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Sample records for malate synthase activity

  1. CLYBL is a polymorphic human enzyme with malate synthase and ?-methylmalate synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strittmatter, Laura; Li, Yang; Nakatsuka, Nathan J; Calvo, Sarah E; Grabarek, Zenon; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2014-05-01

    CLYBL is a human mitochondrial enzyme of unknown function that is found in multiple eukaryotic taxa and conserved to bacteria. The protein is expressed in the mitochondria of all mammalian organs, with highest expression in brown fat and kidney. Approximately 5% of all humans harbor a premature stop polymorphism in CLYBL that has been associated with reduced levels of circulating vitamin B12. Using comparative genomics, we now show that CLYBL is strongly co-expressed with and co-evolved specifically with other components of the mitochondrial B12 pathway. We confirm that the premature stop polymorphism in CLYBL leads to a loss of protein expression. To elucidate the molecular function of CLYBL, we used comparative operon analysis, structural modeling and enzyme kinetics. We report that CLYBL encodes a malate/?-methylmalate synthase, converting glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA to malate, or glyoxylate and propionyl-CoA to ?-methylmalate. Malate synthases are best known for their established role in the glyoxylate shunt of plants and lower organisms and are traditionally described as not occurring in humans. The broader role of a malate/?-methylmalate synthase in human physiology and its mechanistic link to vitamin B12 metabolism remain unknown. PMID:24334609

  2. Kinetic and chemical mechanism of malate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartararo, Christine E; Blanchard, John S

    2011-08-16

    Malate synthase catalyzes the Claisen-like condensation of acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) and glyoxylate in the glyoxylate shunt of the citric acid cycle. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis malate synthase G gene, glcB, was cloned, and the N-terminal His(6)-tagged 80 kDa protein was expressed in soluble form and purified by metal affinity chromatography. A chromogenic 4,4'-dithiodipyridine assay did not yield linear kinetics, but the generation of an active site-directed mutant, C619S, gave an active enzyme and linear kinetics. The resulting mutant exhibited kinetics comparable to those of the wild type and was used for the full kinetic analysis. Initial velocity studies were intersecting, suggesting a sequential mechanism, which was confirmed by product and dead-end inhibition. The inhibition studies delineated the ordered binding of glyoxylate followed by AcCoA and the ordered release of CoA followed by malate. The pH dependencies of k(cat) and k(cat)/K(gly) are both bell-shaped, and catalysis depends on a general base (pK = 5.3) and a general acid (pK = 9.2). Primary kinetic isotope effects determined using [C(2)H(3)-methyl]acetyl-CoA suggested that proton removal and carbon-carbon bond formation were partially rate-limiting. Solvent kinetic isotope effects on k(cat) suggested the hydrolysis of the malyl-CoA intermediate was also partially rate-limiting. Multiple kinetic isotope effects, utilizing D(2)O and [C(2)H(3)-methyl]acetyl-CoA, confirmed a stepwise mechanism in which the step exhibiting primary kinetic isotope effects precedes the step exhibiting the solvent isotope effects. We combined the kinetic data and the pH dependence of the kinetic parameters with existing structural and mutagenesis data to propose a chemical mechanism for malate synthase from M. tuberculosis. PMID:21728344

  3. Phosphorylation of glyoxysomal malate synthase from castor oil seed endosperm and cucumber cotyledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyoxysomal malate synthase (MS) was purified to apparent homogeneity from 3-d germinating castor oil seed endosperm by a relatively simple procedure including two sucrose density gradient centrifugations. Antibodies raised to the caster oil seed MS crossreacted with MS from cucumber cotyledon. MS was phosphorylated in both tissues in an MgATP dependent reaction. The phosphorylation pattern was similar for both enzymes and both enzymes were inhibited by NaF, NaMo, (NH4)SO4, glyoxylate and high concentration of MgCl2 (60 mM), but was not inhibited by NaCl and malate. Further characterization of the phosphorylation of MS from castor oil seed endosperms showed that the 5S form of MS is the form which is labelled by 32P. The addition of exogenous alkaline phosphatase to MS not only decreased enzyme activity, but could also dephosphorylate phospho-MS. The relationship between dephosphorylation of MS and the decrease of MS activity is currently under investigation

  4. Crystal structures of a halophilic archaeal malate synthase from Haloferax volcanii and comparisons with isoforms A and G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geoffrey C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malate synthase, one of the two enzymes unique to the glyoxylate cycle, is found in all three domains of life, and is crucial to the utilization of two-carbon compounds for net biosynthetic pathways such as gluconeogenesis. In addition to the main isoforms A and G, so named because of their differential expression in E. coli grown on either acetate or glycolate respectively, a third distinct isoform has been identified. These three isoforms differ considerably in size and sequence conservation. The A isoform (MSA comprises ~530 residues, the G isoform (MSG is ~730 residues, and this third isoform (MSH-halophilic is ~430 residues in length. Both isoforms A and G have been structurally characterized in detail, but no structures have been reported for the H isoform which has been found thus far only in members of the halophilic Archaea. Results We have solved the structure of a malate synthase H (MSH isoform member from Haloferax volcanii in complex with glyoxylate at 2.51 Å resolution, and also as a ternary complex with acetyl-coenzyme A and pyruvate at 1.95 Å. Like the A and G isoforms, MSH is based on a ?8/?8 (TIM barrel. Unlike previously solved malate synthase structures which are all monomeric, this enzyme is found in the native state as a trimer/hexamer equilibrium. Compared to isoforms A and G, MSH displays deletion of an N-terminal domain and a smaller deletion at the C-terminus. The MSH active site is closely superimposable with those of MSA and MSG, with the ternary complex indicating a nucleophilic attack on pyruvate by the enolate intermediate of acetyl-coenzyme A. Conclusions The reported structures of MSH from Haloferax volcanii allow a detailed analysis and comparison with previously solved structures of isoforms A and G. These structural comparisons provide insight into evolutionary relationships among these isoforms, and also indicate that despite the size and sequence variation, and the truncated C-terminal domain of the H isoform, the catalytic mechanism is conserved. Sequence analysis in light of the structure indicates that additional members of isoform H likely exist in the databases but have been misannotated.

  5. Malate synthase: proof of a stepwise Claisen condensation using the double-isotope fractionation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J.D.; O' Keefe, S.J.; Knowles, J.R.

    1988-08-09

    Although aldolase-catalyzed condensations proceed by stepwise mechanisms via the intermediacy of nucleophilic enol(ate)s or enamines, the mechanisms of those enzymes that catalyze Claisen-type condensations are unclear. The reaction pathway followed by an enzyme from this second group, malate synthase, has been studied by the double-isotope fractionation method to determine whether the reaction is stepwise or concerted. In agreement with earlier work, a deuterium kinetic isotope effect /sup D/(V/K) of 1.3 +/- 0.1 has been found when (/sup 2/H/sub 3/)acetyl-CoA is the substrate. The /sup 13/C isotope effect at the aldehydic carbon of glyoxylate has also been measured. For this determination, the malate product was quantitatively transformed into a new sample of malate having the carbon of interest at C-4. This material was decarboxylated by malic enzyme to produce the appropriate CO/sub 2/ for isotope ratio mass spectrometric analysis. The /sup 13/C isotope effect with (/sup 1/H/sub 3/)acetyl-CoA is 1.0037 +/- 0.0004. By use of the known values of the intermolecular and intramolecular deuterium effects and of /sup 13/(V/K)/sub H/, the value of the /sup 13/C isotope effect when deuteriated (/sup 2/H/sub 3/)acetyl-CoA is the substrate can be predicted for three possible mechanisms. The results show clearly that the two salient characteristics of enzymes that catalyze Claisen-like condensations, namely, the absence of enzyme-catalyzed proton exchange with solvent and the inversion of the configuration at the nucleophilic center, which had been suggestive of a concerted pathway, are not mechanistically diagnostic.

  6. Malate synthase: proof of a stepwise Claisen condensation using the double-isotope fractionation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although aldolase-catalyzed condensations proceed by stepwise mechanisms via the intermediacy of nucleophilic enol(ate)s or enamines, the mechanisms of those enzymes that catalyze Claisen-type condensations are unclear. The reaction pathway followed by an enzyme from this second group, malate synthase, has been studied by the double-isotope fractionation method to determine whether the reaction is stepwise or concerted. In agreement with earlier work, a deuterium kinetic isotope effect /sup D/(V/K) of 1.3 +/- 0.1 has been found when [2H3]acetyl-CoA is the substrate. The 13C isotope effect at the aldehydic carbon of glyoxylate has also been measured. For this determination, the malate product was quantitatively transformed into a new sample of malate having the carbon of interest at C-4. This material was decarboxylated by malic enzyme to produce the appropriate CO2 for isotope ratio mass spectrometric analysis. The 13C isotope effect with [1H3]acetyl-CoA is 1.0037 +/- 0.0004. By use of the known values of the intermolecular and intramolecular deuterium effects and of 13(V/K)/sub H/, the value of the 13C isotope effect when deuteriated [2H3]acetyl-CoA is the substrate can be predicted for three possible mechanisms. The results show clearly that the two salient characteristics of enzymes that catalyze Claisen-like condensations, namely, the absence oflike condensations, namely, the absence of enzyme-catalyzed proton exchange with solvent and the inversion of the configuration at the nucleophilic center, which had been suggestive of a concerted pathway, are not mechanistically diagnostic

  7. Malate synthase gene AoMls in the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora contributes to conidiation, trap formation, and pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinying; Wang, Yunchuan; Zhao, Yong; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Yang, Jinkui

    2014-03-01

    Malate synthase (Mls), a key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle, is required for virulence in microbial pathogens. In this study, we identified the AoMls gene from the nematode-trapping fungus Arthobotrys oligospora. The gene contains 4 introns and encodes a polypeptide of 540 amino acids. To characterize the function of AoMls in A. oligospora, we disrupted it by homologous recombination, and the ?AoMls mutants were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. The growth rate and colony morphology of the ?AoMls mutants showed no obvious difference from the wild-type strains on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plate. However, the disruption of gene AoMls led to a significant reduction in conidiation, failure to utilize fatty acids and sodium acetate for growth, and its conidia were unable to germinate on minimal medium supplemented with sodium oleate. In addition, the trap formation was retarded in the ?AoMls mutants, which only produced immature traps containing one or two rings. Moreover, the nematicidal activity of the ?AoMls mutants was significantly decreased. Our results suggest that the gene AoMls plays an important role in conidiation, trap formation and pathogenicity of A. oligospora. PMID:24323290

  8. Electrophoretic and chemical studies on the X-ray damage of malate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1) Both X-irradiation and treatment with H2O2 caused a decrease of total and an increase of available sulfhydryl groups of the enzyme and led to a loss of enzymic activity. The presence of dithiothreitol turned out to be able to protect the enzyme against X-ray or H2O2 induced inactivation. Moreover, addition of dithiothreitol after X-irradiation or H2O2 treatment allowed a considerable repair of enzymic activity. 2) Polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoreses of X-irradiated enzyme solutions, performed in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, showed the occurrence of covalently cross-linked subunits (preferably dimers and trimers) and of various definite fragments. Electrophoreses in the absence of the denaturant indicated the occurrence of enzyme aggregation. The effects were more pronounced with increasing X-ray doses. The electrophoreses also clearly reflected a radioprotection by dithiothreitol against cross-linking, but not against fragmentation. Addition of excess of 2-mercaptoethanol or of dithiothreitol to the X-irradiated enzyme clearly demonstrated that part of the covalent cross-links were disulfide bridges; the aggregates themselves, however, were held together primarily by non-covalent bonds. Blocking of exposed enzyme sulfhydryls by means of Ellman's reagent prevented both covalent cross-linking and enzyme aggregation. 3) Similar electrophoretic patterns as found for the X-irradiated enzymeterns as found for the X-irradiated enzyme were obtained for the unirradiated enzyme after treatment with H2O2. The similarity of the electropherograms, as well as the reversible diminution of enzymic activity and the loss of sulfhydryls in the presence of H2O2, suggest an involvement of H2O2 in the radiation damage of the enzyme. It seems plausible that oxidation reactions are responsible for the effects caused by X-irradiation or H2O2 treatment. (orig./AJ)

  9. Automatic determination of malate dehydrogenase activity with a flow-injection multidetection system

    OpenAIRE

    Ferna?ndez-romero, J. M.; Castro, M. D. Luque

    1990-01-01

    An automatic flow-injection method for the determination of malate dehydrogenase activity is proposed. The manifold used includes a selecting valve for closing the circuit along which the reacting plug is continuously circulated, and passed through the flow-cell of a conventional spectrophotometer, inserted into the closed circuit. A multipeak recording is obtained, each peak corresponding to one passage of the plug through the flow-cell. This recording allows the sensitivity to be modified, ...

  10. Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters from the MATE and ALMT families function independently to confer Arabidopsis aluminum tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) activated root malate and citrate exudation plays an important role in Al tolerance in many plant species. Here, we report on the identification and characterization of AtMATE, a homolog of the recently discovered sorghum and barley Al tolerance genes, here shown to encode an Al-activ...

  11. Malate inhibition of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from crassula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedding, R T; Black, M K

    1986-12-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase partially purified from leaves of Crassula and rendered insensitive to malate by storage without adjuvants can be altered to the form sensitive to malate inhibition by brief, 5-minute preincubation with 5 millimolar malate. The induction of malate sensitivity is reversible by lowering the malate(2-) concentration. Of the reaction components only HCO(3) (-) increases the sensitivity to malate in subsequent assay. Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), which itself tends to lower sensitivity to subsequent malate inhibition, also reduces the effect of malate in the assay, as does glucose-6-phosphate. PEP isotherms showed that the insensitive or unpreincubated enzyme, responds to the presence of 5 millimolar malate during assay with a 3-fold increase in K(m), but no effect on V(max). Enzyme preincubated with malate shows the same effect of malate on K(m), but in addition V(max) is inhibited 72%. It thus appears that both sensitive and insensitive forms of PEP carboxylase are subject to K-type inhibition by malate, but only the sensitive form also shows V-type inhibition. Preincubation with malate at different pH values showed that at pH 6.15, the inhibition by malate in subsequent assay at pH 7 was much lower than at pH 7 or 8. When the reaction is prerun for 30 minutes with increasing concentrations of PEP, subsequent assay with malate shows progressively less inhibition due to malate. When 0.3 millimolar PEP either alone or with 0.1 millimolar ATP and 0.3 millimolar NaF is present during preincubation, the effect of malate in a following assay is to activate the reaction. These results may indicate an effect of phosphorylation of the enzyme on sensitivity to malate. PMID:16665178

  12. Investigation for antimicrobial resistance-modulating activity of diethyl malate and 1-methyl malate against beta-lactamase class A from Bacillus licheniformis by molecular dynamics, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaie, Sako; Najafi, Kambiz; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeed; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Fathi, Fardin

    2015-05-01

    Resistance to antibiotics in bacteria, is one of the major problems of mankind. Each year, a large number of patients due to infection, lose their lives. One of the main mechanisms of antibiotic resistance is beta-lactamase secretion. This enzyme hydrolyzes the amide bond of a lactam ring in beta-lactam antibiotics. Bacillus licheniformis is a mesophilic gram-positive bacterium, which has a high potential to produce beta-lactamase class A. In this study, the inhibitory effects of some malate analogous were studied by in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, the effects of inhibitor binding on beta-lactamase were studied using MD simulations. Our results showed that diethyl malate and 1-methyl malate can decrease the MIC value of benzyl penicillin by sixteen and eight-fold, respectively. Data derived from in vitro studies revealed that decrease in MIC values is correlated with beta-lactamase inhibition. Molecular docking studies predicted the binding mode of inhibitors with the beta-lactamase active site. The structural analysis from MD simulations exhibits that binding of citrate and diethyl malate causes earlier equilibrium of beta-lactamase. After binding, the fluctuation of Ser 70 is also decreased. Based on our data, diethyl malate can be used to design the potent inhibitor against beta-lactamase class A. PMID:24836845

  13. Assay of Deoxyhypusine Synthase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Edith C.; Lee, Seung Bum; Park, Myung Hee

    2011-01-01

    Deoxyhypusine synthase catalyzes an unusual protein modification reaction. A portion of spermidine is covalently added to one specific lysine residue of one eukaryotic protein, eIF5A (eukaryotic initiation factor 5A) to form a deoxyhypusine residue. The assay measures the incorporation of radioactivity from [1,8-3H]spermidine into the eIF5A protein. The enzyme is specific for the eIF5A precursor protein and does not work on short peptides (

  14. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship study of chemical probes as hypoxia induced factor-1?/malate dehydrogenase 2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ravi; Won, Misun; Ban, Hyun Seung; Bhattarai, Deepak; Xu, Xuezhen; Eo, Yumi; Hong, Ye Seul; Singh, Sarbjit; Choi, Yongseok; Ahn, Hee-Chul; Lee, Kyeong

    2014-11-26

    A structure-activity relationship study of hypoxia inducible factor-1? inhibitor 3-aminobenzoic acid-based chemical probes, which were previously identified to bind to mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 2, was performed to provide a better understanding of the pharmacological effects of LW6 and its relation to hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2). A variety of multifunctional probes including the benzophenone or the trifluoromethyl diazirine for photoaffinity labeling and click reaction were prepared and evaluated for their biological activity using a cell-based HRE-luciferase assay as well as a MDH2 assay in human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. Among them, the diazirine probe 4a showed strong inhibitory activity against both HIF-1? and MDH2. Significantly, the inhibitory effect of the probes on HIF-1? activity was consistent with that of the MDH2 enzyme assay, which was further confirmed by the effect on in vitro binding activity to recombinant human MDH2, oxygen consumption, ATP production, and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Competitive binding modes of LW6 and probe 4a to MDH2 were also demonstrated. PMID:25356789

  15. The role of malate in the synthesis of glutamate in Pisum arvense roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genowefa Kubik-Dorosz

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo and in vitro activities of NADH-dependent glutamate synthase in excised Pisum arvense roots increased several-fold under the influence of malate while pyruvate oxaloacctate. citrate and succinate inhibited this entyme. The plastids isolated from Pisum arvense root,. ahen incubated with glutamine and ?-ketoglutarate, released glutamate into the medium Malate clearly stimulated this process. Albizziin (25 mM completely reduced the presence of glutamate in the incubation mixture. These results indicate that reduced pyridine nucleotides arising in P. arvense root plastids during oxidation of malic acid may constitute the indispensable source of electrons for glutamic acid synthesis.

  16. Assay of deoxyhypusine synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Edith C; Lee, Seung Bum; Park, Myung Hee

    2011-01-01

    Deoxyhypusine synthase catalyzes an unusual protein modification reaction. A portion of spermidine is covalently added to one specific lysine residue of one eukaryotic protein, eIF5A (eukaryotic initiation factor 5A) to form a deoxyhypusine residue. The assay measures the incorporation of radioactivity from [1,8-(3)H]spermidine into the eIF5A protein. The enzyme is specific for the eIF5A precursor protein and does not work on short peptides (eIF5A, are described in this chapter. The first, and most specific, method is the measurement of the amount of [(3)H]deoxyhypusine in the protein hydrolysate after its separation by ion exchange chromatography. However, this method requires some specialized equipment. The second method is counting the radioactivity in TCA-precipitated protein after thorough washing. The third method involves determining the radioactivity in the band of [(3)H]deoxyhypusine-containing eIF5A after separation by SDS-PAGE. The fourth method is a filter-binding assay. It is important to minimize nonspecific binding of [(3)H]spermidine to proteins in the assay mixture, especially for methods 2 and 4, as illustrated in a comparison figure in the chapter. PMID:21318875

  17. The Mrp Na+/H+ Antiporter Increases the Activity of the Malate:Quinone Oxidoreductase of an Escherichia coli Respiratory Mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, Talia H.; Ito, Masahiro; Hicks, David B.; Nuqui, Mark; Guffanti, Arthur A.; Krulwich, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    Mrp catalyzes secondary Na+/H+ antiport and was hypothesized to have an additional primary energization mode. Mrp-dependent complementation of nonfermentative growth of an Escherichia coli respiratory mutant supported this hypothesis but is shown here to be related to increased expression of host malate:quinone oxidoreductase, not to catalytic activity of Mrp.

  18. Functional, structural and phylogenetic analysis of domains underlying the Al-sensitivity of the aluminium-activated malate/anion transporter, TaALMT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    TaALMT1 (Triticum aestivum Aluminum Activated Malate Transporter) is the founding member of a novel gene family of anion transporters (ALMTs) that mediate the efflux of organic acids. A small subgroup of root-localized ALMTs, including TaALMT1, is physiologically associated with in planta aluminum (...

  19. Feedback inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity by nitric oxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Assreuy, J.; Cunha, F. Q.; Liew, F. Y.; Moncada, S.

    1993-01-01

    1. A murine macrophage cell line, J774, expressed nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity in response to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma, 10 u ml-1) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 ng ml-1). The enzyme activity was first detectable 6 h after incubation, peaked at 12 h and became undetectable after 48 h. 2. The decline in the NO synthase activity was not due to inhibition by stable substances secreted by the cells into the culture supernatant. 3. The decline in the NO synthase activity was significan...

  20. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies on the X-ray induced aggregation of ribonnuclease, lactate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and serum albumin. A comparison with malate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray induced aggregation of ribonuclease, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and serum albumin in aqueous solution was monitored in situ by means of small-angle X-ray scattering. Measurements carried out with ribonuclease, LDH and serum albumin in the absence of dithiothreitol (DTT) and with GAPDH in the presence of 0.2mM DTT established the following series for the rates of aggregation of the proteins under these conditions: ribonuclease >LDH> >GAPDH> serum albumin. Within six hours from the beginning of irradiation (i.e. about the time required for the exposure of one complete scattering curve under the conditions of our experiments) the following increases of R tilde resulted: ribonuclease 9%, LDH 7%, GAPDH 4%, serum albumin <1%. Changes of R tilde exceeding 1% are, of course, too high to be tolerated in conventional scattering experiments. Measurements carried out with LDH and GAPDH in the presence of 2mM DTT established a strong protective effect of DTT against the X-ray induced aggregation of these enzymes. The initial increase of R tilde upon irradiation of LDH and GAPDH in the presence of 2mM DTT was found to be even lower than the increase of R tilde observed when serum albumin was irradiated in the absence of DTT. However, the observed decrease of anti x of LDH and GAPDH at the early stages of irradiation suggested the occurrence of fragmentation of the enzymes as another consequence of radiation damage. This fer consequence of radiation damage. This finding is discussed in context with the results from previous scattering experiments and electrophoretic studies on malate synthase. (author)

  1. SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY1, CALMODULIN BINDING TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATOR2, and Other Transcription Factors Are Involved in ALUMINUM-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER1 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokizawa, Mutsutomo; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Saito, Tatsunori; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Iuchi, Satoshi; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y; Koyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) the root apex is protected from aluminum (Al) rhizotoxicity by excretion of malate, an Al chelator, by ALUMINUM-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER1 (AtALMT1). AtALMT1 expression is fundamentally regulated by the SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY1 (STOP1) zinc finger protein, but other transcription factors have roles that enable Al-inducible expression with a broad dynamic range. In this study, we characterized multiple cis-elements in the AtALMT1 promoter that interact with transcription factors. In planta complementation assays of AtALMT1 driven by 5' truncated promoters of different lengths showed that the promoter region between -540 and 0 (the first ATG) restored the Al-sensitive phenotype of atalm1 and thus contains cis-elements essential for AtALMT1 expression for Al tolerance. Computation of overrepresented octamers showed that eight regions in this promoter region contained potential cis-elements involved in Al induction and STOP1 regulation. Mutation in a position around -297 from the first ATG completely inactivated AtALMT1 expression and Al response. In vitro binding assays showed that this region contained the STOP1 binding site, which accounted for the recognition by four zinc finger domains of the protein. Other positions were characterized as cis-elements that regulated expression by repressors and activators and a transcription factor that determines root tip expression of AtALMT1. From the consensus of known cis-elements, we identified CALMODULIN-BINDING TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATOR2 to be an activator of AtALMT1 expression. Al-inducible expression of AtALMT1 changed transcription starting sites, which increased the abundance of transcripts with a shortened 5' untranslated region. The present analyses identified multiple mechanisms that regulate AtALMT1 expression. PMID:25627216

  2. Phasin Proteins Activate Aeromonas caviae Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthase but Not Ralstonia eutropha PHA Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Ushimaru, Kazunori; Motoda, Yoko; Numata, Keiji; Tsuge, Takeharu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo activity assays of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) in the presence of phasin proteins (PhaPs), which revealed that PhaPs are activators of PhaC derived from Aeromonas caviae (PhaCAc). In in vitro assays, among the three PhaCs tested, PhaCAc was significantly activated when PhaPs were added at the beginning of polymerization (prepolymerization PhaCAc), whereas the prepolymerization PhaCRe (derived from Ralstonia eutropha) and PhaCDa...

  3. Cytoplasmic malate levels in maize root tips during K+ ion uptake determined by 13C-NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K; Roberts, J K

    1991-03-19

    13C-NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the level of cytoplasmic malate in maize root tips that exhibited different rates of malate synthesis. Intracellular malate was 13C-labeled at carbons 1 and 4 by perfusing root tips with 5 nM H13CO3-. This labeling reflects the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase (production of [4-13C]malate), and fumarase (scrambling of 13C-label between C1 and C4 of malate). In vivo 13C-NMR spectra contained a clearly resolved resonance from cytoplasmic [4-13C]malate, while the resonance from cytoplasmic [1-13C]malate overlapped with others. After 90 min of H13CO3- treatment, 13C-labeling of organic acid pools had reached steady-state. Thereafter, the ratios [13C]malate/[12C + 13C]malate and [1-13C]malate/[4-13C]malate in tissue extracts remained constant; evidence is presented that these ratios were the same for both cytoplasmic and total cellular malate. Hence, the intensity of the cytoplasmic [4-13C]malate signal was proportional to the amount of cytoplasmic malate in root tips. Potassium sulfate stimulate malate synthesis in maize root tips, relative to root tips perfused with HCO3- alone; total cellular malate doubled after approx. 1 h of 5 mM K2SO4-treatment. Cytoplasmic malate increased from approx. 3.5 mM to approx. 7.5 mM within 45 min of the onset of K2SO4-treatment, declining slightly thereafter. The possible effects of these changing cytoplasmic malate concentration on the enzymes involved in malate metabolism are discussed. PMID:2009309

  4. Malate transport and vacuolar ion channels in CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheffings, C M; Pantoja, O; Ashcroft, F M; Smith, J A

    1997-03-01

    Malate is a ubiquitous vacuolar anion in terrestrial plants that plays an important role in carbon metabolism and ionic homeostasis. In plants showing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), malate is accumulated as a central intermediary in the process of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, and it is also one of the major charge-balancing anions present in the vacuole. During the CAM cycle, malic acid produced as a result of dark CO(2) fixation accumulates in the vacuole at night (2 H(+) per malate), and is remobilized from the vacuole in the following light period. CAM plants thus provide a good model for studying both the mechanism and control of malate transport across the tonoplast. Thermodynamic considerations suggest that malate(2-) (the anionic species transported out of the cytosol) is passively distributed across the tonoplast. Malic acid accumulation could thus be explained by malate(2-) transport into the vacuole occurring electrophoretically in response to the transmembrane electrical potential difference established by the tonoplast H(+)-ATPase and/or H(+)-PPase. Recent studies using the patch-clamp technique have provided evidence for the existence of a vacuolar malate-selective anion channel (VMAL) in both CAM species and C(3) species. The VMAL current has a number of distinctive properties that include strong rectification (opening only at cytosolicside negative membrane potentials that would favour malate uptake into the vacuole), lack of Ca(2+) dependence, and slow activation kinetics. The kinetics of VMAL activation can be resolved into three components, consisting of an instantaneous current and two slower components with voltage-independent time constants of 0.76 s and 5.3 s in Kalanchoë daigremontiana. These characteristics suggest that the VMAL channel represents the major pathway for malate transport into the vacuole, although the strong rectification of the channel means there may be a separate, still-to-be-identified, transport mechanism for malate efflux. PMID:21245236

  5. Changes in Activities of Sucrose Synthase and Sucrose Phosphate Synthase and Sugar Content During Postharvest Senescence in Two Broccoli Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Bimal Kumar Pramanik; Toshiyuki Matsui; Haruo Suzuki; Yusuke Kosugi

    2004-01-01

    Changes in sucrose synthase (SS) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activities and sugar content during postharvest senescence in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. cvs. `Hartland` and `Sairin`) were studied. The first change in color became apparent between 2 and 3 d but whole head yellowed after 5 d of storage. The SS activity increased gradually in all portions although with few fluctuations in branchlets of both cultivars at the end of the storage time. In case of SPS, there was no i...

  6. Nitric oxide synthase expression and enzymatic activity in multiple sclerosis.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, H; Andersen, B

    2004-01-01

    We used post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance to obtain paired biopsies from the brains of four patients with clinical definite multiple sclerosis (MS). Samples were analyzed for the immunoreactivity (IR) of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase isoforms [inducible, neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS)], and enzymatic NO synthase activity. MRI guided biopsies documented more active plaques than macroscopic examination, and histological examination revealed further lesions. Inducible NOS (iNOS) was the dominant IR isoform, while reactive astrocytes were the dominant iNOS expressing cells in active lesions. NOS IR expressing cells were widely distributed in plaques, in white and gray matter that appeared normal macroscopically, and on MR. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) was highly expressed in intraparenchymal vascular endothelial cells of MS patients. A control group matched for age and sex showed no such changes. Our data support the hypothesis that NO is a pathogenic factor in MS, and that NOS IR is strongly expressed in brain regions appearing normal by MRI

  7. Neural tube closure depends on nitric oxide synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachmany, Amir; Gold, Veronica; Tsur, Asaf; Arad, Dan; Weil, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    Neural tube (NT) closure is a multifactorial process that involves yet unresolved molecular mechanisms. It had been shown previously that high levels of nitric oxide (NO) block the process of NT closure in the chick embryo by inhibiting methionine synthase (MS). The MS inhibition and its effect on NT closure could be alleviated by folic acid, suggesting the involvement of the folate-methionine pathway in the process. Here we test the hypothesis that endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity regulates the MS activity required in the process of NT closure. The experiments described here reveal that NOS activity per se, is indeed critical for NT closure in the chick embryo. Inhibition of NOS activity with either 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP), which blocks biosynthesis of the NOS co-factor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), or with calmidazolium, which blocks calcium-calmodulin binding to NOS, resulted in reduced MS activity and consequently ablated NT closure. Addition of BH4 or the calcium ionophore A23187 restored NOS and MS activities, resulting in NT closure. The results described here imply that NOS and MS activities can serve as functional markers in this developmental process as they are essential in the process of NT closure. PMID:16300634

  8. Active site mutations of recombinant deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hj; Schofield, CJ; Lloyd, Md

    2002-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of active site residues of deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase active site residues was carried out to investigate their role in catalysis. The following mutations were made and their effects on the conversion of 2-oxoglutarate and the oxidation of penicillin N or G were assessed: M180F, G299N, G300N, Y302S, Y302F/G300A, Y302E, Y302H, and N304A. The Y302S, Y302E, and Y302H mutations reduced 2-oxoglutarate conversions and abolished (

  9. Enhanced anti-diabetic activity of a combination of chromium(III) malate complex and propolis and its acute oral toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang-Yang; Li, Fang; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guang-Hua; Li, Jing; Qu, Hong-Yuan; Ren, Yue-Na; Yang, Liu-Qing

    2012-07-01

    In order to obtain the additional benefit of anti-diabetic activity and protective effects of liver injury for diabetes, the anti-diabetic effect and acute oral toxicity of a combination of chromium(III) malate complex (Cr(2)(LMA)(3)) and propolis were assessed. The anti-diabetic activity of the combination of the Cr(2)LMA(3) and propolis was compared with Cr(2)(LMA)(3) and propolis alone in alloxan-induced diabetic mice by daily oral gavage for a period of 2 weeks. Acute oral toxicity of the combination of the Cr(2)LMA(3) and propolis was tested using ICR mice at the dose of 1.0-5.0 g/kg body mass by a single oral gavage and observed for a period of 2 weeks. The results of the anti-diabetic activity of the combination from the aspects of blood glucose level, liver glycogen level, and the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase indicated that the increased anti-diabetic activity and the protective efficacy of liver injury for diabetes were observed. In acute toxicity study, LD(50) (median lethal dose) value for the combination was greater than 5.0 g/kg body mass. The combination of Cr(2)LMA(3) and propolis might represent the nutritional supplement with potential therapeutic value to control blood glucose and exhibit protective efficacy of liver injury for diabetes and non-toxicity in acute toxicity. PMID:22322882

  10. Phasin proteins activate Aeromonas caviae polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase but not Ralstonia eutropha PHA synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushimaru, Kazunori; Motoda, Yoko; Numata, Keiji; Tsuge, Takeharu

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo activity assays of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) in the presence of phasin proteins (PhaPs), which revealed that PhaPs are activators of PhaC derived from Aeromonas caviae (PhaCAc). In in vitro assays, among the three PhaCs tested, PhaCAc was significantly activated when PhaPs were added at the beginning of polymerization (prepolymerization PhaCAc), whereas the prepolymerization PhaCRe (derived from Ralstonia eutropha) and PhaCDa (Delftia acidovorans) showed reduced activity with PhaPs. The PhaP-activated PhaCAc showed a slight shift of substrate preference toward 3-hydroxyhexanoyl-CoA (C6). PhaPAc also activated PhaCAc when it was added during polymerization (polymer-elongating PhaCAc), while this effect was not observed for PhaCRe. In an in vivo assay using Escherichia coli TOP10 as the host strain, the effect of PhaPAc expression on PHA synthesis by PhaCAc or PhaCRe was examined. As PhaPAc expression increased, PHA production was increased by up to 2.3-fold in the PhaCAc-expressing strain, whereas it was slightly increased in the PhaCRe-expressing strain. Taken together, this study provides evidence that PhaPs function as activators for PhaCAc both in vitro and in vivo but do not activate PhaCRe. This activating effect may be attributed to the new role of PhaPs in the polymerization reaction by PhaCAc. PMID:24584238

  11. Cilofungin (LY121019) inhibits Candida albicans (1-3)-beta-D-glucan synthase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Taft, C. S.; Stark, T.; Selitrennikoff, C. P.

    1988-01-01

    Cilofungin (LY121019) inhibited Candida albicans growth and activity of (1-3)-beta-glucan synthase, for which it was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki-app of 2.5 microM. Cilofungin had no effect on chitin synthase activity. Based on these and other data, it seems likely that cilofungin inhibits fungal growth by inhibiting (1-3)-beta-glucan synthase activity.

  12. Human blood platelets lack nitric oxide synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmer, Anke; Gambaryan, Stepan; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2014-10-31

    Abstract Reports on expression and functionality of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in human blood platelets and erythrocytes are contradictory. We used a specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to detect NOS activity in human platelets. The method measures simultaneously [(15)N]nitrite and [(15)N]nitrate formed from oxidized (15)N-labeled nitric oxide ((15)NO) upon its NOS-catalyzed formation from the substrate l-[guanidino-(15)N2]-arginine. Using this GC-MS assay, we did not detect functional NOS in non-stimulated platelets and in intact platelets activated by various agonists (adenosine diphosphate, collagen, thrombin, or von Willebrand factor) or lysed platelets. l-[guanidino-nitro]-Arginine-inhibitable NOS activity was measured after addition of recombinant human endothelial NOS to lysed platelets. Previous and recent studies from our group challenge expression and functionality of NOS in human platelets and erythrocytes. PMID:25360996

  13. Pterins inhibit nitric oxide synthase activity in rat alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorens, P. G.; van Overveld, F. J.; Bult, H.; Vermeire, P. A.; Herman, A. G.

    1992-01-01

    1. The synthesis of nitrite and citrulline from L-arginine by immune-stimulated rat alveolar macrophages and the modulation of this synthesis were studied. 2,4-Diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP), 6R-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin (BH4) and L-sepiapterin were potent inhibitors of the recombinant interferon-gamma induced production of nitrogen oxides in intact cultured cells with I50 values for BH4 and L-sepiapterin of approximately 10 microM. They were equally effective in inhibiting the induced production of citrulline. This inhibitory effect was concentration-dependent for all three modulators investigated. 2. The inhibitory effects were not dependent on incubation times of either 24 or 48 h, on the immune-stimulus used (lipopolysaccharide, interferon-gamma), or whether these stimuli were added during or after the induction period. 3. Pterin-6-carboxylic acid (PCA), which cannot be converted into BH4, and methotrexate (MTX), which inhibits dihydrofolatereductase but not de novo biosynthesis of BH4, did not change the production of nitrite. 4. The data indicate that DAHP, an inhibitor of the de novo biosynthesis of the co-factor BH4, blocks the nitric oxide synthase activity in intact cells. Since the pterins BH4 and L-sepiapterin blocked the L-arginine dependent production of nitrite and citrulline, the activity of nitric oxide synthase in phagocytic cells may be regulated by metabolic endproducts of the de novo biosynthesis of BH4. PMID:1281717

  14. Malate-Induced Hysteresis of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase from Crassula argentea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngam-Ek, A; Seery, T A; Amis, E J; Grover, S D

    1989-11-01

    The hysteretic behavior of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase from Crassula argentea has been investigated. Incubation of the purified enzyme with the inhibitor malate prior to starting the reaction by the addition of PEP resulted in a kinetic lag of several minutes duration. The length of the lag was inversely proportional to the enzyme concentration, suggesting subunit association-dissociation as the hysteretic mechanism, rather than a mechanism based on a slow conformational change in the enzyme. Dynamic laser light scattering measurements also support this conclusion, showing that the diffusion coefficient of malate-incubated enzyme slowly decreased after the reaction was started by the addition of PEP. Lags were observed only at pH values of 7.5 or lower. Maximum lags were observed after 10 min of preincubation with malate. Fumarate and succinate, which like malate caused mixed inhibition, also caused lags. In contrast, no lag was induced by malate in the presence of PEP or by the competitive inhibitor phosphoglycolate. The activators glucose 6-phosphate and malonate decreased the malate-induced lag. PMID:16667161

  15. Methylene blue inhibits hippocampal nitric oxide synthase activity in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volke, V; Wegener, Gregers

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, on the hippocampal nitric oxide synthase activity in vivo. We used a microdialysis-based technique of measuring conversion of [3H]l-arginine to [3H]l-citrulline in freely moving rats. The administration of methylene blue (0.1 and 1 mM) via the microdialysis probe caused a dose-dependent decrease in [3H]l-citrulline efflux comparable with the effect of unselective NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (2 mM). We conclude that methylene blue inhibits brain NOS activity in vivo and thus interferes with NO-cGMP cascade in different levels.

  16. The role of malate in plant homeostasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Finkemeier, I.; Sweetlove, Lj

    2009-01-01

    Malate is a central metabolite of the plant cell with important roles in plant physiology and metabolism. Here, we summarize the most recent advances in our understanding of malate homeostasis in central metabolism, guard cell functioning, and root exudation.

  17. Reduced ceramide synthase 2 activity causes progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Mai-Britt; Olsen, Anne S B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ceramides are precursors of complex sphingolipids (SLs), which are important for normal functioning of both the developing and mature brain. Altered SL levels have been associated with many neurodegenerative disorders, including epilepsy, although few direct links have been identified between genes involved in SL metabolism and epilepsy. METHODS: We used quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and enzymatic assays to determine the mRNA, protein, and activity levels of ceramide synthase 2 (CERS2) in fiibroblasts isolated from parental control subjects and from a patient diagnosed with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME). Mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy were used to examine the effects of reduced CERS2 activity on cellular lipid composition and plasma membrane functions. RESULTS: We identify a novel 27 kb heterozygous deletion including the CERS2 gene in a proband diagnosed with PME. Compared to parental controls, levels of CERS2 mRNA, protein, and activity were reduced by ˜50%in fibroblasts isolated from this proband, resulting in significantly reduced levels of ceramides and sphingomyelins containing the very long-chain fatty acids C24:0 and C26:0. The change in SL composition was also reflected in a reduction in cholera toxin B immunofluorescence, indicating that membrane composition and function are altered. INTERPRETATION: We propose that reduced levels of CERS2, and consequently diminished levels of ceramides and SLs containing very long-chain fatty acids, lead to development of PME.

  18. Malate synthesis and secretion mediated by a manganese-enhanced malate dehydrogenase confers superior manganese tolerance in Stylosanthes guianensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijian; Sun, Lili; Liu, Pandao; Liu, Guodao; Tian, Jiang; Liao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) toxicity is a major constraint limiting plant growth on acidic soils. Superior Mn tolerance in Stylosanthes spp. has been well documented, but its molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, superior Mn tolerance in Stylosanthes guianensis was confirmed, as reflected by a high Mn toxicity threshold. Furthermore, genetic variation of Mn tolerance was evaluated using two S. guianensis genotypes, which revealed that the Fine-stem genotype had higher Mn tolerance than the TPRC2001-1 genotype, as exhibited through less reduction in dry weight under excess Mn, and accompanied by lower internal Mn concentrations. Interestingly, Mn-stimulated increases in malate concentrations and exudation rates were observed only in the Fine-stem genotype. Proteomic analysis of Fine-stem roots revealed that S. guianensis Malate Dehydrogenase1 (SgMDH1) accumulated in response to Mn toxicity. Western-blot and quantitative PCR analyses showed that Mn toxicity resulted in increased SgMDH1 accumulation only in Fine-stem roots, but not in TPRC2001-1. The function of SgMDH1-mediated malate synthesis was verified through in vitro biochemical analysis of SgMDH1 activities against oxaloacetate, as well as in vivo increased malate concentrations in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), soybean (Glycine max) hairy roots, and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) with SgMDH1 overexpression. Furthermore, SgMDH1 overexpression conferred Mn tolerance in Arabidopsis, which was accompanied by increased malate exudation and reduced plant Mn concentrations, suggesting that secreted malate could alleviate Mn toxicity in plants. Taken together, we conclude that the superior Mn tolerance of S. guianensis is achieved by coordination of internal and external Mn detoxification through malate synthesis and exudation, which is regulated by SgMDH1 at both transcription and protein levels. PMID:25378694

  19. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates glycogen synthase activity in 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hormonal regulation of glycogen synthase, an enzyme that can be phosphorylated on multiple sites, is often associated with changes in its phosphorylation state. Enzyme activation is conventionally monitored by determining the synthase activity ratio [(activity in the absence of glucose 6-P)/(activity in the presence of glucose 6-P)]. Insulin causes an activation of glycogen synthase with a concomitant decrease in its phosphate content. In a previous report, the authors showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) increases the glycogen synthase activity ratio in Swiss 3T3 cells. The time and dose-dependency of this response was similar to that of insulin. Their recent results indicate that PDGF also stimulates glycogen synthase activity. Enzyme activation was maximal after 30 min. of incubation with PDGF; the time course observed was very similar to that with insulin and EGF. At 1 ng/ml (0.03nM), PDGF caused a maximal stimulation of 4-fold in synthase activity ratio. Half-maximal stimulation was observed at 0.2 ng/ml (6 pM). The time course of changes in enzyme activity ratio closely followed that of 125I-PDGF binding. The authors data suggest that PDGF, as well as EFG and insulin, may be important in regulating glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation/dephosphorylation mechanisms

  20. SCREENING OF 6-PYRUVOYL-TETRAHYDROPTERIN SYNTHASE ACTIVITY DEFICIENCY AMONG HYPERP HENYLALANINEMIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURDI QUJEQ

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A deficiency of the phenylalanine hydroxylase activity or its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin may"nlead to hyperphenylalamnemia and as a result, loss of IQ, poor school performance, and"nbehavior problems occurs. Deficiency in 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase activity is the"nmajor cause of tetrahydrobiopterin deficient phenylketonuria. In this study, blood specimens"nfrom 165 healthy volunteers and 127 children with phenylketonuria were used to determine"nthe 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase activity. It was found that the activity of 6-"npyruvoyl- tetrahydropterin synthase was decreased in comparison with control [23.46 +/-"n2.94, (mean +/- SD, mmol/ ml/h, n=I27 vs. 127.63 +/- 4.52, n=165, p<0.05]. Results of"nthis study indicate that examination of 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase activity is helpful"nand may lead to the diagnosis cause of hyperphenylalaninemia.

  1. Selectivity of Fungal Sesquiterpene Synthases: Role of the Active Site's H-1? Loop in Catalysis? †

    OpenAIRE

    Lo?pez-gallego, Fernando; Wawrzyn, Graysont; Schmidt-dannert, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Sesquiterpene synthases are responsible for the cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate into a myriad of structurally diverse compounds with various biological activities. We examine here the role of the conserved active site H-?1 loop in catalysis in three previously characterized fungal sesquiterpene synthases. The H-?1 loops of Cop3, Cop4, and Cop6 from Coprinus cinereus were altered by site-directed mutagenesis and the resultant product profiles were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass sp...

  2. Malate metabolism in Hoya carnosa mitochondria and its role in photosynthesis during CAM phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hoang Thi Kim; Nose, Akihiro; Agarie, Sakae; Yoshida, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the respiratory properties and the role of the mitochondria isolated from one phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK)-CAM plant, Hoya carnosa, in malate metabolism during CAM phase III. The mitochondria showed high malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and aspartate amino transferase (mAST), and a significant amount of malic enzyme (mME) activities. H. carnosa readily oxidized malate via mME and mMDH in the presence of some cofactors such as thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), coenzyme A (CoA) or NAD(+). A high respiration rate of malate oxidation was observed at pH 7.2 with NAD(+) and glutamate (Glu). Providing AST and Glu simultaneously into the respiratory medium strongly increased the rates of malate oxidation, and this oxidation was gradually inhibited by an inhibitor of alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) carrier, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP). The mitochondria readily oxidized aspartate (Asp) or alpha-KG individually with low rates, while they oxidized Asp and alpha-KG simultaneously with high rates, and this simultaneous oxidation was also inhibited by PLP. By measuring the capacity of the mitochondrial shuttle, it was found that the OAA produced via mMDH seemed not to be transported outside the mitochondria, but mAST interconverted OAA and Glu to Asp and alpha-KG, respectively, and exported them out via a malate-aspartate (malate-Asp) shuttle. The data in this research suggest that during phase III of PCK-CAM, H. carnosa mitochondria oxidized malate via both mME and the mMDH systems depending on metabolic requirements. However, malate metabolism by the mMDH system did not operate via a malate-OAA shuttle similarly to Ananas comosus mitochondria, but it operated via a malate-Asp shuttle similarly to Kalanchoë daigremontiana mitochondria. PMID:18403382

  3. Screening for latent acute intermittent porphyria: the value of measuring both leucocyte delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthase and erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen-1-synthase activities.

    OpenAIRE

    Mccoll, K. E.; Moore, M. R.; Thompson, G. G.; Goldberg, A.

    1982-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of haem biosynthesis characterised by reduced activity of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen-1-(URO) synthase and compensatory increased activity of the rate controlling enzyme delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) synthase. Subjects with the disorder should be identified as they are at risk of developing severe porphyric attacks if exposed to a variety of drugs or chemicals. We have assessed the value of measuring the activ...

  4. The activity of glycogen synthase phosphatase limits hepatic glycogen deposition in the adrenalectomized starved rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, M; Gevers, G; Stalmans, W

    1983-01-01

    Hepatocytes from adrenalectomized 48 h-starved rats responded to increasing glucose concentrations with a progressively more complete inactivation of phosphorylase. Yet no activation of glycogen synthase occurred, even in a K+-rich medium. Protein phosphatase activities in crude liver preparations were assayed with purified substrates. Adrenalectomy plus starvation decreased synthase phosphatase activity by about 90%, but hardly affected phosphorylase phosphatase activity. Synthase b present in liver extracts from adrenalectomized starved rats was rapidly and completely converted into the a form on addition of liver extract from a normal fed rat. Glycogen synthesis can be slowly re-induced by administration of either glucose or cortisol to the deficient rats. In these conditions there was a close correspondence between the initial recovery of synthase phosphatase activity and the amount of synthase a present in the liver. The latter parameter was strictly correlated with the measured rate of glycogen synthesis in vivo. The decreased activity of synthase phosphatase emerges thus as the single factor that limits hepatic glycogen deposition in the adrenalectomized starved rat. PMID:6311186

  5. Reassessment of the Transhydrogenase/Malate Shunt Pathway in Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 through Kinetic Characterization of Malic Enzyme and Malate Dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillefer, M; Rydzak, T; Levin, D B; Oresnik, I J; Sparling, R

    2015-04-01

    Clostridium thermocellum produces ethanol as one of its major end products from direct fermentation of cellulosic biomass. Therefore, it is viewed as an attractive model for the production of biofuels via consolidated bioprocessing. However, a better understanding of the metabolic pathways, along with their putative regulation, could lead to improved strategies for increasing the production of ethanol. In the absence of an annotated pyruvate kinase in the genome, alternate means of generating pyruvate have been sought. Previous proteomic and transcriptomic work detected high levels of a malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme, which may be used as part of a malate shunt for the generation of pyruvate from phosphoenolpyruvate. The purification and characterization of the malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme are described in order to elucidate their putative roles in malate shunt and their potential role in C. thermocellum metabolism. The malate dehydrogenase catalyzed the reduction of oxaloacetate to malate utilizing NADH or NADPH with a kcat of 45.8 s(-1) or 14.9 s(-1), respectively, resulting in a 12-fold increase in catalytic efficiency when using NADH over NADPH. The malic enzyme displayed reversible malate decarboxylation activity with a kcat of 520.8 s(-1). The malic enzyme used NADP(+) as a cofactor along with NH4 (+) and Mn(2+) as activators. Pyrophosphate was found to be a potent inhibitor of malic enzyme activity, with a Ki of 0.036 mM. We propose a putative regulatory mechanism of the malate shunt by pyrophosphate and NH4 (+) based on the characterization of the malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. PMID:25616802

  6. Changes in Carbohydrate Content and Activities of Acid Invertase, Sucrose Synthase and Sucrose Phosphate Synthase in Broccoli During Short Term Storage at Low Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Bimal Kumar Pramanik; Toshiyuki Matsui; Haruo Suzuki; Yusuke Kosugi

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the changes in carbohydrate content and activities of invertase, sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase in two broccoli cultivar (Brassica oleracea L. Cvs. `Hartland` and `Sairin`) stored at 5?C. Respiration rate rapidly declined after 1 day of storage and gradually decreased at the end of the storage period. Color did not change significantly at the end of the storage period. In both cultivars and portions, the invertase activity increased gradually at the ...

  7. Vacuolar malate uptake is mediated by an anion-selective inward rectifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafke, Jens B; Hafke, Yuliya; Smith, J Andrew C; Lüttge, Ulrich; Thiel, Gerhard

    2003-07-01

    Electrophysiological studies using the patch-clamp technique were performed on isolated vacuoles from leaf mesophyll cells of the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana to characterize the malate transport system responsible for nocturnal malic acid accumulation. In the presence of malate on both sides of the membrane, the current-voltage relations of the tonoplast were dominated by a strongly inward-rectifying anion-selective channel that was active at cytoplasmic-side negative voltages. Rectification of the macroscopic conductance was reflected in the voltage-dependent gating of a 3-pS malate-selective ion channel, which showed a half-maximal open probability at -43 mV. Also, the time-averaged unitary currents following a step to a negative voltage corresponded to the time-dependent kinetics of the macroscopic currents, suggesting that the activity of this channel underlies the anion-selective inward rectifier. The inward rectifier showed saturation kinetics with respect to malate (apparent Km of 2.5 mm malate2- activity), a selectivity sequence of fumarate2- > malate2- > Cl- > maleate2- approximately citrate3-, and greater activity at higher pH values (with an apparent pK of 7.1 and maximum activity at around pH 8.0). All these properties were in close agreement with the characteristics of malate transport observed in isolated tonoplast vesicles. Further, 100 microM niflumate reversibly blocked the activity of the 3-pS channel and inhibited both macroscopic currents and malate transport into tonoplast vesicles to the same extent. The macroscopic current densities recorded at physiological voltages and the estimated channel density of 0.2 microm-2 are sufficient to account for the observed rates of nocturnal malic acid accumulation in this CAM plant, suggesting that the 3-pS, inward-rectifying, anion-selective channel represents the principal pathway for malate influx into the vacuole. PMID:12834407

  8. Increase in brain nitric oxide synthase activity in daunorubicin-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P; Vig, P J; Veerisetty, V; Cameron, J A; Sekhon, B S; Desaiah, D

    1996-02-01

    Anthracyclines such as daunorubicin are very effective anticancer agents. These drugs are known to cause side effects including cardiotoxicity. Anthracyclines are neurotoxic to laboratory animals. Nitric oxide is a novel and very important chemical messenger in the brain. However, at higher levels, nitric oxide causes well defined neurotoxicity. Therefore, we determined nitric oxide synthase activity in rat brain after daunorubicin treatment in an effort to explain the neurotoxicity produced by anthracyclines. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with different subcutaneous doses of daunorubicin (0.1-4.0 mg/kg/week for five weeks) while control animals were injected with phosphate buffered saline. There was a significant increase (80%) of nitric oxide synthase activity in daunorubicin-treated animals as compared to controls. This activity was inhibited by N-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA), nitroarginine, N-6-aminohexyl-5-chloro-1-napthalene sulfonamide (W-7), a calmodulin antagonist, suggesting that the nitric oxide synthase activity is calmodulin dependent. Further, our in vitro studies demonstrated that daunorubicin interacted with calmodulin as measured by N-phenyl-1-napthylamine (NPN) fluorescence. These results indicate that daunorubicin increases nitric oxide synthase activity in rat brain which may increase the levels of nitric oxide. The increased levels of nitric oxide may cause neurotoxicity. Our results further indicate that daunorubicin interacts with calmodulin and enhances nitric oxide synthase activity which is dependent on calmodulin. PMID:8822043

  9. Promotion of beta-glucan synthase activity in corn microsomal membranes by calcium and protein phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliyath, G.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1988-01-01

    Regulation of the activity of beta-glucan synthase was studied using microsomal preparations from corn coleoptiles. The specific activity as measured by the incorporation of glucose from uridine diphospho-D-[U-14C]glucose varied between 5 to 15 pmol (mg protein)-1 min-1. Calcium promoted beta-glucan synthase activity and the promotion was observed at free calcium concentrations as low as 1 micromole. Kinetic analysis of substrate-velocity curve showed an apparent Km of 1.92 x 10(-4) M for UDPG. Calcium increased the Vmax from 5.88 x 10(-7) mol liter-1 min-1 in the absence of calcium to 9.52 x 10(-7) mol liter-1 min-1 and 1.66 x 10(-6) mol liter-1 min-1 in the presence of 0.5 mM and 1 mM calcium, respectively. The Km values remained the same under these conditions. Addition of ATP further increased the activity above the calcium-promoted level. Sodium fluoride, a phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor, promoted glucan synthase activity indicating that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are involved in the regulation of the enzyme activity. Increasing the concentration of sodium fluoride from 0.25 mM to 10 mM increased glucan synthase activity five-fold over the + calcium + ATP control. Phosphorylation of membrane proteins also showed a similar increase under these conditions. Calmodulin, in the presence of calcium and ATP stimulated glucan synthase activity substantially, indicating that calmodulin could be involved in the calcium-dependent phosphorylation and promotion of beta-glucan synthase activity. The role of calcium in mediating auxin action is discussed.

  10. Studies on the active site of deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase.

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Md; Lee, Hj; Harlos, K.; Zhang, Zh; Baldwin, Je; Schofield, CJ; Charnock, Jm; Garner, Cd; Hara, T.; Terwisscha Scheltinga, Ac; Valega?rd, K.; Viklund, Ja; Hajdu, J.; Andersson, I.; Danielsson, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS) from Streptomyces clavuligerus was expressed at ca 25 % of total soluble protein in Escherichia coli and purified by an efficient large-scale procedure. Purified protein catalysed the conversions of penicillins N and G to deacetoxycephems. Gel filtration and light scattering studies showed that in solution monomeric apo-DAOCS is in equilibrium with a trimeric form from which it crystallizes. DAOCS wa...

  11. Regulation of callose synthase activity in situ in alamethicin-permeabilized Arabidopsis and tobacco suspension cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmusson Allan G

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cell wall component callose is mainly synthesized at certain developmental stages and after wounding or pathogen attack. Callose synthases are membrane-bound enzymes that have been relatively well characterized in vitro using isolated membrane fractions or purified enzyme. However, little is known about their functional properties in situ, under conditions when the cell wall is intact. To allow in situ investigations of the regulation of callose synthesis, cell suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0, and tobacco (BY-2, were permeabilized with the channel-forming peptide alamethicin. Results Nucleic acid-binding dyes and marker enzymes demonstrated alamethicin permeabilization of plasma membrane, mitochondria and plastids, also allowing callose synthase measurements. In the presence of alamethicin, Ca2+ addition was required for callose synthase activity, and the activity was further stimulated by Mg2+ Cells pretreated with oryzalin to destabilize the microtubules prior to alamethicin permeabilization showed significantly lower callose synthase activity as compared to non-treated cells. As judged by aniline blue staining, the callose formed was deposited both at the cell walls joining adjacent cells and at discrete punctate locations earlier described as half plasmodesmata on the outer walls. This pattern was unaffected by oryzalin pretreatment, showing a quantitative rather than a qualitative effect of polymerized tubulin on callose synthase activity. No callose was deposited unless alamethicin, Ca2+ and UDP-glucose were present. Tubulin and callose synthase were furthermore part of the same plasma membrane protein complex, as judged by two-dimensional blue native SDS-PAGE. Conclusion Alamethicin permeabilization allowed determination of callose synthase regulation and tubulin interaction in the natural crowded cellular environment and under conditions where contacts between the cell wall, the plasma membrane and cytoskeletal macromolecules remained. The results also suggest that alamethicin permeabilization induces a defense response mimicking the natural physical separation of cells (for example when intercellulars are formed, during which plasmodesmata are transiently left open.

  12. Stimulation of the Alternative Pathway by Succinate and Malate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. M.; Van Den Bergen, CWM.; Wincencjusz, H.

    1995-07-01

    Stimulation of the cyanide-resistant oxidation of exogenous NADH in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Bintje) tuber callus mitochondria was obtained with succinate, malate, and pyruvate. Half-maximal stimulation was observed at a succinate or malate concentration of 3 to 4 mM, which is considerably higher than that found for pyruvate (0.128 mM). No effect of succinate or malate addition was found when duroquinone was the electron acceptor. Duroquinol oxidation via the alternative pathway was poor and not stimulated by organic acids. Under stimulating conditions, no swelling or contraction of the mitochondria could be observed. Conversely, variation of the osmolarity did not affect the extent of stimulation. However, the assay temperature had a significant effect: no stimulation occurred at temperatures below 16 to 20[deg]C. Membrane fluidity measurements showed a phase transition at about 17[deg]C. Ubiquinone reduction levels were not significantly higher in the presence of succinate and malate, but the kinetics of the alternative oxidase were changed in a way comparable to that found for stimulation by pyruvate. At low temperatures the alternative oxidase displayed "activated" kinetics, and a role for membrane fluidity in the stimulation of the alternative pathway by carboxylic acids is suggested. PMID:12228525

  13. Control of enzyme activities in cotton cotyledons during maturation and germination : III. In-vitro embryo development in the presence of abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choinski, J S; Trelease, R N; Doman, D C

    1981-08-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) embryos excised from bolls 38-43 d after anthesis and cultured in vitro for 4 d on a nutrient agar medium containing 3.8 ?M abscisic acid (ABA) developed enzyme activity and accumulated insoluble protein, neutral lipid, and dry weight similar to embryos maturing on the plant. Inclusion of ABA in the medium prevented precosious germination and allowed continued increases in catalase, malate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, aspartate aminotransferase, and ?-oxidation enzyme activities as well as de-novo synthesis of malate synthase. Isocitrate lyase activity was not detectable in ABA-cultured embryos nor normally-developed embryos. Omission of sucrose from the medium resulted in near-doubling of the development of malate synthase activity, with minimal effects on the other enzyme activities. Addition of Actinomycin D, cordycepin, or cycloheximide to ABA-containing cultures did not overcome the observed inhibition of germination, but severely reduced both the appearance of new malate synthase activity and further production of other related enzyme activities. Thus, development of these enzyme activities in the presence of ABA appears dependent on transcription and translation, while inhibition of germination by ABA at this stage of development is not sensitive to the RNA- and protein-synthesis inhibitors. The results indicate that ABA does not prevent vivipary by suppressing translation of m-RNAs coding for isocitrate lyase and its companion enzymes, as previously proposed. PMID:24301116

  14. Crystal Structure of Albaflavenone Monooxygenase Containing a Moonlighting Terpene Synthase Active Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Bin; Lei, Li; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.; Lin, Xin; Cane, David E.; Kelly, Steven L.; Yuan, Hang; Lamb, David C.; Waterman, Michael R.; (Vanderbilt); (UAB); (Brown); (Swansea)

    2010-01-08

    Albaflavenone synthase (CYP170A1) is a monooxygenase catalyzing the final two steps in the biosynthesis of this antibiotic in the soil bacterium, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Interestingly, CYP170A1 shows no stereo selection forming equal amounts of two albaflavenol epimers, each of which is oxidized in turn to albaflavenone. To explore the structural basis of the reaction mechanism, we have studied the crystal structures of both ligand-free CYP170A1 (2.6 {angstrom}) and complex of endogenous substrate (epi-isozizaene) with CYP170A1 (3.3 {angstrom}). The structure of the complex suggests that the proximal epi-isozizaene molecules may bind to the heme iron in two orientations. In addition, much to our surprise, we have found that albaflavenone synthase also has a second, completely distinct catalytic activity corresponding to the synthesis of farnesene isomers from farnesyl diphosphate. Within the cytochrome P450 {alpha}-helical domain both the primary sequence and x-ray structure indicate the presence of a novel terpene synthase active site that is moonlighting on the P450 structure. This includes signature sequences for divalent cation binding and an {alpha}-helical barrel. This barrel is unusual because it consists of only four helices rather than six found in all other terpene synthases. Mutagenesis establishes that this barrel is essential for the terpene synthase activity of CYP170A1 but not for the monooxygenase activity. This is the first bifunctional P450 discovered to have another active site moonlighting on it and the first time a terpene synthase active site is found moonlighting on another protein.

  15. Activities of citrate synthase and other enzymes of Acetobacter xylinum in situ and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swissa, M; Weinhouse, H; Benziman, M

    1976-01-01

    The activities of a number of enzymes, extracted from Acetobacter xylinum, that are involved in carbohydrate metabolism may be accounted for in situ in permeabilized cells. The kinetic properties of citrate synthase and glycerokinase observed in vitro are also retained in situ. So is the regulatory sensitivity of these enzymes. Both in vitro and in situ, (a) citrate synthase, in contrast with the enzyme for other Gram-negative bacteria, is inhibited by ATP and is insensitive to NADH, and (b) glycerokinase is inhibited by fructose diphosphate and the ratio of its activities towards glycerol and dihydroxyacetone is the same. PMID:1275900

  16. Effects of sunitinib malate on growth of human bladder transitional cell line t24 in vitro(?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jin; Li, Han-Zhong; Ji, Zhi-Gang; Jin, Jing

    2015-03-01

    Objective To investigate the growth-inhibitory effect of sunitinib malate on human bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in vitro. Methods Human bladder TCC cell line T24 was cultured and exposed to graded concentrations of sunitinib malate for 72 hours in vitro to determine the sensitivities to drug. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Cell apoptotic morphology was observed by fluorescence microscope following DAPI staining. Band expressions of Fas, Fas ligand, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and ?-actin were analyzed by Western blot. Wound healing process of T24 cells exposed to sunitinib malate was assayed. Results Sunitinib malate exerted a concentration-dependent and time-dependent inhibitory effect on the T24 cell lines. Fluorescence microscopy showed that small vacuoles appeared in the nuclei of T24 cells and the vacuoles were bigger with higher drug concentrations. The expressions of Fas ligand and PARP in T24 cells treated with sunitinib malate exhibited a concentration-dependent increase. Moreover sunitinib malate suppressed the wound healing process in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion Sunitinib malate exerted marked inhibitory activity against bladder cancer cell line T24. PMID:25837361

  17. Malate accumulation in different organs of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. following age-dependent or salinity-triggered CAM metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libik, Marta; Pater, Beata; Elliot, Stewart; Slesak, Ireneusz; Miszalskia, Zbigniew

    2004-01-01

    Different organs of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum exhibit differing levels of CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism), identifiable by quantification of nocturnal malate accumulation. Shoots and also basal parts of young leaves were observed to accumulate high concentrations of malate. It was typically found in mature leaves and especially prominent in plants subjected to salt stress. Small amount of nocturnal malate accumulation was found in roots of M. crystallinum plants following age-dependent or salinity-triggered CAM. This is an indication that malate can be also stored in non-photosynthetic tissue. Measurements of catalase activity did not produce evidence of the correlation between activity of this enzyme and the level of malate accumulation in different organs of M. crystallinum although catalase activity also appeared to be dependent on the photoperiod. In all material collected at dusk catalase activity was greater than it was observed in the organs harvested at dawn. PMID:15241931

  18. Gluconeogenesis in the kidney cortex. Effects of D-malate and amino-oxyacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognstad, R; Katz, J

    1970-02-01

    1. Rat kidney-cortex slices incubated with d-malate alone formed very little glucose. d-Malate, however, augmented gluconeogenesis from l-lactate and inhibited gluconeogenesis from pyruvate and l-malate. 2. d-Malate had little effect on the rate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle with or without other substrates added. 3. d-Malate inhibited the activity of the l-malate dehydrogenase in a high-speed-supernatant fraction from kidney cortex. 4. It was concluded that d-malate inhibited either the operation of the cytoplasmic l-malate dehydrogenase or malate outflow from the mitochondria in the intact kidney-cortex cell. This supports the hypothesis of Lardy, Paetkau & Walter (1965) and Krebs, Gascoyne & Notton (1967) on the role of malate as carrier for carbon and reducing equivalents in gluconeogenesis. 5. Gluconeogenesis from l-lactate in kidney-cortex slices was strongly inhibited by a low concentration (0.1mm) of amino-oxyacetate, whereas glucose formation from pyruvate, malate, aspartate and several other compounds was only slightly affected. 6. High concentrations of l-aspartate largely reversed the inhibition of gluconeogenesis from l-lactate caused by amino-oxyacetate. 7. Amino-oxyacetate inhibited strongly the glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase in the 30000g supernatant fraction of a kidney-cortex homogenate. The presence of l-aspartate decreased the inhibition of the transaminase by amino-oxyacetate. 8. Detritiation of l-[2-(3)H]aspartate was inhibited by 90% during an incubation of kidney-cortex slices with l-lactate and amino-oxyacetate. 9. Low concentrations (10mum) of artificial electron acceptors such as Methylene Blue and phenazine methosulphate abolished most of the inhibition of gluconeogenesis from l-lactate by amino-oxyacetate. This is interpreted as an activation of net malate outflow from the mitochondria by-passing the inhibited transfer of oxaloacetate. 10. These findings support the concept that transamination to aspartate is involved in the transfer of oxaloacetate from mitochondria to cytosol required in gluconeogenesis from l-lactate. PMID:5435692

  19. Drosophila Sirt2/mammalian SIRT3 deacetylates ATP synthase ? and regulates complex V activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Motiur; Nirala, Niraj K; Singh, Alka; Zhu, Lihua Julie; Taguchi, Kaori; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Shaw, Leslie M; Lambright, David G; Acharya, Jairaj K; Acharya, Usha R

    2014-07-21

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase ?, the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial complex V, synthesizes ATP. We show that ATP synthase ? is deacetylated by a human nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent protein deacetylase, sirtuin 3, and its Drosophila melanogaster homologue, dSirt2. dsirt2 mutant flies displayed increased acetylation of specific Lys residues in ATP synthase ? and decreased complex V activity. Overexpression of dSirt2 increased complex V activity. Substitution of Lys 259 and Lys 480 with Arg in human ATP synthase ?, mimicking deacetylation, increased complex V activity, whereas substitution with Gln, mimicking acetylation, decreased activity. Mass spectrometry and proteomic experiments from wild-type and dsirt2 mitochondria identified the Drosophila mitochondrial acetylome and revealed dSirt2 as an important regulator of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Additionally, we unravel a ceramide-NAD(+)-sirtuin axis wherein increased ceramide, a sphingolipid known to induce stress responses, resulted in depletion of NAD(+) and consequent decrease in sirtuin activity. These results provide insight into sirtuin-mediated regulation of complex V and reveal a novel link between ceramide and Drosophila acetylome. PMID:25023514

  20. Glycogen synthase kinase-3? is involved in C-reactive protein-induced endothelial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Jun; Liu, Wei-Hua; Zhong, Yun; Liu, Shi-Ming

    2013-08-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a significant contributor to atherosclerosis and a powerful predictor of cardiovascular risk. The role of CRP in endothelial cell (EC) activation has been extensively investigated, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The effect of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) on CRP-induced EC activation was evaluated in this study. We observed that CRP decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity during EC activation. CRP also activated GSK-3? by dephosphorylating its Ser9 level and reducing ?-catenin protein expression in a time-dependent manner. We also found that the GSK-3? inhibitors TDZD-8 and SB415286 partially restored eNOS activity and suppressed the release of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 from ECs. These data provide new evidence for the involvement of GSK-3? in EC activation. PMID:24228880

  1. Cryptococcus neoformans Resistance to Echinocandins: (1,3)?-Glucan Synthase Activity Is Sensitive to Echinocandins

    OpenAIRE

    Maligie, Marybeth A.; Selitrennikoff, Claude P.

    2005-01-01

    (1,3)?-d-Glucan synthase (EC 2.4.1.34. UDP-glucose: 1,3-?-d-glucan 3-?-glucosyltransferase) uses UDP-glucose as substrate and catalyzes the polymerization of glucose ([1,3]-?-linkages) to form the major carbohydrate component of the fungal cell wall. We have optimized in vitro assay conditions for (1,3)?-glucan synthase activity from Cryptococcus neoformans. Cells lysed in 50 mM Tris, pH 7.75, containing 20% glycerol, 2 mM NaF, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 0.1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 5...

  2. Vacuolar malate uptake is mediated by an anion-selective inward rectifier.

    OpenAIRE

    Hafke, Jb; Hafke, Y.; Smith, Ja; Lu?ttge, U.; Thiel, G.

    2003-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies using the patch-clamp technique were performed on isolated vacuoles from leaf mesophyll cells of the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana to characterize the malate transport system responsible for nocturnal malic acid accumulation. In the presence of malate on both sides of the membrane, the current-voltage relations of the tonoplast were dominated by a strongly inward-rectifying anion-selective channel that was active at cytoplasmic...

  3. Isolation and characterization of cytosolic malate dehydrogenase from Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drmota, T; Tachezy, J; Kulda, J

    1997-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37.) (MDH) was purified to apparent homogeneity from the cytosolic fraction of the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis Donné. The four step purification included ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephacel and Q-Sepharose, elution with NaCl) and affinity chromatography (Reactive Red Agarose, elution with NADH and NaCl). The enzyme was purified about 132-fold (30.6% yield) to a specific activity of 352 units mg-1. The Km values determined at pH 7.8 (pH optimum from 7.5 to 8.3) for oxaloacetate and NADH were 16.2 microM and 10.6 microM, respectively. The MDH activity was inhibited by the substrate, decreasing to 50% at about 1 microM concentration of oxaloacetate. The reverse reaction from malate to oxaloacetate showed a pH optimum around pH 9.5. The Km for malate and NAD+ (determined at pH 7.8) were 1220 microM and 69.9 microM, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified MDH revealed a single band with an apparent size of 34.5 kDa. The native molecular weight was estimated by HPLC gel filtration to be 60 kDa, which indicates that the T. vaginalis MDH exists as a dimer. PMID:9269720

  4. Isolation and characterization of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant with impaired glutamate synthase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Folch, J. L.; Antaramia?n, A.; Rodri?guez, L.; Bravo, A.; Brunner, A.; Gonza?lez, A.

    1989-01-01

    A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that lacks glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activity has been isolated. This mutant was obtained after chemical mutagenesis of a NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase-less mutant strain. The gdh gus mutant is a glutamate auxotroph. The genetic analysis of the gus mutant showed that the GOGAT-less phenotype is due to the presence of two loosely linked mutations. Evidence is presented which suggests the possibility that S. cerevisiae has two GOGAT activities, designated GO...

  5. Targeting the Active Site Gate to Yield Hyperactive Variants of 5-Aminolevulinate Synthase*

    OpenAIRE

    Lendrihas, Thomas; Hunter, Gregory A.; Ferreira, Gloria C.

    2010-01-01

    The rate of porphyrin biosynthesis in mammals is controlled by the activity of the pyridoxal 5?-phosphate-dependent enzyme 5-aminolevulinate synthase (EC 2.3.1.37). Based on the postulate that turnover in this enzyme is controlled by conformational dynamics associated with a highly conserved active site loop, we constructed a variant library by targeting imperfectly conserved noncatalytic loop residues and examined the effects on product and porphyrin production. Functional loop variants of...

  6. Respiratory properties and malate metabolism in Percoll-purified mitochondria isolated from pineapple, Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. cv. smooth cayenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hoang Thi Kim; Nose, Akihiro; Agarie, Sakae

    2004-10-01

    An investigation was made of the respiratory properties and the role of the mitochondria isolated from one phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK)-CAM plant Ananas comosus (pineapple) in malate metabolism during CAM phase III. Pineapple mitochondria showed very high malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and low malic enzyme (ME) and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activities. The mitochondria readily oxidized succinate and NADH with high rates and coupling, while they only oxidized NADPH in the presence of Ca(2+). Pineapple mitochondria oxidized malate with low rates under most assay conditions, despite increasing malate concentrations, optimizing pH, providing cofactors such as coenzyme A, thiamine pyrophosphate, and NAD(+), and supplying individually external glutamate or GOT. However, providing glutamate and GOT simultaneously strongly increased the rates of malate oxidation. The OAA easily permeated the mitochondrial membranes to import into or export out of pineapple mitochondria during malate oxidation, but the mitochondria did not consume external Asp or alpha-KG. These results suggest that OAA played a significant role in the mitochondrial malate metabolism of pineapple, in which malate was mainly oxidized by active mMDH to produce OAA which could be exported outside the mitochondria via a malate-OAA shuttle. Cytosolic GOT then consumed OAA by transamination in the presence of glutamate, leading to a large increase in respiration rates. The malate-OAA shuttle might operate as a supporting system for decarboxylation in phase III of PCK-CAM pineapple. This shuttle system may be important in pineapple to provide a source of energy and substrate OAA for cytosolic PCK activity during the day when cytosolic OAA and ATP was limited for the overall decarboxylation process. PMID:15361538

  7. Role for malic enzyme, pyruvate carboxylation, and mitochondrial malate import in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart, Emma; Cline, Gary W; Collis, Leon P; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Gray, Joshua P; Smith, Peter J S

    2009-06-01

    Pyruvate cycling has been implicated in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta-cells. The operation of some pyruvate cycling pathways is proposed to necessitate malate export from the mitochondria and NADP(+)-dependent decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate by cytosolic malic enzyme (ME1). Evidence in favor of and against a role of ME1 in GSIS has been presented by others using small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of ME1. ME1 was also proposed to account for methyl succinate-stimulated insulin secretion (MSSIS), which has been hypothesized to occur via succinate entry into the mitochondria in exchange for malate and subsequent malate conversion to pyruvate. In contrast to rat, mouse beta-cells lack ME1 activity, which was suggested to explain their lack of MSSIS. However, this hypothesis was not tested. In this report, we demonstrate that although adenoviral-mediated overexpression of ME1 greatly augments GSIS in rat insulinoma INS-1 832/13 cells, it does not restore MSSIS, nor does it significantly affect GSIS in mouse islets. The increase in GSIS following ME1 overexpression in INS-1 832/13 cells did not alter the ATP-to-ADP ratio but was accompanied by increases in malate and citrate levels. Increased malate and citrate levels were also observed after INS-1 832/13 cells were treated with the malate-permeable analog dimethyl malate. These data suggest that although ME1 overexpression augments anaplerosis and GSIS in INS-1 832/13 cells, it is not likely involved in MSSIS and GSIS in pancreatic islets. PMID:19293334

  8. Metal active site elasticity linked to activation of homocysteine in methionine synthases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutmos, Markos; Pejchal, Robert; Bomer, Theresa M.; Matthews, Rowena G.; Smith, Janet L.; Ludwig, Martha L. (Michigan)

    2008-04-02

    Enzymes possessing catalytic zinc centers perform a variety of fundamental processes in nature, including methyl transfer to thiols. Cobalamin-independent (MetE) and cobalamin-dependent (MetH) methionine synthases are two such enzyme families. Although they perform the same net reaction, transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine (Hcy) to form methionine, they display markedly different catalytic strategies, modular organization, and active site zinc centers. Here we report crystal structures of zinc-replete MetE and MetH, both in the presence and absence of Hcy. Structural investigation of the catalytic zinc sites of these two methyltransferases reveals an unexpected inversion of zinc geometry upon binding of Hcy and displacement of an endogenous ligand in both enzymes. In both cases a significant movement of the zinc relative to the protein scaffold accompanies inversion. These structures provide new information on the activation of thiols by zinc-containing enzymes and have led us to propose a paradigm for the mechanism of action of the catalytic zinc sites in these and related methyltransferases. Specifically, zinc is mobile in the active sites of MetE and MetH, and its dynamic nature helps facilitate the active site conformational changes necessary for thiol activation and methyl transfer.

  9. Malate-Induced Hysteresis of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase from Crassula argentea1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngam-ek, Apinya; Seery, Thomas A.P.; Amis, Eric J.; Grover, Scott D.

    1989-01-01

    The hysteretic behavior of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase from Crassula argentea has been investigated. Incubation of the purified enzyme with the inhibitor malate prior to starting the reaction by the addition of PEP resulted in a kinetic lag of several minutes duration. The length of the lag was inversely proportional to the enzyme concentration, suggesting subunit association-dissociation as the hysteretic mechanism, rather than a mechanism based on a slow conformational change in the enzyme. Dynamic laser light scattering measurements also support this conclusion, showing that the diffusion coefficient of malate-incubated enzyme slowly decreased after the reaction was started by the addition of PEP. Lags were observed only at pH values of 7.5 or lower. Maximum lags were observed after 10 min of preincubation with malate. Fumarate and succinate, which like malate caused mixed inhibition, also caused lags. In contrast, no lag was induced by malate in the presence of PEP or by the competitive inhibitor phosphoglycolate. The activators glucose 6-phosphate and malonate decreased the malate-induced lag. PMID:16667161

  10. Factors affecting the activity of citrate synthase of Acetobacter xylinum and its possible regulatory role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swissa, M; Benziman, M

    1976-01-01

    The citrate synthase activity of Acetobacter xylinum cells grown on glucose was the same as of cells grown on intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The activity of citrate synthase in extracts is compatible with the overall rate of acetate oxidation in vivo. The enzyme was purified 47-fold from sonic extracts and its molecular weight was determined to be 280000 by gel filtration. It has an optimum activity at pH 8.4. Reaction rates with the purified enzyme were hyperbolic functions of both acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. The Km for acetyl-CoA is 18 mum and that for oxaloacetate 8.7 mum. The enzyme is inhibited by ATP according to classical kinetic patterns. This inhibition is competitive with respect to acetyl-CoA (Ki = 0.9 mM) and non-competitive with respect to oxaloacetate. It is not affected by changes in pH and ionic strength and is not relieved by an excess of Mg2+ ions. Unlike other Gram-negative bacteria, the A. xylinum enzyme is not inhibited by NADH, but is inhibited by high concentrations of NADPH. The activity of the enzyme varies with energy charge in a manner consistent with its role in energy metabolism. It is suggested that the flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle in A. xylinum is regulated by modulation of citrate synthase activity in response to the energy state of the cells. PMID:6002

  11. Cofactor Strap regulates oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial p53 activity through ATP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, S; Coutts, A S; Stratford, M R; McGouran, J; Kessler, B; La Thangue, N B

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer cells. Strap (stress-responsive activator of p300) is a novel TPR motif OB-fold protein that contributes to p53 transcriptional activation. We show here that, in addition to its established transcriptional role, Strap is localised at mitochondria where one of its key interaction partners is ATP synthase. Significantly, the interaction between Strap and ATP synthase downregulates mitochondrial ATP production. Under glucose-limiting conditions, cancer cells are sensitised by mitochondrial Strap to apoptosis, which is rescued by supplementing cells with an extracellular source of ATP. Furthermore, Strap augments the apoptotic effects of mitochondrial p53. These findings define Strap as a dual regulator of cellular reprogramming: first as a nuclear transcription cofactor and second in the direct regulation of mitochondrial respiration. PMID:25168243

  12. Reduced peroxisomal citrate synthase activity increases substrate availability for polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis in plant peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilbrook, Kimberley; Poirier, Yves; Gebbie, Leigh; Schenk, Peer M; McQualter, Richard B; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2014-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bacterial carbon storage polymers used as renewable, biodegradable plastics. PHA production in plants may be a way to reduce industrial PHA production costs. We recently demonstrated a promising level of peroxisomal PHA production in the high biomass crop species sugarcane. However, further production strategies are needed to boost PHA accumulation closer to commercial targets. Through exogenous fatty acid feeding of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that contain peroxisome-targeted PhaA, PhaB and PhaC enzymes from Cupriavidus necator, we show here that the availability of substrates derived from the ?-oxidation cycle limits peroxisomal polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis. Knockdown of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity using artificial microRNA increased PHB production levels approximately threefold. This work demonstrates that reduction of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity may be a valid metabolic engineering strategy for increasing PHA production in other plant species. PMID:24944109

  13. Hepatic enzyme induction and leucocyte delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthase activity: studies with carbamazepine.

    OpenAIRE

    Rapeport, W. G.; Mcinnes, G. T.; Thompson, G. G.; Forrest, G.; Park, B. K.; Brodie, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Antipyrine metabolism, daily urinary 6-beta-hydroxycortisol excretion, carbamazepine (CBZ) half-lives and leucocyte delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthase (ALA.S) activities were measured following 2 weeks' treatment with CBZ 400 mg and 600 mg once daily in eight healthy male volunteers. Dose-dependent induction of antipyrine metabolism was demonstrated but cortisol hydroxylation appeared maximally induced by the 400 mg dose. CBZ half-lives fell significantly in both studies (P less than 0.01 in...

  14. C -Reactive Protein Decreases Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity via Uncoupling

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Uma; Devaraj, Sridevi; Vasquez-vivar, Jeannette; Jialal, Ishwarlal

    2007-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), a cardiovascular risk marker, induces endothelial dysfunction. We have previously shown that CRP decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and bioactivity in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). In this study, we examined the mechanisms by which CRP decreases eNOS activity in HAECs. To this end, we explored different strategies such as availability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) -a critical cofactor for eNOS, superoxide (O2-) production resulting...

  15. Expression and Activity of Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoforms in Methamphetamine-Induced Striatal Dopamine Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Friend, Danielle M.; Son, Jong H.; Keefe, Kristen A.; Fricks-gleason, Ashley N.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide is implicated in methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity; however, the source of the nitric oxide has not been identified. Previous work has also revealed that animals with partial dopamine loss induced by a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine fail to exhibit further decreases in striatal dopamine when re-exposed to methamphetamine 7–30 days later. The current study examined nitric oxide synthase expression and activity and protein nitration in striata of animals adminis...

  16. Interaction between Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Induced Oscillations and the Activation Flow Coupling Response

    OpenAIRE

    Ances, Beau M.; Greenberg, Joel H.; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the activation-flow coupling (AFC) response to periodic electrical forepaw stimulation was investigated using signal averaged laser Doppler (LD) flowmetry. LD measures of calculated cerebral blood flow (CBF) were obtained both prior and after intra-peritoneal administration of the non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) (40 mg/kg). Characteristic baseline low frequency vasomotion oscillations (0.17 Hz) were observed aft...

  17. It Takes Two to Tango: Defining an Essential Second Active Site in Pyridoxal 5?-Phosphate Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Moccand, Cyril; Kaufmann, Markus; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalent de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B6 involves only two enzymes (Pdx1 and Pdx2) that form an ornate multisubunit complex functioning as a glutamine amidotransferase. The synthase subunit, Pdx1, utilizes ribose 5-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, as well as ammonia derived from the glutaminase activity of Pdx2 to directly form the cofactor vitamer, pyridoxal 5?-phosphate. Given the fact that a single enzyme performs the majority of the chemistry behind this reactio...

  18. Increased nitric oxide synthase activity and Hsp90 association in skeletal muscle following chronic exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, M. Brennan; Mitchell, Brett M.; Sood, Sarika G.; Webb, R. Clinton; Venema, Richard C.

    2008-01-01

    Exercise training results in dynamic changes in skeletal muscle blood flow and metabolism. Nitric oxide (NO) influences blood flow, oxidative stress, and glucose metabolism. Hsp90 interacts directly with nitric oxide synthases (NOS), increasing NOS activity and altering the balance of superoxide versus NO production. In addition, Hsp90 expression increases in various tissues following exercise. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that exercise training increases Hsp90 expression as well as Hs...

  19. Nitric oxide synthase activity in human trophoblast, term placenta and pregnant myometrium

    OpenAIRE

    Laurini Ricardo; Andolf Ellika; Al-Hijji J; Batra Satish

    2003-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the possible role of nitric oxide (NO) produced locally or intramurally in the quiescence of the pregnant myometrium, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was measured in samples from first trimester (villous, and non villous-trophoblast), term placenta and pregnant myometrium. Trophoblast tissue was obtained from psychosocial termination of pregnancy (9 – 12 weeks' gestation) whereas placenta and myometrium, from the same patient, at deliveries by Caesarean section....

  20. Arginase activity in mitochondria - An interfering factor in nitric oxide synthase activity assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatakrishnan, Priya; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Almeida, Igor C. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Miller, R.T., E-mail: tmiller2@utep.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Previously, in tightly controlled studies, using three independent, yet complementary techniques, we refuted the claim that a mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) isoform exists within pure, rat liver mitochondria (MT). Of those techniques, the NOS-catalyzed [{sup 14}C]-L-arginine to [{sup 14}C]-L-citrulline conversion assay (NOS assay) with MT samples indicated a weak, radioactive signal that was NOS-independent . Aliquots of samples from the NOS assays were then extracted with acetone, separated by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and exposed to autoradiography. Results obtained from these samples showed no radioactive band for L-citrulline. However, a fast-migrating, diffuse, radioactive band was observed in the TLC lanes loaded with MT samples. In this manuscript, we identify and confirm that this radioactive signal in MT samples is due to the arginase-catalyzed conversion of [{sup 14}C]-L-arginine to [{sup 14}C]-urea. The current results, in addition to reconfirming the absence of NOS activity in rat liver MT, also show the need to include arginase inhibitors in studies using MT samples in order to avoid confounding results when using NOS activity assays.

  1. Arginase activity in mitochondria - An interfering factor in nitric oxide synthase activity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously, in tightly controlled studies, using three independent, yet complementary techniques, we refuted the claim that a mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) isoform exists within pure, rat liver mitochondria (MT). Of those techniques, the NOS-catalyzed [14C]-L-arginine to [14C]-L-citrulline conversion assay (NOS assay) with MT samples indicated a weak, radioactive signal that was NOS-independent . Aliquots of samples from the NOS assays were then extracted with acetone, separated by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and exposed to autoradiography. Results obtained from these samples showed no radioactive band for L-citrulline. However, a fast-migrating, diffuse, radioactive band was observed in the TLC lanes loaded with MT samples. In this manuscript, we identify and confirm that this radioactive signal in MT samples is due to the arginase-catalyzed conversion of [14C]-L-arginine to [14C]-urea. The current results, in addition to reconfirming the absence of NOS activity in rat liver MT, also show the need to include arginase inhibitors in studies using MT samples in order to avoid confounding results when using NOS activity assays.

  2. Characterization of the Highly Active Polyhydroxyalkanoate Synthase of Chromobacterium sp. Strain USM2?

    OpenAIRE

    Bhubalan, Kesaven; Chuah, Jo-ann; Shozui, Fumi; Brigham, Christopher J.; Taguchi, Seiichi; Sinskey, Anthony J.; Rha, Chokyun; Sudesh, Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) is very much dependent on the expression and activity of a key enzyme, PHA synthase (PhaC). Many efforts are being pursued to enhance the activity and broaden the substrate specificity of PhaC. Here, we report the identification of a highly active wild-type PhaC belonging to the recently isolated Chromobacterium sp. USM2 (PhaC[subscript Cs]). PhaC[subscript Cs] showed the ability to utilize 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV)...

  3. Aggregation states of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase.

    OpenAIRE

    Sa?nchez, S. A.; Hazlett, T. L.; Brunet, J. E.; Jameson, D. M.

    1998-01-01

    The oligomeric state of fluorescein-labeled mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (L-malate NAD+ oxidoreductase; mMDH; EC 1.1.1.37), as a function of protein concentration, has been examined using steady-state and dynamic polarization methodologies. A "global" rotational relaxation time of 103 +/- 7 ns was found for micromolar concentrations of mMDH-fluorescein, which is consistent with the reported size and shape of mMDH. Dilution of the mMDH-fluorescein conjugates, prepared using a phosphate b...

  4. Increase of particulate nitric oxide synthase activity and peroxynitrite synthesis in UVB-irradiated keratinocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we demonstrate that human keratinocytes possess a Ca2+/ calmodulin-dependent particulate NO synthase that can be activated to release NO after exposure to UVB radiation. UVB irradiation (up to 20 mJ/cm2) of human keratinocyte plasma membranes resulted in a dose-dependent increase in NO and L-[3H]citrulline production that was inhibited by approx. 90% in the presence of N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). In time-course experiments with UVB-irradiated plasma membranes the changes in NO production were followed by analogous changes in soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activity. In reconstitution experiments, when particulate NO synthase was added to purified sGC isolated from keratinocyte cytosol, a 4-fold increase in cGMP was observed; the cGMP was increased by NO synthesized after UVB irradiation (up to 20 mJ/cm2) of particulate NO synthase. A 5-fold increase in superoxide (O2-) and a 7-fold increase in NO formation followed by an 8-fold increase in peroxynitrite (ONOO-) production by UVB (20 mJ/cm2)-irradiated keratinocyte microsomes was observed. UVB radiation (20 mJ/cm2) decreased plasma membrane lipid fluidity as indicated by steady-state fluorescence anisotropy. Membrane fluidity changes were prevented by L-NMMA. Changes in Arrhenius plots of particulate NO synthase in combination with changes in its allosteric properties induced by UVB radiation are consistent witnduced by UVB radiation are consistent with a decreased fluidity of the lipid microenvironment of the enzyme. The present studies provide important new clues to the role of NO and ONOO- released by UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes in skin erythema and inflammation. (Author)

  5. Regulatory role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 for transcriptional activity of ADD1/SREBP1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kang Ho; Song, Min Jeong; Yoo, Eung Jae; Choe, Sung Sik; Park, Sang Dai; Kim, Jae Bum

    2004-12-10

    Adipocyte determination- and differentiation-dependent factor 1 (ADD1) plays important roles in lipid metabolism and insulin-dependent gene expression. Because insulin stimulates carbohydrate and lipid synthesis, it would be important to decipher how the transcriptional activity of ADD1/SREBP1c is regulated in the insulin signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrated that glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 negatively regulates the transcriptional activity of ADD1/SREBP1c. GSK3 inhibitors enhanced a transcriptional activity of ADD1/SREBP1c and expression of ADD1/SREBP1c target genes including fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), and steroyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) in adipocytes and hepatocytes. In contrast, overexpression of GSK3beta down-regulated the transcriptional activity of ADD1/SREBP1c. GSK3 inhibitor-mediated ADD1/SREBP1c target gene activation did not require de novo protein synthesis, implying that GSK3 might affect transcriptional activity of ADD1/SREBP1c at the level of post-translational modification. Additionally, we demonstrated that GSK3 efficiently phosphorylated ADD1/SREBP1c in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, these data suggest that GSK3 inactivation is crucial to confer stimulated transcriptional activity of ADD1/SREBP1c for insulin-dependent gene expression, which would coordinate lipid and glucose metabolism. PMID:15466874

  6. Mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase is constitutively active and is functionally upregulated in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacza, Z; Puskar, M; Figueroa, J P; Zhang, J; Rajapakse, N; Busija, D W

    2001-12-15

    Nitric oxide is a potent modulator of mitochondrial respiration, ATP synthesis, and K(ATP) channel activity. Recent studies show the presence of a potentionally new isoform of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme in mitochondria, although doubts have emerged regarding the physiological relevance of mitochondrial NOS (mtNOS). The aim of the present study were to: (i) examine the existence and distribution of mtNOS in mouse tissues using three independent methods, (ii) characterize the cross-reaction of mtNOS with antibodies against the known isoforms of NOS, and (iii) investigate the effect of hypoxia on mtNOS activity. Nitric oxide synthase activity was measured in isolated brain and liver mitochondria using the arginine to citrulline conversion assay. Mitochondrial NOS activity in the brain was significantly higher than in the liver. The calmodulin inhibitor calmidazolium completely inhibited mtNOS activity. In animals previously subjected to hypoxia, mtNOS activity was significantly higher than in the normoxic controls. Antibodies against the endothelial (eNOS), but not the neuronal or inducible isoform of NOS, showed positive immunoblotting. Immunogold labeling of eNOS located the enzyme in the matrix and the inner membrane using electron microscopy. We conclude that mtNOS is a constitutively active eNOS-like isoform and is involved in altered mitochondrial regulation during hypoxia. PMID:11744335

  7. Correlation of Transcription of MALAT-1, a Novel Noncoding RNA, with Deregulated Expression of Tumor Suppressor p53 in Small DNA Tumor Virus Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesl K. Jeffers

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript (MALAT-1 is known to be consistently upregulated in several epithelial malignancies, little is known about its function or regulation. We therefore examined the relationship between MALAT-1 expression and candidate modulators such as DNA tumor virus oncoproteins human papillomavirus (HPV-16 E6 and E7, BK virus T antigen (BKVTAg, mouse polyoma virus middle T antigen (MPVmTAg and tumor suppressor genes p53 and pRb. Using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays, MALAT-1 was shown to be increased in viral oncongene-expressing salivary gland biopsies from humans and mice. The results also indicated that MALAT-1 transcripts and promoter activity were increased in vitro when viral oncongene-expressing plasmids were introduced into different cell types. These same viral oncogenes in addition to increasing MALAT-1 transcription have also been shown to inhibit p53 and/or pRb function. In p53 mutant or inactive cell lines MALAT-1 was also shown to be highly upregulated. We hypothesize that there is a correlation between MALAT-1 over-expression and p53 deregulation. In conclusion, we show that disruption of p53, by both polyoma and papilloma oncoproteins appear to play an important role in the up-regulation of MALAT-1. MALAT-1 might therefore represent a biomarker for p53 deregulation within malignancies.

  8. A Thioredoxin-Mediated Activation of Glutamine Synthetase and Glutamate Synthase in Synchronous Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischner, R; Schmidt, A

    1982-07-01

    The effects of thioredoxin, dithioerythrol, and mixtures of both on enzymes involved in N metabolism of Chlorella sorokiniana have been studied. Glutamine synthetase, inactivated in vivo, was activated 8-fold by thioredoxin and dithioerythrol. By the same treatment, the activity of glutamate synthase was stimulated nearly 4-fold. Thus, two key enzymes of N metabolism were shown to be regulated via thioredoxin. The enzymes of the nitrate reducing system, i.e. nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, were not affected by thiols. From these results, a model of NO(3) (-) metabolism is put forward which considers the regulating effect of light. PMID:16662428

  9. A Thioredoxin-Mediated Activation of Glutamine Synthetase and Glutamate Synthase in Synchronous Chlorella sorokiniana1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischner, Rudolf; Schmidt, Ahlert

    1982-01-01

    The effects of thioredoxin, dithioerythrol, and mixtures of both on enzymes involved in N metabolism of Chlorella sorokiniana have been studied. Glutamine synthetase, inactivated in vivo, was activated 8-fold by thioredoxin and dithioerythrol. By the same treatment, the activity of glutamate synthase was stimulated nearly 4-fold. Thus, two key enzymes of N metabolism were shown to be regulated via thioredoxin. The enzymes of the nitrate reducing system, i.e. nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, were not affected by thiols. From these results, a model of NO3? metabolism is put forward which considers the regulating effect of light. PMID:16662428

  10. Ascorbate stimulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme activity by rapid modulation of its phosphorylation status

    OpenAIRE

    Ladurner, Angela; Schmitt, Christoph A.; Schachner, Daniel; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Werner, Ernst R.; Dirsch, Verena M.; Heiss, Elke H.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term exposure to ascorbate is known to enhance endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity by stabilizing the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). We investigated acute effects of ascorbate on eNOS function in primary (HUVEC) and immortalized human endothelial cells (EA.hy926), aiming to provide a molecular explanation for the rapid vasodilatation seen in vivo upon administration of ascorbate. Enzymatic activity of eNOS and intracellular BH4 levels were assessed by means of an ...

  11. Characterization and sequencing of the active site of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase the key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis, is inactivated by its substrate S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Apple ACC synthase was purified with an immunoaffinity gel, and its active site was probed with NaB3H4 or Ado[14C]Met. Peptide sequencing of both 3H- and 14C-labeled peptides revealed a common dodecapeptide of Ser-Leu-Ser-Xaa-Asp-Leu-Gly-Leu-Pro-Gly-Phe-Arg, where Xaa was the modified, radioactive residue in each case. Acid hydrolysis of the 3H-labeled enzyme released radioactive N-pyridoxyllysine, indicating that the active-site peptide contained lysine at position 4. Mass spectrometry of the 14C-labeled peptide indicated a protonated molecular ion at m/z 1390.6, from which the mass of Xaa was calculated to be 229, a number that is equivalent to the mass of a lysine residue alkylated by the 2-aminobutyrate portion of AdoMet, as we previously proposed. These results indicate that the same active-site lysine binds the PLP and convalently links to the 2-aminobutyrate portion of AdoMet during inactivation. The active site of tomato ACC synthase was probed in the same manner with Ado [14C]Met. Sequencing of the tomato active-site peptide revealed two highly conserved dodecapeptides; the minor peptide possessed a sequence identical to that of the apple enzyme, whereas the major peptide differe enzyme, whereas the major peptide differed from the minor peptide in that methionine replaced leucine at position 6

  12. An application of RP-HPLC for determination of the activity of cystathionine ?-synthase and ?-cystathionase in tissue homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronowicka-Adamska, Patrycja; Zagajewski, Jacek; Wróbel, Maria

    2015-04-30

    The RP-HPLC-based method of determination of the activity of cystathionine ?-synthase and ?-cystathionase was undertaken in mouse liver, kidney and brain. Products of the reactions, such as cystathionine, ?-ketobutyrate, cysteine and glutathione, were measured using the RP-HPLC method. A difference in the cystathionine level between homogenates with totally CTH-inhibiting concentrations of DL-propargylglycine and without the inhibitor was employed to evaluate the activity of cystathionine ?-synthase. Gamma-cystathionase activity was measured using DL-homoserine as a substrate and a sensitive HPLC-based assay to measure ?-ketobutyrate. The results confirmed high cystathionine ?-synthase activity and no ?-cystathionase activity in brain, and high ?-cystathionase activity in mouse liver. The method presented here allows for evaluating the relative contribution of CBS and CTH to generation of H2S in tissues. Additionally, it provides results, which reflect the redox status (GSH/GSSG) of a tissue. PMID:25307719

  13. Sensitivity of the plant vacuolar malate channel to pH, Ca2+ and anion-channel blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, O; Smith, J A C

    2002-03-01

    The organic anion malate is accumulated in the central vacuole of most plant cells. Malate has several important roles in plant vacuoles, such as the maintenance of charge balance and pH regulation, as an osmolyte involved in the generation of cell turgor, and as a storage form of CO2. Transport of malate across the vacuolar membrane is important for the regulation of cytoplasmic pH and the control of cellular metabolism, particularly in plants showing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), in which large fluxes of malate occur during the day/night cycle. By applying the patch-clamp technique, in the whole-vacuole configuration, to isolated vacuoles from leaf mesophyll cells of the CAM plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana, we studied the regulation of the vacuolar malate channel by pH and Ca2+, as well as its sensitivity to anion-channel blockers. Malate currents were found to be insensitive to Ca2+ on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane over a range from approximately 10(-8) M to 10(-4) M. In contrast, decreasing cytoplasmic pH below 7.5 had a significant modulatory effect on channel activity, reducing malate currents by 40%, whereas increasing cytoplasmic pH above 7.5 resulted in no change in current. Several known Cl?-channel blockers inhibited the vacuolar malate currents: niflumic acid and indanoyloxyacetic acid (IAA-94) proved to be the most effective inhibitors, exerting half-maximal effects at concentrations of approximately 20 mM, suggesting that the plant vacuolar malate channel may share certain similarities with other classes of known anion channels. PMID:11891587

  14. Effects of new nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on spontaneous locomotor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džolji? Eleonora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. New nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitors: 3-bromo-7-nitro- indazole (3-Br-7-NI, 1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl imidazole (TRIM, S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (S-Me-TC and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI reduce spontaneous locomotor activity in mice. Material and methods. In order to elucidate central effects of NOS inhibitors on locomotor activity, the influence of 7-NI on electroencephalographic (EEG power spectrum in rats was investigated. Results. 7-NI reduced the EEG power density in all frequency bands in rats, suggesting a depression of the central neuronal activity. The electrophysiologic power was most reduced in the range of 7-9 Hz of the rhythmic slow activity (theta rhythm, which is in accordance with decreased locomotor activity observed following administration of NOS inhibitors. Conclusion. The present results indicate that nitric oxide exerts an excitatory effect on central neuronal structures involved in regulation of locomotion. .

  15. Allosteric activation of trypanosomatid deoxyhypusine synthase by a catalytically dead paralog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Suong; Jones, Deuan C; Wyllie, Susan; Fairlamb, Alan H; Phillips, Margaret A

    2013-05-24

    Polyamine biosynthesis is a key drug target in African trypanosomes. The "resurrection drug" eflornithine (difluoromethylornithine), which is used clinically to treat human African trypanosomiasis, inhibits the first step in polyamine (spermidine) biosynthesis, a highly regulated pathway in most eukaryotic cells. Previously, we showed that activity of a key trypanosomatid spermidine biosynthetic enzyme, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, is regulated by heterodimer formation with a catalytically dead paralog (a prozyme). Here, we describe an expansion of this prozyme paradigm to the enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase, which is required for spermidine-dependent hypusine modification of a lysine residue in the essential translation factor eIF5A. Trypanosoma brucei encodes two deoxyhypusine synthase paralogs, one that is catalytically functional but grossly impaired, and the other is inactive. Co-expression in Escherichia coli results in heterotetramer formation with a 3000-fold increase in enzyme activity. This functional complex is also present in T. brucei, and conditional knock-out studies indicate that both DHS genes are essential for in vitro growth and infectivity in mice. The recurrent evolution of paralogous, catalytically dead enzyme-based activating mechanisms may be a consequence of the unusual gene expression in the parasites, which lack transcriptional regulation. Our results suggest that this mechanism may be more widely used by trypanosomatids to control enzyme activity and ultimately influence pathogenesis than currently appreciated. PMID:23525104

  16. Marine natural products as inhibitors of cystathionine beta-synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, Megan K; Van Wagoner, Ryan M; Harper, Mary Kay; Ireland, Chris M; Majtan, Tomas; Kraus, Jan P; Barrios, Amy M

    2015-03-01

    A library consisting of characterized marine natural products as well as synthetic derivatives was screened for compounds capable of inhibiting the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS). Eight hits were validated and shown to inhibit CBS activity with IC50 values ranging from 83 to 187?M. The majority of hits came from a series of synthetic polyandrocarpamine derivatives. In addition, a modified fluorogenic probe for H2S detection with improved solubility in aqueous solutions is reported. PMID:25666819

  17. Prenylation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Chs4p Affects Chitin Synthase III Activity and Chitin Chain Length?

    OpenAIRE

    Grabin?ska, Kariona A.; Magnelli, Paula; Robbins, Phillips W.

    2006-01-01

    Chs4p (Cal2/Csd4/Skt5) was identified as a protein factor physically interacting with Chs3p, the catalytic subunit of chitin synthase III (CSIII), and is indispensable for its enzymatic activity in vivo. Chs4p contains a putative farnesyl attachment site at the C-terminal end (CVIM motif) conserved in Chs4p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other fungi. Several previous reports questioned the role of Chs4p prenylation in chitin biosynthesis. In this study we reinvestigated the function of Chs4p...

  18. Naphthoquinones and Bioactive Compounds from Tobacco as Modulators of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatakrishnan, Priya; Gairola, C. Gary; Castagnoli, Neal; Miller, R. Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Studies were conducted with extracts of several varieties of tobacco in search of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitors which may be of value in the treatment of stroke. Current therapies do not directly exploit modulation of nNOS activity due to poor selectivity of the currently available nNOS inhibitors. The properties of a potentially novel nNOS inhibitor(s) derived from tobacco extracts, and the concentration-dependent, modulatory effects of the tobacco-derived naphthoquinone c...

  19. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation is critical for vascular leakage during acute inflammation in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Bucci, Mariarosaria; Roviezzo, Fiorentina; Posadas, Inmaculada; Yu, Jun; Parente, Luca; Sessa, William C.; Ignarro, Louis J.; Cirino, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    The role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) in acute inflammation is not known. Here, we examine acute inflammation in congenic endothelial NO synthase-deficient (eNOS-/-) mice. Intraplantar injection of carrageenan induces a biphasic inflammatory response. The early phase (0-6 h) is largely eliminated, and the secondary phase (24-96 h) is markedly reduced in eNOS-/- but not WT mice. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or hsp90, pathways upstream of eNOS activation, also reduces...

  20. Accommodation of GDP-Linked Sugars in the Active Site of GDP-Perosamine Synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Paul D.; Carney, Amanda E.; Holden, Hazel M. (UW)

    2009-01-12

    Perosamine (4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-d-mannose), or its N-acetylated form, is one of several dideoxy sugars found in the O-antigens of such infamous Gram-negative bacteria as Vibrio cholerae O1 and Escherichia coli O157:H7. It is added to the bacterial O-antigen via a nucleotide-linked version, namely GDP-perosamine. Three enzymes are required for the biosynthesis of GDP-perosamine starting from mannose 1-phosphate. The focus of this investigation is GDP-perosamine synthase from Caulobacter crescentus, which catalyzes the final step in GDP-perosamine synthesis, the conversion of GDP-4-keto-6-deoxymannose to GDP-perosamine. The enzyme is PLP-dependent and belongs to the aspartate aminotransferase superfamily. It contains the typically conserved active site lysine residue, which forms a Schiff base with the PLP cofactor. Two crystal structures were determined for this investigation: a site-directed mutant protein (K186A) complexed with GDP-perosamine and the wild-type enzyme complexed with an unnatural ligand, GDP-3-deoxyperosamine. These structures, determined to 1.6 and 1.7 {angstrom} resolution, respectively, revealed the manner in which products, and presumably substrates, are accommodated within the active site pocket of GDP-perosamine synthase. Additional kinetic analyses using both the natural and unnatural substrates revealed that the K{sub m} for the unnatural substrate was unperturbed relative to that of the natural substrate, but the k{sub cat} was lowered by a factor of approximately 200. Taken together, these studies shed light on why GDP-perosamine synthase functions as an aminotransferase whereas another very similar PLP-dependent enzyme, GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-mannose 3-dehydratase or ColD, catalyzes a dehydration reaction using the same substrate.

  1. Evidence that Ferredoxin Interfaces with an Internal Redox Shuttle in Acetyl-CoA Synthase During Reductive Activation and Catalysis †

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Gu?nes?; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS), a subunit of the bifunctional CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase (CODH/ACS) complex of Moorella thermoacetica requires reductive activation in order to catalyze acetyl-CoA synthesis and related partial reactions, including the CO/[1-14C]-acetyl-CoA exchange reaction. We show that the M. thermoacetica ferredoxin(II) (Fd-II), which harbors two [4Fe-4S] clusters and is an electron acceptor for CODH, serves as a redox activator of ACS. The level of activation depends ...

  2. PhaM Is the Physiological Activator of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) Synthase (PhaC1) in Ralstonia eutropha

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer, Daniel; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthase (PhaC1) is the key enzyme of PHB synthesis in Ralstonia eutropha and other PHB-accumulating bacteria and catalyzes the polymerization of 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA to PHB. Activity assays of R. eutropha PHB synthase are characterized by the presence of lag phases and by low specific activity. It is assumed that the lag phase is caused by the time necessary to convert the inactive PhaC1 monomer into the active dimeric form by an unknown priming process. The lag...

  3. Syntheses and herbicidal activity of new triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonamides as acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Nan; Chen, Qiong; Liu, Yu-Chao; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Niu, Cong-Wei; Xi, Zhen; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2010-07-15

    The triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilide, discovered from preparing bioisosteres of the sulfonylurea herbicides, is an important class of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 4.1.3.18) inhibitors. At least over ten triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilides have been commercialized as herbicides for the control of broadleaf weeds and grass with cereal crop selectivity. Herein, a series of triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilides were designed and synthesized with the aim of discovery of new herbicides with higher activity. The assay results of the inhibition activity of the synthesized compounds against Arabidopsis thatiana AHAS indicated that some compounds showed a little higher activity against flumetsulam (FS), the first commercial triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilide-type herbicide. The ki values of two promising compounds 3d and 8h are respectively, 1.61 and 1.29 microM, while that of FS is 1.85 microM. Computational simulation results indicated the ester group of compound 3d formed hydrogen bonds with the surrounding residues Arg'198 and Ser653, which accounts for its 11.5-folds higher AHAS inhibition activity than Y6610. Further green house assay showed that compound 3d has comparable herbicidal activity as FS. Even at the concentration of 37.5g.ai/ha, 3d showed excellent herbicidal activity against Galium aparine, Cerastium arvense, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Rmumex acetasa, moderate herbicidal activity against Polygonum humifusum, Cyperus iria, and Eclipta prostrate. The combination of in vitro and in vivo assay indicated that 3d could be regarded as a new potential acetohydroxyacid synthase-inhibiting herbicide candidate for further study. PMID:20598554

  4. Non-canonical active site architecture of the radical SAM thiamin pyrimidine synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Michael K; Mehta, Angad P; Zhang, Yang; Abdelwahed, Sameh H; Begley, Tadhg P; Ealick, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    Radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes use a [4Fe-4S] cluster to generate a 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical. Canonical radical SAM enzymes are characterized by a ?-barrel-like fold and SAM anchors to the differentiated iron of the cluster, which is located near the amino terminus and within the ?-barrel, through its amino and carboxylate groups. Here we show that ThiC, the thiamin pyrimidine synthase in plants and bacteria, contains a tethered cluster-binding domain at its carboxy terminus that moves in and out of the active site during catalysis. In contrast to canonical radical SAM enzymes, we predict that SAM anchors to an additional active site metal through its amino and carboxylate groups. Superimposition of the catalytic domains of ThiC and glutamate mutase shows that these two enzymes share similar active site architectures, thus providing strong evidence for an evolutionary link between the radical SAM and adenosylcobalamin-dependent enzyme superfamilies. PMID:25813242

  5. Human gene encoding prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS): Genomic organization, chromosomal localization, and promoter activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Chieko; Yabuki, Tomoko; Inoue, Hiroyasu [National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The prostacyclin synthase gene isolated from human genomic libraries (PTGIS) consists of 10 exons spanning approximately 60 kb. All the splice donor and acceptor sites conform to the GT/AG rule. Genomic Southern blot and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed that the human prostacyclin synthase gene is present as a single copy per haploid genome and is localized on chromosome 20q13.11-q13.13. The 1.5-kb sequence of the 5{prime} of the translational initiation site contained both GC-rich and pyrimidine-rich regions and consensus sequences of the transcription factor recognition sites such as Sp1, AP-2, the interferon-{gamma} response element, GATA, NF-{kappa}B, the CACCC box, and the glucocorticoid response element. The core binding sequence (GAGACC) of the shear stress responsive element was also found in the 5{prime}-flanking region of the gene. The major product of the primer extension analysis suggested that the transcription of the gene started from the positions around 49 bp upstream of the translational initiation codon. Transient transfection experiments using human aortic and bovine arterial endothelial cells demonstrated that the GC-rich region (positions -145 to -10) possessed a significant promoter activity. The 6-kb downstream sequence of the translational termination codon contained multiple polyadenylation signals, Alu repeat sequences, and the consensus sequence of the primate-repetitive DNA element, MER1. Two sizes of the prostacyclin synthase mRNAs (approximately 6 and 3.3 kb) were detected with the human aorta and lung. RNA blot hybridization analysis using the 3{prime}-untranslated region as probe indicated that the sizes of the 3{prime}-flanking regions were different in the major 6-kb and minor 3.3-kb mRNAs. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Expression patterns and role of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases, prostaglandin E synthases, prostacyclin synthase, prostacyclin receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta and retinoid x receptor alpha in rat endometrium during artificially-induced decidualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillio-Meina, Carolina; Phang, Sen Han; Mather, James P; Knight, Brian S; Kennedy, Thomas G

    2009-03-01

    To determine if changes in endometrial expression of the enzymes and receptors involved in prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and action might provide insights into the PGs involved in the initiation of decidualization, ovariectomized steroid-treated rats at the equivalent of day 5 of pseudopregnancy were given a deciduogenic stimulus and killed at various times up to 32 h thereafter. The expression of PG-endoperoxide synthases (PTGS1 and PTGS2), microsomal PGE synthases (PTGES and PTGES2), cytosolic PGE synthase (PTGES3), prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS), prostacyclin receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) and retinoid x receptor alpha (RXRA) in endometrium was assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, western blot analyses and immunohistochemistry. In addition, to determine which PG is involved in mediating decidualization, we compared the ability of PGE(2), stable analogues of PGI(2), L165041 (an agonist of PPARD), and docasahexanoic acid (an agonist of RXRA) to increase endometrial vascular permeability (EVP, an early event in decidualization), and decidualization when infused into the uterine horns of rats sensitized for the decidual cell reaction (DCR). EVP was assessed by uterine concentrations of Evans blue 10 h after initiation of infusions. DCR was assessed by the uterine mass 5 days after the initiation of the infusions. Because enzymes associated with the synthesis of PGE(2), including PTGS2, are up-regulated in response to a deciduogenic stimulus and because PGE(2) was more effective than the PGI(2) analogues and PPARD and RXRA agonists in increasing EVP and inducing decidualization, we suggest that PGE(2) is most likely the PG involved in the initiation of decidualization in the rat. PMID:19060098

  7. Activated Protein C Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Apoptosis Mediated by Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3?

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Liang; Lv, Tangfeng; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ting; Gu, Xiaoling; Xu, Feng; Song, Yong

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between antiapoptotic activities induced by activated protein C and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this study, it was observed that activated protein C elicited a rise in glucose-regulated protein 78 and glycogen synthase kinase-3? and inhibited apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by lipopolysaccharide. Calcium inhibition did not alter the antiapoptotic effect of activated protein C. The antiapoptotic efficiency of activated ...

  8. Induction of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase activity by fungal elicitor in cultures of Petroselinum crispum.

    OpenAIRE

    Mccue, K. F.; Conn, E. E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of a cell wall fraction of the fungus Phytophthora megasperma on the enzymatic activities of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase (EC 4.1.2.15) in extracts of cultured parsley cells (Petroselinum crispum) were examined. The specific activity of a plastidic form of DAHP synthase, designated DS-Mn by Ganson et al. [Ganson, R. J., d'Amato, T. A. & Jensen, R. A. (1986) Plant Physiol. 82, 203-210], was increased 2- to 3-fold in extracts of treated cells, with max...

  9. Expression Patterns, Activities and Carbohydrate-Metabolizing Regulation of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase, Sucrose Synthase and Neutral Invertase in Pineapple Fruit during Development and Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Wei; Du, Li-Qing; Xie, Jiang-Hui; Yao, Yan-Li; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI) activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582) and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581) were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated distinct patterns related to sugar accumulation and composition of pineapple fruits. It suggests that differential expressions of multiple gene families are necessary for sugar metabolism in various parts and developmental stages of pineapple fruit. A cycle of sucrose breakdown in the cytosol of sink tissues could be mediated through both Ac-SuSy and Ac-NI, and Ac-NI could be involved in regulating crucial steps by generating sugar signals to the cells in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion. PMID:22949808

  10. An evolutionarily conserved alternate metal ligand is important for activity in ?-isopropylmalate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantom, Patrick A; Birman, Yuliya; Hays, Brittani N; Casey, Ashley K

    2014-10-01

    Members of the DRE-TIM metallolyase superfamily rely on an active-site divalent cation to catalyze various reactions involving the making and breaking of carbon-carbon bonds. While the identity of the metal varies, the binding site is well-conserved at the superfamily level with an aspartic acid and two histidine residues acting as ligands to the metal. Previous structural and bioinformatics results indicate that the metal can adopt an alternate architecture through the addition of an asparagine residue as a fourth ligand. This asparagine residue is strictly conserved in all members of the DRE-TIM metallolyase superfamily except fungal homocitrate synthase (HCS-lys) where it is replaced with isoleucine. The role of this additional metal ligand in ?-isopropylmalate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtIPMS) has been investigated using site-directed mutagenesis. Substitution of the asparagine ligand with alanine or isoleucine results in inactive enzymes with respect to ?-isopropylmalate formation. Control experiments suggest that the substitutions have not drastically affected the enzyme's structure indicating that the asparagine residue is essential for catalysis. Interestingly, all enzyme variants retained acetyl CoA hydrolysis activity in the absence of ?-ketoisovalerate, similar to the wild-type enzyme. In contrast to the requirement of magnesium for ?-isopropylmalate formation, hydrolytic activity could be inhibited by the addition of magnesium chloride in wild-type, D81E, and N321A MtIPMS, but not in the other variants studied. Attempts to rescue loss of activity in N321I MtIPMS by mimicking the fungal HCS active site through the D81E/N321I double variant were unsuccessful. This suggests epistatic constraints in evolution of function in IPMS and HCS-lys enzymes. PMID:25064783

  11. [A case of respiratory dyskinesia due to clebopride malate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, H; Yamamoto, M; Okayasu, H; Wakayama, Y

    1991-08-01

    Clebopride malate is therapeutically used for the treatment of peptic ulcer. This drug has potent antidopaminergic activity that causes acute dystonic reaction, parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia as adverse effects. Here, we have reported an 86-year-old man who developed abnormal involuntary movement of respiratory muscles and lower limb muscles after this drug had been given for four months. This involuntary movement appeared spontaneously at resting state and disappeared during sleep. Surface EMG demonstrated a synchronous grouping discharge in m. orbicularis oris, m. sternocleidomastoideus and m. interstales which synchronized with diaphragmatic movement on cinefluorography. Involuntary movement of the lower limbs was synchronous bilaterally and had little relationship with diaphragmatic movement. This involuntary movement was irregular not only in rhythm but also in duration. According to this irregular nature, we diagnosed this involuntary movement as respiratory dyskinesia with limb dyskinesia that belongs to tardive dyskinesia. After cessation of clebopride malate limb dyskinesia disappeared rapidly and respiratory dyskinesia markedly decreased. We emphasize that respiratory dyskinesia should be differentiated from psychogenic hyperventilation as easily misdiagnosed on initial examination. PMID:1764865

  12. Nitric oxide synthase activity and endogenous inhibitors in rats recovered from allergic encephalomyelitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SA, Teixeira; AA, Varriano; AA, Dias; R, Martins Porto; MN, Muscará.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We have previously reported that in comparison with normal rats, the presence of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) leads to decreased endogenous inhibitory activity (EIA) of Ca2+-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in both brain and serum, and increased expression of protein 3-nitrotyr [...] osine (NT) in brain. In this work we show that animals recovered from the clinical signs of EAE are not different from controls in terms of either brain NOS activity, EIA of NOS, or NT expression. These results suggest that parallel to the reversal of the disease symptoms, a normalization of the production of nitric oxide and related species occurs.

  13. Catechol oxidase and phenoxazinone synthase activity of a manganese(II) isoindoline complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizer, József; Baráth, Gábor; Csonka, Róbert; Speier, Gábor; Korecz, László; Rockenbauer, Antal; Párkányi, László

    2008-04-01

    The mononuclear [Mn(6'Me(2)indH)(H(2)O)(2)(CH(3)CN)](ClO(4))(2) (6'Me(2)indH: 1,3-bis(6'-methyl-2'-pyridylimino)isoindoline) complex has been prepared and characterized by various techniques such as elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible and ESR spectroscopy. The title compound was suitable as catalyst for the catalytic oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBCH(2)) to 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone (3,5-DTBQ) (catecholase activity), and o-aminophenol (OAPH) to 2-aminophenoxazine-3-one (APX) (phenoxazinone synthase activity) with dioxygen at ambient condition in good yields. Kinetic measurements revealed first-order dependence on the catalyst and dioxygen concentration and saturation type behavior with respect to the corresponding substrate. It was also found that the added triethylamine in both systems accelerates the reaction. PMID:18222003

  14. The active site of yeast phosphatidylinositol synthase Pis1 is facing the cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochud, Arlette; Conzelmann, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Five yeast enzymes synthesizing various glycerophospholipids belong to the CDP-alcohol phosphatidyltransferase (CAPT) superfamily. They only share the so-called CAPT motif, which forms the active site of all these enzymes. Bioinformatic tools predict the CAPT motif of phosphatidylinositol synthase Pis1 as either ER luminal or cytosolic. To investigate the membrane topology of Pis1, unique cysteine residues were introduced into either native or a Cys-free form of Pis1 and their accessibility to the small, membrane permeating alkylating reagent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and mass tagged, non-permeating maleimides, in the presence and absence of non-denaturing detergents, was monitored. The results clearly point to a cytosolic location of the CAPT motif. Pis1 is highly sensitive to non-denaturing detergent, and low concentrations (0.05%) of dodecylmaltoside change the accessibility of single substituted Cys in the active site of an otherwise cysteine free version of Pis1. Slightly higher detergent concentrations inactivate the enzyme. Removal of the ER retrieval sequence from (wt) Pis1 enhances its activity, again suggesting an influence of the lipid environment. The central 84% of the Pis1 sequence can be aligned and fitted onto the 6 transmembrane helices of two recently crystallized archaeal members of the CAPT family. Results delineate the accessibility of different parts of Pis1 in their natural context and allow to critically evaluate the performance of different cysteine accessibility methods. Overall the results show that cytosolically made inositol and CDP-diacylglycerol can access the active site of the yeast PI synthase Pis1 from the cytosolic side and that Pis1 structure is strongly affected by mild detergents. PMID:25687304

  15. Human platelet nitric oxide synthase activity: an optimized method Atividade da óxido nítrico sintase em plaquetas humanas: um método otimizado

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Mitiko Kawamato; Isaias Glezer; Carolina Demarchi Munhoz; Cristiane Bernardes; Cristoforo Scavone; Tania Marcourakis

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the kinetic analysis of human platelet Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) activity by the rate of conversion of [³H] arginine to [³H]-citrulline in unstimulated fresh platelets. NOS activity was present in the membrane fraction and cytosol, and was Ca2+- and calmodulin dependent which is a characteristic of endothelial NOS. NOS activity was also dependent of NADPH since the omission of this cofactor induced an important decrease (85,2%) in the enzyme activity. The kinetic varied wi...

  16. Modeling of annual variations of oak (Quercus robur L.) isoprene synthase activity to predict isoprene emission rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehning, A.; Zimmer, W.; Zimmer, I.; Schnitzler, J.-P.

    2001-02-01

    Isoprene plays an important role in regulating the atmospheric trace gas composition, in particular the tropospheric ozone concentrations. Therefore realistic estimates of the seasonal variation of isoprene emission source strengths of strong isoprene-emitting deciduous trees such as pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) are required in temperate regions of Europe. In 1995 to 1997 a study was conducted to survey the annual fluctuations of oak isoprene synthase activity and photosynthetic pigment contents, the latter as a parameter for the development of the photosynthetic apparatus of oak leaves. Depending on annual temperature and light profiles (photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD)), different seasonal patterns of isoprene synthase activity were observed with maximum activities of 18.4±10.6 nmol m-2 s-1 14.1±5.8 nmol m-2 s-1 and 19.9±7.9 nmol m-2 s-1 in 1995, 1996, and 1997, respectively. On the basis of isoprene synthase activity, chlorophyll a measurements, and phenological data collected from pedunculate oaks of 89 ecological regions covering all of Germany a model was developed for the calculation of the seasonal variation of oak isoprene synthase activity in relation to annual fluctuation of temperature and PPFD. By coupling this model to a numeric process-based isoprene emission model it was possible to predict isoprene emission rates of individual pedunculate oak trees with a deviation of 55%.

  17. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 represses androgen receptor activity and prostate cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Michal; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Zhu, Hanneng; Waxman, Jonathan; Kypta, Robert M

    2004-10-14

    The transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) is regulated by interaction with various coregulators, one of which is beta-catenin. Interest in the role of beta-catenin in prostate cancer has been stimulated by reports showing that it is aberrantly expressed in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus in up to 38% of hormone-refractory tumours and that overexpression of beta-catenin results in activation of AR transcriptional activity. We have examined the effect of depleting endogenous beta-catenin on AR activity using Axin and RNA interference. Axin, which promotes beta-catenin degradation, inhibited AR transcriptional activity. However, this did not require the beta-catenin-binding domain of Axin. Depletion of beta-catenin using RNA interference increased, rather than decreased, AR activity, suggesting that endogenous beta-catenin is not a transcriptional coactivator for the AR. The glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3)-binding domain of Axin prevented formation of a GSK-3-AR complex and was both necessary and sufficient for inhibition of AR-dependent transcription. A second GSK-3-binding protein, FRAT, also inhibited AR transcriptional activity, as did the GSK-3 inhibitors SB216763 and SB415286. Finally, inhibition of GSK-3 reduced the growth of AR-expressing prostate cancer cell lines. Our observations suggest a potential new therapeutic application for GSK-3 inhibitors in prostate cancer. PMID:15361837

  18. A natural mutation-led truncation in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes at the Ma locus is associated with low fruit acidity in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Li, Mingjun; Fazio, Gennaro; Cheng, Lailiang; Xu, Kenong

    2012-08-01

    Acidity levels greatly affect the taste and flavor of fruit, and consequently its market value. In mature apple fruit, malic acid is the predominant organic acid. Several studies have confirmed that the major quantitative trait locus Ma largely controls the variation of fruit acidity levels. The Ma locus has recently been defined in a region of 150 kb that contains 44 predicted genes on chromosome 16 in the Golden Delicious genome. In this study, we identified two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes, designated Ma1 and Ma2, as strong candidates of Ma by narrowing down the Ma locus to 65-82 kb containing 12-19 predicted genes depending on the haplotypes. The Ma haplotypes were determined by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosome clones from G.41 (an apple rootstock of genotype Mama) that cover the two distinct haplotypes at the Ma locus. Gene expression profiling in 18 apple germplasm accessions suggested that Ma1 is the major determinant at the Ma locus controlling fruit acidity as Ma1 is expressed at a much higher level than Ma2 and the Ma1 expression is significantly correlated with fruit titratable acidity (R (2) = 0.4543, P = 0.0021). In the coding sequences of low acidity alleles of Ma1 and Ma2, sequence variations at the amino acid level between Golden Delicious and G.41 were not detected. But the alleles for high acidity vary considerably between the two genotypes. The low acidity allele of Ma1, Ma1-1455A, is mainly characterized by a mutation at base 1455 in the open reading frame. The mutation leads to a premature stop codon that truncates the carboxyl terminus of Ma1-1455A by 84 amino acids compared with Ma1-1455G. A survey of 29 apple germplasm accessions using marker CAPS(1455) that targets the SNP(1455) in Ma1 showed that the CAPS(1455A) allele was associated completely with high pH and highly with low titratable acidity, suggesting that the natural mutation-led truncation is most likely responsible for the abolished function of Ma for low pH or high acidity in apple. PMID:22806345

  19. Rho 1 GTPase activates the (1-3)beta-D-glucan synthase and is involved in Schizosaccharomyces pombe morphogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Arellano, M.; Dura?n, A.; Pe?rez, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cdc42 and Rho1 GTPases were tested for their ability to complement the cwg2-1 mutant phenotype of a decrease in (1-3)beta-D-glucan synthase activity when grown at the non-permissive temperature. Only Rho1 is able to partly complement the defect in glucan synthase associated with the cwg2-1 mutation. Moreover, overexpression of the rho1 gene in wild-type S.pombe cells causes aberrant morphology with loss of polarity and cells with several septa. Under this conditi...

  20. Structure and activity of NO synthase inhibitors specific to the L-arginine binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakov, S Ya; Konoplyannikov, A G; Skvortsov, V G; Mandrugin, A A; Fedoseev, V M

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of compounds containing a fragment similar to the guanidine group of L-arginine, which is a substrate of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is the main direction in creating NOS inhibitors. The inhibitory effect of such compounds is caused not only by their competition with the substrate for the L-arginine-binding site and/or oxidizing center of the enzyme (heme) but also by interaction with peptide motifs of the enzyme that influence its dimerization, affinity for cofactors, and interaction with associated proteins. Structures, activities, and relative in vitro and in vivo specificities of various NOS inhibitors (amino acid and non-amino acid) with linear or cyclic structure and containing guanidine, amidine, or isothiuronium group are considered. These properties are mainly analyzed by comparison with effects of the inhibitors on the inducible NOS. PMID:15701046

  1. Helicobacter pylori filtrate induces Alzheimer-like tau hyperphosphorylation by activating glycogen synthase kinase-3?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Lian; Zeng, Ji; Yang, Yang; Xiong, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Qiu, Mei; Yan, Xiong; Sun, Xu-Ying; Tuo, Qing-Zhang; Liu, Rong; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau is involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been reported to be related with a high risk of AD, but the direct laboratory evidence is lacking. Here we explored the effect of H. pylori infection on tau phosphorylation. The results showed that H. pylori filtrate induced significant tau hyperphosphorylation at several AD-related tau phosphorylation sites, such as Thr205, Thr231, and Ser404, both in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells and rat brains with activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Application of GSK-3 inhibitors efficiently attenuated the H. pylori-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. Our data provide evidence supporting the role of H. pylori infection in AD-like tau pathology, suggesting that H. pylori eradication may be beneficial in the prevention of tauopathy. PMID:25079798

  2. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on rabbit urinary bladder citrate synthase activity in the presence and absence of a grape suspension

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vijay, Venugopal; Robert E., Leggett; Catherine, Schuler; Robert M., Levin.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: The etiology of obstructive bladder dysfunction includes free radical damage to mitochondria. Feeding rabbits a standardized grape suspension protects the ability of the bladder to contract and empty in part by preventing mitochondrial damage, thus maintaining smooth muscle and mucosal meta [...] bolism. The objective of the current study is to determine the direct effect of this grape suspension on the response of mitochondria to the oxidative effects of hydrogen peroxide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six male rabbits were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and the bladders excised. Four full thickness strips were obtained for contractile studies and the balance separated into smooth muscle and mucosa compartments by blunt dissection. The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the contractile response to field stimulation was quantitated. Each tissue was homogenized and the effects of increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in the presence and absence of grape suspension on citrate synthase activity was determined. RESULTS: Citrate synthase activity was significantly higher in the mucosa than in the muscle. The grape suspension had no effect on control citrate synthase activity. However, the grape suspension provided significant protection of both smooth muscle and mucosal citrate synthase activity. CONCLUSIONS: These studies support the conclusion that the grape suspension provides direct protection of mitochondrial function.

  3. Lid L11 of the glutamine amidotransferase domain of CTP synthase mediates allosteric GTP activation of glutaminase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoës, Martin; MØlgaard, Anne

    2005-01-01

    GTP is an allosteric activator of CTP synthase and acts to increase the k(cat) for the glutamine-dependent CTP synthesis reaction. GTP is suggested, in part, to optimally orient the oxy-anion hole for hydrolysis of glutamine that takes place in the glutamine amidotransferase class I (GATase) domain of CTP synthase. In the GATase domain of the recently published structures of the Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus CTP synthases a loop region immediately proceeding amino acid residues forming the oxy-anion hole and named lid L11 is shown for the latter enzyme to be flexible and change position depending on the presence or absence of glutamine in the glutamine binding site. Displacement or rearrangement of this loop may provide a means for the suggested role of allosteric activation by GTP to optimize the oxy-anion hole for glutamine hydrolysis. Arg359, Gly360 and Glu362 of the Lactococcus lactis enzyme are highly conserved residues in lid L11 and we have analyzed their possible role in GTP activation. Characterization of the mutant enzymes R359M, R359P, G360A and G360P indicated that both Arg359 and Gly360 are involved in the allosteric response to GTP binding whereas the E362Q enzyme behaved like wild-type enzyme. Apart from the G360A enzyme, the results from kinetic analysis of the enzymes altered at position 359 and 360 showed a 10- to 50-fold decrease in GTP activation of glutamine dependent CTP synthesis and concomitant four- to 10-fold increases in K(A) for GTP. The R359M, R359P and G360P also showed no GTP activation of the uncoupled glutaminase reaction whereas the G360A enzyme was about twofold more active than wild-type enzyme. The elevated K(A) for GTP and reduced GTP activation of CTP synthesis of the mutant enzymes are in agreement with a predicted interaction of bound GTP with lid L11 and indicate that the GTP activation of glutamine dependent CTP synthesis may be explained by structural rearrangements around the oxy-anion hole of the GATase domain

  4. Recruitment of alkaloid-specific homospermidine synthase (HSS) from ubiquitous deoxyhypusine synthase: Does Crotalaria possess a functional HSS that still has DHS activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Niknik; Ober, Dietrich

    2005-06-01

    Quinolizidine alkaloids are the most prominent group of alkaloids occurring in legumes, except for many members of the tribe Crotalarieae that accumulate pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). To study the evolution of PA biosynthesis as a typical pathway of plant secondary metabolism in this tribe, we have searched for a cDNA coding for homospermidine synthase (HSS), the enzyme catalyzing the first specific step in this biosynthesis. HSS was shown to have been recruited from deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) by independent gene duplication in several different angiosperm lineages during evolution. Except for a cDNA sequence coding for the DHS of Crotalaria retusa, no data is available concerning the origin of PA biosynthesis within this tribe of the Fabaceae. In addition to several pseudogenes, we have identified one functional DHS in C. scassellatii and two in C. juncea. Despite C. juncea plants under study being devoid of PAs, we have found that the two sequences of C. juncea are different with respect to their genomic organization, their tissue-specific expression, and their biochemical activities. Supported by the branching pattern of a maximum likelihood analysis of these sequences, they have been classified as "class 1" and "class 2" DHS. It remains open whether the duplicated DHS belonging to class 2 is involved in the biosynthesis of PAs. PMID:15935411

  5. Superoxide synthase and dismutase activity of plasma membranes from maize roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuleti?, M; Hadzi-Taskovi? Sukalovi?, V; Vucini?, Z

    2003-05-01

    Superoxide synthase and superoxide dismutase activity have been monitored in isolated maize ( Zea mays) root plasma membranes spectrophotometrically by determination of nitro-blue tetrazolium and cytochrome c reduction, respectively. Superoxide production was induced by NADH and NADPH, with similar kinetics and approaching saturation at 0.06 mM in the case of NADPH and 0.1 mM in the case of NADH, with rates of 18.6 +/- 5.0 and 21.8 +/- 7.2 nmol/min. mg of protein, respectively. These activities exhibited a broad pH optimum between pH 6.5 and 7.5. Diphenylene iodonium inhibited about 25% (10 microM DPI) and 40% (100 microM DPI) of this activity, imidazole inhibited about 20%, while KCN, a peroxidase inhibitor, did not show any significant inhibition. Superoxide-dismutating activity was shown to occur in the same isolates and depended on the quantity of plasma membrane protein present. Growth of plants on salicylic acid prior to membrane isolation induced a rise in the activity of both of the enzymes by 20-35%, suggesting their coordinated action. PMID:12768344

  6. Arginase reciprocally regulates nitric oxide synthase activity and contributes to endothelial dysfunction in aging blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Dan E.; White, Ron; Li, Dechun; Minhas, Khalid M.; Cernetich, Amy; Kim, Soonyul; Burke, Sean; Shoukas, Artin A.; Nyhan, Daniel; Champion, Hunter C.; Hare, Joshua M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although abnormal L-arginine NO signaling contributes to endothelial dysfunction in the aging cardiovascular system, the biochemical mechanisms remain controversial. L-arginine, the NO synthase (NOS) precursor, is also a substrate for arginase. We tested the hypotheses that arginase reciprocally regulates NOS by modulating L-arginine bioavailability and that arginase is upregulated in aging vasculature, contributing to depressed endothelial function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inhibition of arginase with (S)-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine, HCl (BEC) produced vasodilation in aortic rings from young (Y) adult rats (maximum effect, 46.4+/-9.4% at 10(-5) mol/L, Parginase inhibitors N-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). This effect required intact endothelium and was prevented by 1H-oxadiazole quinoxalin-1-one (PArginase activity and expression were increased in O rings, whereas NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels were decreased. BEC and DFMO suppressed arginase activity and restored NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels in O vessels to those of Y. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that arginase modulates NOS activity, likely by regulating intracellular L-arginine availability. Arginase upregulation contributes to endothelial dysfunction of aging and may therefore be a therapeutic target.

  7. Sulfonylureas have antifungal activity and are potent inhibitors of Candida albicans acetohydroxyacid synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Ting; Cui, Chang-Jun; Chow, Eve W L; Pue, Nason; Lonhienne, Thierry; Wang, Jian-Guo; Fraser, James A; Guddat, Luke W

    2013-01-10

    The sulfonylurea herbicides exert their activity by inhibiting plant acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS), the first enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway. It has previously been shown that if the gene for AHAS is deleted in Candida albicans , attenuation of virulence is achieved, suggesting AHAS as an antifungal drug target. Herein, we have cloned, expressed, and purified C. albicans AHAS and shown that several sulfonylureas are inhibitors of this enzyme and possess antifungal activity. The most potent of these compounds is ethyl 2-(N-((4-iodo-6-methoxypyrimidin-2-yl)carbamoyl)sulfamoyl)benzoate (10c), which has a K(i) value of 3.8 nM for C. albicans AHAS and an MIC?? of 0.7 ?g/mL for this fungus in cell-based assays. For the sulfonylureas tested there was a strong correlation between inhibitory activity toward C. albicans AHAS and fungicidal activity, supporting the hypothesis that AHAS is the target for their inhibitory activity within the cell. PMID:23237384

  8. Expression Patterns, Activities and Carbohydrate-Metabolizing Regulation of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase, Sucrose Synthase and Neutral Invertase in Pineapple Fruit during Development and Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Li Yao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SuSy activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582 and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581 were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated distinct patterns related to sugar accumulation and composition of pineapple fruits. It suggests that differential expressions of multiple gene families are necessary for sugar metabolism in various parts and developmental stages of pineapple fruit. A cycle of sucrose breakdown in the cytosol of sink tissues could be mediated through both Ac-SuSy and Ac-NI, and Ac-NI could be involved in regulating crucial steps by generating sugar signals to the cells in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion.

  9. Amyloid-beta (25-35) increases activity of neuronal NO-synthase in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanichev, Mikhail Yu; Onufriev, Mikhail V; Yakovlev, Alexander A; Khrenov, Andrey I; Peregud, Danil I; Vorontsova, Olga N; Lazareva, Natalia A; Gulyaeva, Natalia V

    2008-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical with multiple functions in the nervous system. NO plays an important role in the mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. The main source of NO in the brain is an enzymatic activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression and activity of both neuronal (nNOS) and inducible (iNOS) isoenzymes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats after intracerebroventricular administration of amyloid-beta (A beta) peptide fragment A beta(25-35). NADPHd histochemistry as well as immunohistochemistry were also used to investigate nNOS and iNOS expression in rat brain. The data presented here show that A beta(25-35) did not influence levels of nNOS or iNOS mRNA or protein expression in both structures studied. A beta(25-35) activated nNOS in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus without effect on iNOS activity. A beta(25-35) decreased the number of NADPHd-expressing neurons in the neocortex, but it did not significantly influence the number NADPHd-positive cells in the hippocampus. The peptide had no effect on the number of nNOS containing cells. We hypothesize that increased synthesis of NO induced by A beta(25-35) is related to qualitative alterations of nNOS molecule, but not to changes in NOS protein expression. PMID:18207612

  10. CMP activates reversal of phosphatidylinositol synthase and base exchange by distinct mechanisms in rat pituitary GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubitt, A B; Gershengorn, M C

    1990-12-15

    CMP is known to activate phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)/inositol (Ins) base exchange and has been reported to activate reversal of PtdIns synthase also. Because it is possible that PtdIns synthase acting in the reverse direction, followed by re-incorporation of ambient Ins, could be responsible for base-exchange activity, we characterized these processes in rat pituitary GH3 cells. In permeabilized GH3 cells prelabelled with [3H]Ins and incubated in buffer with LiCl but without added Ins, CMP stimulated rapid accumulation of [3H]Ins and decreases in [3H]PtdIns; the Km for CMP was 1.7 mM. CDP and CTP were less effective, whereas 2'-CMP, 3'-CMP, other nucleoside monophosphates and cytidine did not influence this process. In permeabilized cells prelabelled to isotopic equilibrium with [3H]Ins and [32P]Pi, CMP stimulated decreases in both the 32P and 3H labelling of PtdIns, but did not increase that of [32P]phosphatidic acid. These findings demonstrate that in the absence of added Ins the effect of CMP is not via activation of base exchange nor via a phospholipase D, but by reversal of PtdIns synthase. In permeabilized cells prelabelled with [3H]Ins and [32P]Pi, unlabelled Ins inhibited loss of 32P labelling of PtdIns caused by CMP while markedly stimulating loss of 3H labelling of PtdIns and release of [3H]Ins. These data demonstrate that Ins inhibits reversal of PtdIns synthase, but stimulates base exchange. We conclude that in GH3 cells reversal of PtdIns synthase and PtdIns/Ins base exchange are both stimulated by CMP, but are distinct processes. PMID:2176479

  11. Materials and methods for efficient succinate and malate production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantama, Kaemwich; Haupt, Mark John; Zhang, Xueli; Moore, Jonathan C; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    2014-04-08

    Genetically engineered microorganisms have been constructed to produce succinate and malate in mineral salt media in pH-controlled batch fermentations without the addition of plasmids or foreign genes. The subject invention also provides methods of producing succinate and malate comprising the culture of genetically modified microorganisms.

  12. Plastidial NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase is critical for embryo development and heterotrophic metabolism in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Seraina; Liu, Hung-Chi; Stadler, Martha; Schreier, Tina; Eicke, Simona; Lue, Wei-Ling; Truernit, Elisabeth; Zeeman, Samuel C; Chen, Jychian; Kötting, Oliver

    2014-03-01

    In illuminated chloroplasts, one mechanism involved in reduction-oxidation (redox) homeostasis is the malate-oxaloacetate (OAA) shuttle. Excess electrons from photosynthetic electron transport in the form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced are used by NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH) to reduce OAA to malate, thus regenerating the electron acceptor NADP. NADP-MDH is a strictly redox-regulated, light-activated enzyme that is inactive in the dark. In the dark or in nonphotosynthetic tissues, the malate-OAA shuttle was proposed to be mediated by the constitutively active plastidial NAD-specific MDH isoform (pdNAD-MDH), but evidence is scarce. Here, we reveal the critical role of pdNAD-MDH in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. A pdnad-mdh null mutation is embryo lethal. Plants with reduced pdNAD-MDH levels by means of artificial microRNA (miR-mdh-1) are viable, but dark metabolism is altered as reflected by increased nighttime malate, starch, and glutathione levels and a reduced respiration rate. In addition, miR-mdh-1 plants exhibit strong pleiotropic effects, including dwarfism, reductions in chlorophyll levels, photosynthetic rate, and daytime carbohydrate levels, and disordered chloroplast ultrastructure, particularly in developing leaves, compared with the wild type. pdNAD-MDH deficiency in miR-mdh-1 can be functionally complemented by expression of a microRNA-insensitive pdNAD-MDH but not NADP-MDH, confirming distinct roles for NAD- and NADP-linked redox homeostasis. PMID:24453164

  13. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase and farnesyltransferase change the activities of several transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravliova, E; Barbakadze, T; Narmania, N; Ramsden, J; Mikeladze, D

    2007-01-01

    Several types of cellular proteins can be modified by farnesylation and nitrosylation, of which the most significant is Ras. We used manumycin, a farnesyltransferase inhibitor, and L-NAME (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, for characterization of Ras-dependent downstream targets activities. Our results suggest that change of the steady-state levels of nitric oxide and inhibition of farnesylation modified the activities of several transcription factors. We have found that the inhibition of farnesylation by manumycin decreased the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, did not change the DNA-binding activities of STAT, Sp1, ATF-2, and CREB, and increased the activities of c-Fos, JunD, and c-Jun. Under such conditions, phosphorylation of Akt was decreased, whereas phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was increased and phosphorylation of JNK did not change. Furthermore, our results show that reduction of intracellular concentration of nitric oxides by L-NAME increases the activities of c-Fos, ATF-2 and JunD and decreases the activities of CREB, STAT, Sp1, and c-Jun. The activities of all of these transcription factors are restored to normal levels in the presence of manumycin, suggesting that simultaneous modifications of proteins by farnesylation and nitrosylation change the direction of Ras-controlled downstream pathways. Our results provide further evidence of the significance of posttranslational modifications of Ras for the specificity of transducing cascade networks and physiological outcome. PMID:17726232

  14. Nitric oxide synthase activity in tissues of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala: Fabricius, 1794

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Faraldo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Although insects lack the adaptive immune response of the mammalians, they manifest effective innate immune responses, which include both cellular and humoral components. Cellular responses are mediated by hemocytes, and humoral responses include the activation of proteolytic cascades that initiate many events, including NO production. In mammals, nitric oxide synthases (NOSs are also present in the endothelium, the brain, the adrenal glands, and the platelets. Studies on the distribution of NO-producing systems in invertebrates have revealed functional similarities between NOS in this group and vertebrates. We attempted to localize NOS activity in tissues of naïve (UIL, yeast-injected (YIL, and saline-injected (SIL larvae of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala, using the NADPH diaphorase technique. Our findings revealed similar levels of NOS activity in muscle, fat body, Malpighian tubule, gut, and brain, suggesting that NO synthesis may not be involved in the immune response of these larval systems. These results were compared to many studies that recorded the involvement of NO in various physiological functions of insects.

  15. Nitric oxide synthase activity in tissues of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala: Fabricius, 1794

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. C., Faraldo; A, Sá-Nunes; L. H., Faccioli; E. A., Del Bel; E, Lello.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english Although insects lack the adaptive immune response of the mammalians, they manifest effective innate immune responses, which include both cellular and humoral components. Cellular responses are mediated by hemocytes, and humoral responses include the activation of proteolytic cascades that initiate [...] many events, including NO production. In mammals, nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are also present in the endothelium, the brain, the adrenal glands, and the platelets. Studies on the distribution of NO-producing systems in invertebrates have revealed functional similarities between NOS in this group and vertebrates. We attempted to localize NOS activity in tissues of naïve (UIL), yeast-injected (YIL), and saline-injected (SIL) larvae of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala, using the NADPH diaphorase technique. Our findings revealed similar levels of NOS activity in muscle, fat body, Malpighian tubule, gut, and brain, suggesting that NO synthesis may not be involved in the immune response of these larval systems. These results were compared to many studies that recorded the involvement of NO in various physiological functions of insects.

  16. Production of functionally active Penicillium chrysogenum isopenicillin N synthase in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veenhuis Marten

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ?-Lactams like penicillin and cephalosporin are among the oldest known antibiotics used against bacterial infections. Industrially, penicillin is produced by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. Our goal is to introduce the entire penicillin biosynthesis pathway into the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Yeast species have the advantage of being versatile, easy to handle and cultivate, and possess superior fermentation properties relative to filamentous fungi. One of the fundamental challenges is to produce functionally active enzyme in H. polymorpha. Results The P. chrysogenum pcbC gene encoding isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS was successfully expressed in H. polymorpha, but the protein produced was unstable and inactive when the host was grown at its optimal growth temperature (37°C. Heterologously produced IPNS protein levels were enhanced when the cultivation temperature was lowered to either 25°C or 30°C. Furthermore, IPNS produced at these lower cultivation temperatures was functionally active. Localization experiments demonstrated that, like in P. chrysogenum, in H. polymorpha IPNS is located in the cytosol. Conclusion In P. chrysogenum, the enzymes involved in penicillin production are compartmentalized in the cytosol and in microbodies. In this study, we focus on the cytosolic enzyme IPNS. Our data show that high amounts of functionally active IPNS enzyme can be produced in the heterologous host during cultivation at 25°C, the optimal growth temperature for P. chrysogenum. This is a new step forward in the metabolic reprogramming of H. polymorpha to produce penicillin.

  17. Important differences in nitric oxide synthase activity and predominant isoform in reproductive tissues from human and rat

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hijji J; Iosif C; Batra S; Larsson I

    2003-01-01

    Abstract For the extrapolation of data obtained from experimental animals to the human situation, it is important to know the similarities and differences between human and animal species. Some important characteristics of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in myometrium and vagina from human and rat were compared. NOS-activity was measured by the formation of 14C-citrulline from 14C-arginine and the expression of NOS isoforms was examined by Western blotting. NOS activity in human uterus and vagina...

  18. Methylene green electrodeposited on SWNTs-based "bucky" papers for NADH and l-malate oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez Villarrubia, Claudia W; Rincón, Rosalba A; Radhakrishnan, Vinod K; Davis, Virginia; Atanassov, Plamen

    2011-07-01

    This research introduces a cavity anode design based on new single-walled nanotube (SWNTs) papers, "bucky" papers, used for the oxidation (and regeneration) of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and the oxidation of l-malate. The materials designed are paper-like processed composites containing also additives: BP11 sample contains SWNTs and isopropanol (IPA); the BPMG sample contains SWNTs, IPA, and methylene green (MG). NADH/NAD(+) is the cofactor responsible for the oxidation of l-malate by malate dehydrogenase (MDH), in the Krebs' cycle. Because of the high overpotential of NADH oxidation, poly methylene green (PMG) was utilized as the electrocatalyst to produce NAD(+). The electrocatalyst was deposited on the surface of the "bucky" papers by electropolymerization by means of 10 voltammetric cycles in a range of -0.5 V and +1.3 V (vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode) at a scan rate of 5 mV/s. The catalytic performance of PMG was evaluated by chronoamperometric measurements of NADH oxidation at 0.3 V in phosphate buffer and l-malate oxidation at 0.1 V in the presence of MDH. For both "bucky" papers, the chronoamperometric curves of PMG, current vs NADH concentration, show a linear relationship demonstrating to have a first order Fick's law behavior for concentrations of NADH lower than 6 mM. The chronoamperometric curves in the presence of MDH, current against l-malate concentration, show a Michaelis-Menten behavior where no inhibition or competitive reaction are detected. Additionally, the anodic materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), the polymerization of MG is effectively observed in the form of particles nucleation. The anodes show an excellent electrocatalytic activity toward NADH oxidation. The electrode design is feasible, reproducible, and overall stable. PMID:21667995

  19. Piceatannol-3'-O-?-D-glucopyranoside as an active component of rhubarb activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through inhibition of arginase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Ainieng; Min, Byungsun; Ryoo, Sungwoo

    2010-01-01

    Arginase competitively inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) via use of the common substrate L-arginine. Arginase II has recently reported as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Here, we demonstrate that piceatannol-3'-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (PG), a potent component of stilbenes, inhibits the activity of arginase I and II prepared from mouse liver and kidney lysates, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. In human umbilical vein e...

  20. Compound I of nitric oxide synthase: the active site protonation state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung-Bin; Derat, Etienne; Shaik, Sason

    2007-03-21

    A quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) study of the formation of the elusive active species Compound I (Cpd I) of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from the oxyferrous intermediate shows that two protons have to be provided to produce a reaction that is reasonably exothermic and that leads to the appearance of a radical on the tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor. Molecular dynamics and energy considerations show that a possible source of proton is the water H-bond chain formed from the surface to the active site, but that a water molecule by itself cannot be the source of the proton; an H3O+ species that is propagated along the chain is more likely. The QM/MM calculations demonstrate that Cpd I and H2O are formed from the ferric-hydrogen peroxide complex in a unique heterolytic O-O cleavage mechanism. The properties of the so-formed Cpd I are compared with those of the known species of chloroperoxidase, and the geometry and spin densities are found to be compatible. The Mössbauer parameters are calculated and may serve as experimental probes in attempts to characterize NOS Cpd I. PMID:17319660

  1. Insulin activation of mouse diaphragm glycogen synthase (GS) involves generation of electrophoretically distinct subunit species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycogen synthase, the rate limiting enzyme for glycogen synthesis, was analyzed in mouse diaphragm extracts both by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting using specific antibodies raised to the rabbit muscle enzyme. Diaphragms, with the supporting ribs attached, were incubated either with or without [32P]P/sub i/ in the medium. In extracts from unincubated, rapidly frozen diaphragms, immunoblotting indicated the presence of 3 distinct species, separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In addition, phosphorylation of immunoprecipitated GS with the kinase F/sub A//GSK-3 converted the higher mobility forms into the low mobility species. In diaphragms incubated with [32P]P/sub i/, 32P was incorporated only into one of the GS species, that of lowest mobility, indicating differential labelling among the multiple subunit forms. Insulin action, which increased the -/+ glucose-6-P activity ratio from 0.2 to 0.4, converted the low mobility species to the two higher mobility forms. The authors propose that this effect of insulin can be explained by dephosphorylation in the proline/serine rich site 3 region of GS, which has potent influence on both mobility on SDS-PAGE and activity

  2. UDP-[14C]glucose-labelable polypeptides from pea: Possible components of glucan synthase I activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A membrane-bound polypeptide doublet of about 40 kD can be rapidly labeled with UDP-[14C]glucose under the assay conditions for glucan synthase I (GS-I). Label seems covalently bound, and chases when unlabeled UDPG is added; it might represent a covalent intermediate in polysaccharide synthesis. Labeling and GS-I activity show several common features: they co-sediment with Golgi membranes in sucrose gradients; they depend similarly on Mg2+ or Mn2+ (not Ca2+); they decrease dramatically from stem apex to base, and are higher in epidermis than internal tissue; they show similar sensitivities to several inhibitors. But the doublet still labels after polysaccharide-synthesizing activity has been destroyed by Triton X-100. The doublet polypeptides might be glucosyl tranferases whose ability to transfer glucose units to a glucan chain is detergent-sensitive, but to accept glucose from UDPG is not; or they might be detergent-insensitive primary glucose acceptors, from which a distinct, detergent-sensitive transferase(s) move(s) these units to glucan chains

  3. Cytochrome c oxidase deficiency accelerates mitochondrial apoptosis by activating ceramide synthase 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüll, S; Günther, S D; Brodesser, S; Seeger, J M; Tosetti, B; Wiegmann, K; Pongratz, C; Diaz, F; Witt, A; Andree, M; Brinkmann, K; Krönke, M; Wiesner, R J; Kashkar, H

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous pathogenic changes within the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) have been associated with an elevated occurrence of apoptosis within the affected tissues, the mechanistic insight into how mitochondrial dysfunction initiates apoptotic cell death is still unknown. In this study, we show that the specific alteration of the cytochrome c oxidase (COX), representing a common defect found in mitochondrial diseases, facilitates mitochondrial apoptosis in response to oxidative stress. Our data identified an increased ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6) activity as an important pro-apoptotic response to COX dysfunction induced either by chemical or genetic approaches. The elevated CerS6 activity resulted in accumulation of the pro-apoptotic C16?:?0 ceramide, which facilitates the mitochondrial apoptosis in response to oxidative stress. Accordingly, inhibition of CerS6 or its specific knockdown diminished the increased susceptibility of COX-deficient cells to oxidative stress. Our results provide new insights into how mitochondrial RC dysfunction mechanistically interferes with the apoptotic machinery. On the basis of its pivotal role in regulating cell death upon COX dysfunction, CerS6 might potentially represent a novel target for therapeutic intervention in mitochondrial diseases caused by COX dysfunction. PMID:25766330

  4. Activation of macrophage nuclear factor-?B and induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase by LPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhong-Qun

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lung disease (CLD of prematurity is a major problem of neonatal care. Bacterial infection and inflammatory response have been thought to play an important role in the development of CLD and steroids have been given, with some benefit, to neonates with this disease. In the present study, we assessed the ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS to stimulate rat alveolar macrophages to produce nitric oxide (NO, express inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and activate nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B in vitro. In addition, we investigated the impact of dexamethasone and budesonide on these processes. Methods Griess reaction was used to measure the nitrite level. Western blot and a semi-quantitative RT-PCR were performed to detect iNOS expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA was performed to analyze the activation of NF-?B. Results We found that LPS stimulated the rat alveolar macrophages to produce NO in a dose (?10 ng/ml and time dependent manner (p -4–10-10 M and dexamethasone (10-4–10-6 M (p Conclusion Our findings imply that Gram-negative bacterial infection and the inflammatory responses are important factors in the development of CLD. The down-regulatory effect of steroids on iNOS expression and NO production might explain the beneficial effect of steroids in neonates with CLD.

  5. Comparison of inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in pancreatic islets of young and aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhfall, Khadije; Hashtroudi, Mehri Seyed; Ghasemi, Asghar; Mehrani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Some pathologic situations such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome are associated with alternation in nitric oxide level. Incidence of these condition increases with aging. On the other hand, insulin secretion is modulated by nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity is also altered in diabetes. In this study, modification in the enzyme activity associated with aging and also optimized procedure for islet NOS assay was investigated. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided in two experimental groups: A: adult rats; were 4 month old and B: old rats; were 12 month old. In all groups, plasma glucose, insulin and NOX (nitrite + nitrate = NOX) were measured, and also insulin secretion in isolated pancreatic islet with or without L-NAME was investigated. Furthermore, the inducible NOS activity with L-citrulline measurement in islets was measured. Results: L-citrulline was quantified using one step HPLC column. Aging induced hyperglycemia (P<0.05) and excess plasma NOX (17.74 ± 1.664 and 26.25 ± 2.166 ?mol/l in A and B groups respectively, P<0.05) with unaltered plasma insulin. Islet insulin secretion was significantly reduced in aging rats. L-NAME induced islet insulin secretion especially in aging rats (P=0.003). Inducible NOS activity in islets of aging rats was significantly higher than adult rats (1.082 ± 0.084 and 6.277 ± 0.475 pmol/min per mg protein in adult and aging rats, respectively, P<0.001). Conclusion: These findings show that decreased in islet insulin secretion may be related to increase in iNOS activity in islets, which follows impaired carbohydrate metabolism in aging. PMID:25810884

  6. Characterization of nitric oxide synthase activity in sheep urinary tract: functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pascual, A; Costa, G; Labadia, A; Persson, K; Triguero, D

    1996-06-01

    1. To define further the role of nitric oxide (NO) in urinary tract function, we have measured the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and its relationship with functional NO-mediated responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the urethra, the detrusor and the ureter from sheep. NOS activity was assayed by the conversion of L-[14C]-arginine to L-[14C]-citrulline. Endogenous production of citrulline was confirmed by thin layer chromatography. 2. NOS enzymatic activity was detected in the cytosolic fraction from tissue homogenates with the following regional distribution (pmol citrulline mg-1 protein min-1): urethra (33 +/- 3.3), detrusor (13.1 +/- 1.1) and ureter (1.5 +/- 0.2). No activity was detected in the particulate fraction of any region. 3. NOS activity was dependent on Ca(2+)-calmodulin and required exogenously added NADPH and tetrahydrobyoptein (BH4) for maximal activity. Exclusion of calmodulin from the incubation mixture did not modify NOS activity, but it was significantly reduced in the presence of the calmodulin antagonist, calmidazolium, suggesting the presence of enough endogenous calmodulin to sustain the observed NOS activity. 4. NOS activity was inhibited to a greater extent by NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) and its methyl ester (L-NAME) than by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), while 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) was a weak inhibitor and L-cannavine had no effect. 5. Citrulline formation could be inhibited by superoxide dismutase in an oxyhaemoglobin-sensitive manner, suggesting feedback inhibition of NOS by NO. 6. EFS induced prominent NO-mediated relaxations in the urethra while minor or no responses were observed in the detrusor and the ureter, respectively. Urethral relaxations to EFS were inhibited by NOS inhibitors with the rank order of potency: L-NOARG = L-NAME > 7-NI > L-NMMA. 7. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the presence of NO-synthesizing enzymatic activity in the sheep urinary tract which shows similar characteristics to the constitutive NOS isoform found in brain. We suggest that the enzymatic activity measured in the urethral muscle layer may account for the NO-mediated urethral relaxation during micturition whereas regulation of detrusor and ureteral motor function by NOS containing nerves is less likely. PMID:8799561

  7. Coordinate induction of tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis and nitric oxide synthase activity in chicken macrophages: upregulation of GTP-cyclohydrolase I activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspers, B; Gütlich, M; Witter, K; Lösch, U; Goldberg, M; Ziegler, I

    1997-06-01

    Biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) was investigated during cytokine-mediated activation of chicken macrophages. Monocyte derived macrophages and HD11 cells, a chicken macrophage cell line, constitutively synthesize BH4. Treatment of these cells with chicken macrophage activation factor (ChMAF) causes up to 10-fold increases of intracellular BH4 and of nitrite concentrations in the cell culture supernatant. Elevated BH4 levels correlate with an increase in GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GTP-CH) activity. Kinetic studies show a joint upregulation of GTP-CH activity and NO synthase activity first detectable 4 hr after stimulation. A corresponding increase in the mRNA for GTP-CH was detected by Northern blot analysis with a chicken GTP-CH specific cDNA probe. These results demonstrate that cytokine-induced BH4 synthesis by chicken macrophages is at least partially regulated through increased GTP-CH gene expression. The functional relevance of BH4 formation for NO production is shown by experiments using 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP) as a specific inhibitor of GTP-CH. Monocyte derived macrophages stimulated in the presence of DAHP show a significant decrease in NO synthesis. The effect of DAHP was reversed by adding sepiapterin, which allows synthesis of BH4 through a salvage pathway. PMID:9226880

  8. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulates N-Ras activation on the Golgi complex of antigen-stimulated T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ibiza, Sales; Pe?rez-rodri?guez, Andrea; Ortega, A?ngel; Marti?nez-ruiz, Antonio; Barreiro, Olga; Garci?a-domi?nguez, Carlota A.; Vi?ctor, Vi?ctor M.; Esplugues, Juan V.; Rojas, Jose? M.; Sa?nchez-madrid, Francisco; Serrador, Juan M.

    2008-01-01

    Ras/ERK signaling plays an important role in T cell activation and development. We recently reported that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived NO regulates T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent ERK activation by a cGMP-independent mechanism. Here, we explore the mechanisms through which eNOS exerts this regulation. We have found that eNOS-derived NO positively regulates Ras/ERK activation in T cells stimulated with antigen on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Intracellular activation of ...

  9. Malate dehydrogenases from actinomycetes: structural comparison of Thermoactinomyces enzyme with other actinomycete and Bacillus enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, K.; Sundaram, T. K.; Kernick, M.

    1984-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenases from bacteria belonging to the genus Thermoactinomyces are tetrameric, like those from Bacillus spp., and exhibit a high degree of structural homology to Bacillus malate dehydrogenase as judged by immunological cross-reactivity. Malate dehydrogenases from other actinomycetes are dimers and do not cross-react with antibodies to Bacillus malate dehydrogenase.

  10. Activation of GABAB receptors inhibits protein kinase B /Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Frances Fangjia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accumulated evidence has suggested that potentiation of cortical GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission may be a key mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the downstream molecular mechanisms related to GABA potentiation remain unexplored. Recent studies have suggested that dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, which are used in the clinical treatment of schizophrenia, modulate protein kinase B (Akt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3 signaling. Here we report that activation of GABAB receptors significantly inhibits Akt/GSK-3 signaling in a ?-arrestin-dependent pathway. Agonist stimulation of GABAB receptors enhances the phosphorylation of Akt (Thr-308 and enhances the phosphorylation of GSK-3? (Ser-21/? (Ser-9 in both HEK-293T cells expressing GABAB receptors and rat hippocampal slices. Furthermore, knocking down the expression of ?-arrestin2 using siRNA abolishes the GABAB receptor-mediated modulation of GSK-3 signaling. Our data may help to identify potentially novel targets through which GABAB receptor agents may exert therapeutic effects in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  11. Iridoid synthase activity is common among the plant progesterone 5?-reductase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkert, Jennifer; Pollier, Jacob; Miettinen, Karel; Van Moerkercke, Alex; Payne, Richard; Müller-Uri, Frieder; Burlat, Vincent; O'Connor, Sarah E; Memelink, Johan; Kreis, Wolfgang; Goossens, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus, the Madagascar periwinkle, synthesizes bioactive monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, including the anti-cancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. The monoterpenoid branch of the alkaloid pathway leads to the secoiridoid secologanin and involves the enzyme iridoid synthase (IS), a member of the progesterone 5?-reductase (P5?R) family. IS reduces 8-oxogeranial to iridodial. Through transcriptome mining, we show that IS belongs to a family of six C. roseus P5?R genes. Characterization of recombinant CrP5?R proteins demonstrates that all but CrP5?R3 can reduce progesterone and thus can be classified as P5?Rs. Three of them, namely CrP5?R1, CrP5?R2, and CrP5?R4, can also reduce 8-oxogeranial, pointing to a possible redundancy with IS (corresponding to CrP5?R5) in secoiridoid synthesis. In-depth functional analysis by subcellular protein localization, gene expression analysis, in situ hybridization, and virus-induced gene silencing indicate that besides IS, CrP5?R4 may also participate in secoiridoid biosynthesis. We cloned a set of P5?R genes from angiosperm plant species not known to produce iridoids and demonstrate that the corresponding recombinant proteins are also capable of using 8-oxogeranial as a substrate. This suggests that IS activity is intrinsic to angiosperm P5?R proteins and has evolved early during evolution. PMID:25578278

  12. A Fatal Combination: A Thymidylate Synthase Inhibitor with DNA Damaging Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligasová, Anna; Strunin, Dmytro; Friedecký, David; Adam, Tomáš; Koberna, Karel

    2015-01-01

    2?-deoxy-5-ethynyluridine (EdU) has been previously shown to be a cell poison whose toxicity depends on the particular cell line. The reason is not known. Our data indicates that different efficiency of EdU incorporation plays an important role. The EdU-mediated toxicity was elevated by the inhibition of 2?-deoxythymidine 5?-monophosphate synthesis. EdU incorporation resulted in abnormalities of the cell cycle including the slowdown of the S phase and a decrease in DNA synthesis. The slowdown but not the cessation of the first cell division after EdU administration was observed in all of the tested cell lines. In HeLa cells, a 10 ?M EdU concentration led to the cell death in the 100% of cells probably due to the activation of an intra S phase checkpoint in the subsequent S phase. Our data also indicates that this EdU concentration induces interstrand DNA crosslinks in HeLa cells. We suppose that these crosslinks are the primary DNA damage resulting in cell death. According to our results, the EdU-mediated toxicity is further increased by the inhibition of thymidylate synthase by EdU itself at its higher concentrations. PMID:25671308

  13. Comparative study of enzyme activity and heme reactivity in Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens cystathionine beta-synthases

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Yang; Majtan, Tomas; Freeman, Katherine M.; Linck, Rachel; Ponter, Sarah; Kraus, Jan P.; Burstyn, Judith N.

    2013-01-01

    Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the transsulfuration pathway, which is critical for eukaryotes to synthesize cysteine from methionine. CBS uses a coenzyme pyridoxal-5?-phosphate (PLP) for catalysis and S-adenosylmethionine regulates the activity of human CBS, but not yeast CBS. Human and fruit fly CBS contain heme; however, the role for heme is not clear. This paper reports biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of CBS from fruit fly Drosophi...

  14. The effect of intermittent cryotherapy on the activities of citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase in regenerating skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Miguel Lopes Oliveira; João Luiz Quagliotti Durigan; Flávia Simone Munin; Maria Luiza Barcelos Schwantes; Tania de Fátima Salvini

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of three sessions of cryotherapy (three sessions of 30 minutes applied each 2 h) and muscle compression in the regenerating skeletal muscle of the rats. The middle belly of tibialis anterior muscle was injured by a frozen iron bar and received one of the following intervention: injury + cryotherapy (treated with cryotherapy); injury + placebo (sand pack), and injury (I).The enzymatic activities of citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measur...

  15. Bacillus anthracis edema toxin activates nuclear glycogen synthase kinase 3beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larabee, Jason L; DeGiusti, Kevin; Regens, James L; Ballard, Jimmy D

    2008-11-01

    Bacillus anthracis edema toxin (ET) generates high levels of cyclic AMP and impacts a complex network of signaling pathways in targeted cells. In the current study, we sought to identify kinase signaling pathways modulated by ET to better understand how this toxin alters cell physiology. Using a panel of small-molecule inhibitors of mammalian kinases, we found that inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3beta) protected cells from ET-induced changes in the cell cycle. GSK-3beta inhibitors prevented declines in cellular levels of cyclin D1 and c-Jun following treatment of macrophages with ET. Strikingly, cell fractionation experiments and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that ET activates a compartmentalized pool of GSK-3beta residing in the nuclei, but not in the cytoplasm, of macrophages. To investigate the outcome of this event, we examined the cellular location and activation state of beta-catenin, a critical substrate of GSK-3beta, and found that the protein was inactivated within the nucleus following intoxication with ET. To determine if ET could overcome the effects of stimuli that inactivate GSK-3beta, we examined the impact of the toxin on the Wnt signaling pathway. The results of these experiments revealed that by targeting GSK-3beta residing in the nucleus, ET circumvents the upstream cytoplasmic inactivation of GSK-3beta, which occurs following exposure to Wnt-3A. These findings suggest ET arrests the cell cycle by a mechanism involving activation of GSK-3beta residing in the nucleus, and by using this novel mechanism of intoxication, ET avoids cellular systems that would otherwise reverse the effects of the toxin. PMID:18765729

  16. Regulation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase activity through phosphorylation in response to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian Gang; Chen, Rui Juan; Xiao, Bin; Yang, Shilin; Wang, Jia Ning; Wang, Yong; Cowart, L Ashley; Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Dao Wen; Xia, Yong

    2007-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a key enzyme in NO-mediated cardiovascular homeostasis and its activity is modulated by a variety of hormonal and mechanical stimuli via phosphorylation modification. Our previous study has demonstrated that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolites of arachidonic acid, could robustly up-regulate eNOS expression. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of EETs on eNOS remains elusive. Particularly, whether and how EETs affect eNOS phosphorylation is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EETs on eNOS phosphorylation with cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). BAECs were either treated with exogenous EETs or infected with recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) carrying CYP2C11-CYPOR, CYP102 F87V mutant and CYP2J2, respectively, to increase endogenous EETs. Both addition of EETs and CYP epoxygenase transfection markedly increased eNOS phosphorylation at its Ser1179 and Thr497 residues. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) with LY294002 prevented EETs-induced increases of eNOS-Ser(P)1179 but had no effect on the phosphorylation status of Thr497. However, inhibitors of protein kinase B (Akt), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK kinase could block phosphorylation of eNOS at both sites. Inhibition of these kinases also attenuated the up-regulation of eNOS expression by EETs. Finally, administration of viral CYP epoxygenases expression vectors into rats enhanced eNOS phosphorylation and function in vivo. Thus, in addition to up-regulating eNOS expression, EETs also augment eNOS function by enhancing eNOS phosphorylation. EETs-induced up-regulation of eNOS phosphorylation and expression appears to involve in both PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways. PMID:17164144

  17. Active-site-directed inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase by 3-chloropropionyl coenzyme A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3-Chloropropionyl coenzyme A (3-chloropropionyl-CoA) irreversibly inhibits avian liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMG-CoA synthase). Enzyme inactivation follows pseudo-first-order kinetics and is retarded in the presence of substrates, suggesting that covalent labeling occurs at the active site. A typical rate saturation effect is observed when inactivation kinetics are measured as a function of 3-chloropropionyl-CoA concentration. These data indicate a Ki = 15 microM for the inhibitor and a limiting kinact = 0.31 min-1. [1-14C]-3-Chloropropionyl-CoA binds covalently to the enzyme with a stoichiometry (0.7 per site) similar to that measured for acetylation of the enzyme by acetyl-CoA. While the acetylated enzyme formed upon incubation of HMG-CoA synthase with acetyl-CoA is labile to performic acid oxidation, the adduct formed upon 3-chloropropionyl-CoA inactivation is stable to such treatment. Therefore, such an adduct cannot solely involve a thio ester linkage. Exhaustive Pronase digestion of [14C]-3-chloropropionyl-CoA-labeled enzyme produces a radioactive compound which cochromatographs with authentic carboxyethylcysteine using reverse-phase/ion-pairing high-pressure liquid chromatography and both silica and cellulose thin-layer chromatography systems. This suggests that enzyme inactivation is due to alkylation of an active-site cysteine residue

  18. Cloning and characterization of a Neurospora crassa gene required for (1,3) beta-glucan synthase activity and cell wall formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Enderlin, C. S.; Selitrennikoff, C. P.

    1994-01-01

    The glucan synthase 1 gene (gs-1) is required for (1,3) beta-glucan synthase activity [E.C. 2.4.1.34; UDP glucose:1,3-beta-D-glucan 3-beta-D-glucosyltransferase] and for cell wall formation. The gs-1 gene was cloned by functional complementation of the cell-wall-less defect of the (1,3) beta-glucan synthase-deficient mutant, TM1, by using a genomic Neurospora crassa cosmid library. A 2568-nucleotide gs-1 cDNA sequence revealed a 532-amino acid open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 59 k...

  19. [Mechanism of malate dehydrogenase isoform formation in Sphaerotilus natans D-507 under different cultivation conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eprintsev, A T; Falaleeva, M I; Arabtseva, M A; Lavrinenko, I A; Parfenova, I V; Grechkina, M V; Abud, F S

    2011-01-01

    Electrophoretically homogenous preparations of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) isoforms of the bacteria Sphaerotilus natans D-507 with specific activity 7.46 U/mg and 5.74 U/mg with respect to protein concentration have been obtained. The dimeric isoform of the enzyme was shown to function under organotrophic growth conditions, whereas the tetrameric isoform was induced under mixotrophic cultivation conditions. PCR-analysis revealed a single gene encoding the malate dehydrogenase molecule. The topography of the MDH isoform surface was studied by atomic-force microscopy, and a 3D-structure of the enzyme was obtained. Spectraphotometric analysis data allowed us to suggest that stabilization of the tetrameric form of MDH is due to additional bounds implicated in the quaternary structure formation. PMID:21870490

  20. The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VigelsØ Hansen, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne Bjerre

    2014-01-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity and changes in CS activity is often assumed. However, this relationship and absolute values of CS and maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2max) has never been assessed across different studies. A systematic PubMed search on literature published from 1983 to 2013 was performed. The search profile included: citrate, synthase, human, skeletal, muscle, training, not electrical stimulation, not in-vitro, not rats. Studies that reported changes in CS activity and V.O2max were included. Different training types and subject populations were analyzed independently to assess correlation between relative changes in V.O2max and CS activity. 70 publications with 97 intervention groups were included. There was a positive (r = 0.45) correlation (P < 0.001) between the relative change in V.O2max and the relative change in CS activity. All reported absolute values of CS and V.O2max did not correlate (r =- 0.07, n = 148, P = 0.4). Training induced changes in whole body oxidative capacity is matched by changes in muscle CS activity in a nearly 1:1 relationship. Absolute values of CS across different studies cannot be compared unless a standardized analytical method is used by all laboratories

  1. Role of arginine guanidinium moiety in nitric-oxide synthase mechanism of oxygen activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Claire; Moreau, Magali; Mattioli, Tony A; Balland, Véronique; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Xu-Li, Yun; Stuehr, Dennis J; Santolini, Jérôme

    2010-03-01

    Nitric-oxide synthases (NOS) are highly regulated heme-thiolate enzymes that catalyze two oxidation reactions that sequentially convert the substrate L-Arg first to N(omega)-hydroxyl-L-arginine and then to L-citrulline and nitric oxide. Despite numerous investigations, the detailed molecular mechanism of NOS remains elusive and debatable. Much of the dispute in the various proposed mechanisms resides in the uncertainty concerning the number and sources of proton transfers. Although specific protonation events are key features in determining the specificity and efficiency of the two catalytic steps, little is known about the role and properties of protons from the substrate, cofactors, and H-bond network in the vicinity of the heme active site. In this study, we have investigated the role of the acidic proton from the L-Arg guanidinium moiety on the stability and reactivity of the ferrous heme-oxy complex intermediate by exploiting a series of L-Arg analogues exhibiting a wide range of guanidinium pK(a) values. Using electrochemical and vibrational spectroscopic techniques, we have analyzed the effects of the analogues on the heme, including characteristics of its proximal ligand, heme conformation, redox potential, and electrostatic properties of its distal environment. Our results indicate that the substrate guanidinium pK(a) value significantly affects the H-bond network near the heme distal pocket. Our results lead us to propose a new structural model where the properties of the guanidinium moiety finely control the proton transfer events in NOS and tune its oxidative chemistry. This model may account for the discrepancies found in previously proposed mechanisms of NOS oxidation processes. PMID:19951943

  2. Malolactic fermentation: electrogenic malate uptake and malate/lactate antiport generate metabolic energy.

    OpenAIRE

    Poolman, B.; Molenaar, D.; Smid, E. J.; Ubbink, T.; Abee, T.; Renault, P. P.; Konings, W. N.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of metabolic energy production by malolactic fermentation in Lactococcus lactis has been investigated. In the presence of L-malate, a proton motive force composed of a membrane potential and pH gradient is generated which has about the same magnitude as the proton motive force generated by the metabolism of a glycolytic substrate. Malolactic fermentation results in the synthesis of ATP which is inhibited by the ionophore nigericin and the F0F1-ATPase inhibitor N,N-dicyclohexylca...

  3. PHALLONOPTIC MALATE: A CRITICAL GAZE AT SPACE, VISUAL CULTURE AND PERFORMANCE IN THE STREETS OF OROSA AND BOCOBO, MALATE, MANILA

    OpenAIRE

    Yambao, Clod Marlan Krister V.

    2009-01-01

    Phallonopticism comes from the confluence of the term “phallus” and “panopticon.” I define Phallonotpicism as the configuration of gaze, power and desires specific to but not limited to male performances. By utilizing the term phallonopticism as a heuristic category for analysis, this paper attempts to analyze how Malate’s urban spaces of consumption are gendered. It attempts to map the topography of male homosocial intersubjectivities and the production of desire, power and gaze th...

  4. Structural basis for reduced activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase affected by a mutation linked to andromonoecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schärer, Martin A; Eliot, Andrew C; Grütter, Markus G; Capitani, Guido

    2011-01-01

    1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene. Recently, a new biological role for ACS has been found in Cucumis melo where a single point mutation (A57V) of one isoform of the enzyme, causing reduced activity, results in andromonoecious plants. We present here a straightforward structural basis for the reduced activity of the A57V mutant, based on our work on Malus domestica ACS, including a new structure of the unliganded apple enzyme at 1.35Å resolution. PMID:21075107

  5. A hypoxia-responsive element mediates a novel pathway of activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase promoter

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Picolinic acid, a catabolite of L-tryptophan, activates the transcription of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene (iNOS) in IFN- gamma-treated murine macrophages. We performed functional studies on the 5' flanking region of the iNOS gene linked to a CAT reporter gene to identify the cis-acting element(s) responsible for the activation of iNOS transcription by picolinic acid. Transient transfection assays showed that the full-length iNOS promoter in the murine macrophage cell line ANA-1 wa...

  6. Phosphorylation of inhibitor-2 and activation of MgATP-dependent protein phosphatase by rat skeletal muscle glycogen synthase kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat skeletal muscle contains a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-M) which is not stimulated by Ca2+ or cAMP. This kinase has an apparent Mr of 62,000 and uses ATP but not GTP as a phosphoryl donor. GSK-M phosphorylated glycogen synthase at sites 2 and 3. It phosphorylated ATP-citrate lyase and activated MgATP-dependent phosphatase in the presence of ATP but not GTP. As expected, the kinase also phosphorylated phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2). Phosphatase incorporation reached approximately 0.3 mol/mol of I-2. Phosphopeptide maps were obtained by digesting 32P-labeled I-2 with trypsin and separating the peptides by reversed phase HPLC. Two partially separated 32P-labeled peaks were obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with either GSK-M or glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and these peptides were different from those obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CSU) or casein kinase II (CK-II). When I-2 was phosphorylated with GSK-M or GSK-3 and cleaved by CNBr, a single radioactive peak was obtained. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that I-2 was phosphorylated by GSK-M or GSK-3 predominately in Thr whereas CSU and CK-II phosphorylated I-2 exclusively in Ser. These results indicate that GSK-M is similar to GSK-3 and to ATP-citrate lyase kinase. However, it appears to differ in Mr from ATP-citrate lyase kinase and it differs from GSK-3 in that it phosphorylates glycogen synthase at site 2 and it does not use GTP as a phosphoryl donor

  7. Structures of lipoyl synthase reveal a compact active site for controlling sequential sulfur insertion reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Jenny E; Hiscox, Martyn J; Dinis, Pedro C; Fox, Stephen J; Iliopoulos, Andreas; Hussey, James E; Sandy, James; Van Beek, Florian T; Essex, Jonathan W; Roach, Peter L

    2014-11-15

    Lipoyl cofactors are essential for living organisms and are produced by the insertion of two sulfur atoms into the relatively unreactive C-H bonds of an octanoyl substrate. This reaction requires lipoyl synthase, a member of the radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzyme superfamily. In the present study, we solved crystal structures of lipoyl synthase with two [4Fe-4S] clusters bound at opposite ends of the TIM barrel, the usual fold of the radical SAM superfamily. The cluster required for reductive SAM cleavage conserves the features of the radical SAM superfamily, but the auxiliary cluster is bound by a CX4CX5C motif unique to lipoyl synthase. The fourth ligand to the auxiliary cluster is an extremely unusual serine residue. Site-directed mutants show this conserved serine ligand is essential for the sulfur insertion steps. One crystallized lipoyl synthase (LipA) complex contains 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), a breakdown product of SAM, bound in the likely SAM-binding site. Modelling has identified an 18 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) deep channel, well-proportioned to accommodate an octanoyl substrate. These results suggest that the auxiliary cluster is the likely sulfur donor, but access to a sulfide ion for the second sulfur insertion reaction requires the loss of an iron atom from the auxiliary cluster, which the serine ligand may enable. PMID:25100160

  8. UMP synthase activity expressed in deficient hamster cells by separate transferase and decarboxylase proteins or by linker-deleted bifunctional protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T; Suttle, D P

    1995-05-01

    Segments of the human UMP synthase cDNA coding for the orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) and orotidylate decarboxylase (ODC) domains of the bifunctional protein UMP synthase were produced by polymerase chain reaction techniques and cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector. The separate OPRT and ODC vectors, along with a selectable marker, were cotransfected into UMP synthase-deficient hamster cells (Urd-C) that require exogeneous uridine for growth. Transfected Urd-C cells surviving selection in media without added uridine were isolated and designated transferase decarboxylase Urd-C (TDU). All of the selected colonies contained DNA corresponding to the OPRT and ODC expression vectors. Two cell lines (TDU3 and TDU5) integrated many more copies of the OPRT and ODC vectors into their genomes compared to the other TDU lines. A 28.6-kDa ODC protein band and a 24.4-kDa OPRT band were detected on western blots with UMP synthase-specific polyclonal antiserum. The OPRT activity of the TDU lines was up to 8.7 times the OPRT activity of control CHL cells, and the ODC activity was up to 12.5 times control levels. Both OPRT and ODC activities in the monofunctional proteins were less heat stable than in the bifunctional UMP synthase protein. The monofunctional OPRT protein was less stable than the ODC protein at 45 degrees C. Growth of transfected cells in 6-azauridine resulted in striking increases in activity and temperature stability for the monofunctional ODC protein. A UMP synthase bifunctional protein was constructed with a deletion of the suspected linker region joining the two catalytic domains. The linker-deleted UMP synthase showed no significant change in either OPRT or ODC activity or temperature stability. The increased stability of the bifunctional protein may be a factor in its evolutionary selection in mammalian cells. PMID:7482031

  9. Clinicopathological and biological significance of aberrant activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Y

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Yunfeng Fu,1 Xinyu Wang,1 Xiaodong Cheng,1 Feng Ye,2 Xing Xie,1,2 Weiguo Lu1,2 1Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 2Women's Reproduction and Health Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 plays an important role in human cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of expression of GSK-3?/? and pGSK-3?/?Tyr279/216 in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and to investigate whether GSK-3 inhibition can influence cell viability and tumor growth of ovarian cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine expression of GSK-3?/? and pGSK-3?/?Tyr279/216 in 71 human epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and correlations between protein expression, and clinicopathological factors were analyzed. Cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay following exposure of ovarian carcinoma cells to pharmacological inhibitors of GSK-3 or GSK-3 small interfering RNA. In vivo validation of tumor growth inhibition was performed with xenograft mice. Results: The expression levels of GSK-3?/? and pGSK-3?/?Tyr279/216 in ovarian cancers were significantly higher than those in benign tumors. High expression of GSK-3?/? was more likely to be found in patients with advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stages and high serum cancer antigen 125. Higher expression of pGSK-3?/?Tyr279/216 was associated with advanced FIGO stages, residual tumor mass, high serum cancer antigen 125, and poor chemoresponse. Worse overall survival was revealed by Kaplan–Meier survival curves in patients with high expression of GSK-3?/? or pGSK-3?/?Tyr279/216. Multivariate analysis indicated that FIGO stage, GSK-3?/? expression, and pGSK-3?/?Tyr279/216 expression were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. GSK-3 inhibition by lithium chloride, 4-benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione (TDZD-8, or GSK-3 small interfering RNA can decrease viability of SKOV3 and SKOV3-TR30 ovarian cancer cells. Additionally, lithium chloride-treated SKOV3 xenograft mice had a significant reduction in tumor growth compared with control-treated animals. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that overexpression and aberrant activation of GSK-3 may contribute to progression and poor prognosis in ovarian cancer. Inhibition of GSK-3 may be a potential therapy for ovarian cancer.Keywords: ovarian carcinoma, immunohistochemistry, lithium chloride, TDZD-8

  10. The effect of intermittent cryotherapy on the activities of citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase in regenerating skeletal muscle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nuno Miguel Lopes de, Oliveira; João Luiz Quagliotti, Durigan; Flávia Simone, Munin; Maria Luiza Barcelos, Schwantes; Tania de Fátima, Salvini.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of three sessions of cryotherapy (three sessions of 30 minutes applied each 2 h) and muscle compression in the regenerating skeletal muscle of the rats. The middle belly of tibialis anterior muscle was injured by a frozen iron bar and received one of the following inte [...] rvention: injury + cryotherapy (treated with cryotherapy); injury + placebo (sand pack), and injury (I).The enzymatic activities of citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in the presence of 1mM or 10mM pyruvate. The ANOVA and Tukey's test (p

  11. Regulation of Aldosterone Synthase by Activator Transcription Factor/cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein Family Members

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Edson F.; Rainey, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Aldosterone synthesis is regulated by angiotensin II (Ang II) and K+ acting in the adrenal zona glomerulosa, in part through the regulation of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). Here, we analyzed the role of cAMP response element (CRE)-binding proteins (CREBs) in the regulation of CYP11B2. Expression analysis of activator transcription factor (ATF)/CREB family members, namely the ATF1 and ATF2, the CREB, and the CRE modulator, in H295R cells and normal human adrenal tissue was performed using qu...

  12. New procedures to measure synthase and phosphatase activities of bisphosphoglycerate mutase. Interest for development of therapeutic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, P; Garel, M C; Toullec, D

    1997-01-01

    In red blood cells, a modulation of the level of the allosteric effector of hemoglobin, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) would have implications in the treatment of ischemia and sickle cell anemia. Its concentration is determined by the relative activities of the synthase and phosphatase reactions of the multifunctional bisphosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM). In this report we develop first a more direct synthase assay which uses glyceraldehyde phosphate to suppress the aldolase and triose phosphate isomerase reactions. Secondly we propose a radioactive phosphatase assay coupled to chromatographic separation and identification of the reaction products by paper electrophoresis. Such identification of these products allow us to show that the multifunctional BPGM expresses its mutase instead of its phosphatase activity in conditions of competition between the 3-phosphoglycerate and the 2-phosphoglycolate activator in the phosphatase reaction. These two more precise procedures could be used to study the effects of substrate and cofactor analogues regarding potential therapeutic approaches and could be used for clinical analyses to detect deficiency of BPGM. PMID:9099261

  13. New procedures to measure synthase and phosphatase activities of bis-phosphoglycerate mutase. Interest for development of therapeutic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In red blood cells, a modulation of the level of the allosteric effector of hemoglobin, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) would have implications in the treatment of ischemia and sickle cell anemia. Its concentrations is determined by the relative activities of the synthase and phosphatase reactions of the multifunctional bis-phosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM). In this report we develop first a more direct synthase assay which uses glyceraldehyde phosphate to suppress the aldolase and triose phosphate isomerase reactions. Secondly we propose a radioactive phosphatase assay coupled to chromatographic separation and identification of the reaction products by paper electrophoresis. Such identification of these products allows us to show that the multifunctional BPGM expresses its mutase instead of its phosphatase activity in conditions of competition between the 3-phosphoglycerate and the 2-phospho-glycolate activator in the phosphatase reaction. These two more precise procedures could be used to study the effects of substrate and cofactor analogues regarding potential therapeutic approaches and could be used for clinical analyses to detect deficiency of BPGM. (author)

  14. Diterpene synthases of the biosynthetic system of medicinally active diterpenoids in Marrubium vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose major bioactive compounds, marrubiin and other labdane–related furanoid diterpenoids, have potential applications as anti–diabetics, analgesics or vasorelaxants. Metabolite and transcriptome profiling of M. vulgare leaves identified five different candidate diterpene synthases (diTPSs) of the TPS–c and TPS–e/f clades. We describe the in vitro and in vivo functional characterization of the M. vulgare diTPS family. In addition to MvEKS ent–kaurene synthase of general metabolism, we identified three diTPSs of specialized metabolism: MvCPS3 (+)-copalyl diphosphate synthase, and the functional diTPS pair MvCPS1 and MvELS. In a sequential reaction, MvCPS1 and MvELS produce a unique oxygenated diterpene scaffold 9,13-epoxy-labd-14-ene en route to marrubiin and an array of related compounds. In contrast with previously known diTPSs that introduce a hydroxyl group at carbon C–8 of the labdane backbone, the MvCPS1-catalyzed reaction proceeds via oxygenation of anintermediate carbocation at C–9, yielding the bicyclic peregrinol diphosphate. MvELS belongs to a subgroup of the diTPS TPS–e/f clade with unusual ??–domain architecture. MvELS is active in vitro and in vivo with three different prenyl diphosphate substrates forming the marrubiin precursor 9,13-epoxy-labd-14-ene, as identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, manoyl oxide and miltiradiene. MvELS fills a central position in the biosynthetic system that forms the foundation for the diverse repertoire of Marrubium diterpenoids. Co-expression of MvCPS1 and MvELS in engineered E. coli and Nicotiana benthamiana offers opportunities for producing precursors for an array of biologically active diterpenoids.

  15. Selenoprotein-dependent up-regulation of hematopoietic prostaglandin D2 synthase in macrophages is mediated through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Ujjawal H; Kaushal, Naveen; Ravindra, Kodihalli C; Hegde, Shailaja; Nelson, Shakira M; Narayan, Vivek; Vunta, Hema; Paulson, Robert F; Prabhu, K Sandeep

    2011-08-01

    The plasticity of macrophages is evident from their dual role in inflammation and resolution of inflammation that are accompanied by changes in the transcriptome and metabolome. Along these lines, we have previously demonstrated that the micronutrient selenium increases macrophage production of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived anti-inflammatory 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) and decreases the proinflammatory PGE(2). Here, we hypothesized that selenium modulated the metabolism of AA by a differential regulation of various prostaglandin (PG) synthases favoring the production of PGD(2) metabolites, ?(12)-PGJ(2) and 15d-PGJ(2). A dose-dependent increase in the expression of hematopoietic-PGD(2) synthase (H-PGDS) by selenium and a corresponding increase in ?(12)-PGJ(2) and 15d-PGJ(2) in RAW264.7 macrophages and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages was observed. Studies with organic non-bioavailable forms of selenium and the genetic manipulation of cellular selenium incorporation machinery indicated that selenoproteins were necessary for H-PGDS expression and 15d-PGJ(2) production. Treatment of selenium-deficient macrophages with rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? ligand, up-regulated H-PGDS. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated the presence of an active peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-response element in murine Hpgds promoter suggesting a positive feedback mechanism of H-PGDS expression. Alternatively, the expression of nuclear factor-?B-dependent thromboxane synthase and microsomal PGE(2) synthase was down-regulated by selenium. Using a Friend virus infection model of murine leukemia, the onset of leukemia was observed only in selenium-deficient and indomethacin-treated selenium-supplemented mice but not in the selenium-supplemented group or those treated with 15d-PGJ(2). These results suggest the importance of selenium in the shunting of AA metabolism toward the production of PGD(2) metabolites, which may have clinical implications. PMID:21669866

  16. Insulin Induces an Increase in Cytosolic Glucose Levels in 3T3-L1 Cells with Inhibited Glycogen Synthase Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena H. Chowdhury

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucose is an important source of energy for mammalian cells and enters the cytosol via glucose transporters. It has been thought for a long time that glucose entering the cytosol is swiftly phosphorylated in most cell types; hence the levels of free glucose are very low, beyond the detection level. However, the introduction of new fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based glucose nanosensors has made it possible to measure intracellular glucose more accurately. Here, we used the fluorescent indicator protein (FLIPglu-600µ to monitor cytosolic glucose dynamics in mouse 3T3-L1 cells in which glucose utilization for glycogen synthesis was inhibited. The results show that cells exhibit a low resting cytosolic glucose concentration. However, in cells with inhibited glycogen synthase activation, insulin induced a robust increase in cytosolic free glucose. The insulin-induced increase in cytosolic glucose in these cells is due to an imbalance between the glucose transported into the cytosol and the use of glucose in the cytosol. In untreated cells with sensitive glycogen synthase activation, insulin stimulation did not result in a change in the cytosolic glucose level. This is the first report of dynamic measurements of cytosolic glucose levels in cells devoid of the glycogen synthesis pathway.

  17. Insulin induces an increase in cytosolic glucose levels in 3T3-L1 cells with inhibited glycogen synthase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Helena H; Kreft, Marko; Jensen, Jørgen; Zorec, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Glucose is an important source of energy for mammalian cells and enters the cytosol via glucose transporters. It has been thought for a long time that glucose entering the cytosol is swiftly phosphorylated in most cell types; hence the levels of free glucose are very low, beyond the detection level. However, the introduction of new fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based glucose nanosensors has made it possible to measure intracellular glucose more accurately. Here, we used the fluorescent indicator protein (FLIPglu-600µ) to monitor cytosolic glucose dynamics in mouse 3T3-L1 cells in which glucose utilization for glycogen synthesis was inhibited. The results show that cells exhibit a low resting cytosolic glucose concentration. However, in cells with inhibited glycogen synthase activation, insulin induced a robust increase in cytosolic free glucose. The insulin-induced increase in cytosolic glucose in these cells is due to an imbalance between the glucose transported into the cytosol and the use of glucose in the cytosol. In untreated cells with sensitive glycogen synthase activation, insulin stimulation did not result in a change in the cytosolic glucose level. This is the first report of dynamic measurements of cytosolic glucose levels in cells devoid of the glycogen synthesis pathway. PMID:25279585

  18. Interaction of interferon regulatory factor-1 and nuclear factor kappaB during activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, M; Zaragoza, C; Bao, C; McMillan, A; Lowenstein, C J

    1999-06-11

    We investigated the molecular mechanism for the synergistic induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase transcription by TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. Since TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma stimulate cells in part by activating NF-kappaB and IRF-1, we hypothesized that these two transcription factors interact with each other. IRF-1 and NF-kappaB co-localize in the nucleus of stimulated macrophages. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that IRF-1 and NF-kappaB interact in stimulated but not resting cells. Super-shift experiments show that IRF-1 and NF-kappaB interact while binding to their respective DNA binding sites. These results demonstrate the existence of a physical interaction between IRF-1 and NF-kappaB proteins in vivo. We next suggested that this interaction between IRF-1 and NF-kappaB bends the DNA of the iNOS promoter region. Using a cyclization assay, we demonstrate that nuclear extracts from stimulated cells accelerate the rate of conversion of a linear to circular DNA, compared to extracts from resting cells. However, stimulated nuclear extracts cannot affect the rate of cyclization of a promoter with a mutant IRE or kappaB site. Furthermore, stimulated nuclear extracts depleted of IRF-1 and NF-kappaB cannot induce cyclization. We conclude that IRF-1 and NF-kappaB interact in vivo, and that this interaction physically bends the indicible nitric oxide synthase promoter DNA. This interaction may explain the mechanism by which IFN-gamma synergistically augments inducible nitric oxide synthase transcription. PMID:10356322

  19. Effect of midthoracic spinal cord constriction on catalytic nitric oxide synthase activity in the white matter columns of rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukácová, N; Cízková, D; Marsala, M; Pavel, J; Jalc, P; Sulla, I; Kafka, J; Marsala, J

    2000-08-01

    The distribution and changes of catalytic nitric oxid synthase (cNOS) activity in the dorsal, lateral and ventral white matter columns at midthoracic level of the rabbit's spinal cord were studied in a model of surgically-induced spinal cord constriction performed at Th7 segment level and compared with the occurrence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase expressing and neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive axons in the white matter of the control thoracic segments. Segmental and white-column dependent differences of cNOS activity were found in the dorsal (141.5 +/- 4.2 dpm/microm protein), lateral (87.3 +/- 11.5 dpm/microm protein) and ventral (117.1 +/- 7.6 dpm/microm protein) white matter columns in the Th5-Th6 segments and in the dorsal (103.3 +/- 15.5 dpm/microm protein), lateral (54.9 +/- 4.9 dpm/microm protein), and ventral (86.1 +/- 6.8 dpm/microm protein) white matter columns in the Th8-Th9 segments. A surgically-induced constriction of Th7 segment caused a disproportionate response of cNOS activity in the rostrally (Th5-Th6) and caudally (Th8-Th9) located segments in both lateral and ventral white matter columns. While a statistically significant decrease of cNOS activity was detected above the constriction site in the ventral columns, a considerable, statistically significant increase of cNOS activity was noted in the white lateral columns below the site of constriction. It is reasoned that the changes of cNOS activity may have adverse effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in the white matter close to the site of constriction injury, thus broadening the scope of the secondary mechanisms that play a role in neuronal trauma. PMID:11055753

  20. Long-term effects of rapamycin treatment on insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB and glycogen synthase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) is a Ser/Thr kinase that is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation/survival through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the regulation of glycogen metabolism through glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) and glycogen synthase (GS). Rapamycin is an inhibitor of mTOR. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rapamycin pretreatment on the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB phosphorylation and GS activity in parental HepG2 and HepG2 cells with overexpression of constitutively active Akt1/PKB-? (HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB). Rapamycin pretreatment resulted in a decrease (20-30%) in the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 (Ser 473) in parental HepG2 cells but showed an upregulation of phosphorylation in HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Rictor levels were decreased (20-50%) in parental HepG2 cells but were not significantly altered in the HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Furthermore, rictor knockdown decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser 473) by 40-60% upon rapamycin pretreatment. GS activity followed similar trends as that of phosphorylated Akt and so with rictor levels in these cells pretreated with rapamycin; parental HepG2 cells showed a decrease in GS activity, whereas as HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells showed an increase in GS activity. The changes in the levels of phosphorylated Akt/PKB (Ser 473) correlated with GS and protein phoshatase-1 activity

  1. BcsA and BcsB form the catalytically active core of bacterial cellulose synthase sufficient for in vitro cellulose synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omadjela, Okako; Narahari, Adishesh; Strumillo, Joanna; Mélida, Hugo; Mazur, Olga; Bulone, Vincent; Zimmer, Jochen

    2013-10-29

    Cellulose is a linear extracellular polysaccharide. It is synthesized by membrane-embedded glycosyltransferases that processively polymerize UDP-activated glucose. Polymer synthesis is coupled to membrane translocation through a channel formed by the cellulose synthase. Although eukaryotic cellulose synthases function in macromolecular complexes containing several different enzyme isoforms, prokaryotic synthases associate with additional subunits to bridge the periplasm and the outer membrane. In bacteria, cellulose synthesis and translocation is catalyzed by the inner membrane-associated bacterial cellulose synthase (Bcs)A and BcsB subunits. Similar to alginate and poly-?-1,6 N-acetylglucosamine, bacterial cellulose is implicated in the formation of sessile bacterial communities, termed biofilms, and its synthesis is likewise stimulated by cyclic-di-GMP. Biochemical studies of exopolysaccharide synthesis are hampered by difficulties in purifying and reconstituting functional enzymes. We demonstrate robust in vitro cellulose synthesis reconstituted from purified BcsA and BcsB proteins from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Although BcsA is the catalytically active subunit, the membrane-anchored BcsB subunit is essential for catalysis. The purified BcsA-B complex produces cellulose chains of a degree of polymerization in the range 200-300. Catalytic activity critically depends on the presence of the allosteric activator cyclic-di-GMP, but is independent of lipid-linked reactants. Our data reveal feedback inhibition of cellulose synthase by UDP but not by the accumulating cellulose polymer and highlight the strict substrate specificity of cellulose synthase for UDP-glucose. A truncation analysis of BcsB localizes the region required for activity of BcsA within its C-terminal membrane-associated domain. The reconstituted reaction provides a foundation for the synthesis of biofilm exopolysaccharides, as well as its activation by cyclic-di-GMP. PMID:24127606

  2. Observation by 13C NMR of the EPSP synthase tetrahedral intermediate bound to the enzyme active site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct observation of the tetrahedral intermediate in the EPSP synthase reaction pathway was provided by 13C NMR by examining the species bound to the enzyme active site under internal equilibrium conditions and using [2-13C]PEP as a spectroscopic probe. The tetrahedral center of the intermediate bound to the enzyme gave a unique signal appearing at 104 ppm. Separate signals were observed for free EPSP and EPSP bound to the enzyme in a ternary complex with phosphate. These peak assignments account for the quantitation of the species bound to the enzyme and liberated upon quenching with either triethylamine or base. A comparison of quenching with acid, base, or triethylamine was conducted. After long times of incubation during the NMR measurement, a signal at 107 ppm appeared. The compound giving rise to this resonance was isolated and identified as an EPSP ketal. The rate of formation of the EPSP ketal was very slow establishing that it is a side product of the normal enzymatic reaction. To look for additional signals that might arise from a covalent adduct which has been postulated to arise from reaction of enzyme with PEP, and NMR experiment was performed with an analogue of S3P lacking the 4- and 5-hydroxyl groups. All of these results reaffirm identification of the tetrahedral species as the only observable intermediate in the EPSP synthase reaction

  3. Aminotransferase activity and bioinformatic analysis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, L; Geck, M K; Eliot, A C; Kirsch, J F

    2000-12-12

    The mechanistic fate of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes diverges after the quinonoid intermediate. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase, a member of the alpha family of PLP-dependent enzymes, is optimized to direct electrons from the quinonoid intermediate to the gamma-carbon of its substrate, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), to yield ACC and 5'-methylthioadenosine. The data presented show that this quinonoid may also accept a proton at C(4)' of the cofactor to yield alpha-keto acids and the pyridoxamine phosphate (PMP) form of the enzyme when other amino acids are presented as alternative substrates. Addition of excess pyruvate converts the PMP form of the enzyme back to the PLP form. C(alpha)-deprotonation from L-Ala is shown by NMR-monitored solvent exchange to be reversible with a rate that is less than 25-fold slower than that of deprotonation of SAM. The rate-determining step for transamination follows the formation of the quinonoid intermediate. The rate-determining step for alpha, gamma-elimination from enzyme-bound SAM is likewise shown to occur after C(alpha)-deprotonation, and the quinonoid intermediate accumulates during this reaction. BLAST searches, sequence alignments, and structural comparisons indicate that ACC synthases are evolutionarily related to the aminotransferases. In agreement with previously published reports, an absence of homology was found between the alpha and beta families of the PLP-dependent enzyme superfamily. PMID:11106504

  4. Metabolic regulation of phytoplasma malic enzyme and phosphotransacetylase supports the use of malate as an energy source in these plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigo, Mariana; Golic, Adrián; Alvarez, Clarisa E; Andreo, Carlos S; Hogenhout, Saskia A; Mussi, María A; Drincovich, María F

    2014-12-01

    Phytoplasmas ('Candidatus Phytoplasma') are insect-vectored plant pathogens. The genomes of these bacteria are small with limited metabolic capacities making them dependent on their plant and insect hosts for survival. In contrast to mycoplasmas and other relatives in the class Mollicutes, phytoplasmas encode genes for malate transporters and malic enzyme (ME) for conversion of malate into pyruvate. It was hypothesized that malate is probably a major energy source for phytoplasmas as these bacteria are limited in the uptake and processing of carbohydrates. In this study, we investigated the metabolic capabilities of 'Candidatus (Ca.) phytoplasma' aster yellows witches'-broom (AYWB) malic enzyme (ME). We found that AYWB-ME has malate oxidative decarboxylation activity, being able to convert malate to pyruvate and CO2 with the reduction of either NAD or NADP, and displays distinctive kinetic mechanisms depending on the relative concentration of the substrates. AYWB-ME activity was strictly modulated by the ATP/ADP ratio, a feature which has not been found in other ME isoforms characterized to date. In addition, we found that the 'Ca. Phytoplasma' AYWB PduL-like enzyme (AYWB-PduL) harbours phosphotransacetylase activity, being able to convert acetyl-CoA to acetyl phosphate downstream of pyruvate. ATP also inhibited AYWB-PduL activity, as with AYWB-ME, and the product of the reaction catalysed by AYWB-PduL, acetyl phosphate, stimulated AYWB-ME activity. Overall, our data indicate that AYWB-ME and AYWB-PduL activities are finely coordinated by common metabolic signals, like ATP/ADP ratios and acetyl phosphate, which support their participation in energy (ATP) and reducing power [NAD(P)H] generation from malate in phytoplasmas. PMID:25294105

  5. Pioglitazone inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide synthase is associated with altered activity of p38 MAP kinase and PI3K/Akt

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter Randy; Xin Tao; Xing Bin; Bing Guoying

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-?)-mediated neuroprotection involves inhibition of microglial activation and decreased expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been well established. In the present study we explored: (1) the effect of the PPAR-? agonist pioglitazone on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced iNOS activity and nitric oxi...

  6. Flavanone Glycoside Biosynthesis in Citrus: Chalcone Synthase, UDP-Glucose:Flavanone-7-O-Glucosyl-Transferase and -Rhamnosyl-Transferase Activities in Cell-Free Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, E; Britsch, L; Mazur, Y; Gressel, J

    1989-12-01

    Previous indirect evidence suggested that the biosynthesis of flavonoids in Citrus may not proceed via the usual chalcone synthase reaction and that glycosylation occurs during chalcone formation and not afterward, as has been reported in other species. We detected chalcone-synthase and UDP-glucose:flavanone-7-O-glucosyl-transferase activities in cell-free extracts of Citrus. The glucosylated flavanone was further rhamnosylated when exogenous UDP-glucose and NADPH were added to the extract. Chalcone-synthase activity was detected in cell-free extracts derived from young leaves and fruits. Young fruits (2 millimeter diameter) had the highest chalcone synthase activity. UDP-glucose:flavanone-7-O-glucosyl-transferase activity was measured in cell-free extracts derived from young leaves and fruits of Citrus mitis and Citrus maxima. The highest UDP-glucose:flavanone-7-O-glucosyl-transferase activity was found in young C. maxima leaves. These data indicate that Citrus contains a flavonoid pathway similar to that studied in other species. PMID:16667183

  7. Activation of protein kinase B/Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates agmatine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Anantha Vijay R; Viswanathan, Shivkumar; Dikshit, Madhu

    2007-10-31

    The ability of agmatine, formed from L-arginine by the enzyme arginine decarboxylase (ADC), to modulate vasomotor function in rat aorta was investigated in the present study. Agmatine-mediated modulation of vasomotor tone was studied in organ chambers, protein expression quantified by Western blot analysis and cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate (cGMP) levels measured by radioimmunoassay. Agmatine (10(-10) to 10(-3) M) produced concentration-dependent relaxations (82+/-5%) in phenylephrine-contracted endothelium intact rat aorta. Relaxations to agmatine were diminished on denudation of endothelium and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition by L-Nomega-nitro arginine or soluble guanylate cyclase inhibition by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (P<0.001) abolished agmatine-mediated relaxations, while relaxations were insensitive to inducible NOS inhibition by 1400W. Agmatine-treated aorta demonstrated increased protein expression of phosphorylated S473-Akt and phosphorylated S1177-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and elevated the levels of cyclic GMP (P<0.01). Agmatine-mediated potentiation of relaxations and elevation of cGMP levels was sensitive to phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin. Relaxations to agmatine were also affected by pre-treatment with tetraethylammonium (P<0.01) or apamin (P<0.05), and were not affected by charybdotoxin. Relaxations to agmatine were partially affected by pre-treatment of aortic rings with barium chloride (P<0.05), and glybenclamide (P<0.05). Results obtained suggest that agmatine activates protein kinase B/Akt to phosphorylate eNOS and elevate cyclic GMP levels to produce vasodilatation of aorta. Agmatine-mediated relaxations in rat aorta seems to be mediated mainly by endothelial NO-mediated activation of small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, and partly by ATP-sensitive and inward rectifying K+ channels. PMID:17640632

  8. Multitracer stable isotope quantification of arginase and nitric oxide synthase activity in a mouse model of pseudomonas lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasemann, Hartmut; Jaecklin, Thomas; Mehl, Anne; Huang, Hailu; Rafii, Mahroukh; Pencharz, Paul; Ratjen, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis airways are deficient for L-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and arginases. The rationale for this study was to quantify NOS and arginase activity in the mouse lung. Anesthetized unventilated mice received a primed constant stable isotope intravenous infusion containing labeled L-arginine, ornithine, and citrulline. The isotopic enrichment of each of the infused isotopomers and its product amino acids were measured in plasma and organ homogenates using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The effect of infection was studied three days after direct tracheal instillation of Pseudomonas-coated agar beads. In the infusion model, lung infection resulted in a significant (28-fold) increase in NOS activity in lung but not in trachea, kidney, liver, or plasma. Absolute rates of arginase activity in solid tissues could not be calculated in this model. In an isolated lung perfusion model used for comparison increased NOS activity in infected lungs was confirmed (28.5-fold) and lung arginase activity was increased 9.7-fold. The activity of L-arginine metabolizing enzymes can be measured using stable isotope conversion in the mouse. Accumulation of L-ornithine in the whole mouse model hindered the exact quantification of arginase activity in the lung, a problem that was overcome utilizing an isolated lung perfusion model. PMID:25177109

  9. Suppression of inducible cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide synthase through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma by flavonoids in mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y C; Tsai, S H; Tsai, D C; Lin-Shiau, S Y; Lin, J K

    2001-05-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma transcription factor has been implicated in anti-inflammatory response. Of the compounds tested, apigenin, chrysin, and kaempferol significantly stimulated PPAR gamma transcriptional activity in a transient reporter assay. In addition, these three flavonoids strongly enhanced the inhibition of inducible cyclooxygenase and inducible nitric oxide synthase promoter activities in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages which contain the PPAR gamma expression plasmids. However, these three flavonoids exhibited weak PPAR gamma agonist activities in an in vitro competitive binding assay. Limited protease digestion of PPAR gamma suggested these three flavonoids produced a conformational change in PPAR gamma and the conformation differs in the receptor bound to BRL49653 versus these three flavonoids. These results suggested that these three flavonoids might act as allosteric effectors and were able to bind to PPAR gamma and activate it, but its binding site might be different from the natural ligand BRL49653. PMID:11343698

  10. SYSTEMIC BUT NOT CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE INHIBITION EXACERBATES THE HYPERTENSIVE EFFECTS OF CHRONIC MELANOCORTIN-3/4 RECEPTOR ACTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Do Carmo, Jussara M.; Bassi, Mirian; Da Silva, Alexandre A.; Hall, John E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether systemic or central nervous system (CNS) inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase exacerbates the cardiovascular responses of chronic CNS melanocortin 3/4 receptor (MC3/4R) activation. Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with telemetry probes, venous catheters and intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannulae were divided in 3 groups. After control measurements, the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME was infused (10 ?g/kg/min, IV) for 17 days and starting on day 7 of L-NAME infusion the MC3...

  11. A Selective Assay to Detect Chitin and Biologically Active Nano-Machineries for Chitin-Biosynthesis with Their Intrinsic Chitin-Synthase Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildgund Schrempf

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A new assay system for chitin has been developed. It comprises the chitin-binding protein ChbB in fusion with a His-tag as well as with a Strep-tag, the latter of which was chemically coupled to horseradish peroxidase. With the resulting complex, minimal quantities of chitin are photometrically detectable. In addition, the assay allows rapid scoring of the activity of chitin-synthases. As a result, a refined procedure for the rapid purification of yeast chitosomes (nano-machineries for chitin biosynthesis has been established. Immuno-electronmicroscopical studies of purified chitosomes, gained from a yeast strain carrying a chitin-synthase gene fused to that for GFP (green-fluorescence protein, has led to the in situ localization of chitin-synthase-GFP molecules within chitosomes.

  12. 25-hydroxycholesterol induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis via activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y K; Kim, Y S; Choi, I Y; Kim, S-W; Kim, W-K

    2008-06-01

    25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OH-chol) induces apoptosis in many cell types. The present study investigated the possible involvement of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signalling molecules in the death of PC12 cells treated with 25-OH-chol. 25-OH-chol increased the production of reactive oxygen species and opened mitochondrial permeability transition pore, resulting in release of cytochrome c and subsequent activation of caspase-9 and -3. 25-OH-chol induced the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). The JNK inhibitor SP600125 attenuated the activation of caspase-9 and -3 and reduced 25-OH-chol-induced cell death. GSK inhibitors SB415286 and SB216763 significantly down-regulated JNK activity and attenuated the cytotoxicity of 25-hydroxycholesterol. However, SP600125 did not alter the activity of GSK-3beta. The results indicate that 25-OH-chol induces cell death via activation of GSK-3beta and subsequent up-regulation of JNK. Pharmacological intervention of GSK-3beta-JNK-caspase signalling pathway may be useful for the reduction of cytotoxicity of oxysterols. PMID:18569012

  13. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity improves focal cerebral damage induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in normotensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nitric oxide seems to play a dual role in ischemia/reperfusion injury. Few studies have investigated whether it exacerbates or improves brain edema. In the present study, we inhibited the activity of nitric oxide synthase by L-NAME and evaluated the cerebral infarct volume, tissue swelling and brain edema, alongside the measurement of blood flow of the ischemic region. Methods: Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 12 hours reperfusion in rat. Experiments were performed in three groups of rats (n=12 each Sham, control ischemic, and L-NAME pretreated (1 mg/kg IP. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure the regional blood flow. After neurological deficit score (NDS testing, the brains were prepared for TTC staining or brain water content technique to measure the infarct volume and brain edema. Results: Pretreatment with L-NAME significantly reduced NDS (3.66 ± 0.33 to 1.5 ± 0.34, infarct volume of cortex (374 ± 34 to 160 ± 41 mm3 and striatum (158 ± 15 to 87 ± 16 mm3, tissue swelling (7.35 ± 1.27% to 4.05 ± 0.91% and brain edema (3.5 ± 0.48% to 1.6 ± 0.6% without significant alteration of blood flow of the ischemic region. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity reduces infarct volume and brain edema of the ischemic region induced during 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion. This effect is not accompanied with any alteration in the blood flow of the ischemic region.

  14. An Arabidopsis callose synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2002-08-01

    Beta-1,3-glucan polymers are major structural components of fungal cell walls, while cellulosic beta-1,4-glucan is the predominant polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Plant beta-1,3-glucan, called callose, is produced in pollen and in response to pathogen attack and wounding, but it has been unclear whether callose synthases can also produce cellulose and whether plant cellulose synthases may also produce beta-1,3-glucans. We describe here an Arabidopsis gene, AtGsl5, encoding a plasma membrane-localized protein homologous to yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase whose expression partially complements a yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase mutant. AtGsl5 is developmentally expressed at highest levels in flowers, consistent with flowers having high beta-1,3-glucan synthase activities for deposition of callose in pollen. A role for AtGsl5 in callose synthesis is also indicated by AtGsl5 expression in the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants, while expression of the nahG salicylate hydroxylase reduces AtGsl5 mRNA levels in the mpk4 mutant. These results indicate that AtGsl5 is likely involved in callose synthesis in flowering tissues and in the mpk4 mutant. PMID:12081364

  15. Activation of the Wnt pathway through use of AR79, a glycogen synthase kinase 3? inhibitor, promotes prostate cancer growth in soft tissue and bone

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yuan; Dai, Jinlu; Zhang, Honglai; Sottnik, Joe L.; Keller, Jill M.; Escott, Katherine J.; Sanganee, Hitesh J.; Yao, Zhi; Mccauley, Laurie K.; Keller, Evan T.

    2013-01-01

    Due to its bone anabolic activity, methods to increase Wnt activity, such as inhibitors of dickkopf-1 and sclerostin, are being clinically explored. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3?) inhibits Wnt signaling through inducing ?-catenin degradation. Therefore, AR79, an inhibitor of GSK3?, is being evaluated as a bone anabolic agent. However, Wnt activation has potential to promote tumor growth. The goal of this study was to determine if AR79 impacted progression of prostate cancer (PCa). PCa tu...

  16. A novel malate dehydrogenase from Ceratonia siliqua L. seeds with potential biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccio, Clelia; Guida, Vincenzo; Di Petrillo, Amalia; Severino, Valeria; Di Maro, Antimo

    2012-12-01

    A novel malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC 3.1.1.1.37), hereafter MDHCs, from Ceratonia siliqua seeds, commonly known as Carob tree, was purified by using ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on SteamLine SP and gel-filtration. The molecular mass of the native protein, obtained by analytical gel-filtration, was about 65 kDa, whereas, by using SDS-PAGE analysis, with and without reducing agent, was 34 kDa. The specific activity of purified MDHCs (0.25 mg/100 g seeds) was estimated to be 188 U/mg. The optimum activity of the enzyme is at pH 8.5, showing a decrease in the presence of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and NaCl. The N-terminal sequence of the first 20 amino acids of MDHCs revealed 95 % identity with malate dehydrogenase from Medicago sativa L. Finally, the enzymatic activity of MDHCs was preserved even after absorption onto a PVDF membrane. To our knowledge, this is the first contribution to the characterization of an enzyme from Carob tree sources. PMID:22965554

  17. Role of dietary fish oil on nitric oxide synthase activity and oxidative status in mice red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marcela A; Moss, Monique B; Mendes, Iara K S; Águila, Márcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Brunini, Tatiana M C; Mendes-Ribeiro, Antônio Cláudio

    2014-12-01

    The consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from fish oil concomitant with a reduced intake of saturated fats is associated with cardiovascular benefits, which may result from the participation of nitric oxide (NO). In contrast, PUFAs are vulnerable to peroxidation, which could affect the oxidative stability of the cell and reduce NO bioavailability. Therefore, we investigated the effects of high fat diets with increasing amounts of fish oil (0-40% of energy) in place of lard on the l-arginine-NO pathway, the arginase pathway and oxidative status in mice red blood cells (RBC). We found that l-arginine transport, as well as NO synthase (NOS) expression and activity, was enhanced by the highest doses of fish oil (30 and 40%). In contrast, diets rich in lard led to NOS expression and activity impairment. Arginase expression was not significantly affected by any of the dietary regimens. No significant difference in protein and lipid oxidative markers was observed among any of the fish-oil fed mice; only lard feeding induced protein damage in addition to a decreased superoxide dismutase activity. These data suggest that a substantial dose of fish oil, but not low doses, activates the RBC l-arginine-NO pathway without resulting in oxidative damage. PMID:25317541

  18. The tumor-suppressing activity of the prenyl diphosphate synthase subunit 2 gene in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Zhang, Yin; Polireddy, Kishore; Chen, Qi

    2014-08-01

    The prenyl diphosphate synthase subunit 2 (PDSS2) gene has recently been proposed as a novel tumor suppressor in several types of solid tumors. However, the mechanism of its tumor-suppressing activity is not known. Our previous study found a decreased expression of PDSS2 in clinical samples of non-small-cell lung cancer, and an inverse correlation between PDSS2 levels and stages of tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis. In this study, we further investigated the tumor-suppressing activity of PDSS2 in lung cancer cells using cellular and molecular tools. The PDSS2 gene has low levels of expression in human lung cancer cell lines. We transfected and overexpressed PDSS2 in the NCI-H1299 lung cancer cell line. The forced overexpression caused massive cell death (~70%) through apoptotic pathways and significantly inhibited colony formation. At the same time, repression of PDSS2 expression by siRNA enhanced the growth of a noncancerous lung epithelial cell line MRC-5. There was an inverse correlation (Pearson's test, r=-0.9373) between PDSS2 expression and gelsolin expression, which is known to inhibit apoptosis and enhance cell invasion and metastasis. The ability of PDSS2 to repress gelsolin might contribute to its tumor-suppressing activity. However, PDSS2 did not influence the sensitivity of the lung cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. Taken together, PDSS2 has tumor-suppressing activity in human lung cancer cells by enhancing apoptosis and inhibiting tumorigenic capacity. PMID:24608273

  19. A limitation of the continuous spectrophotometric assay for the measurement of myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyi; Hernick, Marcy

    2011-10-15

    Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS) catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to myo-inositol-1-phosphate. The reaction catalyzed by MIPS is the first step in the biosynthesis of inositol and inositol-containing molecules that serve important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Consequently, MIPS is a target for the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of infectious diseases and bipolar disorder. We recently reported a continuous spectrophotometric method for measuring MIPS activity using a coupled assay that allows the rapid characterization of MIPS in a multiwell plate format. Here we validate the continuous assay as a high-throughput alternative for measuring MIPS activity and report on one limitation of this assay-the inability to examine the effect of divalent metal ions (at high concentrations) on MIPS activity. In addition, we demonstrate that the activity of MIPS from Arabidopsis thaliana is moderately enhanced by the addition Mg(2+) and is not enhanced by other divalent metal ions (Zn(2+) and Mn(2+)), consistent with what has been observed for other eukaryotic MIPS enzymes. Our findings suggest that the continuous assay is better suited for characterizing eukaryotic MIPS enzymes that require monovalent cations as cofactors than for characterizing bacterial or archeal MIPS enzymes that require divalent metal ions as cofactors. PMID:21729692

  20. Neurospora tryptophan synthase: N-terminal analysis and the sequence of the pyridoxal phosphate active site peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryptophan synthase (TS), which catalyzes the final step of tryptophan biosynthesis, is a multifunctional protein requiring pyridoxal phosphate (B6P) for two of its three distinct enzyme activities. TS from Neurospora has a blocked N-terminal, is a homodimer of 150 KDa and binds one mole of B6P per mole of subunit. The authors shown the N-terminal residue to be acyl-serine. The B6P-active site of holoenzyme was labelled by reduction of the B6P-Schiff base with [3H]-NaBH4, and resulted in a proportionate loss of activity in the two B6P-requiring reactions. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of CNBr-generated peptides showed the labelled, active site peptide to be 6 KDa. The sequence of this peptide, purified to apparent homogeneity by a combination of C-18 reversed phase and TSK gel filtration HPLC is: gly-arg-pro-gly-gln-leu-his-lys-ala-glu-arg-leu-thr-glu-tyr-ala-gly-gly-ala-gln-ile-xxx-leu-lys-arg-glu-asp-leu-asn-his-xxx-gly-xxx-his-/sub ***/-ile-asn-asn-ala-leu. Although four residues (xxx, /sub ***/) are unidentified, this peptide is minimally 78% homologous with the corresponding peptide from yeast TS, in which residue (/sub ***/) is the lysine that binds B6P

  1. Oleic acid increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in cultured endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremmels, Hendrik; Bevers, Lonneke M; Fledderus, Joost O; Braam, Branko; Jan van Zonneveld, Anton; Verhaar, Marianne C; Joles, Jaap A

    2015-03-15

    Elevated plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This may be related to FFA-induced elevation of oxidative stress in endothelial cells. We hypothesized that, in addition to mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated reactive oxygen species production contributes to oleic acid (OA)-induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells, due to eNOS uncoupling. We measured reactive oxygen species production and eNOS activity in cultured endothelial cells (bEnd.3) in the presence of OA bound to bovine serum albumin, using the CM-H2DCFDA assay and the l-arginine/citrulline conversion assay, respectively. OA induced a concentration-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species production, which was inhibited by the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA). OA had little effect on eNOS activity when stimulated by a calcium-ionophore, but decreased both basal and insulin-induced eNOS activity, which was restored by TTFA. Pretreatment of bEnd.3 cells with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) prevented OA-induced reactive oxygen species production and restored inhibition of eNOS activity by OA. Elevation of OA levels leads to both impairment in receptor-mediated stimulation of eNOS and to production of mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species and hence endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25595727

  2. Overexpression of the trichodiene synthase gene tri5 increases trichodermin production and antimicrobial activity in Trichoderma brevicompactum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerino, Anamariela; Cardoza, R Elena; Moraga, Javier; Malmierca, Mónica G; Vicente, Francisca; Aleu, Josefina; Collado, Isidro G; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Monte, Enrique; Hermosa, Rosa

    2011-03-01

    Trichoderma brevicompactum produces trichodermin, a simple trichothecene-type toxin that shares the first steps of the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway with other phytotoxic trichothecenes from Fusarium spp. Trichodiene synthase catalyses the conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to trichodiene and it is encoded by the tri5 gene that was cloned and analysed functionally by homologous overexpression in T. brevicompactum. tri5 expression was up-regulated in media with glucose, H(2)O(2) or glycerol. tri5 repression was observed in cultures supplemented with the antioxidants ferulic acid and tyrosol. Acetone extracts of tri5-overexpressing transformants displayed higher antifungal activity than those from the wild-type. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses revealed that tri5 overexpression led to an increased production of trichodermin and tyrosol. Agar diffusion assays with these two purified metabolites from the tri5-overexpressing transformant T. brevicompactum Tb41tri5 showed that only trichodermin had antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Aspergillus fumigatus, in most cases such activity being higher than that observed for amphotericin B and hygromycin. Our results point to the significant role of tri5 in the production of trichodermin and in the antifungal activity of T. brevicompactum. PMID:21145409

  3. Malate. Jack of all trades or master of a few?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Alisdair R; Martinoia, Enrico

    2009-05-01

    The dicarboxylic acid malate has long been thought to play important roles in plant physiology. In addition to being a major photosynthate in C4 and CAM plants and an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle it has been proposed to play essential roles in pH regulation and important roles in pathogen response, as a component of the root exudates and as a regulatory osmolyte affecting stomatal function. Recent years have seen the cloning and functional analysis of a wide range of enzymes and transporters associated with malate metabolism. Here we attempt to provide a synthesis of research in this field as well as re-evaluating the role of this metabolite in mediating guard cell function. PMID:19473680

  4. Formulation and Evaluation of Almotriptan Malate Nasal Drops

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan V; Gaikwad R; Samad A; Prabhakar B

    2009-01-01

    Nasal solutions of almotriptan malate were prepared in phosphate buffer containing different proportions of HPMC E15. In vitro permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cell with dialysis membrane and ex vivo permeation studies were carried out using sheep nasal mucosal layer. The formulations were radiolabeled with 99mTc and the nasal residence time was studied in rabbits. Nasal irritation was evaluated in rats. Formulations prepared with HPMC E15 5% w/v did not retard t...

  5. New procedures to measure synthase and phosphatase activities of bis-phosphoglycerate mutase. Interest for development of therapeutic drugs; Nouveaux procedes pour mesurer les activites synthase et phosphatase de la bisphosphoglycerate mutase. Interet pour le developpement de drogues therapeutiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravel, P.; Garel, M.C. [Hopital Henri-Mondor, 94 - Creteil (France); Toullec, D. [Laboratoire Glaxo Wellcome, 91- Les Ulis (France)

    1997-12-31

    In red blood cells, a modulation of the level of the allosteric effector of hemoglobin, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) would have implications in the treatment of ischemia and sickle cell anemia. Its concentrations is determined by the relative activities of the synthase and phosphatase reactions of the multifunctional bis-phosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM). In this report we develop first a more direct synthase assay which uses glyceraldehyde phosphate to suppress the aldolase and triose phosphate isomerase reactions. Secondly we propose a radioactive phosphatase assay coupled to chromatographic separation and identification of the reaction products by paper electrophoresis. Such identification of these products allows us to show that the multifunctional BPGM expresses its mutase instead of its phosphatase activity in conditions of competition between the 3-phosphoglycerate and the 2-phospho-glycolate activator in the phosphatase reaction. These two more precise procedures could be used to study the effects of substrate and cofactor analogues regarding potential therapeutic approaches and could be used for clinical analyses to detect deficiency of BPGM. (author)

  6. Transcriptional activation of Brassica napus ?-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II with an engineered zinc finger protein transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manju; DeKelver, Russell C; Palta, Asha; Clifford, Carla; Gopalan, Sunita; Miller, Jeffrey C; Novak, Stephen; Desloover, Daniel; Gachotte, Daniel; Connell, James; Flook, Josh; Patterson, Thomas; Robbins, Kelly; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Petolino, Joseph F

    2012-09-01

    Targeted gene regulation via designed transcription factors has great potential for precise phenotypic modification and acceleration of novel crop trait development. Canola seed oil composition is dictated largely by the expression of genes encoding enzymes in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) were designed to bind DNA sequences common to two canola ?-ketoacyl-ACP Synthase II (KASII) genes downstream of their transcription start site. Transcriptional activators (ZFP-TFs) were constructed by fusing these ZFP DNA-binding domains to the VP16 transcriptional activation domain. Following transformation using Agrobacterium, transgenic events expressing ZFP-TFs were generated and shown to have elevated KASII transcript levels in the leaves of transgenic T(0) plants when compared to 'selectable marker only' controls as well as of T(1) progeny plants when compared to null segregants. In addition, leaves of ZFP-TF-expressing T(1) plants contained statistically significant decreases in palmitic acid (consistent with increased KASII activity) and increased total C18. Similarly, T(2) seed displayed statistically significant decreases in palmitic acid, increased total C18 and reduced total saturated fatty acid contents. These results demonstrate that designed ZFP-TFs can be used to regulate the expression of endogenous genes to elicit specific phenotypic modifications of agronomically relevant traits in a crop species. PMID:22520333

  7. Neuroprotective Effect of a Prostacyclin Agonist (ONO-1301 with Thromboxane Synthase Inhibitory Activity in Rats Subjected to Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Hazekawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available ONO-1301 has been developed as a novel long-acting prostacyclin agonist with thromboxane synthase inhibitory activity. In the present study, we investigated the cerebroprotective effect of ONO-1301 on post-ischemic injury induced by cerebral ischemia in rats. ONO-1301 (1 and 10 mg/kg was administrated orally at reperfusion and then twice a day for 42 days. The cell damage induced by cerebral ischemia in the hippocampal CA1 was evaluated using both Nissl staining and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA staining on the 42 days after cerebral ischemia. Activated astrocytes were evaluated using immunofluorescence staining with GFAP on the 42 days after cerebral ischemia. Spatial learning was assessed using a Morris water maze (MWM task on the 56 days (i.e. after a 14 days washout period. ONO-1301- treated rats (1 and 10 mg/kg significantly improved cell death in the hippocampal CA1, the number of PCNA-positive cells and astrocyte activation. The spatial learning of ONO-1301-treated rats compared with vehicle- treated rats in the MWM task. These results suggest that repeated treatment with oral ONO-1301 could prevent or limit post-ischemic brain damage. In particular, treatment with ONO-1301 within 7 days after ischemia is most effective to improve ischemic damage.

  8. Determination of delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthase activity in human bone marrow using high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is described for the rapid and specific determination of the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthase (ALA-S) in mitochondria prepared by sonication of human bone marrow cells. After incubation with 14C-?-ketoglutarate the 14C-delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) formed is converted to a pyrrole derivative, 2-methyl-3-carbethoxy-4-(3-propionic acid) pyrrole. This is isolated by reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography on a Hypersil-SAS column with methanol-water (45:155, v/v) in the presence of 0.005 mol/l l-heptanesulphonic acid (PIC B-7) as the mobile phase. The radioactivity of the isolated pyrrole is determined by scintillation counting. The optimal substrate concentration and pH were 0.17 mmol/l ?-ketoglutarate and pH 7.4, with an optimal period of sonication of 18s. Under these conditions ALA production was proportional to the concentrations of erythroblasts in the initial sample and was linear with time up to 60 min. The addition of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) did not affect ALA-S activity in normal subjects. The mean ALA-S activity in 10 haematologically normal control subjects was found to be 318.8 pmol.10-6 erythroblasts.h-1 (S.D. +- 125.8, range 193-444.6). (Auth.)

  9. Lipopolysaccharide induces nitric oxide synthase expression and platelet-activating factor increases nitric oxide production in human fetal membranes in culture

    OpenAIRE

    Seyffarth Gunter; Nelson Paul N; Dunmore Simon J; Rodrigo Nalinda; Murphy Damian J; Carson Ray J

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Platelet-activating factor and nitric oxide may be involved in the initiation of human labour as inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study was to test whether platelet-activating factor and lipopolysaccharide were able to induce nitric oxide synthase expression and stimulate the production of nitric oxide in human fetal membrane explants in culture. Methods Fetal membranes were collected from Caesarean sections at term. RNA was extracted from membranes and subjected to...

  10. Antimicrobial Actions of the Nadph Phagocyte Oxidase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Experimental Salmonellosis. I. Effects on Microbial Killing by Activated Peritoneal Macrophages in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-torres, Andre?s; Jones-carson, Jessica; Mastroeni, Pietro; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Fang, Ferric C.

    2000-01-01

    The contribution of the NADPH phagocyte oxidase (phox) and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) to the antimicrobial activity of macrophages for Salmonella typhimurium was studied by using peritoneal phagocytes from C57BL/6, congenic gp91phox?/?, iNOS?/?, and doubly immunodeficient phox?/?iNOS?/? mice. The respiratory burst and NO radical (NO·) made distinct contributions to the anti-Salmonella activity of macrophages. NADPH oxidase–dependent killing is confined to t...

  11. Modulation of the internal aldimine pK(a)'s of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and aspartate aminotransferase by specific active site residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Andrew C; Kirsch, Jack F

    2002-03-19

    The active sites of the homologous pyridoxal phosphate- (PLP-) dependent enzymes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and aspartate aminotransferase (AATase) are almost entirely conserved, yet the pK(a)'s of the two internal aldimines are 9.3 and 7.0, respectively, to complement the substrate pK(a)'s (S-adenosylmethionine pK(a) = 7.8 and aspartate pK(a) = 9.9). This complementation is required for maximum enzymatic activity in the physiological pH range. The most prominent structural difference in the active site is that Ile232 of ACC synthase is replaced by alanine in AATase. The I232A mutation was introduced into ACC synthase with a resulting 1.1 unit decrease (from 9.3 to 8.2) in the aldimine pK(a), thus identifying Ile232 as a major determinant of the high pK(a) of ACC synthase. The mutation also resulted in reduced k(cat) (0.5 vs 11 s(-1)) and k(cat)/K(m) values (5.0 x 10(4) vs 1.2 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). The effect of the mutation is interpreted as the result of shortening of the Tyr233-PLP hydrogen bond. Addition of the Y233F mutation to the I232A ACC synthase to generate the double mutant I232A/Y233F raised the pK(a) from 8.2 to 8.8, because the Y233F mutation eliminates the hydrogen bond between that residue and PLP. The introduction of the retro mutation A224I into AATase raised the aldimine pK(a) of that enzyme from 6.96 to 7.16 and resulted in a decrease in single-turnover k(max) (108 vs 900 s(-1) for aspartate) and k(max)/K(m)(app) (7.5 x 10(4) vs 3.8 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) values. The distance from the pyridine nitrogen of the cofactor to a conserved aspartate residue is 2.6 A in AATase and 3.8 A in ACC synthase. The D230E mutation introduced into ACC synthase to close this distance increases the aldimine pK(a) from 9.3 to 10.0, as would be predicted from a shortened hydrogen bond. PMID:11888303

  12. Significance of redox-active cysteines in human FAD synthase isoform 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccolis, Angelica; Galluccio, Michele; Nitride, Chiara; Giancaspero, Teresa Anna; Ferranti, Pasquale; Iametti, Stefania; Indiveri, Cesare; Bonomi, Francesco; Barile, Maria

    2014-08-15

    FAD synthase (FMN:ATP adenylyl transferase, FMNAT or FADS, EC 2.7.7.2) is the last enzyme in the pathway converting riboflavin into FAD. In humans, FADS is localized in different subcellular compartments and exists in different isoforms. Isoform 2 (490-amino acids) is organized in two domains: the 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase domain, that is the FAD-forming catalytic domain, and one resembling a molybdopterin-binding (MPTb) domain, with a hypothetical regulatory role. hFADS2 contains ten Cys residues, seven of which located in the PAPS reductase domain, with a possible involvement either in FAD synthesis or in FAD delivery to cognate apo-flavoproteins. A homology model of the PAPS reductase domain of hFADS2 revealed a co-ordinated network among the Cys residues in this domain. In this model, C312 and C303 are very close to the flavin substrate, consistent with a significantly lowered FAD synthesis rate in C303A and C312A mutants. FAD synthesis is also inhibited by thiol-blocking reagents, suggesting the involvement of free cysteines in the hFADS2 catalytic cycle. Mass spectrometry measurements and titration with thiol reagents on wt hFADS2 and on several individual cysteine/alanine mutants allowed us to detect two stably reduced cysteines (C139 and C241, one for each protein domain), two stable disulfide bridges (C399-C402, C303-C312, both in the PAPS domain), and two unstable disulfides (C39-C50; C440-C464). Whereas the C39-C50 unstable disulfide is located in the MPTb domain and appears to have no catalytic relevance, a cysteine-based redox switch may involve formation and breakdown of a disulfide between C440 and C464 in the PAPS domain. PMID:25135855

  13. A Dynamic Model of Cotton Emergence based on the Thermal Dependence of Malate Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is frequently planted when temperatures are not optimal for germination and emergence. Delayed emergence, a common contributor to diminished plant performance later in the season is often related to delayed emergence resulting from non-optimal temperatures. Improvement...

  14. Disruption of ATCSLD5 results in reduced growth, reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity and altered xylan occurrence in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal Giraldo, Adriana Jimena; Jensen, Jacob Krüger

    2007-01-01

    Members of a large family of cellulose synthase-like genes (CSLs) are predicted to encode glycosyl transferases (GTs) involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell walls. The CSLA and CSLF families are known to contain mannan and glucan synthases, respectively, but the products of other CSLs are unknown. Here we report the effects of disrupting ATCSLD5 expression in Arabidopsis. Both stem and root growth were significantly reduced in ATCSLD5 knock-out plants, and these plants also had increased susceptibility to the cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben. Antibody and carbohydrate-binding module labelling indicated a reduction in the level of xylan in stems, and in vitro GT assays using microsomes from stems revealed that ATCSLD5 knock-out plants also had reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity. Expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of ATCSLD5 and ATCSLD3, fluorescently tagged at either the C- or the N-terminal, indicated that these GTs are likely to be localized in the Golgi apparatus. However, the position of the fluorescent tag affected the subcellular localization of both proteins. The work presented provides a comprehensive analysis of the effects of disrupting ATCSLD5 in planta, and the possible role(s) of this gene and other ATCSLDs in cell wall biosynthesis are discussed.

  15. Macromolecular crowding and the steady-state kinetics of malate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Christopher G; Slade, Kristin M

    2015-01-20

    To understand how macromolecular crowding affects enzyme activity, we quantified the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in the presence of hen egg white (HEW), lysozyme, bovine serum albumin (BSA), gum arabic, poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), and dextrans of various molecular weights. Although crowding tended to decrease Km and Vmax values, the magnitude depended on the crowding agent, reaction direction, and isozyme (mitochondrial porcine heart or thermophlic TaqMDH from Thermus flavus). Crowding slowed oxaloacetate reduction more significantly than malate oxidation, which may suggest that mitochondrial enzymes have evolved to function optimally under the crowded constraints in which they are immersed. Since direct comparisons of neutral to charged crowders are underrepresented in the literature, we performed these studies and found that neutral crowding agents lowered Vmax values more than charged crowders of similar size. The exception was hen egg white, a mixture of charged proteins that caused the largest observed decreases in both Km and Vmax. Finally, the data provide insight about the mechanism by corroborating MDH subunit dependence. PMID:25478785

  16. Visnagin protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy through modulation of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Asnani, Aarti; Zou, Lin; Bentley, Victoria L; Yu, Min; Wang, You; Dellaire, Graham; Sarkar, Kumar S; Dai, Matthew; Chen, Howard H; Sosnovik, David E; Shin, Jordan T; Haber, Daniel A; Berman, Jason N; Chao, Wei; Peterson, Randall T

    2014-12-10

    Doxorubicin is a highly effective anticancer chemotherapy agent, but its use is limited by its cardiotoxicity. To develop a drug that prevents this toxicity, we established a doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy model in zebrafish that recapitulates the cardiomyocyte apoptosis and contractility decline observed in patients. Using this model, we screened 3000 compounds and found that visnagin (VIS) and diphenylurea (DPU) rescue the cardiac performance and circulatory defects caused by doxorubicin in zebrafish. VIS and DPU reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes and in vivo in zebrafish and mouse hearts. VIS treatment improved cardiac contractility in doxorubicin-treated mice. Further, VIS and DPU did not reduce the chemotherapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in several cultured tumor lines or in zebrafish and mouse xenograft models. Using affinity chromatography, we found that VIS binds to mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH2), a key enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. As with VIS, treatment with the MDH2 inhibitors mebendazole, thyroxine, and iodine prevented doxorubicin cardiotoxicity, as did treatment with malate itself, suggesting that modulation of MDH2 activity is responsible for VIS' cardioprotective effects. Thus, VIS and DPU are potent cardioprotective compounds, and MDH2 is a previously undescribed, druggable target for doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:25504881

  17. The Volatile Oil of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma Induces Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in HUVEC Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwulanjiang, Maitinuer; Bi, Cathy W C; Lee, Pinky S C; Xin, Guizhong; Miernisha, Abudureyimu; Lau, Kei M; Xiong, Aizhen; Li, Ning; Dong, Tina T X; Aisa, Haji A; Tsim, Karl W K

    2015-01-01

    Nardostahyos Radix et Rhizoma (NRR; the root and rhizome of Nardostachys jatamansi DC.) is a widely used medicinal herb. Historically, NRR is being used for the treatment of cardiovascular and neurological diseases. To search for active ingredients of NRR, we investigated the vascular benefit of NRR volatile oil in (i) the vasodilation in rat aorta ring, and (ii) the release of nitric oxide (NO) and the phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By measuring the fluorescence signal in cultures, application of NRR volatile oil resulted in a rapid activation of NO release as well as the phosphorylation of eNOS: both inductions were markedly reduced by L-NAME. In parallel, the phosphorylation level of Akt kinase was markedly increased by the oil treatment, which was partially attenuated by PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. This inhibitor also blocked the NRR-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. In HUVECs, application of NRR volatile oil elevated the intracellular Ca2+ level, and BAPTA-AM, a Ca2+ chelator, reduced the Ca2+ surge: the blockage were also applied to NRR-induced eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. These findings suggested the volatile oil of NRR was the major ingredient in triggering the vascular dilatation, and which was mediated via the NO production. PMID:25643147

  18. Analysis of fluorescent ceramide and sphingomyelin analogs: a novel approach for in vivo monitoring of sphingomyelin synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Taomin; Li, Xiaoxia; Hu, Shuang; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Ping; Liu, Xiao; Ye, Deyong; Cheng, Nengneng

    2014-10-01

    A novel sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was developed for real-time monitoring of relative sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) activity based on the measurement of a fluorescent ceramide (Cer) analog and its metabolite, a fluorescent sphingomyelin (CerPCho) analog, in plasma. Analyses were conducted using HPLC-FLD following a protein precipitation procedure. The chromatographic separations were carried out on an Agilent C18 RP column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) based on a methanol-0.1 % trifluoroacetic acid aqueous solution (88:12, by vol) elution at a flow-rate of 1 mL/min. The limit of quantification in plasma was 0.05 ?M for both the fluorescent Cer analog and its metabolite. Significant differences in the fluorescent Cer analog and its metabolite concentration ratio at 5 min were found between vehicle control group and three D2 (a novel SMS inhibitor) dose groups (P detect relative SMS activity in biochemical assays and to screen potential SMS inhibitors in vivo. D2 was found to be a potent SMS inhibitor in vivo, and may have a potential antiatherosclerotic effect, which is under further study. D609 was also selected as another model SMS inhibitor to validate our newly developed method. PMID:25108416

  19. High-performance liquid chromatography method with radiochemical detection for measurement of nitric oxide synthase, arginase, and arginine decarboxylase activities.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volke, A; Wegener, Gregers

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide has been shown to be involved in numerous biological processes, and many studies have aimed to measure nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Recently, it has been demonstrated that arginase and arginine decarboxylase (ADC), two enzymes that also employ arginine as a substrate, may regulate NOS activity. We aimed to develop a HPLC-based method to measure simultaneously the products of these three enzymes. Traditionally, the separation of amino acids and related compounds with HPLC has been carried out with precolumn derivatization and reverse phase chromatography. We describe here a simple and fast HPLC method with radiochemical detection to separate radiolabeled L-arginine, L-citrulline, L-ornithine, and agmatine. 3H-labeled L-arginine, L-citrulline, agmatine, and 14C-labeled L-citrulline were used as standards. These compounds were separated in the normal phase column (Allure Acidix 250 x 4.6 mm i.d.) under isocratic conditions in less than 20 min with good sensitivity. Using the current method,we have shown the formation of L-citrulline and L-ornithine in vitro using brain tissue homogenate of rats and that of agmatine by Escherichia coli ADC. Udgivelsesdato: null-null

  20. Expression, purification and activity assay of a patchoulol synthase cDNA variant fused to thioredoxin in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, S; Frister, T; Alemdar, S; Li, Z; Krings, U; Berger, R G; Scheper, T; Beutel, S

    2014-05-01

    Probing a cDNA library extracted from Pogostemon cablin (Indian Patchouli) with gene specific primers, a variant of patchoulol synthase PTS (GenBank acc. No.: AY508730) was amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cloned cDNA exhibited a sequence variation of 3.4% compared to the annotated sequence. The enzyme variant tended to form inclusion bodies when expressed in Escherichia coli. The coding sequence was fused to the T7-tag, His-tag and to thioredoxin. Constructs were expressed in three different E. coli expression strains, with several strain/construct combinations yielding soluble enzyme. By fusion to thioredoxin and careful codon optimization of the eukaryotic sequence, soluble expression could be improved on average by 42% in comparison to an unoptimized, His-tagged construct. The thioredoxin-fused protein was successfully purified using a one-step Co(2+)-IMAC purification procedure. Bioactivity assays using prepared farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) in milliliter-scale batch reactions, showed activity of the fused enzyme even with thioredoxin attached. The product spectrum of the enzyme was compared to patchouli oil standards by GC-MS and the main products were identified. Interestingly, the variant showed a shift in product spectrum with germacrene A being the most abundant product instead of patchouli alcohol. In silico structural modeling shows a possible chemical and structural change in the active site of the enzyme, which might be responsible for the shift in product composition. PMID:24576659

  1. Estradiol regulation of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase promoter activity: evidence for direct and indirect mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devidze, Nino; Fujimori, Ko; Urade, Yoshihiro; Pfaff, Donald W; Mong, Jessica A

    2010-04-19

    In the CNS, lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is predominantly a non-neuronal enzyme responsible for the production of PGD(2), an endogenous sleep promoting substance. We have previously demonstrated that estradiol differentially regulates L-PGDS transcript levels in the rodent brain. In hypothalamic nuclei, estradiol increases L-PGDS transcript expression, whereas in the ventrolateral preoptic area L-PGDS gene expression is reduced after estradiol treatment. In the present study, we have used an immortalized glioma cell line transfected with a L-PGDS reporter construct and estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and ERbeta expression plasmids to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying estradiol regulation of L-PGDS gene expression. We found that physiologically relevant concentrations of estradiol evoked an inverted U response in cells expressing ERalpha. The most effective concentration of estradiol (10(-11)M) increased the promoter activity 3-fold over baseline. Expression of ERbeta did not increase activity over control and when ERbeta was co-expressed with ERalpha there was a significant attenuation of the promoter activity. While ERalpha significantly increased L-PGDS promoter activity, our previous in vivo studies demonstrate a greater magnitude of change in L-PGDS gene expression in the presences of estradiol. This led us to ask whether estradiol is signaling via a paracrine factor released by the neighboring neurons. Conditioned media from estradiol treated neurons applied to the glioma cell line resulted in a significant 7-fold increase in L-PGDS promoter activity supporting the possibility that neuronal-glial interactions are involved in estradiol regulation of L-PGDS. PMID:20193744

  2. Malate metabolism in isolated epidermis of Commelina communis L. in relation to stomatal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, P; Raschke, K

    1977-01-01

    Epidermal strips with closed stomata were exposed to malic acid labelled with (14)C either uniformly or in 4-C only. During incubation with [U-(14)C]malate, radioactivity appeared in products of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle and in transamination products within 10 min, in sugars after 2 h. Hardly any radioactivity was found in sugars if [4-(14)C]malate had been offered. This difference in the degree of labelling of sugars indicates that gluconeogenesis can occur in epidermal tissue, involving the decarboxylation of malate. Epidermis incubated with labelled malate was hydrolyzed after extraction with aqueous ethanol. The hydrolysate contained glucose as the only radioactive product, indicating that starch had been formed from malate. Microautoradiograms were black above stomatal complexes, showing that the latter were sites of starch formation. In order to follow the fate of malate during stomatal closure, malate was labelled in guard cells by exposing epidermes with open stomata to (14)CO2 and then initiating stomatal closure. Of the radioactive fixation products of CO2 only malate was released into the water on which the epidermal samples floated; the epidermal strips retained some of the malate and all of its metabolites. In the case of rapid stomatal closure initiated by abscisic acid and completed within 5 min, 63% of the radioactivity was in the malate released, 22% in the malate retained, the remainder in aspartate, glutamate, and citrate. We conclude that during stomatal closing guard cells can dispose of malate by release, gluconeogenesis, and consumption in the tricarboxylic-acid cycle. PMID:24419583

  3. Active site binding and catalytic role of bicarbonate in 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl coenzyme A synthases from vitamin K biosynthetic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueru; Song, Haigang; Li, Jie; Jiang, Ming; Li, Yan; Zhou, Jiahai; Guo, Zhihong

    2012-06-01

    1,4-Dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl coenzyme A (DHNA-CoA) synthase, or MenB, catalyzes a carbon-carbon bond formation reaction in the biosynthesis of both vitamin K1 and K2. Bicarbonate is crucial to the activity of a large subset of its orthologues but lacks a clearly defined structural and mechanistic role. Here we determine the crystal structure of the holoenzymes from Escherichia coli at 2.30 Å and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 at 2.04 Å, in which the bicarbonate cofactor is bound to the enzyme active site at a position equivalent to that of the side chain carboxylate of an aspartate residue conserved among bicarbonate-insensitive DHNA-CoA synthases. Binding of the planar anion involves both nonspecific electrostatic attraction and specific hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. In the absence of bicarbonate, the anion binding site is occupied by a chloride ion or nitrate, an inhibitor directly competing with bicarbonate. These results provide a solid structural basis for the bicarbonate dependence of the enzymatic activity of type I DHNA-CoA synthases. The unique location of the bicarbonate ion in relation to the expected position of the substrate ?-proton in the enzyme's active site suggests a critical catalytic role for the anionic cofactor as a catalytic base in enolate formation. PMID:22606952

  4. Progesterone and 17 beta-estradiol acutely stimulate nitric oxide synthase activity in rat aorta and inhibit platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selles, J; Polini, N; Alvarez, C; Massheimer, V

    2001-07-01

    The rapid non-genomic stimulatory action of progesterone (Pg) and estradiol (E2) on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity of endothelium intact aortic rings and its effect on platelet aggregation was investigated. First we measured the effect of the hormones on platelet aggregation when added to rat aortic strips (RAS) incubated in a PRP. RAS induced an antiaggregatory activity, which was enhanced by the presence of the hormones. The inhibitory action induced by the hormones was evoked in a dose dependent manner (10 pM-100 nM). These effects are specific for progesterone and 17-beta-estradiol, since either testosterone and 17-alpha-estradiol were devoid of activity. The hormones induced rapid responses, producing significant inhibition within 1 to 5 minutes of hormonal exposure. The addition of 10(-5) M L-NAME suppressed the antiaggregatory effect of 1 nM E2 or 10 nM Pg. Furthermore, we specifically quantified the NO generation by the 3H-citrulline technique. 10(-8) M E2 induced 2-fold increase of RAS citrulline production, while the increment induced by 10(-7) M Pg was 55% over control. Preincubation with 10(-5) M L-NAME completely suppressed the stimulatory action of 10(-9) M E2 or 10(-8) M Pg, confirming that the antiaggregatory factor released from the aortic tissue was NO. Preincubation with cycloheximide did not block the increment in NO induced by the hormones. In conclusion the present study provides for the first time evidence of acute, non-genomic effects of Pg on rat aorta NOS activity and platelet aggregation in coincidence with the results obtained with estradiol treatment. PMID:11487093

  5. Radiochemical nitric oxide synthase activity determination in rat brain with fast and accurate HPLC analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Repici, Mariaelena; Vercelli, Alessandro; Colombatto, Sebastiano; Cabella, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    In the central nervous system, NOS activity is involved in several physiological events, such as refinement of afferent connections in development, or linking cerebral blood flow to neural activity in adulthood, and also in many pathological events, such as cell death in brain ischemia and regulation of vasospasm in hemorrhage. Therefore, we studied NOS activity in the CNS. We describe a fast and accurate method in which we use HPLC analysis to identify and quantify citrulline eluted by ion-e...

  6. Determination of cystathionine beta-synthase activity in human plasma by LC-MS/MS: potential use in diagnosis of CBS deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Krijt, Jakub; Kopecka?, Jana; Hni?zda, Ales?; Moat, Stuart; Kluijtmans, Leo A. J.; Mayne, Philip; Koz?ich, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) deficiency is usually confirmed by assaying the enzyme activity in cultured skin fibroblasts. We investigated whether CBS is present in human plasma and whether determination of its activity in plasma could be used for diagnostic purposes. We developed an assay to measure CBS activity in 20 ?L of plasma using a stable isotope substrate - 2,3,3-2H serine. The activity was determined by measurement of the product of enzyme reaction, 3,3-2H-cystathionine, using L...

  7. Evaluation of the prostaglandin F synthase activity of human and bovine aldo-keto reductases: AKR1A1s complement AKR1B1s as potent PGF synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix Pépin, Nicolas; Chapdelaine, Pierre; Fortier, Michel A

    2013-10-01

    AKR1B1 of the polyol pathway was identified as a prostaglandin F2? synthase (PGFS). Using a genomic approach we have identified in the endometrium five bovine and three human AKRs with putative PGFS activity and generated the corresponding recombinant enzymes. The PGFS activity of the recombinant proteins was evaluated using a novel assay based on in situ generation of the precursor of PG biosynthesis PGH2. PGF2? was measured by ELISA and the relative potencies of the different enzymes were compared. We identified AKR1A1 and confirmed AKR1B1 as the most potent PGFS expressing characteristic inhibition patterns in presence of methylglyoxal, ponalrestat and glucose. PMID:23747692

  8. Distinct parts of leukotriene C{sub 4} synthase interact with 5-lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase activating protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strid, Tobias; Svartz, Jesper; Franck, Niclas; Hallin, Elisabeth; Ingelsson, Bjoern; Soederstroem, Mats [Division of Cell biology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hammarstroem, Sven, E-mail: sven.hammarstrom@liu.se [Division of Cell biology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2009-04-17

    Leukotriene C{sub 4} is a potent inflammatory mediator formed from arachidonic acid and glutathione. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) and leukotriene C{sub 4} synthase (LTC{sub 4}S) participate in its biosynthesis. We report evidence that LTC{sub 4}S interacts in vitro with both FLAP and 5-LO and that these interactions involve distinct parts of LTC{sub 4}S. FLAP bound to the N-terminal part/first hydrophobic region of LTC{sub 4}S. This part did not bind 5-LO which bound to the second hydrophilic loop of LTC{sub 4}S. Fluorescent FLAP- and LTC{sub 4}S-fusion proteins co-localized at the nuclear envelope. Furthermore, GFP-FLAP and GFP-LTC{sub 4}S co-localized with a fluorescent ER marker. In resting HEK293/T or COS-7 cells GFP-5-LO was found mainly in the nuclear matrix. Upon stimulation with calcium ionophore, GFP-5-LO translocated to the nuclear envelope allowing it to interact with FLAP and LTC{sub 4}S. Direct interaction of 5-LO and LTC{sub 4}S in ionophore-stimulated (but not un-stimulated) cells was demonstrated by BRET using GFP-5-LO and Rluc-LTC{sub 4}S.

  9. Eliglustat tartrate, an orally active glucocerebroside synthase inhibitor for the potential treatment of Gaucher disease and other lysosomal storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Timothy M

    2010-10-01

    Eliglustat tartrate (Genz-112638), currently under development by Genzyme Corp, is a glucocerebroside (glucosylceramide) synthase inhibitor for the treatment of Gaucher disease and other lysosomal storage disorders. Gaucher disease is an inherited defect of lysosomal functions caused by mutations in the GBA1 gene leading to accumulation of glucocerebroside, primarily in macrophages. Gaucher disease is characterized by visceromegaly and skeletal complications, including osteoporosis and painful episodes of osteonecrosis. In vitro studies demonstrated that, following exposure to eliglustat tartrate, the abundance of GM1 and GM3 gangliosides in cultured human erythroleukemia cells and murine melanoma cells was decreased. In vivo, eliglustat tartrate administered to Asp409Val/null mice lowered the concentrations of glucocerebroside in the liver, lung and spleen and reduced the number of Gaucher cells in the liver. In a phase Ib clinical trial in healthy volunteers, plasma glucocerebroside concentrations were decreased after dosing with eliglustat tartrate, and in phase II clinical trials in patients with type 1 (non-neuronopathic) Gaucher disease, spleen and liver volumes were diminished. Patients also demonstrated improved bone mineral density, correction of abnormal bone marrow signal with MRI and normalization of glucocerebroside and ganglioside GM3 levels. Eliglustat tartrate is orally active and, with potent effects on the primary identified molecular target for type 1 Gaucher disease and other glycosphingolipidoses, appears likely to fulfill high expectations for clinical efficacy. PMID:20872320

  10. Citrus Flavonoids Luteolin, Apigenin, and Quercetin Inhibit Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3? Enzymatic Activity by Lowering the Interaction Energy Within the Binding Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jodee L.; Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa G.; Stefani, Felicia; Schuler, Mary A.; Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer studies have shown that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) leads to decreased cancer cell proliferation and survival by abrogating nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) activity. In this investigation, various citrus compounds, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, and limonoids, were individually investigated for their inhibitory effects on GSK-3? by using a luminescence assay. Of the 22 citrus compounds tested, the flavonoids luteolin, apigenin, and quercetin had t...

  11. Contribution of Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) Activity in Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Edema after Acute Ischemia/ Reperfusion in Aortic Coarctation-Induced Hypertensive Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Shid Moosavi, Seyed Mostafa; Dehghani, Gholam Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity is increased during hypertension and cerebral ischemia. NOS inactivation reduces stroke-induced cerebral injuries, but little is known about its role in blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and cerebral edema formation during stroke in acute hypertension. Here, we investigated the role of NOS inhibition in progression of edema formation and BBB disruptions provoked by ischemia/reperfusion injuries in acute hypertensive rats. Methods: Rats were ...

  12. The Prostaglandin F Synthase Activity of the Human Aldose Reductase AKR1B1 Brings New Lenses to Look at Pathologic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    MichelAFortier

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandins are important regulators of female reproductive functions to which aldose reductases exhibiting hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity also contribute. Our work on the regulation of reproductive function by prostaglandins (PGs), lead us to the discovery that AKR1B5 and later AKR1B1 were highly efficient and physiologically relevant PGF synthases. PGE2 and PGF2? are the main prostanoids produced in the human endometrium and proper balance in their relative production is importan...

  13. Rapid activation of endothelial NO synthase by estrogen: evidence for a steroid receptor fast-action complex (SRFC) in caveolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Ken L; Shaul, Philip W

    2002-05-01

    Estrogen has important atheroprotective and vasoactive properties related to its capacity to stimulate nitric oxide (NO) production by endothelial NO synthase. Previous work has shown that these effects are mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) alpha functioning in a nongenomic manner via calcium-dependent, MAP kinase-dependent mechanisms. Recent studies have demonstrated that estradiol (E(2)) activates eNOS in isolated endothelial plasma membranes in the absence of added calcium, calmodulin or eNOS cofactors. Studies of blockade by ICI 182,780 and by ER alpha antibody, and also immunoidentification experiments indicate that the process is mediated by a subpopulation of plasma membrane-associated ER alpha. Fractionation of endothelial cell plasma membranes has further revealed that ER alpha protein is localized to caveolae, and that E(2) causes stimulation of eNOS in isolated caveolae which is ER-dependent and calcium-dependent, whereas noncaveolae membranes are insensitive. Furthermore, in intact endothelial cells the activation of eNOS by E(2) is prevented by pertussis toxin, and exogenous GDP beta S inhibits the response in isolated plasma membranes. Coimmunoprecipitation studies have shown that E(2) exposure causes interaction between ER alpha and G(alpha i) on the plasma membrane, and eNOS activation by E(2) is enhanced by overexpression of G(alpha i) and attenuated by expression of a protein regulator of G protein signaling (RGS), RGS4. Thus, a subpopulation of ER alpha is localized to caveolae in endothelial cells, where they are coupled via G(alpha i) to eNOS in a functional signaling module. Emphasizing the dependence on cell surface-associated receptors, these observations provide evidence for the existence of a steroid receptor fast-action complex, or SRFC, in caveolae. PMID:11960616

  14. Quininium Malates: partial chiral discrimination via diastereomeric salt formation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nikoletta B., Báthori; Ayesha, Jacobs; Luigi R., Nassimbeni; Baganetsi K., Sebogisi.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Quinine was employed as a resolving agent for racemic malic acid. The resultant product was a quininium salt containing 75 % of the D-malate anion. Quinine was also crystallized with pure L- and D-malic acids and the structures of the resulting diastereomeric salts were elucidated. The crystal packi [...] ngs were analyzed in terms of their non-bonded interactions and the conformation of the quinine, which was compared with other quinine structures recorded in the Cambridge Structural Database. The results indicate that the mechanism of enantiomeric resolution is reliant upon hydrogen bonded interactions.

  15. Probing the molecular and structural elements of ligands binding to the active site versus an allosteric pocket of the human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritzalis, Dimitrios; Park, Jaeok; Chiu, Wei; Cho, Hyungjun; Lin, Yih-Shyan; De Schutter, Joris W; Lacbay, Cyrus M; Zielinski, Michal; Berghuis, Albert M; Tsantrizos, Youla S

    2015-03-01

    In order to explore the interactions of bisphosphonate ligands with the active site and an allosteric pocket of the human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (hFPPS), substituted indole and azabenzimidazole bisphosphonates were designed as chameleon ligands. NMR and crystallographic studies revealed that these compounds can occupy both sub-pockets of the active site cavity, as well as the allosteric pocket of hFPPS in the presence of the enzyme's Mg(2+) ion cofactor. These results are consistent with the previously proposed hypothesis that the allosteric pocket of hFPPS, located near the active site, plays a feed-back regulatory role for this enzyme. PMID:25630225

  16. Spermidine levels are implicated in heavy metal tolerance in a spermidine synthase overexpressing transgenic European pear by exerting antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiao-Peng; Ban, Yusuke; Inoue, Hiromichi; Matsuda, Narumi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2010-02-01

    To verify whether spermidine synthase (SPDS) can confer long-term multi-heavy metal tolerance, in vitro shoots of a transgenic European pear (Pyrus communis L. 'Ballad') line #32 overexpressing apple SPDS (MdSPDS1), as well as a wild type (WT) line, were subjected to stress using either CdCl(2), PbCl(2), ZnCl(2), or a combination thereof. Based on either shoot height increment or fresh weight and morphological changes upon heavy metal stress, the performance of the transgenic line #32 was better than that of WT. Although SPDS expression levels and spermidine (Spd) contents in line #32 were higher than those in WT, possibly due to transgene (MdSPDS1) expression, no obvious inductions of SPDS expression and increases in Spd-content were observed by long-term stress treatments in both lines. When the glutathione (GSH) content was compared with or without stress in each line, GSH was significantly depleted in line #32 with stress, but not as much as in WT. The activities of glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase and the content of malondialdehyde, an indicator for lipid peroxidation, changed upon stress toward a more favorable status for survival in line #32 than in WT. These antioxidant parameters were positively related to Spd-content. The accumulation of heavy metals tended to be less in line #32 than in WT except for Zn stress, and the Ca content showed an opposite trend. These results suggest that Spd-levels are implicated in enhanced heavy metal tolerance, possibly by exerting an antioxidant activity as well as by the properties of Spd per se including metal chelator. PMID:19544002

  17. Reduced spinal microglial activation and neuropathic pain after nerve injury in mice lacking all three nitric oxide synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimokawa Hiroaki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated the involvement of nitric oxide (NO in acute and chronic pain using mice lacking a single NO synthase (NOS gene among the three isoforms: neuronal (nNOS, inducible (iNOS and endothelial (eNOS. However, the precise role of NOS/NO in pain states remains to be determined owing to the substantial compensatory interactions among the NOS isoforms. Therefore, in this study, we used mice lacking all three NOS genes (n/i/eNOS-/-mice and investigated the behavioral phenotypes in a series of acute and chronic pain assays. Results In a model of tissue injury-induced pain, evoked by intraplantar injection of formalin, both iNOS-/-and n/i/eNOS-/-mice exhibited attenuations of pain behaviors in the second phase compared with that in wild-type mice. In a model of neuropathic pain, nerve injury-induced behavioral and cellular responses (tactile allodynia, spinal microglial activation and Src-family kinase phosphorylation were reduced in n/i/eNOS-/-but not iNOS-/-mice. Tactile allodynia after nerve injury was improved by acute pharmacological inhibition of all NOSs and nNOS. Furthermore, in MG-5 cells (a microglial cell-line, interferon-? enhanced NOSs and Mac-1 mRNA expression, and the Mac-1 mRNA increase was suppressed by L-NAME co-treatment. Conversely, the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, markedly increased mRNA expression of Mac-1, interleukin-6, toll-like receptor 4 and P2X4 receptor. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that the NOS/NO pathway contributes to behavioral pain responses evoked by tissue injury and nerve injury. In particular, nNOS may be important for spinal microglial activation and tactile allodynia after nerve injury.

  18. Inibição da atividade da citrato sintase cerebral em um modelo animal de sepse / Inhibition of brain citrate synthase activity in an animal model of sepsis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giselli, Scaini; Natália, Rochi; Joana, Benedet; Gabriela Kozuchovski, Ferreira; Brena Pereira, Teodorak; Clarissa Martinelli, Comim; Larissa de Souza, Constantino; Francieli, Vuolo; Leandra Celso, Constantino; João, Quevedo; Emilio Luiz, Streck; Felipe, Dal-Pizzol.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Um amplo corpo de evidência oriundo de estudos experimentais indica que a sepse se associa com um aumento da produção de espécies de oxigênio reativo, depleção de antioxidantes, e acúmulo de marcadores de estresse oxidativo. Além disto, a disfunção mitocondrial foi implicada na patogênese [...] da síndrome de disfunção de múltiplos órgãos. A citrato sintase é uma enzima que se localiza no interior das células, na matriz mitocondrial, sendo uma etapa importante do ciclo de Krebs; esta enzima foi utilizada como um marcador enzimático quantitativo da presença de mitocôndrias intactas. Assim, investigamos a atividade da citrato sintase no cérebro de ratos submetidos ao modelo sepse com de ligadura e punção do ceco. MÉTODOS: Em diferentes horários (3, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas) após cirurgia de ligadura e punção do ceco, seis ratos foram sacrificados por decapitação, sendo seus cérebros removidos e dissecados o hipocampo, estriato, cerebelo, córtex cerebral e córtex pré-frontal, e utilizados para determinação da atividade de citrato sintase. RESULTADOS: Verificamos que a atividade de citrato sintase no córtex pré-frontal estava inibida após 12, 24 e 48 horas da ligadura e punção do ceco. No córtex cerebral, esta atividade estava inibida após 3, 12, 24 e 48 horas da ligadura e punção do ceco. Por outro lado a citrato sintase não foi afetada no hipocampo, estriato e cerebelo até 48 horas após a ligadura e punção do ceco. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando-se que é bem descrito o comprometimento da energia decorrente da disfunção mitocondrial na sepse, e que o estresse oxidativo desempenha um papel essencial no desenvolvimento da sepse, acreditamos que o comprometimento da energia pode também estar evolvido nestes processos. Se a inibição da citrato sintase também ocorre em um modelo de sepse, é tentador especular que a redução do metabolismo cerebral pode provavelmente estar relacionada com a fisiopatologia desta doença. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: An extensive body of evidence from experimental studies indicates that sepsis is associated with increased reactive oxygen species production, depletion of antioxidants, and accumulation of markers of oxidative stress. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathoge [...] nesis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Citrate synthase is an enzyme localized in the mitochondrial matrix and an important component of the Krebs cycle; consequently, citrate synthase has been used as a quantitative enzyme marker for the presence of intact mitochondria. Thus, we investigated citrate synthase activity in the brains of rats submitted to a cecal ligation puncture model of sepsis. METHODS: At several times points (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours) after the cecal ligation puncture operation, six rats were killed by decapitation. Their brains were removed, and the hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, cerebral cortex and prefrontal cortex were dissected and used to determine citrate synthase activity. RESULTS: We found that citrate synthase activity in the prefrontal cortex was inhibited 12, 24 and 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. In the cerebral cortex, citrate synthase activity was inhibited 3, 12, 24 and 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. Citrate synthase was not affected in the hippocampus, striatum or cerebellum up to 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. CONCLUSION: Considering that energy impairment due to mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis has been well described and that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in sepsis development, we believe that energy impairment may also be involved in these processes. If citrate synthase inhibition also occurs in a sepsis model, it is tempting to speculate that a reduction in brain metabolism may be related to the pathophysiology of this disease.

  19. Inibição da atividade da citrato sintase cerebral em um modelo animal de sepse Inhibition of brain citrate synthase activity in an animal model of sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselli Scaini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Um amplo corpo de evidência oriundo de estudos experimentais indica que a sepse se associa com um aumento da produção de espécies de oxigênio reativo, depleção de antioxidantes, e acúmulo de marcadores de estresse oxidativo. Além disto, a disfunção mitocondrial foi implicada na patogênese da síndrome de disfunção de múltiplos órgãos. A citrato sintase é uma enzima que se localiza no interior das células, na matriz mitocondrial, sendo uma etapa importante do ciclo de Krebs; esta enzima foi utilizada como um marcador enzimático quantitativo da presença de mitocôndrias intactas. Assim, investigamos a atividade da citrato sintase no cérebro de ratos submetidos ao modelo sepse com de ligadura e punção do ceco. MÉTODOS: Em diferentes horários (3, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas após cirurgia de ligadura e punção do ceco, seis ratos foram sacrificados por decapitação, sendo seus cérebros removidos e dissecados o hipocampo, estriato, cerebelo, córtex cerebral e córtex pré-frontal, e utilizados para determinação da atividade de citrato sintase. RESULTADOS: Verificamos que a atividade de citrato sintase no córtex pré-frontal estava inibida após 12, 24 e 48 horas da ligadura e punção do ceco. No córtex cerebral, esta atividade estava inibida após 3, 12, 24 e 48 horas da ligadura e punção do ceco. Por outro lado a citrato sintase não foi afetada no hipocampo, estriato e cerebelo até 48 horas após a ligadura e punção do ceco. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando-se que é bem descrito o comprometimento da energia decorrente da disfunção mitocondrial na sepse, e que o estresse oxidativo desempenha um papel essencial no desenvolvimento da sepse, acreditamos que o comprometimento da energia pode também estar evolvido nestes processos. Se a inibição da citrato sintase também ocorre em um modelo de sepse, é tentador especular que a redução do metabolismo cerebral pode provavelmente estar relacionada com a fisiopatologia desta doença.OBJECTIVE: An extensive body of evidence from experimental studies indicates that sepsis is associated with increased reactive oxygen species production, depletion of antioxidants, and accumulation of markers of oxidative stress. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS. Citrate synthase is an enzyme localized in the mitochondrial matrix and an important component of the Krebs cycle; consequently, citrate synthase has been used as a quantitative enzyme marker for the presence of intact mitochondria. Thus, we investigated citrate synthase activity in the brains of rats submitted to a cecal ligation puncture model of sepsis. METHODS: At several times points (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after the cecal ligation puncture operation, six rats were killed by decapitation. Their brains were removed, and the hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, cerebral cortex and prefrontal cortex were dissected and used to determine citrate synthase activity. RESULTS: We found that citrate synthase activity in the prefrontal cortex was inhibited 12, 24 and 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. In the cerebral cortex, citrate synthase activity was inhibited 3, 12, 24 and 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. Citrate synthase was not affected in the hippocampus, striatum or cerebellum up to 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. CONCLUSION: Considering that energy impairment due to mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis has been well described and that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in sepsis development, we believe that energy impairment may also be involved in these processes. If citrate synthase inhibition also occurs in a sepsis model, it is tempting to speculate that a reduction in brain metabolism may be related to the pathophysiology of this disease.

  20. Spider mite-induced (3S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase activity in cucumber and lima bean. The first dedicated step in acyclic C11-homoterpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, H J; Verstappen, F W; Posthumus, M A; Dicke, M

    1999-09-01

    Many plant species respond to herbivory with de novo production of a mixture of volatiles that attracts carnivorous enemies of the herbivores. One of the major components in the blend of volatiles produced by many different plant species in response to herbivory by insects and spider mites is the homoterpene 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E), 7-nonatriene. One study (J. Donath, W. Boland [1995] Phytochemistry 39: 785-790) demonstrated that a number of plant species can convert the acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol (3S)-(E)-nerolidol to this homoterpene. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) both produce 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene in response to herbivory. We report the presence in cucumber and lima bean of a sesquiterpene synthase catalyzing the formation of (3S)-(E)-nerolidol from farnesyl diphosphate. The enzyme is inactive in uninfested cucumber leaves, slightly active in uninfested lima bean leaves, and strongly induced by feeding of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on both plant species, but not by mechanical wounding. The activities of the (3S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase correlated well with the levels of release of 4, 8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene from the leaves of the different treatments. Thus, (3S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase is a good candidate for a regulatory role in the release of the important signaling molecule 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene. PMID:10482672

  1. Cardiac and regional haemodynamics, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and the effects of NOS inhibitors in conscious, endotoxaemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, S M; Kemp, P A; March, J E; Bennett, T

    1995-10-01

    1. A reproducible model of the hyperdynamic circulatory sequelae of endotoxaemia in conscious, chronically-instrumented Long Evans rats, was achieved with a continuous infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 150 micro g kg(-1) h(-1)) for 32 h. Over the first 2 h of LPS infusion, there was a transient hypotension and tachycardia, accompanied by a marked increase in renal flow and vascular conductance, although there were reductions in cardiac and stroke index. Between 4-8 after the start of LPS infusion, there was slight hypotension and tachycardia, and a transient rise in mesenteric flow and conductance, but reductions in the hindquarters vascular bed; the hyperaemic vasodilatation in the renal vascular bed was maintained. At this stage, all cardiac haemodynamic variables were not different from baseline. At this stage, cardiac and stroke index were substantially elevated, in association with marked increases in peak aortic flow, dF/dtmax and total peripheral conductance; these changes were well-maintained over the following 8 h of LPS infusion. 2. By 2 h after the start of LPS infusion, only lung inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity was increased, but at 6 h there were significant increases in iNOS activity in lung, liver, spleen, heart and aorta. (43.3 +/- 7.8, 28.8 +/- 3.3, 50.8 +/- 7.2, 3.04 +/- 0.29, 3.76 +/- 0.94 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively). However, by 24 h after the start of LPS infusion, iNOS activity was not elevated significantly in any tissue examined, and kidney iNOS activity did not change significantly during LPS infusion. Plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were increased after 2 h infusion of LPS (from 6.07 +/- 1.23 to 29.44 +/- 7.08 micromol l(-1)), and further by 6 h (228.10 +/- 29.20 micromol l(-1)), but were less 24 h after onset of LPS infusion (74.96 +/- 11.34 micromol l(-1)). Hence, the progressive hypotension, increasing cardiac function and developing hyperaemic vasodilatation in renal and hindquarters vascular beds between 8-24 h after the onset of LPS infusion, occurred when tissue iNOS activity and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were falling. 3. Pretreatment with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 30 mg kg(-1) bolus, 30 mg kg(-1) h(-1) infusion) 1 h before LPS infusion did not prevent the early hypotension, but abolished the initial renal vasodilatation and the later (6-8 h) fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP), and the additional renal vasodilatation. PMID:8640339

  2. Independent fluctuations of malate and citrate in the CAM species Clusia hilariana Schltdl. under low light and high light in relation to photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszalski, Zbigniew; Kornas, Andrzej; Rozp?dek, Piotr; Fischer-Schliebs, Elke; Lüttge, Ulrich

    2013-03-15

    Clusia hilariana Schltdl. is described in literature as an obligate Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. In the present study we assessed the effect of irradiance with low light (LL, 200?molm(-2)s(-1)) and high light (HL, 650-740?molm(-2)s(-1)), on the interdependency of citrate and malate diurnal fluctuations. In plants grown at HL CAM-type oscillations of concentration of citrate and malate were obvious. However, at LL daily courses of both acids do not seem to indicate efficient utilization of these compounds as CO2 and NADPH sources. One week after transferring plants from LL to HL decarboxylation of malate was accelerated. Thus, in the CAM plant C. hilariana two independent rhythms of accumulation and decarboxylation of malate and citrate take place, which appear to be related to photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. Non photochemical quenching (NPQ) of photosystem II, especially well expressed during the evening hours was enhanced. Exposure to HL for 7 d activated oxidative stress protection mechanisms such as the interconversion of violaxanthin (V), antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z) (epoxydation/de-epoxydation) measured as epoxydation state (EPS). This was accompanied by a slight increase in the total amount of these pigments. However, all these changes were not observed in plants exposed to HL for only 2 d. Besides violaxanthin cycle components also lutein, which shows a small, but not significant increase, may be involved in dissipating excess light energy in C. hilariana. PMID:23253483

  3. Artemisinin inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and nuclear factor NF-kB activation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghigo, Dario Antonio; Bosia, Amalia; Bergandi, Loredana; Aldieri, Elisabetta; Riganti, Chiara; Costamagna, Costanzo

    2003-01-01

    Artemisinin is a natural product used as an alternative drug in the treatment of severe and multidrug-resistant malaria. In the present work we show that artemisinin shares with other sesquiterpene lactones the ability to inhibit the activation of the nuclear factor NF-kB: by this mechanism, artemisinin, as well as parthenolide, inhibits nitric oxide synthesis in cytokine-stimulated human astrocytoma T67 cells. These results suggest that artemisinin, in addition to its antiparasitic propertie...

  4. Mutation and Selection of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains That Do Not Produce Carbon Dioxide from Malate

    OpenAIRE

    Daeschel, M. A.; Mcfeeters, R. F.; Fleming, H. P.; Klaenhammer, T. R.; Sanozky, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    A differential medium was developed to distinguish between malate-decarboxylating (MDC+) and -non-decarboxylating (MDC?) strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. MDC? strains produced a visible acid reaction in the medium, whereas MDC+ strains did not. Use of the medium allowed for rapid screening and isolation of mutagenized cells that had lost the ability to produce CO2 from malate.

  5. PhaC and PhaR Are Required for Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acid Synthase Activity in Bacillus megaterium

    OpenAIRE

    Mccool, Gabriel J.; Cannon, Maura C.

    2001-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHAs) are a class of polyesters stored in inclusion bodies and found in many bacteria and in some archaea. The terminal step in the synthesis of PHA is catalyzed by PHA synthase. Genes encoding this enzyme have been cloned, and the primary sequence of the protein, PhaC, is deduced from the nucleotide sequences of more than 30 organisms. PHA synthases are grouped into three classes based on substrate range, molecular mass, and whether or not there is a requirement fo...

  6. Assembly and Activation of the Plasmodial Pyridoxal 5’-Phosphate Synthase Complex. Understanding the Structural Mechanism of PLP Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gue?dez Rodri?guez, Gabriela Liuvanova

    2011-01-01

    Biosynthesis of vitamin B6 is essential for all living cells. Most organisms use the pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP) synthase complex to synthesize the cofactor form, PLP, from the three substrates ribose 5-phosphate (R5P), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) and ammonia. PLP synthase complex is a glutamine amidotransferase (GATase) class I, consisting of 12 Pdx1 and 12 Pdx2 subunits. Pdx1 is responsible for the PLP synthesis and Pdx2 is the glutaminase that hydrolyses glutamine to produce ammoni...

  7. Chemically Defined Medium for the Accumulation of Intracellular Malate Dehydrogenase by Streptomyces aureofaciens

    OpenAIRE

    Laluce, Ceci?lia; Ernandes, Jose? Roberto; Molinari, Rubens

    1987-01-01

    A chemically defined medium was developed for the production of intracellular malate dehydrogenases by Streptomyces aureofaciens NRRL-B 1286. The composition of the medium (per liter) was as follows: 50 g of starch, 4 g of ammonium sulfate, 7.32 g of l-aspartic acid, 13.8 g of MgSO4 · 7H2O, 1.7 g of K2HPO4, 0.01 g of ZnSO4 · 7H2O, 0.01 g of FeSO4 · 7H2O, 0.01 g of MnSO4 · H2O, and 0.005 g of CoSO4 · 7H2O. The pH of the medium was adjusted to 6.7 to 7.0 after sterilization. The activity o...

  8. Impairments in cognition and neural precursor cell proliferation in mice expressing constitutively active glycogen synthase kinase-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Marta; King, Margaret K.; Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Martinez, Ana; Beurel, Eleonore; Jope, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Brain glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is hyperactive in several neurological conditions that involve impairments in both cognition and neurogenesis. This raises the hypotheses that hyperactive GSK3 may directly contribute to impaired cognition, and that this may be related to deficiencies in neural precursor cells (NPC). To study the effects of hyperactive GSK3 in the absence of disease influences, we compared adult hippocampal NPC proliferation and performance in three cognitive tasks in male and female wild-type (WT) mice and GSK3 knockin mice, which express constitutively active GSK3. NPC proliferation was ~40% deficient in both male and female GSK3 knockin mice compared with WT mice. Environmental enrichment (EE) increased NPC proliferation in male, but not female, GSK3 knockin mice and WT mice. Male and female GSK3 knockin mice exhibited impairments in novel object recognition, temporal order memory, and coordinate spatial processing compared with gender-matched WT mice. EE restored impaired novel object recognition and temporal ordering in both sexes of GSK3 knockin mice, indicating that this repair was not dependent on NPC proliferation, which was not increased by EE in female GSK3 knockin mice. Acute 1 h pretreatment with the GSK3 inhibitor TDZD-8 also improved novel object recognition and temporal ordering in male and female GSK3 knockin mice. These findings demonstrate that hyperactive GSK3 is sufficient to impair adult hippocampal NPC proliferation and to impair performance in three cognitive tasks in both male and female mice, but these changes in NPC proliferation do not directly regulate novel object recognition and temporal ordering tasks. PMID:25788881

  9. DksA-dependent resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium against the antimicrobial activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henard, Calvin A; Vázquez-Torres, Andrés

    2012-04-01

    In coordination with the ppGpp alarmone, the RNA polymerase regulatory protein DksA controls the stringent response of eubacteria, negatively regulating transcription of translational machinery and directly activating amino acid promoters and de novo amino acid biosynthesis. Given the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on amino acid biosynthetic pathways and the intimate relationship of DksA with amino acid synthesis and transport, we tested whether DksA contributes to the resistance of Salmonella to reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Our studies show that the zinc finger predicted to position DksA in the secondary channel of the RNA polymerase is essential for the resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to RNS in a murine model of systemic salmonellosis. Despite exhibiting auxotrophies for various amino acids, ?dksA mutant Salmonella strains regain virulence in mice lacking inducible NO synthase (iNOS). DksA is also important for growth of this intracellular pathogen in the presence of NO congeners generated by iNOS during the innate response of murine macrophages. Accordingly, dksA mutant Salmonella strains are hypersusceptible to chemically generated NO, a phenotype that can be prevented by adding amino acids. The DksA-dependent antinitrosative defenses do not rely on the Hmp flavohemoprotein that detoxifies NO to NO(3)(-) and appear to operate independently of the ppGpp alarmone. Our investigations are consistent with a model by which NO produced in the innate response to Salmonella exerts considerable pressure on amino acid biosynthesis. The cytotoxicity of NO against Salmonella amino acid biosynthetic pathways is antagonized in great part by the DksA-dependent regulation of amino acid biosynthesis and transport. PMID:22311927

  10. Fluvoxamine alters the activity of energy metabolism enzymes in the brain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela K., Ferreira; Mariane R., Cardoso; Isabela C., Jeremias; Cinara L., Gonçalves; Karolina V., Freitas; Rafaela, Antonini; Giselli, Scaini; Gislaine T., Rezin; João, Quevedo; Emilio L., Streck.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective: Several studies support the hypothesis that metabolism impairment is involved in the pathophysiology of depression and that some antidepressants act by modulating brain energy metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and cre [...] atine kinase in the brain of rats subjected to prolonged administration of fluvoxamine. Methods: Wistar rats received daily administration of fluvoxamine in saline (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) for 14 days. Twelve hours after the last administration, rats were killed by decapitation and the prefrontal cortex, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were rapidly isolated. Results: The activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV were decreased after prolonged administration of fluvoxamine in rats. However, the activities of complex II, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase were increased. Conclusions: Alterations in activity of energy metabolism enzymes were observed in most brain areas analyzed. Thus, we suggest that the decrease in citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV can be related to adverse effects of pharmacotherapy, but long-term molecular adaptations cannot be ruled out. In addition, we demonstrated that these changes varied according to brain structure or biochemical analysis and were not dose-dependent.

  11. GTP cyclohydrolase I gene transfer augments intracellular tetrahydrobiopterin in human endothelial cells: effects on nitric oxide synthase activity, protein levels and dimerisation.

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, S.; Alp, Nj; Mcdonald, D.; Smith, I.; Kay, J.; Canevari, L.; Heales, S.; Channon, Km

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. BH4 levels are regulated by de novo biosynthesis; the rate-limiting enzyme is GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH). BH4 activates and promotes homodimerisation of purified eNOS protein, but the intracellular mechanisms underlying BH4-mediated eNOS regulation in endothelial cells remain less clear. We aimed to investigate the role of BH4 levels in intracellular eNOS regulation, by targ...

  12. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase3 ? mediate ursolic acid induced apoptosis in HepG2 liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Hee Young; Sohn, Eun Jung; Lee, Jang-Hoon; Woo, Hong-Jung; Yun, Miyong; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Chul

    2013-11-01

    Despite the antitumour effect of ursolic acid observed in several cancers, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Thus, in the present study, the roles of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3?) were examined in ursolic acid induced apoptosis in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Ursolic acid significantly exerted cytotoxicity, increased the sub-G1 population and the number of ethidium homodimer and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase(TdT) mediated dUTP nick end labeling positive cells in HepG2 cells. Also, ursolic acid enhanced the cleavages of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and caspase3, attenuated the expression of astrocyte elevated gene (AEG1) and survivin in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and coenzyme A carboxylase and also enhanced phosphorylation of GSK3? at inactive form serine 9, whereas ursolic acid attenuated the phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR in HepG2 cells. Conversely, AMPK inhibitor compound C or GSK3? inhibitor SB216763 blocked the cleavages of PARP and caspase 3 induced by ursolic acid in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, proteosomal inhibitor MG132 suppressed AMPK activation, GSK3? phosphorylation, cleaved PARP and deceased AEG-1 induced by ursolic acid in HepG2 cells. Overall, our findings suggest that ursolic acid induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells via AMPK activation and GSK3? phosphorylation as a potent chemopreventive agent. PMID:23325562

  13. Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta is activated by cAMP and plays an active role in the regulation of melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Mehdi; Larribere, Lionel; Bille, Karine; Aberdam, Edith; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Ballotti, Robert; Bertolotto, Corine

    2002-09-13

    In human and mouse, cAMP plays a key role in the control of pigmentation. cAMP, through the activation of protein kinase A, increases the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), which in turn stimulates tyrosinase gene expression, to allow melanin synthesis. Beyond this simplified scheme, cAMP inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and inhibition of PI3K, by a specific inhibitor, stimulates melanogenesis. However, the link between the PI3K pathway and melanogenesis remained to be elucidated. In this report, we showed that cAMP, through a protein kinase A-independent mechanism, led to inhibition of AKT phosphorylation and activity. Consistent with the role of AKT in the regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta), cAMP decreased the phosphorylation of GSK3beta and stimulated its activity. Further, experiments were performed to investigate the role of GSK3beta in the regulation of MITF expression and function. We observed that GSK3beta regulated neither MITF promoter activity nor the intrinsic transcriptional activity of MITF but synergized with MITF to activate the tyrosinase promoter. Additionally, lithium, a GSK3beta inhibitor, impaired the response of the tyrosinase promoter to cAMP, and cAMP increased the binding of MITF to the M-box. Taking into account that GSK3beta phosphorylates MITF and increases the ability of MITF to bind its target sequence, our results indicate that activation of GSK3beta by cAMP facilitates MITF binding to the tyrosinase promoter, thereby leading to stimulation of melanogenesis. PMID:12093801

  14. Production of novel fusarielins by ectopic activation of the polyketide synthase 9 cluster in Fusarium graminearum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Jens Laurids; Hansen, Frederik Teilfeldt

    2012-01-01

    Like many other filamentous fungi, Fusarium graminearum has the genetic potential to produce a vast array of unknown secondary metabolites. A promising approach to determine the nature of these is to activate silent secondary metabolite gene clusters through constitutive expression of cluster specific transcription factors. We have developed a system in which an expression cassette containing the transcription factor from the targeted PKS cluster disrupts the production of the red mycelium pigment aurofusarin. This aids with identification of mutants as they appear as white colonies and metabolite analyses where aurofusarin and its intermediates are normally among the most abundant compounds. The system was used for constitutive expression of the local transcription factor from the PKS9 cluster (renamed FSL) leading to production of three novel fusarielins, F, G and H. This group of compounds has not previously been reported from F. graminearum or linked to a biosynthetic gene in any fungal species. The toxicity of the three novel fusarielins was examined against colorectal cancer cell lines where fusarielin H was more potent than fusarielin F and G.

  15. Production of novel fusarielins by ectopic activation of the polyketide synthase 9 cluster in Fusarium graminearum.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Jens Laurids; T. Hansen, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Like many other filamentous fungi, Fusarium graminearum has the genetic potential to produce a vast array of unknown secondary metabolites. A promising approach to determine the nature of these is to activate silent secondary metabolite gene clusters through constitutive expression of cluster specific transcription factors. We have developed a system in which an expression cassette containing the transcription factor from the targeted PKS cluster disrupts the production of the red mycelium pigment aurofusarin. This aids with identification of mutants as they appear as white colonies and metabolite analyses where aurofusarin and its intermediates are normally among the most abundant compounds. The system was used for constitutive expression of the local transcription factor from the PKS9 cluster (renamed FSL) leading to production of three novel fusarielins, F, G and H. This group of compounds has not previously been reported from F.?graminearum or linked to a biosynthetic gene in any fungal species. The toxicity of the three novel fusarielins was examined against colorectal cancer cell lines where fusarielin H was more potent than fusarielin F and G.

  16. WOUNDING, ANOXIA AND COLD INDUCE SUGARBEET SUCROSE SYNTHASE TRANSCRIPTIONAL CHANGES THAT ARE UNRELATED TO PROTEIN EXPRESSION AND ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wounding, anoxia, and cold are often encountered during production and storage of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) root. The effect of these stresses on the expression of sucrose synthase, a key enzyme in sugarbeet root metabolism implicated in root growth, carbon partitioning and postharvest storage l...

  17. The expression and activity of nitric oxide synthase in brainstem and hypothalamic nuclei of adult SHR: Endothelial vs. neuronal isoforms.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hojná, Silvie; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 24, ?. S4 (2006), S345-S346. ISSN 0263-6352. [European Meeting on Hypertension /16./. 12.06.2006-15.06.2006, Madrid] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7786 Keywords : nitric oxide synthase * brain * hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  18. The time-dependent effect of provinolsTM on brain NO synthase activity in L-NAME-induced hypertension.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jendeková, L.; Kojšová, S.; Andriantsitohaina, R.; Pechá?ová, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 55, ?. S1 (2006), S31-S37. ISSN 0862-8408 Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/6148/26; VEGA(SK) 1/342906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : red wine polyphenols * oxidative damage * nitric oxide synthase Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006

  19. A heterodimer of human 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases is a new sulphate activating complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3'-Phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases are fundamental to mammalian sulphate metabolism. These enzymes have recently been linked to a rising number of human diseases. Despite many studies, it is not yet understood how the mammalian PAPS synthases 1 and 2 interact with each other. We provide first evidence for heterodimerisation of these two enzymes by pull-down assays and Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Kinetics of dimer dissociation/association indicates that these heterodimers form as soon as PAPSS1 and -S2 encounter each other in solution. Affinity of the homo- and heterodimers were found to be in the low nanomolar range using anisotropy measurements employing proteins labelled with the fluorescent dye IAEDANS that - in spite of its low quantum yield - is well suited for anisotropy due to its large Stokes shift. Within its kinase domain, the PAPS synthase heterodimer displays similar substrate inhibition by adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (APS) as the homodimers. Due to divergent catalytic efficacies of PAPSS1 and -S2, the heterodimer might be a way of regulating PAPS synthase function within mammalian cells.

  20. Changes in apoplastic pH and membrane potential in leaves in relation to stomatal responses to CO2, malate, abscisic acid or interruption of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrich, R; Neimanis, S; Savchenko, G; Felle, H H; Kaiser, W M; Heber, U

    2001-08-01

    Low CO2 concentrations open CO2-sensitive stomata whereas elevated CO2 levels close them. This CO2 response is maintained in the dark. To elucidate mechanisms underlying the dark CO2 response we introduced pH- and potential-sensitive dyes into the apoplast of leaves. After mounting excised leaves in a gas-exchange chamber, changes in extracellular proton concentration and transmembrane potential differences as well as transpiration and respiration were simultaneously monitored. Upon an increase in CO2 concentration transient changes in apoplastic pH (occasionally brief acidification, but always followed by alkalinization) and in membrane potential (brief hyperpolarization followed by depolarization) accompanied stomatal closure. Alkalinization and depolarization were also observed when leaves were challenged with abscisic acid or when water flow was interrupted. During stomatal opening in response to CO2-free air the apoplastic pH increased while the membrane potential initially depolarized before it transiently hyperpolarized. To examine whether changes in apoplastic malate concentrations represent a closing signal for stomata, malate was fed into the transpiration stream. Although malate caused apoplastic alkalinization and membrane depolarization reminiscent of the effects observed with CO2 and abscisic acid, this dicarboxylate closed the stomata only partially and less effectively than CO2. Apoplastic alkalinization was also observed and stomata closed partially when KCl was fed to the leaves. Respiration increased on feeding of malate or KCl, or while abscisic acid closed the stomate. From these results we conclude that CO2 signals modulate the activity of plasma-membrane ion channels and of plasmalemma H+-ATPases during changes in stomatal aperture. Responses to potassium malate and KCl are not restricted to guard cells and neighbouring cells. PMID:11556792

  1. Regulation of Cytosolic and Mitochondrial Oxidation via Malate-Aspartate Shuttle: An Observation Using Dynamic 13C NMR Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Ming; Banerjee, Suhanti; Saidel, Gerald M.; Yu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    The malate-aspartate (M-A) shuttle provides an important mechanism of metabolic communication between the cytosol and the mitochondria. In this study, dynamic 13C NMR spectroscopy was combined with a multi-domain model of cardiac metabolism for direct quantification of metabolic fluxes through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (VTCA) and the M-A shuttle (VM?A) in intact heart. The sensitivity of this approach to altered M-A shuttle activity was examined at different cytosolic redox states....

  2. Pengaruh Pengasapan (Thermal Fogging Insektisida Piretroid (Malation 95% Terhadap Nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Culex quinquefasciatus di Pemukiman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Boesri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of piretroid insecticide (active ingredient Malation 95% was con-ducted in Sub district Tengarang, Semarang Segency, Central Java Province. The insecti-cide was applied using thermal fogging method for dosages of 125, 250, 375, 500 and 625 ml/ha (diluted in diesel to 10 litters. The evaluation of the efficacy was conducted against two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti (the main dengue haemorrhagic fever and Culex quinquefasciatus (the urban lymphatic fil-ariasis vector. Result of the evaluation was revealed that dosages of 500 and 625 ml/ha were effective against both tested mosquito species indoor and outdoor.

  3. Formulation and evaluation of almotriptan malate nasal drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal solutions of almotriptan malate were prepared in phosphate buffer containing different proportions of HPMC E15. In vitro permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cell with dialysis membrane and ex vivo permeation studies were carried out using sheep nasal mucosal layer. The formulations were radiolabeled with 99mTc and the nasal residence time was studied in rabbits. Nasal irritation was evaluated in rats. Formulations prepared with HPMC E15 5% w/v did not retard the release of almotriptan. Gamma scintigraphy studies showed increased residence time as compared to plain drug solution. No nasal irritation was observed and the formulations were found stable for 3 months.

  4. Met23Lys mutation in subunit gamma of F(O)F(1)-ATP synthase from Rhodobacter capsulatus impairs the activation of ATP hydrolysis by protonmotive force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feniouk, Boris A; Rebecchi, Alberto; Giovannini, Donatella; Anefors, Sofie; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Junge, Wolfgang; Turina, Paola; Melandri, B Andrea

    2007-11-01

    H(+)-F(O)F(1)-ATP synthase couples proton flow through its membrane portion, F(O), to the synthesis of ATP in its headpiece, F(1). Upon reversal of the reaction the enzyme functions as a proton pumping ATPase. Even in the simplest bacterial enzyme the ATPase activity is regulated by several mechanisms, involving inhibition by MgADP, conformational transitions of the epsilon subunit, and activation by protonmotive force. Here we report that the Met23Lys mutation in the gamma subunit of the Rhodobacter capsulatus ATP synthase significantly impaired the activation of ATP hydrolysis by protonmotive force. The impairment in the mutant was due to faster enzyme deactivation that was particularly evident at low ATP/ADP ratio. We suggest that the electrostatic interaction of the introduced gammaLys23 with the DELSEED region of subunit beta stabilized the ADP-inhibited state of the enzyme by hindering the rotation of subunit gamma rotation which is necessary for the activation. PMID:17904517

  5. The Prostaglandin F Synthase Activity of the Human Aldose Reductase AKR1B1 Brings New Lenses to Look at Pathologic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresson, Eva; Lacroix-Pépin, Nicolas; Boucher-Kovalik, Sofia; Chapdelaine, Pierre; Fortier, Michel A

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandins are important regulators of female reproductive functions to which aldose reductases exhibiting hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity also contribute. Our work on the regulation of reproductive function by prostaglandins (PGs), lead us to the discovery that AKR1B5 and later AKR1B1were highly efficient and physiologically relevant PGF synthases. PGE2 and PGF2? are the main prostanoids produced in the human endometrium and proper balance in their relative production is important for normal menstruation and optimal fertility. Recent evidence suggests that PGE2/EP2 and PGF2?/FP may constitute a functional dyad with physiological relevance comparable to the prostacyclin-thromboxane dyad in the vascular system. We have recently reported that AKR1B1 was expressed and modulated in association with PGF2? production in response to IL-1? in the human endometrium. In the present study, we show that the human AKR1B1 (gene ID: 231) also known as ALDR1 or ALR2 is a functional PGF2? synthase in different models of living cells and tissues. Using human endometrial cells, prostate, and vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells we demonstrate that IL-1? is able to up regulate COX-2 and AKR1B1 proteins as well as PGF2? production under normal glucose concentrations. We show that the promoter activity of AKR1B1 gene is increased by IL-1? particularly around the multiple stress response region containing two putative antioxidant response elements adjacent to TonE and AP1. We also show that AKR1B1 is able to regulate PGE2 production through PGF2? acting on its FP receptor and that aldose reductase inhibitors like alrestatin, Statil (ponalrestat), and EBPC exhibit distinct and characteristic inhibition of PGF2? production in different cell models. The PGF synthase activity of AKR1B1 represents a new and important target to regulate ischemic and inflammatory responses associated with several human pathologies. PMID:22654757

  6. Biosynthesis of riboflavin: an unusual riboflavin synthase of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhardt, S.; Korn, S.; Lottspeich, F.; Bacher, A.

    1997-01-01

    Riboflavin synthase was purified by a factor of about 1,500 from cell extract of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. The enzyme had a specific activity of about 2,700 nmol mg(-1) h(-1) at 65 degrees C, which is relatively low compared to those of riboflavin synthases of eubacteria and yeast. Amino acid sequences obtained after proteolytic cleavage had no similarity with known riboflavin synthases. The gene coding for riboflavin synthase (designated ribC) was subsequently cloned by marker re...

  7. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Babesia gibsoni Dihydrofolate Reductase-Thymidylate Synthase: Inhibitory Effect of Antifolates on Its Catalytic Activity and Parasite Proliferation?

    OpenAIRE

    Aboge, Gabriel O.; Jia, Honglin; Terkawi, Mohamad A.; Goo, Youn-kyoung; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Sunaga, Fujiko; Namikawa, Kuzuhiko; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Fujisaki, Kozo; Xuan, Xuenan

    2008-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) is a well-validated antifolate drug target in certain pathogenic apicomplexans, but not in the genus Babesia, including Babesia gibsoni. Therefore, we isolated, cloned, and expressed the wild-type B. gibsoni dhfr-ts gene in Escherichia coli and evaluated the inhibitory effect of antifolates on its enzyme activity, as well as on in vitro parasite growth. The full-length gene consists of a 1,548-bp open reading frame encoding a 58.8-kDa tra...

  8. Mechanism of phosphate solubilization and antifungal activity of Streptomyces spp. isolated from wheat roots and rhizosphere and their application in improving plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jog, Rahul; Pandya, Maharshi; Nareshkumar, G; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2014-04-01

    The application of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) at field scale has been hindered by an inadequate understanding of the mechanisms that enhance plant growth, rhizosphere incompetence and the inability of bacterial strains to thrive in different soil types and environmental conditions. Actinobacteria with their sporulation, nutrient cycling, root colonization, bio-control and other plant-growth-promoting activities could be potential field bio-inoculants. We report the isolation of five rhizospheric and two root endophytic actinobacteria from Triticum aestivum (wheat) plants. The cultures exhibited plant-growth-promoting activities, namely phosphate solubilization (1916 mg l(-1)), phytase (0.68 U ml(-1)), chitinase (6.2 U ml(-1)), indole-3-acetic acid (136.5 mg l(-1)) and siderophore (47.4 mg l(-1)) production, as well as utilizing all the rhizospheric sugars under test. Malate (50-55 mmol l(-1)) was estimated in the culture supernatant of the highest phosphate solublizer, Streptomyces mhcr0816. The mechanism of malate overproduction was studied by gene expression and assays of key glyoxalate cycle enzymes - isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS). The significant increase in gene expression (ICL fourfold, MS sixfold) and enzyme activity (ICL fourfold, MS tenfold) of ICL and MS during stationary phase resulted in malate production as indicated by lowered pH (2.9) and HPLC analysis (retention time 13.1 min). Similarly, the secondary metabolites for chitinase-independent biocontrol activity of Streptomyces mhcr0817, as identified by GC-MS and (1)H-NMR spectra, were isoforms of pyrrole derivatives. The inoculation of actinobacterial isolate mhce0811 in T. aestivum (wheat) significantly improved plant growth, biomass (33%) and mineral (Fe, Mn, P) content in non-axenic conditions. Thus the actinobacterial isolates reported here were efficient PGPR possessing significant antifungal activity and may have potential field applications. PMID:24430493

  9. Discovery of a Novel Class of Orally Active Antifungal ?-1,3-d-Glucan Synthase Inhibitors?

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Scott S.; Xu, Yiming; Triantafyllou, Ilias; Waldman, Michelle F.; Mendrick, Cara; Brown, Nathaniel; Mann, Paul; Chau, Andrew; Patel, Reena; Bauman, Nicholas; Norris, Christine; Antonacci, Barry; Gurnani, Maya; Cacciapuoti, Anthony; Mcnicholas, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    The echinocandins are a class of semisynthetic natural products that target ?-1,3-glucan synthase (GS). Their proven clinical efficacy combined with minimal safety issues has made the echinocandins an important asset in the management of fungal infection in a variety of patient populations. However, the echinocandins are delivered only parenterally. A screen for antifungal bioactivities combined with mechanism-of-action studies identified a class of piperazinyl-pyridazinones that target GS. ...

  10. Intracellular Rescue of the Uroporphyrinogen III Synthase Activity in Enzymes Carrying the Hotspot Mutation C73R*

    OpenAIRE

    Fortian, Arola; Gonza?lez, Esperanza; Castan?o, David; Falcon-perez, Juan M.; Millet, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    A single mutation (C73R) in the enzyme uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROIIIS) is responsible for more than one-third of all of the reported cases of the rare autosomal disease congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP). CEP patients carrying this hotspot mutation develop a severe phenotype of the disease, including reduced life expectancy. Here, we have investigated the molecular basis for the functional deficit in the mutant enzyme both in vitro and in cellular systems. We show that a Cys in...

  11. Estradiol Regulation of Lipocalin-Type Prostaglandin D Synthase Promoter Activity: Evidence for Direct and Indirect Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Devidze, Nino; Fujimori, Ko; Urade, Yoshihiro; Pfaff, Donald W.; Mong, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    In the CNS, lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is predominantly a non-neuronal enzyme responsible for the production of PGD2, an endogenous sleep promoting substance. We have previously demonstrated that estradiol differentially regulates L-PGDS transcript levels in the rodent brain. In hypothalamic nuclei, estradiol increases L-PGDS transcript expression, whereas in the ventrolateral preoptic area L-PGDS gene expression is reduced after estradiol treatment. In the present study...

  12. Regulation of the expression of nitric oxide synthase and leishmanicidal activity by glycoconjugates of Leishmania lipophosphoglycan in murine macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    Proudfoot, L.; Nikolaev, A. V.; Feng, G. J.; Wei, W. Q.; Ferguson, M. A.; Brimacombe, J. S.; Liew, F. Y.

    1996-01-01

    Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) glycoconjugates from promastigotes of Leishmania were not able to induce the expression of the cytokine-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by the murine macrophage cell line, J774. However, they synergize with interferon gamma to stimulate the macrophages to express high levels of iNOS. This synergistic effect was critically time-dependent. Preincubation of J774 cells with the LPG glycans 4-18 h before stimulation with interferon gamma resulted in a significant red...

  13. Expression of apple 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase in Escherichia coli: kinetic characterization of wild-type and active-site mutant forms.

    OpenAIRE

    White, M. F.; Vasquez, J.; Yang, S. F.; Kirsch, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    The pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC synthase; S-adenosyl-L-methionine methylthioadenosine-lyase, EC 4.4.1.14) catalyzes the conversion of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to ACC and 5'-methylthioadenosine, the committed step in ethylene biosynthesis in plants. Apple ACC synthase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli (3 mg/liter) and purified to near homogeneity. A continuous assay was developed by coupling the ACC synthase reaction to the deam...

  14. Formation of triple-helical structures by the 3'-end sequences of MALAT1 and MEN? noncoding RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessica A; Valenstein, Max L; Yario, Therese A; Tycowski, Kazimierz T; Steitz, Joan A

    2012-11-20

    Stability of the long noncoding-polyadenylated nuclear (PAN) RNA from Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is conferred by an expression and nuclear retention element (ENE). The ENE protects PAN RNA from a rapid deadenylation-dependent decay pathway via formation of a triple helix between the U-rich internal loop of the ENE and the 3'-poly(A) tail. Because viruses borrow molecular mechanisms from their hosts, we searched highly abundant human long-noncoding RNAs and identified putative ENE-like structures in metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) and multiple endocrine neoplasia-? (MEN?) RNAs. Unlike the PAN ENE, the U-rich internal loops of both predicted cellular ENEs are interrupted by G and C nucleotides and reside upstream of genomically encoded A-rich tracts. We confirmed the ability of MALAT1 and MEN? sequences containing the predicted ENE and A-rich tract to increase the levels of an intronless ?-globin reporter RNA. UV thermal denaturation profiles at different pH values support formation of a triple-helical structure composed of multiple U•A-U base triples and a single C•G-C base triple. Additional analyses of the MALAT1 ENE revealed that robust stabilization activity requires an intact triple helix, strong stems at the duplex-triplex junctions, a G-C base pair flanking the triplex to mediate potential A-minor interactions, and the 3'-terminal A of the A-rich tract to form a blunt-ended triplex lacking unpaired nucleotides at the duplex-triplex junction. These examples of triple-helical, ENE-like structures in cellular noncoding RNAs, are unique. PMID:23129630

  15. Cell wall deficiency in "slime" strains of Neurospora crassa: osmotic inhibition of cell wall synthesis and beta-D-glucan synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da-Silva, M M; Polizeli, M L; Jorge, J A; Terenzi, H F

    1994-12-01

    1. The RCP-3 S/H mutant of Neurospora crassa was obtained by vegetative selection in medium of high osmolarity of a mycelial form of an fz, sg, os-1 ("slime"-like) segregant. The mutant exhibits spheroplast-hyphal dimorphism conditioned by the osmolarity of the culture medium (Pietro et al. (1990). Journal of General Microbiology, 136: 121-129). The carbohydrate composition of the cell wall of the mutant was different from that of the wild type in the absence of an alkali-soluble galactosaminoglycan polymer. Furthermore the mutant cell wall had a somewhat lower content of beta-glucan relative to that of chitin. 2. Increasing concentrations of sorbitol in the culture medium of the mutant inhibited by 10-fold the formation of cell wall relative to total biomass. The cell wall of the mutant cultured in the presence of sorbitol lacked mannose- and galactose-containing polymers, and also showed progressively lower amounts of beta-glucan relative to chitin. 3. The activity of membrane-bound (1-3)-beta-D-glucan synthase from the mutant grown in the absence of sorbitol shared several properties with the wild type enzyme (i.e., Km app., Vmax, stability at 30 degrees C, activation by GTP gamma S, and dissociability by treatment with NaCl and Tergitol NP-40 into a membrane-bound catalytic center and a GTP-binding activating protein). On the other hand, the enzyme from the mutant but not that from the wild type was inactivated by about 15% by treatment with NaCl and detergent. 4. At high concentrations of sorbitol (1.0 M) the RCP-3 S/H mutant exclusively produced spheroplasts devoid of (1-3)-beta-D-glucan synthase activity. The defect was at the level of the membrane-bound catalytic center. The activity of the GTP-binding activating factor was apparently normal in these cells. 5. These results suggest that the definitive loss of cell wall in the N. crassa "slime" RCP-3 S/H mutant was due to a defect in (1-3)-beta-D-glucan synthase activity which was exaggerated in the presence of high osmolyte concentrations. PMID:7550004

  16. Mild Reductions in Mitochondrial Citrate Synthase Activity Result in a Compromised Nitrate Assimilation and Reduced Leaf Pigmentation But Have No Effect on Photosynthetic Performance or Growth1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz-Porzucek, Agata; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Sulpice, Ronan; Lisec, Jan; Centeno, Danilo C.; Carillo, Petronia; Leisse, Andrea; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2008-01-01

    Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants, expressing a fragment of the mitochondrial citrate synthase gene in the antisense orientation and exhibiting mild reductions in the total cellular activity of this enzyme, displayed essentially no visible phenotypic alteration from the wild type. A more detailed physiological characterization, however, revealed that although these plants were characterized by relatively few changes in photosynthetic parameters they displayed a decreased relative flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and an increased rate of respiration. Furthermore, biochemical analyses revealed that the transformants exhibited considerably altered metabolism, being characterized by slight decreases in the levels of organic acids of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, photosynthetic pigments, and in a single line in protein content but increases in the levels of nitrate, several amino acids, and starch. We additionally determined the maximal catalytic activities of a wide range of enzymes of primary metabolism, performed targeted quantitative PCR analysis on all three isoforms of citrate synthase, and conducted a broader transcript profiling using the TOM1 microarray. Results from these studies confirmed that if the lines were somewhat impaired in nitrate assimilation, they were not severely affected by this, suggesting the presence of strategies by which metabolism is reprogrammed to compensate for this deficiency. The results are discussed in the context of carbon-nitrogen interaction and interorganellar coordination of metabolism. PMID:18359839

  17. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Protein Kinase Activity Is Frequently Elevated in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Supports Tumour Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O?Flaherty, Linda; Pardo, Olivier E.; Dzien, Piotr; Phillips, Lois; Morgan, Carys; Pawade, Joya; May, Margaret T.; Sohail, Muhammad; Hetzel, Martin R.; Seckl, Michael J.; Tavaré, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a central regulator of cellular metabolism, development and growth. GSK3 activity was thought to oppose tumourigenesis, yet recent studies indicate that it may support tumour growth in some cancer types including in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We examined the undefined role of GSK3 protein kinase activity in tissue from human NSCLC. Methods The expression and protein kinase activity of GSK3 was determined in 29 fresh frozen samples of human NSCLC and patient-matched normal lung tissue by quantitative immunoassay and western blotting for the phosphorylation of three distinct GSK3 substrates in situ (glycogen synthase, RelA and CRMP-2). The proliferation and sensitivity to the small-molecule GSK3 inhibitor; CHIR99021, of NSCLC cell lines (Hcc193, H1975, PC9 and A549) and non-neoplastic type II pneumocytes was further assessed in adherent culture. Results Expression and protein kinase activity of GSK3 was elevated in 41% of human NSCLC samples when compared to patient-matched control tissue. Phosphorylation of GSK3?/? at the inhibitory S21/9 residue was a poor biomarker for activity in tumour samples. The GSK3 inhibitor, CHIR99021 dose-dependently reduced the proliferation of three NSCLC cell lines yet was ineffective against type II pneumocytes. Conclusion NSCLC tumours with elevated GSK3 protein kinase activity may have evolved dependence on the kinase for sustained growth. Our results provide further important rationale for exploring the use of GSK3 inhibitors in treating NSCLC. PMID:25486534

  18. Role for malic enzyme, pyruvate carboxylation, and mitochondrial malate import in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Heart, Emma; Cline, Gary W.; Collis, Leon P.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Gray, Joshua P.; Smith, Peter J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Pyruvate cycling has been implicated in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic ?-cells. The operation of some pyruvate cycling pathways is proposed to necessitate malate export from the mitochondria and NADP+-dependent decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate by cytosolic malic enzyme (ME1). Evidence in favor of and against a role of ME1 in GSIS has been presented by others using small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of ME1. ME1 was also proposed to account for methyl ...

  19. MALAT-1, a non protein-coding RNA is upregulated in the cerebellum, hippocampus and brain stem of human alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryger, Rosemarie; Fan, Li; Wilce, Peter A; Jaquet, Vincent

    2012-11-01

    Chronic alcohol intake induces neurochemical adaptative changes in the brain characterised by altered gene expression. A role for non-coding RNAs in alcoholism is beginning to emerge. PCR-differential display using total RNA extracted from brain material of human alcoholics and control cases identified a cDNA fragment corresponding to a section of a known non protein-coding RNA (ncRNA), MALAT-1, (also known as NEAT2). Comparison of mRNA levels of MALAT-1 was performed by northern and dot blot experiments using different regions of brain from human alcoholics and rats chronically treated with ethanol vapours and following withdrawal. A massive increase of MALAT-1 transcripts was detected in cerebellum of human alcoholics and increases were also noted in hippocampus and brain stem, while no significant increase of MALAT-1 expression was noted in frontal or motor cortices. In the rat no significant difference of MALAT-1 ortholog mRNA could be detected in cerebellum. In addition, similarly to humans, no significant increase of MALAT-1 expression was detected in cortex of alcohol-treated rats, however, after 24 h alcohol withdrawal, a significant upregulation of MALAT-1 expression was observed in rat cortex. MALAT-1 is upregulated in specific regions of the human alcoholic brain and following alcohol withdrawal in the rat. As MALAT-1 regulates RNA processing, this suggests that alcohol-induced upregulation of MALAT-1 represents an important novel mechanism for alcohol actions in the CNS. PMID:22560368

  20. [Ureido-¹?N]citrulline UPLC-MS/MS nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity assay: development, validation, and applications to assess NOS uncoupling and human platelets NOS activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmer, Anke; Gambaryan, Stepan; Flentje, Markus; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2014-08-15

    In healthy human subjects, less than 0.2% of l-arginine is converted to l-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthases (NOS), a metabolic pathway present in all cell types. Assessment of NOS activity in vitro and in vivo by measuring l-citrulline or NO is difficult. l-citrulline is formed from l-arginine to a much higher extent by other pathways including the urea cycle. Furthermore, NO is a very short-lived gaseous molecule and is oxidized to nitrite and nitrate which are ubiquitous. In fact, nitrite and nitrate are also derived from food and air and are major laboratory contaminants. Further, NOS (in the uncoupled state) are also able to produce superoxide in addition and/or instead of l-citrulline and NO. The difficulties of NOS assays based on l-citrulline and NO measurement can only in part be overcome by sophisticated techniques including use of radio-labeled ((3)H or (14)C) and stable-isotope labeled ((15)N2 at the guanidine group) l-arginine analogs as substrates for NOS and measurement of radio-labeled l-citrulline and (15)N-labeled nitrite and nitrate, respectively. In the present work, we report on the development, validation and application of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the assessment of the activity of recombinant NOS enzymes by using [guanidino-(15)N2]-l-arginine (20 ?M for recombinant NOS, 5mM in cell systems) as the substrate and by measuring [ureido-(15)N]-l-citrulline as the reaction product (usually formed at concentrations below 1 ?M) using (2)H7-l-citrulline as the internal standard. The lower limit of detection of the method is about 80 fmol (2)H7-l-citrulline. In cell systems, exceeding [guanidino-(15)N2]-l-arginine is removed by strong cation exchanger solid-phase extraction. The method was cross-validated by a GC-MS assay that measures simultaneously (15)N-nitrite and (15)N-nitrate as pentafluorobenzyl derivatives, with unlabeled nitrite and nitrate serving as the internal standards. By means of this UPLC-MS/MS (15)N-citrulline assay, N(G)-nitro-arginine (100 ?M) was found to inhibit recombinant inducible NOS (iNOS) activity (by 38%), whereas nitrite and GSSG (each at 500 ?M) did not affect iNOS activity at all. Nitrite and GSSG at pathophysiological concentrations are unlikely to uncouple NOS. NOS activity was not detectable in platelets of healthy humans by the UPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS assays. PMID:25033468

  1. Long Noncoding RNA MALAT-1 Enhances Stem Cell-Like Phenotypes in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jiao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs play a vital role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, chemoresistance, and recurrence. The mechanisms that maintain the stemness of these cells remain largely unknown. Our previous study indicated that MALAT-1 may serve as an oncogenic long noncoding RNA in pancreatic cancer by promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and regulating CSCs markers expression. More significantly, there is emerging evidence that the EMT process may give rise to CSCs, or at least cells with stem cell-like properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that MALAT-1 might enhance stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells. In this study, our data showed that MALAT-1 could increase the proportion of pancreatic CSCs, maintain self-renewing capacity, decrease the chemosensitivity to anticancer drugs, and accelerate tumor angiogenesis in vitro. In addition, subcutaneous nude mouse xenografts revealed that MALAT-1 could promote tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. The underlying mechanisms may involve in increased expression of self-renewal related factors Sox2. Collectively, we for the first time found the potential effects of MALAT-1 on the stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells, suggesting a novel role of MALAT-1 in tumor stemness, which remains to be fully elucidated.

  2. X-ray absorption studies of the ferrous active site of isopenicillin N synthase and related model complexes.

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, Cr; Zang, Y.; True, Ae; Que, L.; Charnock, Jm; Garner, Cd; Fujishima, Y.; Schofield, CJ; Baldwin, Je

    1993-01-01

    Isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) from Cephalosporium acremonium (M(r) 38,400) is an iron-containing enzyme that aerobically catalyzes the four-electron oxidative ring closure reactions of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV), forming the beta-lactam and thiazolidine rings of isopenicillin N. Here, we report Fe K-edge X-ray absorption studies that provide insight into the iron coordination environment and the effect of substrate and nitric oxide binding. Our analysis reveals ...

  3. Rapamycin downregulates thymidylate synthase and potentiates the activity of pemetrexed in non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kawabata, Shigeru; Chiang, Chun-te; Tsurutani, Junji; Shiga, Hideaki; Arwood, Matthew L.; Komiya, Takefumi; Gills, Joell J.; Memmott, Regan M.; Dennis, Phillip A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80–85% of lung cancer cases, and almost half of newly diagnosed patients have metastatic disease. Pemetrexed is a widely used drug for NSCLC and inhibits several folate-dependent enzymes including thymidylate synthase (TS). Increased expression of TS confers resistance to pemetrexed in vitro and predicts poor response to pemetrexed. Rapamycin is an mTOR inhibitor and suppresses cap-dependent synthesis of specific mRNA species. Here, we show th...

  4. Post-translational Modification Regulates Prostaglandin D2 Synthase Apoptotic Activity: Characterization by Site-directed Mutagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ragolia, Louis; Hall, Christopher E.; Palaia, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (L-PGDS) is a highly glycosylated protein found in several body fluids. Elevated L-PGDS levels have been observed in the serum of patients with renal impairment, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Recently, we demonstrated the ability of L-PGDS to induce apoptosis in a variety of cell types including epithelial cells, neuronal cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect several site-directed mu...

  5. Donor substrate promiscuity of the N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activities of Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase 2 (PmHS2) and Escherichia coli K5 KfiA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhong; Yu, Hai; Thon, Vireak; Chen, Yi; Muthana, Musleh M; Qu, Jingyao; Hie, Liana; Chen, Xi

    2014-02-01

    The biological activities of heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin (HP) are closely related to their molecular structures. Both Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase 2 (PmHS2) and Escherichia coli K5 KfiA have been used for enzymatic and chemoenzymatic synthesis of HS and HP oligosaccharides and their derivatives. We show here that cloning using the pET15b vector and expressing PmHS2 as an N-His6-tagged fusion protein improve its expression level in E. coli. Investigation of the donor substrate specificity of the N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activities of P. multocida heparosan synthase 2 (PmHS2) and E. coli K5 KfiA indicates the substrate promiscuities of PmHS2 and KfiA. Overall, both PmHS2 and KfiA can use uridine 5'-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and some of its C2'- and C6'-derivatives as donor substrates for their ?1-4-GlcNAcT activities. Nevertheless, PmHS2 has a broader tolerance towards substrate modifications. Other than the UDP-sugars that can be used by KfiA, additional C6'-derivatives of UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-glucose, and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (UDP-GalNAc) are tolerable substrates for the ?1-4-GlcNAcT activity of PmHS2. The substrate promiscuities of PmHS2 and KfiA will allow efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of diverse HS and HP oligosaccharide derivatives which may have improved or altered activities compared to their natural counterparts. PMID:23661084

  6. Glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase in pumpkin: cloning of a cDNA and functional analysis of its presequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, A; Takeda-Yoshikawa, Y; Hayashi, M; Kondo, M; Hara-Nishimura, I; Nishimura, M

    1998-02-01

    Glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase (gMDH) is an enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle that participates in degradation of storage oil. We have cloned a cDNA for gMDH from etiolated pumpkin cotyledons that encodes a polypeptide consisting of 356 amino acid residues. The nucleotide and N-terminal amino acid sequences revealed that gMDH is synthesized as a precursor with an N-terminal extrapeptide. The N-terminal presequence of 36 amino acid residues contains two regions homologous to those of other microbody proteins, which are also synthesized as large precursors. To investigate the functions of the N-terminal presequence of gMDH, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis that expressed a chimeric protein consisting of beta-glucuronidase and the N-terminal region of gMDH. Immunological and immunocytochemical studies revealed that the chimeric protein was imported into microbodies such as glyoxysomes and leaf peroxisomes and was then subsequently processed. Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that the conserved amino acids in the N-terminal presequence, Arg-10 and His-17, function as recognition sites for the targeting to plant microbodies, and Cys-36 in the presequence is responsible for its processing. These results correspond to those from the analyses of glyoxysomal citrate synthase (gCS), which was also synthesized as a large precursor, suggesting that common mechanisms that can recognize the targeting or the processing of gMDH and gCS function in higher plant cells. PMID:9559562

  7. Analysis of the Polymerization Initiation and Activity of Pasteurella multocida Heparosan Synthase PmHS2, an Enzyme with Glycosyltransferase and UDP-sugar Hydrolase Activity*

    OpenAIRE

    Chavaroche, A. A. E.; Broek, L. A. M.; Springer, J.; Boeriu, C.; Eggink, G.

    2010-01-01

    Heparosan synthase catalyzes the polymerization of heparosan (-4GlcUA?1–4GlcNAc?1-)n by transferring alternatively the monosaccharide units from UDP-GlcUA and UDP-GlcNAc to an acceptor molecule. Details on the heparosan chain initiation by Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase PmHS2 and its influence on the polymerization process have not been reported yet. By site-directed mutagenesis of PmHS2, the single action transferases PmHS2-GlcUA+ and PmHS2-GlcNAc+ were obtained. When incubated...

  8. Oligomycin A-induced inhibition of mitochondrial ATP-synthase activity suppresses boar sperm motility and in vitro capacitation achievement without modifying overall sperm energy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramió-Lluch, Laura; Yeste, Marc; Fernández-Novell, Josep M; Estrada, Efrén; Rocha, Luiz; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Concha, Ilona I; Ramírez, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    Incubation of boar spermatozoa in a capacitation medium with oligomycin A, a specific inhibitor of the F0 component of the mitochondrial ATP synthase, induced an immediate and almost complete immobilisation of cells. Oligomycin A also inhibited the ability of spermatozoa to achieve feasible in vitro capacitation (IVC), as measured through IVC-compatible changes in motility patterns, tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the acrosomal p32 protein, membrane fluidity and the ability of spermatozoa to achieve subsequent, progesterone-induced in vitro acrosome exocytosis (IVAE). Both inhibitory effects were caused without changes in the rhythm of O2 consumption, intracellular ATP levels or mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). IVAE was accompanied by a fast and intense peak in O2 consumption and ATP levels in control spermatozoa. Oligomycin A also inhibited progesterone-induced IVAE as well as the concomitant peaks of O2 consumption and ATP levels. The effect of oligomycin on IVAE was also accompanied by concomitant alterations in the IVAE-induced changes on intracellular Ca(2+) levels and MMP. Our results suggest that the oligomycin A-sensitive mitochondrial ATP-synthase activity is instrumental in the achievement of an adequate boar sperm motion pattern, IVC and IVAE. However, this effect seems not to be linked to changes in the overall maintenance of adequate energy levels in stages other than IVAE. PMID:25319379

  9. Fimasartan, anti-hypertension drug, suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase expressions via nuclear factor-kappa B and activator protein-1 inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Suran; Shin, Ji-Sun; Cho, Young-Wuk; Kim, Hyoung Kook; Paik, Soo Heui; Lee, Joo Han; Chi, Yong Ha; Kim, Ji Han; Kim, Je Hak; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Since inhibition of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor reduces chronic inflammation associated with hypertension, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory potential and the underlying mechanism of fimasartan, a Korean Food and Drug Administration approved anti-hypertension drug, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Fimasartan suppressed the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by down-regulating its transcription, and subsequently inhibited the productions of nitric oxide (NO). In addition, fimasartan attenuated LPS-induced transcriptional and DNA-binding activities of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). These reductions were accompanied by parallel reductions in the nuclear translocation of NF-?B and AP-1. Taken together, our data suggest that fimasartan down-regulates the expression of the iNOS in macrophages via NF-?B and AP-1 inactivation. PMID:23449332

  10. Nitric oxide synthase in ferret brain: localization and characterization.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, T.; Mitchell, J. A.; Schmidt, H. H.; Kohlhaas, K. L.; Warner, T. D.; Fo?rstermann, U.; Murad, F.

    1992-01-01

    1. In the present study, we have investigated the distribution of nitric oxide synthase in the ferret brain. Nitric oxide synthase was determined biochemically and immunochemically. 2. In the rat brain, the highest nitric oxide synthase activity has been detected in the cerebellum. However, in the ferret brain, the highest activity was found in the striatum and the lowest in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex. The enzymatic activity was localized predominantly in the cytosolic fractions, it w...

  11. Vesicocutaneous fistula formation during treatment with sunitinib malate: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakashita Hiroyuki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oral multi-kinase inhibitor sunitinib malate improves the survival of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST after the disease progresses or intolerance to imatinib mesylate develops. Urinary fistulae arising during treatment with sunitinib for GIST have not been described. Case presentation We describe a 62-year-old female patient diagnosed with unresectable GIST that involved the abdominal wall, urinary bladder wall, bowel, mesentery and peritoneum in the pelvic cavity. Intestinocutaneous fistulae developed on a surgical lesion after orally administered imatinib was supplemented by an arterial infusion of 5-flurouracil. Sunitinib was started after the patient developed resistance to imatinib. On day 4 of the fourth course of sunitinib, a widely dilated cutaneous fistula discharged large amounts of fluid accompanied by severe abdominal pain. Urinary communication was indicated based on the results of an intravenous injection of indigo carmine. Computed tomography findings suggested a small opening on the anterior urinary bladder wall and fistulous communication between the bladder and abdominal walls bridged by a subcutaneous cavity. The fistula closed and the amount of discharge decreased when sunitinib was discontinued. Therefore, sunitinib might have been associated with the development of the vesicocutaneous fistula in our patient. Conclusion This is the first description of a vesicocutaneous fistula forming while under sunitinib treatment. Clinicians should be aware of the possible complication of vesicocutaneous fistula formation during treatment with molecular targeting agents in patients with extravesical invasion and peritoneal dissemination of GIST.

  12. Unique glycine-activated riboswitch linked to glycine-serine auxotrophy in SAR11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, H. James; Schwalbach, Michael S.; Meyer, Michelle M.; Kitner, Joshua B.; Breaker, Ronald R.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    The genome sequence of the marine bacterium ‘Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique’ and subsequent analyses have shown that, while it has a genome as small as many obligate parasites, it nonetheless possesses a metabolic repertoire that allows it to grow as one of the most successful free-living cells in the ocean. An early report based on metabolic reconstruction indicated that SAR11 cells are prototrophs for all amino acids. However, here we report experimental evidence that ‘Cand. P. ubique’ is effectively auxotrophic for glycine and serine. With glucose and acetate added to seawater to supply organic carbon, the addition of 125 nM to 1.5 ?M glycine to growth medium containing all other nutrients in excess resulted in a linear increase in maximum cell density from 1.14 ×106 cells ml?1 to 8.16 ×106 cells ml?1 (R2 = 0.992). Serine was capable of substituting for glycine at 1.5 ?M. ‘Cand. P. ubique’ contains a glycine-activated riboswitch preceding malate synthase, an unusual genomic context that is conserved in the SAR11 group. Malate synthase plays a critical role in central metabolism by enabling TCA intermediates to be regenerated through the glyoxylate cycle. In vitro analysis of this riboswitch indicated that it responds solely to glycine but not close structural analogs such as glycine betaine, malate, glyoxylate, glycolate, alanine, serine, or threonine. We conclude that ‘Cand. P. ubique’ is therefore a glycine-serine auxotroph that appears to use intracellular glycine level to regulate its use of carbon for biosynthesis and energy. Comparative genomics and metagenomics indicate that these conclusions may hold throughout much of the SAR11 clade. PMID:19125817

  13. Akt2 influences glycogen synthase activity in human skeletal muscle through regulation of NH?-terminal (sites 2 + 2a) phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Birk, Jesper Bratz

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by reduced muscle glycogen synthesis. The key enzyme in this process, glycogen synthase (GS), is activated via proximal insulin signaling, but the exact molecular events remain unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that phosphorylation of Thr³?? on Akt (p-Akt-Thr³??), Akt2 activity, and GS activity in muscle were positively associated with insulin sensitivity. Here, in the same study population, we determined the influence of several upstream elements in the canonical PI3K signaling on muscle GS activation. One-hundred eighty-one nondiabetic twins were examined with the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with excision of muscle biopsies. Insulin signaling was evaluated at the levels of the insulin receptor, IRS-1-associated PI3K (IRS-1-PI3K), Akt, and GS employing activity assays and phosphospecific Western blotting. The insulin-stimulated GS activity was positively associated with p-Akt-Thr³?? (P = 0.01) and Akt2 activity (P = 0.04) but not p-Akt-Ser??³ or IRS-1-PI3K activity. Furthermore, p-Akt-Thr³?? and Akt2 activity were negatively associated with NH?-terminal GS phosphorylation (P = 0.001 for both), which in turn was negatively associated with insulin-stimulated GS activity (P <0.001). We found no association between COOH-terminal GS phosphorylation and Akt or GS activity. Employing whole body Akt2-knockout mice, we validated the necessity for Akt2 in insulin-mediated GS activation. However, since insulin did not affect NH?-terminal phosphorylation in mice, we could not use this model to validate the observed association between GS NH?-terminal phosphorylation and Akt activity in humans. In conclusion, our study suggests that although COOH-terminal dephosphorylation is likely necessary for GS activation, Akt2-dependent NH?-terminal dephosphorylation may be the site for "fine-tuning" insulin-mediated GS activation in humans.

  14. The prostaglandin F synthase activity of the human aldose reductase AKR1B1 brings new lenses to look at pathologic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MichelAFortier

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins are important regulators of female reproductive functions to which aldose reductases exhibiting hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity also contribute. Our work on the regulation of reproductive function by prostaglandins (PGs, lead us to the discovery that AKR1B5 and later AKR1B1 were highly efficient and physiologically relevant PGF synthases. PGE2 and PGF2? are the main prostanoids produced in the human endometrium and proper balance in their relative production is important for normal menstruation and optimal fertility. Recent evidence suggests that PGE2 and PGF2? may constitute a functional dyad with physiological relevance at least as important as the prostacyclin-thromboxane dyad in the vascular system. We have recently reported that AKR1B1 was expressed and modulated in association with PGF2? production in response to IL-1? in the human endometrium. In the present study, we show that the human AKR1B1 (gene ID: 231 also known as ALDR1 or ALR2 is a functional PGF2? synthase in different models of living cells and tissues. Using human endometrial cells, prostate and vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells we demonstrate that IL-1? is able to up regulate COX-2 and AKR1B1 proteins as well as PGF2? production under normal glucose concentrations. We show that the promoter activity of AKR1B1 gene is increased by IL-1? particularly around the multiple stress response region (MSRR containing two putative antioxidant response elements (ARE adjacent to TonE and AP1.We also show that AKR1B1 is able to regulate PGE2 production through PGF2? acting on its FP receptor and that aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs like alrestatin, statil (ponalrestat and EBPC exhibit distinct and characteristic inhibition of PGF2? production in different cell models. The PGF synthase activity of AKR1B1 represents a new and important target to regulate ischemic and inflammatory responses associated with several human pathologies.

  15. SYSTEMIC BUT NOT CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE INHIBITION EXACERBATES THE HYPERTENSIVE EFFECTS OF CHRONIC MELANOCORTIN-3/4 RECEPTOR ACTIVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Jussara M.; Bassi, Mirian; da Silva, Alexandre A.; Hall, John E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether systemic or central nervous system (CNS) inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase exacerbates the cardiovascular responses of chronic CNS melanocortin 3/4 receptor (MC3/4R) activation. Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with telemetry probes, venous catheters and intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannulae were divided in 3 groups. After control measurements, the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME was infused (10 ?g/kg/min, IV) for 17 days and starting on day 7 of L-NAME infusion the MC3/4R agonist MTII (10 ng/hr, Group 1) or saline vehicle (Group 2) was infused ICV for 10 days. A third group not treated with L-NAME also received MTII ICV. MC3/4R activation caused a greater increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in rats treated with IV L-NAME (35±6 mmHg and 56±8 bpm) than L-NAME + vehicle or MTII alone (22±5 and 9±2 mmHg, and 26±14 and 27±5 bpm) despite a 58 and 50% reduction in food intake during the first 6 days of MTII infusion. To test if the amplified pressor response to MTII after L-NAME was due to a reduction in NO availability in the brain, we also infused L-NAME directly into the CNS alone or in combination with MTII. ICV infusion of L-NAME + MTII caused only ~10 mmHg increase in MAP with no change in HR, similar to the effects of ICV infusion of MTII alone, while ICV infusion of L-NAME alone had no effect on MAP. These results suggest that reduction in peripheral, but not CNS, NO production augments MAP sensitivity to CNS MC3/4R activation. PMID:21263126

  16. Homochiral Cu(II) and Ni(II) malates with tunable structural features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four new homochiral metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) based on S-malate anions and N-donor linkers of different length have been prepared under solvothermal conditions. [Cu(mal)(bpy)]·H2O (1), [Cu(mal)(bpe)]·2H2O (2), [Ni(mal)(bpy)]·1.3CH3OH (3) and [Ni(mal)(bpe)]·4H2O (4) (mal=S-malate, bpy=4,4?-bipyridil, bpe=trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene) were characterized by a number of analytical methods including powder X-ray diffraction, elemental, thermogravimetric analyses, IR spectroscopy. Compounds 1–3 were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The absence of the chiral ligand racemization under synthetic conditions was unambiguously confirmed by polarimetry experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 contain metal-malate layered motives, connected by N-donor linkers and contribute to the family of isoreticular Cu(II) malates and tartrates [Cu(mal)L] and [Cu(tart)L], (tart=tartrate; L=ditopic rigid organic ligand). The Ni-based compounds 3 and 4 share 1D chiral (Ni(mal)) motives and possess novel type of the chiral framework, previously unknown for chiral carboxylates. The linear N-donor linkers connect these chiral chains, thus controlling the channel diameter and guest accessible volume of the homochiral structure, which exceeds 60 %. - Graphical abstract: Four new homochiral metal–organic frameworks are built from Ni2+ or Cu2+ cations, S-malate anions and N-donor linkers of different length, which controls the size of pores and guest accessible volume of the homochiral structure. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Four new homohiral metal–organic frameworks based on Ni2+ and Cu2+. • Cu(II)–malate layers and Ni(II)–malate chains are connected by N-donor linkers. • N-donor linkers of different length control the size of pores

  17. Streptococcus pyogenes malate degradation pathway links pH regulation and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluscio, Elyse; Caparon, Michael G

    2015-03-01

    The ability of Streptococcus pyogenes to infect different niches within its human host most likely relies on its ability to utilize alternative carbon sources. In examining this question, we discovered that all sequenced S. pyogenes strains possess the genes for the malic enzyme (ME) pathway, which allows malate to be used as a supplemental carbon source for growth. ME is comprised of four genes in two adjacent operons, with the regulatory two-component MaeKR required for expression of genes encoding a malate permease (maeP) and malic enzyme (maeE). Analysis of transcription indicated that expression of maeP and maeE is induced by both malate and low pH, and induction in response to both cues is dependent on the MaeK sensor kinase. Furthermore, both maePE and maeKR are repressed by glucose, which occurs via a CcpA-independent mechanism. Additionally, malate utilization requires the PTS transporter EI enzyme (PtsI), as a PtsI(-) mutant fails to express the ME genes and is unable to utilize malate. Virulence of selected ME mutants was assessed in a murine model of soft tissue infection. MaeP(-), MaeK(-), and MaeR(-) mutants were attenuated for virulence, whereas a MaeE(-) mutant showed enhanced virulence compared to that of the wild type. Taken together, these data show that ME contributes to S. pyogenes' carbon source repertory, that malate utilization is a highly regulated process, and that a single regulator controls ME expression in response to diverse signals. Furthermore, malate uptake and utilization contribute to the adaptive pH response, and ME can influence the outcome of infection. PMID:25583521

  18. Involvement of Salicylic Acid on Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties, Anthocyanin Production and Chalcone Synthase Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA at different concentrations (10?3 M and 10?5 M was investigated on the production of secondary metabolites (flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity (against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 in two varieties of Malaysian ginger, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis showed that application of SA induced the synthesis of anthocyanin and fisetin in both varieties. Anthocyanin and fisetin were not detected in the control plants. Accordingly, the concentrations of some flavonoids (rutin and apigenin decreased significantly in plants treated with different concentrations of SA. The present study showed that SA enhanced the chalcone synthase (CHS enzyme activity (involving flavonoid synthesis and recorded the highest activity value of 5.77 nkat /mg protein in Halia Bara with the 10?5 M SA treatment. As the SA concentration was decreased from 10?3 M to 10?5 M, the free radical scavenging power (FRAP increased about 23% in Halia Bentong and 10.6% in Halia Bara. At a concentration of 350 ?g mL?1, the DPPH antioxidant activity recorded the highest value of 58.30%–72.90% with the 10?5 M SA treatment followed by the 10?3 M SA (52.14%–63.66% treatment. The lowest value was recorded in the untreated control plants (42.5%–46.7%. These results indicate that SA can act not only as an inducer but also as an inhibitor of secondary metabolites. Meanwhile, the highest anticancer activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines was observed for H. Bara extracts treated with 10?5 M SA with values of 61.53 and 59.88%, respectively. The results suggest that the high anticancer activity in these varieties may be related to the high concentration of potent anticancer components including fisetin and anthocyanin. The results thus indicate that the synthesis of flavonoids in ginger can be increased by foliar application of SA in a controlled environment and that the anticancer activity in young ginger extracts could be improved.

  19. Feature selection and linear/nonlinear regression methods for the accurate prediction of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Freitas, Matheus P; Jensen, Richard

    2009-04-01

    Few variables were selected from a pool of calculated Dragon descriptors through three different feature selection methods, namely genetic algorithm (GA), successive projections algorithm (SPA), and fuzzy rough set ant colony optimization (fuzzy rough set ACO). Each set of selected descriptors was regressed against the bioactivities of a series of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) inhibitors, through linear and nonlinear regression methods, namely multiple linear regression (MLR), artificial neural network (ANN), and support vector machines (SVM). The fuzzy rough set ACO/SVM-based model gave the best estimation/prediction results, demonstrating the nonlinear nature of this analysis and suggesting fuzzy rough set ACO, first introduced in chemistry here, as an improved variable selection method in QSAR for the class of GSK-3beta inhibitors. PMID:19338295

  20. Hyperglycaemia normalises insulin action on glucose metabolism but not the impaired activation of AKT and glycogen synthase in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, B F; Birk, Jesper Bratz

    2012-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 2 diabetes, reduced insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, primarily glycogen synthesis, is associated with defective insulin activation of glycogen synthase (GS) in skeletal muscle. Hyperglycaemia may compensate for these defects, but to what extent it involves improved insulin signalling to glycogen synthesis remains to be clarified. METHODS: Whole-body glucose metabolism was studied in 12 patients with type 2 diabetes, and 10 lean and 10 obese non-diabetic controls by means of indirect calorimetry and tracers during a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp. The diabetic patients underwent a second isoglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp maintaining fasting hyperglycaemia. Muscle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were obtained before and after the clamp for examination of GS and relevant insulin signalling components. RESULTS: During euglycaemia, insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, glucose oxidation and non-oxidative glucose metabolism were reduced in the diabetic group compared with both control groups (p¿

  1. Determination of cystathionine beta-synthase activity in human plasma by LC-MS/MS: potential use in diagnosis of CBS deficiency.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Krijt, Jakub

    2011-02-01

    Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) deficiency is usually confirmed by assaying the enzyme activity in cultured skin fibroblasts. We investigated whether CBS is present in human plasma and whether determination of its activity in plasma could be used for diagnostic purposes. We developed an assay to measure CBS activity in 20 ?L of plasma using a stable isotope substrate - 2,3,3-(2)H serine. The activity was determined by measurement of the product of enzyme reaction, 3,3-(2)H-cystathionine, using LC-MS\\/MS. The median enzyme activity in control plasma samples was 404 nmol\\/h\\/L (range 66-1,066; n = 57). In pyridoxine nonresponsive CBS deficient patients, the median plasma activity was 0 nmol\\/ho\\/L (range 0-9; n = 26), while in pyridoxine responsive patients the median activity was 16 nmol\\/hour\\/L (range 0-358; n = 28); this overlapped with the enzyme activity from control subject. The presence of CBS in human plasma was confirmed by an in silico search of the proteome database, and was further evidenced by the activation of CBS by S-adenosyl-L-methionine and pyridoxal 5\\'-phosphate, and by configuration of the detected reaction product, 3,3-(2)H-cystathionine, which was in agreement with the previously observed CBS reaction mechanism. We hypothesize that the CBS enzyme in plasma originates from liver cells, as the plasma CBS activities in patients with elevated liver aminotransferase activities were more than 30-fold increased. In this study, we have demonstrated that CBS is present in human plasma and that its catalytic activity is detectable by LC-MS\\/MS. CBS assay in human plasma brings new possibilities in the diagnosis of pyridoxine nonresponsive CBS deficiency.

  2. Biochemistry: Acetohydroxyacid Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Ngoc Chien

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6; formerly known as acetolactate synthase, ALS is a thiamin-and FAD-dependent enzyme which catalyses the first common step in the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA isoleucine, leucine and valine. The enzyme is inhibited by several commercial herbicides and has been studied over the last 20 to 30 years. A short introductory note about acetohydroxyacid synthase has been provided.

  3. Biochemistry: Acetohydroxyacid Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Ngoc Chien

    2010-01-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6; formerly known as acetolactate synthase, ALS) is a thiamin-and FAD-dependent enzyme which catalyses the first common step in the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) isoleucine, leucine and valine. The enzyme is inhibited by several commercial herbicides and has been studied over the last 20 to 30 years. A short introductory note about acetohydroxyacid synthase has been provided.

  4. Control of Enzyme Activities in Cotton Cotyledons during Maturation and Germination: II. Glyoxysomal Enzyme Development in Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choinski, J S; Trelease, R N

    1978-07-01

    The sequence of glyoxysomal enzyme development was investigated in cotyledons of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Deltapine 16) embryos from 16 to 70 days after anthesis (DAA). Catalase, malate dehydrogenase, and citrate condensing enzyme activities were barely detectable prior to 22 DAA, but showed dramatic increases from 22 to 50 DAA. Development of malate synthase activity, however, was delayed during this period, rising to peak activity from 45 to 50 DAA (just prior to desiccation) in the absence of any detectable isocitrate lyase activity. Substantial activities of all of these enzymes (except isocitrate lyase) persisted in the dry seeds. Isopycnic centrifugations on sucrose gradients demonstrated that the enzymes were compartmentalized within particles increasing in buoyant density with time of development (1.226 to 1.245 grams per cubic centimeter from 22 to 50 DAA). Of particular significance were the observations in 22-day embryos of smooth surfaced membrane dilations of rough endoplasmic reticulum having cytochemical catalase reactivity, and the demonstrations of catalase activities in microsomal fractions isolated throughout the 16- to 50-DAA period. Our data do not allow determination of the mechanism(s) for enzyme activation and/or addition to previously existing or newly formed microbodies, but do show that development and acquisition of enzyme activities within glyoxysomes occur sequentially and thus are not regulated in concert as previously thought. PMID:16660455

  5. The alpha2-5'AMP-activated protein kinase is a site 2 glycogen synthase kinase in skeletal muscle and is responsive to glucose loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Sebastian B; Nielsen, Jakob N.

    2004-01-01

    The 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a potential antidiabetic drug target. Here we show that the pharmacological activation of AMPK by 5-aminoimidazole-1-beta-4-carboxamide ribofuranoside (AICAR) leads to inactivation of glycogen synthase (GS) and phosphorylation of GS at Ser 7 (site 2). In muscle of mice with targeted deletion of the alpha2-AMPK gene, phosphorylation of GS site 2 was decreased under basal conditions and unchanged by AICAR treatment. In contrast, in alpha1-AMPK knockout mice, the response to AICAR was normal. Fuel surplus (glucose loading) decreased AMPK activation by AICAR, but the phosphorylation of the downstream targets acetyl-CoA carboxylase-beta and GS was normal. Fractionation studies suggest that this suppression of AMPK activation was not a direct consequence of AMPK association with membranes or glycogen, because AMPK was phosphorylated to a greater extent in response to AICAR in the membrane/glycogen fraction than in the cytosolic fraction. Thus, the downstream action of AMPK in response to AICAR was unaffected by glucose loading, whereas the action of the kinase upstream of AMPK, as judged by AMPK phosphorylation, was decreased. The fact that alpha2-AMPK is a GS kinase that inactivates GS while simultaneously activating glucose transport suggests that a balanced view on the suitability for AMPK as an antidiabetic drug target should be taken.

  6. Induction of human microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 by activated oncogene RhoA GTPase in A549 human epithelial cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hye Jin [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Hyung [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Juil; Do, Kee Hun [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); An, Tae Jin; Ahn, Young Sup; Park, Chung Berm [Department of Herbal Crop Research, NIHHS, RDA, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Yuseok, E-mail: moon@pnu.edu [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Institute and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-30

    Highlights: {yields} As a target of oncogene RhoA-linked signal, a prostaglandin metabolism is assessed. {yields} RhoA activation increases PGE{sub 2} levels and its metabolic enzyme mPGES-1. {yields} RhoA-activated NF-{kappa}B and EGR-1 are positively involved in mPGES-1 induction. -- Abstract: Oncogenic RhoA GTPase has been investigated as a mediator of pro-inflammatory responses and aggressive carcinogenesis. Among the various targets of RhoA-linked signals, pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), a major prostaglandin metabolite, was assessed in epithelial cancer cells. RhoA activation increased PGE{sub 2} levels and gene expression of the rate-limiting PGE{sub 2} producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1). In particular, human mPGES-1 was induced by RhoA via transcriptional activation in control and interleukin (IL)-1{beta}-activated cancer cells. To address the involvement of potent signaling pathways in RhoA-activated mPGES-1 induction, various signaling inhibitors were screened for their effects on mPGES-1 promoter activity. RhoA activation enhanced basal and IL-1{beta}-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-{kappa}B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 proteins, all of which were positively involved in RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1. As one potent down-stream transcription factor of ERK1/2 signals, early growth response gene 1 product also mediated RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1 by enhancing transcriptional activity. Since oncogene-triggered PGE{sub 2} production is a critical modulator of epithelial tumor cells, RhoA-associated mPGES-1 represents a promising chemo-preventive or therapeutic target for epithelial inflammation and its associated cancers.

  7. Induction of human microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 by activated oncogene RhoA GTPase in A549 human epithelial cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? As a target of oncogene RhoA-linked signal, a prostaglandin metabolism is assessed. ? RhoA activation increases PGE2 levels and its metabolic enzyme mPGES-1. ? RhoA-activated NF-?B and EGR-1 are positively involved in mPGES-1 induction. -- Abstract: Oncogenic RhoA GTPase has been investigated as a mediator of pro-inflammatory responses and aggressive carcinogenesis. Among the various targets of RhoA-linked signals, pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major prostaglandin metabolite, was assessed in epithelial cancer cells. RhoA activation increased PGE2 levels and gene expression of the rate-limiting PGE2 producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1). In particular, human mPGES-1 was induced by RhoA via transcriptional activation in control and interleukin (IL)-1?-activated cancer cells. To address the involvement of potent signaling pathways in RhoA-activated mPGES-1 induction, various signaling inhibitors were screened for their effects on mPGES-1 promoter activity. RhoA activation enhanced basal and IL-1?-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-?B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 proteins, all of which were positively involved in RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1. As one potent down-stream transcription factor of ERK1/2 signals, early growth response gene 1 product also mediated RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1 by enhancing transcriptional activity. Since oncogene-triggered PGE2 production is a critical modulator of epithelial tumor cells, RhoA-associated mPGES-1 represents a promising chemo-preventive or therapeutic target for epithelial inflammation and its associated cancers.

  8. HEME-DEPENDENT ACTIVATION OF NEURONAL NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE BY CYTOSOL IS DUE TO AN HSP70-DEPENDENT, THIOREDOXIN-MEDIATED THIOL-DISULFIDE INTERCHANGE IN THE HEME/SUBSTRATE BINDING CLEFT†

    OpenAIRE

    Morishima, Yoshihiro; Lau, Miranda; Peng, Hwei-ming; Miyata, Yoshinari; Gestwicki, Jason E.; Pratt, William B.; Osawa, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    We have reported that heme-dependent activation of apo-neuronal nitric oxide synthase (apo-nNOS) to the active holo-enzyme dimer is dependent upon factors present in reticulocyte lysate and other cytosols. Here, we find that both Hsp70 and thioredoxin are components of the activation system. The apo-nNOS activating activity of reticulocyte lysate is retained in a pool of fractions containing Hsp70 that elute from DE52 prior to Hsp90. All of the activating activity and 20–30% of the Hsp70 el...

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists protect cerebellar granule cells from cytokine-induced apoptotic cell death by inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneka, M T; Feinstein, D L; Galea, E; Gleichmann, M; Wüllner, U; Klockgether, T

    1999-12-01

    Cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) can express the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in response to inflammatory stimuli. We demonstrate that induction of iNOS in CGCs by bacterial lipopolysaccharide and pro-inflammatory cytokines results in cell death that was potentiated by excess L-arginine and inhibited by the selective iNOS inhibitor, 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-thiazine. The NO-mediated cell death was accompanied by increased caspase-3-like activity, DNA fragmentation and positive terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), suggesting that apoptosis mediates CGC cell death. Incubation of CGCs with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ibuprofen or indomethacin, or with 15-deoxy-delta12,14 prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2) downregulates iNOS expression and reduces subsequent cell death. Since in other cell types, both NSAIDs and PGJ2 can activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) and downregulate cytokine levels and iNOS expression, and since CGCs express PPARgamma in vivo and in vitro, our data suggest that activation of CGC PPARgamma mediates iNOS suppression and reduced cell death. Because PPARgamma is expressed in brains of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients, in which neuronal iNOS expression and apoptotic cell death have been described, these results may help explain the basis for the beneficial effects of NSAIDs in AD. PMID:10695726

  10. Impact of Trans-Resveratrol-Sulfates and -Glucuronides on Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity, Nitric Oxide Release and Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Ladurner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene is a polyphenolic natural product mainly present in grape skin, berries and peanuts. In the vasculature resveratrol is thought to boost endothelial function by increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression, by enhancing eNOS activity, and by reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. Recent studies show that dietary resveratrol is metabolized in the liver and intestine into resveratrol-sulfate and -glucuronide derivatives questioning the relevance of multiple reported mechanistic in vitro data on resveratrol. In this study, we compare side by side different physiologically relevant resveratrol metabolites (resveratrol sulfates- and -glucuronides and their parent compound in their influence on eNOS enzyme activity, endothelial NO release, and intracellular ROS levels. In contrast to resveratrol, none of the tested resveratrol metabolites elevated eNOS enzyme activity and endothelial NO release or affected intracellular ROS levels, leaving the possibility that not tested metabolites are active and able to explain in vivo findings.

  11. Suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by (-)-isoeleutherin from the bulbs of Eleutherine americana through the regulation of NF-kappaB activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Su-Hyun; Min, Hye-Young; Han, Ah-Reum; Nam, Joo-Won; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Seoung Woo Park; Sang Hyung Lee; Sang Kook Lee

    2009-03-01

    Eleutherine americana Merr. et Heyne (Iridaceae) has been used as a folk medicine for the treatment of coronary disorders and wound-healing. In our previous phytochemical study, several pyranonaphthoquinoids, including (-)-isoeleutherin, were isolated from the bulbs of E. americana. Because inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) might be useful as anti-inflammatory agents, we investigated the potential of pyranonaphthoquinoids to inhibit iNOS activity. We found that (-)-isoeleutherin inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated induction of nitric oxide (NO) in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50)=7.4 microM). Using western blots and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we showed that (-)-isoeleutherin suppresses the expression of iNOS protein and mRNA. In addition, (-)-isoeleutherin inhibited the expression of various cytokines such as interleukin-1beta and interferon-beta. Activation of the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB by LPS was also inhibited by treatment with (-)-isoeleutherin, suggesting that (-)-isoeleutherin-mediated suppression of iNOS expression is associated with the regulation of transcription factor NF-kappaB. These findings suggest that (-)-isoeleutherin might be a novel anti-inflammatory agent, and that it may work by inhibiting NFkB activation in macrophages. PMID:19135178

  12. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from 14C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as 14C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We compare utilization of fatty acids produced by FASN to those derived exogenously. • Cancer cells do not have a specific requirement for fatty acids produced by FASN. • Fatty acids produced by FASN are in excess of cell requirements and are excreted. • Increased FASN activity is not required to sustain elevations in glycolysis

  13. Plasmodium falciparum avoids change in erythrocytic surface expression of phagocytosis markers during inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Kohnke, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. It may be produced by a parasite NO synthase (NOS) or by nitrate reduction. The parasite's benefit of NO accumulation is not understood. We investigated if inhibiting the P. falciparum NOS with specific and unspecific NOS inhibitors led to a decrease in intraerythrocytic NO accumulation and if this was associated with a change in surface expression of the phagocytosis markers CD47 and phosphatidyl serine. The specific inducible NOS inhibitors l-canavanine and GW274150 dose-dependently decreased intraerythrocytic NO while l-NMMA (an unspecific NOS inhibitor) and caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide (a specific endothelial NOS inhibitor) did not affect NO levels. Phosphatidyl serine externalization markedly increased upon P. falciparum infection. l-canavanine did not modify this whereas caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide increased the fraction of phosphatidyl serine exposing cells significantly. The infection did not change the level of expression of neither total CD47 nor its oxidized form. Unrelated to NOS inhibition, incubation with caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide lead to a decrease in oxidized CD47. In conclusion, the data imply that NOS inhibitors decrease NO accumulation in P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes but this does not correlate with the level of two major erythrocytic phagocytosis markers.

  14. Sucrose synthase activity and carbohydrates content in relation to phosphorylation status of Vicia faba root meristems during reactivation from sugar depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit, Justyna Teresa; Ciereszko, Iwona

    2012-11-01

    Carbohydrate starvation of Vicia faba root meristems leads to readjustment of carbohydrate metabolism and blocks the cell cycle in two principal control points (PCP1/2). The cell cycle reactivation is possible after sucrose provision, although with a delay of about 12h. During this period, the cells are sensitive to 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) and okadaic acid (OA), inhibitors of protein kinases and phosphatases, respectively. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether those inhibitors are involved in inhibition of cell cycle revival through interference with the activities of two sucrose-cleaving enzymes: sucrose synthase (SuSy; EC 2.4.1.13) and invertase (INV; EC 3.2.1.26). In sugar-starved cells, the in situ activity of both enzymes decreased significantly. Following supplementation of root meristems with sugar, INV remained inactive, but SuSy activity increased. Despite the lack of INV activity, glucose was present in meristem cells, but its content was low in cells treated with OA. In the latter case, the size of plastids was reduced, they had less starch, and Golgi structures were affected. In sugar-starved cells, SuSy activity was induced more by exogenous sucrose than by glucose. The sucrose-induced activity was strongly inhibited by OA (less by 6-DMAP) at early stages of regeneration, but not at the stages preceding DNA replication or mitotic activities. The results indicate that prolongation of regeneration and a marked decrease in the number of cells resuming proliferation (observed in previous studies) and resulting from the action of inhibitors, are correlated with the process of SuSy activation at the beginning of regeneration from sugar starvation. PMID:22770419

  15. Development and validation of HPTLC method for the estimation of almotriptan malate in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneetha A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, precise and accurate high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been proposed for the determination of almotriptan malate in a tablet dosage form. The drug was separated on aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 GF 254 with butanol:acetic acid:water (3:1:1 was used as mobilephase. Quantitative analysis was performed by densitometric scanning at 300 nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The calibration plot was linear over the range of 100-700 ng/band for almotriptan malate. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of drug in a pharmaceutical dosage form.

  16. Red clover coumarate 3'-hydroxylase (CYP98A44) is capable of hydroxylating p-coumaroyl-shikimate but not p-coumaroyl-malate: implications for the biosynthesis of phaselic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael L; Zarnowski, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves accumulate several mumol of phaselic acid [2-O-caffeoyl-L-malate] per gram fresh weight. Post-harvest oxidation of such o-diphenols to o-quinones by endogenous polyphenol oxidases (PPO) prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage. Forages like alfalfa (Medicago sativa) lack both foliar PPO activity and o-diphenols. Consequently, breakdown of their protein upon harvest and storage results in economic losses and release of excess nitrogen into the environment. Understanding how red clover synthesizes o-diphenols such as phaselic acid will help in the development of forages utilizing this natural system of protein protection. We have proposed biosynthetic pathways in red clover for phaselic acid that involve a specific hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:malate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase. It is unclear whether the transfer reaction to malate to form phaselic acid involves caffeic acid or p-coumaric acid and subsequent hydroxylation of the resulting p-coumaroyl-malate. The latter would require a coumarate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) capable of hydroxylating p-coumaroyl-malate, an activity not previously described. Here, a cytochrome P450 C3'H (CYP98A44) was identified and its gene cloned from red clover. CYP98A44 shares 96 and 79% amino acid identity with Medicago truncatula and Arabidopsis thaliana C3'H proteins that are capable of hydroxylating p-coumaroyl-shikimate and have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis. CYP98A44 mRNA is expressed in stems and flowers and to a lesser extent in leaves. Immune serum raised against CYP98A44 recognizes a membrane-associated protein in red clover stems and leaves and cross-reacts with C3'H proteins from other species. CYP98A44 expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is capable of hydroxylating p-coumaroyl-shikimate, but not p-coumaroyl-malate. This finding indicates that in red clover, phaselic acid is likely formed by transfer of a caffeoyl moiety to malic acid, although the existence of a second C3'H capable of hydroxylating p-coumaroyl-malate cannot be definitively ruled out. PMID:19921248

  17. Chronic rapamycin restores brain vascular integrity and function through NO synthase activation and improves memory in symptomatic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zheng, Wei; Halloran, Jonathan J; Burbank, Raquel R; Hussong, Stacy A; Hart, Matthew J; Javors, Martin; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian; Muir, Eric; Solano Fonseca, Rene; Strong, Randy; Richardson, Arlan G; Lechleiter, James D; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-09-01

    Vascular pathology is a major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. We recently showed that chronic administration of the target-of-rapamycin (TOR) inhibitor rapamycin, which extends lifespan and delays aging, halts the progression of AD-like disease in transgenic human (h)APP mice modeling AD when administered before disease onset. Here we demonstrate that chronic reduction of TOR activity by rapamycin treatment started after disease onset restored cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain vascular density, reduced cerebral amyloid angiopathy and microhemorrhages, decreased amyloid burden, and improved cognitive function in symptomatic hAPP (AD) mice. Like acetylcholine (ACh), a potent vasodilator, acute rapamycin treatment induced the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and NO release in brain endothelium. Administration of the NOS inhibitor L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester reversed vasodilation as well as the protective effects of rapamycin on CBF and vasculature integrity, indicating that rapamycin preserves vascular density and CBF in AD mouse brains through NOS activation. Taken together, our data suggest that chronic reduction of TOR activity by rapamycin blocked the progression of AD-like cognitive and histopathological deficits by preserving brain vascular integrity and function. Drugs that inhibit the TOR pathway may have promise as a therapy for AD and possibly for vascular dementias. PMID:23801246

  18. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3? phosphorylates and protects nuclear myosin 1c from proteasome-mediated degradation to activate rDNA transcription in early G1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarshad, Aishe A; Corcoran, Martin; Al-Muzzaini, Bader; Borgonovo-Brandter, Laura; Von Euler, Anne; Lamont, Douglas; Visa, Neus; Percipalle, Piergiorgio

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear myosin 1c (NM1) mediates RNA polymerase I (pol I) transcription activation and cell cycle progression by facilitating PCAF-mediated H3K9 acetylation, but the molecular mechanism by which NM1 is regulated remains unclear. Here, we report that at early G1 the glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3? phosphorylates and stabilizes NM1, allowing for NM1 association with the chromatin. Genomic analysis by ChIP-Seq showed that this mechanism occurs on the rDNA as active GSK3? selectively occupies the gene. ChIP assays and transmission electron microscopy in GSK3?-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts indicated that at G1 rRNA synthesis is suppressed due to decreased H3K9 acetylation leading to a chromatin state incompatible with transcription. We found that GSK3? directly phosphorylates the endogenous NM1 on a single serine residue (Ser-1020) located within the NM1 C-terminus. In G1 this phosphorylation event stabilizes NM1 and prevents NM1 polyubiquitination by the E3 ligase UBR5 and proteasome-mediated degradation. We conclude that GSK3?-mediated phosphorylation of NM1 is required for pol I transcription activation. PMID:24901984

  19. A trehalose 6-phosphate synthase gene of the hemocytes of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: cloning, the expression, its enzyme activity and relationship to hemolymph trehalose levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung J Sook

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trehalose in ectoderms functions in energy metabolism and protection in extreme environmental conditions. We structurally characterized trehalose 6-phosphate synthase (TPS from hemocytes of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. C. sapidus Hemo TPS (CasHemoTPS, like insect TPS, encodes both TPS and trehalose phosphate phosphatase domains. Trehalose seems to be a major sugar, as it shows higher levels than does glucose in hemocytes and hemolymph. Increases in HemoTPS expression, TPS enzyme activity in hemocytes, and hemolymph trehalose levels were determined 24 h after lipopolysaccharide challenge, suggesting that both TPS and TPP domains of CasHemoTPS are active and functional. The TPS gene has a wide tissue distribution in C. sapidus, suggesting multiple biosynthetic sites. A correlation between TPS activity in hemocytes and hemolymph trehalose levels was found during the molt cycle. The current study provides the first evidence of presence of trehalose in hemocytes and TPS in tissues of C. sapidus and implicates its functional role in energy metabolism and physiological adaptation.

  20. Glucose dependence of glycogen synthase activity regulation by GSK3 and MEK/ERK inhibitors and angiotensin-(1-7) action on these pathways in cultured human myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montori-Grau, Marta; Tarrats, Núria; Osorio-Conles, Oscar; Orozco, Anna; Serrano-Marco, Lucía; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Gómez-Foix, Anna M

    2013-05-01

    Glycogen synthase (GS) is activated by glucose/glycogen depletion in skeletal muscle cells, but the contributing signaling pathways, including the chief GS regulator GSK3, have not been fully defined. The MEK/ERK pathway is known to regulate GSK3 and respond to glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the GSK3 and MEK/ERK pathway contribution to GS activation by glucose deprivation in cultured human myotubes. Moreover, we tested the glucose-dependence of GSK3 and MEK/ERK effects on GS and angiotensin (1-7) actions on these pathways. We show that glucose deprivation activated GS, but did not change phospho-GS (Ser640/1), GSK3? activity or activity-activating phosphorylation of ERK1/2. We then treated glucose-replete and -depleted cells with SB415286, U0126, LY294 and rapamycin to inhibit GSK3, MEK1/2, PI3K and mTOR, respectively. SB415286 activated GS and decreased the relative phospho-GS (Ser640/1) level, more in glucose-depleted than -replete cells. U0126 activated GS and reduced the phospho-GS (Ser640/1) content significantly in glucose-depleted cells, while GSK3? activity tended to increase. LY294 inactivated GS in glucose-depleted cells only, without affecting relative phospho-GS (Ser640/1) level. Rapamycin had no effect on GS activation. Angiotensin-(1-7) raised phospho-ERK1/2 but not phospho-GSK3? (Ser9) content, while it inactivated GS and increased GS phosphorylation on Ser640/1, in glucose-replete cells. In glucose-depleted cells, angiotensin-(1-7) effects on ERK1/2 and GS were reverted, while relative phospho-GSK3? (Ser9) content decreased. In conclusion, activation of GS by glucose deprivation is not due to GS Ser640/1 dephosphorylation, GSK3? or ERK1/2 regulation in cultured myotubes. However, glucose depletion enhances GS activation/Ser640/1 dephosphorylation due to both GSK3 and MEK/ERK inhibition. Angiotensin-(1-7) inactivates GS in glucose-replete cells in association with ERK1/2 activation, not with GSK3 regulation, and glucose deprivation reverts both hormone effects. Thus, the ERK1/2 pathway negatively regulates GS activity in myotubes, without involving GSK3 regulation, and as a function of the presence of glucose. PMID:23453973

  1. Invertase and sucrose synthase activities in coffee plants sprayed with sucrose solution / Atividade de invertases e sacarose sintase em plantas de cafeeiro pulverizadas com solução de sacarose

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Carlos da, Silva; José Donizeti, Alves; Amauri Alves de, Alvarenga; Marcelo Murad, Magalhães; Dárlan Einstein do, Livramento; Daniela Deitos, Fries.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Uma prática cuja eficiência não foi ainda comprovada cientificamente, é a pulverização dos cafeeiros com solução diluída de sacarose, como fonte de carbono para as plantas. Este trabalho visou estudar o efeito da pulverização de açúcar via folha nos teores endógenos de carboidratos e na atividade da [...] s enzimas invertases e sacarose sintase em mudas de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L.) com baixo (baixo) e alto (normal) nível de reservas de carbono. As pulverizações ocorreram nas concentrações de 0,5 e 1% de sacarose utilizando-se água como testemunha. A aplicação de sacarose a 1% aumentou a concentração de açúcares solúveis totais (AST) em plantas depauperadas, como também aumentou as atividades das enzimas invertase ácida da parede, invertase ácida do vacúolo, invertase neutra do citosol e sacarose sintase. Em plantas com níveis normais de carboidratos não foi observada nenhuma alteração nos teores dos AST, como também nas atividades de tais enzimas. Independentemente dos tratamentos aplicados e do estado fisiológico das plantas, não foram observadas diferenças na transpiração e na condutância estomática, mostrando, desta forma, o controle estomático da transpiração. A fotossíntese foi estimulada a 0,5% e 1% em plantas depauperadas, o que não aconteceu com plantas normais. A pulverização de sacarose em mudas de cafeeiros só é eficiente tratando-se de plantas depauperadas na concentração de 1%. Abstract in english One management practice of which the efficiency has not yet been scientifically tested is spraying coffee plants with diluted sucrose solutions as a source of carbon for the plant. This paper evaluates the effect of foliar spraying with sugar on the endogenous level of carbohydrates and on the activ [...] ities of invertase and sucrose synthase in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) seedlings with reduced (low) and high (normal) levels of carbon reserve. The concentrations used were 0.5 and 1.0% sucrose, and water as a control. The use of sucrose at 1.0% caused an increase in the concentration of total soluble sugars in depauperate plants, as well as increased the activity of the following enzymes: cell wall and vacuole acid invertase, neutral cytosol invertase and sucrose synthase. In plants with high level of carbon reserve, no increments in total soluble sugar levels or in enzymatic activity were observed. Regardless of treatments or plants physiological state, no differences in transpiration or stomatal conductance were observed, demonstrating the stomatal control of transpiration. Photosynthesis was stimulated with the use of 0.5 and 1.0 % sucrose only in depauperate plants. Coffee seedling spraying with sucrose is only efficient for depauperate plants, at the concentration of 1.0%.

  2. Activation of adipogenesis by lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase-generated ?¹²-PGJ? acting through PPAR?-dependent and independent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Ko; Maruyama, Toshihiko; Kamauchi, Shinya; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2012-08-15

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS)-produced PGD(2) accelerates adipogenesis. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of PGD(2)-mediated activation of adipogenesis in mouse adipocytic 3T3-L1 cells. LC/MS analysis showed that ?(12)-PGJ(2), one of the PGD(2) metabolites, was predominantly produced in the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. ?(12)-PGJ(2) enhanced the expression of adipogenic genes in a ?(12)-PGJ(2)-concentration-dependent manner. Suppression of the expression of the adipogenic genes by L-PGDS siRNA or AT-56, an L-PGDS inhibitor, was cleared by the addition of ?(12)-PGJ(2). Moreover, the production of adiponectin and leptin was increased by treatment with ?(12)-PGJ(2). Furthermore, the results of a mammalian two-hybrid assay demonstrated that ?(12)-PGJ(2) enhanced the PPAR?-mediated transcription activity. However, ?(12)-PGJ(2)-activated expression of adipogenic genes such as fatty acid binding protein 4 (aP2) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase was inhibited only at 38% and 42%, respectively, by treatment with GW9662, a PPAR? antagonist in 3T3-L1 cells, although Troglitazone-mediated activation of the expression of these adipogenic genes was completely suppressed by GW9662, suggesting the existence of a PPAR?-independent mechanism for ?(12)-PGJ(2)-activated adipogenesis. These results, taken together, indicate that ?(12)-PGJ(2) is a dominant metabolite of L-PGDS-produced PGD(2) during adipogenesis and acts as an activator for adipogenesis through both PPAR?-dependent and -independent mechanisms in 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:22664386

  3. Effect of black currant anthocyanins on the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in vitro in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirisinghe, Indika; Banaszewski, Katarzyna; Cappozzo, Jack; McCarthy, Danielle; Burton-Freeman, Britt M

    2011-08-24

    Polyphenols are known to induce vasodilatory function via activation of the redox-sensitive phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway. Black currant fruits have appreciable amounts of polyphenolic compounds including cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside. It was hypothesized that black currant fruit extracts would cause activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through activation of redox-sensitive PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway. To test this hypothesis, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with different concentrations/times of black currant juice concentrates (Ben Gairn and Ben Hope) and the activation of Akt and eNOS was measured using immunoblotting. Vitamin C is also known to activate Akt and eNOS in in vitro models, and black currants are rich in vitamin C. Therefore, the effect of black currant extracts with and without coexisting vitamin C was investigated, using SPE columns to eliminate vitamin C content. The individual (and combined) effects of the major anthocyanins present in black currant juice samples with and without vitamin C were investigated and compared to the effects of the whole extract. Black currant juice samples (1 ?L/mL) significantly increased the phosphorylation of Akt (p-Akt) and eNOS (p-eNOS) (P concentrates, Ben Gairn and Ben Hope, activated eNOS via Akt/PI3 kinase pathway in vitro in HUVECs and that the effect was not dependent on vitamin C. PMID:21761876

  4. L-malate enhances the gene expression of carried proteins and antioxidant enzymes in liver of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Wu, J; Wu, Q; Zhang, J

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory reported L-malate as a free radical scavenger in aged rats. To investigate the antioxidant mechanism of L-malate in the mitochondria, we analyzed the change in gene expression of two malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS)-related carried proteins (AGC, aspartate/glutamate carrier and OMC, oxoglutarate/malate carrier) in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and three antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px) in the mitochondria. The changes in gene expression of these proteins and enzymes were examined by real-time RT-PCR in the heart and liver of aged rats treated with L-malate. L-malate was orally administered in rats continuously for 30 days using a feeding atraumatic needle. We found that the gene expression of OMC and GSH-Px mRNA in the liver increased by 39 % and 38 %, respectively, in the 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment group than that in the control group. The expression levels of SOD mRNA in the liver increased by 39 %, 56 %, and 78 % in the 0.105, 0.210, and 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment groups, respectively. No difference were observed in the expression levels of AGC, OMC, CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px mRNAs in the heart of rats between the L-malate treatment and control groups. These results predicted that L-malate may increase the antioxidant capacity of mitochondria by enhancing the expression of mRNAs involved in the MAS and the antioxidant enzymes. PMID:25194133

  5. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 activity during development of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) essential for the DC function to induce T helper 2 polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takenori; Yanagawa, Yoshiki; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Nonomura, Katsuya; Onoé, Kazunori

    2007-10-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) polarize naive CD4(+) T cells to either T helper 1 (Th1) or Th2 cells. We examined the role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) activity during DC development from murine bone marrow (BM) cells. DCs were generated by culturing lineage-marker-negative BM cells with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the presence or absence of a specific inhibitor of GSK3 (Gi), SB415286, for 6 days. DCs generated in the presence (GiDC) or absence (control DC) of SB415286 similarly exhibited a conventional DC phenotype (CD11b(+) B220(-) CD8(-)). These DCs were mixed with allogeneic CD4(+) T cells and the ability to polarize Th1 or Th2 cells was evaluated. The GiDCs exhibited markedly impaired function to induce Th2 polarization compared to control DCs. In contrast, the ability of GiDCs to generate Th1 cells was slightly higher than that of control DCs. CD86 expression and CD40-mediated interleukin-6 production were completely diminished in GiDCs, which might be associated with the impaired ability of the GiDCs to induce Th2 differentiation. These results suggest that the GSK3 activity during DC development is essential for the establishment of the DC function to induce Th2, but not Th1, differentiation. PMID:17490435

  6. Citrus Flavonoids Luteolin, Apigenin, and Quercetin Inhibit Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3? Enzymatic Activity by Lowering the Interaction Energy Within the Binding Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jodee L.; Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa G.; Stefani, Felicia; Schuler, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic cancer studies have shown that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) leads to decreased cancer cell proliferation and survival by abrogating nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) activity. In this investigation, various citrus compounds, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, and limonoids, were individually investigated for their inhibitory effects on GSK-3? by using a luminescence assay. Of the 22 citrus compounds tested, the flavonoids luteolin, apigenin, and quercetin had the highest inhibitory effects on GSK-3?, with 50% inhibitory values of 1.5, 1.9, and 2.0??M, respectively. Molecular dockings were then performed to determine the potential interactions of each citrus flavonoid with GSK-3?. Luteolin, apigenin, and quercetin were predicted to fit within the binding pocket of GSK-3? with low interaction energies (?76.4, ?76.1, and ?84.6?kcal·mol?1, respectively) and low complex energies (?718.1, ?688.1, and ?719.7?kcal·mol?1, respectively). Our results indicate that several citrus flavonoids inhibit GSK-3? activity and suggest that these have potential to suppress the growth of pancreatic tumors. PMID:21443429

  7. Overexpression of interleukin-18 protein reduces viability and induces apoptosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells by activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiwei; Hu, Min; Wang, Yumei; Sun, Baozhen; Guo, Yu; Xu, Zhimin; Li, Jia; Han, Bing

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of interleukin-18 (IL-18) expression on regulating the viability and apoptosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) cells in vitro and examine the underlying molecular events. Human IL-18 cDNA was cloned into the vector pcDNA3.1 (+) and transfected into CRL-1623™ cells. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, cell viability MTT assay, flow cytometric Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI), Giemsa staining, and caspase-3 activity assay were performed. The data showed that overexpression of IL-18 protein reduced TSCC cell viability by inducing apoptosis. Compared with cells transfected with the control vector, IL-18 expression activated caspase-3, -7, and -9 by inducing their cleavage and increased the expression of interferon (IFN)-? and cytochrome c mRNA, but reduced cyclin D1 and A1 expression in TSCC cells. IL-18 expression upregulated the expression and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3? protein in CRL1623 cells, whereas the selective GSK-3? inhibitor kenpaullone antagonized the effects of IL-18 protein on TSCC cells in vitro. The results indicated that IL-18 played an important role in the inhibition of TSCC cell growth and may be further investigated as a novel therapeutic target against TSCC. PMID:25591548

  8. Aronia melanocarpa juice, a rich source of polyphenols, induces endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary arteries via the redox-sensitive activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hun; Auger, Cyril; Kurita, Ikuko; Anselm, Eric; Rivoarilala, Lalainasoa Odile; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2013-11-30

    This study examined the ability of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) juice, a rich source of polyphenols, to cause NO-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine the underlying mechanism and the active polyphenols. A. melanocarpa juice caused potent endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary artery rings. Relaxations to A. melanocarpa juice were minimally affected by inhibition of the formation of vasoactive prostanoids and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated responses, and markedly reduced by N(?)-nitro-l-arginine (endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) inhibitor), membrane permeant analogs of superoxide dismutase and catalase, PP2 (Src kinase inhibitor), and wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor). In cultured endothelial cells, A. melanocarpa juice increased the formation of NO as assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using the spin trap iron(II)diethyldithiocarbamate, and reactive oxygen species using dihydroethidium. These responses were associated with the redox-sensitive phosphorylation of Src, Akt and eNOS. A. melanocarpa juice-derived fractions containing conjugated cyanidins and chlorogenic acids induced the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. The present findings indicate that A. melanocarpa juice is a potent stimulator of the endothelial formation of NO in coronary arteries; this effect involves the phosphorylation of eNOS via the redox-sensitive activation of the Src/PI3-kinase/Akt pathway mostly by conjugated cyanidins and chlorogenic acids. PMID:23973200

  9. Structure and mechanism of the diterpene cyclase ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köksal, Mustafa; Hu, Huayou; Coates, Robert M.; Peters, Reuben J.; Christianson, David W. (UIUC); (Iowa State); (Penn)

    2011-09-20

    The structure of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase reveals three {alpha}-helical domains ({alpha}, {beta} and {gamma}), as also observed in the related diterpene cyclase taxadiene synthase. However, active sites are located at the interface of the {beta}{gamma} domains in ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase but exclusively in the {alpha} domain of taxadiene synthase. Modular domain architecture in plant diterpene cyclases enables the evolution of alternative active sites and chemical strategies for catalyzing isoprenoid cyclization reactions.

  10. Detection of intermediates in the oxidative half-reaction of the FAD-dependent thymidylate synthase from Thermotoga maritima: carbon transfer without covalent pyrimidine activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, John A; Ortiz-Maldonado, Mariliz; Hoppe, Samuel W; Palfey, Bruce A

    2014-08-19

    Thymidylate, a vital DNA precursor, is synthesized by thymidylate synthases (TSs). A second class of TSs, encoded by the thyX gene, is found in bacteria and a few other microbes and is especially widespread in anaerobes. TS encoded by thyX requires a flavin adenine dinucleotide prosthetic group for activity. In the oxidative half-reaction, the reduced flavin is oxidized by 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate (dUMP) and (6R)-N5,N10-methylene-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate (CH2THF), synthesizing 2'-deoxythymidine 5'-monophosphate (dTMP). dTMP synthesis is a complex process, requiring the enzyme to promote carbon transfer, probably by increasing the nucleophilicity of dUMP and the electrophilicity of CH2THF, and reduction of the transferred carbon. The mechanism of the oxidative half-reaction was investigated by transient kinetics. Two intermediates were detected, the first by a change in the flavin absorbance spectrum in stopped-flow experiments and the second by the transient disappearance of deoxynucleotide in acid quenching experiments. The effects of substrate analogues and the behavior of mutated enzymes on these reactions lead to the conclusion that activation of dUMP does not occur through a Michael-like addition, the mechanism for the activation analogous with that of the flavin-independent TS. Rather, we propose that the nucleophilicity of dUMP is enhanced by electrostatic polarization upon binding to the active site. This conclusion rationalizes many of our observations, for instance, the markedly slower reactions when two arginine residues that hydrogen bond with the uracil moiety of dUMP were mutated to alanine. The activation of dUMP by polarization is consistent with the majority of the published data on ThyX and provides a testable mechanistic hypothesis. PMID:25068636

  11. Enhancing sucrose synthase activity in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers results in increased levels of starch, ADPglucose and UDPglucose and total yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Muñoz, Francisco José; Montero, Manuel; Etxeberria, Ed; Sesma, María Teresa; Ovecka, Miroslav; Bahaji, Abdellatif; Ezquer, Ignacio; Li, Jun; Prat, Salomé; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2009-09-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy) is a highly regulated cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of sucrose and a nucleoside diphosphate into the corresponding nucleoside diphosphate glucose and fructose. To determine the impact of SuSy activity in starch metabolism and yield in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers we measured sugar levels and enzyme activities in tubers of SuSy-overexpressing potato plants grown in greenhouse and open field conditions. We also transcriptionally characterized tubers of SuSy-overexpressing and -antisensed potato plants. SuSy-overexpressing tubers exhibited a substantial increase in starch, UDPglucose and ADPglucose content when compared with controls. Tuber dry weight, starch content per plant and total yield of SuSy-overexpressing tubers increased significantly over those of control plants. In contrast, activities of enzymes directly involved in starch metabolism in SuSy-overexpressing tubers were normal when compared with controls. Transcriptomic analyses using POCI arrays and the MapMan software revealed that changes in SuSy activity affect the expression of genes involved in multiple biological processes, but not that of genes directly involved in starch metabolism. These analyses also revealed a reverse correlation between the expressions of acid invertase and SuSy-encoding genes, indicating that the balance between SuSy- and acid invertase-mediated sucrolytic pathways is a major determinant of starch accumulation in potato tubers. Results presented in this work show that SuSy strongly determines the intracellular levels of UDPglucose, ADPglucose and starch, and total yield in potato tubers. We also show that enhancement of SuSy activity represents a useful strategy for increasing starch accumulation and yield in potato tubers. PMID:19608713

  12. Coexpression of GTP cyclohydrolase I and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNAs in mouse osteoblastic cells activated by proinflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togari, A; Arai, M; Mogi, M; Kondo, A; Nagatsu, T

    1998-05-29

    Proinflammatory cytokines, a combination of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma, caused mRNA expression of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTP-CH), the rate-limiting enzyme in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthesis, and of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a well-characterized osteoblastic clone MC3T3-E1 cell line. We found the expression of the GTP-CH gene in osteoblasts for the first time. The expression of GTP-CH and iNOS mRNAs was found to be maximal at 3 and 9 h, respectively. The expression of both genes elicited increases in BH4 and NO levels. Pharmacological studies using 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine, an inhibitor of GTP-CH activity, showed that BH4 is involved in the activity of iNOS, but not in the induction of iNOS mRNA. The results using an inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and activating protein-1 (AP-1) activation suggested that coinduction of the two genes in response to cytokines occurred via activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1. In MC3T3-E1 cells BH4 and sepiapterin, producing BH4, could protect against apoptosis, i.e. the degradation of nuclear DNA in the cells, induced by NO derived from S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D-L-penicillamine. These results suggest that the induction of BH4 together with NO by proinflammatory cytokines could protect against NO-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells. PMID:9654136

  13. Cloning, expression, and characterization of Babesia gibsoni dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase: inhibitory effect of antifolates on its catalytic activity and parasite proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboge, Gabriel O; Jia, Honglin; Terkawi, Mohamad A; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Sunaga, Fujiko; Namikawa, Kuzuhiko; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Fujisaki, Kozo; Xuan, Xuenan

    2008-11-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) is a well-validated antifolate drug target in certain pathogenic apicomplexans, but not in the genus Babesia, including Babesia gibsoni. Therefore, we isolated, cloned, and expressed the wild-type B. gibsoni dhfr-ts gene in Escherichia coli and evaluated the inhibitory effect of antifolates on its enzyme activity, as well as on in vitro parasite growth. The full-length gene consists of a 1,548-bp open reading frame encoding a 58.8-kDa translated peptide containing DHFR and TS domains linked together in a single polypeptide chain. Each domain contained active-site amino acid residues responsible for the enzymatic activity. The expressed soluble recombinant DHFR-TS protein was approximately 57 kDa after glutathione S-transferase (GST) cleavage, similar to an approximately 58-kDa native enzyme identified from the parasite merozoite. The non-GST fusion recombinant DHFR enzyme revealed K(m) values of 4.70 +/- 0.059 (mean +/- standard error of the mean) and 9.75 +/- 1.64 microM for dihydrofolic acid (DHF) and NADPH, respectively. Methotrexate was a more-potent inhibitor of the enzymatic activity (50% inhibition concentration [IC(50)] = 68.6 +/- 5.20 nM) than pyrimethamine (IC(50) = 55.0 +/- 2.08 microM) and trimethoprim (IC(50) = 50 +/- 12.5 microM). Moreover, the antifolates' inhibitory effects on DHFR enzyme activity paralleled their inhibition of the parasite growth in vitro, indicating that the B. gibsoni DHFR could be a model for studying antifolate compounds as potential drug candidates. Therefore, the B. gibsoni DHFR-TS is a molecular antifolate drug target. PMID:18794380

  14. Differential Activity of NO Synthase Inhibitors as Chemopreventive Agents in a Primary Rat Tracheal Epithelial Cell Transformation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Sharma

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A model to study the effectiveness of potential chemopreventive agents that inhibit neoplastic process by different mechanisms has been used to test the efficacy of seven nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitors. Five selective inducible NOS (iNOS inhibitors: S-methyl isothiourea (S-MITU, S-2-aminoethyl isothiourea (S-2-AEITU, S-ethyl isothiourea (S-EITU, aminoguanidine (AG, 2-amino-4-methyl pyridine (2AMP, and two non selective general NOS inhibitors: L-N6-(1-iminoethyl lysine (IEL and N?-nitro-L-arginine (NNLA, were tested for efficacy against a carcinogen, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P-induced primary rat tracheal epithelial (RTE cell transformation assay. RTE cells were treated with B[a]P alone or with five nontoxic concentrations of an NOS inhibitor and the resulting foci at the end of 30 days were scored for inhibition of transformation. The results indicate that all three isothiourea compounds inhibited B[a]Pinduced RTE foci in a dose-dependent manner. SAEITU was the most effective inhibitor with an IC50 (the molar concentration that inhibits transformation by 50% of 9.1 ?M and 100% inhibition at the highest dose tested (30 ?M. However, both S-EITU and SMITU showed a maximum percent inhibition of 81% and 100% at 1 mM with an IC50 of 84 and 110 ?M, respectively. 2-AMP did not show any dose-dependent response, but was highly effective (57% inhibition at an intermediate dose of 30 ?M and an IC50 of 25 ?M. Similar to thiourea compounds, AG exhibited good dose-dependent inhibition with a maximum inhibition of 86% at 1 mM. NNLA and IEL were negative in this assay. Based on the IC50 values, NOS inhibitors were rated for efficacy from high to low as follows: S-2AEITU<2-AMP

  15. Malate supplementation to beef cattle: effects on growth performance and rumen fermentation products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vandoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were performed to evaluate the effects of malate supplementation on the growth performance as well as on ruminal pH and fermentation products of beef cattle. A total of 80 Charolaise bullocks were randomly allotted to one of the four experimental groups which included two experiments. The first experiment involved a control group (C fed with a corn silage based diet and a treated group (T fed the same diet supplemented with 20 g/head/day of malate. The second experiment involved a dry control group (DC fed with a dry diet (without corn silage and a treated group (DMS fed with the same diet supplemented with 20 g/head/day malate. Bullocks fed diets with corn silage and supplemented with malate demonstrated higher live weight in the transition, fattening (P<0.05 and finishing periods (P<0.10, and higher average daily gain in the fattening and finishing period (P<0.10 than the control group. In the second experiment no difference in growth performance were highlighted. In both trials no statistical difference was highlighted for ruminal fluid pH. In regards to fermentation products, the supplemented animals exhibited a higher propionic acid proportion, lower acetate:propionate ratio, and higher N-NH3 concentration than the controls for both trials.

  16. INFLUENCE OF ENHANCED MALATE DEHYDROGENASE EXPRESSION BY ALFALFA ON DIVERSITY OF RHIZOBACTERIA AND SOIL NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic alfalfa over-expressing a nodule-enhanced malate dehydrogenase (neMDH) cDNA and untransformed alfalfa plants were grown at the same field site and rhizosphere soils collected after 53 weeks of plant growth. These alfalfa lines differ in the amount and composition of root organic acids pro...

  17. Higher plant cellulose synthases

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, Todd

    2000-01-01

    The sole function of cellulose synthases, which are found in plants bacteria, fungi, and animals, is to produce the biopolymer cellulose. Although no crystal structure has yet been solved, a considerable amount is known about their structure, function and evolution.

  18. The folding of dimeric cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase. Equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Suparna C; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Das Gupta, Chanchal

    2002-08-01

    Porcine heart cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase (s-MDH) is a dimeric protein (2 x 35 kDa). We have studied equilibrium unfolding and refolding of s-MDH using activity assay, fluorescence, far-UV and near-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, hydrophobic probe-1-anilino-8-napthalene sulfonic acid binding, dynamic light scattering, and chromatographic (HPLC) techniques. The unfolding and refolding transitions are reversible and show the presence of two equilibrium intermediate states. The first one is a compact monomer (MC) formed immediately after subunit dissociation and the second one is an expanded monomer (ME), which is little less compact than the native monomer and has most of the characteristic features of a 'molten globule' state. The equilibrium transition is fitted in the model: 2U 2M(E) 2M(C) D. The time course of kinetics of self- refolding of s-MDH revealed two parallel folding pathways [Rudolph, R., Fuchs, I. & Jaenicke, R. (1986) Biochemistry 25, 1662-1669]. The major pathway (70%) is 2U-->2M*-->2M-->D, the rate limiting step being the isomerization of the monomers (K1 = 1.7 x 10(-3) s(-1)). The minor pathway (30%) involves an association step leading to the incorrectly folding dimers, prior to the very slow D*-->D folding step. In this study, we have characterized the folding-assembly pathway of dimeric s-MDH. Our kinetic and equilibrium experiments indicate that the folding of s-MDH involves the formation of two folding intermediates. However, whether the equilibrium intermediates are equivalent to the kinetic ones is beyond the scope of this study. PMID:12153583

  19. Pioglitazone inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide synthase is associated with altered activity of p38 MAP kinase and PI3K/Akt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Randy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-?-mediated neuroprotection involves inhibition of microglial activation and decreased expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been well established. In the present study we explored: (1 the effect of the PPAR-? agonist pioglitazone on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced iNOS activity and nitric oxide (NO generation by microglia; (2 the differential role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK, c-Jun NH(2-terminal kinase (JNK, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K on LPS-induced NO generation; and (3 the regulation of p38 MAPK, JNK, and PI3K by pioglitazone. Methods Mesencephalic neuron-microglia mixed cultures, and microglia-enriched cultures were treated with pioglitazone and/or LPS. The protein levels of iNOS, p38 MAPK, JNK, PPAR-?, PI3K, and protein kinase B (Akt were measured by western blot. Different specific inhibitors of iNOS, p38MAPK, JNK, PI3K, and Akt were used in our experiment, and NO generation was measured using a nitrite oxide assay kit. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-positive neurons were counted in mesencephalic neuron-microglia mixed cultures. Results Our results showed that pioglitazone inhibits LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO generation, and inhibition of iNOS is sufficient to protect dopaminergic neurons against LPS insult. In addition, inhibition of p38 MAPK, but not JNK, prevented LPS-induced NO generation. Further, and of interest, pioglitazone inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Wortmannin, a specific PI3K inhibitor, enhanced p38 MAPK phosphorylation upon LPS stimulation of microglia. Elevations of phosphorylated PPAR-?, PI3K, and Akt levels were observed with pioglitazone treatment, and inhibition of PI3K activity enhanced LPS-induced NO production. Furthermore, wortmannin prevented the inhibitory effect of pioglitazone on the LPS-induced NO increase. Conclusion We demonstrate that pioglitazone protects dopaminergic neurons against LPS insult at least via inhibiting iNOS expression and NO generation, which is potentially mediated via inhibition of p38 MAPK activity. In addition, the PI3K pathway actively participates in the negative regulation of LPS-induced NO production. Our findings suggest that PPAR-? activation may involve differential regulation of p38 MAPK and of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the regulation of the inflammatory process.

  20. Development and prospective multicenter evaluation of the long noncoding RNA MALAT-1 as a diagnostic urinary biomarker for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ji; Shi, Xiaolei; Zhu, Yasheng; Zhang, Wei; Jing, Taile; Zhang, Chao; Shen, Jian; Xu, Chuanliang; Wang, Huiqing; Wang, Haifeng; Wang, Yang; Liu, Bin; Li, Yaoming; Fang, Ziyu; Guo, Fei; Qiao, Meng; Wu, Chengyao; Wei, Qiang; Xu, Danfeng; Shen, Dan; Lu, Xin; Gao, Xu; Hou, Jianguo; Sun, Yinghao

    2014-01-01

    The current strategy for diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) is mainly based on the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. However, PSA has low specificity and has led to numerous unnecessary biopsies. We evaluated the effectiveness of urinary metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT-1), a long noncoding RNA, for predicting the risk of PCa before biopsy. The MALAT-1 score was tested in a discovery phase and a multi-center validation phase. The predictive power of the MALAT-1 score was evaluated by the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) and by decision curve analysis. As an independent predictor of PCa, the MALAT-1 score was significantly higher in men with a positive biopsy than in those with a negative biopsy. The ROC analysis showed a higher AUC for the MALAT-1 score (0.670 and 0.742) vs. the total PSA (0.545 and 0.601) and percent free PSA (0.622 and 0.627) in patients with PSA values of 4.0-10 ng/ml. According to the decision curve analysis, using a probability threshold of 25%, the MALAT-1 model would prevent 30.2%-46.5% of unnecessary biopsies in PSA 4–10 ng/ml cohorts, without missing any high-grade cancers. Our results demonstrate that urine MALAT-1 is a promising biomarker for predicting prostate cancer risk. PMID:25526029

  1. Glycogen synthase kinase 3? dictates podocyte motility and focal adhesion turnover by modulating paxillin activity: implications for the protective effect of low-dose lithium in podocytopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiwei; Ge, Yan; Liu, Zhihong; Gong, Rujun

    2014-10-01

    Aberrant focal adhesion turnover is centrally involved in podocyte actin cytoskeleton disorganization and foot process effacement. The structural and dynamic integrity of focal adhesions is orchestrated by multiple cell signaling molecules, including glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?), a multitasking kinase lately identified as a mediator of kidney injury. However, the role of GSK3? in podocytopathy remains obscure. In doxorubicin (Adriamycin)-injured podocytes, lithium, a GSK3? inhibitor and neuroprotective mood stabilizer, obliterated the accelerated focal adhesion turnover, rectified podocyte hypermotility, and restored actin cytoskeleton integrity. Mechanistically, lithium counteracted the doxorubicin-elicited GSK3? overactivity and the hyperphosphorylation and overactivation of paxillin, a focal adhesion-associated adaptor protein. Moreover, forced expression of a dominant negative kinase dead mutant of GSK3? highly mimicked, whereas ectopic expression of a constitutively active GSK3? mutant abolished, the effect of lithium in doxorubicin-injured podocytes, suggesting that the effect of lithium is mediated, at least in part, through inhibition of GSK3?. Furthermore, paxillin interacted with GSK3? and served as its substrate. In mice with doxorubicin nephropathy, a single low dose of lithium ameliorated proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis. Consistently, lithium therapy abrogated GSK3? overactivity, blunted paxillin hyperphosphorylation, and reinstated actin cytoskeleton integrity in glomeruli associated with an early attenuation of podocyte foot process effacement. Thus, GSK3?-modulated focal adhesion dynamics might serve as a novel therapeutic target for podocytopathy. PMID:25239564

  2. Maintained activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3? despite of its phosphorylation at serine-9 in okadaic acid-induced neurodegenerative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?) is recognized as one of major kinases to phosphorylate tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus lots of AD drug discoveries target GSK3?. However, the inactive form of GSK3? which is phosphorylated at serine-9 is increased in AD brains. This is also inconsistent with phosphorylation status of other GSK3? substrates, such as ?-catenin and collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) since their phosphorylation is all increased in AD brains. Thus, we addressed this paradoxical condition of AD in rat neurons treated with okadaic acid (OA) which inhibits protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) and induces tau hyperphosphorylation and cell death. Interestingly, OA also induces phosphorylation of GSK3? at serine-9 and other substrates including tau, ?-catenin and CRMP2 like in AD brains. In this context, we observed that GSK3? inhibitors such as lithium chloride and 6-bromoindirubin-3'-monoxime (6-BIO) reversed those phosphorylation events and protected neurons. These data suggest that GSK3? may still have its kinase activity despite increase of its phosphorylation at serine-9 in AD brains at least in PP2A-compromised conditions and that GSK3? inhibitors could be a valuable drug candidate in AD.

  3. Maintained activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} despite of its phosphorylation at serine-9 in okadaic acid-induced neurodegenerative model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yong-Whan [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung-Yong, E-mail: ysy@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Biomacromolecules, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jung-Eun [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Biomacromolecules, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Min [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hui-Sun; Choe, Han [Department of Physiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Biomacromolecules, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Chul [CrystalGenomics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Hou, E-mail: dhkim@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Biomacromolecules, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-30

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK3{beta}) is recognized as one of major kinases to phosphorylate tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus lots of AD drug discoveries target GSK3{beta}. However, the inactive form of GSK3{beta} which is phosphorylated at serine-9 is increased in AD brains. This is also inconsistent with phosphorylation status of other GSK3{beta} substrates, such as {beta}-catenin and collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) since their phosphorylation is all increased in AD brains. Thus, we addressed this paradoxical condition of AD in rat neurons treated with okadaic acid (OA) which inhibits protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) and induces tau hyperphosphorylation and cell death. Interestingly, OA also induces phosphorylation of GSK3{beta} at serine-9 and other substrates including tau, {beta}-catenin and CRMP2 like in AD brains. In this context, we observed that GSK3{beta} inhibitors such as lithium chloride and 6-bromoindirubin-3'-monoxime (6-BIO) reversed those phosphorylation events and protected neurons. These data suggest that GSK3{beta} may still have its kinase activity despite increase of its phosphorylation at serine-9 in AD brains at least in PP2A-compromised conditions and that GSK3{beta} inhibitors could be a valuable drug candidate in AD.

  4. Nectandrin B activates endothelial nitric-oxide synthase phosphorylation in endothelial cells: role of the AMP-activated protein kinase/estrogen receptor ?/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Tran Thi; Oh, Won Keun; Nguyen, Phi Hung; Oh, Seok Jeong; Lee, Moo Yeol; Kang, Keon Wook

    2011-12-01

    We revealed previously that nectandrin B isolated from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg, Myristicaceae) functions as a potent AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator and showed its antiobesity effect. In this study, we investigated whether nectandrin B affects phosphorylation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. Nectandrin B increased the phosphorylation of eNOS and nitric oxide (NO) production in a concentration-dependent manner and maximal effect was found at 10 ?g/ml. Nectandrin B activates AMPK, presumably via Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase II activation and nectandrin B-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation was reversed by AMPK inhibition. Both the enzyme activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent reporter gene transcription were enhanced by nectandrin B. ER? inhibition by specific antagonist or small interfering siRNA (siRNA) suppressed nectandrin B-mediated eNOS phosphorylation. Moreover, AMPK inhibition significantly reversed the activation of ER-dependent transcription and PI3K activation in response to nectandrin B. Nectandrin B evoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat aortic rings, and this was blocked by inhibition of AMPK, ER, or PI3K. These results suggest that potent AMPK activator nectandrin B enhances NO production via eNOS phosphorylation in endothelial cells and ER?-dependent PI3K activity is required. PMID:21940786

  5. Distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, nitric oxide synthase, and their receptors in human and rat sphenopalatine ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csati, A; Tajti, J; Kuris, A; Tuka, B; Edvinsson, L; Warfvinge, K

    2012-01-27

    Cranial parasympathetic outflow is mediated through the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG). The present study was performed to examine the expression of the parasympathetic signaling transmitters and their receptors in human and rat SPG. Indirect immunofluorescence technique was used for the demonstration of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), glutamine synthetase (GS), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), VIP and PACAP common receptors (VPAC1, VPAC2), and PACAP receptor (PAC1). In addition, double labeling was carried out to reveal the co-localization of neurotransmitters. VIP-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons as well as fibers were frequently found in human SPG. Many, homogenously stained NOS-ir cells were found, but no positive fibers. In addition, PACAP-ir was observed in some of the neurons and in fibers. Co-localization was found between VIP and NOS. In rat VIP-, NOS-, and PACAP-ir were found in many neurons and fibers. Co-localization of PACAP and NOS was observed in neurons. PACAP and GS double staining revealed that the PACAP-ir was localized in/close to the cell membrane, but not in the satellite glial cells. PAC1 and VPAC1 immunoreactivity was found in the satellite glial cells of both human and rat. Western blot revealed protein expression of PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 in rat SPG. The trigeminal-autonomic reflex may be active in migraine attacks. We hypothesized that VIP, PACAP, NOS, PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 play a role in the activation of parasympathetic cranial outflow during migraine attacks. PMID:22108610

  6. Alterations of nitric-oxide synthase and xanthine-oxidase activities of human keratinocytes by ultraviolet-B radiation -potential role for peroxynitrite in skin inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deliconstantinos, G.; Villiotou, V.; Stavrides, J.C. [Athens Univ. (Greece). School of Medicine

    1996-06-28

    In the present study, we demonstrated that NO synthase (cNOS) and xanthine oxidase (XO) of human keratinocytes can be activated to release NO, superoxide (O-2(-)) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) following exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. We defined that this photo induced response may be involved in the pathogenesis of sunburn erythema and inflammation. Treatment of human keratinocytes with UVB (290-320 nm) radiation (up to 200 mJ/cm(2)) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in NO and ONOO-release that was inhibited by N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). NO and ONOO- release from keratinocytes was accompanied by an increase in intracellular cGMP levels. Treatment of human keratinocyte cytosol with various doses of UVB (up to 100 mJ/cm(2)) resulted in an increase in XO activity that was inhibited by oxypurinol. In in vivo experiments, when experimental animals were subjected to UVB radiation, a protection factor (PF) of 6.5 {+-} 1.8 was calculated when an emulsified cream formulation containing nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) (2%) and L-NMMA (2%) was applied to their skin. The present study indicates that UVB radiation acts as a potent stimulator of cNOS and XO activities in human keratinocytes. NO and ONOO- may exert cytotoxic effects in keratinocytes themselves, as well as in their neighbouring endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This may be a major part of the integrated response leading to erythema production and the inflammation process. (UK).

  7. Alterations of nitric-oxide synthase and xanthine-oxidase activities of human keratinocytes by ultraviolet-B radiation -potential role for peroxynitrite in skin inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we demonstrated that NO synthase (cNOS) and xanthine oxidase (XO) of human keratinocytes can be activated to release NO, superoxide (O-2(-)) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) following exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. We defined that this photo induced response may be involved in the pathogenesis of sunburn erythema and inflammation. Treatment of human keratinocytes with UVB (290-320 nm) radiation (up to 200 mJ/cm(2)) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in NO and ONOO-release that was inhibited by N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). NO and ONOO- release from keratinocytes was accompanied by an increase in intracellular cGMP levels. Treatment of human keratinocyte cytosol with various doses of UVB (up to 100 mJ/cm(2)) resulted in an increase in XO activity that was inhibited by oxypurinol. In in vivo experiments, when experimental animals were subjected to UVB radiation, a protection factor (PF) of 6.5 ± 1.8 was calculated when an emulsified cream formulation containing nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) (2%) and L-NMMA (2%) was applied to their skin. The present study indicates that UVB radiation acts as a potent stimulator of cNOS and XO activities in human keratinocytes. NO and ONOO- may exert cytotoxic effects in keratinocytes themselves, as well as in their neighbouring endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This may be a major part of the integrated response leading to erythema production and the inflammation process. (UK)rocess. (UK)

  8. Ursolic acid from Oldenlandia diffusa induces apoptosis via activation of caspases and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta in SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Hoon; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Young; Kim, Bonglee; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Yoo, Dong-Youl

    2012-01-01

    Although ursolic acid isolated from Oldenlandia diffusa (Rubiaceae) was known to have anticancer activities in prostate, breast and liver cancers, the underlying mechanism of ursolic acid in ovarian cancer cells was not investigated so far. In the present study, the apoptotic mechanism of ursolic acid was elucidated in SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells by 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay, cell cycle analysis and Western blotting. Ursolic acid exerted cytotoxicity against SK-OV-3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cells with IC?? of ca. 50 and 65?µM, respectively. Apoptotic bodies were observed in ursolic acid treated SK-OV-3 cells. Also, ursolic acid significantly increased ethidium homodimer stained cells and sub-G1 apoptotic portion in SK-OV-3 cells. Consistently, Western blotting revealed that ursolic acid effectively cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase-9 and -3, suppressed the expression of survival genes such as c-Myc, Bcl-x(L) and astrocyte elevated gene (AEG)-1, and upregulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in SK-OV-3 cells. Interestingly, ursolic acid suppressed ?-catenin degradation as well as enhanced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK 3?). Furthermore, GSK 3? inhibitor SB216763 blocked the cleavages of caspase-3 and PARP induced by ursolic acid and proteosomal inhibitor MG132 disturbed down-regulation of ?-catenin, activation of caspase-3 and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) induced by ursolic acid in SK-OV-3 cells. Overall, our findings suggest that ursolic acid induces apoptosis via activation of caspase and phosphorylation of GSK 3? in SK-OV-3 cancer cells as a potent anti-cancer agent for ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:22791147

  9. Distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, nitric oxide synthase, and their receptors in human and rat sphenopalatine ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csati, A; Tajti, J

    2012-01-01

    Cranial parasympathetic outflow is mediated through the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG). The present study was performed to examine the expression of the parasympathetic signaling transmitters and their receptors in human and rat SPG. Indirect immunofluorescence technique was used for the demonstration of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), glutamine synthetase (GS), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), VIP and PACAP common receptors (VPAC1, VPAC2), and PACAP receptor (PAC1). In addition, double labeling was carried out to reveal the co-localization of neurotransmitters. VIP-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons as well as fibers were frequently found in human SPG. Many, homogenously stained NOS-ir cells were found, but no positive fibers. In addition, PACAP-ir was observed in some of the neurons and in fibers. Co-localization was found between VIP and NOS. In rat VIP-, NOS-, and PACAP-ir were found in many neurons and fibers. Co-localization of PACAP and NOS was observed in neurons. PACAP and GS double staining revealed that the PACAP-ir was localized in/close to the cell membrane, but not in the satellite glial cells. PAC1 and VPAC1 immunoreactivity was found in the satellite glial cells of both human and rat. Western blot revealed protein expression of PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 in rat SPG. The trigeminal-autonomic reflex may be active in migraine attacks. We hypothesized that VIP, PACAP, NOS, PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 play a role in the activation of parasympathetic cranial outflow during migraine attacks.

  10. Extract from Ribes nigrum leaves in vitro activates nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and increases CD39 expression in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzak, Boguslawa; Boncler, Magdalena; Rywaniak, Joanna; Dudzinska, Dominika; Rozalski, Marek; Krajewska, Urszula; Balcerczak, Ewa; Podsedek, Anna; Redzynia, Malgorzata; Watala, Cezary

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether blackcurrant leaf extract (BLE) modulates endothelium antithrombotic function, namely increases the expression/activity of ADPase (CD39) and augments the production of nitric oxide in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). It was found that BLE with proanthocyanidins (60 % of the total polyphenol content) increased the CD39-positive endothelial cell fraction (up to 10 % for 2.5 ?g/ml, and up to 33 % for 15 ?g/ml, p < 0.05 or less) in a concentration-dependent manner, and enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation (T495 phosphorylation decreased by 31 ± 6 % for 2.5 ?g/ml and 48 ± 6 % for 15 ?g/ml; S1177 phosphorylation increased by 13 ± 3 % for 2.5 ?g/ml and 18 ± 7 % for 15 ?g/ml, compared to untreated cells, p < 0.05 or less). Additionally, incubation for 24 or 48 h with BLE at a lower range of polyphenol concentrations, significantly increased cell viability with a maximal effect at 2.5 ?g/ml (viability increased by 24.8 ± 1.0 % for 24 h and by 32.5 ± 2.7 % for 48-h time incubation, p < 0.0001). The increased CD39 expression and the increased eNOS activation in HUVEC can be regarded as the beneficial markers of the improvement of antiplatelet action of endothelial cells. Unexpectedly, these assumptions were not confirmed in the experimental model of platelet-endothelial cell interactions. These observations lead to the conclusion that BLE may improve endothelial cell viability at low physiological concentrations without affecting the antiplatelet action of endothelium. PMID:25407137

  11. Enhancing sucrose synthase activity results in increased levels of starch and ADP-glucose in maize (Zea mays L.) seed endosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Bahaji, Abdellatif; Muñoz, Francisco José; Ovecka, Miroslav; Montero, Manuel; Sesma, María Teresa; Alonso-Casajús, Nora; Almagro, Goizeder; Sánchez-López, Angela María; Hidalgo, Maite; Zamarbide, Marta; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2013-02-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy) is a highly regulated cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of sucrose and a nucleoside diphosphate into the corresponding nucleoside diphosphate glucose and fructose. In cereal endosperms, it is widely assumed that the stepwise reactions of SuSy, UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase and ADPglucose (ADPG) pyrophosphorylase (AGP) take place in the cytosol to convert sucrose into ADPG necessary for starch biosynthesis, although it has also been suggested that SuSy may participate in the direct conversion of sucrose into ADPG. In this study, the levels of the major primary carbon metabolites, and the activities of starch metabolism-related enzymes were assessed in endosperms of transgenic maize plants ectopically expressing StSUS4, which encodes a potato SuSy isoform. A total of 29 fertile lines transformed with StSUS4 were obtained, five of them containing a single copy of the transgene that was still functional after five generations. The number of seeds per ear of the five transgenic lines containing a single StSUS4 copy was comparable with that of wild-type (WT) control seeds. However, transgenic seeds accumulated 10-15% more starch at the mature stage, and contained a higher amylose/amylopectin balance than WT seeds. Endosperms of developing StSUS4-expressing seeds exhibited a significant increase in SuSy activity, and in starch and ADPG contents when compared with WT endosperms. No significant changes could be detected in the transgenic seeds in the content of soluble sugars, and in activities of starch metabolism-related enzymes when compared with WT seeds. A suggested metabolic model is presented wherein both AGP and SuSy are involved in the production of ADPG linked to starch biosynthesis in maize endosperm cells. PMID:23292602

  12. A pH Control System Based on Malate Decarboxylation for the Cultivation of Lactic Acid Bacteria †

    OpenAIRE

    Daeschel, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Most species of lactic acid bacteria decarboxylate l-malate to lactate and CO2 if an energy source such as glucose is present. A proton is taken up in the reaction, which prevents pH decreases in the growth medium caused by lactic acid production from glucose fermentation. MRS broth (pH 7.0) (Difco Laboratories) containing 10 mM glucose and various concentrations of l-malate (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mM) was used to cultivate Lactobacillus plantarum. After 72 h at 37°C, all malate was decarbox...

  13. Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain Folate Metabolism and Pseudouridine Synthase Gene Mutants Modulate Macrophage Caspase-1 Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Ulland, Tyler K.; Janowski, Ann M.; Buchan, Blake W.; Faron, Matthew; Cassel, Suzanne L.; Jones, Bradley D.; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.

    2013-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of the disease tularemia. Escape of F. tularensis from the phagosome into the cytosol of the macrophage triggers the activation of the AIM2 inflammasome through a mechanism that is not well understood. Activation of the AIM2 inflammasome results in autocatalytic cleavage of caspase-1, resulting in the processing and secretion of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-18, which play a crucial role in innate immune responses t...

  14. Arginase Inhibition by Ethylacetate Extract of Caesalpinia sappan Lignum Contributes to Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Woosung; Cuong, To Dao; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Min, Byungsun; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Ryoo, Sungwoo

    2011-01-01

    Caesalpinia sappan (C. sappan) is a medicinal plant used for promoting blood circulation and removing stasis. During a screening procedure on medicinal plants, the ethylacetate extract of the lignum of C. sappan (CLE) showed inhibitory activity on arginase which has recently been reported as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. CLE inhibited arginase II activity prepared from kidney lysate in a dose-dependent manner. In HUVECs, inhib...

  15. The Pb-hyperaccumulator aquatic fern Salvinia minima Baker, responds to Pb(2+) by increasing phytochelatins via changes in SmPCS expression and in phytochelatin synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella-Gómez, N; Mendoza-Cózatl, D; Moreno-Sánchez, R; González-Mendoza, D; Zapata-Pérez, O; Martínez-Hernández, A; Santamaría, J M

    2009-03-01

    The relationship between accumulation of Pb(2+) and the activation of chelation and metal sequestration mechanisms mediated by phytochelatins (PC) was analyzed in the Pb(2+) hyperaccumulator aquatic fern Salvinia minima, after exposure to 40microM Pb(NO(3))(2). The tissue accumulation pattern of lead and the phytochelatin biosynthesis responses were analyzed in both, S. minima submerged root-like modified fronds (here named "roots"), and in its aerial leaf-like fronds ("leaves"). S. minima roots accumulated a significantly higher concentrations of Pb(+2) than leaves did. Accumulation of Pb(2+) in roots was bi-phasic with a first uptake phase reached after 3h exposure and a second higher uptake phase reached after 24h exposure. In leaves, a single delayed, smaller uptake phase was attained only after 9h of exposure. In roots lead accumulation correlated with an increased phytochelatin synthase (PCS) activity and an enhanced PC production. A higher proportion of polymerized PC(4) was observed in both tissues of exposed S. minima plants relative to unexposed ones, although a higher concentration of PC(4) was found in roots than in leaves. PCS activity and Pb(2+) accumulation was also higher in roots than in leaves. The expression levels of the S. minima PCS gene (SmPCS), in response to Pb(2+) treatment, were also evaluated. In S. minima leaves, the accumulation of Pb(2+) correlated with a marked increase in expression of SmPCS, suggesting a transcriptional regulation in the PCS activation and PC accumulation in this S. minima tissue. However, in roots, the basal expression of SmPCS was down-regulated after Pb(2+) treatment. This fact did not correlate with the later but strong increase in both, PCS activity and PC production; suggesting that the PC biosynthesis activation in S. minima roots occurs only by post-translational activation of PCS. Taken together, our data suggest that the accumulation of PC in S. minima is a direct response to Pb(2+) accumulation, and phytochelatins do participate as one of the mechanism to cope with Pb(2+) of this Pb-hyperaccumulator aquatic fern. PMID:19110323

  16. Aciculatin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression via suppressing NF-?B and JNK/p38 MAPK activation pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chien-Chih

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Natural products have played a significant role in drug discovery and development. Inflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 have been suggested to connect with various inflammatory diseases. In this study, we explored the anti-inflammatory potential of aciculatin (8-((2R,4S,5S,6R-tetrahydro-4,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-yl-5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl-7-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one, one of main components of Chrysopogon aciculatis, by examining its effects on the expression and activity of iNOS and COX-2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated macrophages. Methods We used nitrate and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 assays to examine inhibitory effect of aciculatin on nitric oxide (NO and PGE2 levels in LPS-activated mouse RAW264.7 macrophages and further investigated the mechanisms of aciculatin suppressed LPS-mediated iNOS/COX-2 expression by western blot, RT-PCR, reporter gene assay and confocal microscope analysis. Results Aciculatin remarkably decreased the LPS (1 ?g/mL-induced mRNA and protein expression of iNOS and COX-2 as well as their downstream products, NO and PGE2 respectively, in a concentration-dependent manner (1-10 ?M. Such inhibition was found, via immunoblot analyses, reporter gene assays, and confocal microscope observations that aciculatin not only acts through significant suppression of LPS-induced NF-?B activation, an effect highly correlated with its inhibitory effect on LPS-induced I?B kinase (IKK activation, I?B degradation, NF-?B phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and binding of NF-?B to the ?B motif of the iNOS and COX-2 promoters, but also suppressed phosphorylation of JNK/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that aciculatin exerts potent anti-inflammatory activity through its dual inhibitory effects on iNOS and COX-2 by regulating NF-?B and JNK/p38 MAPK pathways.

  17. Mechanistic Investigations of the Pseudouridine Synthase RluA using RNA containing 5-Fluorouridine†

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Christopher S.; Greco, Todd M.; Vizthum, Caroline A.; Ginter, Joy M.; Johnston, Murray V.; Mueller, Eugene G.

    2006-01-01

    The pseuoduridine synthases (? synthases) isomerize uridine (U) to pseudouridine (?) in RNA, and they fall into five families that share very limited sequence similarity but have the same overall fold and active site architecture, including an essential Asp. The mechanism by which the ? synthases operate remains unknown, and mechanistic work has largely made use of RNA containing 5-fluorouridine (f5U) in place of U. The ? synthase TruA forms a covalent adduct with such RNA, and heat disru...

  18. Changes in phytochemical synthesis, chalcone synthase activity and pharmaceutical qualities of sabah snake grass (Clinacanthus nutans L.) in relation to plant age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Nasiri, Alireza; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Baghdadi, Ali; Ahmad, Izham

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, changes in secondary metabolite synthesis and the pharmaceutical quality of sabah snake grass leaves and buds were considered in relation to plant age (1 month, 6 months, and 1 year old). The activity of the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS, EC 2.3.1.74) was measured, as it is a key enzyme for flavonoid production. Significant differences in total flavonoid (TF) production were observed between the three plant growth periods and the different plant parts. The highest contents of TF (6.32 mg/g dry weight [DW]) and total phenolic (TP) (18.21 mg/g DW) were recorded in 6-month-old buds. Among the flavonoids isolated in this study the most important ones based on concentration were from high to low as follows: catechin > quercetin > kaempferol > luteolin. Production of phenolic acids increased from 1 to 6 months, but after 6 months up to 1 year of age, they decreased significantly. The highest contents of caffeic acid (0.307 mg/g DW) and gallic acid (5.96 mg/g DW) were recorded in 1-year and 6-month-old buds, respectively. The lowest and highest activity of CHS was recorded in 1-month and 6-month-old buds with values of 3.6 and 9.5 nkat/mg protein, respectively. These results indicate that the increment in flavonoids and phenolic acids in 6-month-old buds can be attributed to an increase in CHS activity. The highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity was observed in the extract of 1-year-old buds followed by 6-month-old buds, with 50% of free radical scavenging (IC50) values of 64.6 and 73.5 µg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay showed a higher activity in 6-month-old buds (488 ?M of Fe(II)/g) than in 1-year-old buds (453 ?M of Fe(II)/g), in contrast to the DPPH result. Significant correlations (p content. Extracts of 6-month-old bud exhibited a significant in vitro anticancer activity against HeLa cancer cells with IC50 value of 56.8 µg/mL. These results indicate that early harvesting of snake grass (6-month-old) may yield increased concentrations of secondary metabolites, which are potent antioxidant compounds. PMID:25361426

  19. Arctigenin promotes degradation of inducible nitric oxide synthase through CHIP-associated proteasome pathway and suppresses its enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiangyang; Li, Guilan; Lü, Chaotian; Xu, Hui; Yin, Zhimin

    2012-10-01

    Arctigenin, a natural dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan compound, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Previous works showed that arctigenin decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced iNOS at transcription level. However, whether arctigenin could regulate iNOS at the post-translational level is still unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that arctigenin promoted the degradation of iNOS which is expressed under LPS stimulation in murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells. Such degradation of iNOS protein is due to CHIP-associated ubiquitination and proteasome-dependency. Furthermore, arctigenin decreased iNOS phosphorylation through inhibiting ERK and Src activation, subsequently suppressed iNOS enzyme activity. In conclusion, our research displays a new finding that arctigenin can promote the ubiqitination and degradation of iNOS after LPS stimulation. iNOS activity regulated by arctigenin is likely to involve a multitude of crosstalking mechanisms. PMID:22770942

  20. 1H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance and kinetic studies of the active site structure of chloroplast CF1 ATP synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of nucleotides and nucleotide analogues and their complexes with Mn2+ bound to both the latent and dithiothreitol-activated CF1 ATP synthase has been examined by means of steady-state kinetics, water proton relaxation rate (PRR) measurements, and 1H and 31P nuclear relaxation measurements. Titration of both the latent and activated Mn2+-CF1 complexes with ATP, ADP, Pi, Co(NH3)4ATP, Co(NH3)4ADP, and Co(NH3)4AMPPCP leads to increases in the water relaxation enhancement, consistent with enhanced metal binding and a high ternary complex enhancement. Steady-state kinetic studies are consistent with competitive inhibition of CF1 by Co(NH3)4AMPPCP with respect to CaATP. 1H and 31P nuclear relaxation measurements in solutions of CF1 and Co(NH3)4AMPPCP were used to determine the conformation of the bound substrate analogue and the arrangement with respect to this structure of high- and low-affinity sites for Mn2+. The bound nucleotide analogue adopts a bent conformation, with the low-affinity sites for Mn2+. The bound nucleotide analogue adopts a bent conformation, with the low-affinity Mn2+ site situated between the adenine and triphosphate moieties and the high-affinity metal site located on the far gh-affinity metal site located on the far side of the triphosphate chain. The low-affinity metal forms a distorted inner-sphere complex with the ?-P and ?-P of the substrate. The distances from Mn2+ to the triphosphate chain are too large for first coordination sphere complexes but are appropriate for second-sphere complexes involving, for example, intervening hydrogen-bonded water molecules or residues from the protein

  1. Involvement of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in hydrogen peroxide-induced suppression of Tcf/Lef-dependent transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soon Young; Chin, Byung Rho; Lee, Young Han; Kim, Jung-Hye

    2006-05-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) mediates induction of cytotoxicity in various cell types. GSK-3beta has been found to participate in a number of signaling pathways, including cell proliferation and cell death. In the present study, we show that GSK-3beta is rapidly dephosphorylated and activated in response to H(2)O(2) treatment. H(2)O(2) also dephosphorylates Akt/PKB in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Overexpression of Akt/PKB attenuates H(2)O(2)-induced dephosphorylation of GSK-3beta. Ectopic expression of Dvl-1, a component of Wnt signaling, stimulates Akt/PKB and inhibits dephosphorylation of GSK-3beta by H(2)O(2). Furthermore, H(2)O(2) causes the reduction of beta-catenin level and LiCl-mediated activation of Tcf/Lef-dependent transcription activity. These findings suggest that GSK-3beta is involved in H(2)O(2)-mediated inhibition of Tcf/Lef-dependent transcriptional activity. PMID:15993040

  2. Up-regulation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase by endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor involves mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase C signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Lin, Li; Jiang, Jiangang; Wang, Yan; Lu, Zai Ying; Bradbury, J Alyce; Lih, Fred Bjørn; Wang, Dao Wen; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2003-11-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450)-dependent metabolites of arachidonic acid, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), are proposed to be endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF) that affect vascular tone; however, the effects of EDHF on endothelial-derived nitric oxide biosynthesis remain unknown. We examined the regulation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) by EDHF and investigated the relevant signaling pathways involved. The P450 epoxygenases CYP102 F87V mutant, CYP2C11-CYPOR, and CYP2J2 were transfected into cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells, and the effects of endogenously formed or exogenously applied EETs on eNOS expression and activity were assessed. Transfection with the P450 epoxygenases led to increased eNOS protein expression, an effect that was attenuated by cotreatment with the P450 inhibitor 17-ODYA. Northern analysis demonstrated that P450 transfection led to increased eNOS mRNA levels consistent with an effect at the pretranslational level. P450 epoxygenase transfection resulted in increased eNOS activity as measured by the conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline. Addition of synthetic EETs (50-200 nM) to the culture media also increased eNOS expression and activity. Treatment with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), MAPK kinase, and protein kinase C inhibitors apigenin, 2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone (PD98059), and 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), respectively, significantly inhibited the effects of P450 transfection on eNOS expression. Overexpression of P450 epoxygenases or addition of synthetic EETs increased Thr495 phosphorylation of eNOS, an effect that was inhibited by both apigenin and PD98059. Overexpression of P450 epoxygenases in rats resulted in increased aortic eNOS expression, providing direct evidence that EDHF can influence vascular eNOS levels in vivo. Based on this data, we conclude that EDHF up-regulates eNOS via activation of MAPK and protein kinase C signaling pathways. PMID:12975498

  3. AMP-activated protein kinase activation increases phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta and thereby reduces cAMP-responsive element transcriptional activity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase C gene expression in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horike, Nanao; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Ono, Hiraku; Fujishiro, Midori; Kamata, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Koichi; Uchijima, Yasunobu; Kurihara, Yukiko; Kurihara, Hiroki; Asano, Tomoichiro

    2008-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation reportedly suppresses transcriptional activity of the cAMP-responsive element (CRE) in the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase C (PEPCK-C) promoter and reduces hepatic PEPCK-C expression. Although a previous study found TORC2 phosphorylation to be involved in the suppression of AMPK-mediated CRE transcriptional activity, we herein present evidence that glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) phosphorylation induced by AMPK also plays an important role. We initially found that injecting fasted mice with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) markedly increased Ser-9 phosphorylation of hepatic GSK3beta within 15 min. Stimulation with AICAR or the GSK3beta inhibitor SB-415286 strongly inhibited CRE-containing promoter activity in HepG2 cells. Using the Gal4-based transactivation assay system, the transcriptional activity of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) was suppressed by both AICAR and SB415286, whereas that of TORC2 was repressed significantly by AICAR but very slightly by SB415286. These results show inactivation of GSK3beta to directly inhibit CREB but not TORC2. Importantly, the AICAR-induced suppression of PEPCK-C expression was shown to be blunted by overexpression of GSK3beta(S9G) but not wild-type GSK3beta. In addition, AICAR stimulation decreased, whereas Compound C (AMPK inhibitor) increased CREB phosphorylation (Ser-129) in HepG2 cells. The time-courses of decreased CREB phosphorylation (Ser-129) and increased GSK3beta phosphorylation were very similar. Furthermore, AMPK-mediated GSK3beta phosphorylation was inhibited by an Akt-specific inhibitor in HepG2 cells, suggesting involvement of the Akt pathway. In summary, phosphorylation (Ser-9) of GSK3beta is very likely to be critical for AMPK-mediated PEPCK-C gene suppression. Reduced CREB phosphorylation (Ser-129) associated with inactivation of GSK3beta by Ser-9 phosphorylation may be the major mechanism underlying PEPCK-C gene suppression by AMPK-activating agents such as biguanide. PMID:18801732

  4. Activation of ceramide synthase 6 by celecoxib leads to a selective induction of C16:0-ceramide

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Ceramides serve as bioactive molecules with important roles in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Ceramides (Cer) with different N-acyl side chains (C14:0-Cer–C26:0-Cer) possess distinctive roles in cell signaling and are differentially expressed in HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, exhibiting antiproliferative effects, activates the sphingolipid pathway. To elucidate the mechanism, HCT-116 cells were treated with 50?M...

  5. DksA-Dependent Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium against the Antimicrobial Activity of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Henard, Calvin A.; Va?zquez-torres, Andre?s

    2012-01-01

    In coordination with the ppGpp alarmone, the RNA polymerase regulatory protein DksA controls the stringent response of eubacteria, negatively regulating transcription of translational machinery and directly activating amino acid promoters and de novo amino acid biosynthesis. Given the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on amino acid biosynthetic pathways and the intimate relationship of DksA with amino acid synthesis and transport, we tested whether DksA contributes to the resistance of Salmonella ...

  6. NMR Crystallography of Enzyme Active Sites: Probing Chemically-Detailed, Three-Dimensional Structure in Tryptophan Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Leonard J.; Dunn, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    NMR crystallography – the synergistic combination of X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and computational chemistry – offers unprecedented insight into three-dimensional, chemically-detailed structure. From its initial role in refining diffraction data of organic and inorganic solids, NMR crystallography is now being developed for application to active sites in biomolecules, where it reveals chemically-rich detail concerning the interactions between enzyme site residues and ...

  7. Red clover HCT2, a hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A:malate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase, plays a crucial role in biosynthesis of phaselic acid and other hydroxycinnamoyl-malate esters in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael L; Zarnowski, Robert

    2011-03-01

    In red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves, phaselic acid (2-O-caffeoyl-L-malate) accumulates to several mmol kg(-1) fresh weight and is a crucial component of a natural system that prevents protein breakdown during harvest and storage of this forage crop. Previously, we identified HCT2, a red clover gene encoding a hydroxycinnamoyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) hydroxycinnamoyl transferase capable of transferring p-coumaroyl and caffeoyl moieties from their CoA derivatives to malic acid to form the corresponding hydroxycinnamoyl-malate esters in vitro. Here, we carried out a detailed kinetic analysis of the enzyme and examined its in vivo function in red clover via reverse genetics. The kinetic analysis indicates that in vitro, despite similar Km values for the tested hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA derivatives, HCT2 favors transfer to malate of p-coumaroyl and feruloyl moieties over caffeoyl moieties by greater than 5-fold. Reverse reaction (transfer of hydroxycinnamoyl moieties from malate to CoA) by HCT2 was observed with p-coumaroyl-malate but not phaselic acid. Analysis of red clover plants down-regulated for HCT2 expression via RNA interference showed a significant and substantial correlation between HCT2 mRNA levels and phaselic acid accumulation (Pred clover and define a previously undescribed pathway for the biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamoyl-malate esters in plants. PMID:21205620

  8. Activation of Stat1 and subsequent transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene in C6 glioma cells is independent of interferon-gamma-induced MAPK activation that is mediated by p21ras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiya, T; Uehara, T; Edamatsu, H; Kaziro, Y; Itoh, H; Nomura, Y

    1997-05-12

    Rat C6 glioma cells have been used to characterize molecular events involved in the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression stimulated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). IFNs induce a signaling event which involves activation of Stat1 transcription factor. Previous studies have shown that IFNs also induce extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) activation. However, the mechanisms by which IFNs stimulate MAPK activation remain elusive. Here we show that in C6 glioma cells, transiently expressing the dominant-negative form of c-Ha-Ras (Asn-17) abrogated IFN-gamma-induced ERK1 and ERK2 activation. Furthermore, PD98059, a specific MEK1 inhibitor, also blocked this activation. These results indicate that p21ras and MEK1 are required for IFN-gamma-induced ERK1 and ERK2 activation. Recent studies have reported that MAPK is responsible for serine phosphorylation of Stat1 which is required for Stat1's DNA binding and maximal transcriptional activity. Thus, we examined the role of the Ras-MAPK pathway in Stat1 activation and subsequent iNOS induction in C6 glioma cells. Further experiments showed that neither Asn-17 Ras expression nor concentrations of PD98059, which completely abrogated IFN-gamma-induced ERK1 and ERK2 activation, affected Stat1 DNA binding activity or iNOS induction, indicating that the Ras-MAPK pathway does not appear to be involved in the activation of Stat1 and subsequent iNOS induction in C6 glioma cells. PMID:9180263

  9. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition disrupts nuclear factor-kappaB activity in pancreatic cancer, but fails to sensitize to gemcitabine chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamaghani Shadi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant activation NF-kappaB has been proposed as a mechanism of drug resistance in pancreatic cancer. Recently, inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 has been shown to exert anti-tumor effects on pancreatic cancer cells by suppressing NF-kappaB. Consequently, we investigated whether inhibition of GSK-3 sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine. Methods GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using the pharmacological agent AR-A014418 or siRNA against GSK-3 alpha and beta isoforms. Cytotoxicity was measured using a Sulphorhodamine B assay and clonogenic survival following exposure of six different pancreatic cancer cell lines to a range of doses of either gemcitabine, AR-A014418 or both for 24, 48 and 72 h. We measured protein expression levels by immunoblotting. Basal and TNF-alpha induced activity of NF-kappaB was assessed using a luciferase reporter assay in the presence or absence of GSK-3 inhibition. Results GSK-3 inhibition reduced both basal and TNF-alpha induced NF-kappaB luciferase activity. Knockdown of GSK-3 beta reduced nuclear factor kappa B luciferase activity to a greater extent than GSK-3 alpha, and the greatest effect was seen with dual knockdown of both GSK-3 isoforms. GSK-3 inhibition also resulted in reduction of the NF-kappaB target proteins XIAP, Bcl-XL, and cyclin D1, associated with growth inhibition and decreased clonogenic survival. In all cell lines, treatment with either AR-A014418, or gemcitabine led to growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, with the exception of PANC-1 where drug synergy occurred with some dose schedules, the inhibitory effect of combined drug treatment was additive, sub-additive, or even antagonistic. Conclusion GSK-3 inhibition has anticancer effects against pancreatic cancer cells with a range of genetic backgrounds associated with disruption of NF-kappaB, but does not significantly sensitize these cells to the standard chemotherapy agent gemcitabine. This lack of synergy might be context or cell line dependent, but could also be explained on the basis that although NF-kappaB is an important mediator of pancreatic cancer cell survival, it plays a minor role in gemcitabine resistance. Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms of this effect, including the potential for rational combination of GSK3 inhibitors with other targeted agents for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  10. Induction of guanosine triphosphate-cyclohydrolase by follicle-stimulating hormone enhances interleukin-1 beta-stimulated nitric oxide synthase activity in granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabraue, C; Diaz Peñate, R; Gallardo, G; Hernandez, I; Quintana, J; Lopez Blanco, F; Gonzalez Reyes, J; Fanjul, L F; Ruiz de Galarreta, C M

    1997-01-01

    In cultured granulosa cells, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) induced a time-dependent (16-72 h) and dose-related (0.3-30 ng/ml) stimulation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) activity, as determined by the catalytic conversion of [3H]arginine to [3H]citrulline and NO2- accumulation in the culture medium. Although FSH alone failed to stimulate NOS activity, concomitant treatment with the gonadotropin (200 ng/ ml) or the cell-permeant cAMP analog (Bu)2cAMP (0.5 mM) markedly enhanced IL-1 beta-induced NO generation in cultured granulosa cells. The effect of IL-1 beta on citrulline biosynthesis and NO2- accumulation was abrogated by the NOS inhibitor NG-methyl-L-arginine or the IL-1-receptor antagonist protein. In contrast bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), interferon-gamma, or tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which are well known inducers of inducible NOS (iNOS) in a variety of immunocompetent and nonimmunocompetent cell types, failed to increase [3H]citrulline formation or NO2- accumulation in untreated or FSH-stimulated cells. As demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis, IL-1 beta-stimulated NO generation was accompanied by a time-dependent increase in messenger RNA levels for iNOS and GTP-cyclohydrolase (GTPCH), the rate-limiting step for de novo tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthesis. Treatment with FSH augmented only GTPCH messenger RNA expression, and a more than additive GTPCH signal was observed when cells were simultaneously challenged with IL-1 beta and FSH. Treatment with the GTPCH inhibitor 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine prevented IL-1 beta-induced NOS activity in untreated or FSH-stimulated cells, and this inhibition was completely reversed by sepiapterin, a substrate for BH4 biosynthesis, via an alternative pterin salvage pathway present in many cell types. As BH4 is an essential cofactor for NOS catalytic activity, these observations strongly suggest that FSH-induced biosynthesis of endogenous BH4 is essential for full iNOS biosynthetic capacity in IL-1 beta-stimulated granulosa cells. PMID:8977400

  11. Structural studies of the interaction of S-adenosylmethionine with the [4Fe-4S] clusters in biotin synthase and pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosper, Michele M; Cosper, Nathaniel J; Hong, Wei; Shokes, Jacob E; Broderick, William E; Broderick, Joan B; Johnson, Michael K; Scott, Robert A

    2003-07-01

    The diverse reactions catalyzed by the radical-SAM superfamily of enzymes are thought to proceed via a set of common mechanistic steps, key among which is the reductive cleavage of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) by a reduced [4Fe-4S] cluster to generate an intermediate deoxyadenosyl radical. A number of spectroscopic studies have provided evidence that SAM interacts directly with the [4Fe-4S] clusters in several of the radical-SAM enzymes; however, the molecular mechanism for the reductive cleavage has yet to be elucidated. Selenium X-ray absorption spectroscopy (Se-XAS) was used previously to provide evidence for a close interaction between the Se atom of selenomethionine (a cleavage product of Se-SAM) and an Fe atom of the [4Fe-4S] cluster of lysine-2,3-aminomutase (KAM). Here, we utilize the same approach to investigate the possibility of a similar interaction in pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme (PFL-AE) and biotin synthase (BioB), two additional members of the radical-SAM superfamily. The results show that the latter two enzymes do not exhibit the same Fe-Se interaction as was observed in KAM, indicating that the methionine product of reductive cleavage of SAM does not occupy a well-defined site close to the cluster in PFL-AE and BioB. These results are interpreted in terms of the differences among these enzymes in their use of SAM as either a cofactor or a substrate. PMID:12824504

  12. Conformational stability and activity analysis of two hydroxymethylbilane synthase mutants, K132N and V215E, with different phenotypic association with acute intermittent porphyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustad, Helene J; Vorland, Marta; Rønneseth, Eva; Sandberg, Sverre; Martinez, Aurora; Toska, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The autosomal dominantly inherited disease AIP (acute intermittent porphyria) is caused by mutations in HMBS [hydroxymethylbilane synthase; also known as PBG (porphobilinogen) deaminase], the third enzyme in the haem biosynthesis pathway. Enzyme-intermediates with increasing number of PBG molecules are formed during the catalysis of HMBS. In this work, we studied the two uncharacterized mutants K132N and V215E comparative with wt (wild-type) HMBS and to the previously reported AIP-associated mutants R116W, R167W and R173W. These mainly present defects in conformational stability (R116W), enzyme kinetics (R167W) or both (R173W). A combination of native PAGE, CD, DSF (differential scanning fluorimetry) and ion-exchange chromatography was used to study conformational stability and activity of the recombinant enzymes. We also investigated the distribution of intermediates corresponding to specific elongation stages. It is well known that the thermostability of HMBS increases when the DPM (dipyrromethane) cofactor binds to the apoenzyme and the holoenzyme is formed. Interestingly, a decrease in thermal stability was measured concomitant to elongation of the pyrrole chain, indicating a loosening of the structure prior to product release. No conformational or kinetic defect was observed for the K132N mutant, whereas V215E presented lower conformational stability and probably a perturbed elongation process. This is in accordance with the high association of V215E with AIP. Our results contribute to interpret the molecular mechanisms for dysfunction of HMBS mutants and to establish genotype-phenotype relations for AIP. PMID:23815679

  13. Structure determination of glycogen synthase kinase-3 from Leishmania major and comparative inhibitor structure?activity relationships with Trypanosoma brucei GSK-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojo, Kayode K.; Arakaki, Tracy L.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Inampudi, Krishna K.; Keyloun, Katelyn R.; Zhang, Li; Hol, Wim G.J.; Verlind, Christophe L.M.J.; Merritt, Ethan A.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C. (UWASH)

    2012-04-24

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a drug target under intense investigation in pharmaceutical companies and constitutes an attractive piggyback target for eukaryotic pathogens. Two different GSKs are found in trypanosomatids, one about 150 residues shorter than the other. GSK-3 short (GeneDB: Tb927.10.13780) has previously been validated genetically as a drug target in Trypanosoma brucei by RNAi induced growth retardation; and chemically by correlation between enzyme and in vitro growth inhibition. Here, we report investigation of the equivalent GSK-3 short enzymes of L. major (LmjF18.0270) and L. infantum (LinJ18{_}V3.0270, identical in amino acid sequences to LdonGSK-3 short) and a crystal structure of LmajGSK-3 short at 2 {angstrom} resolution. The inhibitor structure-activity relationships (SARs) of L. major and L. infantum are virtually identical, suggesting that inhibitors could be useful for both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmania spp. GSK-3 short has different inhibitor SARs than TbruGSK-3 short, which can be explained mostly by two variant residues in the ATP-binding pocket. Indeed, mutating these residues in the ATP-binding site of LmajGSK-3 short to the TbruGSK-3 short equivalents results in a mutant LmajGSK-3 short enzyme with SAR more similar to that of TbruGSK-3 short. The differences between human GSK-3{beta} (HsGSK-3{beta}) and LmajGSK-3 short SAR suggest that compounds which selectively inhibit LmajGSK-3 short may be found.

  14. Conformational stability and activity analysis of two hydroxymethylbilane synthase mutants, K132N and V215E, with different phenotypic association with acute intermittent porphyria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Martinez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The autosomal dominantly inherited disease AIP (acute intermittent porphyria is caused by mutations in HMBS [hydroxymethylbilane synthase; also known as PBG (porphobilinogen deaminase], the third enzyme in the haem biosynthesis pathway. Enzyme-intermediates with increasing number of PBG molecules are formed during the catalysis of HMBS. In this work, we studied the two uncharacterized mutants K132N and V215E comparative with wt (wild-type HMBS and to the previously reported AIP-associated mutants R116W, R167W and R173W. These mainly present defects in conformational stability (R116W, enzyme kinetics (R167W or both (R173W. A combination of native PAGE, CD, DSF (differential scanning fluorimetry and ion-exchange chromatography was used to study conformational stability and activity of the recombinant enzymes. We also investigated the distribution of intermediates corresponding to specific elongation stages. It is well known that the thermostability of HMBS increases when the DPM (dipyrromethane cofactor binds to the apoenzyme and the holoenzyme is formed. Interestingly, a decrease in thermal stability was measured concomitant to elongation of the pyrrole chain, indicating a loosening of the structure prior to product release. No conformational or kinetic defect was observed for the K132N mutant, whereas V215E presented lower conformational stability and probably a perturbed elongation process. This is in accordance with the high association of V215E with AIP. Our results contribute to interpret the molecular mechanisms for dysfunction of HMBS mutants and to establish genotype–phenotype relations for AIP.

  15. New Host-Vector System for Thermus spp. Based on the Malate Dehydrogenase Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Kevin J.; Kilbane, John J.

    2001-01-01

    A Thermus thermophilus HB27 strain was constructed in which the malate dehydrogenase (mdh) gene was deleted. The ?mdh colonies are recognized by a small-colony phenotype. Wild-type phenotype is restored by transformation with Thermus plasmids or integration vector containing an intact mdh gene. The wild-type phenotype provides a positive selection tool for the introduction of plasmid DNA into Thermus spp., and because mdh levels can be readily quantified, this host-vector system is a conveni...

  16. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wildung, Mark Raymond (Colfax, WA); Burke, Charles Cullen (Moscow, ID); Gershenzon, Jonathan (Jena, DE)

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate.

  17. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.B.; Wildung, M.R.; Burke, C.C.; Gershenzon, J.

    1999-03-02

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate. 5 figs.

  18. Characterization of the immunogenicity and pathogenicity of malate dehydrogenase in Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiangan; Tong, Yongliang; Tian, Mingxing; Sun, Xiaoqing; Wang, Shaohui; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing

    2014-07-01

    Brucella abortus is a gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen that causes brucellosis, a chronic zoonotic disease resulting in abortion in pregnant cattle and undulant fever in humans. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), a key enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, plays important metabolic roles in aerobic energy producing pathways and in malate shuttle. In this study, the MDH-encoding gene for malate dehydrogenase mdh of B. abortus S2308 was cloned, sequenced and expressed. Western blot analysis demonstrated that MDH is an immunogenic membrane-associated protein. In addition, recombinant MDH showed sero-reactivity with 30 individual bovine B. abortus-positive sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indicates that MDH may be used as a candidate marker for sero-diagnosis of brucellosis. Furthermore, MDH exhibits fibronectin and plasminogen-binding ability in immunoblotting assay. Inhibition assays on HeLa cells demonstrated that rabbit anti-serum against MDH significantly reduced both bacterial adherence and invasion abilities (p < 0.05), suggesting that MDH play a role in B. abortus colonization. Our results indicated that MDH is not only an immunogenic protein, but is also related to bacterial pathogenesis and may act as a new virulent factor, which will benefit for further understanding the MDH's roles in B. abortus metabolism, pathogenesis and immunity. PMID:24609497

  19. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND MOLECULAR DYNAMICS STUDY OF PHB SYNTHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Femlin Blessia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB is a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA, a polymer belonging to polyesters class and is composed of hydroxy fatty acids. PHB is produced by microorganisms apparently in response to conditions of physiological stress. PHB synthases are the key enzymes of PHB biosynthesis. The PHB synthases obtained from Chromobacterium violaceum, belongs to the class I PHA synthases. Due to the limited structural information of PHB synthase, its functional properties including catalysis are unknown. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the structural and functional properties of PHB synthase (phaC by predicting its three dimensional structure using bioinformatics methods. Present 15 ns molecular dynamics study provides an overall insight about some of the parameters such as energy, RMSD (Root Mean Square Deviation, SASA (Solvent Accessible Surface Area, hydrogen bonds, etc., Protein-protein docking reveals the binding mode of the protein in the active dimer state.

  20. Novel, potent, orally bioavailable and selective mycobacterial ATP synthase inhibitors that demonstrated activity against both replicating and non-replicating M. tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supriya; Roy, Kuldeep K; Khan, Shaheb R; Kashyap, Vivek Kr; Sharma, Abhisheak; Jaiswal, Swati; Sharma, Sandeep K; Krishnan, Manju Yasoda; Chaturvedi, Vineeta; Lal, Jawahar; Sinha, Sudhir; Gupta, Arnab D; Srivastava, Ranjana; Saxena, Anil K

    2015-02-15

    The mycobacterial F0F1-ATP synthase (ATPase) is a validated target for the development of tuberculosis (TB) therapeutics. Therefore, a series of eighteen novel compounds has been designed, synthesized and evaluated against Mycobacterium smegmatis ATPase. The observed ATPase inhibitory activities (IC50) of these compounds range between 0.36 and 5.45?M. The lead compound 9d [N-(7-chloro-2-methylquinolin-4-yl)-N-(3-((diethylamino)methyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dichlorobenzenesulfonamide] with null cytotoxicity (CC50>300?g/mL) and excellent anti-mycobacterial activity and selectivity (mycobacterium ATPase IC50=0.51?M, mammalian ATPase IC50>100?M, and selectivity >200) exhibited a complete growth inhibition of replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv at 3.12?g/mL. In addition, it also exhibited bactericidal effect (approximately 2.4log10 reductions in CFU) in the hypoxic culture of non-replicating M. tuberculosis at 100?g/mL (32-fold of its MIC) as compared to positive control isoniazid [approximately 0.2log10 reduction in CFU at 5?g/mL (50-fold of its MIC)]. The pharmacokinetics of 9d after p.o. and IV administration in male Sprague-Dawley rats indicated its quick absorption, distribution and slow elimination. It exhibited a high volume of distribution (Vss, 0.41L/kg), moderate clearance (0.06L/h/kg), long half-life (4.2h) and low absolute bioavailability (1.72%). In the murine model system of chronic TB, 9d showed 2.12log10 reductions in CFU in both lung and spleen at 173?mol/kg dose as compared to the growth of untreated control group of Balb/C male mice infected with replicating M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The in vivo efficacy of 9d is at least double of the control drug ethambutol. These results suggest 9d as a promising candidate molecule for further preclinical evaluation against resistant TB strains. PMID:25614114

  1. Discovery and characterization of a novel lachrymatory factor synthase in Petiveria alliacea and its influence on alliinase-mediated formation of biologically active organosulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musah, Rabi A; He, Quan; Kubec, Roman

    2009-11-01

    A novel lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) was isolated and purified from the roots of the Amazonian medicinal plant Petiveria alliacea. The enzyme is a heterotetrameric glycoprotein comprised of two alpha-subunits (68.8 kD each), one gamma-subunit (22.5 kD), and one delta-subunit (11.9 kD). The two alpha-subunits are glycosylated and connected by a disulfide bridge. The LFS has an isoelectric point of 5.2. It catalyzes the formation of a sulfine lachrymator, (Z)-phenylmethanethial S-oxide, only in the presence of P. alliacea alliinase and its natural substrate, S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (petiveriin). Depending on its concentration relative to that of P. alliacea alliinase, the LFS sequesters, to varying degrees, the sulfenic acid intermediate formed by alliinase-mediated breakdown of petiveriin. At LFS:alliinase of 5:1, LFS sequesters all of the sulfenic acid formed by alliinase action on petiveriin, and converts it entirely to (Z)-phenylmethanethial S-oxide. However, starting at LFS:alliinase of 5:2, the LFS is unable to sequester all of the sulfenic acid produced by the alliinase, with the result that sulfenic acid that escapes the action of the LFS condenses with loss of water to form S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate (petivericin). The results show that the LFS and alliinase function in tandem, with the alliinase furnishing the sulfenic acid substrate on which the LFS acts. The results also show that the LFS modulates the formation of biologically active thiosulfinates that are downstream of the alliinase in a manner dependent upon the relative concentrations of the LFS and the alliinase. These observations suggest that manipulation of LFS-to-alliinase ratios in plants displaying this system may provide a means by which to rationally modify organosulfur small molecule profiles to obtain desired flavor and/or odor signatures, or increase the presence of desirable biologically active small molecules. PMID:19692535

  2. Protein kinase A-dependent Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Activation Mediates the Enhancement of Baroreflex Response by Adrenomedullin in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho I-Chun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adrenomedullin (ADM exerts its biological functions through the receptor-mediated enzymatic mechanisms that involve protein kinase A (PKA, or neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. We previously demonstrated that the receptor-mediated cAMP/PKA pathway involves in ADM-enhanced baroreceptor reflex (BRR response. It remains unclear whether ADM may enhance BRR response via activation of nNOS-dependent mechanism in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS. Methods Intravenous injection of phenylephrine was administered to evoke the BRR before and at 10, 30, and 60 min after microinjection of the test agents into NTS of Sprague-Dawley rats. Western blotting analysis was used to measure the level and phosphorylation of proteins that involved in BRR-enhancing effects of ADM (0.2 pmol in NTS. The colocalization of PKA and nNOS was examined by immunohistochemical staining and observed with a laser confocal microscope. Results We found that ADM-induced enhancement of BRR response was blunted by microinjection of NPLA or Rp-8-Br-cGMP, a selective inhibitor of nNOS or protein kinase G (PKG respectively, into NTS. Western blot analysis further revealed that ADM induced an increase in the protein level of PKG-I which could be attenuated by co-microinjection with the ADM receptor antagonist ADM22-52 or NPLA. Moreover, we observed an increase in phosphorylation at Ser1416 of nNOS at 10, 30, and 60 min after intra-NTS administration of ADM. As such, nNOS/PKG signaling may also account for the enhancing effect of ADM on BRR response. Interestingly, biochemical evidence further showed that ADM-induced increase of nNOS phosphorylation was prevented by co-microinjection with Rp-8-Br-cAMP, a PKA inhibitor. The possibility of PKA-dependent nNOS activation was substantiated by immunohistochemical demonstration of co-localization of PKA and nNOS in putative NTS neurons. Conclusions The novel finding of this study is that the signal transduction cascade that underlies the enhancement of BRR response by ADM in NTS is composed sequentially of cAMP/PKA and nNOS/PKG pathways.

  3. Crystal structure of riboflavin synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, D.-I.; Wawrzak, Z.; Calabrese, J.C.; Viitanen, P.V.; Jordan, D.B. (DuPont); (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    Riboflavin synthase catalyzes the dismutation of two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-(1'-D-ribityl)-lumazine to yield riboflavin and 4-ribitylamino-5-amino-2,6-dihydroxypyrimidine. The homotrimer of 23 kDa subunits has no cofactor requirements for catalysis. The enzyme is nonexistent in humans and is an attractive target for antimicrobial agents of organisms whose pathogenicity depends on their ability to biosynthesize riboflavin. The first three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined at 2.0 {angstrom} resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method on the Escherichia coli protein containing selenomethionine residues. The homotrimer consists of an asymmetric assembly of monomers, each of which comprises two similar {beta} barrels and a C-terminal {alpha} helix. The similar {beta} barrels within the monomer confirm a prediction of pseudo two-fold symmetry that is inferred from the sequence similarity between the two halves of the protein. The {beta} barrels closely resemble folds found in phthalate dioxygenase reductase and other flavoproteins. The three active sites of the trimer are proposed to lie between pairs of monomers in which residues conserved among species reside, including two Asp-His-Ser triads and dyads of Cys-Ser and His-Thr. The proposed active sites are located where FMN (an analog of riboflavin) is modeled from an overlay of the {beta} barrels of phthalate dioxygenase reductase and riboflavin synthase. In the trimer, one active site is formed, and the other two active sites are wide open and exposed to solvent. The nature of the trimer configuration suggests that only one active site can be formed and be catalytically competent at a time.

  4. Dehydratase-Specific Probes for Fatty Acid and Polyketide Synthases

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Haushalter, Robert W.; Burkart, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    We targeted development of a dehydratase (DH) specific reactive probe that can facilitate detection, enrichment, and identification of DH enzymes in fatty acid synthases (FAS) and polyketide synthases (PKS). The first reported mechanism based inactivator, 3-decynoyl-N-acetylcysteamine (3-decynoyl-NAC), while active against the Escherichia coli ?-hydroxydecanoyl thiol ester DH FabA, translates poorly to an activity-based probe due to non-specific reactivity of the thioester moiety. Here we de...

  5. Phenanthrenes, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes, bibenzyls with their derivatives, and malate or tartrate benzyl ester glucosides from tubers of Cremastra appendiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Guan, Shu-Hong; Meng, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Yi-Bei; Cheng, Chun-Ru; Shi, Yang-Yang; Feng, Rui-Hong; Zeng, Feng; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Xian; Yang, Min; Liu, Xuan; Li, Qing; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Bi, Kai-Shun; Guo, De-An

    2013-10-01

    Eleven previously unknown compounds and 23 known compounds, including 20 phenanthrene or 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives, five bibenzyls, seven malate or tartrate benzyl ester glucosides, adenosine and gastrodin were isolated from tubers of Cremastra appendiculata. Among the obtained compounds, two are the first isolated dimers with one phenanthrene or bibenzyl unit connected to C-3 of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-phenanthro[2,1-b]furan moiety. In addition, 33 of these compounds were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against two cancer cell lines. Among the compounds examined, one compound showed moderate cytotoxic activity, while five showed weak cytotoxic activity against the A549 cell line. PMID:23820314

  6. Soybean seed galactinol synthase activity as determined by a novel colorimetric assay Atividade de galactinol sintase de semente de soja determinada por um novo ensaio calorimétrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARLUCI RIBEIRO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Galactinol synthase (GS is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of raffinose oligosaccharides (RO which are the flatulence factors present in soybean seeds and several other legumes. Understanding of soybean seed GS properties is, therefore, of biotechnological interest. The GS enzyme catalyses formation of galactinol and UDP from UDP-gal and myo-inositol. This enzyme is currently assayed by an isotopic method. We have then idealized a more convenient method for GS assay based on the indirect colorimetric determination of the UDP formed which is then hydrolyzed by exogenous apyrase and the resulting Pi quantified by a modification of the colorimetric method of Fiske & SubbaRow. The color developed is stable, and the method is suitable for detection of very low GS activity. The GS activity profiles of developing soybean seeds determined by the isotopic and the colorimetric methods are closely related. The GS enzyme was partially purified (46-fold by treatment of seed extract with MnCl2, sequential chromatographies on DEAE-Sepharose, Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B and Q-Sepharose columns. The crude and the partially purified enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 7.0 and 50 ºC. Dithiothreitol and MnCl2 enhanced considerably the activity of the partially purified enzyme. While UDP-glc could be hydrolyzed by the enzyme at a reative activity corresponding to 49% of that calculated for UDP-gal, UDP-man and sucrose were completely ineffective as alternative substrates.Galactinol sintase (GS é a enzima-chave para a biossíntese de oligosacarídeos de rafinose (RO, que são os fatores antinutricionais causadores de flatulência, os quais estão presentes em sementes de soja e em outros legumes. A GS catalisa a formação de galactinol e UDP a partir de UDP-gal e mioinositol. A atividade dessa enzima é determinada atualmente pelo método radioisotópico que, apesar de adequado tecnicamente, apresenta vários inconvenientes, tais como a necessidade de substrato de alto custo, bem como de cuidados adicionais e serviços especializados para descarte dos resíduos radioativos. Assim, desenvolveu-se um método colorimétrico alternativo ao método radioisotópico, baseado na determinação colorimétrica indireta do UDP formado pela hidrólise enzimática (apirase desse nucleotídeo e determinação do Pi resultante pelo método de Fiske & SubbaRow, com modificações. A cor desenvolvida é estável e o método é sensível para detecção de quantidades nanomolares de Pi. Os perfis de atividade da GS em sementes de soja em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento, determinados pelos métodos colorimétrico e radioisotópico, são semelhantes. Adicionalmente, a GS de sementes de soja foi purificada (46-vezes por tratamento do extrato das sementes com MnCl2, e uma seqüência de cromatografias em colunas de DEAE-Sepharose, Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B e Q-Sepharose. As atividades de GS no extrato bruto e na amostra parcialmente purificada foram máximas em pH 7.0 e 50 ºC. Ditiotreitol e MnCl2 aumentaram consideravelmente a atividade da enzima parcialmente purificada. Enquanto UDP-glc pode ser hidrolisado pela enzima com uma atividade relativa correspondendo a 49% da atividade contra UDP-gal, UDP-man e sacarose foram completamente ineficazes como substratos alternativos. Os valores de K M para conversão de UDP-gal e mio-inositol foram de 2,0 mM e 2,93 mM, respectivamente, determinados pelo método de Lineaweaver-Burk.

  7. Soybean seed galactinol synthase activity as determined by a novel colorimetric assay / Atividade de galactinol sintase de semente de soja determinada por um novo ensaio calorimétrico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARLUCI, RIBEIRO; CARLOS R., FELIX; SILENE DE PAULINO, LOZZI.

    Full Text Available Galactinol sintase (GS) é a enzima-chave para a biossíntese de oligosacarídeos de rafinose (RO), que são os fatores antinutricionais causadores de flatulência, os quais estão presentes em sementes de soja e em outros legumes. A GS catalisa a formação de galactinol e UDP a partir de UDP-gal e mioinos [...] itol. A atividade dessa enzima é determinada atualmente pelo método radioisotópico que, apesar de adequado tecnicamente, apresenta vários inconvenientes, tais como a necessidade de substrato de alto custo, bem como de cuidados adicionais e serviços especializados para descarte dos resíduos radioativos. Assim, desenvolveu-se um método colorimétrico alternativo ao método radioisotópico, baseado na determinação colorimétrica indireta do UDP formado pela hidrólise enzimática (apirase) desse nucleotídeo e determinação do Pi resultante pelo método de Fiske & SubbaRow, com modificações. A cor desenvolvida é estável e o método é sensível para detecção de quantidades nanomolares de Pi. Os perfis de atividade da GS em sementes de soja em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento, determinados pelos métodos colorimétrico e radioisotópico, são semelhantes. Adicionalmente, a GS de sementes de soja foi purificada (46-vezes) por tratamento do extrato das sementes com MnCl2, e uma seqüência de cromatografias em colunas de DEAE-Sepharose, Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B e Q-Sepharose. As atividades de GS no extrato bruto e na amostra parcialmente purificada foram máximas em pH 7.0 e 50 ºC. Ditiotreitol e MnCl2 aumentaram consideravelmente a atividade da enzima parcialmente purificada. Enquanto UDP-glc pode ser hidrolisado pela enzima com uma atividade relativa correspondendo a 49% da atividade contra UDP-gal, UDP-man e sacarose foram completamente ineficazes como substratos alternativos. Os valores de K M para conversão de UDP-gal e mio-inositol foram de 2,0 mM e 2,93 mM, respectivamente, determinados pelo método de Lineaweaver-Burk. Abstract in english Galactinol synthase (GS) is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of raffinose oligosaccharides (RO) which are the flatulence factors present in soybean seeds and several other legumes. Understanding of soybean seed GS properties is, therefore, of biotechnological interest. The GS enzyme catalyses forma [...] tion of galactinol and UDP from UDP-gal and myo-inositol. This enzyme is currently assayed by an isotopic method. We have then idealized a more convenient method for GS assay based on the indirect colorimetric determination of the UDP formed which is then hydrolyzed by exogenous apyrase and the resulting Pi quantified by a modification of the colorimetric method of Fiske & SubbaRow. The color developed is stable, and the method is suitable for detection of very low GS activity. The GS activity profiles of developing soybean seeds determined by the isotopic and the colorimetric methods are closely related. The GS enzyme was partially purified (46-fold) by treatment of seed extract with MnCl2, sequential chromatographies on DEAE-Sepharose, Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B and Q-Sepharose columns. The crude and the partially purified enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 7.0 and 50 ºC. Dithiothreitol and MnCl2 enhanced considerably the activity of the partially purified enzyme. While UDP-glc could be hydrolyzed by the enzyme at a reative activity corresponding to 49% of that calculated for UDP-gal, UDP-man and sucrose were completely ineffective as alternative substrates.

  8. Thiopyranol[2,3,4-c,d]indoles as inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein, and leukotriene C4 synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, J H; Charleson, S; Evans, J F; Falgueyret, J P; Hoogsteen, K; Jones, T R; Kargman, S; Macdonald, D; McFarlane, C S; Nicholson, D W

    1995-10-27

    The attachment of an arylacetic or benzoic acid moiety to the thiopyrano[2,3,4-c,d]indole nucleus results in compounds which are highly potent and selective 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitors. These compounds are structurally simpler than previous compounds of similar potency in that they contain a single chiral center. From the data presented, 2-[[1-(3-chlorobenzyl)-4-methyl-6-[(5-phenylpyridin-2-yl)methoxy]- 4, 5-dihydro-1H-thiopyrano[2,3,4-c,d]indol-2-yl]methoxy]-phenylacetic acid, 14b, was shown to inhibit 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE) production by human 5-LO (IC50 of 18 nM). The acid 14b is highly selective as an inhibitor of 5-LO activity when compared to the inhibition of ram seminal vesicle cyclooxygenase (IC50 > 5 microM) or human leukocyte leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolase (IC50 > 20 microM). In addition, 14b was inactive in a 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) binding assay at 10 microM. In vivo studies showed that 14b is bioavailable in rat and functionally active in the hyperreactive rat model of antigen-induced dyspnea (74% inhibition at 0.5 mk/kg po; 2 h pretreatment). In the conscious squirrel monkey model of asthma, 14b showed excellent functional activity at 0.1 mg/kg against antigen-induced bronchoconstriction (94% inhibition of the increase in RL and 100% inhibition in the decrease in Cdyn; n = 4). Resolution of this compound gave (-)-14b, the most potent enantiomer (IC50 = 10 nM in the human 5-LO assay), which was shown to possess the S configuration at the chiral center by X-ray crystallographic analysis of an intermediate. Subsequent studies on the aryl thiopyrano[2,3,4-c,d]indole series of inhibitors led to the discovery of potent dual inhibitors of both FLAP and 5-LO, the most potent of which is 2-[[1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-4-methyl-6-(quinolin-2-ylmethoxy)-4, 5-dihydro-1H-thiopyrano[2,3,4-c,d]indol-2-yl]methoxy]phenylacetic acid, 19. Acid 19 has an IC50 of 100 nM for the inhibition of 5-HPETE production by human 5-LO and is active in a FLAP binding assay with an IC50 of 32 nM. Furthermore, thiopyrano[2,3,4-c,d]indoles such as 1 and 14b are capable of inhibiting the LTC4 synthase reaction in a dose dependent manner (IC50s of 11 and 16 microM, respectively, compared to that of LTC2 at 1.2 microM) in contrast to other, structurally distinct 5-LO inhibitors. It has also been observed that the thiopyrano[2,3,4-c,d]indole class of compounds strongly promotes the translocation of 5-LO from the cytosol to a membrane fraction in the presence or absence of the ionophore A23187.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7473582

  9. Effects of taxifolin on the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the aorta of aging rats and rats treated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and dexamethasone

    OpenAIRE

    Arutyunyan, Tamara V.; Korystova, Antonina F.; Kublik, Ludmila N.; Levitman, Maria Kh; Shaposhnikova, Vera V.; Korystov, Yuri N.

    2012-01-01

    The action of taxifolin on the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in the aorta of aging rats and rats treated with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)) or dexamethasone have been studied. The ACE activity in aorta sections was determined by measuring the hydrolysis of hippuryl-l-histidyl-l-leucine, and the ROS/RNS production was measured by oxidation of dichlorodihydrofluorescein. It w...

  10. The role of vacuolar malate-transport capacity in crassulacean acid metabolism and nitrate nutrition. Higher malate-transport capacity in ice plant after crassulacean acid metabolism-induction and in tobacco under nitrate nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttge, U; Pfeifer, T; Fischer-Schliebs, E; Ratajczak, R

    2000-11-01

    Anion uptake by isolated tonoplast vesicles was recorded indirectly via increased H(+)-transport by H(+)-pumping of the V-ATPase due to dissipation of the electrical component of the electrochemical proton gradient, Deltamu(H+), across the membrane. ATP hydrolysis by the V-ATPase was measured simultaneously after the Palmgren test. Normalizing for ATP-hydrolysis and effects of chloride, which was added to the assays as a stimulating effector of the V-ATPase, a parameter, J(mal)(rel), of apparent ATP-dependent malate-stimulated H(+)-transport was worked out as an indirect measure of malate transport capacity. This allowed comparison of various species and physiological conditions. J(mal)(rel) was high in the obligate crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier, it increased substantially after CAM induction in ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), and it was positively correlated with NO(3)(-) nutrition in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). For tobacco this was confirmed by measurements of malate transport energized via the V-PPase. In ice plant a new polypeptide of 32-kD apparent molecular mass appeared, and a 33-kD polypeptide showed higher levels after CAM induction under conditions of higher J(mal)(rel). It is concluded that tonoplast malate transport capacity plays an important role in physiological regulation in CAM and NO(3)(-) nutrition and that a putative malate transporter must be within the 32- to 33-kD polypeptide fraction of tonoplast proteins. PMID:11080309

  11. Lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase activities in the marine yeast Rhodosporidium diobovatum are encoded by a single gene crtYB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenjing; Tang, Hui; Zhang, Liping

    2014-10-01

    crtYB, encoding lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase was cloned from Rhodosporidium diobovatum ATCC 2527 by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The full-length cDNA of crtYB is 2, 330?bp and contains eight introns. The gene products is a 594 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 65.63?kDa and a pI of 6.73. The N-terminus of the protein contains six transmembrane regions, which has been characterized as a lycopene beta-cyclase. The C-terminal half has squalene and phytoene synthase signatures that identified as phytoene synthetase. By heterologous complementary detection of this gene in E. coli and HPLC analysis, the regions responsible for phytoene synthesis and lycopene cyclization were localized within the protein. PMID:24677129

  12. BcsA and BcsB form the catalytically active core of bacterial cellulose synthase sufficient for in vitro cellulose synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Omadjela, Okako; Narahari, Adishesh; Strumillo, Joanna; Me?lida, Hugo; Mazur, Olga; Bulone, Vincent; Zimmer, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, primarily formed by vascular plants, but also by some bacteria. Bacterial extracellular polysaccharides, such as cellulose and alginate, are an important component of biofilms, which are multicellular, usually sessile, aggregates of bacteria. Biofilms exhibit a greater resistance to antimicrobial treatments compared with isolated bacteria and thus are a particular concern to human health. Cellulose synthases synthesize cellulose by polymeriz...

  13. Folding and activity of mutant cystathionine ?-synthase depends on the position and nature of the purification tag: Characterization of the R266K CBS mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Majtan, Tomas; Kraus, Jan P.

    2012-01-01

    Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS), a heme-containing PLP-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the condensation of serine and homocysteine to yield cystathionine. Missense mutations in CBS, the most common cause of homocystinuria, often result in misfolded proteins. Arginine 266, where the pathogenic missense mutation R266K was identified, appears to be involved in the communication between heme and the PLP-containing catalytic center. Here, we assessed the effect of a short affinity tag (6xHis) compar...

  14. HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor Improves Endothelial Dysfunction in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats Via Down-regulation of Caveolin-1 and Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Jung-won; Choi, Dong-ju; Chang, Hyuk-jae; Cho, Young-seok; Youn, Tae-jin; Chae, In-ho; Kim, Kwang-il; Kim, Cheol-ho; Kim, Hyo-soo; Oh, Buyng-hee; Park, Young-bae

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk. Caveolin-1 regulates nitric oxide (NO) signaling by modulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The purpose of this study was to examine whether HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor improves impaired endothelial function of the aorta in spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) and to determine the underlying mechanisms involved. Eight-week-old male SHR were assigned to either a control group (CON, n=11) or a ...

  15. Glucocorticoid protects rodent hearts from ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase–derived PGD2 biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Tokudome, Satori; Sano, Motoaki; Shinmura, Ken; Matsuhashi, Tomohiro; Morizane, Shintaro; Moriyama, Hidenori; Tamaki, Kayoko; Hayashida, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Yoshikawa, Noritada; Shimizu, Noriaki; Endo, Jin; Katayama, Takaharu; Murata, Mitsushige; Yuasa, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), which was originally identified as an enzyme responsible for PGD2 biosynthesis in the brain, is highly expressed in the myocardium, including in cardiomyocytes. However, the factors that control expression of the gene encoding L-PGDS and the pathophysiologic role of L-PGDS in cardiomyocytes are poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that glucocorticoids, which act as repressors of prostaglandin biosynthesis in most cell types,...

  16. Conformational stability and activity analysis of two hydroxymethylbilane synthase mutants, K132N and V215E, with different phenotypic association with acute intermittent porphyria

    OpenAIRE

    Aurora Martinez; Karen Toska; Bustad, Helene X. A. J.; Marta Vorland; Nneseth, Eva R. X. F.; Sverre Sandberg

    2013-01-01

    The autosomal dominantly inherited disease AIP (acute intermittent porphyria) is caused by mutations in HMBS [hydroxymethylbilane synthase; also known as PBG (porphobilinogen) deaminase], the third enzyme in the haem biosynthesis pathway. Enzyme-intermediates with increasing number of PBG molecules are formed during the catalysis of HMBS. In this work, we studied the two uncharacterized mutants K132N and V215E comparative with wt (wild-type) HMBS and to the previously reported AIP-associated ...

  17. Modular polyketide synthases and cis-double bond formation: Establishment of activated cis-3-cyclohexylpropenoic acid as the diketide intermediate in phoslactomycin biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Alhamadsheh, Mamoun M.; Palaniappan, Nadaraj; Daschouduri, Suparna; Reynolds, Kevin A.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of modular polyketide synthase (PKS) systems which generate unsaturated products do so with trans double bonds. Phoslactomycin B (PLM B) presents a class of antitumor and antiviral natural polyketide products that have unique structural features, including a linear unsaturated backbone with one trans and three cis double bonds. There is substantial evidence that trans double bonds are established by ketoreductase-dehydratase (KR-DH) didomains within a PKS module. In cases where m...

  18. Transcriptional Activation and Cell Cycle Block Are the Keys for 5-Fluorouracil Induced Up-Regulation of Human Thymidylate Synthase Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Ligabue, Alessio; Marverti, G.; Liebl, Ursula; Myllykallio, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Background: 5-fluorouracil, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, up-regulates expression of human thymidylate synthase (hTS). Several different regulatory mechanisms have been proposed to mediate this up-regulation in distinct cell lines, but their specific contributions in a single cell line have not been investigated to date. We have established the relative contributions of these previously proposed regulatory mechanisms in the ovarian cancer cell line 2008 and the corresponding cisplat...

  19. A trehalose 6-phosphate synthase gene of the hemocytes of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: cloning, the expression, its enzyme activity and relationship to hemolymph trehalose levels

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, J. Sook

    2008-01-01

    Trehalose in ectoderms functions in energy metabolism and protection in extreme environmental conditions. We structurally characterized trehalose 6-phosphate synthase (TPS) from hemocytes of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. C. sapidus Hemo TPS (CasHemoTPS), like insect TPS, encodes both TPS and trehalose phosphate phosphatase domains. Trehalose seems to be a major sugar, as it shows higher levels than does glucose in hemocytes and hemolymph. Increases in HemoTPS expression, TPS enzyme acti...

  20. Hydroxychavicol, a Piper betle leaf component, induces apoptosis of CML cells through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-dependent JNK and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation and overrides imatinib resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jayashree B; Mahato, Sanjit K; Joshi, Kalpana; Shinde, Vaibhav; Rakshit, Srabanti; Biswas, Nabendu; Choudhury Mukherjee, Indrani; Mandal, Labanya; Ganguly, Dipyaman; Chowdhury, Avik A; Chaudhuri, Jaydeep; Paul, Kausik; Pal, Bikas C; Vinayagam, Jayaraman; Pal, Churala; Manna, Anirban; Jaisankar, Parasuraman; Chaudhuri, Utpal; Konar, Aditya; Roy, Siddhartha; Bandyopadhyay, Santu

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic extract of Piper betle (Piper betle L.) leaves was recently found to induce apoptosis of CML cells expressing wild type and mutated Bcr-Abl with imatinib resistance phenotype. Hydroxy-chavicol (HCH), a constituent of the alcoholic extract of Piper betle leaves, was evaluated for anti-CML activity. Here, we report that HCH and its analogues induce killing of primary cells in CML patients and leukemic cell lines expressing wild type and mutated Bcr-Abl, including the T315I mutation, with minimal toxicity to normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. HCH causes early but transient increase of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species-dependent persistent activation of JNK leads to an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase-mediated nitric oxide generation. This causes loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, cleavage of caspase 9, 3 and poly-adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase leading to apoptosis. One HCH analogue was also effective in vivo in SCID mice against grafts expressing the T315I mutation, although to a lesser extent than grafts expressing wild type Bcr-Abl, without showing significant bodyweight loss. Our data describe the role of JNK-dependent endothelial nitric oxide synthase-mediated nitric oxide for anti-CML activity of HCH and this molecule merits further testing in pre-clinical and clinical settings. PMID:21943109

  1. Growth of Schizosaccharomyces pombe on glucose-malate mixtures in continuous cell-recycle cultures. Kinetics of substrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribelarrea, J L; De Queiroz, J H; Pareilleux, A

    1997-04-01

    The aerobic growth of Schizosaccharomyces pombe on mixtures of glucose and malate was investigated during continuous high cell density cultures with partial cell-recycle using a membrane bioreactor. Determination of the specific metabolic rates relative to substrates and products allowed the capacity of the yeast to metabolize malic acid under both oxidative metabolism (carbon limited cultures) and oxidofermentative metabolism (carbon sufficient cultures) situations to be characterized. Under carbon limiting conditions, the specific rate of malate utilization was dependent on the residual concentration and a limit for a purely oxidative breakdown without ethanol formation was observed for a characteristic ratio between the rates of substrate consumption qM/qG of 1.63 g.g-1. In addition, the mass balance analysis revealed the incorporation of malic acid into biomass. In carbon excess environments, the specific rate of malate utilization was dependent on both the residual malate and the specific rate of glucose consumption indicating that in addition to its conversion into ethanol malate can be respiratively metabolized for qM/qG ratios higher than 0.4 g.g-1. PMID:9204519

  2. Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in hyaluronan synthase 2 transcripts through an AMP-activated protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Takumi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan); Oishi, Yuichi, E-mail: y3oishi@nodai.ac.jp [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in HAS2 transcripts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin also increases the phosphorylation of AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A pharmacological activator of AMPK increases mRNA levels of PPAR{alpha} and HAS2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression is blocked by a PPAR{alpha} antagonist. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis via an AMPK/PPAR{alpha}-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Although adipocytokines affect the functions of skin, little information is available on the effect of adiponectin on the skin. In this study, we investigated the effect of adiponectin on hyaluronan synthesis and its regulatory mechanisms in human dermal fibroblasts. Adiponectin promoted hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in the mRNA levels of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), which plays a primary role in hyaluronan synthesis. Adiponectin also increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). A pharmacological activator of AMPK, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1{beta}-ribofuranoside (AICAR), increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}), which enhances the expression of HAS2 mRNA. In addition, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of HAS2. Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression was blocked by GW6471, a PPAR{alpha} antagonist, in a concentration-dependent manner. These results show that adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in HAS2 transcripts through an AMPK/PPAR{alpha}-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts. Thus, our study suggests that adiponectin may be beneficial for retaining moisture in the skin, anti-inflammatory activity, and the treatment of a variety of cutaneous diseases.

  3. Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in hyaluronan synthase 2 transcripts through an AMP-activated protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in HAS2 transcripts. ? Adiponectin also increases the phosphorylation of AMPK. ? A pharmacological activator of AMPK increases mRNA levels of PPAR? and HAS2. ? Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression is blocked by a PPAR? antagonist. ? Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis via an AMPK/PPAR?-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Although adipocytokines affect the functions of skin, little information is available on the effect of adiponectin on the skin. In this study, we investigated the effect of adiponectin on hyaluronan synthesis and its regulatory mechanisms in human dermal fibroblasts. Adiponectin promoted hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in the mRNA levels of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), which plays a primary role in hyaluronan synthesis. Adiponectin also increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). A pharmacological activator of AMPK, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1?-ribofuranoside (AICAR), increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), which enhances the expression of HAS2 mRNA. In addition, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of HAS2. Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression was blocked by GW6471, a PPAR? antagonist, in a concentration-dependent manner. These results show that adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in HAS2 transcripts through an AMPK/PPAR?-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts. Thus, our study suggests that adiponectin may be beneficial for retaining moisture in the skin, anti-inflammatory activity, and the treatment of a variety of cutaneous diseases.

  4. Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates activity of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) in neurons via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man-Su; Shutov, Leonid P; Gnanasekaran, Aswini; Lin, Zhihong; Rysted, Jacob E; Ulrich, Jason D; Usachev, Yuriy M

    2014-11-01

    The Ca(2+)/calcineurin-dependent transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) plays an important role in regulating many neuronal functions, including excitability, axonal growth, synaptogenesis, and neuronal survival. NFAT can be activated by action potential firing or depolarization that leads to Ca(2+)/calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of NFAT and its translocation to the nucleus. Recent data suggest that NFAT and NFAT-dependent functions in neurons can also be potently regulated by NGF and other neurotrophins. However, the mechanisms of NFAT regulation by neurotrophins are not well understood. Here, we show that in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons, NGF markedly facilitates NFAT-mediated gene expression induced by mild depolarization. The effects of NGF were not associated with changes in [Ca(2+)]i and were independent of phospholipase C activity. Instead, the facilitatory effect of NGF depended on activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway downstream of the TrkA receptor and on inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?), a protein kinase known to phosphorylate NFAT and promote its nuclear export. Knockdown or knockout of NFATc3 eliminated this facilitatory effect. Simultaneous monitoring of EGFP-NFATc3 nuclear translocation and [Ca(2+)]i changes in dorsal root ganglion neurons indicated that NGF slowed the rate of NFATc3 nuclear export but did not affect its nuclear import rate. Collectively, our data suggest that NGF facilitates depolarization-induced NFAT activation by stimulating PI3K/Akt signaling, inactivating GSK3?, and thereby slowing NFATc3 export from the nucleus. We propose that NFAT serves as an integrator of neurotrophin action and depolarization-driven calcium signaling to regulate neuronal gene expression. PMID:25231981

  5. Structural Modeling and Site-Directed Mutagenesis of the Actinorhodin ?-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    He, Min; Varoglu, Mustafa; Sherman, David H.

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of the Streptomyces coelicolor actinorhodin ?-ketoacyl synthase (Act KS) was constructed based on the X-ray crystal structure of the related Escherichia coli fatty acid synthase condensing enzyme ?-ketoacyl synthase II, revealing a similar catalytic active site organization in these two enzymes. The model was assessed by site-directed mutagenesis of five conserved amino acid residues in Act KS that are in close proximity to the Cys169 active site. Three substitutio...

  6. Structural, thermal and dielectric properties of cadmium malate single crystal grown in limited diffusion media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincy, A.; Mahalakshmi, V.; Thomas, J.; Saban, K. V.

    2015-02-01

    Single crystals of cadmium malate trihydrate have been grown by the controlled diffusion of ionic species in hydrosilica gel. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies show that the crystal belongs to the monoclinic system with space group P21/n. The functional groups elucidated from the FTIR spectrum are in conformity with the information derived from the X- ray diffraction studies. The thermal behaviour of the material has been investigated using TG- DTA techniques. The optical band gap of the material has been estimated using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and a.c. conductivity of the crystal are studied over wide temperature and frequency ranges.

  7. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wise, Mitchell Lynn (Pullman, WA); Katahira, Eva Joy (Pullman, WA); Savage, Thomas Jonathan (Christchurch 5, NZ)

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  8. Characterisation of the tryptophan synthase alpha subunit in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gierl Alfons

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bacteria, such as Salmonella typhimurium, tryptophan is synthesized from indole-3-glycerole phosphate (IGP by a tryptophan synthase ???? heterotetramer. Plants have evolved multiple ? (TSA and ? (TSB homologs, which have probably diverged in biological function and their ability of subunit interaction. There is some evidence for a tryptophan synthase (TS complex in Arabidopsis. On the other hand maize (Zea mays expresses the TSA-homologs BX1 and IGL that efficiently cleave IGP, independent of interaction with TSB. Results In order to clarify, how tryptophan is synthesized in maize, two TSA homologs, hitherto uncharacterized ZmTSA and ZmTSAlike, were functionally analyzed. ZmTSA is localized in plastids, the major site of tryptophan biosynthesis in plants. It catalyzes the tryptophan synthase ?-reaction (cleavage of IGP, and forms a tryptophan synthase complex with ZmTSB1 in vitro. The catalytic efficiency of the ?-reaction is strongly enhanced upon complex formation. A 160 kD tryptophan synthase complex was partially purified from maize leaves and ZmTSA was identified as native ?-subunit of this complex by mass spectrometry. ZmTSAlike, for which no in vitro activity was detected, is localized in the cytosol. ZmTSAlike, BX1, and IGL were not detectable in the native tryptophan synthase complex in leaves. Conclusion It was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro that maize forms a tryptophan synthase complex and ZmTSA functions as ?-subunit in this complex.

  9. Human uroporphyrinogen III synthase: molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of a full-length cDNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, S. F.; Bishop, D. F.; Desnick, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen III synthase [URO-synthase; hydroxymethylbilane hydro-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.2.1.75], the fourth enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, is responsible for conversion of the linear tetrapyrrole, hydroxymethylbilane, to the cyclic tetrapyrrole, uroporphyrinogen III. The deficient activity of URO-synthase is the enzymatic defect in the autosomal recessive disorder congenital erythropoietic porphyria. To facilitate the isolation of a full-length cDNA for human URO-synthase, th...

  10. Genetic organization of the cellulose synthase operon in Acetobacter xylinum.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, H. C.; Fear, A. L.; Calhoon, R. D.; Eichinger, G. H.; Mayer, R.; Amikam, D.; Benziman, M.; Gelfand, D. H.; Meade, J. H.; Emerick, A. W.

    1990-01-01

    An operon encoding four proteins required for bacterial cellulose biosynthesis (bcs) in Acetobacter xylinum was isolated via genetic complementation with strains lacking cellulose synthase activity. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that the cellulose synthase operon is 9217 base pairs long and consists of four genes. The four genes--bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, and bcsD--appear to be translationally coupled and transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA with an initiation site 97 bases upstream of the co...

  11. Construction of malate-sensing Escherichia coli by introduction of a novel chimeric two-component system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Irisappan; Ravikumar, Sambandam; Yoo, Ik-Keun; Hong, Soon Ho

    2015-04-01

    In an attempt to develop a high-throughput screening system for screening microorganisms which produce high amounts of malate, a MalKZ chimeric HK-based biosensor was constructed. Considering the sequence similarity among Escherichia coli (E. coli) MalK with Bacillus subtilis MalK and E. coli DcuS, the putative sensor domain of MalK was fused with the catalytic domain of EnvZ. The chimeric MalK/EnvZ TCS induced the ompC promoter through the cognate response regulator, OmpR, in response to extracellular malate. Real-time quantitative PCR and GFP fluorescence studies showed increased ompC gene expression and GFP fluorescence as malate concentration increased. By using this strategy, various chimeric TCS-based bacteria biosensors can be constructed, which may be used for the development of biochemical-producing recombinant microorganisms. PMID:25376367

  12. Isolation and functional characterization of a ?-cadinol synthase, a new sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullien, Frédéric; Moja, Sandrine; Bony, Aurélie; Legrand, Sylvain; Petit, Cécile; Benabdelkader, Tarek; Poirot, Kévin; Fiorucci, Sébastien; Guitton, Yann; Nicolè, Florence; Baudino, Sylvie; Magnard, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we characterize three sTPSs: a germacrene D (LaGERDS), a (E)-?-caryophyllene (LaCARS) and a ?-cadinol synthase (LaCADS). ?-cadinol synthase is reported here for the first time and its activity was studied in several biological models including transiently or stably transformed tobacco species. Three dimensional structure models of LaCADS and Ocimum basilicum ?-cadinene synthase were built by homology modeling using the template structure of Gossypium arboreum ?-cadinene synthase. The depiction of their active site organization provides evidence of the global influence of the enzymes on the formation of ?-cadinol: instead of a unique amino-acid, the electrostatic properties and solvent accessibility of the whole active site in LaCADS may explain the stabilization of the cadinyl cation intermediate. Quantitative PCR performed from leaves and inflorescences showed two patterns of expression. LaGERDS and LaCARS were mainly expressed during early stages of flower development and, at these stages, transcript levels paralleled the accumulation of the corresponding terpene products (germacrene D and (E)-?-caryophyllene). By contrast, the expression level of LaCADS was constant in leaves and flowers. Phylogenetic analysis provided informative results on potential duplication process leading to sTPS diversification in lavender. PMID:24078339

  13. Starvation for ilvB operon leader amino acids other than leucine or valine does not increase acetohydroxy acid synthase activity in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsui, P.; Freundlich, M.

    1985-01-01

    Eleven different amino acids are encoded in the ilvB leader mRNA. Starvation for leucine or valine, but not for any of the other nine amino acids, resulted in high levels of acetohydroxy acid synthase I. These results are discussed in terms of a report (C.A. Hauser and G.W. Hatfield, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81:76-79, 1984) which suggests that threonine and alanine, in addition to leucine and valine, are involved in the regulation of the ilvB operon.

  14. Mutations Derived from the Thermophilic Polyhydroxyalkanoate Synthase PhaC Enhance the Thermostability and Activity of PhaC from Cupriavidus necator H16

    OpenAIRE

    Sheu, Der-shyan; Chen, Wen-ming; Lai, Yung-wei; Chang, Rey-chang

    2012-01-01

    The thermophile Cupriavidus sp. strain S-6 accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from glucose at 50°C. A 9.0-kbp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genomic DNA of Cupriavidus sp. S-6 enabled Escherichia coli XL1-Blue to synthesize PHB at 45°C. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed a pha locus in the clone. The thermophilic polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase (PhaCCsp) shared 81% identity with mesophilic PhaC of Cupriavidus necator H16. The diversity between these two strains was found dominantly ...

  15. The activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rejected skin xenografts is selectively inhibited by a factor produced by grafted cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holá?, Vladimír; Pindjáková, Jana; Zajícová, Alena; Krulová, Magdalena; Železná, Blanka; Matoušek, Petr; Svoboda, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 12, ?. 3 (2005), s. 227-234. ISSN 0908-665X R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7816; GA ?R(CZ) GP310/02/D162; GA ?R(CZ) GD310/03/H147; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 300; GA AV ?R KSK5020115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : inducible nitric oxide synthase production * nitric oxide * suppressive molecule Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.114, year: 2005

  16. Mechanisms of angiotensin II-mediated activation of aldosterone synthase in H295R human adrenocortical and rat adrenal glomerulosa cells

    OpenAIRE

    Szekeres, Ma?ria; Turu, Ga?bor; Orient, Anna; Szalai, Bence; Su?peki, Katinka; Cserzo?, Miklo?s; Va?rnai, Pe?ter; Hunyady, La?szlo?

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In adrenal zona glomerulosa cells angiotensin II (Ang II) is a key regulator of steroidogenesis. Our purpose was to compare the mechanisms of Ang II-induced changes in the expression level of early transcription factors NR4A1 (NGFIB) and NR4A2 (Nurr1) genes, and the CYP11B2 gene encoding aldosterone synthase in H295R human adrenocortical tumor cells and in primary rat adrenal glomerulosa cells. Real-time PCR studies have demonstrated that Ang II increased the expression le...

  17. Nitric oxide synthase in the pineal gland

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-figueroa, M. O.; Moller, M.

    1996-01-01

    The recent discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as a biological messenger molecule with unique characteristics has opened a new field in pineal research. This free radical gas is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. The activation of adrenoreceptors in the membrane of the pinealocytes mediates the increase in NO through a mechanism that involves G proteins. In the pinealocyte, NO stimulates guanylyl cyclase resulting in an increased ...

  18. Nitric Oxide Synthases in Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Carnicer, R.; Crabtree, Mj; Sivakumaran, V.; Casadei, B.; Kass, Da

    2013-01-01

    Significance: The regulation of myocardial function by constitutive nitric oxide synthases (NOS) is important for the maintenance of myocardial Ca2+ homeostasis, relaxation and distensibility, and protection from arrhythmia and abnormal stress stimuli. However, sustained insults such as diabetes, hypertension, hemodynamic overload, and atrial fibrillation lead to dysfunctional NOS activity with superoxide produced instead of NO and worse pathophysiology. Recent Advances: Major strides in unde...

  19. Linking pseudouridine synthases to growth, development and cell competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortoriello, Giuseppe; de Celis, José F; Furia, Maria

    2010-08-01

    Eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases direct RNA pseudouridylation and bind H/ACA small nucleolar RNA (snoRNAs), which, in turn, may act as precursors of microRNA-like molecules. In humans, loss of pseudouridine synthase activity causes dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a complex systemic disorder characterized by cancer susceptibility, failures in ribosome biogenesis and telomere stability, and defects in stem cell formation. Considering the significant interest in deciphering the various molecular consequences of pseudouridine synthase failure, we performed a loss of function analysis of minifly (mfl), the pseudouridine synthase gene of Drosophila, in the wing disc, an advantageous model system for studies of cell growth and differentiation. In this organ, depletion of the mfl-encoded pseudouridine synthase causes a severe reduction in size by decreasing both the number and the size of wing cells. Reduction of cell number was mainly attributable to cell death rather than reduced proliferation, establishing that apoptosis plays a key role in the development of the loss of function mutant phenotype. Depletion of Mfl also causes a proliferative disadvantage in mosaic tissues that leads to the elimination of mutant cells by cell competition. Intriguingly, mfl silencing also triggered unexpected effects on wing patterning and cell differentiation, including deviations from normal lineage boundaries, mingling of cells of different compartments, and defects in the formation of the wing margin that closely mimic the phenotype of reduced Notch activity. These results suggest that a component of the pseudouridine synthase loss of function phenotype is caused by defects in Notch signalling. PMID:20608977

  20. Structure and Function of Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase: Role of Critical Amino Acids in C-substrate Binding Procket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaria parasite thrives on anaerobic fermentation of glucose for energy. Earlier studies from our lab have demonstrated that a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) with striking similarity to lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) might complement PfLDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. The N-terminal g...

  1. Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator (uPA) Induces Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Permeability through Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein (LRP)-dependent Activation of Endothelial Nitric-oxide Synthase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Anastasia M.; Lebedeva, Tatiana V.; Nassar, Taher; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof; Xue, Jing; Carinato, Maria E.; Bdeir, Khalil; Cines, Douglas B.; Stepanova, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and PA inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) are elevated in acute lung injury, which is characterized by a loss of endothelial barrier function and the development of pulmonary edema. Two-chain uPA and uPA-PAI-1 complexes (1–20 nm) increased the permeability of monolayers of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) in vitro and lung permeability in vivo. The effects of uPA-PAI-1 were abrogated by the nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor l-NAME (ND-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester). Two-chain uPA (1–20 nm) and uPA-PAI-1 induced phosphorylation of endothelial NOS-Ser1177 in PMVECs, which was followed by generation of NO and the nitrosylation and dissociation of ?-catenin from VE-cadherin. uPA-induced phosphorylation of eNOS was decreased by anti-low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP) antibody and an LRP antagonist, receptor-associated protein (RAP), and when binding to the uPA receptor was blocked by the isolated growth factor-like domain of uPA. uPA-induced phosphorylation of eNOS was also inhibited by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, myristoylated PKI, but was not dependent on PI3K-Akt signaling. LRP blockade and inhibition of PKA prevented uPA- and uPA-PAI-1-induced permeability of PMVEC monolayers in vitro and uPA-induced lung permeability in vivo. These studies identify a novel pathway involved in regulating PMVEC permeability and suggest the utility of uPA-based approaches that attenuate untoward permeability following acute lung injury while preserving its salutary effects on fibrinolysis and airway remodeling. PMID:21540184

  2. A metal bridge between two enzyme families. 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate-8-phosphate synthase from Aquifex aeolicus requires a divalent metal for activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duewel, H S; Woodard, R W

    2000-07-28

    The enzymes 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid-8-phosphate synthase (KDO8PS) and 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonic acid-7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS) catalyze analogous condensation reactions between phosphoenolpyruvate and d-arabinose 5-phosphate or d-erythrose 4-phosphate, respectively. While several similarities exist between the two enzymatic reactions, classic studies on the Escherichia coli enzymes have established that DAHPS is a metalloenzyme, whereas KDO8PS has no metal requirement. Here, we demonstrate that KDO8PS from Aquifex aeolicus, representing only the second member of the KDO8PS family to be characterized in detail, is a metalloenzyme. The recombinant KDO8PS, as isolated, displays an absorption band at 505 nm and contains approximately 0.4 and 0.2-0.3 eq of zinc and iron, respectively, per enzyme subunit. EDTA inactivates the enzyme in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and eliminates the absorption at 505 nm. The addition of Cu(2+) to KDO8PS produces an intense absorption at 375 nm, while neither Co(2+) nor Ni(2+) produce such an effect. The EDTA-treated enzyme is reactivated by a wide range of divalent metal ions including Ca(2+), Cd(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), and Zn(2+) and is reversibly inhibited by higher concentrations (>1 mm) of certain metals. Analysis of several metal forms of the enzyme by plasma mass spectrometry suggests that the enzyme preferentially binds one, two, or four metal ions per tetramer. These observations strongly suggest that A. aeolicus KDO8PS is a metalloenzyme in vivo and point to a previously unrecognized relationship between the KDO8PS and DAHPS families. PMID:10811802

  3. Novel potent and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, M; Klinghofer, V; Kuk, J E; Donnelly, J L; Budzik, G P; Pollock, J S; Basha, F; Carter, G W

    1995-04-01

    We have identified two novel potent and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase, S-ethylisothiourea and 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-thiazine. Ki values of 14.7 nM for S-ethylisothiourea and 4.2 nM for 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-thiazine were obtained with partially purified preparations of inducible nitric oxide synthase. These compounds demonstrate about 1000-fold greater potency than prototypical inhibitors, and the inhibitions are 10-40-fold more selective for murine inducible nitric oxide synthase, compared with the rat neuronal and bovine endothelial isoforms of nitric oxide synthase. These compounds also potently inhibit the nitric oxide synthase activity in intact J774 mouse macrophages. The inhibition is competitive with the substrate L-arginine and reversible in both enzymatic and intact cell assays. These potent and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase may have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:7536889

  4. Improved Production of Propionic Acid in Propionibacterium jensenii via Combinational Overexpression of Glycerol Dehydrogenase and Malate Dehydrogenase from Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Zhuge, Xin; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Chen, Rachel R; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Microbial production of propionic acid (PA), an important chemical building block used as a preservative and chemical intermediate, has gained increasing attention for its environmental friendliness over traditional petrochemical processes. In previous studies, we constructed a shuttle vector as a useful tool for engineering Propionibacterium jensenii, a potential candidate for efficient PA synthesis. In this study, we identified the key metabolites for PA synthesis in P. jensenii by examining the influence of metabolic intermediate addition on PA synthesis with glycerol as a carbon source under anaerobic conditions. We also further improved PA production via the overexpression of the identified corresponding enzymes, namely, glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and fumarate hydratase (FUM). Compared to those in wild-type P. jensenii, the activities of these enzymes in the engineered strains were 2.91- ± 0.17- to 8.12- ± 0.37-fold higher. The transcription levels of the corresponding enzymes in the engineered strains were 2.85- ± 0.19- to 8.07- ± 0.63-fold higher than those in the wild type. The coexpression of GDH and MDH increased the PA titer from 26.95 ± 1.21 g/liter in wild-type P. jensenii to 39.43 ± 1.90 g/liter in the engineered strains. This study identified the key metabolic nodes limiting PA overproduction in P. jensenii and further improved PA titers via the coexpression of GDH and MDH, making the engineered P. jensenii strain a potential industrial producer of PA. PMID:25595755

  5. Identification of avian wax synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biester Eva-Maria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bird species show a high degree of variation in the composition of their preen gland waxes. For instance, galliform birds like chicken contain fatty acid esters of 2,3-alkanediols, while Anseriformes like goose or Strigiformes like barn owl contain wax monoesters in their preen gland secretions. The final biosynthetic step is catalyzed by wax synthases (WS which have been identified in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Results Sequence similarities enabled us to identify six cDNAs encoding putative wax synthesizing proteins in chicken and two from barn owl and goose. Expression studies in yeast under in vivo and in vitro conditions showed that three proteins from chicken performed WS activity while a sequence from chicken, goose and barn owl encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis. Mono- and bifunctional WS were found to differ in their substrate specificities especially with regard to branched-chain alcohols and acyl-CoA thioesters. According to the expression patterns of their transcripts and the properties of the enzymes, avian WS proteins might not be confined to preen glands. Conclusions We provide direct evidence that avian preen glands possess both monofunctional and bifunctional WS proteins which have different expression patterns and WS activities with different substrate specificities.

  6. Synthesis, crystal growth and physical characterizations of organic nonlinear optical crystal: Ammonium hydrogen L-malate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, K.; Ramasamy, P.

    An organic nonlinear optical crystal ammonium hydrogen L-malate (AHM) has been synthesized. Single crystals of AHM have successfully been grown by the slow evaporation solution method. Optically clear single crystals having dimensions up to 23 × 9 × 4 mm3 have been grown. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirms that the AHM crystallizes in orthorhombic crystal system with space group P212121. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern of the grown crystal has been recorded. FT-IR spectrum was recorded to identify the various functional groups of AHM. The UV-vis-NIR transmission was analyzed for grown crystal. Thermal analysis was performed to find out thermal stability of the compound. Vickers microhardness measurements were carried and also work hardening coefficient has been found. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal has been analyzed by HRXRD measurements. The second harmonic efficiency of AHM was found to be 1.2 times that of KDP.

  7. Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to a combination of thymidine and ICI D1694, a quinazoline antifolate directed at thymidylate synthase.

    OpenAIRE

    Rathod, P. K.; Reshmi, S.

    1994-01-01

    Unlike mammalian cells, malarial parasites lack the enzymes to salvage preformed pyrimidines. For this reason, a combination of a thymidylate synthase inhibitor and the nucleoside thymidine should provide selective antimalarial activity even in the absence of any known active site differences between malarial and mammalian thymidylate synthases. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the in vitro antimalarial activity of ICI D1694, a quinazoline antifolate that inhibits thymidylate synthase in...

  8. A stable organic free radical in anaerobic benzylsuccinate synthase of Azoarcus sp. strain T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, C J; Roseboom, W; Albracht, S P; Spormann, A M

    2001-04-20

    The novel enzyme benzylsuccinate synthase initiates anaerobic toluene metabolism by catalyzing the addition of toluene to fumarate, forming benzylsuccinate. Based primarily on its sequence similarity to the glycyl radical enzymes, pyruvate formate-lyase and anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase, benzylsuccinate synthase was speculated to be a glycyl radical enzyme. In this report we use EPR spectroscopy to demonstrate for the first time that active benzylsuccinate synthase from the denitrifying bacterium Azoarcus sp. strain T harbors an oxygen-sensitive stable organic free radical. The EPR signal of the radical was centered at g = 2.0021 and was characterized by a major 2-fold splitting of about 1.5 millitesla. The strong similarities between the EPR signal of the benzylsuccinate synthase radical and that of the glycyl radicals of pyruvate formate-lyase and anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase provide evidence that the benzylsuccinate synthase radical is located on a glycine residue, presumably glycine 828 in Azoarcus sp. strain T benzylsuccinate synthase. PMID:11278506

  9. Genetic organization of the cellulose synthase operon in Acetobacter xylinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H C; Fear, A L; Calhoon, R D; Eichinger, G H; Mayer, R; Amikam, D; Benziman, M; Gelfand, D H; Meade, J H; Emerick, A W

    1990-10-01

    An operon encoding four proteins required for bacterial cellulose biosynthesis (bcs) in Acetobacter xylinum was isolated via genetic complementation with strains lacking cellulose synthase activity. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that the cellulose synthase operon is 9217 base pairs long and consists of four genes. The four genes--bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, and bcsD--appear to be translationally coupled and transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA with an initiation site 97 bases upstream of the coding region of the first gene (bcsA) in the operon. Results from genetic complementation tests and gene disruption analyses demonstrate that all four genes in the operon are required for maximal bacterial cellulose synthesis in A. xylinum. The calculated molecular masses of the proteins encoded by bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, and bcsD are 84.4, 85.3, 141.0, and 17.3 kDa, respectively. The second gene in the operon (bcsB) encodes the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase. The functions of the bcsA, bcsC, and bcsD gene products are unknown. Bacterial strains mutated in the bcsA locus were found to be deficient in cellulose synthesis due to the lack of cellulose synthase and diguanylate cyclase activities. Mutants in the bcsC and bcsD genes were impaired in cellulose production in vivo, even though they had the capacity to make all the necessary metabolic precursors and cyclic diguanylic acid, the activator of cellulose synthase, and exhibit cellulose synthase activity in vitro. When the entire operon was present on a multicopy plasmid in the bacterial cell, both cellulose synthase activity and cellulose biosynthesis increased. When the promoter of the cellulose synthase operon was replaced on the chromosome by E. coli tac or lac promoters, cellulose production was reduced in parallel with decreased cellulose synthase activity. These observations suggest that the expression of the bcs operon is rate-limiting for cellulose synthesis in A. xylinum. PMID:2146681

  10. Biochemical and enzymological properties of the polyhydroxybutyrate synthase from the extremely halophilic archaeon strain 56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezayen, Francis F; Steinbüchel, Alexander; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2002-07-15

    Some members of the archaebacterial family Halobacteriaceae have been determined to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). The extremely halophilic archaebacterium strain 56 is capable of accumulating large amounts of PHB. Since measurements of enzyme activities related to archaebacterial PHB biosynthesis have never been achieved, we investigated the enzymology of PHB biosynthesis in strain 56. Crude extracts of strain 56 cultivated under accumulating conditions showed PHB synthase activity, whereas neither beta-ketothiolase nor NADH/NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase activity was detectable. An 80-kDa protein, cross-reacting with the anti-PHB synthase antibodies raised against the PHB synthase from Ralstonia eutropha, was identified in the crude extract and was strongly enriched by purification of PHB granules. The granule-associated PHB synthase was enzymologically characterized. Enzyme kinetics showed a specific activity of about 4.6U/mg and Hill plot analysis revealed a K(0.5) of 56 microM with (R)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA employed as substrate. A Hill coefficient of 1.75 indicated that the PHB synthase exhibited positive cooperativity. The thioesters 3-hydroxyvaleryl-CoA, 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, and 3-hydroxydecanoyl-CoA were not accepted as substrates. Moreover, the PHB synthase was found to be competitively inhibited by CoA, showing an IC(50) of 160 microM. The PHB synthase was stable up to 60 degrees C and still exhibited about 90% of the maximum enzyme activity, which was obtained at 40 degrees C. In contrast to the soluble PHB synthase, the granule-bound PHB synthase was almost independent of the salt concentration. The PHB synthase could not be released from the PHB granules, indicating a covalent attachment to the PHB core. This is the first description of an archaebacterial PHA synthase. PMID:12139978

  11. The control of tricarboxylate-cycle oxidations in blowfly flight muscle. The steady-state concentrations of citrate, isocitrate 2-oxoglutarate and malate in flight muscle and isolated mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R N; Hansford, R G

    1975-03-01

    1. Blowfly (Phormia regina) flight-muscle mitochondria were allowed to oxidize pyruvate under a variety of experimental conditions, and determinations of the citrate, isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate and malate contents of both the mitochondria and the incubation medium were made. For each intermediate a substantial portion of the total was present within the mitochondria. 2. Activation of respiration by either ADP or uncoupling agent resulted in a decreased content of citrate and isocitrate and an increased content of 2-oxoglutarate and malate when the substrate was pyruvate, APT and HCO3 minus. Such a decrease in citrate content was obscured when the substrate was pyruvate and proline owing to a large rise in the total content of tricarboxylate-cycle intermediates in the presence of proline and ADP. 3. An experiment involving oligomycin and uncoupling agent demonstrated that the ATP/ADP ratio is the main determinant of flux through the tricarboxylate cycle, with the redox state of nicotinamide nucleotide being of lesser importance. 4. Addition of ADP and Ca-2+ to activate the oxidation of both glycerol 3-phosphate and pyruvate, simulating conditions on initiation of flight, gave a decrease in citrate and isocitrate and an increase in 2-oxoglutarate and malate content. 5. There was a good correlation between these results with isolated flight-muscle mitochondria and the changes found in fly thoraces after 30s and 2 mihorax. 6. It is concluded that NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.41) controls the rate of pyruvate oxidation in both resting fly flight muscle in vivo and isolated mitochondria in state 4 (nomenclature of Change & Williams, 1955). PMID:1147907

  12. An acridone-producing novel multifunctional type III polyketide synthase from Huperzia serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanibuchi, Kiyofumi; Zhang, Ping; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Chen, Guoshen; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Abe, Ikuro

    2007-02-01

    A cDNA encoding a novel plant type III polyketide synthase was cloned and sequenced from the Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata (Huperziaceae). The deduced amino acid sequence of Hu. serrata polyketide synthase 1 showed 44-66% identity to those of other chalcone synthase superfamily enzymes of plant origin. Further, phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that Hu. serrata polyketide synthase 1 groups with other nonchalcone-producing type III polyketide synthases. Indeed, a recombinant enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli showed unusually versatile catalytic potential to produce various aromatic tetraketides, including chalcones, benzophenones, phloroglucinols, and acridones. In particular, it is remarkable that the enzyme accepted bulky starter substrates such as 4-methoxycinnamoyl-CoA and N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA, and carried out three condensations with malonyl-CoA to produce 4-methoxy-2',4',6'-trihydroxychalcone and 1,3-dihydroxy-N-methylacridone, respectively. In contrast, regular chalcone synthase does not accept these bulky substrates, suggesting that the enzyme has a larger starter substrate-binding pocket at the active site. Although acridone alkaloids have not been isolated from Hu. serrata, this is the first demonstration of the enzymatic production of acridone by a type III polyketide synthase from a non-Rutaceae plant. Interestingly, Hu. serrata polyketide synthase 1 lacks most of the consensus active site sequences with acridone synthase from Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae). PMID:17250741

  13. Structure of a cephalosporin synthase.

    OpenAIRE

    Valega?rd, K.; Scheltinga, Ac; Lloyd, Md; Hara, T.; Ramaswamy, S.; Perrakis, A.; Thompson, A.; Lee, Hj; Baldwin, Je; Schofield, CJ; Hajdu, J.; Andersson, I.

    1998-01-01

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used therapeutic agents. These antibiotics are produced from fermentation-derived materials as their chemical synthesis is not commercially viable. Unconventional steps in their biosynthesis are catalysed by Fe(II)-dependent oxidases/oxygenases; isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) creates in one step the bicyclic nucleus of penicillins, and deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS) catalyses the expansion of the penicillin nucleus into the ...

  14. Transcriptional activation of a geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene, GGPPS2, isolated from Scoparia dulcis by treatment with methyl jasmonate and yeast extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Y; Mizuguchi, Y; Taura, F; Kurosaki, F

    2014-10-01

    A cDNA clone, designated SdGGPPS2, was isolated from young seedlings of Scoparia dulcis. The putative amino acid sequence of the translate of the gene showed high homology with geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) from various plant sources, and the N-terminal residues exhibited the characteristics of chloroplast targeting sequence. An appreciable increase in the transcriptional level of SdGGPPS2 was observed by exposure of the leaf tissues of S. dulcis to methyl jasmonate, yeast extract or Ca(2+) ionophore A23187. In contrast, SdGGPPS1, a homologous GGPPS gene of the plant, showed no or only negligible change in the expression level upon treatment with these stimuli. The truncated protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli in which the putative targeting domain was deleted catalyzed the condensation of farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate to liberate geranylgeranyl diphosphate. These results suggested that SdGGPPS2 plays physiological roles in methyl jasmonate and yeast extract-induced metabolism in the chloroplast of S. dulcis cells. PMID:25027024

  15. The dual-specific active site of 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid synthase and the effect of the R391A mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Andrew C; Sandmark, Jenny; Schneider, Gunter; Kirsch, Jack F

    2002-10-22

    7,8-diaminopelargonic acid (DAPA) synthase (EC 2.6.1.62) is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent transaminase that catalyzes the transfer of the alpha-amino group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to 7-keto-8-aminopelargonic acid (KAPA) to form DAPA in the antepenultimate step in the biosynthesis of biotin. The wild-type enzyme has a steady-state kcat value of 0.013 s(-1), and the K(m) values for SAM and KAPA are 150 and <2 microM, respectively. The k(max) and apparent K(m) values for the half-reaction of the PLP form of the enzyme with SAM are 0.016 s(-1) and 300 microM, respectively, while those for the reaction with DAPA are 0.79 s(-1) and 1 microM. The R391A mutant enzyme exhibits near wild-type kinetic parameters in the reaction with SAM, while the apparent K(m) for DAPA is increased 180-fold. The 2.1 A crystal structure of the R391A mutant enzyme shows that the mutation does not significantly alter the structure. These results indicate that the conserved arginine residue is not required for binding the alpha-amino acid SAM, but it is important for recognition of DAPA. PMID:12379100

  16. Dual Regulation of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3)?/? by Protein Kinase C (PKC)? and Akt Promotes Thrombin-mediated Integrin ?IIb?3 Activation and Granule Secretion in Platelets*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Samantha F.; van den Bosch, Marion T. J.; Hunter, Roger W.; Sakamoto, Kei; Poole, Alastair W.; Hers, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is a Ser/Thr kinase, tonically active in resting cells but inhibited by phosphorylation of an N-terminal Ser residue (Ser21 in GSK3? and Ser9 in GSK3?) in response to varied external stimuli. Recent work suggests that GSK3 functions as a negative regulator of platelet function, but how GSK3 is regulated in platelets has not been examined in detail. Here, we show that early thrombin-mediated GSK3 phosphorylation (0–30 s) was blocked by PKC inhibitors and largely absent in platelets from PKC? knock-out mice. In contrast, late (2–5 min) GSK3 phosphorylation was dependent on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Similarly, early thrombin-mediated inhibition of GSK3 activity was blocked in PKC? knock-out platelets, whereas the Akt inhibitor MK2206 reduced late thrombin-mediated GSK3 inhibition and largely prevented GSK3 inhibition in PKC? knock-out platelets. More importantly, GSK3 phosphorylation contributes to platelet function as knock-in mice where GSK3? Ser21 and GSK3? Ser9 were mutated to Ala showed a significant reduction in PAR4-mediated platelet aggregation, fibrinogen binding, and P-selectin expression, whereas the GSK3 inhibitor CHIR99021 enhanced these responses. Together, these results demonstrate that PKC? and Akt modulate platelet function by phosphorylating and inhibiting GSK3?/?, thereby relieving the negative effect of GSK3?/? on thrombin-mediated platelet activation. PMID:23239877

  17. Dual regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)?/? by protein kinase C (PKC)? and Akt promotes thrombin-mediated integrin ?IIb?3 activation and granule secretion in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Samantha F; van den Bosch, Marion T J; Hunter, Roger W; Sakamoto, Kei; Poole, Alastair W; Hers, Ingeborg

    2013-02-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is a Ser/Thr kinase, tonically active in resting cells but inhibited by phosphorylation of an N-terminal Ser residue (Ser(21) in GSK3? and Ser(9) in GSK3?) in response to varied external stimuli. Recent work suggests that GSK3 functions as a negative regulator of platelet function, but how GSK3 is regulated in platelets has not been examined in detail. Here, we show that early thrombin-mediated GSK3 phosphorylation (0-30 s) was blocked by PKC inhibitors and largely absent in platelets from PKC? knock-out mice. In contrast, late (2-5 min) GSK3 phosphorylation was dependent on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Similarly, early thrombin-mediated inhibition of GSK3 activity was blocked in PKC? knock-out platelets, whereas the Akt inhibitor MK2206 reduced late thrombin-mediated GSK3 inhibition and largely prevented GSK3 inhibition in PKC? knock-out platelets. More importantly, GSK3 phosphorylation contributes to platelet function as knock-in mice where GSK3? Ser(21) and GSK3? Ser(9) were mutated to Ala showed a significant reduction in PAR4-mediated platelet aggregation, fibrinogen binding, and P-selectin expression, whereas the GSK3 inhibitor CHIR99021 enhanced these responses. Together, these results demonstrate that PKC? and Akt modulate platelet function by phosphorylating and inhibiting GSK3?/?, thereby relieving the negative effect of GSK3?/? on thrombin-mediated platelet activation. PMID:23239877

  18. Crystal Structures Capture Three States in the Catalytic Cycle of a Pyridoxal Phosphate (PLP) Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amber Marie; Brown, William Clay; Harms, Etti; Smith, Janet L

    2015-02-27

    PLP synthase (PLPS) is a remarkable single-enzyme biosynthetic pathway that produces pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) from glutamine, ribose 5-phosphate, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The intact enzyme includes 12 synthase and 12 glutaminase subunits. PLP synthesis occurs in the synthase active site by a complicated mechanism involving at least two covalent intermediates at a catalytic lysine. The first intermediate forms with ribose 5-phosphate. The glutaminase subunit is a glutamine amidotransferase that hydrolyzes glutamine and channels ammonia to the synthase active site. Ammonia attack on the first covalent intermediate forms the second intermediate. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate reacts with the second intermediate to form PLP. To investigate the mechanism of the synthase subunit, crystal structures were obtained for three intermediate states of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus intact PLPS or its synthase subunit. The structures capture the synthase active site at three distinct steps in its complicated catalytic cycle, provide insights into the elusive mechanism, and illustrate the coordinated motions within the synthase subunit that separate the catalytic states. In the intact PLPS with a Michaelis-like intermediate in the glutaminase active site, the first covalent intermediate of the synthase is fully sequestered within the enzyme by the ordering of a generally disordered 20-residue C-terminal tail. Following addition of ammonia, the synthase active site opens and admits the Lys-149 side chain, which participates in formation of the second intermediate and PLP. Roles are identified for conserved Asp-24 in the formation of the first intermediate and for conserved Arg-147 in the conversion of the first to the second intermediate. PMID:25568319

  19. Malate-aspartate shuttle mediates the intracellular ATP levels, antioxidation capacity and survival of differentiated PC12 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Caixia; Chen, Heyu; Zhang, Jie; Hong, Yunyi; Ding, Xianting; Ying, Weihai

    2014-01-01

    NAD+ and NADH play pivotal roles in numerous redox reactions in cells. While increasing evidence has indicated important roles of NAD+ in cell survival and cellular functions, there has been distinct deficiency in the studies regarding the biological functions of NADH. NADH shuttles mediate the transfer of the reducing equivalents of the cytosolic NADH into mitochondria. Cumulating evidence has suggested that malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS), one of the two types of NADH shuttles, plays signifi...

  20. Spermidine synthase as affected by osmotic stress in oat leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmotically-induced putrescine (Put) accumulation in cereals could result not only from the activation of the arginine decarboxylase pathway, but also from the inhibition of spermidine synthase, the enzyme which catalyzes the transformation of Put to spermidine (Spd). To test the latter possibility, they evaluated Spd synthase activity in oat leaves as affected by osmotic stress. They developed a new assay for Spd synthase activity by adding S-adenosylmethionine, C14-Put and pyridoxal phosphate to the assay mixture. Incorporation of the C14-label into Spd can be detected after 45 min of incubation at 370C. Labelled Spd is separated from labelled Put or spermine by elution with HCl in Dowex 50 W-H+ columns. In peeled oat leaves floated in the dark over 0.6 M sorbitol in 1mM PO4 buffer (pH 5.8) for 6 and 136 h. Spd synthase activity is reduced by 24 and 53%, respectively, as compared with controls. The results suggest that the activity of this enzyme is inhibited by osmotic stress, and could partially account for the accumulation of Put

  1. A rapid, radiometric assay for sucrose synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of sucrose synthase in maize root tips have required development of a means to circumvent the rapid decline of activity observed after extraction dialysis and either synthetic or degradative assays. Several protease inhibitors were tested; although PMSF increased initial activity, no inhibitor prevented the drop in activity with time. Western blot analysis indicated that activity decline was not associated with protein degradation. Therefore, a procedure was developed which (1) shortened extraction-to-assay period from ca. 24 hours to 7 minutes, (2) simplified previous assays and (3) reduced the amount of tissue required. Extract was desalted with spun columns and the 14C-UDPG product recovered with DEAE ion exchange paper. The minute quantities of product recovered can be concealed by the presence of trace impurities in the 14C-sucrose utilized. DEAE ion exchange paper was used to remove interfering radio-labelled compounds from the 14C-sucrose prior to assay

  2. Liver isozyme of glycogen synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work described was aimed at comparing the liver isozymes of glycogen synthase in terms of primary structure and phosphorylation patterns, with the better studied muscle counterpart. Rat liver glycogen synthase was purified to apparent homogeneity. It was subjected to multiple phosphorylation by eight protein kinases. Phosphorylation sites were distributed between two CNBr-fragments, CB-1 (14,000) and CB-2 (28,000). Amino acid sequences of phosphopeptides of rabbit liver glycogen synthases modified by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase were determined and three phosphorylation sites were identified. A simple and effective procedure for determining the location of phosphorylation sites in phosphopeptides was also developed. The method employed measurement of [32P]inorganic phosphate release during Edman degradation cycles using the gas phase sequencer. Comparison of the liver and muscle isozymes has shown that similarities are more prominent than differences and isozymes share several important properties in multiple phosphorylation and hormonal regulation

  3. Growth-rate-dependent regulation of the expression and inactivation of thymidylate synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, M. T.; Calmels, E. M.; Storms, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase activity fluctuated dramatically as cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae progressed through the different stages of batch culture growth. During logarithmic growth these yeast cultures each contained about 40 microU (1 microU is 1 pmol of 3H released per min) of thymidylate synthase activity per 10(8) haploid cells, but as cultures entered the stationary phase and during the stationary phase, activity dropped dramatically, eventually reaching undetectable levels. Stimulat...

  4. Mechanical and thermal properties of biodegradable hydroxyapatite/poly(sorbitol sebacate malate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Hong Tham

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this project, novel hydroxyapatite (HAp/poly(sorbitol sebacate malate (PSSM composites for potential application in soft tissue engineering were developed. The composites consist of the biodegradable polyester prepared from sorbitol,sebacic acid, malic acid and various amount of HAp (5, 10, and 15 wt%. Effects of different weight percents of HAp on theproperties of the composites were studied. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was performed to analyze chemical interactions between HAp/PSSM. Tensile tests and differential scanning calorimetry were conducted to evaluate the mechanicaland thermal properties of HAp/PSSM composites. Tensile testing on HAp/PSSM composites showed that their mechanicalproperties improved with increasing concentration of HAp. The Young’s modulus and tensile strength of the compositesranged from 16.20±1.73 to 23.96±2.56 MPa and 626.96±81.04 to 1,026.46±105.12 MPa, respectively. The glass transition temperature of all samples was slightly higher than room temperature.

  5. Pancreatoprotection of Malate-Containing Infusion Solutions in Experimental Hemorrhagic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.Y. Yakovlev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study in experiment the effect of Sterofundin isotonic on the development of post-hemorrhagic damage of the pancreas.Materials and Methods. The experiments were carried out on 36 male Wistar rats weighing 230–250 g. Hemorrhagic shock was stimulated by acute massive hemorrhage to the extent of 2.5 mL/100 g at rate of 2 mL/min. The blood loss an hour later was followed by the replacement of hypovolemia within 60 min by 200% of the lost volume: in control group — by Ringer’s solution, in test group — by Sterofundin isotonic. Then there was performed reinfusion in the volume of 70% of blood loss. On day 1 and 3 after hemorrhagic shock we assessed the laboratory findings and morphological changes of the pancreas.Results. There was found pancreatoprotective action of isotonic Sterofundin, a malate-containing blood substitute in infusion therapy of experimental hemorrhagic shock.

  6. Glutamine and ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation on malate dehydrogenases expression in hepatectomized rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Artur, Guimarães Filho; Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da, Cunha; Paulo Roberto Leitão de, Vasconcelos; Sergio Botelho, Guimarães.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the relative gene expression (RGE) of cytosolic (MDH1) and mitochondrial (MDH2) malate dehydrogenases enzymes in partially hepatectomized rats after glutamine (GLN) or ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) suplementation. METHODS: One-hundred and eight male Wistar rats were ra [...] ndomly distributed into six groups (n=18): CCaL, GLNL and OKGL and fed calcium caseinate (CCa), GLN and OKG, 0.5g/Kg by gavage, 30 minutes before laparotomy. CCaH, GLNH and OKGH groups were likewise fed 30 minutes before 70% partial hepatectomy. Blood and liver samples were collected three, seven and 14 days after laparotomy/hepatectomy for quantification of MDH1/MDH2 enzymes using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology. Relative enzymes expression was calculated by the 2-??C T method using the threshold cycle (CT) value for normalization. RESULTS: MDH1/MDH2 RGE was not different in hepatectomized rats treated with OKG compared to rats treated with CCa. However, MDH1/MDH2 RGE was greater on days 3 (321:1/26.48:1) and 7 (2.12:1/2.48:1) while MDH2 RGE was greater on day 14 (7.79:1) in hepatectomized rats treated with GLN compared to control animals. CONCLUSION: Glutamine has beneficial effects in liver regeneration in rats by promoting an up-regulation of the MDH1 and MDH2 relative gene expression.

  7. Analysis of lactate and malate dehydrogenase enzyme profiles of selected major carps of wetland of Calcutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Madhumita; Chakraborty, Priyanka

    2012-07-01

    The East Calcutta Wetland (ECW), a Ramsar site in India, acts as the only sink for both city sewages as well as effluents from the surrounding small-scale industries and is alarmingly polluted with heavy metals. The three best edible major carp species rohu (Labeo rohita,), catla (Catla catla,) and mrigala (Cirrhinus mrigala) were undertaken to monitor lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) by cellulose acetate electrophoresis (CAE) to assess the effects of pollutants, if any. Crude tissue extracts were prepared from brain, eye, heart, skeletal muscle and kidney tissue respectively from each type of fish. No differences were not found in MDH of catla from both sites for all tissues analyzed in this study. Rohu also showed similar mobility for all tissues except for heart tissue which was distinctly different in fishes from ECW site than that of its counterpart from non ECW site. On the other hand, MDH of two tissues of mrigala, eye and muscle respectively showed different migration patterns. LDH profiles for all tissues of three fish species from both the sites were consistently similar, only the expression levels of muscle LDH of mrigala and kidney LDH of rohu varied little. PMID:23360005

  8. Structural basis for the alteration of coenzyme specificity in a malate dehydrogenase mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To elucidate the structural basis for the alteration of coenzyme specificity from NADH toward NADPH in a malate dehydrogenase mutant EX7 from Thermus flavus, we determined the crystal structures at 2.0 A resolution of EX7 complexed with NADPH and NADH, respectively. In the EX7-NADPH complex, Ser42 and Ser45 form hydrogen bonds with the 2'-phosphate group of the adenine ribose of NADPH, although the adenine moiety is not seen in the electron density map. In contrast, although Ser42 and Ser45 occupy a similar position in the EX7-NADH complex structure, both the adenine and adenine ribose moieties of NADH are missing in the map. These results and kinetic analysis of site-directed mutant enzymes indicate (1) that the preference of EX7 for NADPH over NADH is ascribed to the recognition of the 2'-phosphate group by two Ser and Arg44, and (2) that the adenine moiety of NADPH is not recognized in this mutant

  9. Blocking the mitogen activated protein kinase-p38 pathway is associated with increase expression of nitric oxide synthase and higher production of nitric oxide by bovine macrophages infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Cleverson D

    2015-03-15

    This study evaluated the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-p38 pathway in the nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production by bovine monocyte-derived macrophages ingesting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) organisms in vitro. Bovine monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with MAP organisms with or without a specific inhibitor of the MAPKp38 pathway and activation of the MAPKp38, interleukin - (IL) IL-10, IL-12, iNOS mRNA expression and NO production were evaluated. Incubation of macrophages with MAP organisms activates the MAPKp38 pathway at early time points post infection. Chemically inhibition of MAPKp38 before incubation of bovine macrophages with MAP resulted in increased expression of IL-12 mRNA at 2, 6 and 24h, decreased expression of IL-10 mRNA at 2, 6 and 24h and increased expression of iNOS mRNA at 2 and 6h. Nitric oxide was evaluated to indirectly determine the effects of MAPKp38 pathway on the anti-microbial activity of bovine macrophages. Incubation of bovine macrophages with MAP resulted in modest increased production of NO at 4 and 6h post infection. Pretreatment of bovine macrophages with the MAPKp38 inhibitor SB203580 before addition of MAP organisms resulted in increased production of NO at 2, 4, 6 and 24h post infection. This study expanded our knowledge of the importance of the MAPKp38 pathway in limiting an appropriate macrophage response to MAP and suggested how activation of MAPKp38 pathway may be a target of this organism to disrupt earlier antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages. These findings raises the interesting possibility that the cellular manipulation of MAPKp38 may be useful in designing novel vaccines against MAP. PMID:25700780

  10. Biphenyl synthase, a novel type III polyketide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Raeth, T; Beuerle, T; Beerhues, L

    2007-05-01

    Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Maloideae, a subfamily of the economically important Rosaceae. The carbon skeleton of the two classes of antimicrobial secondary metabolites is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS). A cDNA encoding this key enzyme was cloned from yeast-extract-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia. BIS is a novel type III polyketide synthase (PKS) that shares about 60% amino acid sequence identity with other members of the enzyme superfamily. Its preferred starter substrate is benzoyl-CoA that undergoes iterative condensation with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to give 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl via intramolecular aldol condensation. BIS did not accept CoA-linked cinnamic acids such as 4-coumaroyl-CoA. This substrate, however, was the preferential starter molecule for chalcone synthase (CHS) that was also cloned from S. aucuparia cell cultures. While BIS expression was rapidly, strongly and transiently induced by yeast extract treatment, CHS expression was not. In a phylogenetic tree, BIS grouped together closely with benzophenone synthase (BPS) that also uses benzoyl-CoA as starter molecule but cyclizes the common intermediate via intramolecular Claisen condensation. The molecular characterization of BIS thus contributes to the understanding of the functional diversity and evolution of type III PKSs. PMID:17109150

  11. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at Ser615 contributes to nitric oxide synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Stuart A.; Kohlhaas, Christine F.; Boyd, Alasdair R.; Yalla, Krishna C.; Walsh, Kenneth; Connell, John Mc; Salt, Ian P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Insulin stimulates endothelial nitric oxide synthesis via protein kinase B/Akt-mediated phosphorylation and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at Ser1177. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation at Ser1177 may be required, yet is not sufficient for insulin-stimulated nitric oxide synthesis. We therefore investigated the role of phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at altern...

  12. Functional analysis of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS) in sugarcane (Saccharum) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, A K; Upadhyay, S K; Verma, P C; Solomon, S; Singh, S B

    2011-03-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) and sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) are key enzymes in the synthesis and breakdown of sucrose in sugarcane. The activities of internodal SPS and SS, as well as transcript expression were determined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR at different developmental stages of high and low sucrose accumulating sugarcane cultivars. SPS activity and transcript expression was higher in mature internodes compared with immature internodes in all the studied cultivars. However, high sugar cultivars showed increased transcript expression and enzyme activity of SPS compared to low sugar cultivars at all developmental stages. SS activity was higher in immature internodes than in mature internodes in all cultivars; SS transcript expression showed a similar pattern. Our studies demonstrate that SPS activity was positively correlated with sucrose and negatively correlated with hexose sugars. However, SS activity was negatively correlated with sucrose and positively correlated with hexose sugars. The present study opens the possibility for improvement of sugarcane cultivars by increasing expression of the respective enzymes using transgene technology. PMID:21309979

  13. Polyhydroyxalkanoate Synthase Fusions as a Strategy for Oriented Enzyme Immobilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Hooks

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA is a carbon storage polymer produced by certain bacteria in unbalanced nutrient conditions. The PHA forms spherical inclusions surrounded by granule associate proteins including the PHA synthase (PhaC. Recently, the intracellular formation of PHA granules with covalently attached synthase from Ralstonia eutropha has been exploited as a novel strategy for oriented enzyme immobilisation. Fusing the enzyme of interest to PHA synthase results in a bifunctional protein able to produce PHA granules and immobilise the active enzyme of choice to the granule surface. Functionalised PHA granules can be isolated from the bacterial hosts, such as Escherichia coli, and maintain enzymatic activity in a wide variety of assay conditions. This approach to oriented enzyme immobilisation has produced higher enzyme activities and product levels than non-oriented immobilisation techniques such as protein inclusion based particles. Here, enzyme immobilisation via PHA synthase fusion is reviewed in terms of the genetic designs, the choices of enzymes, the control of enzyme orientations, as well as their current and potential applications.

  14. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence for the complete coding region of human UMP synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last two steps in the de novo biosynthesis of UMP are catalyzed by orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase. In mammals these two activities are found in a single, bifunctional protein called UMP synthase. A human T-lymphoblastic cell cDNA library constructed in ?gt10 was screened with a UMP synthase-specific rat cDNA probe. Human UMP synthase cDNAs were isolated and then used to select UMP synthase gene fragments. The complete coding sequence of the mRNA for UMP synthase was determined by analysis of overlapping cDNA and genomic fragments. One of the cDNAs appears to have been synthesized from an incompletely or alternatively processed form of the UMP synthase mRNA. This cDNA lacks a poly(A) tail and has an extended 3'-nontranslated region that hybridizes with larger forms of the UMP synthase mRNA. The UMP synthase protein is composed of 480 amino acids with a molecular weight of 52,199. The two activities of UMP synthase reside in distinct domains encoded by the 3' and 5' halves of the mRNA. The COOH-terminal 258 amino acids of the human UMP synthase protein contain the orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase catalytic domain. This region is highly homologous to the mouse orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase sequence. The NH2-terminal 214 amino acids contain the OPRT domain. There is amino acid homology between this protein domain and specific regions of the Escherichia coli OPRT. The human OPRT domain also ia coli OPRT. The human OPRT domain also contains the putative catalytic site common to other human phosphoribosyltransferases

  15. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence for the complete coding region of human UMP synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suttle, D.P. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA) Veterans Administration Medical Center, Memphis, TN (USA)); Bugg, B.Y. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Memphis, TN (USA)); Winkler, J.K. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA)); Kanalas, J.J. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (USA))

    1988-03-01

    The last two steps in the de novo biosynthesis of UMP are catalyzed by orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidine-5{prime}-monophosphate decarboxylase. In mammals these two activities are found in a single, bifunctional protein called UMP synthase. A human T-lymphoblastic cell cDNA library constructed in {lambda}gt10 was screened with a UMP synthase-specific rat cDNA probe. Human UMP synthase cDNAs were isolated and then used to select UMP synthase gene fragments. The complete coding sequence of the mRNA for UMP synthase was determined by analysis of overlapping cDNA and genomic fragments. One of the cDNAs appears to have been synthesized from an incompletely or alternatively processed form of the UMP synthase mRNA. This cDNA lacks a poly(A) tail and has an extended 3{prime}-nontranslated region that hybridizes with larger forms of the UMP synthase mRNA. The UMP synthase protein is composed of 480 amino acids with a molecular weight of 52,199. The two activities of UMP synthase reside in distinct domains encoded by the 3{prime} and 5{prime} halves of the mRNA. The COOH-terminal 258 amino acids of the human UMP synthase protein contain the orotidine-5{prime}-monophosphate decarboxylase catalytic domain. This region is highly homologous to the mouse orotidine-5{prime}-monophosphate decarboxylase sequence. The NH{sub 2}-terminal 214 amino acids contain the OPRT domain. There is amino acid homology between this protein domain and specific regions of the Escherichia coli OPRT. The human OPRT domain also contains the putative catalytic site common to other human phosphoribosyltransferases.

  16. Activation of Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 Coordinates Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase/PPAR-?/Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Pathways That Enhance Nitric Oxide Generation in Human Glomerular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zaiming; Aslam, Shakil; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S

    2015-04-01

    Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) degrades asymmetric dimethylarginine, which inhibits nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcriptional factor that binds to antioxidant response elements and transcribes many antioxidant genes. Because the promoters of the human DDAH-1 and DDAH-2, endothelial NOS (eNOS) and PPAR-? genes contain 2 to 3 putative antioxidant response elements, we hypothesized that they were regulated by Nrf2/antioxidant response element. Incubation of human renal glomerular endothelial cells with the Nrf2 activator tert-butylhydroquinone (20 ?mol·L(-1)) significantly (P<0.05) increased NO and activities of NOS and DDAH and decreased asymmetric dimethylarginine. It upregulated genes for hemoxygenase-1, eNOS, DDAH-1, DDAH-2, and PPAR-? and partitioned Nrf2 into the nucleus. Knockdown of Nrf2 abolished these effects. Nrf2 bound to one antioxidant response element on DDAH-1 and DDAH-2 and PPAR-? promoters but not to the eNOS promoter. An increased eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS (P-eNOSser-1177) expression with tert-butylhydroquinone was prevented by knockdown of PPAR-?. Expression of Nrf2 was reduced by knockdown of PPAR-?, whereas PPAR-? was reduced by knockdown of Nrf2, thereby demonstrating 2-way positive interactions. Thus, Nrf2 transcribes HO-1 and other genes to reduce reactive oxygen species, and DDAH-1 and DDAH-2 to reduce asymmetric dimethylarginine and PPAR-? to increase eNOS and its phosphorylation and activity thereby coordinating 3 pathways that enhance endothelial NO generation. PMID:25691623

  17. Genome-wide identification of Drosophila Hb9 targets reveals a pivotal role in directing the transcriptome within eight neuronal lineages, including activation of nitric oxide synthase and Fd59a/Fox-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacin, Haluk; Rusch, Jannette; Yeh, Raymond T; Fujioka, Miki; Wilson, Beth A; Zhu, Yi; Robie, Alice A; Mistry, Hemlata; Wang, Ting; Jaynes, James B; Skeath, James B

    2014-04-01

    Hb9 is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor that acts in combination with Nkx6, Lim3, and Tail-up (Islet) to guide the stereotyped differentiation, connectivity, and function of a subset of neurons in Drosophila. The role of Hb9 in directing neuronal differentiation is well documented, but the lineage of Hb9(+) neurons is only partly characterized, its regulation is poorly understood, and most of the downstream genes through which it acts remain at large. Here, we complete the lineage tracing of all embryonic Hb9(+) neurons (to eight neuronal lineages) and provide evidence that hb9, lim3, and tail-up are coordinately regulated by a common set of upstream factors. Through the parallel use of micro-array gene expression profiling and the Dam-ID method, we searched for Hb9-regulated genes, uncovering transcription factors as the most over-represented class of genes regulated by Hb9 (and Nkx6) in the CNS. By a nearly ten-to-one ratio, Hb9 represses rather than activates transcription factors, highlighting transcriptional repression of other transcription factors as a core mechanism by which Hb9 governs neuronal determination. From the small set of genes activated by Hb9, we characterized the expression and function of two - fd59a/foxd, which encodes a transcription factor, and Nitric oxide synthase. Under standard lab conditions, both genes are dispensable for Drosophila development, but Nos appears to inhibit hyper-active behavior and fd59a appears to act in octopaminergic neurons to control egg-laying behavior. Together our data clarify the mechanisms through which Hb9 governs neuronal specification and differentiation and provide an initial characterization of the expression and function of Nos and fd59a in the Drosophila CNS. PMID:24512689

  18. Functional reconstitution of cellulose synthase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Tomoya; Sun, Shi-Jing; Horikawa, Yoshiki; Wada, Masahisa; Sugiyama, Junji

    2014-11-10

    Cellulose is a high molecular weight polysaccharide of ?1 ? 4-d-glucan widely distributed in nature-from plant cell walls to extracellular polysaccharide in bacteria. Cellulose synthase, together with other auxiliary subunit(s) in the cell membrane, facilitates the fibrillar assembly of cellulose polymer chains into a microfibril. The gene encoding the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase is cesA and has been identified in many cellulose-producing organisms. Very few studies, however, have shown that recombinant CesA protein synthesizes cellulose polymer, but the mechanism by which CesA protein synthesizes cellulose microfibrils is not known. Here we show that cellulose-synthesizing activity is successfully reconstituted in Escherichia coli by expressing the bacterial cellulose synthase complex of Gluconacetobacter xylinus: CesA and CesB (formerly BcsA and BcsB, respectively). Cellulose synthase activity was, however, only detected when CesA and CesB were coexpressed with diguanyl cyclase (DGC), which synthesizes cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP), which in turn activates cellulose-synthesizing activity in bacteria. Direct observation by electron microscopy revealed extremely thin fibrillar structures outside E. coli cells, which were removed by cellulase treatment. This fiber structure is not likely to be the native crystallographic form of cellulose I, given that it was converted to cellulose II by a chemical treatment milder than ever described. We thus putatively conclude that this fine fiber is an unprecedented structure of cellulose. Despite the inability of the recombinant enzyme to synthesize the native structure of cellulose, the system described in this study, named "CESEC (CEllulose-Synthesizing E. Coli)", represents a useful tool for functional analyses of cellulose synthase and for seeding new nanomaterials. PMID:25285473

  19. Detailed characterization of the substrate specificity of mouse wax synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklaszewska, Magdalena; Kawi?ski, Adam; Bana?, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Wax synthases are membrane-associated enzymes catalysing the esterification reaction between fatty acyl-CoA and a long chain fatty alcohol. In living organisms, wax esters function as storage materials or provide protection against harmful environmental influences. In industry, they are used as ingredients for the production of lubricants, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Currently the biological sources of wax esters are limited to jojoba oil. In order to establish a large-scale production of desired wax esters in transgenic high-yielding oilseed plants, enzymes involved in wax esters synthesis from different biological resources should be characterized in detail taking into consideration their substrate specificity. Therefore, this study aims at determining the substrate specificity of one of such enzymes -- the mouse wax synthase. The gene encoding this enzyme was expressed heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the in vitro assays (using microsomal fraction from transgenic yeast), we evaluated the preferences of mouse wax synthase towards a set of combinations of 11 acyl-CoAs with 17 fatty alcohols. The highest activity was observed for 14:0-CoA, 12:0-CoA, and 16:0-CoA in combination with medium chain alcohols (up to 5.2, 3.4, and 3.3 nmol wax esters/min/mg microsomal protein, respectively). Unsaturated alcohols longer than 18°C were better utilized by the enzyme in comparison to the saturated ones. Combinations of all tested alcohols with 20:0-CoA, 22:1-CoA, or Ric-CoA were poorly utilized by the enzyme, and conjugated acyl-CoAs were not utilized at all. Apart from the wax synthase activity, mouse wax synthase also exhibited a very low acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. However, it displayed neither acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase, nor acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferase activity. PMID:23730681

  20. P2 purinergic receptor activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and guanylyl cyclase in the dorsal facial area of the medulla increases blood flow in the common carotid arteries of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Y-W; Leung, Y-M; Lin, N-N; Lee, T J-F; Kuo, J-S; Tung, K-C; Gong, C-L

    2015-02-12

    In the dorsal facial area (DFA) of the medulla, an activation of either P2 purinergic receptor or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) results in the release of glutamate, leading to an increase in blood flow of the common carotid artery (CCA). It is not known whether activation of the P2 receptor by ATP may mediate activation of NOS/guanylyl cyclase to cause glutamate release and/or whether L-Arg (nitric oxide (NO) precursor) may also cause ATP release from any other neuron, to cause an increase in CCA flow. We demonstrated that microinjections of P2 receptor agonists (ATP, ?,?-methylene ATP) or NO precursor (L-arginine) into the DFA increased CCA blood flow. The P2-induced CCA blood flow increase was dose-dependently reduced by pretreatment with NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a non-specific NOS inhibitor), 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, a relatively selective neuronal NOS inhibitor) or methylene blue (MB, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) but not by that with D-NAME (an isomer of L-NAME) or N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine (L-NIO, a potent endothelial NOS inhibitor). Involvement of glutamate release in these responses were substantiated by microdialysis studies, in which perfusions of ATP into the DFA increased the glutamate concentration in dialysates, but co-perfusion of ATP with L-NAME or 7-NI did not. Nevertheless, the arginine-induced CCA blood flow increase was abolished by combined pretreatment of L-NAME and MB, but not affected by pretreatment with a selective P2 receptor antagonist, pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS). In conclusion, ATP activation of the P2 receptor in the DFA induced activation of neuronal NOS/guanylyl cyclase, which causes glutamate release leading to an increase in CCA blood flow. However, arginine activation of neuronal NOS/guanylyl cyclase, which also caused glutamate release and CCA blood flow increase, did not induce activation of P2 receptors. These findings provide important information for drug design and/or developing therapeutic strategies for the diseases associated with CCA blood flow that supplies intra- and extra-cranial tissues. PMID:25433238

  1. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-inducible nitric oxide synthase and IL-1beta through suppression of NF-kappaB activation by 3-(1'-1'-dimethyl-allyl)-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-coumarin isolated from Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Bhawna; Shrivastava, Anju; Das, Hasi Rani

    2007-03-29

    The Ruta graveolens L. plant is used in traditional medicine to treat a large number of diseases. The methanol (50%) extract of the whole plant was observed to inhibit the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage cells (J774A.1, [Raghav, S.K., Gupta, B., Agrawal, C., Goswami, K., Das, H.R., 2006b. Anti-inflammatory effect of Ruta graveolens L. in murine macrophage cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. 104, 234-239]). The effect of whole plant extract on the expression of other pro-inflammatory genes such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-12, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and the activation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kappaB) were investigated in LPS stimulated macrophage cells. An active compound was isolated from this methanol extract by further solvent fractionation and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The purified compound was identified as 3-(1'-1'-dimethyl-allyl)-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-coumarin having IUPAC nomenclature of 6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3-(2-methyl but-3-en-2yl)-2H-chromen-2-one by ESI-MS, MALDI, FT-IR and NMR. Effect of this purified compound was assessed on iNOS, COX-2 and various pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and was observed to inhibit both the protein and mRNA expression of iNOS and IL-1beta in LPS challenged macrophages. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and Western blot analyses indicated that the plant extract and the isolated active compound blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kappaB through the prevention of inhibitor-kB (IkB) degradation. The purified compound also showed the anti-oxidant activity. The active compound at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight was observed to inhibit the iNOS and IL-1beta gene expression significantly in endotoxin-induced inflammatory model of BALB/c mice. The low level of nitric oxide production was also observed in the sera of compound treated mice. The normal behavioral condition in LPS challenged BALB/c mice was noticed when these were treated with active compound. PMID:17292351

  2. Uncovering the structures of modular polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Kira J

    2015-02-26

    Covering: up to 2014The modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) are multienzyme proteins responsible for the assembly of diverse secondary metabolites of high economic and therapeutic importance. These molecular 'assembly lines' consist of repeated functional units called 'modules' organized into gigantic polypeptides. For several decades, concerted efforts have been made to understand in detail the structure and function of PKSs in order to facilitate genetic engineering of the systems towards the production of polyketide analogues for evaluation as drug leads. Despite this intense activity, it has not yet been possible to solve the crystal structure of a single module, let alone a multimodular subunit. Nonetheless, on the basis of analysis of the structures of modular fragments and the study of the related multienzyme of animal fatty acid synthase (FAS), several models of modular PKS architecture have been proposed. This year, however, the situation has changed - three modular structures have been characterized, not by X-ray crystallography, but by the complementary methods of single-particle cryo-electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. This review aims to compare the cryo-EM structures and SAXS-derived structural models, and to interpret them in the context of previously obtained data and existing architectural proposals. The consequences for genetic engineering of the systems will also be discussed, as well as unresolved questions and future directions. PMID:25310997

  3. Isoprene synthase genes form a monophyletic clade of acyclic terpene synthases in the TPS-B terpene synthase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Thomas D; Gray, Dennis W; Pell, Heather K; Breneman, Steven R; Topper, Lauren

    2013-04-01

    Many plants emit significant amounts of isoprene, which is hypothesized to help leaves tolerate short episodes of high temperature. Isoprene emission is found in all major groups of land plants including mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms; however, within these groups isoprene emission is variable. The patchy distribution of isoprene emission implies an evolutionary pattern characterized by many origins or many losses. To better understand the evolution of isoprene emission, we examine the phylogenetic relationships among isoprene synthase and monoterpene synthase genes in the angiosperms. In this study we identify nine new isoprene synthases within the rosid angiosperms. We also document the capacity of a myrcene synthase in Humulus lupulus to produce isoprene. Isoprene synthases and (E)-?-ocimene synthases form a monophyletic group within the Tps-b clade of terpene synthases. No asterid genes fall within this clade. The chemistry of isoprene synthase and ocimene synthase is similar and likely affects the apparent relationships among Tps-b enzymes. The chronology of rosid evolution suggests a Cretaceous origin followed by many losses of isoprene synthase over the course of evolutionary history. The phylogenetic pattern of Tps-b genes indicates that isoprene emission from non-rosid angiosperms likely arose independently. PMID:23550753

  4. New bidentate non-centrosymmetric borate-malate: Synthesis, structure and characterization of RbB(DL-C4H4O5)2.H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We obtained a new nonlinear optical compound, RbB(DL-C4H4O5)2.H2O, with a bidentate structure. ? The crystal structure, thermal behaviour and second order nonlinear optical properties were presented. ? RbB(DL-C4H4O5)2.H2O exhibits a strong SHG signal about 2 times that of produced by KH2PO4. - Abstract: A single crystal of RbB(DL-C4H4O5)2.H2O (RBC) has been grown with a size of up to 11 mm x 8 mm x 3 mm through slow evaporation of its precursors' solution at room temperature. The structure of RBC was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystal data: RBC, Mr = 378.44; orthorhombic, space group Pna21 (No. 33); cell parameters, a = 11.4938(9) A, b = 5.4021(5) A, c = 21.1696(12) A and Z = 4. It exhibits a two-dimensional layer structure down the b axis, consisting of RbO7 polyhedra, BO4 tetrahedra, malate groups, and H2O molecules. The material is second harmonic generation (SHG) active; its SHG intensity is about 2 times that of KH2PO4 (KDP).

  5. Divergence in regulation of nitric-oxide synthase and its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Ceramide potentiates nitric oxide synthesis without affecting GTP cyclohydrolase I activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, L R; Twitty, S; Spiegel, S; Milstien, S

    2000-05-01

    Synthesis of 6(R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), a required cofactor for inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, is usually coordinately regulated with iNOS expression. In C6 glioma cells, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) concomitantly potentiated the stimulation of nitric oxide (NO) and BH(4) production induced by IFN-gamma and interleukin-1beta. Expression of both iNOS and GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the BH(4) biosynthetic pathway, was also markedly increased, as were their activities and protein levels. Ceramide, a sphingolipid metabolite, may mediate some of the actions of TNF-alpha. Indeed, we found that bacterial sphingomyelinase, which hydrolyzes sphingomyelin and increases endogenous ceramide, or the cell permeable ceramide analogue, C(2)-ceramide, but not C(2)-dihydroceramide (N-acetylsphinganine), significantly mimicked the effects of TNF-alpha on NO production and iNOS expression and activity in C6 cells. Surprisingly, although TNF-alpha increased BH(4) synthesis and GTPCH activity, neither BH(4) nor GTPCH expression was affected by C(2)-ceramide or sphingomyelinase in IFN-gamma- and interleukin-1beta-stimulated cells. It is likely that increased BH(4) levels results from increased GTPCH protein and activity in vivo rather than from reduced turnover of BH(4), because the GTPCH inhibitor, 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine, blocked cytokine-stimulated BH(4) accumulation. Moreover, expression of the GTPCH feedback regulatory protein, which if decreased might increase GTPCH activity, was not affected by TNF-alpha or ceramide. Treatment with the antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, which is known to inhibit NF-kappaB and sphingomyelinase in C6 cells, or with the peptide SN-50, which blocks translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus, inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent iNOS mRNA expression without affecting GTPCH mRNA levels. This is the first demonstration that cytokine-stimulated iNOS and GTPCH expression, and therefore NO and BH(4) biosynthesis, may be regulated by discrete pathways. As BH(4) is also a cofactor for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, discovery of distinct mechanisms for regulation of BH(4) and NO has important implications for its specific functions. PMID:10788433

  6. Crystal structure of human uroporphyrinogen III synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Michael A. A.; Schubert, Heidi L.; Whitby, Frank G.; Alexander, Kelly J.; Schadick, Kevin; Bergonia, Hector A.; Phillips, John D.; Hill, Christopher P.

    2001-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen III synthase, U3S, the fourth enzyme in the porphyrin biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes cyclization of the linear tetrapyrrole, hydroxymethylbilane, to the macrocyclic uroporphyrino gen III, which is used in several different pathways to form heme, siroheme, chlorophyll, F430 and vitamin B12. U3S activity is essential in all organisms, and decreased activity in humans leads to the autosomal recessive disorder congenital erythropoetic porphyria. We have determined the crystal ...

  7. A dodecylamine derivative of cyanocobalamin potently inhibits the activities of cobalamin-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase of Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Bito, Tomohiro; Yabuta, Yukinori; Ichiyanagi, Tsuyoshi; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    •CN-Cbl dodecylamine, a derivative of cyanocobalamin, was absorbed by C. elegans.•CN-Cbl dodecylamine decreased activities of cobalamin-dependent enzymes.•CN-Cbl dodecylamine induced cobalamin deficiency in C. elegans.•CN-Cbl dodecylamine acts as an inhibitor of cobalamin-dependent enzymes.

  8. Identification of avian wax synthases

    OpenAIRE

    Biester Eva-Maria; Hellenbrand Janine; Gruber Jens; Hamberg Mats; Frentzen Margrit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Bird species show a high degree of variation in the composition of their preen gland waxes. For instance, galliform birds like chicken contain fatty acid esters of 2,3-alkanediols, while Anseriformes like goose or Strigiformes like barn owl contain wax monoesters in their preen gland secretions. The final biosynthetic step is catalyzed by wax synthases (WS) which have been identified in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Results Sequence similarities enabled us to identify six...

  9. S-methylmethionine is both a substrate and an inactivator of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, SaeHee; Eliot, Andrew C; Kirsch, Jack F

    2004-01-01

    S-methyl-L-methionine (SMM) is ubiquitous in the tissues of flowering plants, but its precise function remains unknown. It is both a substrate and an inhibitor of the pyridoxal 5(')-phosphate-dependent enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase, due to its structural similarity to the natural substrate of this enzyme, S-adenosyl-L-methionine. In the reaction with ACC synthase, SMM can either be transaminated to yield 4-dimethylsulfonium-2-oxobutyrate; converted to alpha-ketobutyrate, ammonia, and dimethylsulfide; or inactivate the enzyme covalently after elimination of dimethylsulfide. These results suggest a previously unrecognized role for SMM in the regulation of ACC synthase activity in plants. PMID:14678788

  10. Immunoaffinity purification of the class V chitin synthase of Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramczyk, Dariusz; Szaniszlo, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    The class V chitin synthase is unique because it has a myosin motor-like domain fused to its catalytic domain. The biochemical properties of this enzyme and its function remain undefined beyond the knowledge that it is the only single chitin synthase required for sustained cell growth at elevated temperatures and, consequently, virulence. This report describes our successful efforts to isolate and purify an active and soluble form of the enzyme from the cell membranes of Wangiella by using a specific polyclonal antibody. To our knowledge, this is the first purification of a single chitin synthase of a filamentous fungus. PMID:19431044

  11. Characterization and cilofungin inhibition of solubilized Aspergillus fumigatus (1,3)-beta-D-glucan synthase.

    OpenAIRE

    Beaulieu, D.; Tang, J.; Yan, S. B.; Vessels, J. M.; Radding, J. A.; Parr, T. R.

    1994-01-01

    (1,3)-beta-D-Glucan synthase, a major cell wall synthesis enzyme, is the target of antifungal drugs of the lipopeptide class. Aspergillus fumigatus (1,3)-beta-D-glucan synthase was prepared and its activity was measured by incorporation of [14C]glucose from UDP-[U-14C]glucose into an insoluble polymer in the presence of alpha-amylase. Solubilization of the (1,3)-beta-D-glucan synthase was attempted with several detergents, and the maximum percent solubilization was obtained with a polyoxyethy...

  12. Chronic rapamycin restores brain vascular integrity and function through NO synthase activation and improves memory in symptomatic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ai-ling; Zheng, Wei; Halloran, Jonathan J.; Burbank, Raquel R.; Hussong, Stacy A.; Hart, Matthew J.; Javors, Martin; Shih, Yen-yu Ian; Muir, Eric; Solano Fonseca, Rene; Strong, Randy; Richardson, Arlan G.; Lechleiter, James D.; Fox, Peter T.; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Vascular pathology is a major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. We recently showed that chronic administration of the target-of-rapamycin (TOR) inhibitor rapamycin, which extends lifespan and delays aging, halts the progression of AD-like disease in transgenic human (h)APP mice modeling AD when administered before disease onset. Here we demonstrate that chronic reduction of TOR activity by rapamycin treatment started after disease onset restored cerebral blood flow (CBF...

  13. Guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphate synthase activity in chloroplasts of a higher plant: association with 70S ribosomes and inhibition by tetracycline

    OpenAIRE

    Kasai, Koji; Kanno, Takuya; Endo, Yaeta; Wakasa, Kyo; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2004-01-01

    Chloroplasts possess bacterial-type systems for transcription and translation. On the basis of the identification of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii gene encoding a RelA-SpoT homolog (RSH) that catalyzes the synthesis of guanosine tetra- or pentaphosphate [(p)ppGpp], we have previously suggested the operation of stringent control in the chloroplast genetic system. Although RSH genes have also been identified in several higher plants, the activities of the encoded enzymes and their mode of action ...

  14. Biosynthesis of P(3HB-co-3HV-co-3HHp terpolymer by Cupriavidus necator PHB-4 transformant harboring the highly active PHA synthase gene of Chromobacterium sp. USM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi, D-N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluates potentials of Cupriavidus necator PHB?4 transformant harboring the highly activepolyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene (phaC of a locally isolated Chromobacterium sp. USM2 for its ability toincorporate 3-hydroxyheptanoate (3HHp monomer.Methodology and results: A mixture of fructose and sodium heptanoate fed to the culture gave rise to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyheptanoate, [P(3HB-co-3HV-co-3HHp] terpolymer synthesis, withtraces of 3HHp monomers confirmed through gas chromatography (GC, proton (1H and carbon (13C NMR spectra.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This study has revealed that the PHA synthase of Chromobacteriumsp. USM2 has a broad range of substrate specificity. The synthase is able to polymerize 3-hydroxyalkanoate monomershaving 4–7 carbon atoms.

  15. Evolution of enzymatic activities in the orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase suprafamily: enhancing the promiscuous D-arabino-hex-3-ulose 6-phosphate synthase reaction catalyzed by 3-keto-L-gulonate 6-phosphate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Wen Shan; Akana, Julie; Wise, Eric L; Rayment, Ivan; Gerlt, John A

    2005-02-15

    3-Keto-l-gulonate 6-phosphate decarboxylase (KGPDC) and d-arabino-hex-3-ulose 6-phosphate synthase (HPS) are members of the orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) suprafamily [Wise, E., Yew, W. S., Babbitt, P. C., Gerlt, J. A., and Rayment, I. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 3861-3869], a group of homologous enzymes that share the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel fold. KGPDC catalyzes a Mg(2+)-dependent decarboxylation reaction in the catabolic pathway of l-ascorbate utilization by Escherichia coli K-12 [Yew, W. S., and Gerlt, J. A. (2002) J.Bacteriol. 184, 302-306]; HPS catalyzes a Mg(2+)-dependent aldol condensation between formaldehyde and d-ribulose 5-phosphate in formaldehyde-fixing methylotrophic bacteria [Kato, N., Ohashi, H., Hori, T., Tani, Y., and Ogata, K. (1977) Agric. Biol. Chem. 41, 1133-1140]. Our previous studies of the KGPDC from E. coli established the occurrence of a stabilized cis-enediolate intermediate [Yew, W. S., Wise, E., Rayment, I., and Gerlt, J. A. (2004) Biochemistry 43, 6427-6437; Wise, E., Yew, W. S., Gerlt, J. A., and Rayment, I. (2004) Biochemistry 43, 6438-6446]. Although the mechanism of the HPS-catalyzed reaction has not yet been investigated, it also is expected to involve a Mg(2+)-stabilized cis-enediolate intermediate. We now have discovered that the KGPDC from E. coli and the HPS from Methylomonas aminofaciens are both naturally promiscuous for the reaction catalyzed by the homologue. On the basis of the alignment of the sequences of orthologous KGPDC's and HPS's, four conserved active site residues in the KGPDC from E. coli were mutated to those conserved in HPS's (E112D/R139V/T169A/R192A): the value of the k(cat) for the promiscuous HPS activity was increased as much as 170-fold (for the E112D/R139V/T169A/R192A mutant), and the value of k(cat)/K(m) was increased as much as 260-fold (for the E112D/R139V/T169A mutant); in both cases, the values of the kinetic constants for the natural KGPDC activity were decreased. Together with the structures of mutants reported in the accompanying manuscript [Wise, E. L., Yew, W. S., Akana, J., Gerlt, J. A., and Rayment, I., accompanying manuscript], these studies illustrate that large changes in catalytic efficiency can be accomplished with only modest changes in active site structure. Thus, the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel fold shared by members of the OMPDC suprafamily appears well-suited for the evolution of new functions. PMID:15697206

  16. Effects of essential oils, yeast culture and malate on rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Baluchi lambs fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekkhahi, M; Tahmasbi, A M; Naserian, A A; Danesh Mesgaran, M; Kleen, J L; Parand, A A

    2015-04-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with a mixture of essential oils (MEO), yeast culture (YC) and malate on performance, nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites of lambs fed high-concentrate growing diets. For this purpose, twenty Baluchi lambs (17.3 ± 0.5 kg body weight and 3 months old) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with five lambs per treatment. The treatment groups were as follows: (i) control: basal diet without any additive, (ii) basal diet plus 400 mg/day MEO (thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, limonene and cinnamaldehyde), (iii) basal diet with 4 g/day YC and (iv) basal diet plus 4 g/day malate. No differences between the dietary treatments were observed in dry matter intake, average daily gain or feed conversion ratio (p > 0.05). Compared with control and malate treatment, lambs fed MEO and YC had an improved crude protein digestibility (p  0.05) cell wall digestibility compared to the other treatments. No differences were observed between treatments with respect to nitrogen balance or ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations (p > 0.05). No differences were observed between treatments with respect to ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration and molar proportions of acetate, butyrate and valerate. Molar proportion of propionate was higher (p < 0.05) for YC and malate compared to control and MEO. Plasma glucose concentration was higher (p < 0.05) in lambs fed YC and malate than in lambs fed the control or the MEO diet. Blood concentration of triglycerides significantly decreased when feeding the MEO and YC diets (p < 0.05). It was concluded that YC may be more useful as a feed additive for manipulation of rumen fermentation in lambs fed with high-concentrate diets than MEO and malate, because YC enhanced crude protein and cell wall digestibility, ruminal molar proportion of propionate and plasma glucose concentration. PMID:25060172