encode glycosyl transferases (GTs) involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell walls. The CSLA and CSLF families are known to contain mannan and glucan synthases, respectively, but the products of other CSLs are unknown. Here we report the effects of disrupting ATCSLD5 expression in Arabidopsis. Both stem and root growth were significantly reduced in ATCSLD5 knock-out plants, and these plants also had increased susceptibility to the cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben. Antibody and carbohydrate-binding module labelling indicated a reduction in the level of xylan in stems, and in vitro GT assays using microsomes from stems revealed that ATCSLD5 knock-out plants also had reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity. Expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of ATCSLD5 and ATCSLD3, fluorescently tagged at either the C- or the N-terminal, indicated that these GTs are likely to be localized in the Golgi apparatus. However, the position of the fluorescent tag affected the subcellular localization of both proteins. The work presented provides a comprehensive analysis of the effects of disrupting ATCSLD5 in planta, and the possible role(s) of this gene and other ATCSLDs in cell wall biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:17892446

Bernal, Adriana Jimena; Jensen, Jakob Krüger; Harholt, Jesper; Sørensen, Susanne; Moller, Isabel; Blaukopf, Claudia; Johansen, Bo; de Lotto, Robert; Pauly, Markus; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Willats, William G T

2007-09-22

185

Disruption of ATCSLD5 results in reduced growth, reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity and altered xylan occurrence in Arabidopsis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Members of a large family of cellulose synthase-like genes (CSLs) are predicted to encode glycosyl transferases (GTs) involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell walls. The CSLA and CSLF families are known to contain mannan and glucan synthases, respectively, but the products of other CSLs are unknown. Here we report the effects of disrupting ATCSLD5 expression in Arabidopsis. Both stem and root growth were significantly reduced in ATCSLD5 knock-out plants, and these plants also had increased susceptibility to the cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben. Antibody and carbohydrate-binding module labelling indicated a reduction in the level of xylan in stems, and in vitro GT assays using microsomes from stems revealed that ATCSLD5 knock-out plants also had reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity. Expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of ATCSLD5 and ATCSLD3, fluorescently tagged at either the C- or the N-terminal, indicated that these GTs are likely to be localized in the Golgi apparatus. However, the position of the fluorescent tag affected the subcellular localization of both proteins. The work presented provides a comprehensive analysis of the effects of disrupting ATCSLD5 in planta, and the possible role(s) of this gene and other ATCSLDs in cell wall biosynthesis are discussed.

Bernal AJ; Jensen JK; Harholt J; Sørensen S; Moller I; Blaukopf C; Johansen B; de Lotto R; Pauly M; Scheller HV; Willats WG

2007-12-01

186

[Effects of betamethasone 17, 21-dipropionate on activities of glycogen synthase and tyrosine aminotransferase in fetal rat liver in organ culture (author's transl)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Betamethasone 17, 21-dipropionate (BDP) does not have glycogenic activity and antagonizes cortisol in glycogenesis in fetal rat liver explants. In an attempt to elucidate whether BDP commonly has an antagonistic effect on the glucocorticoid responsive system in fetal rat liver, effects on activities of glycogen synthase and tyrosine aminotransferase were examined. Cortisol increased both total and a activities of glycogen synthase at concentrations above 3 x 10(-8)M. BDP, unlike cortisol, did not increase total synthase activity at 10(-6)M and antagonized cortisol (10(-6)M), but like cortisol, it did increase synthase a activity. Both cortisol and BDP increased tyrosine aminotransferase activity at concentrations above 10(-8)M, BDP did not always act as an antagonist in the glucocorticoid responsive systems in fetal rat liver.

Mizushima Y; Ishikawa M

1979-11-01

187

Pharmacodynamic assay of thymidylate synthase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A simple, selective, and sensitive method utilizing tritium ((3)H) release from (3)H-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate (dUMP) substrate for accurate and precise determination of the low basal thymidylate synthase activity (TSA) in normal healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was developed and validated. The method is based on the removal of the remaining substrate after the TSA reaction by absorption onto activated carbon and measurement of the supernatant fluid by liquid scintillation counting. The method background was substantially decreased by using lyophilized substrate and optimized binding conditions of remaining substrate onto carbon after TSA reaction. The concentration of cofactor N (5),N (10) methylene-(6R,S)-tetrahydrofolate was increased to obtain maximal TSA. Method sensitivity was further increased by omission of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid from the reaction mix and by using longer reaction times. The validation parameters included specificity, linearity, sensitivity, precision, and stability. The lower limit of quantification was 25 ?g PBMC cytosolic lysate, which released 1.4 pmol?(3)H/h. TSA was stable in PBMC pellets stored for 6 months at -80 °C. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the successful determination of TSA in PBMC cytosolic lysates from ten healthy volunteers with and without the specific TSA inhibitor FdUMP.

Pluim D; Schilders KA; Jacobs BA; Vaartjes D; Beijnen JH; Schellens JH

2013-03-01

188

Pharmacodynamic assay of thymidylate synthase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple, selective, and sensitive method utilizing tritium ((3)H) release from (3)H-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate (dUMP) substrate for accurate and precise determination of the low basal thymidylate synthase activity (TSA) in normal healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was developed and validated. The method is based on the removal of the remaining substrate after the TSA reaction by absorption onto activated carbon and measurement of the supernatant fluid by liquid scintillation counting. The method background was substantially decreased by using lyophilized substrate and optimized binding conditions of remaining substrate onto carbon after TSA reaction. The concentration of cofactor N (5),N (10) methylene-(6R,S)-tetrahydrofolate was increased to obtain maximal TSA. Method sensitivity was further increased by omission of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid from the reaction mix and by using longer reaction times. The validation parameters included specificity, linearity, sensitivity, precision, and stability. The lower limit of quantification was 25 ?g PBMC cytosolic lysate, which released 1.4 pmol?(3)H/h. TSA was stable in PBMC pellets stored for 6 months at -80 °C. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the successful determination of TSA in PBMC cytosolic lysates from ten healthy volunteers with and without the specific TSA inhibitor FdUMP. PMID:23314484

Pluim, Dick; Schilders, Kim A A; Jacobs, Bart A W; Vaartjes, Daniëlle; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M

2013-01-12

189

Sustained activation of sphingomyelin synthase by 2-hydroxyoleic acid induces sphingolipidosis in tumor cells1[S  

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The mechanism of action of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2OHOA), a potent antitumor drug, involves the rapid and specific activation of sphingomyelin synthase (SMS), leading to a 4-fold increase in SM mass in tumor cells. In the present study, we investigated the source of the ceramides required to sustain this dramatic increase in SM. Through radioactive and fluorescent labeling, we demonstrated that sphingolipid metabolism was altered by a 24 h exposure to 2OHOA, and we observed a consistent increase in the number of lysosomes and the presence of unidentified storage materials in treated cells. Mass spectroscopy revealed that different sphingolipid classes accumulated in human glioma U118 cells after exposure to 2OHOA, demonstrating a specific effect on C16-, C20-, and C22-containing sphingolipids. Based on these findings, we propose that the demand for ceramides required to sustain the SMS activation (ca. 200-fold higher than the basal level) profoundly modifies both sphingolipid and phospholipid metabolism. As the treatment is prolonged, tumor cells fail to adequately metabolize sphingolipids, leading to a situation resembling sphingolipidosis, whereby cell viability is compromised.

Martin, Maria Laura; Liebisch, Gerhard; Lehneis, Stefan; Schmitz, Gerd; Alonso-Sande, Maria; Bestard-Escalas, Joan; Lopez, Daniel H.; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Soriano-Navarro, Mario; Busquets, Xavier; Escriba, Pablo V.; Barcelo-Coblijn, Gwendolyn

2013-01-01

190

Nitric oxide synthase activity has limited influence on the control of Coccidioides infection in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The functions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in protection against microbial insults are still controversial. In this study, we explored the role of iNOS in protection against Coccidioides infection in mice. We observed that wild type (WT) and iNOS(-/-) mice showed similar percent survival and fungal burden in their lungs at days 7 and 11 after intranasal challenge with Coccidioides. Vaccinated WT and iNOS(-/-) mice revealed comparable fungal burden in their lungs and spleen at 7 and 11 days postchallenge. However, at 11 days the non-vaccinated, iNOS-deficient mice had significantly higher fungal burden in their spleen compared to WT mice. Additionally, higher numbers of lung-infiltrated neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells were observed in WT mice at day 11 postchallenge compared to iNOS(-/-) mice. Moreover, no difference in numbers of T, B, NK or regulatory T cells, or concentrations of selected cytokines and chemokines were detected in lungs of both mouse strains at 7 and 11 days postchallenge. Although iNOS-derived NO production appears to influence the inflammatory response and dissemination of the fungal pathogen, our results suggest that iNOS activity does not play a significant role in the control of coccidioidal infection in mice and that other, still undefined mechanisms of host protection are involved. PMID:21513788

Gonzalez, Angel; Hung, Chiung-Yu; Cole, Garry T

2011-04-14

191

Nitric oxide synthase activity has limited influence on the control of Coccidioides infection in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The functions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in protection against microbial insults are still controversial. In this study, we explored the role of iNOS in protection against Coccidioides infection in mice. We observed that wild type (WT) and iNOS(-/-) mice showed similar percent survival and fungal burden in their lungs at days 7 and 11 after intranasal challenge with Coccidioides. Vaccinated WT and iNOS(-/-) mice revealed comparable fungal burden in their lungs and spleen at 7 and 11 days postchallenge. However, at 11 days the non-vaccinated, iNOS-deficient mice had significantly higher fungal burden in their spleen compared to WT mice. Additionally, higher numbers of lung-infiltrated neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells were observed in WT mice at day 11 postchallenge compared to iNOS(-/-) mice. Moreover, no difference in numbers of T, B, NK or regulatory T cells, or concentrations of selected cytokines and chemokines were detected in lungs of both mouse strains at 7 and 11 days postchallenge. Although iNOS-derived NO production appears to influence the inflammatory response and dissemination of the fungal pathogen, our results suggest that iNOS activity does not play a significant role in the control of coccidioidal infection in mice and that other, still undefined mechanisms of host protection are involved.

Gonzalez A; Hung CY; Cole GT

2011-09-01

192

VALENCENE SYNTHASE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a novel valencene synthase, to a nucleic acid encoding such valencene synthase, to a host cell comprising said encoding nucleic acid sequence and to a method for preparing valencene, comprising converting farnesyl diphosphate to valencene in the presence of a valencene synthase according to the invention.

ACHKAR JIHANE; SONKE THEODORUS

193

Valencene synthase  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a novel valencene synthase, to a nucleic acid encoding such valencene synthase, to a host cell comprising said encoding nucleic acid sequence and to a method for preparing valencene, comprising converting farnesyl diphosphate to valencene in the presence of a valencene synthase according to the invention.

ACHKAR JIHANE; SONKE THEODORUS; BEEKWILDER MARTINUS JULIUS; BOUWMEESTER HENDRIK JAN; BOSCH HENDRIK JAN

194

Rhodobacter capsulatus porphobilinogen synthase, a high activity metal ion independent hexamer  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzyme porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS), which is central to the biosynthesis of heme, chlorophyll and cobalamins, has long been known to use a variety of metal ions and has recently been shown able to exist in two very different quaternary forms that are related to metal ion usage. This paper reports new information on the metal ion independence and quaternary structure of PBGS from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. Results The gene for R. capsulatus PBGS was amplified from genomic DNA and sequencing revealed errors in the sequence database. R. capsulatus PBGS was heterologously expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. Analysis of an unusual phylogenetic variation in metal ion usage by PBGS enzymes predicts that R. capsulatus PBGS does not utilize metal ions such as Zn2+, or Mg2+, which have been shown to act in other PBGS at either catalytic or allosteric sites. Studies with these ions and chelators confirm the predictions. A broad pH optimum was determined to be independent of monovalent cations, approximately 8.5, and the Km value shows an acidic pKa of ~6. Because the metal ions of other PBGS affect the quaternary structure, gel permeation chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments were performed to examine the quaternary structure of metal ion independent R. capsulatus PBGS. The enzyme was found to be predominantly hexameric, in contrast with most other PBGS, which are octameric. A protein concentration dependence to the specific activity suggests that the hexameric R. capsulatus PBGS is very active and can dissociate to smaller, less active, species. A homology model of hexameric R. capsulatus PBGS is presented and discussed. Conclusion The evidence presented in this paper supports the unusual position of the R. capsulatus PBGS as not requiring any metal ions for function. Unlike other wild-type PBGS, the R. capsulatus protein is a hexamer with an unusually high specific activity when compared to other octameric PBGS proteins.

Bollivar David W; Clauson Cheryl; Lighthall Rachel; Forbes Siiri; Kokona Bashkim; Fairman Robert; Kundrat Lenka; Jaffe Eileen K

2004-01-01

195

Inhibition of thromboxane synthase activity modulates bladder cancer cell responses to chemotherapeutic agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, we reported prognostic significance of thromboxane synthase (TXAS) gene expression in invasive bladder cancer. The positive correlation between elevated TXAS expression and shorter patient survival supports a potential role for TXAS-regulated pathways in tumor metastases. In this study, using immunohistochemical analysis, we found an increased expression of TXAS protein in bladder cancer. Treatment of T24 and transitional cell carcinoma TCC-SUP bladder cancer cells with the TXAS inhibitors furegrelate or ozagrel induced an apoptotic effect measured as an increase in caspase-3 activation and cell death, and decreased survivin expression. Pharmacological inhibition of TXAS using the TXAS inhibitor furegrelate increased sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agents cisplatin and paclitaxel. Molecular inhibition of TXAS expression by siRNA significantly decreased cell growth and migration. In concordance with the pharmacological data, siRNA-mediated reduction of TXAS expression increased sensitivity to cisplatin and paclitaxel in T24 and TCC-SUP cells. In summary, the data support a role for the thromboxane A(2) pathway in the pathogenesis of bladder cancer and the potential utility of modulation of this signaling pathway for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:17603559

Moussa, O; Riker, J M; Klein, J; Fraig, M; Halushka, P V; Watson, D K

2007-07-02

196

Design and synthesis of 2-N-substituted indazolone derivatives as non-carboxylic acid glycogen synthase activators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glycogen synthase (GS) catalyzes the transfer of glucose residues from UDP-glucose to a glycogen polymer chain, a critical step for glucose storage. Patients with type 2 diabetes normally exhibit low glycogen levels and decreased muscle glucose uptake is the major defect in whole body glucose disposal. Therefore, activating GS may provide a potential approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In order to identify non-carboxylic acids GS activators, we designed and synthesized a series of 2-N-alkyl- and 2-N-aryl-indazolone derivatives and studied their activity in activating human GS.

Qian Y; Bolin D; Conde-Knape K; Gillespie P; Hayden S; Huang KS; Olivier AR; Sato T; Xiang Q; Yun W; Zhang X

2013-05-01

197

Troglitazone regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and inducible nitric oxide synthase in murine ovarian macrophages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG) and PPAR-alpha (PPARA) control metabolic processes in many cell types and act as anti-inflammatory regulators in macrophages. PPAR-activating ligands include thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as troglitazone, once frequently used to treat insulin resistance as well as symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Since macrophages within the ovary mediate optimal follicle development, TZD actions to improve PCOS symptoms are likely to be partly mediated through these specifically localized immune cells. In mouse ovary, PPARG protein was expressed in granulosa cells and in isolated cells localized to theca, stroma, and corpora lutea, consistent with EMR1+ macrophages. Isolation of immune cells (EMR1+ or H2+) showed that Pparg and Ppara were expressed in ovarian macrophages at much higher levels than in peritoneal macrophages. Ovulatory human chorionic gonadotropin downregulated expression of Pparg and Ppara in EMR1+ ovarian macrophages, but no hormonal responsiveness was observed in H2+ cells. Downstream anti-inflammatory effects of PPARG activation were analyzed by in vitro treatment of isolated macrophages with troglitazone. Interleukin-1 beta (Il1b) expression was not altered, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (Tnf) expression was affected in peritoneal macrophages only. In ovarian macrophages, inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2), an important proinflammatory enzyme that regulates ovulation, was significantly reduced by troglitazone treatment, an effect that was restricted to cells from the preovulatory ovary. Thus, expression of PPARs within ovarian macrophages is hormonally regulated, reflecting the changing roles of these cells during the ovulatory cycle. Additionally, ovarian macrophages respond directly to troglitazone to downregulate expression of proinflammatory Nos2, providing mechanistic information about ovarian effects of TZD treatment.

Minge CE; Ryan NK; Van Der Hoek KH; Robker RL; Norman RJ

2006-01-01

198

Dual regulation of muscle glycogen synthase during exercise by activation and compartmentalization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Glycogen synthase (GS) is considered the rate-limiting enzyme in glycogenesis but still today there is a lack of understanding on its regulation. We have previously shown phosphorylation-dependent GS intracellular redistribution at the start of glycogen re-synthesis in rabbit skeletal muscle (Prats, C., Cadefau, J. A., Cussó, R., Qvortrup, K., Nielsen, J. N., Wojtaszewki, J. F., Wojtaszewki, J. F., Hardie, D. G., Stewart, G., Hansen, B. F., and Ploug, T. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 23165-23172). In the present study we investigate the regulation of human muscle GS activity by glycogen, exercise, and insulin. Using immunocytochemistry we investigate the existence and relevance of GS intracellular compartmentalization during exercise and during glycogen re-synthesis. The results show that GS intrinsic activity is strongly dependent on glycogen levels and that such regulation involves associated dephosphorylation at sites 2+2a, 3a, and 3a + 3b. Furthermore, we report the existence of several glycogen metabolism regulatory mechanisms based on GS intracellular compartmentalization. After exhausting exercise, epinephrine-induced protein kinase A activation leads to GS site 1b phosphorylation targeting the enzyme to intramyofibrillar glycogen particles, which are preferentially used during muscle contraction. On the other hand, when phosphorylated at sites 2+2a, GS is preferentially associated with subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar glycogen particles. Finally, we verify the existence in human vastus lateralis muscle of the previously reported mechanism of glycogen metabolism regulation in rabbit tibialis anterior muscle. After overnight low muscle glycogen level and/or in response to exhausting exercise-induced glycogenolysis, GS is associated with spherical structures at the I-band of sarcomeres.

Prats, Clara; Helge, JØrn W

2009-01-01

199

Activation of a cyclic amp-guanine exchange factor in hepatocytes decreases nitric oxide synthase expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) activates intracellular signaling by regulating protein kinase A, calcium influx, and cAMP-binging guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epac [exchange protein directly activated by cAMP] or cAMP-GEF). Cyclic adenosine monophosphate inhibits cytokine-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hepatocytes by a protein kinase A-independent mechanism. We hypothesized that Epac mediates this effect. A cyclic AMP analog that specifically activates Epac, 8-(4-methoxyphenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (OPTmecAMP), and overexpression of liver-specific Epac2 both inhibited interleukin 1?/interferon ?-induced iNOS expression and nitrite production. OPTmecAMP inactivated Raf1/MEK/ERK signaling, but ERK had no effect on iNOS expression. OPTmecAMP induced a persistent Akt phosphorylation in hepatocytes that lasted up to 8 h. Overexpression of a dominant-negative Akt blocked the inhibitory effect of OPTmecAMP on iNOS production. A specific PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, attenuated the inhibition of nitrite production and iNOS expression produced by overexpressing a liver-specific Epac2 (LEpac2). OPTmecAMP also induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation in hepatocytes. Overexpression of dominant-negative JNK enhanced cytokine-induced iNOS expression and nitrite production and reversed the inhibitory effects of LEpac2 on nitrite production and iNOS expression. We conclude that Epac regulates hepatocyte iNOS expression through an Akt- and JNK-mediated signaling mechanism.

Zhang B; Nweze I; Lakshmanan J; Harbrecht BG

2013-01-01

200

Glycogen synthase kinase3 beta phosphorylates serine 33 of p53 and activates p53's transcriptional activity  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The p53 protein is activated by genotoxic stress, oncogene expression and during senescence, p53 transcriptionally activates genes involved in growth arrest and apoptosis. p53 activation is regulated by post-translational modification, including phosphorylation of the N-terminal transactivation domain. Here, we have examined how Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK3), a protein kinase involved in tumorigenesis, differentiation and apoptosis, phosphorylates and regulates p53. Results The 2 isoforms of GSK3, GSK3? and GSK3?, phosphorylate the sequence Ser-X-X-X-Ser(P) when the C-terminal serine residue is already phosphorylated. Several p53 kinases were examined for their ability to create GSK3 phosphorylation sites on the p53 protein. Our results demonstrate that phosphorylation of serine 37 of p53 by DNA-PK creates a site for GSK3? phosphorylation at serine 33 in vitro. GSK3? did not phosphorylate p53 under any condition. GSK3? increased the transcriptional activity of the p53 protein in vivo. Mutation of either serine 33 or serine 37 of p53 to alanine blocked the ability of GSK3? to regulate p53 transcriptional activity. GSK3? is therefore able to regulate p53 function in vivo. p53's transcriptional activity is commonly increased by DNA damage. However, GSK3? kinase activity was inhibited in response to DNA damage, suggesting that GSK3? regulation of p53 is not involved in the p53-DNA damage response. Conclusions GSK3? can regulate p53's transcriptional activity by phosphorylating serine 33. However, GSK3? does not appear to be part of the p53-DNA damage response pathway. Instead, GSK3? may provide the link between p53 and non-DNA damage mechanisms for p53 activation.

Turenne Gaetan A; Price Brendan D

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Sleep active cortical neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase are active after both acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) delta power (~0.5-4 Hz), also known as slow wave activity (SWA), is typically enhanced after acute sleep deprivation (SD) but not after chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Recently, sleep-active cortical neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were identified and associated with enhanced SWA after short acute bouts of SD (i.e., 6h). However, the relationship between cortical nNOS neuronal activity and SWA during CSR is unknown. We compared the activity of cortical neurons expressing nNOS (via c-Fos and nNOS immuno-reactivity, respectively) and sleep in rats in three conditions: (1) after 18-h of acute SD; (2) after five consecutive days of sleep restriction (SR) (18-h SD per day with 6h ad libitum sleep opportunity per day); (3) and time-of-day matched ad libitum sleep controls. Cortical nNOS neuronal activity was enhanced during sleep after both 18-h SD and 5 days of SR treatments compared to control treatments. SWA and NREM sleep delta energy (the product of NREM sleep duration and SWA) were positively correlated with enhanced cortical nNOS neuronal activity after 18-h SD but not 5days of SR. That neurons expressing nNOS were active after longer amounts of acute SD (18h vs. 6h reported in the literature) and were correlated with SWA further suggest that these cells might regulate SWA. However, since these neurons were active after CSR when SWA was not enhanced, these findings suggest that mechanisms downstream of their activation are altered during CSR. PMID:23685166

Zielinski, M R; Kim, Y; Karpova, S A; Winston, S; McCarley, R W; Strecker, R E; Gerashchenko, D

2013-05-16

202

Unexpected reactivity of 2-fluorolinalyl diphosphate in the active site of crystalline 2-methylisoborneol synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The crystal structure of 2-methylisoborneol synthase (MIBS) from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) has been determined in its unliganded state and in complex with 2 Mg2+ ions and cis-2-fluorogeranyl diphosphate at 1.85 Å and 2.00 Å resolution, respectively. Under normal circumstances, MIBS catalyzes the cyclization of the naturally-occurring, non-canonical 11-carbon isoprenoid substrate, 2-methylgeranyl diphosphate, which first undergoes an ionization-isomerization-ionization sequence through the tertiary diphosphate intermediate 2-methyllinalyl diphosphate to enable subsequent cyclization chemistry. MIBS does not exhibit catalytic activity with 2-fluorogeranyl diphosphate, and we recently reported the crystal structure of MIBS complexed with this unreactive substrate analogue [Köksal, M., Chou, W. K. W., Cane, D. E., Christianson, D. W. (2012) Biochemistry 51, 3011-3020]. However, cocrystallization of MIBS with the fluorinated analogue of the tertiary allylic diphosphate intermediate, 2-fluorolinalyl diphosphate, reveals unexpected reactivity for the intermediate analogue and yields the crystal structure of the complex with the primary allylic diphosphate, 2-fluoroneryl diphosphate. Comparison with the structure of the unliganded enzyme reveals that the crystalline enzyme active site remains partially open, presumably due to the binding of only 2 Mg2+ ions. Assays in solution indicate that MIBS catalyzes the generation of (1R)-(+)-camphor from the substrate 2-fluorolinalyl diphosphate, suggesting that both 2-fluorolinalyl diphosphate and 2-methyllinalyl diphosphate follow the identical cyclization mechanism leading to 2-substituted isoborneol products; however, the initially generated 2-fluoroisoborneol cyclization product is unstable and undergoes elimination of hydrogen fluoride to yield (1R)-(+)-camphor.

Köksal M; Chou WK; Cane DE; Christianson DW

2013-07-01

203

A non-synonymous nucleotide substitution can account for one evolutionary route to sesquiterpene synthase activity in the TPS-b subgroup.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant sesquiterpene and hemiterpene synthases in the monoterpene synthase dominated TPS-b subgroup are thought to have evolved independently from a monoterpene synthase ancestor. A TPS-b sesquiterpene synthase from apple (MdAFS1), which predominantly produces ?-farnesene, can also synthesize the monoterpene (E)-?-ocimene. The dual activity offered a functional link to an ancestral MdAFS1 enzyme and a rational basis for investigation of the evolution of TPS-b sesquiterpene enzymes. Protein modelling and mutagenesis analysis of the MdAFS1 active site identified a non-synonymous nucleotide substitution that could account for the requisite shift in substrate specificity necessary for the emergence of its sesquiterpene activity during the evolution of the TPS-b enzymes.

Green S; Baker EN; Laing W

2011-06-01

204

A non-synonymous nucleotide substitution can account for one evolutionary route to sesquiterpene synthase activity in the TPS-b subgroup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant sesquiterpene and hemiterpene synthases in the monoterpene synthase dominated TPS-b subgroup are thought to have evolved independently from a monoterpene synthase ancestor. A TPS-b sesquiterpene synthase from apple (MdAFS1), which predominantly produces ?-farnesene, can also synthesize the monoterpene (E)-?-ocimene. The dual activity offered a functional link to an ancestral MdAFS1 enzyme and a rational basis for investigation of the evolution of TPS-b sesquiterpene enzymes. Protein modelling and mutagenesis analysis of the MdAFS1 active site identified a non-synonymous nucleotide substitution that could account for the requisite shift in substrate specificity necessary for the emergence of its sesquiterpene activity during the evolution of the TPS-b enzymes. PMID:21515265

Green, Sol; Baker, Edward N; Laing, William

2011-04-22

205

The Crystal Structure of Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase, A Cellular Machine with Eight Active Sites Working Together  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In yeast, the whole metabolic pathway for making 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids is carried out by fatty acid synthase, a 2.6 megadalton molecular-weight macromolecular assembly containing six copies of all eight catalytic centers. We have determined its crystal structure, which illuminates how this enzyme is initially activated and then carries out multiple steps of synthesis in each of six sterically isolated reaction chambers. Six of the catalytic sites are in the wall of the assembly facing an acyl carrier protein (ACP) bound to the ketoacyl synthase domain. Two-dimensional diffusion of substrates to the catalytic sites may be achieved by the electrostatically negative ACP swinging to each of the six electrostatically positive catalytic sites. The phosphopantetheinyl transferase domain lies outside the shell of the assembly, inaccessible to ACP that lies inside, suggesting that the attachment of the pantetheine arm to ACP must occur before complete assembly of the complex.

Lomakin,I.; Xiong, Y.; Steitz, T.

2007-01-01

206

Straightforward access to spisulosine and 4,5-dehydrospisulosine stereoisomers: probes for profiling ceramide synthase activities in intact cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

A stereoselective synthesis of spisulosine (ES285) and 4,5-dehydrospisulosine stereoisomers is described. Hydrozirconation of 1-pentadecyne with Schwartz reagent, followed by diastereocontrolled addition to L- or D-alaninal afforded the required 2-amino-1,3-diol framework. The resulting sphingoid bases revealed as excellent probes for the profiling of ceramide synthase activity in intact cells. Among the sphingoid bases described in this work, spisulosine (ES285), RBM1-77, and RBM1-73 were the most suitable ones because of their highest acylation rates. These molecules should prove useful to study the role of the different ceramide synthases and the resulting N-acyl (dihydro)ceramides in cell fate. PMID:23679346

Abad, José Luis; Nieves, Ingrid; Rayo, Pedro; Casas, Josefina; Fabriàs, Gemma; Delgado, Antonio

2013-05-30

207

SPINOSYN-PRODUCING POLYKETIDE SYNTHASES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides, biologically active spinosyns, hybrid spinosyn polyketide synthases capable of functioning in Saccharopolyspora spinosa to produce the spinosyns, and methods of controlling insects using the spinosyns.

BURNS LESLEY S; GRAUPNER PAUL R; LEWER PAUL; MARTIN CHRISTINE J; VOUSDEN WILLIAM A; WALDRON CLIVE; WILKINSON BARRIE

208

Spinosyn-producing polyketide synthases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides, biologically active spinosyns, hybrid spinosyn polyketide synthases capable of functioning in Saccharopolyspora spinosa to produce the spinosyns, and methods of controlling insects using the spinosyns.

BURNS LESLEY S; GRAUPNER PAUL R; LEWER PAUL; MARTIN CHRISTINE J; VOUSDEN WILLIAM A; WALDRON CLIVE; WILKINSON BARRIE

209

Antifungal activity of stilbenes in in vitro bioassays and in transgenic Populus expressing a gene encoding pinosylvin synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of two stilbene compounds, pinosylvin and resveratrol, on the growth of several fungi was evaluated in plate tests. Wood decay tests were carried out with birch and aspen samples impregnated with the two stilbenes. In plate experiments, resveratrol had an enhancing effect on growth at concentrations where pinosylvin was already enough to prevent the growth of most fungi studied. Pinosylvin impregnated at 0.2% (w/w) concentration significantly reduced the decay caused by all fungi except Phellinus tremulae. In contrast, a resveratrol content of 0.8%, did not protect the wood from decay. A pinosylvin-synthase-encoding gene from Pinus sylvestris was transferred into aspen ( Populus tremula) and two hybrid aspen clones ( Populus tremulax tremuloides) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants accumulated pinosylvin synthase-specific mRNA and showed stilbene synthase enzyme activity in vitro. Transgenic aspen line H4 showed increased resistance to Phellinus tremulae, while two hybrid aspen transformants decayed faster than the control trees. However, we were unable to detect the accumulation of stilbenes in the transgenic plantlets.

Seppänen SK; Syrjälä L; von Weissenberg K; Teeri TH; Paajanen L; Pappinen A

2004-03-01

210

Antifungal activity of stilbenes in in vitro bioassays and in transgenic Populus expressing a gene encoding pinosylvin synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of two stilbene compounds, pinosylvin and resveratrol, on the growth of several fungi was evaluated in plate tests. Wood decay tests were carried out with birch and aspen samples impregnated with the two stilbenes. In plate experiments, resveratrol had an enhancing effect on growth at concentrations where pinosylvin was already enough to prevent the growth of most fungi studied. Pinosylvin impregnated at 0.2% (w/w) concentration significantly reduced the decay caused by all fungi except Phellinus tremulae. In contrast, a resveratrol content of 0.8%, did not protect the wood from decay. A pinosylvin-synthase-encoding gene from Pinus sylvestris was transferred into aspen ( Populus tremula) and two hybrid aspen clones ( Populus tremulax tremuloides) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants accumulated pinosylvin synthase-specific mRNA and showed stilbene synthase enzyme activity in vitro. Transgenic aspen line H4 showed increased resistance to Phellinus tremulae, while two hybrid aspen transformants decayed faster than the control trees. However, we were unable to detect the accumulation of stilbenes in the transgenic plantlets. PMID:14714142

Seppänen, S-K; Syrjälä, L; von Weissenberg, K; Teeri, T H; Paajanen, L; Pappinen, A

2004-01-09

211

Phosphorylation of inhibitor-2 and activation of MgATP-dependent protein phosphatase by rat skeletal muscle glycogen synthase kinase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rat skeletal muscle contains a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-M) which is not stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/ or cAMP. This kinase has an apparent Mr of 62,000 and uses ATP but not GTP as a phosphoryl donor. GSK-M phosphorylated glycogen synthase at sites 2 and 3. It phosphorylated ATP-citrate lyase and activated MgATP-dependent phosphatase in the presence of ATP but not GTP. As expected, the kinase also phosphorylated phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2). Phosphatase incorporation reached approximately 0.3 mol/mol of I-2. Phosphopeptide maps were obtained by digesting /sup 32/P-labeled I-2 with trypsin and separating the peptides by reversed phase HPLC. Two partially separated /sup 32/P-labeled peaks were obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with either GSK-M or glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and these peptides were different from those obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CSU) or casein kinase II (CK-II). When I-2 was phosphorylated with GSK-M or GSK-3 and cleaved by CNBr, a single radioactive peak was obtained. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that I-2 was phosphorylated by GSK-M or GSK-3 predominately in Thr whereas CSU and CK-II phosphorylated I-2 exclusively in Ser. These results indicate that GSK-M is similar to GSK-3 and to ATP-citrate lyase kinase. However, it appears to differ in Mr from ATP-citrate lyase kinase and it differs from GSK-3 in that it phosphorylates glycogen synthase at site 2 and it does not use GTP as a phosphoryl donor.

Hegazy, M.G.; Reimann, E.M.; Thysseril, T.J.; Schlender, K.K.

1986-05-01

212

Phosphorylation of inhibitor-2 and activation of MgATP-dependent protein phosphatase by rat skeletal muscle glycogen synthase kinase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rat skeletal muscle contains a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-M) which is not stimulated by Ca2+ or cAMP. This kinase has an apparent Mr of 62,000 and uses ATP but not GTP as a phosphoryl donor. GSK-M phosphorylated glycogen synthase at sites 2 and 3. It phosphorylated ATP-citrate lyase and activated MgATP-dependent phosphatase in the presence of ATP but not GTP. As expected, the kinase also phosphorylated phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2). Phosphatase incorporation reached approximately 0.3 mol/mol of I-2. Phosphopeptide maps were obtained by digesting 32P-labeled I-2 with trypsin and separating the peptides by reversed phase HPLC. Two partially separated 32P-labeled peaks were obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with either GSK-M or glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and these peptides were different from those obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CSU) or casein kinase II (CK-II). When I-2 was phosphorylated with GSK-M or GSK-3 and cleaved by CNBr, a single radioactive peak was obtained. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that I-2 was phosphorylated by GSK-M or GSK-3 predominately in Thr whereas CSU and CK-II phosphorylated I-2 exclusively in Ser. These results indicate that GSK-M is similar to GSK-3 and to ATP-citrate lyase kinase. However, it appears to differ in Mr from ATP-citrate lyase kinase and it differs from GSK-3 in that it phosphorylates glycogen synthase at site 2 and it does not use GTP as a phosphoryl donor.

1986-01-01

213

Escherichia coli chaperonins cpn60 (groEL) and cpn10 (groES) do not catalyse the refolding of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In vitro refolding of pig mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase is investigated in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli chaperonins cpn60 (groEL) and cpn10 (groES). The refolded yields of active malate dehydrogenase are increased almost 3-fold in the presence of groEL, groES, Mg2+/ATP and K+ ions. Chaperonin-assisted refolding of malate dehydrogenase does not have an absolute requirement for K+ ions but Mg2+/ATP is obligatory. When ATP is replaced by other nucleoside triphosphates, or by non-hydrolysable ATP analogues, assisted refolding is prevented. Optimal chaperonin-assisted refolding requires both groEL and groES homo-oligomers in molar excess over malate dehydrogenase. Kinetic analysis shows that the chaperonins do not catalyse the refolding of malate dehydrogenase but increase the flux of unfolded enzyme through the productive refolding pathway without altering and/or accelerating that pathway. Although not acting as refolding catalysts, the chaperonins are able to assist at least six consecutive cycles of malate dehydrogenase refolding.

Miller AD; Maghlaoui K; Albanese G; Kleinjan DA; Smith C

1993-04-01

214

Arsenic mobilization by citrate and malate from a red mud-treated contaminated soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mobility and bioavailability of As in the soil-plant system can be affected by a number of organic acids that originate from the activity of plants and microorganisms. In this study we evaluated the ability of citrate and malate anions to mobilize As in a polluted subacidic soil (UP soil) treated with red mud (RM soil). Both anions promoted the mobilization of As from UP and RM soils, with citrate being more effective than malate. The RM treatment induced a greater mobility of As. The amounts of As released in RM and UP soils treated with 3.0 mmol L citric acid solution were 2.78 and 1.83 ?mol g respectively, whereas an amount equal to 1.73 and 1.06 ?mol g was found after the treatment with a 3.0 mmol L malic acid solution. The release of As in both soils increased with increasing concentration of organic acids, and the co-release of Al and Fe in solution also increased. The sequential extraction showed that Fe/Al (oxi)hydroxides in RM were the main phases involved in As binding in RM soil. Two possible mechanisms could be responsible for As solubilization: (i) competition of the organic anions for As adsorption sites and (ii) partial dissolution of the adsorbents (e.g., dissolution of iron and aluminum oxi-hydroxides) induced by citrate or malate and formation of complexes between dissolved Fe and Al and organic anions. This is the first report on the effect of malate and citrate on the As mobility in a polluted soil treated with RM. PMID:23673944

Castaldi, Paola; Silvetti, Margherita; Mele, Elena; Garau, Giovanni; Deiana, Salvatore

215

Arsenic mobilization by citrate and malate from a red mud-treated contaminated soil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mobility and bioavailability of As in the soil-plant system can be affected by a number of organic acids that originate from the activity of plants and microorganisms. In this study we evaluated the ability of citrate and malate anions to mobilize As in a polluted subacidic soil (UP soil) treated with red mud (RM soil). Both anions promoted the mobilization of As from UP and RM soils, with citrate being more effective than malate. The RM treatment induced a greater mobility of As. The amounts of As released in RM and UP soils treated with 3.0 mmol L citric acid solution were 2.78 and 1.83 ?mol g respectively, whereas an amount equal to 1.73 and 1.06 ?mol g was found after the treatment with a 3.0 mmol L malic acid solution. The release of As in both soils increased with increasing concentration of organic acids, and the co-release of Al and Fe in solution also increased. The sequential extraction showed that Fe/Al (oxi)hydroxides in RM were the main phases involved in As binding in RM soil. Two possible mechanisms could be responsible for As solubilization: (i) competition of the organic anions for As adsorption sites and (ii) partial dissolution of the adsorbents (e.g., dissolution of iron and aluminum oxi-hydroxides) induced by citrate or malate and formation of complexes between dissolved Fe and Al and organic anions. This is the first report on the effect of malate and citrate on the As mobility in a polluted soil treated with RM.

Castaldi P; Silvetti M; Mele E; Garau G; Deiana S

2013-05-01

216

Dynamics of mobile element activity in chalcone synthase loci in the common morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mobile element dynamics in seven alleles of the chalcone synthase D locus (CHS-D) of the common morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) are analyzed in the context of synonymous nucleotide sequence distances for CHS-D exons. By using a nucleotide sequence of CHS-D from the sister species Ipomoea nil (J...

Durbin, Mary L.; Denton, Amy L.; Clegg, Michael T.

217

Molecular mechanism of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase activation by Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponins.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) has antithrombotic and antiatherosclerotic properties in the vasculature. Previously, we demonstrated that saponins derived from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (CKS) inhibited the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced express...

218

The Cytoplasmic Tail of GM3 Synthase Defines Its Subcellular Localization, Stability, and In Vivo Activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

GM3 synthase (SAT-I) is the primary glycosyltransferase responsible for the biosynthesis of ganglio-series gangliosides. In this study, we identify three isoforms of mouse SAT-I proteins, named M1-SAT-I, M2-SAT-I, and M3-SAT-I, which possess distinct lengths in their NH2-terminal cytoplasmic tails. ...

Uemura, Satoshi; Yoshida, Sayaka; Shishido, Fumi; Inokuchi, Jin-ichi

219

Macrophage endothelial nitric-oxide synthase autoregulates cellular activation and pro-inflammatory protein expression.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Expression of inducible nitric-oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and "high-output" production of NO by macrophages mediates many cytotoxic actions of these immune cells. However, macrophages have also been shown to express a constitutive NOS isoform, the function of which remains obscure. Herein, bone marr...

Connelly, L; Jacobs, AT; Palacios-Callender, M; Moncada, S; Hobbs, AJ

220

Activation of peroxynitrite by inducible nitric-oxide synthase: a direct source of nitrative stress.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In mammals, nitric oxide (NO) is an essential biological mediator that is exclusively synthesized by nitric-oxide synthases (NOSs). However, NOSs are also directly or indirectly responsible for the production of peroxynitrite, a well known cytotoxic agent involved in numerous pathophysiological proc...

Maréchal, A; Mattioli, TA; Stuehr, DJ; Santolini, J

 
 
 
 
221

Carotenoid synthesis and phytoene synthase activity during mating of Blakeslea trispora.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carotenoid formation was investigated in wild type and carotenogenic mutants of Blakeslea trispora after mating (-) and (+) strains. The highest yields of carotenoids, especially ?-carotene was observed following mating. In vitro incorporation of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate into phytoene and ?-carotene corresponded to increased carotenogenesis in the mated strains. Immuno determination of phytoene synthase protein levels revealed that the amounts of this enzyme is concurrent with the increases in carotenoid content. In fungi, phytoene synthase together with lycopene cyclase are encoded by a fusion gene crtYB or carRA with two individual domains. These domains were both heterologously expressed in an independent manner and antisera raised against both. These antisera were used, to assess protein levels in mated and non-mated B. trispora. The phytoene synthase domain was detected as an individual soluble protein with a molecular weight of 40 kDa and the lycopene cyclase an individual protein of mass about 30 kDa present in the membrane fraction following sub-cellular fractionation. This result demonstrates a post-translational cleavage of the protein transcribed from a single mRNA into independent functional phytoene synthase and lycopene cyclase.

Breitenbach J; Fraser PD; Sandmann G

2012-04-01

222

Carotenoid synthesis and phytoene synthase activity during mating of Blakeslea trispora.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carotenoid formation was investigated in wild type and carotenogenic mutants of Blakeslea trispora after mating (-) and (+) strains. The highest yields of carotenoids, especially ?-carotene was observed following mating. In vitro incorporation of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate into phytoene and ?-carotene corresponded to increased carotenogenesis in the mated strains. Immuno determination of phytoene synthase protein levels revealed that the amounts of this enzyme is concurrent with the increases in carotenoid content. In fungi, phytoene synthase together with lycopene cyclase are encoded by a fusion gene crtYB or carRA with two individual domains. These domains were both heterologously expressed in an independent manner and antisera raised against both. These antisera were used, to assess protein levels in mated and non-mated B. trispora. The phytoene synthase domain was detected as an individual soluble protein with a molecular weight of 40 kDa and the lycopene cyclase an individual protein of mass about 30 kDa present in the membrane fraction following sub-cellular fractionation. This result demonstrates a post-translational cleavage of the protein transcribed from a single mRNA into independent functional phytoene synthase and lycopene cyclase. PMID:22281381

Breitenbach, Jürgen; Fraser, Paul D; Sandmann, Gerhard

2012-01-24

223

Activation of myocardial constitutive nitric oxide synthase during coronary artery surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The role of nitric oxide (NO) in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion is controversial. While some studies have shown cardioprotective effects of NO, others suggested that increased myocardial NO release secondary to ischemia may contribute to reperfusion injury. However, the impact of cardioplegia-induced myocardial ischemia/reperfusion on the activity of the NO-producing enzyme constitutive NO-synthase (cNOS or NOS-III) has not been investigated. METHODS: Twenty elective CABG patients were randomized to receive myocardial protection using either intermittent cold blood cardioplegia with 'hot-shot' (CBC; n=10) or continuous warm blood enriched with the ultra-fast-acting beta-blocker esmolol (WBE; n=10). We collected transmural LV biopsies prior to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), at the end of the cross-clamp period, and at the end of CPB. Specimen were subjected to immunocytochemical staining against myocardial NOS-III and cGMP using polyclonal antibodies. NOS-III activity was determined using TV-densitometry (gray units) and cGMP content using a semiquantitative score. Global myocardial metabolism was assessed by arterio-coronary sinus lactate concentration difference (a-csD(LAC)). For LV function determination we measured the fractional area of contraction (FAC) using TEE. RESULTS: In CBC hearts a-csD(LAC) was significantly decreased following cross-clamp removal as compared to pre-CPB indicating global ischemia during cross-clamp. In contrast, a-csD(LAC) was unchanged in WBE hearts indicating absence of relevant ischemia in this group. In CBC hearts NOS-III activity did not change from pre-CPB (35.6+/-11.1 U) to the end of the cross-clamp period (38. 0+/-8.1 U; P=0.2), but increased significantly to 48.5+/-12.1 U at the end of CPB following initial warm blood reperfusion (P=0.026). In WBE hearts NOS-III activity remained unchanged throughout (29. 2+/-10.8, 35.1+/-11.8, and 32.2+/-14.7 U, respectively; 0.3). At the end of CPB, nine CBC hearts, but only one WBE heart showed increased cGMP content (P=0.002). Compared to pre-CPB, FAC in the CBC group was 109+/-25% following weaning off CPB (P=0.26), but was slightly decreased to 87+/-22% at 4 h post-CPB (P=0.03). In the WBE group FAC remained unchanged compared to pre-CPB throughout (103+/-21 and 96+/-37%, respectively; 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that global myocardial ischemia and reperfusion induced by CBC is associated with myocardial NOS-III activation and increased cGMP content suggesting increased NO release. In contrast, avoidance of ischemia by use of WBE prevented NOS-III and c-GMP increase. As LV function was decreased at 4 h post-CPB in the CBC group, these data suggest that increased NO release secondary to NOS-III activation may have contributed to ischemia-reperfusion injury as has been shown experimentally.

Mehlhorn U; Bloch W; Krahwinkel A; LaRose K; Geissler HJ; Hekmat K; Addicks K; de Vivie ER

2000-03-01

224

Valencene synthase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present invention relates to a novel valencene synthase, to a nucleic acid encoding such valencene synthase, to a host cell comprising said encoding nucleic acid sequence and to a method for preparing valencene, comprising converting farnesyl diphosphate to valencene in the presence of a valence...

Achkar, A.; Sonke, Th.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Bosch, H.J.

225

Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate from black tea blocks the nitric oxide synthase by down-regulating the activation of NF-kappaB in macrophages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in inflammation and also in multiple stages of carcinogenesis. We investigated the effects of various tea polyphenols, including theaflavin, a mixture of theaflavin-3-gallate and theaflavin-3'-gallate, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, thearubigin, and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the induction of NO synthase in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophages, RAW 264.7 cells. Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate was found to be stronger than (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in inhibiting NO generation and inducible NO synthase protein in activated macrophages, while theaflavin, a mixture of theaflavin-3-gallate and theaflavin-3'-gallate and thearubigin were less effective. Inhibition of NO production was observed when cells were cotreated with theaflavin-3,3'-digallate and lipopolysaccharide. Western blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that significantly reduced 130-kDa protein and mRNA levels of inducible NO synthase were expressed in lipopolysacchride-activated macrophages with theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, compared to those without theaflavin-3,3'-digallate. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) indicated that theaflavin-3,3'-digallate blocked the activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), a transcription factor necessary for inducible NO synthase induction. Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate also blocked phosphorylation of IkappaB from cytosolic fraction and reduced lipopolysacchride-induced nuclear accumulation of transcription factor NF-kappaB p65 and p50 subunits. These results suggest that theaflavin-3,3'-digallate decreases the protein levels of inducible NO synthase by reducing the expression of inducible NO synthase mRNA, and the reduction could be via preventing the activation of NF-kappaB, thereby inhibiting the induction of inducible NO synthase transcription. It was also demonstrated that the gallic acid moiety of theaflavin-3,3'-digallate is essential for their potent anti-inflammation activity.

Lin YL; Tsai SH; Lin-Shiau SY; Ho CT; Lin JK

1999-02-01

226

Salvinorin A produces cerebrovasodilation through activation of nitric oxide synthase, ? receptor, and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Salvinorin A is a nonopioid, selective ? opioid-receptor agonist. Despite its high potential for clinical application, its pharmacologic profile is not well known. In the current study, we hypothesized that salvinorin A dilates pial arteries via activation of nitric oxide synthase, adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels, and opioid receptors. METHODS: Cerebral artery diameters and cyclic guanosine monophosphate in cortical periarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid were monitored in piglets equipped with closed cranial windows. Observation took place before and after salvinorin A administration in the presence or absence of an opioid antagonist (naloxone), a ? opioid receptor-selective antagonist (norbinaltorphimine), nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine and 7-nitroindazole), a dopamine receptor D2 antagonist (sulpiride), and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium and Ca-activated K channel antagonists (glibenclamide and iberiotoxin). The effects of salvinorin A on the constricted cerebral artery induced by hypocarbia and endothelin were investigated. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA (n = 5) with statistical significance set at a P value of less than 0.05. RESULTS: Salvinorin A induced immediate but brief vasodilatation that was sustained for 30 min via continual administration every 2 min. Vasodilatation and the associated cyclic guanosine monophosphate elevation in cerebrospinal fluid were abolished by preadministration N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, but not 7-nitroindazole. Although naloxone, norbinaltorphimine, and glibenclamide abolished salvinorin A-induced cerebrovasodilation, this response was unchanged by iberiotoxin and sulpiride. Hypocarbia and endothelin-constricted pial arteries responded similarly to salvinorin A, to the extent observed under resting tone. CONCLUSIONS: Salvinorin A dilates cerebral arteries via activation of nitric oxide synthase, adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel, and the ? opioid receptor.

Su D; Riley J; Kiessling WJ; Armstead WM; Liu R

2011-02-01

227

Salvinorin A Produces Cerebrovasodilation through Activation of Nitric Oxide Synthase, ? Receptor, and Adenosine Triphosphate-sensitive Potassium Channel  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Salvinorin A is a nonopioid, selective ? opioid–receptor agonist. Despite its high potential for clinical application, its pharmacologic profile is not well known. In the current study, we hypothesized that salvinorin A dilates pial arteries via activation of nitric oxide synthase, adenosine triphosphate–sensitive potassium channels, and opioid receptors. Methods Cerebral artery diameters and cyclic guanosine monophosphate in cortical periarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid were monitored in piglets equipped with closed cranial windows. Observation took place before and after salvinorin A administration in the presence or absence of an opioid antagonist (naloxone), a ? opioid receptor–selective antagonist (norbinaltorphimine), nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine and 7-nitroindazole), a dopamine receptor D2 antagonist (sulpiride), and adenosine triphosphate–sensitive potassium and Ca2+-activated K channel antagonists (glibenclamide and iberiotoxin). The effects of salvinorin A on the constricted cerebral artery induced by hypocarbia and endothelin were investigated. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA (n = 5) with statistical significance set at a P value of less than 0.05. Results Salvinorin A induced immediate but brief vasodilatation that was sustained for 30 min via continual administration every 2 min. Vasodilatation and the associated cyclic guanosine monophosphate elevation in cerebrospinal fluid were abolished by preadministration N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, but not 7-nitroindazole. Although naloxone, norbinaltorphimine, and glibenclamide abolished salvinorin A–induced cerebrovasodilation, this response was unchanged by iberiotoxin and sulpiride. Hypocarbia and endothelin-constricted pial arteries responded similarly to salvinorin A, to the extent observed under resting tone. Conclusions Salvinorin A dilates cerebral arteries via activation of nitric oxide synthase, adenosine triphosphate–sensitive potassium channel, and the ? opioid receptor.

Su, Diansan; Riley, John; Kiessling, Willis J.; Armstead, William M.; Liu, Renyu

2012-01-01

228

The inhibitory effects of N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on nitric oxide synthase activity vary among brain regions in vivo but not in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied the effects of intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal injection and the in vitro effects of N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, on the nitric oxide synthase activities of the cerebellum, brainstem, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and the remainder of the brain after dissections. Male rats were chronically implanted with lateral icv guide cannula. L-NAME was injected in doses of 0.2, 1, and 5 mg intracerebroventricularly, and 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally. L-NAME induced dose-dependent suppression of NOS activities in each brain region. The threshold dose was 0.2 mg; 1 mg L-NAME completely abolished brain nitric oxide synthase activity 90 min after the injection. Brain NOS activities returned to baseline level 48 h after the injection of 5 mg L-NAME. There were significant differences between the sensitivity of various regions to L-NAME after in vivo but not in vitro administration of the enzyme inhibitor. These findings indicate that intracerebroventricular injection of L-NAME is a useful tool for inhibiting brain nitric oxide synthase activities in vivo. The differences between the sensitivity of different brain regions to L-NAME as well as the relative fast recovery of nitric oxide synthase activities must be taken into account when L-NAME is administered intracerebroventricularly to rats.

Ayers NA; Kapás L; Krueger JM

1997-01-01

229

A single active trehalose-6-P synthase (TPS) and a family of putative regulatory TPS-like proteins in Arabidopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Higher plants typically do not produce trehalose in large amounts, but their genome sequences reveal large families of putative trehalose metabolism enzymes. An important regulatory role in plant growth and development is also emerging for the metabolic intermediate trehalose-6-P (T6P). Here, we present an update on Arabidopsis trehalose metabolism and a resource for further detailed analyses. In addition, we provide evidence that Arabidopsis encodes a single trehalose-6-P synthase (TPS) next to a family of catalytically inactive TPS-like proteins that might fulfill specific regulatory functions in actively growing tissues. PMID:20100798

Vandesteene, Lies; Ramon, Matthew; Le Roy, Katrien; Van Dijck, Patrick; Rolland, Filip

2010-01-25

230

A single active trehalose-6-P synthase (TPS) and a family of putative regulatory TPS-like proteins in Arabidopsis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Higher plants typically do not produce trehalose in large amounts, but their genome sequences reveal large families of putative trehalose metabolism enzymes. An important regulatory role in plant growth and development is also emerging for the metabolic intermediate trehalose-6-P (T6P). Here, we present an update on Arabidopsis trehalose metabolism and a resource for further detailed analyses. In addition, we provide evidence that Arabidopsis encodes a single trehalose-6-P synthase (TPS) next to a family of catalytically inactive TPS-like proteins that might fulfill specific regulatory functions in actively growing tissues.

Vandesteene L; Ramon M; Le Roy K; Van Dijck P; Rolland F

2010-03-01

231

The effect of intermittent cryotherapy on the activities of citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase in regenerating skeletal muscle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This study examined the effect of three sessions of cryotherapy (three sessions of 30 minutes applied each 2 h) and muscle compression in the regenerating skeletal muscle of the rats. The middle belly of tibialis anterior muscle was injured by a frozen iron bar and received one of the following intervention: injury + cryotherapy (treated with cryotherapy); injury + placebo (sand pack), and injury (I).The enzymatic activities of citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogen (more) ase (LDH) were measured in the presence of 1mM or 10mM pyruvate. The ANOVA and Tukey's test (p

Oliveira, Nuno Miguel Lopes de; Durigan, João Luiz Quagliotti; Munin, Flávia Simone; Schwantes, Maria Luiza Barcelos; Salvini, Tania de Fátima

2013-02-01

232

Determination of amino-acidic positions important for Ocimum basilicum geraniol synthase activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Terpenes are one of the largest and most diversified families of natural compounds. Although they have found numerous industrial applications, the molecular basis of their synthesis in plants has, until now, not been fully understood. Plant genomes have been shown to contain dozens of terpene synthase (TPS) genes, however knowledge of their amino-acidic protein sequence in not sufficient to predict which terpene(s) will be produced by a particular enzyme. In order to investigate the structural basis of a TPS specificity, we performed site directed mutations in the geraniol synthase from Ocimum basilicum. The results obtained suggest that a specific region on the catalytic site plays an important role in GPP transformation, either by stabilizing the GPP substrate on the catalytic site, or by enabling its transformation into a monoterpenol via an intermediate carbocation.

Marc J. C. Fischer; Sophie Meyer; Patricia Claudel; Damien Steyer; Marc Bergdoll; Philippe Hugueney

2013-01-01

233

Some special characteristics of glycogen synthase from chicken liver.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An anomalous initial grade of activation is observed for glycogen synthase from chicken liver when it is compared with synthase from mammalian liver. Some possible experimental causes for this discrepancy are investigated as well as the possibility of a different development stage to explain the special behaviour of avian synthase. It is concluded that avian synthase is less affected by external treatment than mammalian synthase. Avian synthase is always highly active, independently of external conditions and of development stage.

Egaña M; Trueba M; Sancho MJ

1986-01-01

234

Isoniazid and thioacetazone may exhibit anti-tubercular activity by binding directly with the active site of mycolic acid cyclopropane synthase: Hypothesis based on computational analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Isoniazid and thioacetazone are the two important antitubercular drugs. In case of thioacetazone it is established that it inhibits mycolic acid cyclopropane synthase but the exact binding site accounting for such inhibition is presently unknown. In case of isoniazid its action on the said enzyme is unexplored. In this work we have analyzed the binding of isoniazid and thioacetazone with mycolic acid cyclopropane synthase (CmaA1 and CmaA2) using tools of computational biology. We have observed that thioacetazone fits well at the active site of CmaA1 and CmaA2 while isoniazid binds at the active site of CmaA1 only. We have recommended experimental validation of such results. If such results are proved to be fact it will explore the exact binding site of thioacetazone and discover a new mechanism of anti-tubercular action of isoniazid.

Dibyajyoti Banerjee; Rajasri Bhattacharyya

2012-01-01

235

Involvement of Salicylic Acid on Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties, Anthocyanin Production and Chalcone Synthase Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Varieties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (10?3 M and 10?5 M) was investigated on the production of secondary metabolites (flavonoids), chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity (against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and...

Ali Ghasemzadeh; Hawa Z. E. Jaafar; Ehsan Karimi

236

Amino acid sequence of an active site peptide of avian liver mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase is irreversibly inhibited by the active site-directed inhibitor 3-chloropropionyl-CoA. Enzyme modification has been postulated to involve alkylation of an active site cysteinyl sulfhydryl group. DEAE-Sephadex chromatography of tryptic digests prepared from enzyme inactivated using chloro[14C]propionyl-CoA suggested that bound radioactivity is localized on one peptide. Specificity of the modification was further demonstrated by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography, which was used to isolate the radioactively labeled peptide in a chemically homogeneous form. Automated gas-phase Edman degradation techniques have been employed to confirm the assignment of cysteine as the inhibitor's target residue and to elucidate the sequence of amino acids which flank the 14C-carboxyethylated cysteine: Glu-Ser-Gly-Asn-Thr-Asp-Val-Glu-Gly-Ile-Asp-Thr-(Thr)- Asn-Ala-S-[14C]carboxyethylcysteine-Tyr-Gly-Gln-Thr-(Ala). These data represent the first assignment of active site structure for hydroxymethyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase. PMID:2865259

Miziorko, H M; Behnke, C E

1985-11-01

237

Amino acid sequence of an active site peptide of avian liver mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase is irreversibly inhibited by the active site-directed inhibitor 3-chloropropionyl-CoA. Enzyme modification has been postulated to involve alkylation of an active site cysteinyl sulfhydryl group. DEAE-Sephadex chromatography of tryptic digests prepared from enzyme inactivated using chloro[14C]propionyl-CoA suggested that bound radioactivity is localized on one peptide. Specificity of the modification was further demonstrated by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography, which was used to isolate the radioactively labeled peptide in a chemically homogeneous form. Automated gas-phase Edman degradation techniques have been employed to confirm the assignment of cysteine as the inhibitor's target residue and to elucidate the sequence of amino acids which flank the 14C-carboxyethylated cysteine: Glu-Ser-Gly-Asn-Thr-Asp-Val-Glu-Gly-Ile-Asp-Thr-(Thr)- Asn-Ala-S-[14C]carboxyethylcysteine-Tyr-Gly-Gln-Thr-(Ala). These data represent the first assignment of active site structure for hydroxymethyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase.

Miziorko HM; Behnke CE

1985-11-01

238

Retinal cell death induced by TRPV1 activation involves NMDA signaling and upregulation of nitric oxide synthases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1) has been correlated with oxidative and nitrosative stress and cell death in the nervous system. Our previous results indicate that TRPV1 activation in the adult retina can lead to constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthase-dependent protein nitration and apoptosis. In this report, we have investigated the potential effects of TRPV1 channel activation on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and function, and the putative participation of ionotropic glutamate receptors in retinal TRPV1-induced protein nitration, lipid peroxidation, and DNA fragmentation. Intravitreal injections of the classical TRPV1 agonist capsaicin up-regulated the protein expression of the inducible and endothelial NOS isoforms. Using 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate for nitric oxide (NO) imaging, we found that capsaicin also increased the production of NO in retinal blood vessels. Processes and perikarya of TRPV1-expressing neurons in the inner nuclear layer of the retina were found in the vicinity of nNOS-positive neurons, but those two proteins did not colocalize. Retinal explants exposed to capsaicin presented high protein nitration, lipid peroxidation, and cell death, which were observed in the inner nuclear and plexiform layers and in ganglion cells. This effect was partially blocked by AP-5, a NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist, but not by CNQX, an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist. These data support a potential role for TRPV1 channels in physiopathological retinal processes mediated by NO, which at least in part involve glutamate release.

Leonelli M; Martins DO; Britto LR

2013-04-01

239

Sulfite inhibits the F1F0-ATP synthase and activates the F1F0-ATPase of Paracoccus denitrificans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The F1F0 complex of Paracoccus denitrificans (PdF1F0) is the fastest ATP synthase but the slowest ATPase. Sulfite exerts maximal activation of the PdF1F0-ATPase (Pacheco-Moisés, F., García, J. J., Rodríguez-Zavala, J. S., and Moreno-Sánchez, R. (2000). Eur J. Biochem. 267, 993-1000) but its effect on the PdF1F0-ATP synthase activity remains unknown. Therefore, we studied the effect of sulfite on ATP synthesis and 32Pi <--> ATP exchange reactions of inside-out membrane vesicles of P. denitrificans. Sulfite inhibited both reactions under conditions of maximal delta pH and normal sensitivity to dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Sulfite increased by 10- and 5-fold the K0.5 for Mg2+-ADP and Pi during ATP synthesis, respectively, and by 4-fold the IC50 of Mg2+-ADP for inhibition of the PdF1F0-ATPase activity. Thus, sulfite exerts opposite effects on the forward and reverse functioning of the PdF1F0 complex. These effects are not due to membrane or PdF1F0 uncoupling. Kinetic and structural modifications that could account for these results are discussed.

Pacheco-Moisés F; Minauro-Sanmiguel F; Bravo C; García JJ

2002-08-01

240

Synthesis and evaluation of M. tuberculosis salicylate synthase (MbtI) inhibitors designed to probe plasticity in the active site.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis salicylate synthase (MbtI) catalyses the first committed step in the biosynthesis of mycobactin T, an iron-chelating siderophore essential for the virulence and survival of M. tuberculosis. Co-crystal structures of MbtI with members of a first generation inhibitor library revealed large inhibitor-induced rearrangements within the active site of the enzyme. This plasticity of the MbtI active site was probed via the preparation of a library of inhibitors based on a 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate scaffold with a range of substituted phenylacrylate side chains appended to the C3 position. Most compounds exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against the enzyme, with inhibition constants in the micromolar range, while several dimethyl ester variants possessed promising anti-tubercular activity in vitro.

Manos-Turvey A; Cergol KM; Salam NK; Bulloch EM; Chi G; Pang A; Britton WJ; West NP; Baker EN; Lott JS; Payne RJ

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Synthesis and evaluation of M. tuberculosis salicylate synthase (MbtI) inhibitors designed to probe plasticity in the active site.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis salicylate synthase (MbtI) catalyses the first committed step in the biosynthesis of mycobactin T, an iron-chelating siderophore essential for the virulence and survival of M. tuberculosis. Co-crystal structures of MbtI with members of a first generation inhibitor library revealed large inhibitor-induced rearrangements within the active site of the enzyme. This plasticity of the MbtI active site was probed via the preparation of a library of inhibitors based on a 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate scaffold with a range of substituted phenylacrylate side chains appended to the C3 position. Most compounds exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against the enzyme, with inhibition constants in the micromolar range, while several dimethyl ester variants possessed promising anti-tubercular activity in vitro. PMID:23108268

Manos-Turvey, Alexandra; Cergol, Katie M; Salam, Noeris K; Bulloch, Esther M M; Chi, Gamma; Pang, Angel; Britton, Warwick J; West, Nicholas P; Baker, Edward N; Lott, J Shaun; Payne, Richard J

2012-10-29

242

Doubling the CO{sub 2} concentration enhanced the activity of carbohydrate-metabolism enzymes, source carbohydrate production, photoassimilate transport, and sink strength for Opuntia ficus-indica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After exposure to a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration of 750 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} air for about 3 months, glucose and starch in the chlorenchyma of basal cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased 175 and 57%, respectively, compared with the current CO{sub 2} concentration of 370 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}, but sucrose content was virtually unaffected. Doubling the CO{sub 2} concentration increased the noncturnal malate production in basal cladodes by 75%, inorganic phosphate (Pi) by 32% soluble starch synthase activity by 30%, and sucrose-Pi synthase activity by 146%, but did not affect the activity of hexokinase. Doubling CO{sub 2} accelerated phloem transport of sucrose out of the basal cladodes, resulting in a 73% higher dry weight for the daughter cladodes. Doubling CO{sub 2} increased the glucose content in 14-d-old daughter cladodes by 167%, increased nocturnal malate production by 22%, decreased total amino acid content by 61%, and increased soluble starch synthase activity by 30% and sucrose synthase activity by 62%. No downward acclimation of photosynthesis during long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations occurs for O. ficus-indica, consistent with its higher source capacity and sink strength than under current CO{sub 2}. These changes apparently do not result in Pi limitation of photosynthesis or suppression of genes governing photosynthesis for this perennial Crassulacean acid metabolism species, as occur for some annual crops.

Wang, Ning; Nobel, P.S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1996-03-01

243

Selenoprotein-dependent Up-regulation of Hematopoietic Prostaglandin D2 Synthase in Macrophages Is Mediated through the Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR) ?*  

Science.gov (United States)

The plasticity of macrophages is evident from their dual role in inflammation and resolution of inflammation that are accompanied by changes in the transcriptome and metabolome. Along these lines, we have previously demonstrated that the micronutrient selenium increases macrophage production of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived anti-inflammatory 15-deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and decreases the proinflammatory PGE2. Here, we hypothesized that selenium modulated the metabolism of AA by a differential regulation of various prostaglandin (PG) synthases favoring the production of PGD2 metabolites, ?12-PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2. A dose-dependent increase in the expression of hematopoietic-PGD2 synthase (H-PGDS) by selenium and a corresponding increase in ?12-PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2 in RAW264.7 macrophages and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages was observed. Studies with organic non-bioavailable forms of selenium and the genetic manipulation of cellular selenium incorporation machinery indicated that selenoproteins were necessary for H-PGDS expression and 15d-PGJ2 production. Treatment of selenium-deficient macrophages with rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? ligand, up-regulated H-PGDS. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated the presence of an active peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-response element in murine Hpgds promoter suggesting a positive feedback mechanism of H-PGDS expression. Alternatively, the expression of nuclear factor-?B-dependent thromboxane synthase and microsomal PGE2 synthase was down-regulated by selenium. Using a Friend virus infection model of murine leukemia, the onset of leukemia was observed only in selenium-deficient and indomethacin-treated selenium-supplemented mice but not in the selenium-supplemented group or those treated with 15d-PGJ2. These results suggest the importance of selenium in the shunting of AA metabolism toward the production of PGD2 metabolites, which may have clinical implications.

Gandhi, Ujjawal H.; Kaushal, Naveen; Ravindra, Kodihalli C.; Hegde, Shailaja; Nelson, Shakira M.; Narayan, Vivek; Vunta, Hema; Paulson, Robert F.; Prabhu, K. Sandeep

2011-01-01

244

Selenoprotein-dependent up-regulation of hematopoietic prostaglandin D2 synthase in macrophages is mediated through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The plasticity of macrophages is evident from their dual role in inflammation and resolution of inflammation that are accompanied by changes in the transcriptome and metabolome. Along these lines, we have previously demonstrated that the micronutrient selenium increases macrophage production of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived anti-inflammatory 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) and decreases the proinflammatory PGE(2). Here, we hypothesized that selenium modulated the metabolism of AA by a differential regulation of various prostaglandin (PG) synthases favoring the production of PGD(2) metabolites, ?(12)-PGJ(2) and 15d-PGJ(2). A dose-dependent increase in the expression of hematopoietic-PGD(2) synthase (H-PGDS) by selenium and a corresponding increase in ?(12)-PGJ(2) and 15d-PGJ(2) in RAW264.7 macrophages and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages was observed. Studies with organic non-bioavailable forms of selenium and the genetic manipulation of cellular selenium incorporation machinery indicated that selenoproteins were necessary for H-PGDS expression and 15d-PGJ(2) production. Treatment of selenium-deficient macrophages with rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? ligand, up-regulated H-PGDS. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated the presence of an active peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-response element in murine Hpgds promoter suggesting a positive feedback mechanism of H-PGDS expression. Alternatively, the expression of nuclear factor-?B-dependent thromboxane synthase and microsomal PGE(2) synthase was down-regulated by selenium. Using a Friend virus infection model of murine leukemia, the onset of leukemia was observed only in selenium-deficient and indomethacin-treated selenium-supplemented mice but not in the selenium-supplemented group or those treated with 15d-PGJ(2). These results suggest the importance of selenium in the shunting of AA metabolism toward the production of PGD(2) metabolites, which may have clinical implications.

Gandhi UH; Kaushal N; Ravindra KC; Hegde S; Nelson SM; Narayan V; Vunta H; Paulson RF; Prabhu KS

2011-08-01

245

Structural analysis of ConBr reveals molecular correlation between the carbohydrate recognition domain and endothelial NO synthase activation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diocleinae lectins are highly homologous in their primary structure which features metal binding sites and a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Differences in the biological activity of legume lectins have been widely investigated using hemagglutination inhibition assays, isothermal titration microcalorimetry and co-crystallization with mono- and oligosaccharides. Here we report a new lectin crystal structure (ConBr) extracted from seeds of Canavalia brasiliensis, predict dimannoside binding by docking, identify the ?-aminobutyric acid (Abu) binding pocket and compare the CRD of ConBr to that of homologous lectins. Based on the hypothesis that the carbohydrate affinity of lectins depends on CRD configuration, the relationship between tridimensional structure and endothelial NO synthase activation was used to clarify differences in biological activity. Our study established a correlation between the position of CRD amino acid side chains and the stimulation of NO release from endothelium.

Bezerra EH; Rocha BA; Nagano CS; Bezerra Gde A; Moura TR; Bezerra MJ; Benevides RG; Sampaio AH; Assreuy AM; Delatorre P; Cavada BS

2011-05-01

246

Structural analysis of ConBr reveals molecular correlation between the carbohydrate recognition domain and endothelial NO synthase activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diocleinae lectins are highly homologous in their primary structure which features metal binding sites and a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Differences in the biological activity of legume lectins have been widely investigated using hemagglutination inhibition assays, isothermal titration microcalorimetry and co-crystallization with mono- and oligosaccharides. Here we report a new lectin crystal structure (ConBr) extracted from seeds of Canavalia brasiliensis, predict dimannoside binding by docking, identify the ?-aminobutyric acid (Abu) binding pocket and compare the CRD of ConBr to that of homologous lectins. Based on the hypothesis that the carbohydrate affinity of lectins depends on CRD configuration, the relationship between tridimensional structure and endothelial NO synthase activation was used to clarify differences in biological activity. Our study established a correlation between the position of CRD amino acid side chains and the stimulation of NO release from endothelium. PMID:21530490

Bezerra, Eduardo Henrique Salviano; Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Bezerra, Gustavo de Arruda; Moura, Tales Rocha de; Bezerra, Maria Júlia Barbosa; Benevides, Raquel Guimarães; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; Delatorre, Plínio; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

2011-04-19

247

Convergent evolution of Trichomonas vaginalis lactate dehydrogenase from malate dehydrogenase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is present in the amitochondriate parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis and some but not all other trichomonad species. The derived amino acid sequence of T. vaginalis LDH (TvLDH) was found to be more closely related to the cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (MDH) of the sa...

Wu, Gang; Fiser, András; ter Kuile, Benno; Šali, Andrej; Müller, Miklós

248

Genetically Induced Subcellular Mislocation of Neurospora Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Among 60 ultraviolet-induced missense mutations of the structural genes that code for mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (M-MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) of Neurospora crassa, two enzyme phenotypes are observed. In a previously described class (C-mutants), M-MDH is malfunctional because of an abnormal conformat...

Munkres, K. D.; Benveniste, K.; Gorski, J.; Zuiches, C. A.

249

On the activation mechanism of the H(+)-ATP synthase and unusual thermodynamic properties in the alkalophilic cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The activation requirements and thermodynamic characteristics of ATP synthase from the alkalophilic cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were studied in coupled membrane vesicles. Activation by methanol increased the Vmax, while the Km for MgATP was unaffected (0.7 mM). We propose that in Sp. platensis, as in chloroplasts, the activating effect of methanol is based on perturbation of the gamma-epsilon subunit interaction. Light-driven ATP synthesis by membrane vesicles of Sp. platensis was stimulated by dithiothreitol. The characteristics of the activation of the ATP synthase by the proton electrochemical potential difference (delta mu H+) were analyzed on the basis of the uncoupled rates of ATP hydrolysis as a function of a previously applied proton gradient. Two values of delta mu H+, at which 50% of the enzyme is active, were found; 13-14 kJ.mol-1 for untreated membrane vesicles, and 4-8 kJ.mol-1 for light-treated and dithiothreitol-treated membrane vesicles. These values are lower than the corresponding values for the oxidized and reduced forms, respectively, of the chloroplast enzyme. Although no bulk proton gradient could be observed, membrane vesicles of Sp. platensis were able to maintain an equilibrium phosphate potential (delta Gp) of 40-43.5 kJ.mol-1, comparable to values found for Synechococcus 6716 and Anabaena 7120 membrane vesicles. Acid/base-transition experiments showed that the thermodynamic threshold, delta mu H+, for ATP synthesis, catalyzed by light-treated and dithiothreitol-treated Spirulina membrane vesicles, was less than 5 kJ.mol-1. The activation characteristics and the low thermodynamic threshold allow ATP synthesis to occur at low delta mu H+ values. The findings are discussed, both with respect to differences and similarities with the enzymes from chloroplasts and other cyanobacteria, and with respect to the alkalophilic properties of Sp. platensis. PMID:8504834

Bakels, R H; van Walraven, H S; Krab, K; Scholts, M J; Kraayenhof, R

1993-05-01

250

Long-term effects of rapamycin treatment on insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB and glycogen synthase activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) is a Ser/Thr kinase that is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation/survival through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the regulation of glycogen metabolism through glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) and glycogen synthase (GS). Rapamycin is an inhibitor of mTOR. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rapamycin pretreatment on the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB phosphorylation and GS activity in parental HepG2 and HepG2 cells with overexpression of constitutively active Akt1/PKB-? (HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB). Rapamycin pretreatment resulted in a decrease (20-30%) in the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 (Ser 473) in parental HepG2 cells but showed an upregulation of phosphorylation in HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Rictor levels were decreased (20-50%) in parental HepG2 cells but were not significantly altered in the HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Furthermore, rictor knockdown decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser 473) by 40-60% upon rapamycin pretreatment. GS activity followed similar trends as that of phosphorylated Akt and so with rictor levels in these cells pretreated with rapamycin; parental HepG2 cells showed a decrease in GS activity, whereas as HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells showed an increase in GS activity. The changes in the levels of phosphorylated Akt/PKB (Ser 473) correlated with GS and protein phoshatase-1 activity.

2008-04-01

251

GTP cyclohydrolase I gene transfer augments intracellular tetrahydrobiopterin in human endothelial cells: effects on nitric oxide synthase activity, protein levels and dimerisation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. BH4 levels are regulated by de novo biosynthesis; the rate-limiting enzyme is GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH). BH4 activates and promotes homodimerisation of purified eNOS protein, but the intracel...

Cai, S; Alp, NJ; McDonald, D; Smith, I; Kay, J; Canevari, L

252

High-cholesterol diet increases xanthine oxidase and decreases nitric oxide synthase activities in erythrocytes from rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on oxidant/antioxidant status and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in erythrocytes from rats. Sixteen Sprague-Dawley-type albino male rats were used in the study. The rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group (group 1) was fed a standard rat diet, and the treated group (group 2) was fed a high-cholesterol diet (4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid, and 0.5% thiouracil) in addition to standard pellet rat diet for 3 months. At the end of the study period, blood samples were obtained from the rats under ether anesthesia. Oxidant (malondialdehyde level, sensitivity to oxidation value, and xanthine oxidase [XO] activity) and antioxidant parameters (antioxidant potential value, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities) were studied in erythrocyte preparations. Activities of erythrocyte NOS and arginase enzymes and serum total cholesterol levels were also measured. We observed that serum total cholesterol levels, erythrocyte XO activities, and sensitivity to oxidation values significantly increased in group 2 (cholesterol fed) compared with the control group (group 1). Erythrocyte NOS activities were also found to decrease in group 2. In conclusion, our results suggest that cholesterol feeding causes an increase in XO activity and a decrease in NOS activity in the erythrocytes from rats. The increase in XO activity may render the erythrocyte membranes sensitive to oxidant stress, and the decrease in NOS activity in the erythrocytes may increase cardiovascular disease risk via reduced endothelial relaxation.

Devrim E; Ergüder IB; Ozbek H; Durak I

2008-03-01

253

Intrinsic activity and stability of bifunctional human UMP synthase and its two separate catalytic domains, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human UMP synthase is a bifunctional protein containing two separate catalytic domains, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.10) and orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.23). These studies address the question of why the last two reactions in pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis are catalyzed by a bifunctional enzyme in mammalian cells, but by two separate enzymes in microorganisms. From existing data on subunit associations of the respective enzymes and calculations showing the molar concentration of enzyme to be far lower in mammalian cells than in microorganisms, we hypothesize that the covalent union in UMP synthase stabilizes the domains containing the respective catalytic centers. Evidence supporting this hypothesis comes from studies of stability of enzyme activity in vitro, at physiological concentrations, of UMP synthase, the two isolated catalytic domains prepared by site-directed mutagenesis of UMP synthase, and the yeast ODCase. The two engineered domains have activities very similar to the native UMP synthase, but unlike the bifunctional protein, the domains are quite unstable under conditions promoting the dissociated monomer.

Yablonski MJ; Pasek DA; Han BD; Jones ME; Traut TW

1996-05-01

254

The effect of intermittent cryotherapy on the activities of citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase in regenerating skeletal muscle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the effect of three sessions of cryotherapy (three sessions of 30 minutes applied each 2 h) and muscle compression in the regenerating skeletal muscle of the rats. The middle belly of tibialis anterior muscle was injured by a frozen iron bar and received one of the following intervention: injury + cryotherapy (treated with cryotherapy); injury + placebo (sand pack), and injury (I).The enzymatic activities of citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in the presence of 1mM or 10mM pyruvate. The ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05) were performed for the statistical analysis. In summary, the intermittent sessions of cryotherapy, associated to muscle compression and applied immediately after the primary muscle injury minimized the CS and LDH activity at 4h30 and 24h periods post-lesion, which could be related to the reduction in the secondary muscle injury inherent to cryotherapy treatment.

Nuno Miguel Lopes de Oliveira; João Luiz Quagliotti Durigan; Flávia Simone Munin; Maria Luiza Barcelos Schwantes; Tania de Fátima Salvini

2013-01-01

255

Plastid localization of the key carotenoid enzyme phytoene synthase is altered by isozyme, allelic variation, and activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant carotenoids have unique physiological roles related to specific plastid suborganellar locations. Carotenoid metabolic engineering could enhance plant adaptation to climate change and improve food security and nutritional value. However, lack of fundamental knowledge on carotenoid pathway localization limits targeted engineering. Phytoene synthase (PSY), a major rate-controlling carotenoid enzyme, is represented by multiple isozymes residing at unknown plastid sites. In maize (Zea mays), the three isozymes were transiently expressed and found either in plastoglobuli or in stroma and thylakoid membranes. PSY1, with one to two residue modifications of naturally occurring functional variants, exhibited altered localization, associated with distorted plastid shape and formation of a fibril phenotype. Mutating the active site of the enzyme reversed this phenotype. Discovery of differential PSY locations, linked with activity and isozyme type, advances the engineering potential for modifying carotenoid biosynthesis. PMID:23023170

Shumskaya, Maria; Bradbury, Louis M T; Monaco, Regina R; Wurtzel, Eleanore T

2012-09-28

256

Plastid localization of the key carotenoid enzyme phytoene synthase is altered by isozyme, allelic variation, and activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant carotenoids have unique physiological roles related to specific plastid suborganellar locations. Carotenoid metabolic engineering could enhance plant adaptation to climate change and improve food security and nutritional value. However, lack of fundamental knowledge on carotenoid pathway localization limits targeted engineering. Phytoene synthase (PSY), a major rate-controlling carotenoid enzyme, is represented by multiple isozymes residing at unknown plastid sites. In maize (Zea mays), the three isozymes were transiently expressed and found either in plastoglobuli or in stroma and thylakoid membranes. PSY1, with one to two residue modifications of naturally occurring functional variants, exhibited altered localization, associated with distorted plastid shape and formation of a fibril phenotype. Mutating the active site of the enzyme reversed this phenotype. Discovery of differential PSY locations, linked with activity and isozyme type, advances the engineering potential for modifying carotenoid biosynthesis.

Shumskaya M; Bradbury LM; Monaco RR; Wurtzel ET

2012-09-01

257

Interactions among mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, malate dehydrogenase, and the inner mitochondrial membrane from heart, hepatoma, and liver.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The inner mitochondrial membranes from bovine heart, rat liver, and Morris hepatoma 7777 all bound the mitochondrial isozymes of aspartate aminotransferase and malate dehydrogenase with comparable affinities and binding ratios (mg of enzyme bound per mg of membrane protein). A low molecular weight fraction separated from a detergent extract of the heart membrane by chromatography on Sephacryl S-300 contained most of the binding activity of the extract for the aminotransferase and had a dissociation constant for the aminotransferase of 0.2 microM. The protein component of the membrane binding sites for the aminotransferase was apparently present in this fraction because binding activity was largely eliminated by proteolysis with trypsin. When this fraction was chromatographed on an aminotransferase affinity column, only the portion that was bound and eluted by 0.25 M KCl associated with added aminotransferase. Unlike the membrane, which was markedly inhibited by the non-ionic detergent Genapol but was inhibited only 20% by trypsin, the binding activity of this subfraction was completely inhibited by trypsin but not by Genapol. This suggests, on the membrane, that the aminotransferase binds to the binding protein and is then transferred to lipids specifically associated with the binding protein. These putative lipids are presumably removed on the affinity column. Although the yield of the binding protein was low, there is probably ample binding protein in mitochondria to accommodate the aminotransferase. In every case, binding of the aminotransferase to the membrane inactivated the malate dehydrogenase binding site whereas malate dehydrogenase had little effect on the binding of the aminotransferase and only associated with the higher molecular weight fractions from the Sephacryl column that contained Complex I activity. Inactivation of the malate dehydrogenase site by the aminotransferase, but not vice versa, could result from aminotransferase associating with the binding protein and malate dehydrogenase with Complex I followed by association of the enzymes with lipids located in the same region of the membrane. However, since aminotransferase is more cationic, it is not displaced readily from the lipids by malate dehydrogenase. The relevance of these interactions to the organization of the enzymes is discussed.

Teller JK; Fahien LA; Valdivia E

1990-11-01

258

Interactions among mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, malate dehydrogenase, and the inner mitochondrial membrane from heart, hepatoma, and liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inner mitochondrial membranes from bovine heart, rat liver, and Morris hepatoma 7777 all bound the mitochondrial isozymes of aspartate aminotransferase and malate dehydrogenase with comparable affinities and binding ratios (mg of enzyme bound per mg of membrane protein). A low molecular weight fraction separated from a detergent extract of the heart membrane by chromatography on Sephacryl S-300 contained most of the binding activity of the extract for the aminotransferase and had a dissociation constant for the aminotransferase of 0.2 microM. The protein component of the membrane binding sites for the aminotransferase was apparently present in this fraction because binding activity was largely eliminated by proteolysis with trypsin. When this fraction was chromatographed on an aminotransferase affinity column, only the portion that was bound and eluted by 0.25 M KCl associated with added aminotransferase. Unlike the membrane, which was markedly inhibited by the non-ionic detergent Genapol but was inhibited only 20% by trypsin, the binding activity of this subfraction was completely inhibited by trypsin but not by Genapol. This suggests, on the membrane, that the aminotransferase binds to the binding protein and is then transferred to lipids specifically associated with the binding protein. These putative lipids are presumably removed on the affinity column. Although the yield of the binding protein was low, there is probably ample binding protein in mitochondria to accommodate the aminotransferase. In every case, binding of the aminotransferase to the membrane inactivated the malate dehydrogenase binding site whereas malate dehydrogenase had little effect on the binding of the aminotransferase and only associated with the higher molecular weight fractions from the Sephacryl column that contained Complex I activity. Inactivation of the malate dehydrogenase site by the aminotransferase, but not vice versa, could result from aminotransferase associating with the binding protein and malate dehydrogenase with Complex I followed by association of the enzymes with lipids located in the same region of the membrane. However, since aminotransferase is more cationic, it is not displaced readily from the lipids by malate dehydrogenase. The relevance of these interactions to the organization of the enzymes is discussed. PMID:2246239

Teller, J K; Fahien, L A; Valdivia, E

1990-11-15

259

Energy-dependent changes in the conformation of the chloroplast ATP synthase and its catalytic activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chloroplast ATP synthase changes its conformation depending on the transmembrane electrochemical potential difference of protons (delta mu H+). This conformational change is observable by measuring the change in the reactivity of Lys109 of the epsilon subunit of chloroplast-coupling-factor 1. Illumination of thylakoids increased the epsilon-Lys109 reactivity by a factor of 3-4 within 1 s. In the presence of ADP plus Pi, illumination of thylakoids increased the epsilon-Lys109 reactivity by a factor of only 2. Addition of ATP in the post-illumination dark or in the light after prior illumination increased the epsilon-Lys109 reactivity depending on the concentration of coexisting NH4Cl. ATP hydrolysis at high level was observed irrespective of the epsilon-Lys109 reactivity. PMID:8390356

Komatsu-Takaki, M

1993-06-01

260

Energy-dependent changes in the conformation of the chloroplast ATP synthase and its catalytic activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chloroplast ATP synthase changes its conformation depending on the transmembrane electrochemical potential difference of protons (delta mu H+). This conformational change is observable by measuring the change in the reactivity of Lys109 of the epsilon subunit of chloroplast-coupling-factor 1. Illumination of thylakoids increased the epsilon-Lys109 reactivity by a factor of 3-4 within 1 s. In the presence of ADP plus Pi, illumination of thylakoids increased the epsilon-Lys109 reactivity by a factor of only 2. Addition of ATP in the post-illumination dark or in the light after prior illumination increased the epsilon-Lys109 reactivity depending on the concentration of coexisting NH4Cl. ATP hydrolysis at high level was observed irrespective of the epsilon-Lys109 reactivity.

Komatsu-Takaki M

1993-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

An enzyme-coupled assay for amidotransferase activity of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

An assay for glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase using a yeast glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNA1) as coupling enzyme was developed. GNA1 transfers the acetyl moiety from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) to glucosamine-6-phosphate, releasing coenzyme A. The assay measures the production of glucosamine-6-phosphate by either following the consumption of acetyl-CoA spectrophotometrically at 230nm or quantifying the free thiol with 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (Ellman's reagent) in a discontinuous manner. This method is simple to perform and can be adapted to a 96-well microtiter plate format, which will facilitate high-throughput inhibitor screening and mechanistic studies using purified GlmS. PMID:17880906

Li, Yanyan; Lopez, Philippe; Durand, Philippe; Ouazzani, Jamal; Badet, Bernard; Badet-Denisot, Marie-Ange

2007-08-09

262

An enzyme-coupled assay for amidotransferase activity of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An assay for glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase using a yeast glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNA1) as coupling enzyme was developed. GNA1 transfers the acetyl moiety from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) to glucosamine-6-phosphate, releasing coenzyme A. The assay measures the production of glucosamine-6-phosphate by either following the consumption of acetyl-CoA spectrophotometrically at 230nm or quantifying the free thiol with 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (Ellman's reagent) in a discontinuous manner. This method is simple to perform and can be adapted to a 96-well microtiter plate format, which will facilitate high-throughput inhibitor screening and mechanistic studies using purified GlmS.

Li Y; Lopez P; Durand P; Ouazzani J; Badet B; Badet-Denisot MA

2007-11-01

263

A Selective Assay to Detect Chitin and Biologically Active Nano-Machineries for Chitin-Biosynthesis with Their Intrinsic Chitin-Synthase Molecules  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new assay system for chitin has been developed. It comprises the chitin-binding protein ChbB in fusion with a His-tag as well as with a Strep-tag, the latter of which was chemically coupled to horseradish peroxidase. With the resulting complex, minimal quantities of chitin are photometrically detectable. In addition, the assay allows rapid scoring of the activity of chitin-synthases. As a result, a refined procedure for the rapid purification of yeast chitosomes (nano-machineries for chitin biosynthesis) has been established. Immuno-electronmicroscopical studies of purified chitosomes, gained from a yeast strain carrying a chitin-synthase gene fused to that for GFP (green-fluorescence protein), has led to the in situ localization of chitin-synthase-GFP molecules within chitosomes.

Yury Herasimenka; Marta Kotasinska; Stefan Walter; Hildgund Schrempf

2010-01-01

264

Discovery of novel acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitors as active agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by virtual screening and bioassay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) has been regarded as a promising drug target against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) as it catalyzes the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids. In this study, 23 novel AHAS inhibitors were identified through molecular docking followed by similarity search. The determined IC(50) values range from 0.385 ± 0.026 ?M to >200 ?M against bacterium AHAS. Five of the identified compounds show significant in vitro activity against H37Rv strains (MICs in the range of 2.5-80 mg/L) and clinical MTB strains, including MDR and XDR isolates. More impressively, compounds 5 and 7 can enhance the killing ability against macrophages infected pathogen remarkably. This study suggests our discovered inhibitors can be further developed as novel anti-MTB therapeutics targeting AHAS.

Wang D; Zhu X; Cui C; Dong M; Jiang H; Li Z; Liu Z; Zhu W; Wang JG

2013-02-01

265

The untranslated region of exon 2 of the human neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) gene exerts regulatory activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Expressional dysregulation of the human neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) gene represents an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of certain neuronal disease states. The structure and regulation of the human NOS1 gene is highly complex based on cell type- and stimulus-dependent usage of multiple exon 1 variants. Here we demonstrate that the untranslated region of exon 2 exerts promoter and enhancer functions as well, facilitated in large part by cooperative interaction of two conserved adjacent CREB/AP-1 binding sites. In human neuronal A673 cells, NOS1 expression is stimulated by several compounds which act through these sites, but also stimulate the combined promoter region of exons 1f and 1g. While stimulation of NOS1 expression by dibutyryl-cAMP is mediated by protein kinase A (blocked by H-89), the antiepileptic drug valproic acid is likely to activate phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (inhibited by LY 294002). PMID:17949925

Bros, Matthias; Boissel, Jean-Paul; Gödtel-Armbrust, Ute; Förstermann, Ulrich

2007-09-05

266

A novel malate dehydrogenase from Ceratonia siliqua L. seeds with potential biotechnological applications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A novel malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC 3.1.1.1.37), hereafter MDHCs, from Ceratonia siliqua seeds, commonly known as Carob tree, was purified by using ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on SteamLine SP and gel-filtration. The molecular mass of the native protein, obtained by analytical gel-filtration, was about 65 kDa, whereas, by using SDS-PAGE analysis, with and without reducing agent, was 34 kDa. The specific activity of purified MDHCs (0.25 mg/100 g seeds) was estimated to be 188 U/mg. The optimum activity of the enzyme is at pH 8.5, showing a decrease in the presence of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and NaCl. The N-terminal sequence of the first 20 amino acids of MDHCs revealed 95 % identity with malate dehydrogenase from Medicago sativa L. Finally, the enzymatic activity of MDHCs was preserved even after absorption onto a PVDF membrane. To our knowledge, this is the first contribution to the characterization of an enzyme from Carob tree sources.

Muccio C; Guida V; Di Petrillo A; Severino V; Di Maro A

2012-12-01

267

A novel malate dehydrogenase from Ceratonia siliqua L. seeds with potential biotechnological applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC 3.1.1.1.37), hereafter MDHCs, from Ceratonia siliqua seeds, commonly known as Carob tree, was purified by using ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on SteamLine SP and gel-filtration. The molecular mass of the native protein, obtained by analytical gel-filtration, was about 65 kDa, whereas, by using SDS-PAGE analysis, with and without reducing agent, was 34 kDa. The specific activity of purified MDHCs (0.25 mg/100 g seeds) was estimated to be 188 U/mg. The optimum activity of the enzyme is at pH 8.5, showing a decrease in the presence of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and NaCl. The N-terminal sequence of the first 20 amino acids of MDHCs revealed 95 % identity with malate dehydrogenase from Medicago sativa L. Finally, the enzymatic activity of MDHCs was preserved even after absorption onto a PVDF membrane. To our knowledge, this is the first contribution to the characterization of an enzyme from Carob tree sources. PMID:22965554

Muccio, Clelia; Guida, Vincenzo; Di Petrillo, Amalia; Severino, Valeria; Di Maro, Antimo

2012-12-01

268

Differential induction of chalcone synthase mRNA activity at the onset of phytoalexin accumulation in compatible and incompatible plant-pathogen interactions  

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Changes in the mRNA activity of chalcone synthase, the first enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolism specific to flavonoid/isoflavonoid biosynthesis, have been investigated in relation to expression of the phytoalexin defense response in race-cultivar specific interactions between hypocotyls of Phaseol...

Bell, John N.; Dixon, Richard A.; Bailey, John A.; Rowell, Pat M.; Lamb, Chris J.

269

Piceatannol-3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside as an active component of rhubarb activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through inhibition of arginase activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arginase competitively inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) via use of the common substrate L-arginine. Arginase II has recently reported as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Here, we demonstrate that piceatannol-3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (PG), a potent component of stilbenes, inhibits the activity of arginase I and II prepared from mouse liver and kidney lysates, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, incubation of PG markedly blocked arginase activity and increased NOx production, as measured by Griess assay. The PG effect was associated with increase of eNOS dimer ratio, although the protein levels of arginase II or eNOS were not changed. Furthermore, isolated mice aortic rings treated with PG showed inhibited arginase activity that resulted in increased nitric oxide (NO) production upto 78%, as measured using 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorescein (DAF-FM) and a decreased superoxide anions up to 63%, as measured using dihydroethidine (DHE) in the intact endothelium. PG showed IC((50)) value of 11.22 microM and 11.06 microM against arginase I and II, respectively. PG as an arginase inhibitor, therefore, represents a novel molecule for the therapy of cardiovascular diseases derived from endothelial dysfunction and may be used for the design of pharmaceutical compounds.

Woo A; Min B; Ryoo S

2010-07-01

270

Piceatannol-3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside as an active component of rhubarb activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through inhibition of arginase activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arginase competitively inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) via use of the common substrate L-arginine. Arginase II has recently reported as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Here, we demonstrate that piceatannol-3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (PG), a potent component of stilbenes, inhibits the activity of arginase I and II prepared from mouse liver and kidney lysates, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, incubation of PG markedly blocked arginase activity and increased NOx production, as measured by Griess assay. The PG effect was associated with increase of eNOS dimer ratio, although the protein levels of arginase II or eNOS were not changed. Furthermore, isolated mice aortic rings treated with PG showed inhibited arginase activity that resulted in increased nitric oxide (NO) production upto 78%, as measured using 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorescein (DAF-FM) and a decreased superoxide anions up to 63%, as measured using dihydroethidine (DHE) in the intact endothelium. PG showed IC((50)) value of 11.22 microM and 11.06 microM against arginase I and II, respectively. PG as an arginase inhibitor, therefore, represents a novel molecule for the therapy of cardiovascular diseases derived from endothelial dysfunction and may be used for the design of pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:20543547

Woo, Ainieng; Min, Byungsun; Ryoo, Sungwoo

2010-07-31

271

Piceatannol-3'-O-?-D-glucopyranoside as an active component of rhubarb activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through inhibition of arginase activity  

Science.gov (United States)

Arginase competitively inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) via use of the common substrate L-arginine. Arginase II has recently reported as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Here, we demonstrate that piceatannol-3'-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (PG), a potent component of stilbenes, inhibits the activity of arginase I and II prepared from mouse liver and kidney lysates, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, incubation of PG markedly blocked arginase activity and increased NOx production, as measured by Griess assay. The PG effect was associated with increase of eNOS dimer ratio, although the protein levels of arginase II or eNOS were not changed. Furthermore, isolated mice aortic rings treated with PG showed inhibited arginase activity that resulted in increased nitric oxide (NO) production upto 78%, as measured using 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorescein (DAF-FM) and a decreased superoxide anions up to 63%, as measured using dihydroethidine (DHE) in the intact endothelium. PG showed IC50 value of 11.22 µM and 11.06 µM against arginase I and II, respectively. PG as an arginase inhibitor, therefore, represents a novel molecule for the therapy of cardiovascular diseases derived from endothelial dysfunction and may be used for the design of pharmaceutical compounds.

Woo, Ainieng; Min, Byungsun

2010-01-01

272

Glucose-6-Phosphate-Mediated Activation of Liver Glycogen Synthase Plays a Key Role in Hepatic Glycogen Synthesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The liver responds to an increase in blood glucose levels in the postprandial state by uptake of glucose and conversion to glycogen. Liver glycogen synthase (GYS2), a key enzyme in glycogen synthesis, is controlled by a complex interplay between the allosteric activator glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and reversible phosphorylation through GS kinase-3 and glycogen-associated form of protein phosphatase 1. Here we initially performed mutagenesis analysis and identified a key residue (Arg582) required for activation of GYS2 by G6P. We then employed GYS2 Arg582Ala knockin (+/R582A) mice in which G6P-mediated GYS2 activation has been profoundly impaired (60-70%), while sparing regulation through reversible phosphorylation. R582A-mutant-expressing hepatocytes showed significantly reduced glycogen synthesis with glucose and insulin or glucokinase activator, which resulted in channeling glucose/G6P towards glycolysis and lipid synthesis. GYS2(+/R582A) mice were modestly glucose intolerant and displayed significantly reduced glycogen accumulation with feeding or glucose load in vivo. These data show that G6P-mediated activation of GYS2 plays a key role in controlling glycogen synthesis and hepatic glucose-G6P flux control and thus whole-body glucose homeostasis.

von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff A; Hunter RW; García-Rocha M; Kang L; López-Soldado I; Lantier L; Patel K; Peggie MW; Martinez-Pons C; Voss M; Calbó J; Cohen PT; Wasserman DH; Guinovart JJ; Sakamoto K

2013-08-01

273

Reconstitution of energy-linked activities of the solubilized F1F0 ATP synthase from Bacillus subtilis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The F1F0 ATP synthases from wild-type Bacillus subtilis and an uncoupler-resistant mutant have comparable subunit structures. In accord with an earlier hypothesis, ATP hydrolysis and ATP-Pi exchange by the two synthases were equally stimulated and inhibited by protonophores, respectively, when recon...

Hicks, D B; Cohen, D M; Krulwich, T A

274

Lyase activity of glycogen synthase: Is an elimination/addition mechanism a possible reaction pathway for retaining glycosyltransferases?  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the biological relevance of glycosyltrasferases (GTs) and the many efforts devoted to this subject, the catalytic mechanism through which a subclass of this large family of enzymes, namely those that operate with net retention of the anomeric configuration, has not been fully established. Here, we show that in the absence of an acceptor, an archetypal retaining GT such as Pyrococcus abyssi glycogen synthase (PaGS) reacts with its glucosyl donor substrate, uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose (UDP-Glc), to produce the scission of the covalent bond between the terminal phosphate oxygen of UDP and the sugar ring. X-ray diffraction analysis of the PaGS/UDP-Glc complex shows no electronic density attributable to the UDP moiety, but establishes the presence in the active site of the enzyme of a glucose-like derivative that lacks the exocyclic oxygen attached to the anomeric carbon. Chemical derivatization followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the isolated glucose-like species allowed us to identify the molecule found in the catalytic site of PaGS as 1,5-anhydro-D-arabino-hex-1-enitol (AA) or its tautomeric form, 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose. These findings are consistent with a stepwise S(N) i-like mechanism as the modus operandi of retaining GTs, a mechanism that involves the discrete existence of an oxocarbenium intermediate. Even in the absence of a glucosyl acceptor, glycogen synthase (GS) promotes the formation of the cationic intermediate, which, by eliminating the proton of the adjacent C2 carbon atom, yields AA. Alternatively, these observations could be interpreted assuming that AA is a true intermediate in the reaction pathway of GS and that this enzyme operates through an elimination/addition mechanism. PMID:22648728

Díaz, Adelaida; Díaz-Lobo, Mireia; Grados, Enrique; Guinovart, Joan J; Fita, Ignacio; Ferrer, Joan C

2012-05-31

275

Lyase activity of glycogen synthase: Is an elimination/addition mechanism a possible reaction pathway for retaining glycosyltransferases?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the biological relevance of glycosyltrasferases (GTs) and the many efforts devoted to this subject, the catalytic mechanism through which a subclass of this large family of enzymes, namely those that operate with net retention of the anomeric configuration, has not been fully established. Here, we show that in the absence of an acceptor, an archetypal retaining GT such as Pyrococcus abyssi glycogen synthase (PaGS) reacts with its glucosyl donor substrate, uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose (UDP-Glc), to produce the scission of the covalent bond between the terminal phosphate oxygen of UDP and the sugar ring. X-ray diffraction analysis of the PaGS/UDP-Glc complex shows no electronic density attributable to the UDP moiety, but establishes the presence in the active site of the enzyme of a glucose-like derivative that lacks the exocyclic oxygen attached to the anomeric carbon. Chemical derivatization followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the isolated glucose-like species allowed us to identify the molecule found in the catalytic site of PaGS as 1,5-anhydro-D-arabino-hex-1-enitol (AA) or its tautomeric form, 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose. These findings are consistent with a stepwise S(N) i-like mechanism as the modus operandi of retaining GTs, a mechanism that involves the discrete existence of an oxocarbenium intermediate. Even in the absence of a glucosyl acceptor, glycogen synthase (GS) promotes the formation of the cationic intermediate, which, by eliminating the proton of the adjacent C2 carbon atom, yields AA. Alternatively, these observations could be interpreted assuming that AA is a true intermediate in the reaction pathway of GS and that this enzyme operates through an elimination/addition mechanism.

Díaz A; Díaz-Lobo M; Grados E; Guinovart JJ; Fita I; Ferrer JC

2012-07-01

276

2C-Methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate enhances and sustains cyclodiphosphate synthase IspF activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is significant progress toward understanding catalysis throughout the essential MEP pathway to isoprenoids in human pathogens; however, little is known about pathway regulation. The present study begins by testing the hypothesis that isoprenoid biosynthesis is regulated via feedback inhibition of the fifth enzyme cyclodiphosphate synthase IspF by downstream isoprenoid diphosphates. Here, we demonstrate recombinant E. coli IspF is not inhibited by downstream metabolites isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP), dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), geranyl diphosphate (GDP), and farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) under standard assay conditions. However, 2C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP), the product of reductoisomerase IspC and first committed MEP pathway intermediate, activates and sustains this enhanced IspF activity, and the IspF-MEP complex is inhibited by FDP. We further show that the methylerythritol scaffold itself, which is unique to this pathway, drives the activation and stabilization of active IspF. Our results suggest a novel feed-forward regulatory mechanism for 2C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate (MEcDP) production and support an isoprenoid biosynthesis regulatory mechanism via feedback inhibition of the IspF-MEP complex by FDP. The results have important implications for development of inhibitors against the IspF-MEP complex, which may be the physiologically relevant form of the enzyme.

Bitok JK; Meyers CF

2012-10-01

277

2C-Methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate enhances and sustains cyclodiphosphate synthase IspF activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is significant progress toward understanding catalysis throughout the essential MEP pathway to isoprenoids in human pathogens; however, little is known about pathway regulation. The present study begins by testing the hypothesis that isoprenoid biosynthesis is regulated via feedback inhibition of the fifth enzyme cyclodiphosphate synthase IspF by downstream isoprenoid diphosphates. Here, we demonstrate recombinant E. coli IspF is not inhibited by downstream metabolites isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP), dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), geranyl diphosphate (GDP), and farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) under standard assay conditions. However, 2C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP), the product of reductoisomerase IspC and first committed MEP pathway intermediate, activates and sustains this enhanced IspF activity, and the IspF-MEP complex is inhibited by FDP. We further show that the methylerythritol scaffold itself, which is unique to this pathway, drives the activation and stabilization of active IspF. Our results suggest a novel feed-forward regulatory mechanism for 2C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate (MEcDP) production and support an isoprenoid biosynthesis regulatory mechanism via feedback inhibition of the IspF-MEP complex by FDP. The results have important implications for development of inhibitors against the IspF-MEP complex, which may be the physiologically relevant form of the enzyme. PMID:22839733

Bitok, J Kipchirchir; Meyers, Caren Freel

2012-08-06

278

Neurospora tryptophan synthase: N-terminal analysis and the sequence of the pyridoxal phosphate active site peptide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tryptophan synthase (TS), which catalyzes the final step of tryptophan biosynthesis, is a multifunctional protein requiring pyridoxal phosphate (B6P) for two of its three distinct enzyme activities. TS from Neurospora has a blocked N-terminal, is a homodimer of 150 KDa and binds one mole of B6P per mole of subunit. The authors shown the N-terminal residue to be acyl-serine. The B6P-active site of holoenzyme was labelled by reduction of the B6P-Schiff base with (/sup 3/H)-NaBH/sub 4/, and resulted in a proportionate loss of activity in the two B6P-requiring reactions. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of CNBr-generated peptides showed the labelled, active site peptide to be 6 KDa. The sequence of this peptide, purified to apparent homogeneity by a combination of C-18 reversed phase and TSK gel filtration HPLC is: gly-arg-pro-gly-gln-leu-his-lys-ala-glu-arg-leu-thr-glu-tyr-ala-gly-gly-ala-gln-ile-xxx-leu-lys-arg-glu-asp-leu-asn-his-xxx-gly-xxx-his-/sub ***/-ile-asn-asn-ala-leu. Although four residues (xxx, /sub ***/) are unidentified, this peptide is minimally 78% homologous with the corresponding peptide from yeast TS, in which residue (/sub ***/) is the lysine that binds B6P.

Pratt, M.L.; Hsu, P.Y.; DeMoss, J.A.

1986-05-01

279

Rate of hydrolysis in ATP synthase is fine-tuned by ?-subunit motif controlling active site conformation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Computer-designed artificial enzymes will require precise understanding of how conformation of active sites may control barrier heights of key transition states, including dependence on structure and dynamics at larger molecular scale. F(o)F(1) ATP synthase is interesting as a model system: a delicate molecular machine synthesizing or hydrolyzing ATP using a rotary motor. Isolated F(1) performs hydrolysis with a rate very sensitive to ATP concentration. Experimental and theoretical results show that, at low ATP concentrations, ATP is slowly hydrolyzed in the so-called tight binding site, whereas at higher concentrations, the binding of additional ATP molecules induces rotation of the central ?-subunit, thereby forcing the site to transform through subtle conformational changes into a loose binding site in which hydrolysis occurs faster. How the 1-Å-scale rearrangements are controlled is not yet fully understood. By a combination of theoretical approaches, we address how large macromolecular rearrangements may manipulate the active site and how the reaction rate changes with active site conformation. Simulations reveal that, in response to ?-subunit position, the active site conformation is fine-tuned mainly by small ?-subunit changes. Quantum mechanics-based results confirm that the sub-Ångström gradual changes between tight and loose binding site structures dramatically alter the hydrolysis rate.

Beke-Somfai T; Lincoln P; Nordén B

2013-02-01

280

Neurospora tryptophan synthase: N-terminal analysis and the sequence of the pyridoxal phosphate active site peptide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tryptophan synthase (TS), which catalyzes the final step of tryptophan biosynthesis, is a multifunctional protein requiring pyridoxal phosphate (B6P) for two of its three distinct enzyme activities. TS from Neurospora has a blocked N-terminal, is a homodimer of 150 KDa and binds one mole of B6P per mole of subunit. The authors shown the N-terminal residue to be acyl-serine. The B6P-active site of holoenzyme was labelled by reduction of the B6P-Schiff base with [3H]-NaBH4, and resulted in a proportionate loss of activity in the two B6P-requiring reactions. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of CNBr-generated peptides showed the labelled, active site peptide to be 6 KDa. The sequence of this peptide, purified to apparent homogeneity by a combination of C-18 reversed phase and TSK gel filtration HPLC is: gly-arg-pro-gly-gln-leu-his-lys-ala-glu-arg-leu-thr-glu-tyr-ala-gly-gly-ala-gln-ile-xxx-leu-lys-arg-glu-asp-leu-asn-his-xxx-gly-xxx-his-/sub ***/-ile-asn-asn-ala-leu. Although four residues (xxx, /sub ***/) are unidentified, this peptide is minimally 78% homologous with the corresponding peptide from yeast TS, in which residue (/sub ***/) is the lysine that binds B6P.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Mechanistic insights into the bifunctional non-heme iron oxygenase carbapenem synthase by active site saturation mutagenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The carbapenem class of ?-lactam antibiotics is known for its remarkable potency, antibacterial spectrum, and resistance to ?-lactamase-mediated inactivation. While the biosynthesis of structurally "complex" carbapenems, such as thienamycin, share initial biochemical steps with carbapenem-3-carboxylate ("simple" carbapenem), the requisite inversion at C5 and formation of the characteristic ?,?-unsaturated carboxylate are different in origin between the two groups. Here, we consider carbapenem synthase, a mechanistically distinct bifunctional non-heme iron ?-ketoglutarate-dependent enzyme responsible for the terminal reactions, C5 epimerization and desaturation, in simple carbapenem production. Interestingly, this enzyme accepts two stereoisomeric substrates and transforms each to a common active antibiotic. Owing both to enzyme and product instability, resorting to saturation mutagenesis of active site and selected second-sphere residues gave clearly differing profiles of CarC tolerance to structural modification. Guided by a crystal structure and the mutational data, in silico docking was used to suggest the positioning of each disastereomeric substrate in the active site. The two orientations relative to the reactive iron-oxo center are manifest in the two distinct reactions, C5-epimerization and C2/3-desaturation. These observations favor a two-step reaction scheme involving two complete oxidative cycles as opposed to a single catalytic cycle in which an active site tyrosine, Tyr67, after hydrogen donation to achieve bicyclic ring inversion, is further hypothesized to serve as a radical carrier.

Phelan RM; Townsend CA

2013-05-01

282

Essential histidyl residues at the active site(s) of sucrose-phosphate synthase from Prosopis juliflora.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical modification of sucrose-phosphate synthase (EC 2.4.1.14) from Prosopis juliflora by diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEP) and photo-oxidation in the presence of rose bengal (RB) which modify the histidyl residues of the protein resulted in the inactivation of the enzyme activity. This inactivation was dependent on the concentration of the modifying reagent and the time of incubation and followed pseudo-first order kinetics. For both the reagents, the inactivation was maximum at pH 7.5, which is consistent with the involvement and presence of histidine residues at the active site of the enzyme. Substrates, UDPG and F6P protected the enzyme against the inactivation by the modifying reagents suggesting that the histidine residues may be involved in the binding of these substrates and are essential for the catalytic activity. Specificity of DEP was indicated by an increase in absorbance at 240 nm along with concomitant inactivation of the enzyme and reactivation of the modified enzyme by hydroxylamine. These results strongly suggest the presence of histidine residue(s) at or near the active site of the enzyme. PMID:9858774

Sinha, A K; Pathre, U V; Sane, P V

1998-11-10

283

Essential histidyl residues at the active site(s) of sucrose-phosphate synthase from Prosopis juliflora.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chemical modification of sucrose-phosphate synthase (EC 2.4.1.14) from Prosopis juliflora by diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEP) and photo-oxidation in the presence of rose bengal (RB) which modify the histidyl residues of the protein resulted in the inactivation of the enzyme activity. This inactivation was dependent on the concentration of the modifying reagent and the time of incubation and followed pseudo-first order kinetics. For both the reagents, the inactivation was maximum at pH 7.5, which is consistent with the involvement and presence of histidine residues at the active site of the enzyme. Substrates, UDPG and F6P protected the enzyme against the inactivation by the modifying reagents suggesting that the histidine residues may be involved in the binding of these substrates and are essential for the catalytic activity. Specificity of DEP was indicated by an increase in absorbance at 240 nm along with concomitant inactivation of the enzyme and reactivation of the modified enzyme by hydroxylamine. These results strongly suggest the presence of histidine residue(s) at or near the active site of the enzyme.

Sinha AK; Pathre UV; Sane PV

1998-11-01

284

Reverse myocardial effects of intermedin in pressure-overloaded hearts: role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intermedin (IMD) is a cardiac peptide synthesized in a prepro form, which undergoes a series of proteolytic cleavages and amidations to yield the active forms of 47 (IMD(1-47)) and 40 amino acids (IMD(8-47)). There are several lines of evidence of increased IMD expression in rat models of cardiac pathologies, including congestive heart failure and ischaemia; however, its myocardial effects upon cardiac disease remain unexplored. With this in mind, we investigated the direct effects of increasing concentrations of IMD(1-47) (10(-10) to10(-6) m) on contraction and relaxation of left ventricular (LV) papillary muscles from two rat models of chronic pressure overload, one induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC), the other by nitric oxide (NO) deficiency due to chronic NO synthase inhibition (NG-nitro-l-arginine, l-NAME), and respective controls (Sham and Ctrl). In TAC and l-NAME rats, exogenous administration of IMD(1-47) elicited concentration-dependent positive inotropic and lusitropic effects. By contrast, in Sham and Ctrl rats, IMD(1-47) induced a negative inotropic response without a significant effect on relaxation. Both TAC and l-NAME rats presented LV hypertrophy, elevated LV systolic pressures, preserved systolic function and elevated peroxynitrite levels. In the normal myocardium (Ctrl and Sham), IMD(1-47) induced a 3-fold increase of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation at Ser(1177), indicating enhanced eNOS activity. In TAC and l-NAME rats, eNOS phosphorylation was increased at baseline, and its response to IMD(1-47) was blunted. In addition, the distinct myocardial response to IMD(1-47) was accompanied by distinct subcellular mechanisms. While in Sham rats the addition of IMD(1-47) induced the phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I due to NO/cGMP activation, in TAC rats IMD(1-47) induced phospholamban phosphorylation possibly associated with cAMP/protein kinase A activation. Therefore, we demonstrated for the first time a reversed myocardial response to IMD(1-47) neurohumoral stimulation due to impairment of eNOS activation in TAC and l-NAME rats. These results not only reveal the distinct myocardial effects and subcellular mechanisms for IMD(1-47) in normal and hypertrophic hearts, but also highlight the potential pathophysiological relevance of cardiac endothelial dysfunction in neurohumoral myocardial action.

Pires AL; Pinho M; Alves BS; Pinho S; Sena C; Seica RM; Leite-Moreira AF

2013-02-01

285

A novel assay for cytosolic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase activity using reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography: demonstration that Lifibrol (K12.148) modulates the enzyme activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cytosolic HMG-CoA synthase and microsomal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase catalyze two sequential steps in the mevalonate pathway. Both enzymes are negatively regulated by cholesterol. Cytosolic HMG-CoA synthase is responsible for the generation of HMG-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA). We have developed a new method to determine HMG-CoA synthase activity. In this assay, HMG-CoA is formed from acetoacetyl-CoA and labeled acetyl-CoA. The HMG-CoA product is isolated from the reaction mixture by means of reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography. The recovery of the product was always greater than 90%. The average within-batch coefficient of variation for HMG-CoA synthase activity was 5.1%. Using the new assay, we demonstrate that Lifibrol (K12.148), a new hypolipidemic compound, inhibits HMG-CoA synthase. Because our assay is accurate and precise it may become useful in future studies on the regulation and the pharmacological modulation of cytosolic HMG-CoA synthase.

Scharnagl H; März W; Schliack M; Löser R; Gross W

1995-03-01

286

Evolution of C(4) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in Flaveria: determinants for high tolerance towards the inhibitor L-malate.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the evolution of angiosperms, C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases have evolved several times independently from ancestral non-photosynthetic isoforms. They show distinct kinetic and regulatory properties when compared with the C3 isozymes. To identify the evolutionary alterations which are responsible for C4-specific properties, particularly the increased tolerance towards the allosteric inhibitor L-malate, the photosynthetic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of Flaveria trinervia Mohr C4 and its ortholog from the closely related C3 plant Flaveria pringlei Gand. were examined using reciprocal enzyme chimeras. The main determinants for a high tolerance towards L-malate were located in the C-terminal region of the C4 enzyme. The effect of interchanging the region between amino acids 296 and 437 was strongly dependent upon the activation of the enzyme by glucose-6-phosphate. This confirms earlier observations that this region is important for the regulation of the enzyme by glucose-6-phosphate and that it harbours determinants for the different response of the C3 and the C4 enzyme towards this allosteric activator. In addition, it was possible to demonstrate that the only C4-specific amino acid, a serine in the C-terminal part of the enzyme, is not involved in conferring an increased L-malate tolerance to the C4 enzyme. PMID:18266899

Jacobs, Bianca; Engelmann, Sascha; Westhoff, Peter; Gowik, Udo

2008-02-05

287

Evolution of C(4) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in Flaveria: determinants for high tolerance towards the inhibitor L-malate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the evolution of angiosperms, C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases have evolved several times independently from ancestral non-photosynthetic isoforms. They show distinct kinetic and regulatory properties when compared with the C3 isozymes. To identify the evolutionary alterations which are responsible for C4-specific properties, particularly the increased tolerance towards the allosteric inhibitor L-malate, the photosynthetic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of Flaveria trinervia Mohr C4 and its ortholog from the closely related C3 plant Flaveria pringlei Gand. were examined using reciprocal enzyme chimeras. The main determinants for a high tolerance towards L-malate were located in the C-terminal region of the C4 enzyme. The effect of interchanging the region between amino acids 296 and 437 was strongly dependent upon the activation of the enzyme by glucose-6-phosphate. This confirms earlier observations that this region is important for the regulation of the enzyme by glucose-6-phosphate and that it harbours determinants for the different response of the C3 and the C4 enzyme towards this allosteric activator. In addition, it was possible to demonstrate that the only C4-specific amino acid, a serine in the C-terminal part of the enzyme, is not involved in conferring an increased L-malate tolerance to the C4 enzyme.

Jacobs B; Engelmann S; Westhoff P; Gowik U

2008-06-01

288

The cytoplasmic tail of GM3 synthase defines its subcellular localization, stability, and in vivo activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

GM3 synthase (SAT-I) is the primary glycosyltransferase responsible for the biosynthesis of ganglio-series gangliosides. In this study, we identify three isoforms of mouse SAT-I proteins, named M1-SAT-I, M2-SAT-I, and M3-SAT-I, which possess distinct lengths in their NH(2)-terminal cytoplasmic tails. These isoforms are produced by leaky scanning from mRNA variants of mSAT-Ia and mSAT-Ib. M2-SAT-I and M3-SAT-I were found to be localized in the Golgi apparatus, as expected, whereas M1-SAT-I was exclusively found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Specific multiple arginines (R) arranged in an R-based motif, RRXXXXR necessary for ER targeting, were found in the cytoplasmic tail of M1-SAT-I, and in vivo GM3 biosynthesis by M1-SAT-I was very low because of restricted transport to the Golgi apparatus. In addition, M1-SAT-I and M3-SAT-I had a long half-life relative to M2-SAT-I. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of an ER-targeting R-based motif in the cytoplasmic tail of a protein in the mammalian glycosyltransferase family of enzymes. The system, which produces SAT-I isoforms having distinct characteristics, is likely to be of critical importance for the regulation of GM3 biosynthesis under various pathological and physiological conditions.

Uemura S; Yoshida S; Shishido F; Inokuchi J

2009-07-01

289

Hydrogen sulfide increases nitric oxide production with calcium-dependent activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) was recently discovered to be synthesized in mammalian tissues by several different enzymes. Numerous studies have shown that H(2)S has vasodilator and antihypertensive effects in the cardiovascular system. However, intracellular mechanisms of the H(2)S-induced vasodilation and its interactions with other endothelium-derived relaxing factors, such as nitric oxide (NO), remain unclear. We investigated whether H(2)S directly regulates endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production in endothelial cells. NaHS, a H(2)S donor, dose-dependently increased NO production in cultured endothelial cells. This effect was abolished by a calcium chelator (BAPTA-AM), but not by the absence of extracellular calcium. The NaHS-induced NO production was partially blocked by inhibitors of ryanodine receptor (dantrolene) or inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (xestospongin C). NaHS significantly increased intracellular calcium concentrations, and this effect was attenuated by dantrolene or xestospongin C. NaHS induced phosphorylation of eNOS at the activating phosphoserine residue 1179. The NaHS-induced eNOS phosphorylation and NO production were not affected by a PI3K/Akt inhibitor (wortmannin). The data of this study suggest that H(2)S directly acts on endothelial cells to induce eNOS activation and NO production by releasing calcium from the intracellular store in endoplasmic reticulum, which may explain one of mechanisms of its vasodilator function.

Kida M; Sugiyama T; Yoshimoto T; Ogawa Y

2013-01-01

290

Prodigiosin induces the proapoptotic gene NAG-1 via glycogen synthase kinase-3beta activity in human breast cancer cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosene) is a bacterial metabolite that has anticancer and antimetastatic properties. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these abilities are not fully understood. Gene expression profiling of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 treated with prodigiosin was analyzed by cDNA array technology. The majority of the significantly modified genes were related to apoptosis, cell cycle, cellular adhesion, or transcription regulation. The dramatic increase of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene 1 (NAG-1) made this gene an interesting candidate regarding the possible mechanism by which prodigiosin induces cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. Our results show that prodigiosin triggers accumulation of the DNA-damage response tumor-suppressor protein p53 but that NAG-1 induction was independent of p53 accumulation. Moreover, prodigiosin caused AKT dephosphorylation and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) activation, which correlated with NAG-1 expression. Prodigiosin-induced apoptosis was recovered by inhibiting GSK-3beta, which might be due, at least in part, to the blockade of the GSK-3beta-dependent up-regulation of death receptors 4 and 5 expression. These findings suggest that prodigiosin-mediated GSK-3beta activation is a key event in regulating the molecular pathways that trigger the apoptosis induced by this anticancer agent.

Soto-Cerrato V; Viñals F; Lambert JR; Kelly JA; Pérez-Tomás R

2007-01-01

291

New procedures to measure synthase and phosphatase activities of bis-phosphoglycerate mutase. Interest for development of therapeutic drugs; Nouveaux procedes pour mesurer les activites synthase et phosphatase de la bisphosphoglycerate mutase. Interet pour le developpement de drogues therapeutiques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In red blood cells, a modulation of the level of the allosteric effector of hemoglobin, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) would have implications in the treatment of ischemia and sickle cell anemia. Its concentrations is determined by the relative activities of the synthase and phosphatase reactions of the multifunctional bis-phosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM). In this report we develop first a more direct synthase assay which uses glyceraldehyde phosphate to suppress the aldolase and triose phosphate isomerase reactions. Secondly we propose a radioactive phosphatase assay coupled to chromatographic separation and identification of the reaction products by paper electrophoresis. Such identification of these products allows us to show that the multifunctional BPGM expresses its mutase instead of its phosphatase activity in conditions of competition between the 3-phosphoglycerate and the 2-phospho-glycolate activator in the phosphatase reaction. These two more precise procedures could be used to study the effects of substrate and cofactor analogues regarding potential therapeutic approaches and could be used for clinical analyses to detect deficiency of BPGM. (author)

Ravel, P.; Garel, M.C. [Hopital Henri-Mondor, 94 - Creteil (France); Toullec, D. [Laboratoire Glaxo Wellcome, 91- Les Ulis (France)

1997-12-31

292

Malate dehydrogenase from Chlorobium vibrioforme, Chlorobium tepidum, and Heliobacterium gestii: purification, characterization, and investigation of dinucleotide binding by dehydrogenases by use of empirical methods of protein sequence analysis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC 1.1.1.37) from strain NCIB 8327 of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme was purified to homogeneity by triazine dye affinity chromatography followed by gel filtration. Purification of MDH gave an approximately 1,000-fold increase in specific activity and re...

Charnock, C; Refseth, U H; Sirevåg, R

293

L-Malate content in irradiated onions (Allium Cepa L.) cv. Valenciana sintetica 14  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of L-malate evaluation in control and irradiated onions, (v. 'Valenciana sintetica 14') and its correlation with sprouting cumulative values are reported. It was concluded that if on the 150th day of storage, the malate content reaches a maximum value and the sprouting is 1 per cent or less, then it would indicate that the samples have been irradiated. L-malate values are positively correlated to sprouting in control samples, while for irradiated ones correlation was negative. (author)

1987-01-01

294

Roles of AtpI and two YidC-type proteins from alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 in ATP synthase assembly and nonfermentative growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

AtpI, a membrane protein encoded by many bacterial atp operons, is reported to be necessary for c-ring oligomer formation during assembly of some ATP synthase complexes. We investigated chaperone functions of AtpI and compared them to those of AtpZ, a protein encoded by a gene upstream of atpI that has a role in magnesium acquisition at near-neutral pH, and of SpoIIIJ and YqjG, two YidC/OxaI/Alb3 family proteins, in alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4. A strain with a chromosomal deletion of atpI grew nonfermentatively, and its purified ATP synthase had a c-ring of normal size, indicating that AtpI is not absolutely required for ATP synthase function. However, deletion of atpI, but not atpZ, led to reduced stability of the ATP synthase rotor, reduced membrane association of the F(1) domain, reduced ATPase activity, and modestly reduced nonfermentative growth on malate at both pH 7.5 and 10.5. Both spoIIIJ and yqjG, but not atpI or atpZ, complemented a YidC-depleted Escherichia coli strain. Consistent with such overlapping functions, single deletions of spoIIIJ or yqjG in the alkaliphile did not affect membrane ATP synthase levels or activities, but functional specialization was indicated by YqjG and SpoIIIJ showing respectively greater roles in malate growth at pH 7.5 and 10.5. Expression of yqjG was elevated at pH 7.5 relative to that at pH 10.5 and in ?spoIIIJ strains, but it was lower than constitutive spoIIIJ expression. Deletion of atpZ caused the largest increase among the mutants in magnesium concentrations needed for pH 7.5 growth. The basis for this phenotype is not yet resolved. PMID:23123906

Liu, Jun; Hicks, David B; Krulwich, Terry A

2012-11-02

295

Roles of AtpI and two YidC-type proteins from alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 in ATP synthase assembly and nonfermentative growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AtpI, a membrane protein encoded by many bacterial atp operons, is reported to be necessary for c-ring oligomer formation during assembly of some ATP synthase complexes. We investigated chaperone functions of AtpI and compared them to those of AtpZ, a protein encoded by a gene upstream of atpI that has a role in magnesium acquisition at near-neutral pH, and of SpoIIIJ and YqjG, two YidC/OxaI/Alb3 family proteins, in alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4. A strain with a chromosomal deletion of atpI grew nonfermentatively, and its purified ATP synthase had a c-ring of normal size, indicating that AtpI is not absolutely required for ATP synthase function. However, deletion of atpI, but not atpZ, led to reduced stability of the ATP synthase rotor, reduced membrane association of the F(1) domain, reduced ATPase activity, and modestly reduced nonfermentative growth on malate at both pH 7.5 and 10.5. Both spoIIIJ and yqjG, but not atpI or atpZ, complemented a YidC-depleted Escherichia coli strain. Consistent with such overlapping functions, single deletions of spoIIIJ or yqjG in the alkaliphile did not affect membrane ATP synthase levels or activities, but functional specialization was indicated by YqjG and SpoIIIJ showing respectively greater roles in malate growth at pH 7.5 and 10.5. Expression of yqjG was elevated at pH 7.5 relative to that at pH 10.5 and in ?spoIIIJ strains, but it was lower than constitutive spoIIIJ expression. Deletion of atpZ caused the largest increase among the mutants in magnesium concentrations needed for pH 7.5 growth. The basis for this phenotype is not yet resolved.

Liu J; Hicks DB; Krulwich TA

2013-01-01

296

NOVEL SPINOSYN-PRODUCING POLYKETIDE SYNTHASES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides, biologically active spinosyns, hybrid spinosyn polyketide synthases capable of functioning in Saccharopolyspora spinosa to produce the spinosyns, and methods of controlling insects using the spinosyns.

BURNS LESLEY S; GRAUPNER PAUL R; LEWER PAUL; MARTIN CHRISTINE J; VOUSDEN WILLIAM A; WALDRON CLIVE; WILKINSON BARRIE

297

Novel spinosyn-producing polyketide synthases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides, biologically active spinosyns, hybrid spinosyn polyketide synthases capable of functioning in Saccharopolyspora spinosa to produce the spinosyns, and methods of controlling insects using the spinosyns.

BURNS LESLEY S; GRAUPNER PAUL R; LEWER PAUL; MARTIN CHRISTINE J; VOUSDEN WILLIAM A; WALDRON CLIVE; WILKINSON BARRIE

298

NOVEL SPINOSYN-PRODUCING POLYKETIDE SYNTHASES.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides, biologically active spinosyns, hybrid spinosyn polyketide synthases capable of functioning in Saccharopolyspora spinosa to produce the spinosyns, and methods of controlling insects using the spinosyns.

BARRIE WILKINSON

299

Disruption of ATCSLD5 results in reduced growth, reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity and altered xylan occurrence in Arabidopsis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Members of a large family of cellulose synthase-like genes (CSLs) are predicted to encode glycosyl transferases (GTs) involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell walls. The CSLA and CSLF families are known to contain mannan and glucan synthases, respectively, but the products of other CSLs are unknown. Here we report the effects of disrupting ATCSLD5 expression in Arabidopsis. Both stem and root growth were significantly reduced in ATCSLD5 knock-out plants, and these plants also had increased susceptibility to the cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben. Antibody and carbohydrate-binding module labelling indicated a reduction in the level of xylan in stems, and in vitro GT assays using microsomes from stems revealed that ATCSLD5 knock-out plants also had reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity. Expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of ATCSLD5 and ATCSLD3, fluorescently tagged at either the C- or the N-terminal, indicated that these GTs are likely to be localized in the Golgi apparatus. However, the position of the fluorescent tag affected the subcellular localization of both proteins. The work presented provides a comprehensive analysis of the effects of disrupting ATCSLD5 in planta, and the possible role(s) of this gene and other ATCSLDs in cell wall biosynthesis are discussed.

Bernal Giraldo, Adriana Jimena; Jensen, Jacob Krüger

2007-01-01

300

Leukotoxin, 9,10-epoxy-12-octadecenoate causes edematous lung injury via activation of vascular nitric oxide synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the mechanism of leukotoxin, 9,10-epoxy-12-octadecenoate (Lx)-induced lung injury in blood-free, physiological salt solution-perfused rat lungs under constant flow conditions. Mean pulmonary arterial (Ppa) and pulmonary capillary pressure (Pcap, estimated by the double-occlusion method), wet lung weight (WLW), pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), lung perfusate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and nitrite levels were assessed. Bolus injection of Lx (200 microM) caused insidious and significant lung weight gain, which was not associated with remarkable elevation of Ppa or Pcap but was associated with an increase of perfusate LDH activity and nitrite levels. Lx (20 microM) elevated Kfc, indicating that Lx had affected pulmonary vascular permeability. Because Lx causes endothelium dependent pulmonary vasodilation, we studied the effect of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), NG-monomethyl-D-arginine (D-NMMA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), human oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb), and methylene blue (MB) on Lx-induced lung injury. L-NMMA, SOD, and oxyHb, but not MB or D-NMMA, protected the lungs against Lx (200 microM)-induced injury. Lx increased pulmonary vascular permeability and caused lung injury. Because both nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and SOD inhibited the Lx-induced lung injury, it is possible that peroxynitrite is involved in the mechanism whereby Lx causes lung injury.

Ishizaki T; Shigemori K; Nakai T; Miyabo S; Ozawa T; Chang SW; Voelkel NF

1995-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Intracellular Rescue of the Uroporphyrinogen III Synthase Activity in Enzymes Carrying the Hotspot Mutation C73R*  

Science.gov (United States)

A single mutation (C73R) in the enzyme uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROIIIS) is responsible for more than one-third of all of the reported cases of the rare autosomal disease congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP). CEP patients carrying this hotspot mutation develop a severe phenotype of the disease, including reduced life expectancy. Here, we have investigated the molecular basis for the functional deficit in the mutant enzyme both in vitro and in cellular systems. We show that a Cys in position 73 is not essential for the catalytic activity of the enzyme but its mutation to Arg speeds up the process of irreversible unfolding and aggregation. In the mammalian cell milieu, the mutant protein levels decrease to below the detection limit, whereas wild type UROIIIS can be detected easily. The disparate response is not produced by differences at the level of transcription, and the results with cultured cells and in vitro are consistent with a model where the protein becomes very unstable upon mutation and triggers a degradation mechanism via the proteasome. Mutant protein levels can be restored upon cell treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. The intracellularly recovered C73R-UROIIIS protein shows enzymatic activity, paving the way for a new line of therapeutic intervention in CEP patients.

Fortian, Arola; Gonzalez, Esperanza; Castano, David; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.; Millet, Oscar

2011-01-01

302

High-performance liquid chromatography method with radiochemical detection for measurement of nitric oxide synthase, arginase, and arginine decarboxylase activities.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nitric oxide has been shown to be involved in numerous biological processes, and many studies have aimed to measure nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Recently, it has been demonstrated that arginase and arginine decarboxylase (ADC), two enzymes that also employ arginine as a substrate, may regulate NOS activity. We aimed to develop a HPLC-based method to measure simultaneously the products of these three enzymes. Traditionally, the separation of amino acids and related compounds with HPLC has been carried out with precolumn derivatization and reverse phase chromatography. We describe here a simple and fast HPLC method with radiochemical detection to separate radiolabeled L-arginine, L-citrulline, L-ornithine, and agmatine. 3H-labeled L-arginine, L-citrulline, agmatine, and 14C-labeled L-citrulline were used as standards. These compounds were separated in the normal phase column (Allure Acidix 250 x 4.6 mm i.d.) under isocratic conditions in less than 20 min with good sensitivity. Using the current method,we have shown the formation of L-citrulline and L-ornithine in vitro using brain tissue homogenate of rats and that of agmatine by Escherichia coli ADC. Udgivelsesdato: null-null

Volke, A; Wegener, Gregers

2006-01-01

303

Implications of binding mode and active site flexibility for inhibitor potency against the salicylate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

MbtI is the salicylate synthase that catalyzes the first committed step in the synthesis of the iron chelating compound mycobactin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We previously developed a series of aromatic inhibitors against MbtI based on the reaction intermediate for this enzyme, isochorismate. The most potent of these inhibitors had hydrophobic substituents, ranging in size from a methyl to a phenyl group, appended to the terminal alkene of the enolpyruvyl group. These compounds exhibited low micromolar inhibition constants against MbtI and were at least an order of magnitude more potent than the parental compound for the series, which carries a native enolpyruvyl group. In this study, we sought to understand how the substituted enolpyruvyl group confers greater potency, by determining cocrystal structures of MbtI with six inhibitors from the series. A switch in binding mode at the MbtI active site is observed for inhibitors carrying a substituted enolpyruvyl group, relative to the parental compound. Computational studies suggest that the change in binding mode, and higher potency, is due to the effect of the substituents on the conformational landscape of the core inhibitor structure. The crystal structures and fluorescence-based thermal shift assays indicate that substituents larger than a methyl group are accommodated in the MbtI active site through significant but localized flexibility in the peptide backbone. These findings have implications for the design of improved inhibitors of MbtI, as well as other chorismate-utilizing enzymes from this family. PMID:22607697

Chi, Gamma; Manos-Turvey, Alexandra; O'Connor, Patrick D; Johnston, Jodie M; Evans, Genevieve L; Baker, Edward N; Payne, Richard J; Lott, J Shaun; Bulloch, Esther M M

2012-06-07

304

Implications of binding mode and active site flexibility for inhibitor potency against the salicylate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

MbtI is the salicylate synthase that catalyzes the first committed step in the synthesis of the iron chelating compound mycobactin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We previously developed a series of aromatic inhibitors against MbtI based on the reaction intermediate for this enzyme, isochorismate. The most potent of these inhibitors had hydrophobic substituents, ranging in size from a methyl to a phenyl group, appended to the terminal alkene of the enolpyruvyl group. These compounds exhibited low micromolar inhibition constants against MbtI and were at least an order of magnitude more potent than the parental compound for the series, which carries a native enolpyruvyl group. In this study, we sought to understand how the substituted enolpyruvyl group confers greater potency, by determining cocrystal structures of MbtI with six inhibitors from the series. A switch in binding mode at the MbtI active site is observed for inhibitors carrying a substituted enolpyruvyl group, relative to the parental compound. Computational studies suggest that the change in binding mode, and higher potency, is due to the effect of the substituents on the conformational landscape of the core inhibitor structure. The crystal structures and fluorescence-based thermal shift assays indicate that substituents larger than a methyl group are accommodated in the MbtI active site through significant but localized flexibility in the peptide backbone. These findings have implications for the design of improved inhibitors of MbtI, as well as other chorismate-utilizing enzymes from this family.

Chi G; Manos-Turvey A; O'Connor PD; Johnston JM; Evans GL; Baker EN; Payne RJ; Lott JS; Bulloch EM

2012-06-01

305

FRET reveals changes in the F1-stator stalk interaction during activity of F1F0-ATP synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A stator is proposed as necessary to prevent futile rotation of the F(1) catalytic sector of mitochondrial ATP synthase (mtATPase) during periods of ATP synthesis or ATP hydrolysis. Although the second stalk of mtATPase is generally believed to fulfil the role of a stator capable of withstanding the stress produced by rotation of the central rotor, there is little evidence to directly support this view. We show that interaction between two candidate proteins of the second stalk, OSCP and subunit b, fused at their C-termini to GFP variants and assembled into functional mtATPase can be monitored in mitochondria using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Substitution of native OSCP with a variant containing a glycine 166 to asparagine (G166N) substitution yielded a metastable complex. In contrast to the enzyme containing native OSCP, FRET could be irreversibly lowered for the enzyme containing G166N at a rate that correlated closely with the rate of enzyme activity (ATP hydrolysis). The non-hydrolysable ATP analogue, AMP-PCP did not have this effect. We conclude that two candidate proteins of the stator stalk, OSCP and b, are subject to stresses during enzyme catalytic activity commensurate with their role as a part of a stator stalk.

Gavin PD; Devenish RJ; Prescott M

2003-12-01

306

FRET reveals changes in the F1-stator stalk interaction during activity of F1F0-ATP synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

A stator is proposed as necessary to prevent futile rotation of the F(1) catalytic sector of mitochondrial ATP synthase (mtATPase) during periods of ATP synthesis or ATP hydrolysis. Although the second stalk of mtATPase is generally believed to fulfil the role of a stator capable of withstanding the stress produced by rotation of the central rotor, there is little evidence to directly support this view. We show that interaction between two candidate proteins of the second stalk, OSCP and subunit b, fused at their C-termini to GFP variants and assembled into functional mtATPase can be monitored in mitochondria using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Substitution of native OSCP with a variant containing a glycine 166 to asparagine (G166N) substitution yielded a metastable complex. In contrast to the enzyme containing native OSCP, FRET could be irreversibly lowered for the enzyme containing G166N at a rate that correlated closely with the rate of enzyme activity (ATP hydrolysis). The non-hydrolysable ATP analogue, AMP-PCP did not have this effect. We conclude that two candidate proteins of the stator stalk, OSCP and b, are subject to stresses during enzyme catalytic activity commensurate with their role as a part of a stator stalk. PMID:14670607

Gavin, Paul D; Devenish, Rodney J; Prescott, Mark

2003-12-01

307

UDP-( sup 14 C)glucose-labelable polypeptides from pea: Possible components of glucan synthase I activity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A membrane-bound polypeptide doublet of about 40 kD can be rapidly labeled with UDP-({sup 14}C)glucose under the assay conditions for glucan synthase I (GS-I). Label seems covalently bound, and chases when unlabeled UDPG is added; it might represent a covalent intermediate in polysaccharide synthesis. Labeling and GS-I activity show several common features: they co-sediment with Golgi membranes in sucrose gradients; they depend similarly on Mg{sup 2+} or Mn{sup 2+} (not Ca{sup 2+}); they decrease dramatically from stem apex to base, and are higher in epidermis than internal tissue; they show similar sensitivities to several inhibitors. But the doublet still labels after polysaccharide-synthesizing activity has been destroyed by Triton X-100. The doublet polypeptides might be glucosyl tranferases whose ability to transfer glucose units to a glucan chain is detergent-sensitive, but to accept glucose from UDPG is not; or they might be detergent-insensitive primary glucose acceptors, from which a distinct, detergent-sensitive transferase(s) move(s) these units to glucan chains.

Ray, P.M.; Dhugga, K.S.; Gallaghar, S.R. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA))

1989-04-01

308

Suicide prodrugs activated by thymidylate synthase: rationale for treatment and noninvasive imaging of tumors with deoxyuridine analogues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most tumors are resistant to therapy by thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitors due to their high levels of TS. Instead of inhibiting TS, we hypothesized that it was possible to use this enzyme to activate suicide prodrugs (deoxyuridine analogues) to more toxic species (thymidine analogues). Tumors with high levels of TS could be particularly sensitive to deoxyuridine analogues because they would be more efficient in producing the toxic methylated species. Furthermore, the accumulation of methylated species within tumors could be visualized externally if a tracer dose of the deoxyuridine analogue was tagged with an isotope, preferably a positron emitter, such as 18F. Higher accumulation of isotope indicates higher activity of TS and lower sensitivity of the tumor to TS inhibitors, but perhaps more sensitivity to therapy with deoxyuridine analogues as suicide prodrugs. 2'-F-ara-deoxyuridine (FAU) was used as a prototype to demonstrate these concepts experimentally. FAU readily entered cells and was phosphorylated, methylated, and subsequently incorporated into cellular DNA. Among different cell lines, FAU produced varying degrees of growth inhibition. Greater DNA incorporation (e.g., for CEM and U-937 cells) was reflected as increased toxicity. FAU produced less DNA incorporation in Raji or L1210 cells, and growth rate was minimally decreased. As the first demonstration that cells with high levels of TS activity can be more vulnerable to therapy than cells with low TS activity, this preliminary work suggests a new therapeutic approach for common human tumors that were previously resistant. Furthermore, it appears that the TS activity of tumors could be noninvasively imaged in situ by tracer doses of [18F]FAU and that this phenotypic information could guide patient therapy.

Collins JM; Klecker RW; Katki AG

1999-08-01

309

High blood pressure enhances brain stem neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aims of the present study were to determine the mechanism underlying enhanced neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity in the brain of hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats and the consequences of enhanced nNOS activity. Male DSS rats were fed either a regular (0.4% NaCl) or high-salt (8% NaCl) diet, with or without 0.25% nifedipine, for 4 weeks. The effects of nifedipine, which lowers blood pressure peripherally, on central nNOS were determined by measuring nNOS activity, as well as the number of nNOS-positive neurons in the brain stem and diencephalon. The effects of chronic (12 days) infusion of 7 ?g (0.5 ?L/h, i.c.v.) S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC; a stereoselective competitive nNOS inhibitor) on mean arterial pressure were assessed in conscious DSS rats using a radiotelemetry system. In addition, the number of central nNOS-positive neurons was compared between DSS and salt-insensitive Sprague-Dawley rats. Normalization of blood pressure by nifedipine attenuated the increase in nNOS activity in the brain stem of DSS rats. Chronic i.c.v. infusion of SMTC further enhanced hypertension in DSS rats. Feeding of a high-salt diet increased nNOS-positive neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus, rostral ventrolateral medulla and nucleus tractus solitarius of DSS compared with Sprague-Dawley rats, whereas nNOS-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus remained downregulated in DSS rats. The results of the present study suggest that hypertension, rather than a high-salt diet, increases central nNOS activity in hypertensive DSS rats to buffer high blood pressure. However, this compensatory response may be insufficient to relieve salt-induced hypertension.

Tandai-Hiruma M; Kato K; Kemuriyama T; Ohta H; Tashiro A; Hagisawa K; Nishida Y

2013-03-01

310

[The changes of inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and apoptosis-related gene expression in endotoxemia-induced rat diaphragm].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To study the changes of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and apoptosis-related genes Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 mRNA expressions in endotoxemia-induced rat diaphragm injury and analyze the related apoptosis mechanism. METHODS: Thirty-two male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 8): control group (saline 0.5 ml ip), endotoxin 24 h, 48 h and 96 h group (endotoxin 12 mg/kg ip, animals were killed either 24, 48 or 96 h after injections). Body weight were measured, the ratio between diaphragm weight and body weight, activities of constitutive nitric oxide syntheses (cNOS), iNOS and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) were also measured. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 mRNA were detected by RT-PCR analysis. RESULTS: Endotoxin induced significant reductions in diaphragm mass in endotoxin 96 h group (P < 0.05). Endotoxin increased diaphragm cNOS or iNOS activities, and they were significantly higher in endotoxin 96 h group than those in endotoxin 24 h and 48 h groups, diaphragm SDH activity was reduced, and it was lower in endotoxin 96 h group than that in endotoxin 24 h and 48 h groups (P < 0.01). Endotoxin significantly increased Bax and caspase-3 mRNA expressions, and they were higher in endotoxin 48 h and 96 h groups than those in endotoxin 24 h group (P < 0.01). Endotoxin significantly reduced Bcl-2 mRNA expression and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and they were lower in endotoxin 48 h and 96 h groups than those in endotoxin 24 h group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: iNOS is activated in endotoxemia-induced rat diaphragm injury. It damages mitochondria, upregulates Bax expression and downregulates Bcl-2 expression, then induces caspase-3 related apoptotic pathway. These changes may cause diaphragm injury and atrophy.

Fang YY; Guan SD; Guo XL; Ye HW; Wang HX; Gao Q

2013-05-01

311

Identification of novel protein domains required for the expression of an active dehydratase fragment from a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are made in some strains of deep-sea bacteria by multidomain proteins that catalyze condensation, ketoreduction, dehydration, and enoyl-reduction. In this work, we have used the Udwary-Merski Algorithm sequence analysis tool to define the boundaries that enclose the dehydratase (DH) domains in a PUFA multienzyme. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of four areas of high structure in a region that was previously thought to contain only two DH domains as defined by FabA-homology. The expression of the protein fragment containing all four protein domains resulted in an active enzyme, while shorter protein fragments were not soluble. The tetradomain fragment was capable of catalyzing the conversion of crotonyl-CoA to ?-hydroxybutyryl-CoA efficiently, as shown by UV absorbance change as well as by chromatographic retention of reaction products. Sequence alignments showed that the two novel domains contain as much sequence conservation as the FabA-homology domains, suggesting that they too may play a functional role in the overall reaction. Structure predictions revealed that all domains belong to the hotdog protein family: two of them contain the active site His70 residue present in FabA-like DHs, while the remaining two do not. Replacing the active site His residues in both FabA domains for Ala abolished the activity of the tetradomain fragment, indicating that the DH activity is contained within the FabA-homology regions. Taken together, these results provide a first glimpse into a rare arrangement of DH domains which constitute a defining feature of the PUFA synthases.

Oyola-Robles D; Gay DC; Trujillo U; Sánchez-Parés JM; Bermúdez ML; Rivera-Díaz M; Carballeira NM; Baerga-Ortiz A

2013-07-01

312

Activation of ceramide synthase 6 by celecoxib leads to a selective induction of C16:0-ceramide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ceramides serve as bioactive molecules with important roles in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Ceramides (Cer) with different N-acyl side chains (C(14:0)-Cer-C(26:0)-Cer) possess distinctive roles in cell signaling and are differentially expressed in HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, exhibiting antiproliferative effects, activates the sphingolipid pathway. To elucidate the mechanism, HCT-116 cells were treated with 50?M celecoxib leading to a significant increase of C(16:0)-Cer. Interestingly, 50?M celecoxib resulted in a 2.8-fold increase of ceramide synthase (CerS) activity as measured by a cell-based activity assay. siRNA against several CerSs revealed that CerS6 was predominantly responsible for the increase of C(16:0)-Cer in HCT-116 cells. Moreover, the silencing of CerS6 partially protected HCT-116 cells from the toxic effects induced by celecoxib. Treatment of cells with celecoxib and fumonisin B1 (inhibitor of CerSs) or myriocin (inhibitor of l-serine palmitoyl transferase) or desipramine (inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase and acid ceramidase) revealed that the increase of C(16:0)-Cer results predominantly from activation of the salvage pathway. Using the nude mouse model we demonstrated that celecoxib induces also in vivo a significant increase of C(16:0)-Cer in stomach, small intestine and tumor tissue. In conclusion, celecoxib causes a specific increase of C(16:0)-Cer by activating CerS6 and the salvage pathway, which contribute to the toxic effects of celecoxib.

Schiffmann S; Ziebell S; Sandner J; Birod K; Deckmann K; Hartmann D; Rode S; Schmidt H; Angioni C; Geisslinger G; Grösch S

2010-12-01

313

Activation of ceramide synthase 6 by celecoxib leads to a selective induction of C16:0-ceramide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ceramides serve as bioactive molecules with important roles in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Ceramides (Cer) with different N-acyl side chains (C(14:0)-Cer-C(26:0)-Cer) possess distinctive roles in cell signaling and are differentially expressed in HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, exhibiting antiproliferative effects, activates the sphingolipid pathway. To elucidate the mechanism, HCT-116 cells were treated with 50?M celecoxib leading to a significant increase of C(16:0)-Cer. Interestingly, 50?M celecoxib resulted in a 2.8-fold increase of ceramide synthase (CerS) activity as measured by a cell-based activity assay. siRNA against several CerSs revealed that CerS6 was predominantly responsible for the increase of C(16:0)-Cer in HCT-116 cells. Moreover, the silencing of CerS6 partially protected HCT-116 cells from the toxic effects induced by celecoxib. Treatment of cells with celecoxib and fumonisin B1 (inhibitor of CerSs) or myriocin (inhibitor of l-serine palmitoyl transferase) or desipramine (inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase and acid ceramidase) revealed that the increase of C(16:0)-Cer results predominantly from activation of the salvage pathway. Using the nude mouse model we demonstrated that celecoxib induces also in vivo a significant increase of C(16:0)-Cer in stomach, small intestine and tumor tissue. In conclusion, celecoxib causes a specific increase of C(16:0)-Cer by activating CerS6 and the salvage pathway, which contribute to the toxic effects of celecoxib. PMID:20735991

Schiffmann, Susanne; Ziebell, Simone; Sandner, Jessica; Birod, Kerstin; Deckmann, Klaus; Hartmann, Daniela; Rode, Sina; Schmidt, Helmut; Angioni, Carlo; Geisslinger, Gerd; Grösch, Sabine

2010-08-22

314

Mg2+ binds to the surface of thymidylate synthase and affects hydride transfer at the interior active site.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thymidylate synthase (TSase) produces the sole intracellular de novo source of thymidine (i.e., the DNA base T) and thus is a common target for antibiotic and anticancer drugs. Mg(2+) has been reported to affect TSase activity, but the mechanism of this interaction has not been investigated. Here we show that Mg(2+) binds to the surface of Escherichia coli TSase and affects the kinetics of hydride transfer at the interior active site (16 Å away). Examination of the crystal structures identifies a Mg(2+) near the glutamyl moiety of the folate cofactor, providing the first structural evidence for Mg(2+) binding to TSase. The kinetics and NMR relaxation experiments suggest that the weak binding of Mg(2+) to the protein surface stabilizes the closed conformation of the ternary enzyme complex and reduces the entropy of activation on the hydride transfer step. Mg(2+) accelerates the hydride transfer by ~7-fold but does not affect the magnitude or temperature dependence of the intrinsic kinetic isotope effect. These results suggest that Mg(2+) facilitates the protein motions that bring the hydride donor and acceptor together, but it does not change the tunneling ready state of the hydride transfer. These findings highlight how variations in cellular Mg(2+) concentration can modulate enzyme activity through long-range interactions in the protein, rather than binding at the active site. The interaction of Mg(2+) with the glutamyl tail of the folate cofactor and nonconserved residues of bacterial TSase may assist in designing antifolates with polyglutamyl substitutes as species-specific antibiotic drugs.

Wang Z; Sapienza PJ; Abeysinghe T; Luzum C; Lee AL; Finer-Moore JS; Stroud RM; Kohen A

2013-05-01

315

Unsaturated fatty acids are the active molecules of a glucan-synthase-inhibitory fraction isolated from entomophthoralean protoplasts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A few entomophthoralean species are able to multiply in a protoplast form. The polysaccharide synthases which synthesize the cell wall are inactivated in this form. An inhibitor of one of the key enzymes of wall synthesis, glucan synthase, was isolated from entomophthoralean protoplasts, using silica column chromatography and HPLC. Thin-layer and gas chromatography revealed free fatty acids in the inhibitory fractions. These fatty acids, including long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, were shown to be responsible for the inhibition of glucan synthase. The fatty acids were generated during incubation of a protoplast homogenate for 36 h at 37 degrees C and were shown to be non-competitive and non-specific inhibitors of glucan synthase.

Mackichan J; Thomsen L; Kerwin J; Latgé JP; Beauvais A

1995-10-01

316

Computational determination of fundamental pathway and activation barriers for acetohydroxyacid synthase-catalyzed condensation reactions of alpha-keto acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) is the first common enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the production of various branched-chain amino acids. AHAS is recognized as a promising target for new antituberculosis drugs, antibacterial drugs, and herbicides. Extensive first-principles quantum mechanical (QM) and hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations have enabled us, in this study, to uncover the fundamental reaction pathway, determine the activation barriers, and obtain valuable insights concerning the specific roles of key amino acid residues for the common steps of AHAS-catalyzed condensation reactions of alpha-keto acids. The computational results reveal that the rate-determining step of the AHAS-catalyzed reactions is the second reaction step and that the most important amino acid residues involved in the catalysis include Glu144', Gln207', Gly121', and Gly511 that form favorable hydrogen bonds with the reaction center (consisting of atoms from the substrate and cofactor) during the reaction process. In addition, Glu144' also accepts a proton from cofactor thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) through hydrogen bonding during the catalytic reaction. The favorable interactions between the reaction center and protein environment remarkably stabilize the transition state and, thus, lower the activation barrier for the rate-determining reaction step by approximately 20 kcal/mol. The activation barrier calculated for the rate-determining step is in good agreement with the experimental activation barrier. The detailed structural and mechanistic insights should be valuable for rational design of novel, potent AHAS inhibitors that may be used as promising new anti-tuberculosis drugs, antibacterial drugs, and/or herbicides to overcome drug resistance problem.

Xiong Y; Liu J; Yang GF; Zhan CG

2010-06-01

317

Polymer grafting by polysaccharide synthases using artificial sugar acceptors  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to methodology for polymer grafting by a polysaccharide synthase and, more particularly, polymer grafting using the glycosaminoglycan synthases from Pasteurella multocida. The methodology of the present invention includes providing an enzymatically active glycosaminoglycan synthase enzyme from Pasteurella multocida, providing a synthetic, artificial acceptor for the glycosaminoglycan synthase enzyme; combining the synthetic, artificial acceptor with the glycosaminoglycan synthase enzyme within a reaction medium, wherein the reaction medium contains at least one sugar precursor selected from the group consisting of UDP-GlcA, UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GalNAc, and reacting the glycosaminoglycan synthase enzyme with the synthetic, artificial acceptor to produce an oligosaccharide or polysaccharide polymer.The glycosaminoglycan synthase enzyme may be hyaluronan synthase, chondroitin synthase, or heparosan synthase from P. multocida, and the oligosaccharide or polysaccharide polymer may be hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan), chondroitin, heparosan, or combinations thereof.

DEANGELIS PAUL L

318

Monitoring the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in brain tissue and cells with a potentiometric immunosensor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An all solid state potentiometric immunosensor (ASPI) has been developed to study the activation process of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the enzyme involved in the synthesis of nitric oxide generated under physiological conditions. At first, an all solid state H(+)-selective ISE was fabricated with the carboxylated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-COOH) film containing H(+) ionophore, antibody was then immobilized on the polymer layer. The immunocomplex formation was detected by monitoring pH change due to interaction between urease labeled secondary antibody and antigen. Experimental parameters such as the amount of phosphorylated nNOS immobilized on the electrode surface and pH responses due to the antibody-antigen reaction were studied in detail. The calibration plot of the potentiometric potential vs. phosphorylated nNOS concentration exhibited a linear relationship in the range of 3.4-340.0 microg/ml. The calibration sensitivity of the phosphorylated nNOS immunosensor was -0.073+/-0.002 mV/microg ml(-1). The detection limit of nNOS was determined to be 0.2 microg/ml based on five-time measurements (95% confidence level, k=3, n=5). The reliability of the immunosensor was examined with rat brain tissues as well as neuronal cells, and the results shown were good, implying a promising approach for a novel electrochemical immunosensor platform with potential applications to clinical diagnosis.

Koh WC; Choe ES; Lee DK; Chang SC; Shim YB

2009-09-01

319

Adaptations in capillarization and citrate synthase activity in response to endurance training in older and young men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The time-course of adaptation in cardiorespiratory fitness, measures of capillarization, and citrate synthase (CS) activity were examined in seven older (O; 69 ± 7 years) and seven young (Y; 22 ± 1 years) men pre-, mid-, and posttraining during a 12-week endurance training program. Training was performed on a cycle ergometer three times per week for 45 minutes at ~70% of maximal VO(2) (VO(2max)). VO(2max) and maximal cardiac output increased similarly from pre- to posttraining in O and Y (p < .05), and maximal a-vO(2diff) was greater (p < .05) posttraining in O and Y. CS was elevated at mid- and posttraining compared with pretraining in both O and Y (p < .05). Indices of capillarization increased 30%-40% in O and 20%-30% in Y and were elevated at posttraining compared with pre- and midtraining in both groups (p < .05). This study showed that both O and Y undertaking similar endurance training displayed capillary angiogenesis and improved mitochondrial respiratory capacity.

Murias JM; Kowalchuk JM; Ritchie D; Hepple RT; Doherty TJ; Paterson DH

2011-09-01

320

The structure of the Mycobacterium smegmatis trehalose synthase reveals an unusual active site configuration and acarbose-binding mode.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trehalose synthase (TreS) catalyzes the reversible conversion of maltose into trehalose in mycobacteria as one of three biosynthetic pathways to this nonreducing disaccharide. Given the importance of trehalose to survival of mycobacteria, there has been considerable interest in understanding the enzymes involved in its production; indeed the structures of the key enzymes in the other two pathways have already been determined. Herein, we present the first structure of TreS from Mycobacterium smegmatis, thereby providing insights into the catalytic machinery involved in this intriguing intramolecular reaction. This structure, which is of interest both mechanistically and as a potential pharmaceutical target, reveals a narrow and enclosed active site pocket within which intramolecular substrate rearrangements can occur. We also present the structure of a complex of TreS with acarbose, revealing a hitherto unsuspected oligosaccharide-binding site within the C-terminal domain. This may well provide an anchor point for the association of TreS with glycogen, thereby enhancing its role in glycogen biosynthesis and degradation. PMID:23735230

Caner, Sami; Nguyen, Nham; Aguda, Adeleke; Zhang, Ran; Pan, Yuan T; Withers, Stephen G; Brayer, Gary D

2013-06-04

 
 
 
 
321

The structure of the Mycobacterium smegmatis trehalose synthase reveals an unusual active site configuration and acarbose-binding mode.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Trehalose synthase (TreS) catalyzes the reversible conversion of maltose into trehalose in mycobacteria as one of three biosynthetic pathways to this nonreducing disaccharide. Given the importance of trehalose to survival of mycobacteria, there has been considerable interest in understanding the enzymes involved in its production; indeed the structures of the key enzymes in the other two pathways have already been determined. Herein, we present the first structure of TreS from Mycobacterium smegmatis, thereby providing insights into the catalytic machinery involved in this intriguing intramolecular reaction. This structure, which is of interest both mechanistically and as a potential pharmaceutical target, reveals a narrow and enclosed active site pocket within which intramolecular substrate rearrangements can occur. We also present the structure of a complex of TreS with acarbose, revealing a hitherto unsuspected oligosaccharide-binding site within the C-terminal domain. This may well provide an anchor point for the association of TreS with glycogen, thereby enhancing its role in glycogen biosynthesis and degradation.

Caner S; Nguyen N; Aguda A; Zhang R; Pan YT; Withers SG; Brayer GD

2013-09-01

322

Improving the glycosyltransferase activity of Agrobacterium tumefaciens glycogen synthase by fusion of N-terminal starch binding domains (SBDs).  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycogen and starch, the major storage carbohydrate in most living organisms, result mainly from the action of starch or glycogen synthases (SS or GS, respectively, EC 2.4.1.21). SSIII from Arabidopsis thaliana is an SS isoform with a particular modular organization: the C-terminal highly conserved glycosyltransferase domain is preceded by a unique specific region (SSIII-SD) which contains three in tandem starch binding domains (SBDs, named D1, D2 and D3) characteristic of polysaccharide degrading enzymes. N-terminal SBDs have a probed regulatory role in SSIII activity, showing starch binding ability and modulating the catalytic properties of the enzyme. On the other hand, GS from Agrobacterium tumefaciens has a simple primary structure organization, characterized only by the highly conserved glycosyltransferase domain and lacking SBDs. To further investigate the functional role of A. thaliana SSIII-SD, three chimeric proteins were constructed combining the SBDs from A. thaliana with the GS from A. tumefaciens. Recombinant proteins were expressed in and purified to homogeneity from Escherichia coli cells in order to be kinetically characterized. Furthermore, we tested the ability to restore in vivo glycogen biosynthesis in transformed E. coli glgA(-) cells, deficient in GS. Results show that the D3-GS chimeric enzyme showed increased capacity of glycogen synthesis in vivo with minor changes in its kinetics parameters compared to GS. PMID:23796574

Martín, Mariana; Wayllace, Nahuel Z; Valdez, Hugo A; Gomez-Casati, Diego F; Busi, María V

2013-06-21

323

Formation of a stable and catalytically active complex of the two essential components of hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase from Micrococcus luteus B-P 26.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Formation of a stable complex of the two essential components of hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase from Micrococcus luteus B-P 26, which represents the catalytically active state of this enzyme, is observed in the presence of a relatively high concentrations of inorganic pyrophosphate or one of the substrates, isopentenyl diphosphate or farnesyl diphosphate. The apparent molecular mass of the complex is estimated to be about 50 kDa by gel filtration with Superose 12.

Yoshida I; Koyama T; Ogura K

1989-04-01

324

5-Enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli. Identification of Lys-22 as a potential active site residue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

5-Enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase catalyzes the reversible condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate and shikimate 3-phosphate to yield 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate and inorganic phosphate. The enzyme is a target for the nonselective herbicide glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine). In order to determine the role of lysine residues in the mechanism of action of this enzyme as well as in its inhibition by glyphosate, chemical modification studies with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate were undertaken. Incubation of the enzyme with the reagent in the absence of light resulted in a time-dependent loss of enzyme activity. The inactivation followed pseudo first-order and saturation kinetics with Kinact of 45 microM and a maximum rate constant of 1.1 min-1. The inactivation rate increased with increase in pH, with a titratable pK of 7.6. Activity of the inactive enzyme was restored by addition of amino thiol compounds. Reaction of enzyme with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was prevented in the presence of substrates or substrate plus glyphosate, an inhibitor of the enzyme. Upon 90% inactivation, approximately 1 mol of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was incorporated per mol of enzyme. The azomethine linkage between pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and the enzyme was reduced by NaB3H4. Tryptic digestion followed by reverse phase chromatographic separation resulted in the isolation of a peptide which contained the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate moiety as well as 3H label. By amino acid sequencing of this peptide, the modified residue was identified as Lys-22. The amino acid sequence around Lys-22 is conserved in bacterial, fungal, as well as plant enzymes suggesting that this region may constitute a part of the enzyme's active site.

Huynh QK; Kishore GM; Bild GS

1988-01-01

325

5-Enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli. Identification of Lys-22 as a potential active site residue.  

Science.gov (United States)

5-Enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase catalyzes the reversible condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate and shikimate 3-phosphate to yield 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate and inorganic phosphate. The enzyme is a target for the nonselective herbicide glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine). In order to determine the role of lysine residues in the mechanism of action of this enzyme as well as in its inhibition by glyphosate, chemical modification studies with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate were undertaken. Incubation of the enzyme with the reagent in the absence of light resulted in a time-dependent loss of enzyme activity. The inactivation followed pseudo first-order and saturation kinetics with Kinact of 45 microM and a maximum rate constant of 1.1 min-1. The inactivation rate increased with increase in pH, with a titratable pK of 7.6. Activity of the inactive enzyme was restored by addition of amino thiol compounds. Reaction of enzyme with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was prevented in the presence of substrates or substrate plus glyphosate, an inhibitor of the enzyme. Upon 90% inactivation, approximately 1 mol of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was incorporated per mol of enzyme. The azomethine linkage between pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and the enzyme was reduced by NaB3H4. Tryptic digestion followed by reverse phase chromatographic separation resulted in the isolation of a peptide which contained the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate moiety as well as 3H label. By amino acid sequencing of this peptide, the modified residue was identified as Lys-22. The amino acid sequence around Lys-22 is conserved in bacterial, fungal, as well as plant enzymes suggesting that this region may constitute a part of the enzyme's active site. PMID:3121621

Huynh, Q K; Kishore, G M; Bild, G S

1988-01-15

326

Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon) and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of fatty-acid synthase gene (FASN).  

Science.gov (United States)

FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a proto-oncogenic transcription factor of the BTB/POZ (bric-à-brac, tramtrack, and broad complex and pox virus zinc finger) domain family. Recent evidence suggested that FBI-1 might be involved in adipogenic gene expression. Coincidentally, expression of FBI-1 and fatty-acid synthase (FASN) genes are often increased in cancer and immortalized cells. Both FBI-1 and FASN are important in cancer cell proliferation. SREBP-1 is a major regulator of many adipogenic genes, and FBI-1 and SREBP-1 (sterol-responsive element (SRE)-binding protein 1) interact with each other directly via their DNA binding domains. FBI-1 enhanced the transcriptional activation of SREBP-1 on responsive promoters, pGL2-6x(SRE)-Luc and FASN gene. FBI-1 and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of the FASN gene by acting on the proximal GC-box and SRE/E-box. FBI-1, Sp1, and SREBP-1 can bind to all three SRE, GC-box, and SRE/E-box. Binding competition among the three transcription factors on the GC-box and SRE/E-box appears important in the transcription regulation. FBI-1 is apparently changing the binding pattern of Sp1 and SREBP-1 on the two elements in the presence of induced SREBP-1 and drives more Sp1 binding to the proximal promoter with less of an effect on SREBP-1 binding. The changes induced by FBI-1 appear critical in the synergistic transcription activation. The molecular mechanism revealed provides insight into how proto-oncogene FBI-1 may attack the cellular regulatory mechanism of FASN gene expression to provide more phospholipid membrane components needed for rapid cancer cell proliferation. PMID:18682402

Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Park, Hyejin; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Koh, Dong-In; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Choong-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Osborne, Timothy F; Hur, Man-Wook

2008-08-05

327

Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon) and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of fatty-acid synthase gene (FASN).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a proto-oncogenic transcription factor of the BTB/POZ (bric-à-brac, tramtrack, and broad complex and pox virus zinc finger) domain family. Recent evidence suggested that FBI-1 might be involved in adipogenic gene expression. Coincidentally, expression of FBI-1 and fatty-acid synthase (FASN) genes are often increased in cancer and immortalized cells. Both FBI-1 and FASN are important in cancer cell proliferation. SREBP-1 is a major regulator of many adipogenic genes, and FBI-1 and SREBP-1 (sterol-responsive element (SRE)-binding protein 1) interact with each other directly via their DNA binding domains. FBI-1 enhanced the transcriptional activation of SREBP-1 on responsive promoters, pGL2-6x(SRE)-Luc and FASN gene. FBI-1 and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of the FASN gene by acting on the proximal GC-box and SRE/E-box. FBI-1, Sp1, and SREBP-1 can bind to all three SRE, GC-box, and SRE/E-box. Binding competition among the three transcription factors on the GC-box and SRE/E-box appears important in the transcription regulation. FBI-1 is apparently changing the binding pattern of Sp1 and SREBP-1 on the two elements in the presence of induced SREBP-1 and drives more Sp1 binding to the proximal promoter with less of an effect on SREBP-1 binding. The changes induced by FBI-1 appear critical in the synergistic transcription activation. The molecular mechanism revealed provides insight into how proto-oncogene FBI-1 may attack the cellular regulatory mechanism of FASN gene expression to provide more phospholipid membrane components needed for rapid cancer cell proliferation.

Choi WI; Jeon BN; Park H; Yoo JY; Kim YS; Koh DI; Kim MH; Kim YR; Lee CE; Kim KS; Osborne TF; Hur MW

2008-10-01

328

Enhanced antitumor activity for the thymidylate synthase inhibitor 1843U89 through decreased host toxicity with oral folic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether antitumor selectivity of the third generation thymidylate synthase inhibitor 1843U89 could be enhanced by a combination of the drug with folic acid. The effects of folic acid on toxicity of 1843U89 to the dog and mouse and on antitumor efficacy of 1843U89 in the mouse were studied. These data were compared to the effect of folic acid on the in vitro cell culture antitumor activity of 1843U89. The sensitivity of eight cancer cell lines (three ovarian, one colon, one ileocecal, one epidermoid, one osteosarcoma, and one breast line) to 1843U89 was tested in vitro in the presence and absence of folic acid. Folic acid concentrations greater than 100 microM were required to decrease 1843U89 activity in seven of the cell lines. Only the activity in HCT-8, the ileocecal line, was reserved at folic acid concentrations below 100 microM. Oral folic acid given 30 min prior to an i.v. dose of 1843U89 increased the maximally tolerated dose and the lethal dose of 1843U89, both in dogs and in thymidine-depleted mice. In mice, oral folic acid produced little or no effect upon the antitumor efficacy of 1843U89 in two of three tumor cell lines in vivo. HCT-8, the line that was sensitive to folate reversal in vitro, was also sensitive in vivo. The results show that an oral dose of folic acid 30 min prior to i.v. 1843U89 can block mouse and dog intestinal toxicity without decreasing efficacy of 1843U89 in two of three human tumor lines in the nude mouse. Thus, the data reported here indicate that the antitumor selectivity of 1843U89 may be enhanced through a combination of 1843U89 with oral folic acid. PMID:8521402

Smith, G K; Amyx, H; Boytos, C M; Duch, D S; Ferone, R; Wilson, H R

1995-12-15

329

Enhanced antitumor activity for the thymidylate synthase inhibitor 1843U89 through decreased host toxicity with oral folic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether antitumor selectivity of the third generation thymidylate synthase inhibitor 1843U89 could be enhanced by a combination of the drug with folic acid. The effects of folic acid on toxicity of 1843U89 to the dog and mouse and on antitumor efficacy of 1843U89 in the mouse were studied. These data were compared to the effect of folic acid on the in vitro cell culture antitumor activity of 1843U89. The sensitivity of eight cancer cell lines (three ovarian, one colon, one ileocecal, one epidermoid, one osteosarcoma, and one breast line) to 1843U89 was tested in vitro in the presence and absence of folic acid. Folic acid concentrations greater than 100 microM were required to decrease 1843U89 activity in seven of the cell lines. Only the activity in HCT-8, the ileocecal line, was reserved at folic acid concentrations below 100 microM. Oral folic acid given 30 min prior to an i.v. dose of 1843U89 increased the maximally tolerated dose and the lethal dose of 1843U89, both in dogs and in thymidine-depleted mice. In mice, oral folic acid produced little or no effect upon the antitumor efficacy of 1843U89 in two of three tumor cell lines in vivo. HCT-8, the line that was sensitive to folate reversal in vitro, was also sensitive in vivo. The results show that an oral dose of folic acid 30 min prior to i.v. 1843U89 can block mouse and dog intestinal toxicity without decreasing efficacy of 1843U89 in two of three human tumor lines in the nude mouse. Thus, the data reported here indicate that the antitumor selectivity of 1843U89 may be enhanced through a combination of 1843U89 with oral folic acid.

Smith GK; Amyx H; Boytos CM; Duch DS; Ferone R; Wilson HR

1995-12-01

330

Computational study of the effects of protein tyrosine nitrations on the catalytic activity of human thymidylate synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tyrosine nitration is a widespread post-translational modification capable of affecting both the function and structure of the host protein molecule. Enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS), a homodimer, is a molecular target for anticancer therapy. Recently purified TS preparations, isolated from mammalian tissues, were found to be nitrated, suggesting this modification to appear endogenously in normal and tumor tissues. Moreover, human TS (hTS) nitration in vitro led to a by twofold lowered catalytic activity following nitration in average of 1 tyrosine residue per monomer (D?browska-Ma? et al. in Org Biomol Chem 10:323-331, 2012), with the modification identified by mass spectrometry at seven different sites (Y33, Y65, Y135, Y213, Y230, Y258 and Y301). In the present paper, combined computational approach, including molecular and essential dynamics and free energy computations, was used to predict the influence on the activity of hTS of nitration of each of the seven tyrosine residues. The simulations were based on the crystal structure of hTS ternary complex with dUMP and Tomudex (PDB code: 1I00), with the Tomudex molecule replaced by the molecule of TS cofactor analogue, tetrahydrofolate. The present results indicate that while with nitration of five out of seven residues (Y33, Y135, Y230, Y258 and Y301), single residue modification appears to have a strong reducing effect on the activity, with the remaining two, Y65 and Y213, no or a weaker influence is apparent. Taken together, these results demonstrate that tyrosine nitrations in the hTS enzyme show clear tendency to influence the structure and dynamics and, in turn, catalytic properties of the host enzyme. These effects are overall distance-dependent.

Jarmu?a A; Rode W

2013-01-01

331

Characterization of two geraniol synthases from Valeriana officinalis and Lippia dulcis: Similar activity but difference in subcellular localization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two geraniol synthases (GES), from Valeriana officinalis (VoGES) and Lippia dulcis (LdGES), were isolated and were shown to have geraniol biosynthetic activity with Km values of 32µM and 51µM for GPP, respectively, upon expression in Escherichia coli. The in planta enzymatic activity and sub-cellular localization of VoGES and LdGES were characterized in stable transformed tobacco and using transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Transgenic tobacco expressing VoGES or LdGES accumulate geraniol, oxidized geraniol compounds like geranial, geranic acid and hexose conjugates of these compounds to similar levels. Geraniol emission of leaves was lower than that of flowers, which could be related to higher levels of competing geraniol-conjugating activities in leaves. GFP-fusions of the two GES proteins show that VoGES resides (as expected) predominantly in the plastids, while LdGES import into to the plastid is clearly impaired compared to that of VoGES, resulting in both cytosolic and plastidic localization. Geraniol production by VoGES and LdGES in N. benthamiana was nonetheless very similar. Expression of a truncated version of VoGES or LdGES (cytosolic targeting) resulted in the accumulation of 30% less geraniol glycosides than with the plastid targeted VoGES and LdGES, suggesting that the substrate geranyl diphosphate is readily available, both in the plastids as well as in the cytosol. The potential role of GES in the engineering of the TIA pathway in heterologous hosts is discussed.

Dong L; Miettinen K; Goedbloed M; Verstappen FW; Voster A; Jongsma MA; Memelink J; Krol SV; Bouwmeester HJ

2013-09-01

332

Fumonisin concentration and ceramide synthase inhibitory activity of corn, masa, and tortilla chips  

Science.gov (United States)

Cooking and steeping corn kernels in alkaline water (nixtamalization) extracts fumonisins, thereby reducing their concentration in masa and tortilla products. However, chemical analysis of fumonisins in commodities and foods could underestimate fumonisin toxicity if unknown, but biologically active...

333

Mice deficient in cystathionine beta synthase display increased Dyrk1A and SAHH activities in brain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with brain disease. However, biological actions linking hyperhomocysteinemia to neuronal abnormalities are not well understood. We recently found a relationship between Dyrk1A protein expression, a serine/threonine kinase that might be responsible for cognitive functions in Down's syndrome, and hepatic S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) activity, which plays a key role in S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation reactions. Considering the role of methylation and Dyrk1A in cognitive functions, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Dyrk1A and SAHH activity in brain of hyperhomocysteinemic mice. We found an increase in Dyrk1A protein expression and activity in brain of hyperhomocysteinemic mice, concomitant with an increased SAHH activity. The effect of overexpression of protein Dyrk1A on SAHH activity was confirmed in brain of Dyrk1A transgenic mice, and additionally we found a positive correlation between Dyrk1A and SAHH activity. These observations suggest a potential effect of Dyrk1A on brain phenotypes linked to hyperhomocysteinemia.

Planque C; Dairou J; Noll C; Bui LC; Ripoll C; Guedj F; Delabar JM; Janel N

2013-05-01

334

Malate dehydrogenase: viability of cytosolic nulls and lethality of mitochondrial nulls in maize.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five independently inherited loci on five distinct chromosomes encode the mitochondrial and cytosolic isozymes of NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH; L-malate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.37). Multiple alleles, including electrophoretic nulls, occur for each locus. However, a single allele of ...

Goodman, M M; Newton, K J; Stuber, C W

335

Genetic control of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenases: evidence for duplicated chromosome segments.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The genetic control of the major mitochondrial isoenzymes of malate dehydrogenase (L-malate:NAD+ oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.37) has been investigated in Zea mays. The mitochondrial isozymes are coded at four nuclear gene loci. Two of the loci (mdh1 and mdh2) are diallelic and tightly linked. The other...

Yang, N S; Sorenson, J C; Scandalios, J G

336

Chromosomal Location of Mutations Affecting the Electrophoretic Mobility of Malate Dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli K-12  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The structural locus for a soluble malate dehydrogenase (l-malate:NAD oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.37), mdh, lies about 1.2 min from aspB on the Escherichia coli chromosome in the sequence argG, aspB, mdh.

Heard, John T.; Butler, Mary Ann; Baptist, James N.; Matney, Thomas S.

337

Glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase from watermelon is synthesized with an amino-terminal transit peptide.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The isolation and sequence of a cDNA clone encoding the complete glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase [gMDH; (S)-malate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.37] of watermelon cotyledons are presented. Partial cDNA clones were synthesized in a three part strategy, taking advantage of the polymerase chain reacti...

Gietl, C

338

MALAT1 -- a paradigm for long noncoding RNA function in cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a bona fide long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). MALAT1, also known as nuclear-enriched transcript 2 (NEAT2), was discovered as a prognostic marker for lung cancer metastasis but also has been linked to several other human tumor entities. Recent work established a critical regulatory function of this lncRNA in lung cancer metastasis and cell migration. Moreover, MALAT1 is an interesting target for antimetastatic therapy in non-small cell lung carcinoma. Two alternative modes of action have been proposed for MALAT1: regulation of gene expression or alternative splicing. Although the exact mechanism of action in different physiological and pathological conditions still needs to be elucidated, MALAT1 acts as a regulator of gene expression. Although MALAT1 is highly evolutionary conserved in mammals and plays an important role in cancer and metastasis, MALAT1 is not essential for development in a knockout mouse model under normal physiological conditions. Hence, one central question for the future is finding the right stressor and the pathological or environmental condition which requires MALAT1 expression in vivo and entailing its strong evolutionary conservation. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about this important lncRNA. We introduce its discovery, biogenesis, and regulation and describe its known functions, mechanisms of action, and interaction partners. PMID:23529762

Gutschner, Tony; Hämmerle, Monika; Diederichs, Sven

2013-03-26

339

MALAT1 -- a paradigm for long noncoding RNA function in cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a bona fide long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). MALAT1, also known as nuclear-enriched transcript 2 (NEAT2), was discovered as a prognostic marker for lung cancer metastasis but also has been linked to several other human tumor entities. Recent work established a critical regulatory function of this lncRNA in lung cancer metastasis and cell migration. Moreover, MALAT1 is an interesting target for antimetastatic therapy in non-small cell lung carcinoma. Two alternative modes of action have been proposed for MALAT1: regulation of gene expression or alternative splicing. Although the exact mechanism of action in different physiological and pathological conditions still needs to be elucidated, MALAT1 acts as a regulator of gene expression. Although MALAT1 is highly evolutionary conserved in mammals and plays an important role in cancer and metastasis, MALAT1 is not essential for development in a knockout mouse model under normal physiological conditions. Hence, one central question for the future is finding the right stressor and the pathological or environmental condition which requires MALAT1 expression in vivo and entailing its strong evolutionary conservation. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about this important lncRNA. We introduce its discovery, biogenesis, and regulation and describe its known functions, mechanisms of action, and interaction partners.

Gutschner T; Hämmerle M; Diederichs S

2013-07-01

340

[Reduced glutathione and porphobilinogen synthase activity in the erythrocytes of anemic patients with low serum iron  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) were examined as well as patients with active lymphoma with low serum iron (SI) and anemia prior to treatment. Increased content of reduced glutathione (GSH) was found in the patients with IDA as well as enhanced activity of PBG-S in erythocytes, in parallel with the decreased SI and saturation rate of transferrins (SRT) and enhanced total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) in serum. In lymphoma patients a normal GSH content is found as well as normal PBG-S activity in erythocytes, low content of iron, SRT level and decreased TIBC in serum. The connection of SH groups with the level of serum iron is discussed.

Gekova K; Arsov Ts; Georgieva B

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Atorvastatin improves erectile dysfunction in patients initially irresponsive to Sildenafil by the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed at comparing the effects of atorvastatin and vitamin E on erectile dysfunction in patients initially irresponsive to sildenafil, with investigation into the underlying possible mechanisms. Sixty patients were randomly divided into three groups: the atorvastatin group received 80?mg daily, the vitamin E group received 400?IU daily and the control group received placebo capsules. Patients were examined both before and after 6 weeks of treatment for biochemical tests; Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPO), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and for erectile function tests; International index of erectile function (IIEF-5) scores and Rigiscan. Both atorvastatin and vitamin E showed a statistically significant GPO increase (P<0.05) and a statistically significant IL-6 decrease (P<0.05). Only atorvastatin showed a statistically significant increase in NO (15.19%, P<0.05), eNOS (20.58%, P<0.01), IIEF-5 score (53.1%, P<0.001) and Rigiscan rigidity parameters (P<0.01), in addition to a statistically significant decrease in CRP (57.9%, P<0.01). However, SOD showed a statistically significant increase only after vitamin E intake (23.1%, P<0.05). Both atorvatstain and vitamin E had antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Although activating eNOS by atorvastatin was the real difference, and expected to be the main mechanism for NO increase and for improving erectile dysfunction. Atorvastatin, but not vitamin E, is a promising drug for sildenafil nonresponders.

El-Sisi AA; Hegazy SK; Salem KA; AbdElkawy KS

2013-07-01

342

Prostaglandins modulate nitric oxide synthase activity early in time in the uterus of estrogenized rat challenged with lipopolysaccharide.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of our study was to investigate if the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) differentially modulates throughout time the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes in the estrogenized rat uterus. To study the effect of LPS throughout time on nitric oxide and prostaglandins production and on NOS and COX expression in the estrogenized rat uterus, females received 5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) of LPS and were sacrificed 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h post-administration. NO production was measured by arginine-citrulline conversion assay and prostaglandin E2/prostaglandin F2alpha by radioconversion. Enzyme expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis. The present work shows that LPS augmented NOS activity 3 h post-treatment and iNOS expression earlier, 2 h post-administration. On the other hand, the administration of LPS stimulated the production of prostaglandin E2/prostaglandin F2alpha and augmented the expression of COX-I 1 h after the treatment and of COX-II 2 h post-treatment. Meloxicam, a COX-II inhibitor, stimulated NO production in a group of rats injected i.p. with both LPS and the inhibitor and sacrificed 2 h after the treatment. These results indicate that, in the estrogenized rat uterus challenged with LPS, the early stimulation in the production of prostaglandins inhibited NOS activity, until the expression of the NOS isoforms is sufficient to overpass the inhibitory effect of the prostaglandins. The above findings suggest that the interaction between NOS and COX might be important in the regulation of physiopathologic events during pregnancy. PMID:16490189

Cella, Maximiliano; Aisemberg, Julieta; Sordelli, Micaela S; Billi, Silvia; Farina, Mariana; Franchi, Ana M; Ribeiro, María L

2006-02-21

343

Prostaglandins modulate nitric oxide synthase activity early in time in the uterus of estrogenized rat challenged with lipopolysaccharide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of our study was to investigate if the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) differentially modulates throughout time the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes in the estrogenized rat uterus. To study the effect of LPS throughout time on nitric oxide and prostaglandins production and on NOS and COX expression in the estrogenized rat uterus, females received 5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) of LPS and were sacrificed 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h post-administration. NO production was measured by arginine-citrulline conversion assay and prostaglandin E2/prostaglandin F2alpha by radioconversion. Enzyme expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis. The present work shows that LPS augmented NOS activity 3 h post-treatment and iNOS expression earlier, 2 h post-administration. On the other hand, the administration of LPS stimulated the production of prostaglandin E2/prostaglandin F2alpha and augmented the expression of COX-I 1 h after the treatment and of COX-II 2 h post-treatment. Meloxicam, a COX-II inhibitor, stimulated NO production in a group of rats injected i.p. with both LPS and the inhibitor and sacrificed 2 h after the treatment. These results indicate that, in the estrogenized rat uterus challenged with LPS, the early stimulation in the production of prostaglandins inhibited NOS activity, until the expression of the NOS isoforms is sufficient to overpass the inhibitory effect of the prostaglandins. The above findings suggest that the interaction between NOS and COX might be important in the regulation of physiopathologic events during pregnancy.

Cella M; Aisemberg J; Sordelli MS; Billi S; Farina M; Franchi AM; Ribeiro ML

2006-03-01

344

Independent fluctuations of malate and citrate in the CAM species Clusia hilariana Schltdl. under low light and high light in relation to photoprotection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clusia hilariana Schltdl. is described in literature as an obligate Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. In the present study we assessed the effect of irradiance with low light (LL, 200?molm(-2)s(-1)) and high light (HL, 650-740?molm(-2)s(-1)), on the interdependency of citrate and malate diurnal fluctuations. In plants grown at HL CAM-type oscillations of concentration of citrate and malate were obvious. However, at LL daily courses of both acids do not seem to indicate efficient utilization of these compounds as CO2 and NADPH sources. One week after transferring plants from LL to HL decarboxylation of malate was accelerated. Thus, in the CAM plant C. hilariana two independent rhythms of accumulation and decarboxylation of malate and citrate take place, which appear to be related to photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. Non photochemical quenching (NPQ) of photosystem II, especially well expressed during the evening hours was enhanced. Exposure to HL for 7 d activated oxidative stress protection mechanisms such as the interconversion of violaxanthin (V), antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z) (epoxydation/de-epoxydation) measured as epoxydation state (EPS). This was accompanied by a slight increase in the total amount of these pigments. However, all these changes were not observed in plants exposed to HL for only 2 d. Besides violaxanthin cycle components also lutein, which shows a small, but not significant increase, may be involved in dissipating excess light energy in C. hilariana. PMID:23253483

Miszalski, Zbigniew; Kornas, Andrzej; Rozp?dek, Piotr; Fischer-Schliebs, Elke; Lüttge, Ulrich

2012-12-17

345

Independent fluctuations of malate and citrate in the CAM species Clusia hilariana Schltdl. under low light and high light in relation to photoprotection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clusia hilariana Schltdl. is described in literature as an obligate Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. In the present study we assessed the effect of irradiance with low light (LL, 200?molm(-2)s(-1)) and high light (HL, 650-740?molm(-2)s(-1)), on the interdependency of citrate and malate diurnal fluctuations. In plants grown at HL CAM-type oscillations of concentration of citrate and malate were obvious. However, at LL daily courses of both acids do not seem to indicate efficient utilization of these compounds as CO2 and NADPH sources. One week after transferring plants from LL to HL decarboxylation of malate was accelerated. Thus, in the CAM plant C. hilariana two independent rhythms of accumulation and decarboxylation of malate and citrate take place, which appear to be related to photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. Non photochemical quenching (NPQ) of photosystem II, especially well expressed during the evening hours was enhanced. Exposure to HL for 7 d activated oxidative stress protection mechanisms such as the interconversion of violaxanthin (V), antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z) (epoxydation/de-epoxydation) measured as epoxydation state (EPS). This was accompanied by a slight increase in the total amount of these pigments. However, all these changes were not observed in plants exposed to HL for only 2 d. Besides violaxanthin cycle components also lutein, which shows a small, but not significant increase, may be involved in dissipating excess light energy in C. hilariana.

Miszalski Z; Kornas A; Rozp?dek P; Fischer-Schliebs E; Lüttge U

2013-03-01

346

Carotene Synthase Gene and Uses Therefor  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Described herein is a novel three domain gene from Schizochytrium, denoted carotene synthase, that encodes a protein with three different enzymatic activities: phytoene dehydrogenase (PD), phytoene synthase (PS), and lycopene cyclase (LC). Also described is the isolated gene encoding the carotene synthase, homologues thereof, the enzyme encoded by such gene, biologically active portions and homologues thereof, recombinant nucleic acid molecules, microorganisms and plants that have been genetically modified to increase or decrease the action of such gene, and methods of producing carotenoids and derivatives thereof or methods of producing microorganisms and lipid products lacking pigmentation using the knowledge of the carotene synthase described herein.

WEAVER CRAIG A; METZ JAMES G; KUNER JERRY M; OVERTON FRANK H.JR; OVERTON JR. FRANK H

347

A sesquiterpene, dehydrocostus lactone, inhibits the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-alpha in LPS-activated macrophages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) are the major mediators produced in activated macrophages which contribute to the circulatory failure associated with septic shock. A sesquiterpene lactone compound (dehydrocostus lactone) isolated from the medicinal plant, Saussurea lappa, inhibited the production of NO in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase enzyme expression. This compound also decreased the TNF-alpha level in LPS-activated systems in vitro and in vivo. Thus, dehydrocostus lactone may be a possible candidate for the development of new drugs to treat endotoxemia accompanied by the overproduction of NO and TNF-alpha.

Lee HJ; Kim NY; Jang MK; Son HJ; Kim KM; Sohn DH; Lee SH; Ryu JH

1999-03-01

348

Watermelon glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase is sorted to peroxisomes of the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have studied the fate of the watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) glyoxysomal enzyme, malate dehydrogenase (gMDH), after synthesis in the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. The gene encoding the precursor form of gMDH (pre-gMDH) was cloned in an H. polymorpha expression vector downstream of the inducible H. polymorpha alcohol oxidase promoter. During methylotrophic growth, pre-gMDH was synthesized and imported into peroxisomes, where it was enzymatically active. The apparent molecular mass of the protein located in H. polymorpha peroxisomes was equal to that of pre-gMDH (41 kDa), indicating that N-terminal processing of the transit peptide had not occurred in the yeast.

van der Klei IJ; Faber KN; Keizer-Gunnink I; Gietl C; Harder W; Veenhuis M

1993-11-01

349

Watermelon glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase is sorted to peroxisomes of the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied the fate of the watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) glyoxysomal enzyme, malate dehydrogenase (gMDH), after synthesis in the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. The gene encoding the precursor form of gMDH (pre-gMDH) was cloned in an H. polymorpha expression vector downstream of the inducible H. polymorpha alcohol oxidase promoter. During methylotrophic growth, pre-gMDH was synthesized and imported into peroxisomes, where it was enzymatically active. The apparent molecular mass of the protein located in H. polymorpha peroxisomes was equal to that of pre-gMDH (41 kDa), indicating that N-terminal processing of the transit peptide had not occurred in the yeast. PMID:8224215

van der Klei, I J; Faber, K N; Keizer-Gunnink, I; Gietl, C; Harder, W; Veenhuis, M

1993-11-01

350

Inibição da atividade da citrato sintase cerebral em um modelo animal de sepse/ Inhibition of brain citrate synthase activity in an animal model of sepsis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Um amplo corpo de evidência oriundo de estudos experimentais indica que a sepse se associa com um aumento da produção de espécies de oxigênio reativo, depleção de antioxidantes, e acúmulo de marcadores de estresse oxidativo. Além disto, a disfunção mitocondrial foi implicada na patogênese da síndrome de disfunção de múltiplos órgãos. A citrato sintase é uma enzima que se localiza no interior das células, na matriz mitocondrial, sendo uma etap (more) a importante do ciclo de Krebs; esta enzima foi utilizada como um marcador enzimático quantitativo da presença de mitocôndrias intactas. Assim, investigamos a atividade da citrato sintase no cérebro de ratos submetidos ao modelo sepse com de ligadura e punção do ceco. MÉTODOS: Em diferentes horários (3, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas) após cirurgia de ligadura e punção do ceco, seis ratos foram sacrificados por decapitação, sendo seus cérebros removidos e dissecados o hipocampo, estriato, cerebelo, córtex cerebral e córtex pré-frontal, e utilizados para determinação da atividade de citrato sintase. RESULTADOS: Verificamos que a atividade de citrato sintase no córtex pré-frontal estava inibida após 12, 24 e 48 horas da ligadura e punção do ceco. No córtex cerebral, esta atividade estava inibida após 3, 12, 24 e 48 horas da ligadura e punção do ceco. Por outro lado a citrato sintase não foi afetada no hipocampo, estriato e cerebelo até 48 horas após a ligadura e punção do ceco. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando-se que é bem descrito o comprometimento da energia decorrente da disfunção mitocondrial na sepse, e que o estresse oxidativo desempenha um papel essencial no desenvolvimento da sepse, acreditamos que o comprometimento da energia pode também estar evolvido nestes processos. Se a inibição da citrato sintase também ocorre em um modelo de sepse, é tentador especular que a redução do metabolismo cerebral pode provavelmente estar relacionada com a fisiopatologia desta doença. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: An extensive body of evidence from experimental studies indicates that sepsis is associated with increased reactive oxygen species production, depletion of antioxidants, and accumulation of markers of oxidative stress. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Citrate synthase is an enzyme localized in the mitochondrial matrix and an important component of the Krebs cycle; conseque (more) ntly, citrate synthase has been used as a quantitative enzyme marker for the presence of intact mitochondria. Thus, we investigated citrate synthase activity in the brains of rats submitted to a cecal ligation puncture model of sepsis. METHODS: At several times points (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours) after the cecal ligation puncture operation, six rats were killed by decapitation. Their brains were removed, and the hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, cerebral cortex and prefrontal cortex were dissected and used to determine citrate synthase activity. RESULTS: We found that citrate synthase activity in the prefrontal cortex was inhibited 12, 24 and 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. In the cerebral cortex, citrate synthase activity was inhibited 3, 12, 24 and 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. Citrate synthase was not affected in the hippocampus, striatum or cerebellum up to 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. CONCLUSION: Considering that energy impairment due to mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis has been well described and that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in sepsis development, we believe that energy impairment may also be involved in these processes. If citrate synthase inhibition also occurs in a sepsis model, it is tempting to speculate that a reduction in brain metabolism may be related to the pathophysiology of this disease.

Scaini, Giselli; Rochi, Natália; Benedet, Joana; Ferreira, Gabriela Kozuchovski; Teodorak, Brena Pereira; Comim, Clarissa Martinelli; Constantino, Larissa de Souza; Vuolo, Francieli; Constantino, Leandra Celso; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

2011-06-01

351

Inibição da atividade da citrato sintase cerebral em um modelo animal de sepse Inhibition of brain citrate synthase activity in an animal model of sepsis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Um amplo corpo de evidência oriundo de estudos experimentais indica que a sepse se associa com um aumento da produção de espécies de oxigênio reativo, depleção de antioxidantes, e acúmulo de marcadores de estresse oxidativo. Além disto, a disfunção mitocondrial foi implicada na patogênese da síndrome de disfunção de múltiplos órgãos. A citrato sintase é uma enzima que se localiza no interior das células, na matriz mitocondrial, sendo uma etapa importante do ciclo de Krebs; esta enzima foi utilizada como um marcador enzimático quantitativo da presença de mitocôndrias intactas. Assim, investigamos a atividade da citrato sintase no cérebro de ratos submetidos ao modelo sepse com de ligadura e punção do ceco. MÉTODOS: Em diferentes horários (3, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas) após cirurgia de ligadura e punção do ceco, seis ratos foram sacrificados por decapitação, sendo seus cérebros removidos e dissecados o hipocampo, estriato, cerebelo, córtex cerebral e córtex pré-frontal, e utilizados para determinação da atividade de citrato sintase. RESULTADOS: Verificamos que a atividade de citrato sintase no córtex pré-frontal estava inibida após 12, 24 e 48 horas da ligadura e punção do ceco. No córtex cerebral, esta atividade estava inibida após 3, 12, 24 e 48 horas da ligadura e punção do ceco. Por outro lado a citrato sintase não foi afetada no hipocampo, estriato e cerebelo até 48 horas após a ligadura e punção do ceco. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando-se que é bem descrito o comprometimento da energia decorrente da disfunção mitocondrial na sepse, e que o estresse oxidativo desempenha um papel essencial no desenvolvimento da sepse, acreditamos que o comprometimento da energia pode também estar evolvido nestes processos. Se a inibição da citrato sintase também ocorre em um modelo de sepse, é tentador especular que a redução do metabolismo cerebral pode provavelmente estar relacionada com a fisiopatologia desta doença.OBJECTIVE: An extensive body of evidence from experimental studies indicates that sepsis is associated with increased reactive oxygen species production, depletion of antioxidants, and accumulation of markers of oxidative stress. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Citrate synthase is an enzyme localized in the mitochondrial matrix and an important component of the Krebs cycle; consequently, citrate synthase has been used as a quantitative enzyme marker for the presence of intact mitochondria. Thus, we investigated citrate synthase activity in the brains of rats submitted to a cecal ligation puncture model of sepsis. METHODS: At several times points (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours) after the cecal ligation puncture operation, six rats were killed by decapitation. Their brains were removed, and the hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, cerebral cortex and prefrontal cortex were dissected and used to determine citrate synthase activity. RESULTS: We found that citrate synthase activity in the prefrontal cortex was inhibited 12, 24 and 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. In the cerebral cortex, citrate synthase activity was inhibited 3, 12, 24 and 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. Citrate synthase was not affected in the hippocampus, striatum or cerebellum up to 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. CONCLUSION: Considering that energy impairment due to mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis has been well described and that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in sepsis development, we believe that energy impairment may also be involved in these processes. If citrate synthase inhibition also occurs in a sepsis model, it is tempting to speculate that a reduction in brain metabolism may be related to the pathophysiology of this disease.

Giselli Scaini; Natália Rochi; Joana Benedet; Gabriela Kozuchovski Ferreira; Brena Pereira Teodorak; Clarissa Martinelli Comim; Larissa de Souza Constantino; Francieli Vuolo; Leandra Celso Constantino; João Quevedo; Emilio Luiz Streck; Felipe Dal-Pizzol

2011-01-01

352

Regio- and stereochemistry of the dioxygenation reaction catalyzed by (S)-type lipoxygenases or by the cyclooxygenase activity of prostaglandin H synthases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations on the regio- and stereochemistry of the reactions of mammalian lipoxygenases and of prostaglandin H synthases are reviewed. The results and concepts are summarized as two reaction box models. The structures of all known (S)-type lipoxygenase products of long-chain fatty acids carrying an all-cis-1,4-diene structural element including mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxyl products can be accommodated by this model. The model also provides an explanation for leukotriene formation by mammalian lipoxygenases and for the substrate specificity of lipoxygenases towards esterified fatty acids. The reaction box model for the first dioxygenation step of the cyclooxygenase activity of prostaglandin H synthase is stereochemically different from the (S)-type lipoxygenase box model. PMID:8005520

Lehmann, W D

1994-02-01

353

Regio- and stereochemistry of the dioxygenation reaction catalyzed by (S)-type lipoxygenases or by the cyclooxygenase activity of prostaglandin H synthases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Investigations on the regio- and stereochemistry of the reactions of mammalian lipoxygenases and of prostaglandin H synthases are reviewed. The results and concepts are summarized as two reaction box models. The structures of all known (S)-type lipoxygenase products of long-chain fatty acids carrying an all-cis-1,4-diene structural element including mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxyl products can be accommodated by this model. The model also provides an explanation for leukotriene formation by mammalian lipoxygenases and for the substrate specificity of lipoxygenases towards esterified fatty acids. The reaction box model for the first dioxygenation step of the cyclooxygenase activity of prostaglandin H synthase is stereochemically different from the (S)-type lipoxygenase box model.

Lehmann WD

1994-02-01

354

The Activity of Hyaluronan Synthase 2 Is Regulated by Dimerization and Ubiquitination*  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyaluronan is a component of the extracellular matrix, which affects tissue homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms of one of the hyaluronan-synthesizing enzymes, HAS2. Ectopic expression of Flag- and 6myc-HAS2 in COS-1 cells followed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting revealed homodimers; after co-transfection with Flag-HAS3, also heterodimers were seen. Furthermore, the expressed HAS2 was ubiquitinated. We identified one acceptor site for ubiquitin on lysine residue 190. Mutation of this residue led to inactivation of the enzymatic activity of HAS2. Interestingly, K190R-mutated HAS2 formed dimers with wt HAS2 and quenched the activity of wt HAS2, thus demonstrating a functional role of the dimeric configuration.

Karousou, Eugenia; Kamiryo, Masaru; Skandalis, Spyros S.; Ruusala, Aino; Asteriou, Trias; Passi, Alberto; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Hellman, Ulf; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Heldin, Paraskevi

2010-01-01

355

The activity of hyaluronan synthase 2 is regulated by dimerization and ubiquitination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hyaluronan is a component of the extracellular matrix, which affects tissue homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms of one of the hyaluronan-synthesizing enzymes, HAS2. Ectopic expression of Flag- and 6myc-HAS2 in COS-1 cells followed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting revealed homodimers; after co-transfection with Flag-HAS3, also heterodimers were seen. Furthermore, the expressed HAS2 was ubiquitinated. We identified one acceptor site for ubiquitin on lysine residue 190. Mutation of this residue led to inactivation of the enzymatic activity of HAS2. Interestingly, K190R-mutated HAS2 formed dimers with wt HAS2 and quenched the activity of wt HAS2, thus demonstrating a functional role of the dimeric configuration.

Karousou E; Kamiryo M; Skandalis SS; Ruusala A; Asteriou T; Passi A; Yamashita H; Hellman U; Heldin CH; Heldin P

2010-07-01

356

Functions of the Membrane-Associated and Cytoplasmic Malate Dehydrogenases in the Citric Acid Cycle of Escherichia coli  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate in Escherichia coli can be catalyzed by two enzymes: the well-known NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC 1.1.1.37) and the membrane-associated malate:quinone-oxidoreductase (MQO; EC 1.1.99.16), encoded by the gene mqo (previously called yojH). Expression of...

van der Rest, Michel E.; Frank, Christian; Molenaar, Douwe

357

Analysis of the Polymerization Initiation and Activity of Pasteurella multocida Heparosan Synthase PmHS2, an Enzyme with Glycosyltransferase and UDP-sugar Hydrolase Activity*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heparosan synthase catalyzes the polymerization of heparosan (-4GlcUA?1–4GlcNAc?1-)n by transferring alternatively the monosaccharide units from UDP-GlcUA and UDP-GlcNAc to an acceptor molecule. Details on the heparosan chain initiation by Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase PmHS2 and its influ...

Chavaroche, Anais A. E.; van den Broek, Lambertus A. M.; Springer, Jan; Boeriu, Carmen; Eggink, Gerrit

358

Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase enhances c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity: Implication in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO) is an inflammatory mediator, which acts as a cytotoxic agent and modulates immune responses and inflammation. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway is activated by chemical and physical stress and regulates immune responses. Previous studies have shown that p38 MAPK pathway regulates NO production induced by inflammatory stimuli. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the regulation of inducible NO synthesis by p38 MAPK pathway. Results p38 MAPK inhibitors SB203580 and SB220025 stimulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production in J774.2 murine macrophages. Increased iNOS mRNA expression was associated with reduced degradation of iNOS mRNA. Treatment with SB220025 increased also LPS-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. Interestingly, JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed the effect of SB220025 on LPS-induced iNOS mRNA expression and NO production. Conclusion The results suggest that inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB220025 results in increased JNK activity, which leads to stabilisation of iNOS mRNA, to enhanced iNOS expression and to increased NO production.

Lahti Aleksi; Sareila Outi; Kankaanranta Hannu; Moilanen Eeva

2006-01-01

359

Structural definition of the active site and catalytic mechanism of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

X-ray crystal structures of L-3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase from Magnaporthe grisea are reported for the E-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, E-{sub 4}{sup 2-}-Mg{sup 2+}, E-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}-Mn{sup 2+}, E-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}-Mn{sup 2+}-glycerol, and E-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}-Zn{sup 2+} complexes with resolutions that extend to 1.55, 0.98, 1.60, 1.16, and 1.00 {angstrom}, respectively. Active-site residues of the homodimer are fully defined. The structures were used to model the substrate ribulose 5-phosphate in the active site with the phosphate group anchored at the sulfate site and the placement of the ribulose group guided by the glycerol site. The model includes two Mg{sup 2+} cations that bind to the oxygen substituents of the C2, C3, C4, and phosphate groups of the substrate, the side chains of Glu37 and His153, and water molecules. The position of the metal cofactors and the substrate's phosphate group are further stabilized by an extensive hydrogen-bond and salt-bridge network. On the basis of their proximity to the substrate's reaction participants, the imidazole of an Asp99-His136 dyad from one subunit, the side chains of the Asp41, Cys66, and Glu174 residues from the other subunit, and Mg{sup 2+}-activated water molecules are proposed to serve specific roles in the catalytic cycle as general acid-base functionalities. The model suggests that during the 1,2-shift step of the reaction, the substrate's C3 and C4 hydroxyl groups are cis to each other. A cis transition state is calculated to have an activation barrier that is 2 kcal/mol greater than that of the trans transition state in the absence of the enzyme.

Liao, D.-I.; Zheng, Y.-J.; Viitanen, P.V.; Jordan, D.B.

2010-03-08

360

Nitric oxide synthase, ADMA, SDMA, and nitric oxide activity in the paraventricular nucleus throughout the etiology of renal wrap hypertension  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), there is a balance between the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters that regulate blood pressure; in hypertension, the balance shifts to enhanced excitation. Nitric oxide (NO) is an atypical neurotransmitter that elicits inhibitory effects on cardiovascular function. We hypothesized that reduced PVN NO led to elevations in blood pressure during both the onset and sustained phases of hypertension due to decreased NO synthase (NOS) and increased asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA; an endogenous NOS inhibitor) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). Elevated blood pressure, in response to PVN bilateral microinjections of a NO inhibitor, nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, was blunted in renal wrapped rats during the onset of hypertension (day 7) and sustained renal wrap hypertension (day 28) compared with sham-operated rats. Adenoviruses (Ad) encoding endothelial NOS (eNOS) or LacZ microinjected into the PVN [1 × 109 plaque-forming units, bilateral (200 nl/site)] reduced mean arterial pressure compared with control (Day 7, Ad LacZ wrap: 144 ± 7 mmHg and Ad eNOS wrap: 117 ± 5 mmHg, P ? 0.05) throughout the study (Day 28, Ad LacZ wrap: 123 ± 1 mmHg and Ad eNOS wrap: 108 ± 4 mmHg, P ? 0.05). Western blot analyses of PVN NOS revealed significantly lower PVN neuronal NOS during the onset of hypertension but not in sustained hypertension. Reduced SDMA was found in the PVN during the onset of hypertension; however, no change in ADMA was observed. In conclusion, functional indexes of NO activity indicated an overall downregulation of NO in renal wrap hypertension, but the mechanism by which this occurs likely differs throughout the development of hypertension.

Northcott, Carrie A.; Billecke, Scott; Craig, Teresa; Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen; Patel, Kaushik P.; Chen, Alex F.; D'Alecy, Louis G.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

DksA-dependent resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium against the antimicrobial activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In coordination with the ppGpp alarmone, the RNA polymerase regulatory protein DksA controls the stringent response of eubacteria, negatively regulating transcription of translational machinery and directly activating amino acid promoters and de novo amino acid biosynthesis. Given the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on amino acid biosynthetic pathways and the intimate relationship of DksA with amino acid synthesis and transport, we tested whether DksA contributes to the resistance of Salmonella to reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Our studies show that the zinc finger predicted to position DksA in the secondary channel of the RNA polymerase is essential for the resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to RNS in a murine model of systemic salmonellosis. Despite exhibiting auxotrophies for various amino acids, ?dksA mutant Salmonella strains regain virulence in mice lacking inducible NO synthase (iNOS). DksA is also important for growth of this intracellular pathogen in the presence of NO congeners generated by iNOS during the innate response of murine macrophages. Accordingly, dksA mutant Salmonella strains are hypersusceptible to chemically generated NO, a phenotype that can be prevented by adding amino acids. The DksA-dependent antinitrosative defenses do not rely on the Hmp flavohemoprotein that detoxifies NO to NO(3)(-) and appear to operate independently of the ppGpp alarmone. Our investigations are consistent with a model by which NO produced in the innate response to Salmonella exerts considerable pressure on amino acid biosynthesis. The cytotoxicity of NO against Salmonella amino acid biosynthetic pathways is antagonized in great part by the DksA-dependent regulation of amino acid biosynthesis and transport.

Henard CA; Vázquez-Torres A

2012-04-01

362

DksA-dependent resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium against the antimicrobial activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

In coordination with the ppGpp alarmone, the RNA polymerase regulatory protein DksA controls the stringent response of eubacteria, negatively regulating transcription of translational machinery and directly activating amino acid promoters and de novo amino acid biosynthesis. Given the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on amino acid biosynthetic pathways and the intimate relationship of DksA with amino acid synthesis and transport, we tested whether DksA contributes to the resistance of Salmonella to reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Our studies show that the zinc finger predicted to position DksA in the secondary channel of the RNA polymerase is essential for the resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to RNS in a murine model of systemic salmonellosis. Despite exhibiting auxotrophies for various amino acids, ?dksA mutant Salmonella strains regain virulence in mice lacking inducible NO synthase (iNOS). DksA is also important for growth of this intracellular pathogen in the presence of NO congeners generated by iNOS during the innate response of murine macrophages. Accordingly, dksA mutant Salmonella strains are hypersusceptible to chemically generated NO, a phenotype that can be prevented by adding amino acids. The DksA-dependent antinitrosative defenses do not rely on the Hmp flavohemoprotein that detoxifies NO to NO(3)(-) and appear to operate independently of the ppGpp alarmone. Our investigations are consistent with a model by which NO produced in the innate response to Salmonella exerts considerable pressure on amino acid biosynthesis. The cytotoxicity of NO against Salmonella amino acid biosynthetic pathways is antagonized in great part by the DksA-dependent regulation of amino acid biosynthesis and transport. PMID:22311927

Henard, Calvin A; Vázquez-Torres, Andrés</