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1

The localization of nitrite reductase, glutamate synthase and malate metabolism enzymes in Pisum arvense L. roots  

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Full Text Available Centrifugation of a homogenate made from Pisum arvense L. roots in a sucrose density gradient enabled the separation of the plastid fraction from mitochondria and microsomes. The presence of nitrite reductase and glutamate synthase was demonstrated in the plastids. Malic enzyme activity was not linked with any organelle fraction and was found only in the cytosol. High malate dehydrogenase activity was found in the mitochondria fraction, although its activity was also determined in plastids. The results suggest that malic acid metabolism in plastids may be the source of reduced pyridine nucleotides for reactions catalysed by nitrite reductase and glutamate synthase.

Genowefa Kubik-Dobosz

1985-03-01

2

Post-irradiation inactivation, protection, and repair of the sulfhydryl enzyme malate synthase  

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Malate synthase from baker's yeast, a trimeric sulfhydryl enzyme with one essential sulfhydryl group per subunit, was inactivated by 2 kGy X-irradiation in air-saturated aqueous solution (enzyme concentration: 0.5 mg/ml). The radiation induced changes of enzymic activity were registered at about 0,30,60 h after irradiation. To elucidate the role of OH-, O2, and H2O2 in the X-ray inactivation of the enzyme, experiments were performed in the absence of presence of different concentrations of specific additives (formate, superoxide dismutase, catalase). These additives were added to malate synthase solutions before or after X-irradiation. Moreover, repairs of inactivated malate synthase were initiated at about 0 or 30 h after irradiation by means of the sulfhydryl agent dithiothreitol. Experiments yielded the following results: 1. Irradiation of malate synthase in the absence of additives inactivated the enzyme immediately to a residual activity Asub(r)=3% (corresponding to a D37=0.6 kGy), and led to further slow inactivation in the post-irradiation phase. Repairs, initiated at different times after irradiation, restored enzymic activity considerably. The repair initiated at t=0 led to Asub(r)=21%; repairs started later on resulted in somewhat lower activities. The decay of reparability, however, was found to progress more slowly than post-irradiation inactivation itself. After completion of repair the activities of repaired samples did not decrease significantly. 2. The presence of specific additives during irradiation caused significant protective effects against primary inactivation. The protection by formate was very pronounced (e.g., Asub(r)=72% and D37=6 kGy for 100 mM formate). The presence of catalytic amounts of superoxide dismutase and/or catalase exhibited only minor effects, depending on the presence and concentration of formate. (orig.)

3

Phylogenetic utility of the nuclear gene malate synthase in the palm family (Arecaceae).  

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There is currently a shortage of DNA regions known to be useful for phylogenetic research in palms (Arecaceae). We report the development and use of primers for amplifying and sequencing regions of the nuclear gene malate synthase. In palms the gene appears to be single-copy, with exon regions that are phylogenetically informative within the family. We constructed a phylogeny of 45 palms and five outgroup taxa using 428 bp of malate synthase exon regions. We found that some major clades within the family were recovered, but there was a lack of resolution among the genera in subfamilies Arecoideae, Ceroxyloideae, Coryphoideae, and Phytelephantoideae. In a second analysis, malate synthase exon regions totaling 1002 bp were sequenced for 16 palms and two outgroup taxa. There was increased bootstrap support for some groups and for the placement of the monotypic genus Nypa as sister to the rest of the family. A comparison with data sets from noncoding regions of the chloroplast genome indicates that malate synthase sequences are more variable and potentially contain more phylogenetic information. We found no evidence of multiple copies of the malate synthase gene in palm genomes. PMID:11399149

Lewis, C E; Doyle, J J

2001-06-01

4

Phosphorylation of glyoxysomal malate synthase from castor oil seed endosperm and cucumber cotyledon  

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Glyoxysomal malate synthase (MS) was purified to apparent homogeneity from 3-d germinating castor oil seed endosperm by a relatively simple procedure including two sucrose density gradient centrifugations. Antibodies raised to the caster oil seed MS crossreacted with MS from cucumber cotyledon. MS was phosphorylated in both tissues in an MgATP dependent reaction. The phosphorylation pattern was similar for both enzymes and both enzymes were inhibited by NaF, NaMo, (NH{sub 4})SO{sub 4}, glyoxylate and high concentration of MgCl{sub 2} (60 mM), but was not inhibited by NaCl and malate. Further characterization of the phosphorylation of MS from castor oil seed endosperms showed that the 5S form of MS is the form which is labelled by {sup 32}P. The addition of exogenous alkaline phosphatase to MS not only decreased enzyme activity, but could also dephosphorylate phospho-MS. The relationship between dephosphorylation of MS and the decrease of MS activity is currently under investigation.

Yang, Y.P; Randall, D.D. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (USA))

1989-04-01

5

Malate dehydrogenase activity in human seminal plasma and spermatozoa homogenates  

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Purpose: Malate Dehydrogenase is an important enzyme of the Krebs cycle, most cells require this enzyme for their metabolic activity. We evaluated the Malate Dehydrogenase (NAD/NADP) activity in human seminal plasma and sperm homogenates in normozoospermic, fertile and infertile males. Also glucose and fructose concentrations were determined in the seminal plasma samples. Material and Methods: Malate Dehydrogenase (NAD/NADP) activity in human seminal plasma and sperm homogenates of normozoosp...

Hulya Leventerler; Safiye Taga; Ibrahim Ferhat Urunsak; Ismail Atilla Aridogan; Suna Solmaz; Mehmet Turan Cetin; Nurten Dikmen

2013-01-01

6

Small angle X-ray scattering studies on the X-ray induced aggregation of malate synthase  

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Malate synthase was investigated by the small-angle X-ray scattering technique in aqueous solution. Measurements extending for several hours revealed a continuous increase of the intensity in the innermost portion of the scattering curve. There is clear evidence that this increase was caused by an X-ray induced aggregation of enzyme particles during the performance of the small-angle X-ray scattering experiment. The monitoring of the aggregation process in situ by means of small-angle X-ray scattering led to a model of the way how the aggregation might proceed. The analysis of the scattering curves of malate synthase taken at various stages of aggregation established the retention of the thickness factor of the native enzyme and the occurrence of one and later on of two cross-section factors. The process of aggregation was also reflected by the increase of extension of the distance distribution function. Measurements of enzymic activity and small-angle X-ray scattering on samples, which had been X-irradiated with a defined dose prior to the measurements, established two different series of efficiency for the protection of the enzyme against aggregation and inactivation. The results showed that there is no direct relation between the extent of aggregation and the loss of enzymic activity. (orig./MG)

7

Malate dehydrogenase activity in human seminal plasma and spermatozoa homogenates  

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Full Text Available Purpose: Malate Dehydrogenase is an important enzyme of the Krebs cycle, most cells require this enzyme for their metabolic activity. We evaluated the Malate Dehydrogenase (NAD/NADP activity in human seminal plasma and sperm homogenates in normozoospermic, fertile and infertile males. Also glucose and fructose concentrations were determined in the seminal plasma samples. Material and Methods: Malate Dehydrogenase (NAD/NADP activity in human seminal plasma and sperm homogenates of normozoospermic and infertile males was determined by spectrophotometric method. Semen analysis was considered according to the WHO Criteria. Results: Malat Dehydrogenase-NAD value in seminal plasma (the mean ± SD, mU/ml of asthenoteratospermic (40.0±25.7 and azospermic (38.0±43.6 groups were significantly lower than normozoospermic, (93.9±52.1 males. Malat Dehydrogenase-NAD value in sperm homogenates (the mean ± SD, mU/ 20x106 sperm of teratospermic group (136.8±61.8 was significantly higher compared to the normozoospermic (87.3±26.5 males. Glucose concentration (mg/dl in asthenoteratospermic (4.0±1.4 and azospermic (15.4±6.4 groups were significantly higher than fertile (2.0±2.1 males. Also fructose concentration (mg/dl in asthenoteratospermic (706.6±143.3 and azospermic (338.1±228.2 groups were significantly high compared to the normozoospermic (184.7±124.8 group. Conclusion: Sperm may be some part of the source of Malat Dehydrogenase activity in semen. Malat Dehydrogenase activity in seminal plasma has an important role on energy metabolism of sperm. Intermediate substrates of Krebs cycle might have been produced under the control of Malat Dehydrogenase and these substrates may be important for sperm motility and male infertility. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 648-658

Hulya Leventerler

2013-08-01

8

Malate synthase: proof of a stepwise Claisen condensation using the double-isotope fractionation test  

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Although aldolase-catalyzed condensations proceed by stepwise mechanisms via the intermediacy of nucleophilic enol(ate)s or enamines, the mechanisms of those enzymes that catalyze Claisen-type condensations are unclear. The reaction pathway followed by an enzyme from this second group, malate synthase, has been studied by the double-isotope fractionation method to determine whether the reaction is stepwise or concerted. In agreement with earlier work, a deuterium kinetic isotope effect /sup D/(V/K) of 1.3 +/- 0.1 has been found when (/sup 2/H/sub 3/)acetyl-CoA is the substrate. The /sup 13/C isotope effect at the aldehydic carbon of glyoxylate has also been measured. For this determination, the malate product was quantitatively transformed into a new sample of malate having the carbon of interest at C-4. This material was decarboxylated by malic enzyme to produce the appropriate CO/sub 2/ for isotope ratio mass spectrometric analysis. The /sup 13/C isotope effect with (/sup 1/H/sub 3/)acetyl-CoA is 1.0037 +/- 0.0004. By use of the known values of the intermolecular and intramolecular deuterium effects and of /sup 13/(V/K)/sub H/, the value of the /sup 13/C isotope effect when deuteriated (/sup 2/H/sub 3/)acetyl-CoA is the substrate can be predicted for three possible mechanisms. The results show clearly that the two salient characteristics of enzymes that catalyze Claisen-like condensations, namely, the absence of enzyme-catalyzed proton exchange with solvent and the inversion of the configuration at the nucleophilic center, which had been suggestive of a concerted pathway, are not mechanistically diagnostic.

Clark, J.D.; O' Keefe, S.J.; Knowles, J.R.

1988-08-09

9

Long-range effects in anion-? interactions: their crucial role in the inhibition mechanism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis malate synthase.  

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The glyoxylate shunt is an anaplerotic bypass of the traditional Krebs cycle. It plays a prominent role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence, so it can be exploited for the development of antitubercular therapeutics. The shunt involves two enzymes: isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (GlcB). The shunt bypasses two steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, allowing the incorporation of carbon, and thus, refilling oxaloacetate under carbon-limiting conditions. The targeting of ICL is complicated; however, GlcB, which accommodates the pantothenate tail of acetyl-CoA in the active site, is easier to target. A catalytic Mg(2+) unit is located at the bottom of the cavity, and plays a very important role. Recently, the development of effective antituberculosis drugs based on phenyldiketo acids (PDKAs) has been reported. Interestingly, all the crystal structures of GlcB-inhibitor complexes exhibit close contact between the carboxylate of Asp633 and the face of the aromatic ring of the inhibitor. Remarkably, the replacement of the phenyl ring in PDKA by aliphatic moieties yields inactive inhibitors, suggesting that the aromatic moiety is crucial for inhibition. However, the aromatic ring of PDKA is not electron-deficient, and consequently, the anion-? interaction is expected to be very weak (dominated only by polarization effects). Herein, through a combination analysis of the recent X-ray structures of GlcB-PDKA complexes retrieved from the protein data bank (PDB) and computational ab?initio studies (RI-MP2/def2-TZVP level of theory), we demonstrate the prominent role of the Mg(2+) ion in the active site, which promotes long-range enhancement of the anion-? interaction. PMID:24740694

Bauzá, Antonio; Quiñonero, David; Deyà, Pere M; Frontera, Antonio

2014-06-01

10

Malate synthase gene AoMls in the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora contributes to conidiation, trap formation, and pathogenicity.  

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Malate synthase (Mls), a key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle, is required for virulence in microbial pathogens. In this study, we identified the AoMls gene from the nematode-trapping fungus Arthobotrys oligospora. The gene contains 4 introns and encodes a polypeptide of 540 amino acids. To characterize the function of AoMls in A. oligospora, we disrupted it by homologous recombination, and the ?AoMls mutants were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. The growth rate and colony morphology of the ?AoMls mutants showed no obvious difference from the wild-type strains on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plate. However, the disruption of gene AoMls led to a significant reduction in conidiation, failure to utilize fatty acids and sodium acetate for growth, and its conidia were unable to germinate on minimal medium supplemented with sodium oleate. In addition, the trap formation was retarded in the ?AoMls mutants, which only produced immature traps containing one or two rings. Moreover, the nematicidal activity of the ?AoMls mutants was significantly decreased. Our results suggest that the gene AoMls plays an important role in conidiation, trap formation and pathogenicity of A. oligospora. PMID:24323290

Zhao, Xinying; Wang, Yunchuan; Zhao, Yong; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Yang, Jinkui

2014-03-01

11

Regulatory properties of citrate synthase from Rickettsia prowazekii.  

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Citrate synthase [citrate (si)-synthase] (EC 4.1.3.7) was partially purified from extracts of highly purified typhus rickettsiae (Rickettsia prowazekii). Molecular exclusion and affinity column chromatography were used to prepare 200-fold-purified citrate synthase that contained no detectable malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) activity. Rickettsial malate dehydrogenase also was partially purified (200-fold) via this purification procedure. Catalytically active citrate synthase exhibited a rel...

Phibbs, P. V.; Winkler, H. H.

1982-01-01

12

The long noncoding RNAs NEAT1 and MALAT1 bind active chromatin sites.  

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Mechanistic roles for many lncRNAs are poorly understood, in part because their direct interactions with genomic loci and proteins are difficult to assess. Using a method to purify endogenous RNAs and their associated factors, we mapped the genomic binding sites for two highly expressed human lncRNAs, NEAT1 and MALAT1. We show that NEAT1 and MALAT1 localize to hundreds of genomic sites in human cells, primarily over active genes. NEAT1 and MALAT1 exhibit colocalization to many of these loci, but display distinct gene body binding patterns at these sites, suggesting independent but complementary functions for these RNAs. We also identified numerous proteins enriched by both lncRNAs, supporting complementary binding and function, in addition to unique associated proteins. Transcriptional inhibition or stimulation alters localization of NEAT1 on active chromatin sites, implying that underlying DNA sequence does not target NEAT1 to chromatin, and that localization responds to cues involved in the transcription process. PMID:25155612

West, Jason A; Davis, Christopher P; Sunwoo, Hongjae; Simon, Matthew D; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Wang, Peggy I; Tolstorukov, Michael Y; Kingston, Robert E

2014-09-01

13

Malate transport in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

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The transport of malate was studied in a Schizosaccharomyces pombe wild-type strain and in mutant strains unable to utilize malic acid. Two groups of such mutants, i.e., malic enzyme-deficient and malate transport-defective mutants, were differentiated by a 14C-labeled L-malate transport assay and by starch gel electrophoresis followed by activity staining for malic enzyme (malate dehydrogenase [oxaloacetate decarboxylating] [NAD+]; 1.1.1.38) and malate dehydrogenase (1.1.1.37). Transport of ...

Osothsilp, C.; Subden, R. E.

1986-01-01

14

Effects of Al(III and Nano-Al13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity  

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Full Text Available The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT modified glass carbon electrode (GCE. The results showed that Al(III and Al13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III and Al13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III and Al13 on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

Rong Fu Chen

2011-05-01

15

L-Malate dehydrogenase activity in the reductive arm of the incomplete citric acid cycle of Nitrosomonas europaea.  

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The autotrophic nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea does not synthesize 2-oxoglutarate (?-ketoglutarate) dehydrogenase under aerobic conditions and so has an incomplete citric acid cycle. L-malate (S-malate) dehydrogenase (MDH) from N. europaea was predicted to show similarity to the NADP(+)-dependent enzymes from chloroplasts and was separated from the NAD(+)-dependent proteins from most other bacteria or mitochondria. MDH activity in a soluble fraction from N. europaea ATCC 19718 was measured spectrophotometrically and exhibited simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In the reductive direction, activity with NADH increased from pH 6.0 to 8.5 but activity with NADPH was consistently lower and decreased with pH. At pH 7.0, the K m for oxaloacetate was 20 ?M; the K m for NADH was 22 ?M but that for NADPH was at least 10 times higher. In the oxidative direction, activity with NAD(+) increased with pH but there was very little activity with NADP(+). At pH 7.0, the K m for L-malate was 5 mM and the K m for NAD(+) was 24 ?M. The reductive activity was quite insensitive to inhibition by L-malate but the oxidative activity was very sensitive to oxaloacetate. MDH activity was not strongly activated or inhibited by glycolytic or citric acid cycle metabolites, adenine nucleotides, NaCl concentrations, or most metal ions, but increased with temperature up to about 55 °C. The reductive activity was consistently 10-20 times higher than the oxidative activity. These results indicate that the L-malate dehydrogenase in N. europaea is similar to other NAD(+)-dependent MDHs (EC 1.1.1.37) but physiologically adapted for its role in a reductive biosynthetic sequence. PMID:23881243

Deutch, Charles E

2013-11-01

16

The effect of five fasciolicides on malate dehydrogenase activity and mortality of Fasciola gigantica, Fasciolopsis buski and Paramphistomum explanatum.  

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The effect of oxyclozanide, hexachlorophene, nitroxynil, rafoxanide and diamphenethide on malate dehydrogenase activity of homogenates of Fasciola gigantica, Fasciolopsis buski and Paramphistomum explanatum was investigated. The ratio of oxaloacetate reduction to malate oxidation in homogenates of Fasciola gigantica, Fasciolopsis buski and P. explanatum was 4.5:1, 3.6:1 and 5.2:1 respectively. Oxyclozanide and rafoxanide at 10(-3) M inhibited enzyme activity by 100% in homogenates from all three species while hexachlorophene at 10(-3) M also caused 100% inhibition in homogenates from Fasciola gagantica and P. explanatum but only 65% of malate oxidation in Fasciolopsis buski homogenates. Nitroxynil at 10(-3) M produced 60% inhibition in F. buski homogenates yet had little effect at this concentration on preparations from the other species. Little inhibition was seen with diamphenethide, even at high concentrations. Rapid death of Fasicola gigantica and P. explanatum resulted in vitro when 10(-3) M oxyclozanide, hexachlorophene, nitroxynil or rafoxanide, were added to the incubation medium. Fasciolopsis buski was killed by 10(-3) M oxyclozanide but at this concentration the remaining compounds only caused reduced activity. Assay of malate dehydrogenase following drug treatment in vitro failed to show any appreciable reduction in enzyme activity in Fasciola gigantica and P. explanatum but oxyclozanide and hexachlorophene produced inhibition in Fasciolopsis buski. The mode of action of these compounds is discussed. PMID:7264272

Probert, A J; Sharma, R K; Singh, K; Saxena, R

1981-06-01

17

Unique animal prenyltransferase with monoterpene synthase activity  

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Monoterpenes are structurally diverse natural compounds that play an essential role in the chemical ecology of a wide array of organisms. A key enzyme in monoterpene biosynthesis is geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS). GPPS is an isoprenyl diphosphate synthase that catalyzes a single electrophilic condensation reaction between dimethylallyl diphosphate (C5) and isopentenyl diphosphate (C5) to produce geranyl diphosphate (GDP; C10). GDP is the universal precursor to all monoterpenes. Subsequently, monoterpene synthases are responsible for the transformation of GDP to a variety of acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic monoterpene products. In pheromone-producing male Ips pini bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), the acyclic monoterpene myrcene is required for the production of the major aggregation pheromone component, ipsdienol. Here, we report monoterpene synthase activity associated with GPPS of I. pini. Enzyme assays were performed on recombinant GPPS to determine the presence of monoterpene synthase activity, and the reaction products were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The functionally expressed recombinant enzyme produced both GDP and myrcene, making GPPS of I. pini a bifunctional enzyme. This unique insect isoprenyl diphosphate synthase possesses the functional plasticity that is characteristic of terpene biosynthetic enzymes of plants, contributing toward the current understanding of product specificity of the isoprenoid pathway.

Gilg, Anna B.; Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J.

2009-06-01

18

Synthesis and structure-activity relationship study of chemical probes as hypoxia induced factor-1?/malate dehydrogenase 2 inhibitors.  

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A structure-activity relationship study of hypoxia inducible factor-1? inhibitor 3-aminobenzoic acid-based chemical probes, which were previously identified to bind to mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 2, was performed to provide a better understanding of the pharmacological effects of LW6 and its relation to hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2). A variety of multifunctional probes including the benzophenone or the trifluoromethyl diazirine for photoaffinity labeling and click reaction were prepared and evaluated for their biological activity using a cell-based HRE-luciferase assay as well as a MDH2 assay in human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. Among them, the diazirine probe 4a showed strong inhibitory activity against both HIF-1? and MDH2. Significantly, the inhibitory effect of the probes on HIF-1? activity was consistent with that of the MDH2 enzyme assay, which was further confirmed by the effect on in vitro binding activity to recombinant human MDH2, oxygen consumption, ATP production, and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Competitive binding modes of LW6 and probe 4a to MDH2 were also demonstrated. PMID:25356789

Naik, Ravi; Won, Misun; Ban, Hyun Seung; Bhattarai, Deepak; Xu, Xuezhen; Eo, Yumi; Hong, Ye Seul; Singh, Sarbjit; Choi, Yongseok; Ahn, Hee-Chul; Lee, Kyeong

2014-11-26

19

Activation of LTBP3 Gene by a Long Noncoding RNA (lncRNA) MALAT1 Transcript in Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Multiple Myeloma.  

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Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulatory molecules in tumor suppressor and oncogenic pathways. However, the magnitude of the contribution of lncRNA expression to normal human tissues and cancers has not been investigated in a comprehensive manner. Here we explored the biology of the lncRNA MALAT1 and considered the potential significance in mesenchymal stem cells from myeloma patients. By using assays such as RNA interference, luciferase, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and RNA immunoprecipitation, we showed that in mesenchymal stem cells MALAT1 promoted the activation effect of the key transcription factor Sp1 on LTBP3 promoter by modulating recruitment of Sp1 to the LTBP3 gene that regulated the bioavailability of TGF-? in particular. Our data suggested that lncRNA MALAT1 directly interacted with Sp1 and LTBP3 promoter to increase expression of LTBP3 gene. The specificity and efficiency of activation were ensured by the formation of a stable complex between MALAT1 and the LTBP3 promoter, direct interaction of MALAT1 with Sp1, and recruitment of Sp1 to the promoter. In this study, we showed that the mechanism of transcriptional activation of LTBP3 promoter depended on MALAT1 initiated from neighboring gene LTBP3 and involved both the direct interaction of the Sp1 and promoter-specific activation. Our knowledge of the role of MALAT1 in cellular transformation is pointing toward its potential use as a biomarker and a target for novel therapeutic approaches in multiple myeloma. PMID:25187517

Li, Bingzong; Chen, Ping; Qu, Jing; Shi, Lei; Zhuang, Wenyue; Fu, Jinxiang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Sun, Yu; Zhuang, Wenzhuo

2014-10-17

20

Extramitochondrial citrate synthase activity in bakers' yeast.  

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We isolated the gene for citrate synthase (citrate oxaloacetate lyase; EC 4.1.3.7) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ablated it by inserting the yeast LEU2 gene within its reading frame. This revealed a second, nonmitochondrial citrate synthase. Like the mitochondrial enzyme, this enzyme was sensitive to glucose repression. It did not react with antibodies against mitochondrial citrate synthase. Haploid cells lacking a gene for mitochondrial citrate synthase grew somewhat slower than wild-typ...

Rickey, T. M.; Lewin, A. S.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Enhanced gastric nitric oxide synthase activity in duodenal ulcer patients.  

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Nitric oxide, the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may have a role in tissue injury through its oxidative metabolism. Nitric oxide may have a role in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the association between gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and peptic disease. In this study, calcium independent nitric oxide synthase activity was detected in human gastric mucosa suggesting expression of the inducible isoform. In...

Rachmilewitz, D.; Karmeli, F.; Eliakim, R.; Stalnikowicz, R.; Ackerman, Z.; Amir, G.; Stamler, J. S.

1994-01-01

22

Small-angle X-ray scattering studies on the X-ray induced aggregation of ribonnuclease, lactate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and serum albumin. A comparison with malate synthase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The X-ray induced aggregation of ribonuclease, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and serum albumin in aqueous solution was monitored in situ by means of small-angle X-ray scattering. Measurements carried out with ribonuclease, LDH and serum albumin in the absence of dithiothreitol (DTT) and with GAPDH in the presence of 0.2mM DTT established the following series for the rates of aggregation of the proteins under these conditions: ribonuclease >LDH> >GAPDH> serum albumin. Within six hours from the beginning of irradiation (i.e. about the time required for the exposure of one complete scattering curve under the conditions of our experiments) the following increases of R tilde resulted: ribonuclease 9%, LDH 7%, GAPDH 4%, serum albumin <1%. Changes of R tilde exceeding 1% are, of course, too high to be tolerated in conventional scattering experiments. Measurements carried out with LDH and GAPDH in the presence of 2mM DTT established a strong protective effect of DTT against the X-ray induced aggregation of these enzymes. The initial increase of R tilde upon irradiation of LDH and GAPDH in the presence of 2mM DTT was found to be even lower than the increase of R tilde observed when serum albumin was irradiated in the absence of DTT. However, the observed decrease of anti x of LDH and GAPDH at the early stages of irradiation suggested the occurrence of fragmentation of the enzymes as another consequence of radiation damage. This fer consequence of radiation damage. This finding is discussed in context with the results from previous scattering experiments and electrophoretic studies on malate synthase. (author)

23

Phytochelatin synthase activity as a marker of metal pollution  

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Highlights: ? New tool for determination of phytochelatin synthase activity. ? The optimization of experimental condition for determination of the enzyme activity. ? First evaluation of Km for the enzyme. ? The effects of cadmium (II) not only on the activity of the enzyme but also on Km. -- Abstract: The synthesis of phytochelatins is catalyzed by ?-Glu-Cys dipeptidyl transpeptidase called phytochelatin synthase (PCS). Aim of this study was to suggest a new tool for determination of phytochelatin synthase activity in the tobacco BY-2 cells treated with different concentrations of the Cd(II). After the optimization steps, an experiment on BY-2 cells exposed to different concentrations of Cd(NO3)2 for 3 days was performed. At the end of the experiment, cells were harvested and homogenized. Reduced glutathione and cadmium (II) ions were added to the cell suspension supernatant. These mixtures were incubated at 35 oC for 30 min and analysed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED). The results revealed that PCS activity rises markedly with increasing concentration of cadmium (II) ions. The lowest concentration of the toxic metal ions caused almost three fold increase in PCS activity as compared to control samples. The activity of PCS (270 fkat) in treated cells was more than seven times higher in comparison to control ones. Km for PCS was estimated as 2.3 mM.

24

Phytochelatin synthase activity as a marker of metal pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} New tool for determination of phytochelatin synthase activity. {yields} The optimization of experimental condition for determination of the enzyme activity. {yields} First evaluation of K{sub m} for the enzyme. {yields} The effects of cadmium (II) not only on the activity of the enzyme but also on K{sub m}. -- Abstract: The synthesis of phytochelatins is catalyzed by {gamma}-Glu-Cys dipeptidyl transpeptidase called phytochelatin synthase (PCS). Aim of this study was to suggest a new tool for determination of phytochelatin synthase activity in the tobacco BY-2 cells treated with different concentrations of the Cd(II). After the optimization steps, an experiment on BY-2 cells exposed to different concentrations of Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} for 3 days was performed. At the end of the experiment, cells were harvested and homogenized. Reduced glutathione and cadmium (II) ions were added to the cell suspension supernatant. These mixtures were incubated at 35 {sup o}C for 30 min and analysed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED). The results revealed that PCS activity rises markedly with increasing concentration of cadmium (II) ions. The lowest concentration of the toxic metal ions caused almost three fold increase in PCS activity as compared to control samples. The activity of PCS (270 fkat) in treated cells was more than seven times higher in comparison to control ones. K{sub m} for PCS was estimated as 2.3 mM.

Zitka, Ondrej; Krystofova, Olga; Sobrova, Pavlina [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Adam, Vojtech [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Zehnalek, Josef; Beklova, Miroslava [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kizek, Rene, E-mail: kizek@sci.muni.cz [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

2011-08-30

25

Nitric oxide synthase expression and enzymatic activity in multiple sclerosis.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We used post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance to obtain paired biopsies from the brains of four patients with clinical definite multiple sclerosis (MS). Samples were analyzed for the immunoreactivity (IR) of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase isoforms [inducible, neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS)], and enzymatic NO synthase activity. MRI guided biopsies documented more active plaques than macroscopic examination, and histological examination revealed further lesions. Inducible NOS (iNOS) was the dominant IR isoform, while reactive astrocytes were the dominant iNOS expressing cells in active lesions. NOS IR expressing cells were widely distributed in plaques, in white and gray matter that appeared normal macroscopically, and on MR. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) was highly expressed in intraparenchymal vascular endothelial cells of MS patients. A control group matched for age and sex showed no such changes. Our data support the hypothesis that NO is a pathogenic factor in MS, and that NOS IR is strongly expressed in brain regions appearing normal by MRI

Broholm, H; Andersen, B

2004-01-01

26

Phasin Proteins Activate Aeromonas caviae Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthase but Not Ralstonia eutropha PHA Synthase  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo activity assays of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) in the presence of phasin proteins (PhaPs), which revealed that PhaPs are activators of PhaC derived from Aeromonas caviae (PhaCAc). In in vitro assays, among the three PhaCs tested, PhaCAc was significantly activated when PhaPs were added at the beginning of polymerization (prepolymerization PhaCAc), whereas the prepolymerization PhaCRe (derived from Ralstonia eutropha) and PhaCDa (Delftia acidovorans) showed reduced activity with PhaPs. The PhaP-activated PhaCAc showed a slight shift of substrate preference toward 3-hydroxyhexanoyl-CoA (C6). PhaPAc also activated PhaCAc when it was added during polymerization (polymer-elongating PhaCAc), while this effect was not observed for PhaCRe. In an in vivo assay using Escherichia coli TOP10 as the host strain, the effect of PhaPAc expression on PHA synthesis by PhaCAc or PhaCRe was examined. As PhaPAc expression increased, PHA production was increased by up to 2.3-fold in the PhaCAc-expressing strain, whereas it was slightly increased in the PhaCRe-expressing strain. Taken together, this study provides evidence that PhaPs function as activators for PhaCAc both in vitro and in vivo but do not activate PhaCRe. This activating effect may be attributed to the new role of PhaPs in the polymerization reaction by PhaCAc. PMID:24584238

Ushimaru, Kazunori; Motoda, Yoko; Numata, Keiji

2014-01-01

27

Cooperativity of peptidoglycan synthases active in bacterial cell elongation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan sacculus requires the co-ordinated activities of peptidoglycan synthases, hydrolases and cell morphogenesis proteins, but the details of these interactions are largely unknown. We now show that the Escherichia coli peptidoglycan glycosyltrasferase-transpeptidase PBP1A interacts with the cell elongation-specific transpeptidase PBP2 in vitro and in the cell. Cells lacking PBP1A are thinner and initiate cell division later in the cell cycle. PBP1A localizes mainly to the cylindrical wall of the cell, supporting its role in cell elongation. Our in vitro peptidoglycan synthesis assays provide novel insights into the cooperativity of peptidoglycan synthases with different activities. PBP2 stimulates the glycosyltransferase activity of PBP1A, and PBP1A and PBP2 cooperate to attach newly synthesized peptidoglycan to sacculi. PBP2 has peptidoglycan transpeptidase activity in the presence of active PBP1A. Our data also provide a possible explanation for the depletion of lipid II precursors in penicillin-treated cells. PMID:22606933

Banzhaf, Manuel; van den Berg van Saparoea, Bart; Terrak, Mohammed; Fraipont, Claudine; Egan, Alexander; Philippe, Jules; Zapun, André; Breukink, Eefjan; Nguyen-Distèche, Martine; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Vollmer, Waldemar

2012-07-01

28

Energetic aspects of malate and lactate fermentation by Acetobacterium malicum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acetobacterium malicum ferments L-malate and L-lactate to acetate (and CO.,) as sole fermentation product. Molar growth yieIds we, re 14.5 g and 6.8 g dry cell matter, respectively. With a different Acetobacterium sp. strain, similar results were obtained. No oxaloacetate-decarboxylating enzyme activity was detected in cell-free extracts. u-Malate was oxidized by an unusual NAD-dependent, oxygen-sensitive malic enzyme. No oxatoacetate decarboxylase or malate dehydrogenase activity was foun...

Strohha?cker, Joachim; Schink, Bernhard

1991-01-01

29

Structural basis for glucose-6-phosphate activation of glycogen synthase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Regulation of the storage of glycogen, one of the major energy reserves, is of utmost metabolic importance. In eukaryotes, this regulation is accomplished through glucose-6-phosphate levels and protein phosphorylation. Glycogen synthase homologs in bacteria and archaea lack regulation, while the eukaryotic enzymes are inhibited by protein kinase mediated phosphorylation and activated by protein phosphatases and glucose-6-phosphate binding. We determined the crystal structures corresponding to the basal activity state and glucose-6-phosphate activated state of yeast glycogen synthase-2. The enzyme is assembled into an unusual tetramer by an insertion unique to the eukaryotic enzymes, and this subunit interface is rearranged by the binding of glucose-6-phosphate, which frees the active site cleft and facilitates catalysis. Using both mutagenesis and intein-mediated phospho-peptide ligation experiments, we demonstrate that the enzyme's response to glucose-6-phosphate is controlled by Arg583 and Arg587, while four additional arginine residues present within the same regulatory helix regulate the response to phosphorylation.

Baskaran, Sulochanadevi; Roach, Peter J.; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A.; Hurley, Thomas D. (Indiana-Med)

2010-11-22

30

Phytochelatin synthase activity as a marker of metal pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis of phytochelatins is catalyzed by ?-Glu-Cys dipeptidyl transpeptidase called phytochelatin synthase (PCS). Aim of this study was to suggest a new tool for determination of phytochelatin synthase activity in the tobacco BY-2 cells treated with different concentrations of the Cd(II). After the optimization steps, an experiment on BY-2 cells exposed to different concentrations of Cd(NO(3))(2) for 3 days was performed. At the end of the experiment, cells were harvested and homogenized. Reduced glutathione and cadmium (II) ions were added to the cell suspension supernatant. These mixtures were incubated at 35°C for 30min and analysed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED). The results revealed that PCS activity rises markedly with increasing concentration of cadmium (II) ions. The lowest concentration of the toxic metal ions caused almost three fold increase in PCS activity as compared to control samples. The activity of PCS (270fkat) in treated cells was more than seven times higher in comparison to control ones. K(m) for PCS was estimated as 2.3mM. PMID:21715087

Zitka, Ondrej; Krystofova, Olga; Sobrova, Pavlina; Adam, Vojtech; Zehnalek, Josef; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene

2011-08-30

31

Characterization of the inositol phosphorylceramide synthase activity from Trypanosoma cruzi.  

Science.gov (United States)

IPC (inositol phosphorylceramide) synthase is an enzyme essential for fungal viability, and it is the target of potent antifungal compounds such as rustmicin and aureobasidin A. Similar to fungi and some other lower eukaryotes, the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is capable of synthesizing free or protein-linked glycoinositolphospholipids containing IPC. As a first step towards understanding the importance and mechanism of IPC synthesis in T. cruzi, we investigated the effects of rustmicin and aureobasidin A on the proliferation of different life-cycle stages of the parasite. The compounds did not interfere with the axenic growth of epimastigotes, but aureobasidin A decreased the release of trypomastigotes from infected murine peritoneal macrophages and the number of intracellular amastigotes in a dose-dependent manner. We have demonstrated for the first time that all forms of T. cruzi express an IPC synthase activity that is capable of transferring inositol phosphate from phosphatidylinositol to the C-1 hydroxy group of C6-NBD-cer {6-[N-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)-amino]hexanoylceramide} to form inositol phosphoryl-C6-NBD-cer, which was purified and characterized by its chromatographic behaviour on TLC and HPLC, sensitivity to phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and resistance to mild alkaline hydrolysis. Unlike the Saccharomyces cerevisiae IPC synthase, the T. cruzi enzyme is stimulated by Triton X-100 but not by bivalent cations, CHAPS or fatty-acid-free BSA, and it is not inhibited by rustmicin or aureobasidin A, or the two in combination. Further studies showed that aureobasidin A has effects on macrophages independent of the infecting T. cruzi cells. These results suggest that T. cruzi synthesizes its own IPC, but by a mechanism that is not affected by rustmicin and aureobasidin A. PMID:15569002

Figueiredo, Juliana M; Dias, Wagner B; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; Previato, José O; Heise, Norton

2005-04-15

32

PHALLONOPTIC MALATE: A CRITICAL GAZE AT SPACE, VISUAL CULTURE AND PERFORMANCE IN THE STREETS OF OROSA AND BOCOBO, MALATE, MANILA  

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Full Text Available Phallonopticism comes from the confluence of the term “phallus” and “panopticon.” I define Phallonotpicism as the configuration of gaze, power and desires specific to but not limited to male performances. By utilizing the term phallonopticism as a heuristic category for analysis, this paper attempts to analyze how Malate’s urban spaces of consumption are gendered. It attempts to map the topography of male homosocial intersubjectivities and the production of desire, power and gaze through male performances, visual culture and structures. Orosa Street is known as the GLTB consumption district of Malate while just a block away, is Bocobo Street, where a “straight” and “heterosexual” male population dwell. The dominance of male homosociality along the said streets has been established through research findings from 2002 - 2009. Through the confluence of political- economic discourse and psychoanalysis this paper will argue that Malate’s urban spaces inform the male subject construction and formation. Furthermore, male homosocialities in both streets activate the production and consumption of gendered spatial politics through complex forms of surveillance, discipline, resistance, and subversion from its stakeholders such as state institutions, the market and Malate’s public.

Clod Marlan Krister V. Yambao

2009-12-01

33

Methylene blue inhibits hippocampal nitric oxide synthase activity in vivo  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, on the hippocampal nitric oxide synthase activity in vivo. We used a microdialysis-based technique of measuring conversion of [3H]l-arginine to [3H]l-citrulline in freely moving rats. The administration of methylene blue (0.1 and 1 mM) via the microdialysis probe caused a dose-dependent decrease in [3H]l-citrulline efflux comparable with the effect of unselective NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (2 mM). We conclude that methylene blue inhibits brain NOS activity in vivo and thus interferes with NO-cGMP cascade in different levels.

Volke, V; Wegener, Gregers

1999-01-01

34

Ethylene-Enhanced 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Activity in Ripening Apples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apples (Malus sylvestris Mill, cv Golden Delicious) were treated before harvest with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). AVG is presumed to reversibly inhibit 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) activity, but not the formation of ACC synthase. AVG treatment effectively blocked initiation of autocatalytic ethylene production and ripening of harvested apples. Exogenous ethylene induced extractable ACC synthase activity and ripening in AVG-treated apples. Removal of exogenous ethylene caused a rapid decline in ACC synthase activity and in CO(2) production. The results with ripened, AVG-treated apples indicate (a) a dose-response relationship between ethylene and enhancement of ACC synthase activity with a half-maximal response at approximately 0.8 mul/l ethylene; (b) reversal of ethylene-enhanced ACC synthase activity by CO(2); (c) enhancement of ACC synthase activity by the ethylene-activity analog propylene.Induction of ACC synthase activity, autocatalytic ethylene production, and ripening of preclimacteric apples not treated with AVG were delayed by 6 and 10% CO(2), but not by 1.25% CO(2). However, each of these CO(2) concentrations reduced the rate of increase of ACC synthase activity. PMID:16663569

Bufler, G

1984-05-01

35

Design of more potent squalene synthase inhibitors with multiple activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increasing realization that modulating a multiplicity of targets can be an asset in the treatment of multifactorial disorders, we hereby report the synthesis and evaluation of the first compounds in which antioxidant, anti-inflammatory as well as squalene synthase (SQS) inhibitory activities are combined by design, in a series of simple molecules, extending their potential range of activities against the multifactorial disease of atherosclerosis. The activity of the initially synthesized antihyperlipidemic morpholine derivatives (1-6), in which we combined several pharmacophore moieties, was evaluated in vitro (antioxidant, inhibition of SQS and lipoxygenase) and in vivo (anti-dyslipidemic and anti-inflammatory effect). We further compared the in vitro SQS inhibitory action of these derivatives with theoretically derived molecular interactions by performing an in silico docking study using the X-ray crystal structure of human SQS. Based on low energy preferred binding modes, we designed potentially more potent SQS ligands. We proceeded with synthesizing and evaluating these new structures (7-12) in vitro and in vivo, to show that the new derivatives were significantly more active than formerly developed congeners, both as SQS inhibitors (20-70-fold increase in activity) and antioxidants (4-30-fold increase in activity). A significant correlation between experimental activity [Log(1/IC(50))] and the corresponding binding free energy (?G(b)) of the docked compounds was shown. These results, taken together, show a promising alternative and novel approach for the design and development of multifunctional antiatherosclerosis agents. PMID:20888243

Kourounakis, Angeliki P; Matralis, Alexios N; Nikitakis, Anastasios

2010-11-01

36

Truncation of human squalene synthase yields active, crystallizable protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

Squalene synthase catalyzes the first committed step in cholesterol biosynthesis and thus is important as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In order to determine the important functional domains of the protein, the amino and carboxyl terminal regions thought to be involved in membrane association of the enzyme were removed genetically. The 30 N-terminal amino acids were deleted with no apparent effect on activity. Additional deletion of 81 or 97 amino acids from the C-terminus completely ablated activity. However, a protein with a C-terminal deletion of 47 amino acids retained full activity. The latter enzyme was readily overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The pure, doubly truncated enzyme exhibited a specific activity similar to that reported for the protease-solubilized rat liver enzyme, had a KM for farnesyl diphosphate similar to that observed for native enzyme, and was inhibited by anionic compounds to the same degree as native enzyme. Using the vapor diffusion method, the protein was crystallized as an enzyme-inhibitor complex, yielding orthorhombic crystals which diffracted to 2.2 A. PMID:9473303

Thompson, J F; Danley, D E; Mazzalupo, S; Milos, P M; Lira, M E; Harwood, H J

1998-02-15

37

Novel Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase with Anticancer Activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE: Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is overexpressed in human breast carcinoma. The natural polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate blocks in vitro FASN activity and leads to apoptosis in breast cancer cells without any effects on carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) activity, and in vivo, does not decrease body weight. We synthesized a panel of new polyphenolic compounds and tested their effects on breast cancer models. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated the in vitro effects of the compounds on breast cancer cell growth (SK-Br3, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231), apoptosis [as assessed by cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase], cell signaling (HER2, ERK1/2, and AKT), and fatty acid metabolism enzymes (FASN and CPT-1). In vivo, we have evaluated their antitumor activity and their effect on body weight in a mice model of BT474 breast cancer cells. RESULTS: Two compounds potently inhibited FASN activity and showed high cytotoxicity. Moreover, the compounds induced apoptosis and caused a marked decrease in the active forms of HER2, AKT, and ERK1/2 proteins. Interestingly, the compounds did not stimulate CPT-1 activity in vitro. We show evidence that one of the FASN inhibitors blocked the growth of BT474 breast cancer xenografts and did not induce weight loss in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: The synthesized polyphenolic compounds represent a novel class of FASN inhibitors, with in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity, that do not exhibit cross-activation of beta-oxidation and do not induce weight loss in animals. One of the compounds blocked the growth of breast cancer xenografts. These FASN inhibitors may represent new agents for breast cancer treatment. (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(24):7608-15). PMID:20008854

Puig, Teresa; Turrado, Carlos; Benhamú, Bellinda; Aguilar, Helena; Relat, Joana; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Silvia; Casals, Gemma; Marrero, Pedro F; Urruticoechea, Ander; Haro, Diego; López-Rodríguez, María Luz; Colomer, Ramon

2009-12-15

38

Nitric oxide synthase activity in the molluscan CNS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Putative nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was assayed in molluscan CNS through histochemical localization of NADPH-diaphorase and through measurement of L-arginine/L-citrulline conversion. Several hundreds of NADPH-dependent diaphorase-positive neurons stained consistently darkly in the nervous system of the predatory opisthobranch Pleurobranchaea californica, whereas stained neurons were relatively sparse and/or light in the other opisthobranchs (Philine, Aplysia, Tritonia, Flabellina, Cadina, Armina, Coriphella, and Doriopsilla sp.) and cephalopods (Sepia and Rossia sp.). L-Arginine/L-citrulline conversion was beta-NADPH dependent, insensitive to removal of Ca2+, inhibited by the calmodulin blocker trifluoperazine, and inhibited by the competitive NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) but not D-NAME. Inhibitors of arginase [L-valine and (+)-S-2-amino-5-iodoacetamidopentanoic acid)] did not affect L-citrulline production in the CNS. NOS activity was largely associated with the particulate fraction and appeared to be a novel, constitutive Ca(2+)-independent isoform. Enzymatic conversion of L-arginine/L-citrulline in Pleurobranchaea and Aplysia CNS was 4.0 and 9.8%, respectively, of that of rat cerebellum, L-Citrulline formation in gill and muscle of Pleurobranchaea was not significant. The localization of relatively high NOS activity in neuron somata in the CNS of Pleurobranchaea is markedly different from the other opisthobranchs, all of which are grazers. Potentially, this is related to the animal's opportunistic predatory lifestyle. PMID:8592165

Moroz, L L; Chen, D; Gillette, M U; Gillette, R

1996-02-01

39

Reduced ceramide synthase 2 activity causes progressive myoclonic epilepsy  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Ceramides are precursors of complex sphingolipids (SLs), which are important for normal functioning of both the developing and mature brain. Altered SL levels have been associated with many neurodegenerative disorders, including epilepsy, although few direct links have been identified between genes involved in SL metabolism and epilepsy. Methods We used quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and enzymatic assays to determine the mRNA, protein, and activity levels of ceramide synthase 2 (CERS2) in fiibroblasts isolated from parental control subjects and from a patient diagnosed with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME). Mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy were used to examine the effects of reduced CERS2 activity on cellular lipid composition and plasma membrane functions. Results We identify a novel 27 kb heterozygous deletion including the CERS2 gene in a proband diagnosed with PME. Compared to parental controls, levels of CERS2 mRNA, protein, and activity were reduced by ˜50% in fibroblasts isolated from this proband, resulting in significantly reduced levels of ceramides and sphingomyelins containing the very long-chain fatty acids C24:0 and C26:0. The change in SL composition was also reflected in a reduction in cholera toxin B immunofluorescence, indicating that membrane composition and function are altered. Interpretation We propose that reduced levels of CERS2, and consequently diminished levels of ceramides and SLs containing very long-chain fatty acids, lead to development of PME. PMID:25356388

Mosbech, Mai-Britt; Olsen, Anne S B; Neess, Ditte; Ben-David, Oshrit; Klitten, Laura L; Larsen, Jan; Sabers, Anne; Vissing, John; Nielsen, J?rgen E; Hasholt, Lis; Klein, Andres D; Tsoory, Michael M; Hjalgrim, Helle; Tommerup, Niels; Futerman, Anthony H; M?ller, Rikke S; Faergeman, Nils J

2014-01-01

40

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates glycogen synthase activity in 3T3 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hormonal regulation of glycogen synthase, an enzyme that can be phosphorylated on multiple sites, is often associated with changes in its phosphorylation state. Enzyme activation is conventionally monitored by determining the synthase activity ratio [(activity in the absence of glucose 6-P)/(activity in the presence of glucose 6-P)]. Insulin causes an activation of glycogen synthase with a concomitant decrease in its phosphate content. In a previous report, the authors showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) increases the glycogen synthase activity ratio in Swiss 3T3 cells. The time and dose-dependency of this response was similar to that of insulin. Their recent results indicate that PDGF also stimulates glycogen synthase activity. Enzyme activation was maximal after 30 min. of incubation with PDGF; the time course observed was very similar to that with insulin and EGF. At 1 ng/ml (0.03nM), PDGF caused a maximal stimulation of 4-fold in synthase activity ratio. Half-maximal stimulation was observed at 0.2 ng/ml (6 pM). The time course of changes in enzyme activity ratio closely followed that of 125I-PDGF binding. The authors data suggest that PDGF, as well as EFG and insulin, may be important in regulating glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation/dephosphorylation mechanisms

 
 
 
 
41

Changes in Activities of Sucrose Synthase and Sucrose Phosphate Synthase and Sugar Content During Postharvest Senescence in Two Broccoli Cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Changes in sucrose synthase (SS and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS activities and sugar content during postharvest senescence in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. cvs. `Hartland` and `Sairin` were studied. The first change in color became apparent between 2 and 3 d but whole head yellowed after 5 d of storage. The SS activity increased gradually in all portions although with few fluctuations in branchlets of both cultivars at the end of the storage time. In case of SPS, there was no inclining or declining pattern of the activity in any portion of the two cultivars at the end of the storage period. In both cultivars, branchlets showed higher SS and SPS activity than florets. Sucrose content gradually decreased in both portions of the two cultivars with time. Fructose content was higher than glucose and sucrose in the florets as well as branchlets of both cultivars. There was a highly significant negative correlation observed between the SS activity and sucrose content in the florets and branchlets of both cultivars. There was no significant correlation between sugar contents and SPS activity in any portions of both cultivars.

Bimal Kumar Pramanik

2004-01-01

42

L-malate production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Escherichia coli strains (KJ060 and KJ073) that were previously developed for succinate production have now been modified for malate production. Many unexpected changes were observed during this investigation. The initial strategy of deleting fumarase isoenzymes was ineffective, and succinate continued to accumulate. Surprisingly, a mutation in fumarate reductase alone was sufficient to redirect carbon flow into malate even in the presence of fumarase. Further deletions were needed to inactivate malic enzymes (typically gluconeogenic) and prevent conversion to pyruvate. However, deletion of these genes (sfcA and maeB) resulted in the unexpected accumulation of D-lactate despite the prior deletion of mgsA and ldhA and the absence of apparent lactate dehydrogenase activity. Although the metabolic source of this D-lactate was not identified, lactate accumulation was increased by supplementation with pyruvate and decreased by the deletion of either pyruvate kinase gene (pykA or pykF) to reduce the supply of pyruvate. Many of the gene deletions adversely affected growth and cell yield in minimal medium under anaerobic conditions, and volumetric rates of malate production remained low. The final strain (XZ658) produced 163 mM malate, with a yield of 1.0 mol (mol glucose(-1)), half of the theoretical maximum. Using a two-stage process (aerobic cell growth and anaerobic malate production), this engineered strain produced 253 mM malate (34 g liter(-1)) within 72 h, with a higher yield (1.42 mol mol(-1)) and productivity (0.47 g liter(-1) h(-1)). This malate yield and productivity are equal to or better than those of other known biocatalysts. PMID:21097588

Zhang, X; Wang, X; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

2011-01-01

43

l-Malate Production by Metabolically Engineered Escherichia coli? †  

Science.gov (United States)

Escherichia coli strains (KJ060 and KJ073) that were previously developed for succinate production have now been modified for malate production. Many unexpected changes were observed during this investigation. The initial strategy of deleting fumarase isoenzymes was ineffective, and succinate continued to accumulate. Surprisingly, a mutation in fumarate reductase alone was sufficient to redirect carbon flow into malate even in the presence of fumarase. Further deletions were needed to inactivate malic enzymes (typically gluconeogenic) and prevent conversion to pyruvate. However, deletion of these genes (sfcA and maeB) resulted in the unexpected accumulation of d-lactate despite the prior deletion of mgsA and ldhA and the absence of apparent lactate dehydrogenase activity. Although the metabolic source of this d-lactate was not identified, lactate accumulation was increased by supplementation with pyruvate and decreased by the deletion of either pyruvate kinase gene (pykA or pykF) to reduce the supply of pyruvate. Many of the gene deletions adversely affected growth and cell yield in minimal medium under anaerobic conditions, and volumetric rates of malate production remained low. The final strain (XZ658) produced 163 mM malate, with a yield of 1.0 mol (mol glucose?1), half of the theoretical maximum. Using a two-stage process (aerobic cell growth and anaerobic malate production), this engineered strain produced 253 mM malate (34 g liter?1) within 72 h, with a higher yield (1.42 mol mol?1) and productivity (0.47 g liter?1 h?1). This malate yield and productivity are equal to or better than those of other known biocatalysts. PMID:21097588

Zhang, X.; Wang, X.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, L. O.

2011-01-01

44

[Effect of heavy metals on activity of key enzymes of glyoxylate cycle and content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the germinating soybean Glicine max L.seeds].  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of CoCl2 and CdCl2 on the activity of isocytrate lyase, malate synthase and NAD-malate dehydrogenase in the seed lobes and the composition of malondialdehyde products at early stages of germinating of soybean seeds: after first 24-hours, 72 hours and 96 hours are investigated. It is shown that when germinating in the medium containing no metal salts, isocytrate lyase activity is greatly increased during 96 h and malate synthase is increased after 72 h and is decreased after 96 h of germination period. CoCl2 activated isocytrate lyase activity after 72 hours and decreased malate synthase activity after 96 hours. The lengthening of the primary root under such conditions is noted. CdCl2 inhibited isocytrate lyase activity during first 24 hours and suppressed malate synthase activity after 96 hours. During this process the germ growth is suppressed. CoCl2 increased the composition of malondialdehyde products during each period of germination, and CdCl2 increased malondialdehyde content after 72 and 96 hours. The role of glyoxylate cycle enzymes in transforming fatty acids into carbohydrates and in forming the primary root under the process of germination of seed lobes of soybean is discussed. PMID:18710031

Bezdudnaia, E F; Kaliman, P A

2008-01-01

45

Complex sphingolipid synthesis in plants: characterization of inositolphosphorylceramide synthase activity in bean microsomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex glycophosphosphingolipids present in plants are composed of ceramide, inositolphosphate, and diverse polar oligosaccharide substituents. The activity of inositolphosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase (phosphatidylinositol:ceramide inositolphosphate transferase), the enzyme proposed to catalyze the initial committed step in the formation of these complex sphingolipids, was characterized in wax bean hypocotyl microsomes. Enzyme activity was assayed by monitoring the incorporation of fluorescent NBD-C(6) ceramide or [3H]inositolphosphate from radiolabeled phosphatidylinositol (PI) into product identified by TLC. IPC synthase was found to utilize nonhydroxy fatty acid-containing ceramide, hydroxy fatty acid-containing ceramide, and NBD-C(6) ceramide as substrate. Maximum product formation was observed at PI concentrations in excess of 600 microM (with half-maximum activity at approximately 200 microM). Both endogenous PI and ceramide appeared to serve as substrates. Aureobasidin A and rustmicin, two potent inhibitors of fungal IPC synthase, inhibited enzyme activity in bean microsomes with values for IC(50) of 0.4-0.8 and 16-20 nM, respectively. IPC synthase activity appeared most closely associated with the Golgi based on results using selected marker enzymes. Enzyme activity was detected in a variety of plant tissues. This report, the first to characterize IPC synthase in plant tissues, demonstrates the similarities between the plant enzyme and its yeast counterpart, and provides insight into plant glycophosphosphingolipid biology. PMID:12941304

Bromley, Pamela E; Li, Yuneng O; Murphy, Shawn M; Sumner, Catherine M; Lynch, Daniel V

2003-09-15

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NOpiates: Novel Dual Action Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors with ?-Opioid Agonist Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel series of benzimidazole designed multiple ligands (DMLs) with activity at the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) enzyme and the ?-opioid receptor was developed. Targeting of the structurally dissimilar heme-containing enzyme and the ?-opioid GPCR was predicated on the modulatory role of nitric oxide on ?-opioid receptor function. Structure–activity relationship studies yielded lead compound 24 with excellent nNOS inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.44 ?M), selectivity over both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (10-fold) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (125-fold), and potent ?-opioid binding affinity, Ki = 5.4 nM. The functional activity as measured in the cyclic adenosine monosphospate secondary messenger assay resulted in full agonist activity (EC50 = 0.34 ?M). This work represents a novel approach in the development of new analgesics for the treatment of pain. PMID:24900459

2012-01-01

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NOpiates: Novel Dual Action Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors with ?-Opioid Agonist Activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel series of benzimidazole designed multiple ligands (DMLs) with activity at the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) enzyme and the ?-opioid receptor was developed. Targeting of the structurally dissimilar heme-containing enzyme and the ?-opioid GPCR was predicated on the modulatory role of nitric oxide on ?-opioid receptor function. Structure-activity relationship studies yielded lead compound 24 with excellent nNOS inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.44 ?M), selectivity over both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (10-fold) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (125-fold), and potent ?-opioid binding affinity, K i = 5.4 nM. The functional activity as measured in the cyclic adenosine monosphospate secondary messenger assay resulted in full agonist activity (EC50 = 0.34 ?M). This work represents a novel approach in the development of new analgesics for the treatment of pain. PMID:24900459

Renton, Paul; Green, Brenda; Maddaford, Shawn; Rakhit, Suman; Andrews, John S

2012-03-01

48

Hydrogen Peroxide Decreases Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Promoter Activity through the Inhibition of Sp1 Activity  

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We have previously shown that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) promoter activity is decreased in endothelial cells in response to the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and this involves, at least in part, the inhibition of AP-1 activity. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine if other cis-element(s) and transcription factor(s) are involved in the oxidant-mediated downregulation of eNOS. Our initial experiments indicated that although H2O2 treatment increased eNOS mRNA ...

Kumar, Sanjiv; Sun, Xutong; Wiseman, Dean A.; Tian, Jing; Umapathy, Nagavedi S.; Verin, Alexander D.; Black, Stephen M.

2009-01-01

49

Promotion of beta-glucan synthase activity in corn microsomal membranes by calcium and protein phosphorylation  

Science.gov (United States)

Regulation of the activity of beta-glucan synthase was studied using microsomal preparations from corn coleoptiles. The specific activity as measured by the incorporation of glucose from uridine diphospho-D-[U-14C]glucose varied between 5 to 15 pmol (mg protein)-1 min-1. Calcium promoted beta-glucan synthase activity and the promotion was observed at free calcium concentrations as low as 1 micromole. Kinetic analysis of substrate-velocity curve showed an apparent Km of 1.92 x 10(-4) M for UDPG. Calcium increased the Vmax from 5.88 x 10(-7) mol liter-1 min-1 in the absence of calcium to 9.52 x 10(-7) mol liter-1 min-1 and 1.66 x 10(-6) mol liter-1 min-1 in the presence of 0.5 mM and 1 mM calcium, respectively. The Km values remained the same under these conditions. Addition of ATP further increased the activity above the calcium-promoted level. Sodium fluoride, a phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor, promoted glucan synthase activity indicating that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are involved in the regulation of the enzyme activity. Increasing the concentration of sodium fluoride from 0.25 mM to 10 mM increased glucan synthase activity five-fold over the + calcium + ATP control. Phosphorylation of membrane proteins also showed a similar increase under these conditions. Calmodulin, in the presence of calcium and ATP stimulated glucan synthase activity substantially, indicating that calmodulin could be involved in the calcium-dependent phosphorylation and promotion of beta-glucan synthase activity. The role of calcium in mediating auxin action is discussed.

Paliyath, G.; Poovaiah, B. W.

1988-01-01

50

Methionine supply to growing steers affects hepatic activities of methionine synthase and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, but not cystathionine synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of supplemental methionine (Met), supplied abomasally, on the activities of methionine synthase (MS), cystathionine synthase (CS) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) were studied in growing steers. Six Holstein steers (205 kg) were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square experiment. Steers were fed 2.6 kg dry matter daily of a diet containing 83% soybean hulls and 8% wheat straw. Ruminal infusions of 180 g/d acetate, 180 g/d propionate, 45 g/d butyrate, and abomasal infusion of 300 g/d dextrose provided additional energy. An amino acid mixture (299 g/d) limiting in Met was infused into the abomasum to ensure that nonsulfur amino acids did not limit growth. Treatments were infused abomasally and included 0, 5 or 10 g/d L-Met. Retained N (20.5, 26.9 and 31.6 g/d for 0, 5 and 10 g/d L-Met, respectively) increased (P < 0.01) linearly with increased supplemental Met. Hepatic Met, vitamin B-12, S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were not affected by Met supplementation. Hepatic folates tended (P = 0.07) to decrease linearly with Met supplementation. All three enzymes were detected in hepatic tissue of our steers. Hepatic CS activity was not affected by Met supplementation. Hepatic MS decreased (P < 0.01) linearly with increasing Met supply, and hepatic BHMT activity responded quadratically (P = 0.04), with 0 and 10 g/d Met being higher than the intermediate level. Data from this experiment indicate that sulfur amino acid metabolism may be regulated differently in cattle than in other tested species. PMID:12097683

Lambert, Barry D; Titgemeyer, Evan C; Stokka, Gerald L; DeBey, Brad M; Löest, Clint A

2002-07-01

51

Calcium-Dependent Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in Rat Thymocytes  

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We examined the conversion of L-[3H]arginine to L-[3H]citrulline in lysate from rat thymocytes, which was dependent on Ca2+and cofactors (FAD, BH4, NADPH). Removal of Ca2+of the medium, reduced the total L-[3H]citrulline formation by about 97%. The L-[3H]citrulline formation was completely inhibited by the NO synthase inhibitors, NG-nitro-L-arginine and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, with values for IC50of 1.2 [mu]M and 19.4 [mu]M, respectively. In intact thymocytes, the L-[3H]citrulline formation...

Cruz, M. T.; Carmo, A.; Carvalho, A. P.; Lopes, M. C.

1998-01-01

52

Assembly of melleolide antibiotics involves a polyketide synthase with cross-coupling activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about polyketide biosynthesis in mushrooms (basidiomycota). In this study, we investigated the iterative type I polyketide synthase (PKS) ArmB of the tree pathogen Armillaria mellea, a producer of cytotoxic melleolides (i.e., polyketides esterified with various sesquiterpene alcohols). Heterologously produced ArmB showed orsellinic acid (OA) synthase activity in vitro. Further, we demonstrate cross-coupling activity of ArmB, which forms OA esters with various alcohols. Using a tricyclic Armillaria sesquiterpene alcohol, we reconstituted the biosynthesis of melledonol. Intermolecular transesterification reactions may represent a general mechanism of fungal PKSs to create structural diversity of small molecules. Phylogenetic network construction of thioesterase domains of both basidiomycetes and ascomycetes suggests that the fungal nonreducing PKS family has likely evolved from an ancient OA synthase and has gained versatility by adopting Claisen-like cyclase or transferase activity. PMID:23993460

Lackner, Gerald; Bohnert, Markus; Wick, Jonas; Hoffmeister, Dirk

2013-09-19

53

Kei1: a novel subunit of inositolphosphorylceramide synthase, essential for its enzyme activity and Golgi localization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal sphingolipids have inositol-phosphate head groups, which are essential for the viability of cells. These head groups are added by inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase, and AUR1 has been thought to encode this enzyme. Here, we show that an essential protein encoded by KEI1 is a novel subunit of IPC synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that Kei1 is localized in the medial-Golgi and that Kei1 is cleaved by Kex2, a late Golgi processing endopeptidase; therefore, it recycles between the medial- and late Golgi compartments. The growth defect of kei1-1, a temperature-sensitive mutant, is effectively suppressed by the overexpression of AUR1, and Aur1 and Kei1 proteins form a complex in vivo. The kei1-1 mutant is hypersensitive to aureobasidin A, a specific inhibitor of IPC synthesis, and the IPC synthase activity in the mutant membranes is thermolabile. A part of Aur1 is missorted to the vacuole in kei1-1 cells. We show that the amino acid substitution in kei1-1 causes release of Kei1 during immunoprecipitation of Aur1 and that Aur1 without Kei1 has hardly detectable IPC synthase activity. From these results, we conclude that Kei1 is essential for both the activity and the Golgi localization of IPC synthase. PMID:19726565

Sato, Keisuke; Noda, Yoichi; Yoda, Koji

2009-10-01

54

Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Dictyostelium produces the 264 kDa myosin chitin synthase of bivalve mollusc Atrina. ? Chitin synthase activity releases chitin, partly associated with the cell surface. ? Membrane extracts of transgenic slime molds produce radiolabeled chitin in vitro. ? Chitin producing Dictyostelium cells can be characterized by atomic force microscopy. ? This model system enables us to study initial processes of chitin biomineralization. -- Abstract: Several mollusc shells contain chitin, which is formed by a transmembrane myosin motor enzyme. This protein could be involved in sensing mechanical and structural changes of the forming, mineralizing extracellular matrix. Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W. 264 kDa/monomer) in Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for myosin motor proteins. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy (CLSM), chitin binding GFP detection of chitin on cells and released to the cell culture medium, and a radiochemical activity assay of membrane extracts revealed expression and enzymatic activity of the mollusc chitin synthase in transgenic slime mold cells. First high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of Ar-CS1 transformed cellulose synthase deficient D. discoideumdcsA? cell lines are shown.

55

Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dictyostelium produces the 264 kDa myosin chitin synthase of bivalve mollusc Atrina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin synthase activity releases chitin, partly associated with the cell surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membrane extracts of transgenic slime molds produce radiolabeled chitin in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin producing Dictyostelium cells can be characterized by atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This model system enables us to study initial processes of chitin biomineralization. -- Abstract: Several mollusc shells contain chitin, which is formed by a transmembrane myosin motor enzyme. This protein could be involved in sensing mechanical and structural changes of the forming, mineralizing extracellular matrix. Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W. 264 kDa/monomer) in Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for myosin motor proteins. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy (CLSM), chitin binding GFP detection of chitin on cells and released to the cell culture medium, and a radiochemical activity assay of membrane extracts revealed expression and enzymatic activity of the mollusc chitin synthase in transgenic slime mold cells. First high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of Ar-CS1 transformed cellulose synthase deficient D. discoideumdcsA{sup -} cell lines are shown.

Schoenitzer, Veronika [INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Biomineralisation Group, Campus D2.2, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Universitaet Regensburg, Biochemie I, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Eichner, Norbert [Universitaet Regensburg, Biochemie I, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke [Munich University of Applied Sciences, Lothstrasse 34, D-80335 Muenchen, Germany, and Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, D-80539 Muenchen (Germany); Weiss, Ingrid M., E-mail: ingrid.weiss@inm-gmbh.de [INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Biomineralisation Group, Campus D2.2, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Universitaet Regensburg, Biochemie I, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany)

2011-12-02

56

Etude du mécanisme d'activation de l'oxygène par les NO-Synthases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Le monoxyde d'azote est exclusivement synthétisé chez les mammifères par une famille d'hémoprotéines, les NO-Synthases. Le cœur de l'activité des NO-Synthases est l'activation de l'oxygène c'est-à-dire l'activation de l'intermédiaire réactionnel FeIIO2. Cette étape est contrôlée par la réactivité intrinsèque du fer, par les transferts de proton et les transferts d'électron. Elle doit être parfaitement maîtrisée car elle contrôle le chemin catalytique emprunté et la natu...

Brunel, Albane

2012-01-01

57

Common regulatory control of CTP synthase enzyme activity and filament formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of enzymes to assemble into visible supramolecular complexes is a widespread phenomenon. Such complexes have been hypothesized to play a number of roles; however, little is known about how the regulation of enzyme activity is coupled to the assembly/disassembly of these cellular structures. CTP synthase is an ideal model system for addressing this question because its activity is regulated via multiple mechanisms and its filament-forming ability is evolutionarily conserved. Our structure-function studies of CTP synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal that destabilization of the active tetrameric form of the enzyme increases filament formation, suggesting that the filaments comprise inactive CTP synthase dimers. Furthermore, the sites responsible for feedback inhibition and allosteric activation control filament length, implying that multiple regions of the enzyme can influence filament structure. In contrast, blocking catalysis without disrupting the regulatory sites of the enzyme does not affect filament formation or length. Together our results argue that the regulatory sites that control CTP synthase function, but not enzymatic activity per se, are critical for controlling filament assembly. We predict that the ability of enzymes to form supramolecular structures in general is closely coupled to the mechanisms that regulate their activity. PMID:24920825

Noree, Chalongrat; Monfort, Elena; Shiau, Andrew K; Wilhelm, James E

2014-08-01

58

Changes in Carbohydrate Content and Activities of Acid Invertase, Sucrose Synthase and Sucrose Phosphate Synthase in Broccoli During Short Term Storage at Low Temperature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the changes in carbohydrate content and activities of invertase, sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase in two broccoli cultivar (Brassica oleracea L. Cvs. `Hartland` and `Sairin` stored at 5?C. Respiration rate rapidly declined after 1 day of storage and gradually decreased at the end of the storage period. Color did not change significantly at the end of the storage period. In both cultivars and portions, the invertase activity increased gradually at the end of the storage time. The acid invertase in cell wall-bound fraction (CWBF showed a higher activity than that in soluble fraction (SF. Again, the branchlets showed a significantly higher invertase activity than that of florets. In both cultivars, sucrose synthase (SS activity gradually increased in the florets with some fluctuations in the branchlets at the end of the storage time. Sucrose phosphate synthase activity (SPS activity did not change markedly in any portion of the two cultivars at the end of the storage period. Sucrose content gradually decreased in both portions of the two cultivars with time. It was negatively correlated with the acid invertase and SS activities in both portions accounting well for the relation between the substrate and the activity. Fructose and glucose content were higher than sucrose in the florets as well as branchlets in both cultivars.

Bimal Kumar Pramanik

2004-01-01

59

Changes in Carbohydrate Content and the Activities of Acid Invertase, Sucrose Synthase and Sucrose Phosphate Synthase in Asparagus Spears During Storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We held asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. spears at 25?C for up to 5 days after harvest and examined changes in soluble carbohydrates and the activities of enzymes concerned with carbohydrate breakdown in both top and bottom portions of the spears. The acid invertase in soluble fraction showed a higher activity than that in cell wall bound fraction and the top portion of the spear showed a significantly higher soluble acid invertase activity than the bottom portion. But the activity of cell wall bound acid invetase was higher in bottom portion. In both the top and bottom portions soluble acid invertase activity increased during first day of storage and after that it started to decrease gradually up to five days. In case of cell wall bound acid invertase the activity increased during first two days and after that it also started to decrease. Sucrose synthase activity, found higher in bottom portion than top, started to decline from the first day of storage and continued up to five days. But the activity declined rapidly on third day. In case of sucrose phosphate synthase there was no specific inclining or declining pattern of activity in any portion of the spear. Among the soluble sugars fructose and glucose were predomonant and fructose content was significantly higher than the glucose and sucrose. All the three sugars started to decrease from the first day and continued up to five days. Sucrose content was negatively correlated with invertase and sucrose synthase in both portions and accounted well for the relation between the substrate and enzyme activity. But sucrose phohphate synthase activity remained almost constant during the storage period and there was no significant correlation between sugar content and sucrose phosphate synthase activity.

Pankaj Kumar Bhowmik

2001-01-01

60

Efficient production of active polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase in Escherichia coli by coexpression of molecular chaperones.  

Science.gov (United States)

The type I polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase from Cupriavidus necator was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli with simultaneous overexpression of chaperone proteins. Compared to expression of synthase alone (14.55 mg liter(-1)), coexpression with chaperones resulted in the production of larger total quantities of enzyme, including a larger proportion in the soluble fraction. The largest increase was seen when the GroEL/GroES system was coexpressed, resulting in approximately 6-fold-greater enzyme yields (82.37 mg liter(-1)) than in the absence of coexpressed chaperones. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was unaffected by coexpression with chaperones. Therefore, the increase in yield was attributed to an enhanced soluble fraction of synthase. Chaperones were also coexpressed with a polyhydroxyalkanoate production operon, resulting in the production of polymers with generally reduced molecular weights. This suggests a potential use for chaperones to control the physical properties of the polymer. PMID:23335776

Thomson, Nicholas M; Saika, Azusa; Ushimaru, Kazunori; Sangiambut, Smith; Tsuge, Takeharu; Summers, David K; Sivaniah, Easan

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

Zinc Affects Differently Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Phytochelatin Synthase Expression of Four Marine Diatoms  

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Zinc-supplementation (20??M) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The ...

Nguyen-deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benoi?t; Tremblin, Ge?rard; Morant-manceau, Annick

2012-01-01

62

Differences in the efficiency of reductive activation of methionine synthase and exogenous electron acceptors between the common polymorphic variants of human methionine synthase reductase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methionine synthase reductase (MSR) catalyzes the conversion of the inactive form of human methionine synthase to the active state of the enzyme. This reaction is of paramount physiological importance since methionine synthase is an essential enzyme that plays a key role in the methionine and folate cycles. A common polymorphism in human MSR has been identified (66A --> G) that leads to replacement of isoleucine with methionine at residue 22 and has an allele frequency of 0.5. Another polymorphism is 524C --> T, which leads to the substitution of serine 175 with leucine, but its allele frequency is not known. The I22M polymorphism is a genetic determinant for mild hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In this study, we have examined the kinetic properties of the M22/S175 and I22/S175 and the I22/L175 and I22/S175 pairs of variants. EPR spectra of the semiquinone forms of variants I22/S175 and M22/S175 are indistinguishable and exhibit an isotropic signal at g = 2.00. In addition, the electronic absorption and reduction stoichiometries with NADPH are identical in these variants. Significantly, the variants activate methionine synthase with the same V(max); however, a 3-4-fold higher ratio of MSR to methionine synthase is required to elicit maximal activity with the M22/S175 and I22/L175 variant versus the I22/S175 enzyme. Differences are also observed between the variants in the efficacies of reduction of the artificial electron acceptors: ferricyanide, 2,6-dichloroindophenol, 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide phosphate, menadione, and the anticancer drug doxorubicin. These results reveal differences in the interactions between the natural and artificial electron acceptors and MSR variants in vitro, which are predicted to result in less efficient reductive repair of methionine synthase in vivo. PMID:12416982

Olteanu, Horatiu; Munson, Troy; Banerjee, Ruma

2002-11-12

63

Functional identification of valerena-1,10-diene synthase, a terpene synthase catalyzing a unique chemical cascade in the biosynthesis of biologically active sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Valerian is an herbal preparation from the roots of Valeriana officinalis used as an anxiolytic and sedative and in the treatment of insomnia. The biological activities of valerian are attributed to valerenic acid and its putative biosynthetic precursor valerenadiene, sesquiterpenes, found in V. officinalis roots. These sesquiterpenes retain an isobutenyl side chain whose origin has been long recognized as enigmatic because a chemical rationalization for their biosynthesis has not been obvious. Using recently developed metabolomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified seven V. officinalis terpene synthase genes (VoTPSs), two that were functionally characterized as monoterpene synthases and three that preferred farnesyl diphosphate, the substrate for sesquiterpene synthases. The reaction products for two of the sesquiterpene synthases exhibiting root-specific expression were characterized by a combination of GC-MS and NMR in comparison to the terpenes accumulating in planta. VoTPS7 encodes for a synthase that biosynthesizes predominately germacrene C, whereas VoTPS1 catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to valerena-1,10-diene. Using a yeast expression system, specific labeled [(13)C]acetate, and NMR, we investigated the catalytic mechanism for VoTPS1 and provide evidence for the involvement of a caryophyllenyl carbocation, a cyclobutyl intermediate, in the biosynthesis of valerena-1,10-diene. We suggest a similar mechanism for the biosynthesis of several other biologically related isobutenyl-containing sesquiterpenes. PMID:23243312

Yeo, Yun-Soo; Nybo, S Eric; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Weerasooriya, Aruna D; Wang, Yan-Hong; Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Buell, C Robin; DellaPenna, Dean; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Jones, A Daniel; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Ransom, Nick; Dudareva, Natalia; Shaaban, Khaled A; Tibrewal, Nidhi; Chandra, Suman; Smillie, Troy; Khan, Ikhlas A; Coates, Robert M; Watt, David S; Chappell, Joe

2013-02-01

64

Functional Identification of Valerena-1,10-diene Synthase, a Terpene Synthase Catalyzing a Unique Chemical Cascade in the Biosynthesis of Biologically Active Sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis*  

Science.gov (United States)

Valerian is an herbal preparation from the roots of Valeriana officinalis used as an anxiolytic and sedative and in the treatment of insomnia. The biological activities of valerian are attributed to valerenic acid and its putative biosynthetic precursor valerenadiene, sesquiterpenes, found in V. officinalis roots. These sesquiterpenes retain an isobutenyl side chain whose origin has been long recognized as enigmatic because a chemical rationalization for their biosynthesis has not been obvious. Using recently developed metabolomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified seven V. officinalis terpene synthase genes (VoTPSs), two that were functionally characterized as monoterpene synthases and three that preferred farnesyl diphosphate, the substrate for sesquiterpene synthases. The reaction products for two of the sesquiterpene synthases exhibiting root-specific expression were characterized by a combination of GC-MS and NMR in comparison to the terpenes accumulating in planta. VoTPS7 encodes for a synthase that biosynthesizes predominately germacrene C, whereas VoTPS1 catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to valerena-1,10-diene. Using a yeast expression system, specific labeled [13C]acetate, and NMR, we investigated the catalytic mechanism for VoTPS1 and provide evidence for the involvement of a caryophyllenyl carbocation, a cyclobutyl intermediate, in the biosynthesis of valerena-1,10-diene. We suggest a similar mechanism for the biosynthesis of several other biologically related isobutenyl-containing sesquiterpenes. PMID:23243312

Yeo, Yun-Soo; Nybo, S. Eric; Chittiboyina, Amar G.; Weerasooriya, Aruna D.; Wang, Yan-Hong; Gongora-Castillo, Elsa; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Buell, C. Robin; DellaPenna, Dean; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Jones, A. Daniel; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Ransom, Nick; Dudareva, Natalia; Shaaban, Khaled A.; Tibrewal, Nidhi; Chandra, Suman; Smillie, Troy; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Coates, Robert M.; Watt, David S.; Chappell, Joe

2013-01-01

65

Upregulation of thymidine kinase activity compensates for loss of thymidylate synthase activity in Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thymidylate, an essential building block of DNA, is synthesized either from deoxyuridylate by thymidylate synthase (TS) or thymidine (dT) by thymidine kinase (TK). Thymidylate kinase (TMPK) phosphorylates dTMP to dTTP. Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) catalyses reversible phosphorolysis of dT. Using transposon mutagenesis M. pneumoniae TS gene (thyA/MPN320) was interrupted and requirement of these enzymes was studied. We found that TK activity and transcript levels and TP activity, but not TMPK or TS activity, are growth-phase-regulated, with induction at the exponential growth phase and a decline after the stationary phase. Inactivation of thyA results in upregulation of TK transcript and a 10-fold increase in TK activity, reduced TMPK level and it had no effect on TP activity. The level of [3H]-dT uptake and incorporation into DNA in the thyA mutant correlates with increases in TK activity, suggesting that dT uptake and metabolism is TK-dependent and that upregulation of TK activity in the thyA mutant compensates for the lack of ThyA activity. [3H]-dU uptake was low compared with dT, and incorporation of radioactivity into DNA in the thyA mutant indicates the presence of an alternative TS. Our results suggest that TK and TMPK are potential targets for the development of Mycoplasma-specific antibiotics. PMID:20860090

Wang, Liya; Hames, Claudine; Schmidl, Sebastian R; Stülke, Jörg

2010-09-01

66

Reduced activity of ATP synthase in mitochondria causes cytoplasmic male sterility in chili pepper.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait characterized by the inability to produce functional pollen. The CMS-associated protein Orf507 (reported as Orf456 in previous researches) was previously identified as a candidate gene for mediating male sterility in pepper. Here, we performed yeast two-hybrid analysis to screen for interacting proteins, and found that the ATP synthase 6 kDa subunit containing a mitochondrial signal peptide (MtATP6) specifically interacted with Orf507. In addition, the two proteins were found to be interacted in vivo using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays. Further functional characterization of Orf507 revealed that the encoded protein is toxic to bacterial cells. Analysis of tissue-specific expression of ATP synthase 6 kDa showed that the transcription level was much lower in anthers of the CMS line than in their wild type counterparts. In CMS plants, ATP synthase activity and content were reduced by more than half compared to that of the normal plants. Taken together, it can be concluded that reduced ATP synthase activity and ATP content might have affected pollen development in CMS plants. Here, we hypothesize that Orf507 might cause MtATP6 to be nonfunctional by changing the latter's conformation or producing an inhibitor that prevents the normal functioning of MtATP6. Thus, further functional analysis of mitochondrial Orf507 will provide insights into the mechanisms underlying CMS in plants. PMID:23274393

Li, Jinjie; Pandeya, Devendra; Jo, Yeong Deuk; Liu, Wing Yee; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

2013-04-01

67

Anaerobic Toluene Activation by Benzylsuccinate Synthase in a Highly Enriched Methanogenic Culture  

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Permeabilized cells of a highly enriched, toluene-mineralizing, methanogenic culture catalyzed the addition of toluene to fumarate to form benzylsuccinate under anaerobic conditions. The specific in vitro rate of benzylsuccinate formation was >85% of the specific in vivo rate of toluene consumption. This is the first report of benzylsuccinate synthase activity in a methanogenic culture; the activity has previously been reported to occur in denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, and anoxygenic photot...

Beller, Harry R.; Edwards, Elizabeth A.

2000-01-01

68

Constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS activity in Langerhans islets from streptozotocin diabetic rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nitric oxide synthase activity was measured in Langerhans islets isolated from control and streptozotocin diabetic rats. The activity of the enzyme was linear up to 150 µg of protein from control rats and was optimal at 0.1 µM calcium, when it was measured after 45 min of incubation at 37oC in the presence of 200 µM arginine. Specific activity of the enzyme was 25 x 10-4 nmol [3H]citrulline 45 min-1 mg protein-1. Streptozotocin diabetic rats exhibited less enzyme activity both in total pancreas homogenate and in isolated Langerhans islets when compared to control animals. Nitric oxide synthase activity measured in control and diabetic rats 15 days after the last streptozotocin injection in the second group of animals corresponded only to a constitutive enzyme since it was not inhibited by aminoguanidine in any of the mentioned groups. Hyperglycemia in diabetic rats may be the consequence of impaired insulin release caused at least in part by reduced positive modulation mediated by constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity, which was dramatically reduced in islets severely damaged after streptozotocin treatment.

Fonovich de Schroeder T.M.

1998-01-01

69

Role of Arginine-304 in the Diphosphate-Triggered Active Site Closure Mechanism of Trichodiene Synthase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The X-ray crystal structures of R304K trichodiene synthase and its complexes with inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and aza analogues of the bisabolyl carbocation intermediate are reported. The R304K substitution does not cause large changes in the overall structure in comparison with the wild-type enzyme. The complexes with (R)- and (S)-azabisabolenes and PPi bind three Mg2+ ions, and each undergoes a diphosphate-triggered conformational change that caps the active site cavity. This conformational change is only slightly attenuated compared to that of the wild-type enzyme complexed with Mg{sup 2+}{sub 3-}PP{sub i}, in which R304 donates hydrogen bonds to PP{sub i} and D101. In R304K trichodiene synthase, K304 does not engage in any hydrogen bond interactions in the unliganded state and it donates a hydrogen bond to only PP{sub i} in the complex with (R)-azabisabolene; K304 makes no hydrogen bond contacts in its complex with PP{sub i} and (S)-azabisabolene. Thus, although the R304-D101 hydrogen bond interaction stabilizes diphosphate-triggered active site closure, it is not required for Mg{sup 2+}{sub 3-}PP{sub i} binding. Nevertheless, since R304K trichodiene synthase generates aberrant cyclic terpenoids with a 5000-fold reduction in kcat/KM, it is clear that a properly formed R304-D101 hydrogen bond is required in the enzyme-substrate complex to stabilize the proper active site contour, which in turn facilitates cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate for the exclusive formation of trichodiene. Structural analysis of the R304K mutant and comparison with the monoterpene cyclase (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase suggest that the significant loss in activity results from compromised activation of the PP{sub i} leaving group.

Vedula,L.; Cane, D.; Christianson, D.

2005-01-01

70

Unveiling the genes responsible for the unique Pseudomonas aeruginosa oleate-diol synthase activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa displays the ability to perform bioconversion of oleic acid into a class of hydroxylated fatty acids known as oxylipins. A diol synthase activity is responsible for such a conversion, which proceeds through the dioxygenation of oleic acid to release hydroperoxide 10-H(P)OME ((10S)-hydroxy-(8E)-octadecenoic acid), followed by conversion of the hydroperoxide intermediate into 7,10-DiHOME ((7S,10S)-dihydroxy-(8E)-octadecenoic acid), both of which accumulate in the culture supernatant. Several mutants of P. aeruginosa PAO1 were analyzed for the production of 10-H(P)OME and 7,10-DiHOME and two of them (ORFs PA2077 and PA2078), unable to release hydroxylated fatty acids, were detected and selected for further analysis. Involvement of ORFs PA2077 and PA2078 in oleate-diol synthase activity was confirmed, and their respective role in the conversion of oleic acid was analyzed by mutation complementation. Activity restoration revealed that gene PA2077 codes for the 10S-dioxygenase activity (10S-DOX) responsible for the first step of the reaction, whereas PA2078 encodes for the (7S,10S)-hydroperoxide diol synthase enzyme (7,10-DS) which allows the conversion of 10-H(P)OME into 7,10-DiHOME. Heterologous expression of both enzymes separately showed that no hetero-complex formation is required for enzymatic activity. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR analysis revealed that both genes constitute a new fine regulated oleate-diol synthase operon, originated by a gene duplication event followed by neofunctionalization for environmental adaptation, being unprecedented in prokaryotes. PMID:24980978

Estupiñán, Mónica; Diaz, Pilar; Manresa, Angels

2014-10-01

71

Activation and inhibition of CTP synthase from Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness.  

Science.gov (United States)

CTP Synthase from Trypanosoma brucei (TbCTPS) catalyzes the conversion of UTP to CTP and is a recognized target for the development of antiprotozoal agents. GTP activates glutamine-dependent CTP formation catalyzed by TbCTPS at concentrations below 0.2 mM, but inhibits this activity at concentrations above 0.2 mM. TbCTPS catalyzes ammonia-dependent CTP formation, which is inhibited by purine derivatives such as GTP, guanosine, caffeine, and uric acid with IC(50) values of 460, 380, 480, and 100 ?M, respectively. These observations suggest that the purine ring may serve as a useful scaffold for the development of inhibitors of trypanosomal CTP synthase. PMID:21840216

Steeves, Craig H; Bearne, Stephen L

2011-09-15

72

Modulation of the activity of rat liver acetylglutamate synthase by pH and arginine concentration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acetylglutamate is known to modulate the activity of carbamyl phosphate synthetase, and thus probably to participate in regulation of the urea cycle. Therefore factors that regulate the activity of acetylglutamate synthase are relevant to control of urea synthesis and of systemic pH. An increase in the concentration of arginine increases both Vmax and S0.5 for glutamate of acetylglutamate synthase from rat liver. An increase in pH causes S0.5 for glutamate to decrease and does not affect Vmax. As a consequence of these effects, a rapid rate of synthesis of acetylglutamate requires a concentration of arginine of about 25 microM or higher and either relatively high glutamate concentrations or relatively high pH. PMID:4062297

Kamemoto, E S; Atkinson, D E

1985-11-15

73

Reduced peroxisomal citrate synthase activity increases substrate availability for polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis in plant peroxisomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bacterial carbon storage polymers used as renewable, biodegradable plastics. PHA production in plants may be a way to reduce industrial PHA production costs. We recently demonstrated a promising level of peroxisomal PHA production in the high biomass crop species sugarcane. However, further production strategies are needed to boost PHA accumulation closer to commercial targets. Through exogenous fatty acid feeding of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that contain peroxisome-targeted PhaA, PhaB and PhaC enzymes from Cupriavidus necator, we show here that the availability of substrates derived from the ?-oxidation cycle limits peroxisomal polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis. Knockdown of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity using artificial microRNA increased PHB production levels approximately threefold. This work demonstrates that reduction of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity may be a valid metabolic engineering strategy for increasing PHA production in other plant species. PMID:24944109

Tilbrook, Kimberley; Poirier, Yves; Gebbie, Leigh; Schenk, Peer M; McQualter, Richard B; Brumbley, Stevens M

2014-10-01

74

Mutational analysis of the active site of indoleglycerol phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli.  

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Indoleglycerol phosphate synthase catalyzes the ring closure of 1-(2-carboxyphenylamino)-1-deoxyribulose 5'-phosphate to indoleglycerol phosphate, the fifth step in the pathway of tryptophan biosynthesis from chorismate. Because chemical synthesis of indole derivatives from arylamino ketones requires drastic solvent conditions, it is interesting by what mechanism the enzyme catalyzes the same condensation reaction. Seven invariant polar residues in the active site of the enzyme from Escherich...

Darimont, B.; Stehlin, C.; Szadkowski, H.; Kirschner, K.

1998-01-01

75

Nitric oxide synthase activity in human trophoblast, term placenta and pregnant myometrium  

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Abstract To investigate the possible role of nitric oxide (NO) produced locally or intramurally in the quiescence of the pregnant myometrium, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was measured in samples from first trimester (villous, and non villous-trophoblast), term placenta and pregnant myometrium. Trophoblast tissue was obtained from psychosocial termination of pregnancy (9 – 12 weeks' gestation) whereas placenta and myometrium, from the same patient, at deliveries by Caesarea...

Laurini Ricardo; Andolf Ellika; Al-Hijji J; Batra Satish

2003-01-01

76

Glycogen Synthase Kinase3 Beta Phosphorylates Serine 33 of p53 and Activates p53's Transcriptional Activity  

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Abstract Background The p53 protein is activated by genotoxic stress, oncogene expression and during senescence, p53 transcriptionally activates genes involved in growth arrest and apoptosis. p53 activation is regulated by post-translational modification, including phosphorylation of the N-terminal transactivation domain. Here, we have examined how Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK3), a protein kinase involved in tumorigenesis, differentiation and apoptosis, phosphorylates and re...

Price Brendan D; Turenne Gaetan A

2001-01-01

77

Arginase activity in mitochondria - An interfering factor in nitric oxide synthase activity assays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previously, in tightly controlled studies, using three independent, yet complementary techniques, we refuted the claim that a mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) isoform exists within pure, rat liver mitochondria (MT). Of those techniques, the NOS-catalyzed [14C]-L-arginine to [14C]-L-citrulline conversion assay (NOS assay) with MT samples indicated a weak, radioactive signal that was NOS-independent . Aliquots of samples from the NOS assays were then extracted with acetone, separated by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and exposed to autoradiography. Results obtained from these samples showed no radioactive band for L-citrulline. However, a fast-migrating, diffuse, radioactive band was observed in the TLC lanes loaded with MT samples. In this manuscript, we identify and confirm that this radioactive signal in MT samples is due to the arginase-catalyzed conversion of [14C]-L-arginine to [14C]-urea. The current results, in addition to reconfirming the absence of NOS activity in rat liver MT, also show the need to include arginase inhibitors in studies using MT samples in order to avoid confounding results when using NOS activity assays.

78

Arginase activity in mitochondria - An interfering factor in nitric oxide synthase activity assays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previously, in tightly controlled studies, using three independent, yet complementary techniques, we refuted the claim that a mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) isoform exists within pure, rat liver mitochondria (MT). Of those techniques, the NOS-catalyzed [{sup 14}C]-L-arginine to [{sup 14}C]-L-citrulline conversion assay (NOS assay) with MT samples indicated a weak, radioactive signal that was NOS-independent . Aliquots of samples from the NOS assays were then extracted with acetone, separated by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and exposed to autoradiography. Results obtained from these samples showed no radioactive band for L-citrulline. However, a fast-migrating, diffuse, radioactive band was observed in the TLC lanes loaded with MT samples. In this manuscript, we identify and confirm that this radioactive signal in MT samples is due to the arginase-catalyzed conversion of [{sup 14}C]-L-arginine to [{sup 14}C]-urea. The current results, in addition to reconfirming the absence of NOS activity in rat liver MT, also show the need to include arginase inhibitors in studies using MT samples in order to avoid confounding results when using NOS activity assays.

Venkatakrishnan, Priya; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Almeida, Igor C. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Miller, R.T., E-mail: tmiller2@utep.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

2010-04-09

79

Chitin synthase 2 inhibitory activity of O-methyl pisiferic acid and 8,20-dihydroxy-9(11),13-abietadien-12-one, isolated from Chamaecyparis pisifera.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the course of search for potent chitin synthase inhibitors from plant extracts, the chitin synthase 2 inhibitors, O-methyl pisiferic acid and 8,20-dihydroxy-9(11),13-abietadien-12-one which have diterpene skeleton, were isolated from the leaves of Chamaecyparis pisifera. These compounds inhibited chitin synthase 2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the IC50 values of 5.8 and 226.4 microM, respectively. Especially, O-methyl pisiferic acid showed 15.3-fold stronger inhibitory activity than polyoxin D (IC50=88.6 microM), a well-known chitin synthase inhibitor. These compounds exhibited weaker inhibitory activities against chitin synthase 1 than chitin synthase 2, whereas it showed no inhibitory activity for chitin synthase 3. The compound exhibited mixed competitive inhibition with respect to UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine as substrate (Ki=5 microM). These results indicated that O-methyl pisiferic acid is a specific inhibitor of chitin synthase 2. The compound also inhibited chitin synthase 1 of Candida albicans, which represents analogues to chitin synthase 2 of S. cerevisiae, with an IC50 of 75.6 microM, which represents 1.8-fold weaker activity than that of polyoxin D. Although O-methyl pisiferic acid has been reported for antibacterial and insecticidal activities, the present study is the first report on its inhibitory activity against chitin synthase 2. PMID:18379078

Kang, Tae Hoon; Hwang, Eui Il; Yun, Bong Sik; Shin, Chul Soo; Kim, Sung Uk

2008-04-01

80

Reprogramming the chemodiversity of terpenoid cyclization by remolding the active site contour of epi-isozizaene synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The class I terpenoid cyclase epi-isozizaene synthase (EIZS) utilizes the universal achiral isoprenoid substrate, farnesyl diphosphate, to generate epi-isozizaene as the predominant sesquiterpene cyclization product and at least five minor sesquiterpene products, making EIZS an ideal platform for the exploration of fidelity and promiscuity in a terpenoid cyclization reaction. The hydrophobic active site contour of EIZS serves as a template that enforces a single substrate conformation, and chaperones subsequently formed carbocation intermediates through a well-defined mechanistic sequence. Here, we have used the crystal structure of EIZS as a guide to systematically remold the hydrophobic active site contour in a library of 26 site-specific mutants. Remolded cyclization templates reprogram the reaction cascade not only by reproportioning products generated by the wild-type enzyme but also by generating completely new products of diverse structure. Specifically, we have tripled the overall number of characterized products generated by EIZS. Moreover, we have converted EIZS into six different sesquiterpene synthases: F96A EIZS is an (E)-?-farnesene synthase, F96W EIZS is a zizaene synthase, F95H EIZS is a ?-curcumene synthase, F95M EIZS is a ?-acoradiene synthase, F198L EIZS is a ?-cedrene synthase, and F96V EIZS and W203F EIZS are (Z)-?-bisabolene synthases. Active site aromatic residues appear to be hot spots for reprogramming the cyclization cascade by manipulating the stability and conformation of critical carbocation intermediates. A majority of mutant enzymes exhibit only relatively modest 2-100-fold losses of catalytic activity, suggesting that residues responsible for triggering substrate ionization readily tolerate mutations deeper in the active site cavity. PMID:24517311

Li, Ruiqiong; Chou, Wayne K W; Himmelberger, Julie A; Litwin, Kevin M; Harris, Golda G; Cane, David E; Christianson, David W

2014-02-25

 
 
 
 
81

Active intermediates of polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase from Aeromonas caviae in polymerization reaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase from Aeromonas caviae FA440 (PhaC(Ac), BAA21815) is one of the most valuable PHA synthase, because of its function to synthesize a practical bioplastic, poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate] [P(3HB-co-3HHx)]. However, biochemical activity and active intermediates of PhaC(Ac) have not been clarified until now. In the present study, a gene of PhaC(Ac) was cloned and overexpressed by a cell-free protein expression system. Both the polymerization activity and oligomerization behavior of the purified PhaC(Ac) were characterized in order to clarify the active intermediates of PhaC(Ac) based on the hydrodynamic diameters and specific activities of PhaC(Ac). The influences of a substrate, (R)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA (3HB-CoA), on the oligomerization of PhaC(Ac) (7.5 ?M) were also investigated, and then the Hill coefficient (n = 2.6 ± 0.4) and the microscopic dissociation constant (K(m) = 77 ± 5 ?M) were determined. Based on the results, the active intermediate of PhaC(Ac) was concluded to be the dimeric PhaC(Ac) containing 3HB-CoA as an activator for its dimerization. This information is critical for revealing the relationships between its dimerization and function in PHA synthesis. PMID:23043466

Numata, Keiji; Motoda, Yoko; Watanabe, Satoru; Tochio, Naoya; Kigawa, Takanori; Doi, Yoshiharu

2012-11-12

82

Characterization and sequencing of the active site of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase the key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis, is inactivated by its substrate S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Apple ACC synthase was purified with an immunoaffinity gel, and its active site was probed with NaB3H4 or Ado[14C]Met. Peptide sequencing of both 3H- and 14C-labeled peptides revealed a common dodecapeptide of Ser-Leu-Ser-Xaa-Asp-Leu-Gly-Leu-Pro-Gly-Phe-Arg, where Xaa was the modified, radioactive residue in each case. Acid hydrolysis of the 3H-labeled enzyme released radioactive N-pyridoxyllysine, indicating that the active-site peptide contained lysine at position 4. Mass spectrometry of the 14C-labeled peptide indicated a protonated molecular ion at m/z 1390.6, from which the mass of Xaa was calculated to be 229, a number that is equivalent to the mass of a lysine residue alkylated by the 2-aminobutyrate portion of AdoMet, as we previously proposed. These results indicate that the same active-site lysine binds the PLP and convalently links to the 2-aminobutyrate portion of AdoMet during inactivation. The active site of tomato ACC synthase was probed in the same manner with Ado [14C]Met. Sequencing of the tomato active-site peptide revealed two highly conserved dodecapeptides; the minor peptide possessed a sequence identical to that of the apple enzyme, whereas the major peptide differed from the minor peptide in that methionine replaced leucine at position 6

83

Evaluation of synthase and hemisynthase activities of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS, EC 2.6.1.16) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, leading to the synthesis of uridine-5'-diphospho-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, the major building block for the edification of peptidoglycan in bacteria, chitin in fungi, and glycoproteins in mammals. This bisubstrate enzyme converts D-fructose-6-phosphate (Fru-6P) and L-glutamine (Gln) into D-glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6P) and L-glutamate (Glu), respectively. We previously demonstrated that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) allows determination of the kinetic parameters of the synthase activity. We propose here to refine the experimental protocol to quantify Glu and GlcN-6P, allowing determination of both hemisynthase and synthase parameters from a single assay kinetic experiment, while avoiding interferences encountered in other assays. It is the first time that MALDI-MS is used to survey the activity of a bisubstrate enzyme. PMID:24814295

Gaucher-Wieczorek, Florence; Guérineau, Vincent; Touboul, David; Thétiot-Laurent, Sophie; Pelissier, Franck; Badet-Denisot, Marie-Ange; Badet, Bernard; Durand, Philippe

2014-08-01

84

Multiple strategies to prevent oxidative stress in Arabidopsis plants lacking the malate valve enzyme NADP-malate dehydrogenase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nuclear-encoded chloroplast NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) is a key enzyme controlling the malate valve, to allow the indirect export of reducing equivalents. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. T-DNA insertion mutants of NADP-MDH were used to assess the role of the light-activated NADP-MDH in a typical C(3) plant. Surprisingly, even when exposed to high-light conditions in short days, nadp-mdh knockout mutants were phenotypically indistinguishable from the wild type. The photosynthetic performance and typical antioxidative systems, such as the Beck-Halliwell-Asada pathway, were barely affected in the mutants in response to high-light treatment. The reactive oxygen species levels remained low, indicating the apparent absence of oxidative stress, in the mutants. Further analysis revealed a novel combination of compensatory mechanisms in order to maintain redox homeostasis in the nadp-mdh plants under high-light conditions, particularly an increase in the NTRC/2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx) system in chloroplasts. There were indications of adjustments in extra-chloroplastic components of photorespiration and proline levels, which all could dissipate excess reducing equivalents, sustain photosynthesis, and prevent photoinhibition in nadp-mdh knockout plants. Such metabolic flexibility suggests that the malate valve acts in concert with other NADPH-consuming reactions to maintain a balanced redox state during photosynthesis under high-light stress in wild-type plants. PMID:22140244

Hebbelmann, Inga; Selinski, Jennifer; Wehmeyer, Corinna; Goss, Tatjana; Voss, Ingo; Mulo, Paula; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Aro, Eva-Mari; Oelze, Marie-Luise; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Do, Phuc T; Fernie, Alisdair R; Talla, Sai K; Raghavendra, Agepati S; Linke, Vera; Scheibe, Renate

2012-02-01

85

An unusual plant triterpene synthase with predominant ?-amyrin-producing activity identified by characterizing oxidosqualene cyclases from Malus × domestica.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pentacyclic triterpenes, in particular ursolic acid and oleanolic acid and their derivatives, exist abundantly in the plant kingdom, where they are well known for their anti-inflammatory, antitumour and antimicrobial properties. ?-Amyrin and ?-amyrin are the precursors of ursolic and oleanolic acids, respectively, formed by concerted cyclization of squalene epoxide by a complex synthase reaction. We identified three full-length expressed sequence tag sequences in cDNA libraries constructed from apple (Malus × domestica 'Royal Gala') that were likely to encode triterpene synthases. Two of these expressed sequence tag sequences were essentially identical (> 99% amino acid similarity; MdOSC1 and MdOSC3). MdOSC1 and MdOSC2 were expressed by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and by expression in the yeast Pichia methanolica. The resulting products were analysed by GC and GC-MS. MdOSC1 was shown to be a mixed amyrin synthase (a 5 : 1 ratio of ?-amyrin to ?-amyrin). MdOSC1 is the only triterpene synthase so far identified in which the level of ?-amyrin produced is > 80% of the total product and is, therefore, primarily an ?-amyrin synthase. No product was evident for MdOSC2 when expressed either transiently or in yeast, suggesting that this putative triterpene synthase is either encoded by a pseudogene or does not express well in these systems. Transcript expression analysis in Royal Gala indicated that the genes are mostly expressed in apple peel, and that the MdOSC2 expression level was much lower than that of MdOSC1 and MdOSC3 in all the tissues tested. Amyrin content analysis was undertaken by LC-MS, and demonstrated that levels and ratios differ between tissues, but that the true consequence of synthase activity is reflected in the ursolic/oleanolic acid content and in further triterpenoids derived from them. Phylogenetic analysis placed the three triterpene synthase sequences with other triterpene synthases that encoded either ?-amyrin and/or ?-amyrin synthase. MdOSC1 and MdOSC3 clustered with the multifunctional triterpene synthases, whereas MdOSC2 was most similar to the ?-amyrin synthases. PMID:21575133

Brendolise, Cyril; Yauk, Yar-Khing; Eberhard, Ellen D; Wang, Mindy; Chagne, David; Andre, Christelle; Greenwood, David R; Beuning, Lesley L

2011-07-01

86

Functions of the Membrane-Associated and Cytoplasmic Malate Dehydrogenases in the Citric Acid Cycle of Escherichia coli  

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Oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate in Escherichia coli can be catalyzed by two enzymes: the well-known NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC 1.1.1.37) and the membrane-associated malate:quinone-oxidoreductase (MQO; EC 1.1.99.16), encoded by the gene mqo (previously called yojH). Expression of the mqo gene and, consequently, MQO activity are regulated by carbon and energy source for growth. In batch cultures, MQO activity was highest during exponential growth and decreased sharply after...

Rest, Michel E.; Frank, Christian; Molenaar, Douwe

2000-01-01

87

Zinc affects differently growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatin synthase expression of four marine diatoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zinc-supplementation (20 ?M) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses. PMID:22645501

Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benoît; Tremblin, Gérard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

2012-01-01

88

Effects of new nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on spontaneous locomotor activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. New nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitors: 3-bromo-7-nitro- indazole (3-Br-7-NI, 1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl imidazole (TRIM, S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (S-Me-TC and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI reduce spontaneous locomotor activity in mice. Material and methods. In order to elucidate central effects of NOS inhibitors on locomotor activity, the influence of 7-NI on electroencephalographic (EEG power spectrum in rats was investigated. Results. 7-NI reduced the EEG power density in all frequency bands in rats, suggesting a depression of the central neuronal activity. The electrophysiologic power was most reduced in the range of 7-9 Hz of the rhythmic slow activity (theta rhythm, which is in accordance with decreased locomotor activity observed following administration of NOS inhibitors. Conclusion. The present results indicate that nitric oxide exerts an excitatory effect on central neuronal structures involved in regulation of locomotion. .

Džolji? Eleonora

2006-01-01

89

Identification of a lysine residue important for the catalytic activity of yeast farnesyl diphosphate synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERG20 gene (encoding farnesyl diphosphate synthase) has been subjected to a set of mutations at the catalytic site, at position K254 to determine the in vivo impact. The mutated strains have been shown to exhibit various growth rates, sterol profiles and monoterpenol producing capacities. The results obtained suggest that K at position 254 helps to stabilize one of the three Mg(2+) forming a bridge between the enzyme and DMAPP, and demonstrate that destabilizing two of the three Mg(2+) ions, by introducing a double mutation at positions K197 and K254, results in a loss of FPPS activity and a lethal phenotype. PMID:21643844

Fischer, Marc J C; Meyer, Sophie; Claudel, Patricia; Bergdoll, Marc; Karst, Francis

2011-06-01

90

The metabolism of malate by cultured rat brain astrocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since malate is known to play an important role in a variety of functions in the brain including energy metabolism, the transfer of reducing equivalents and possibly metabolic trafficking between different cell types; a series of biochemical determinations were initiated to evaluate the rate of 14CO2 production from L-(U-14C)malate in rat brain astrocytes. The 14CO2 production from labeled malate was almost totally suppressed by the metabolic inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A suggesting that most of malate metabolism was coupled to the electron transport system. A double reciprocal plot of the 14CO2 production from the metabolism of labeled malate revealed biphasic kinetics with two apparent Km and Vmax values suggesting the presence of more than one mechanism of malate metabolism in these cells. Subsequent experiments were carried out using 0.01 mM and 0.5 mM malate to determine whether the addition of effectors would differentially alter the metabolism of high and low concentrations of malate. Effectors studied included compounds which could be endogenous regulators of malate metabolism and metabolic inhibitors which would provide information regarding the mechanisms regulating malate metabolism. Both lactate and aspartate decreased 14CO2 production from malate equally. However, a number of effectors were identified which selectively altered the metabolism of 0.01 mM malate including aminooxyacetate, furosemide, N-acetylaspartate, oxaloacetate, pyruvate and glucose, but had little or no effect on the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate. In addition, alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate decreased 14CO2 production from 0.01 mM malate much more than from 0.5 mM malate. In contrast, a number of effectors altered the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate more than 0.01 mM. These included methionine sulfoximine, glutamate, malonate, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and ouabain.

McKenna, M.C.; Tildon, J.T.; Couto, R.; Stevenson, J.H.; Caprio, F.J. (Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (USA))

1990-12-01

91

The metabolism of malate by cultured rat brain astrocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since malate is known to play an important role in a variety of functions in the brain including energy metabolism, the transfer of reducing equivalents and possibly metabolic trafficking between different cell types; a series of biochemical determinations were initiated to evaluate the rate of 14CO2 production from L-[U-14C]malate in rat brain astrocytes. The 14CO2 production from labeled malate was almost totally suppressed by the metabolic inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A suggesting that most of malate metabolism was coupled to the electron transport system. A double reciprocal plot of the 14CO2 production from the metabolism of labeled malate revealed biphasic kinetics with two apparent Km and Vmax values suggesting the presence of more than one mechanism of malate metabolism in these cells. Subsequent experiments were carried out using 0.01 mM and 0.5 mM malate to determine whether the addition of effectors would differentially alter the metabolism of high and low concentrations of malate. Effectors studied included compounds which could be endogenous regulators of malate metabolism and metabolic inhibitors which would provide information regarding the mechanisms regulating malate metabolism. Both lactate and aspartate decreased 14CO2 production from malate equally. However, a number of effectors were identified which selectively altered the metabolism of 0.01 mM malate including aminooxyacetate, furosemide, N-acetylaspartate, oxaloacetate, pyruvate and glucose, but had little or no effect on the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate. In addition, alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate decreased 14CO2 production from 0.01 mM malate much more than from 0.5 mM malate. In contrast, a number of effectors altered the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate more than 0.01 mM. These included methionine sulfoximine, glutamate, malonate, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and ouabain

92

Accommodation of GDP-Linked Sugars in the Active Site of GDP-Perosamine Synthase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Perosamine (4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-d-mannose), or its N-acetylated form, is one of several dideoxy sugars found in the O-antigens of such infamous Gram-negative bacteria as Vibrio cholerae O1 and Escherichia coli O157:H7. It is added to the bacterial O-antigen via a nucleotide-linked version, namely GDP-perosamine. Three enzymes are required for the biosynthesis of GDP-perosamine starting from mannose 1-phosphate. The focus of this investigation is GDP-perosamine synthase from Caulobacter crescentus, which catalyzes the final step in GDP-perosamine synthesis, the conversion of GDP-4-keto-6-deoxymannose to GDP-perosamine. The enzyme is PLP-dependent and belongs to the aspartate aminotransferase superfamily. It contains the typically conserved active site lysine residue, which forms a Schiff base with the PLP cofactor. Two crystal structures were determined for this investigation: a site-directed mutant protein (K186A) complexed with GDP-perosamine and the wild-type enzyme complexed with an unnatural ligand, GDP-3-deoxyperosamine. These structures, determined to 1.6 and 1.7 {angstrom} resolution, respectively, revealed the manner in which products, and presumably substrates, are accommodated within the active site pocket of GDP-perosamine synthase. Additional kinetic analyses using both the natural and unnatural substrates revealed that the K{sub m} for the unnatural substrate was unperturbed relative to that of the natural substrate, but the k{sub cat} was lowered by a factor of approximately 200. Taken together, these studies shed light on why GDP-perosamine synthase functions as an aminotransferase whereas another very similar PLP-dependent enzyme, GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-mannose 3-dehydratase or ColD, catalyzes a dehydration reaction using the same substrate.

Cook, Paul D.; Carney, Amanda E.; Holden, Hazel M. (UW)

2009-01-12

93

Diterpene synthases of the biosynthetic system of medicinally active diterpenoids in Marrubium vulgare.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose major bioactive compounds, marrubiin and other labdane-related furanoid diterpenoids, have potential applications as anti-diabetics, analgesics or vasorelaxants. Metabolite and transcriptome profiling of M. vulgare leaves identified five different candidate diterpene synthases (diTPSs) of the TPS-c and TPS-e/f clades. We describe the in vitro and in vivo functional characterization of the M. vulgare diTPS family. In addition to MvEKS ent-kaurene synthase of general metabolism, we identified three diTPSs of specialized metabolism: MvCPS3 (+)-copalyl diphosphate synthase, and the functional diTPS pair MvCPS1 and MvELS. In a sequential reaction, MvCPS1 and MvELS produce a unique oxygenated diterpene scaffold 9,13-epoxy-labd-14-ene en route to marrubiin and an array of related compounds. In contrast with previously known diTPSs that introduce a hydroxyl group at carbon C-8 of the labdane backbone, the MvCPS1-catalyzed reaction proceeds via oxygenation of an intermediate carbocation at C-9, yielding the bicyclic peregrinol diphosphate. MvELS belongs to a subgroup of the diTPS TPS-e/f clade with unusual ??-domain architecture. MvELS is active in vitro and in vivo with three different prenyl diphosphate substrates forming the marrubiin precursor 9,13-epoxy-labd-14-ene, as identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, manoyl oxide and miltiradiene. MvELS fills a central position in the biosynthetic system that forms the foundation for the diverse repertoire of Marrubium diterpenoids. Co-expression of MvCPS1 and MvELS in engineered E. coli and Nicotiana benthamiana offers opportunities for producing precursors for an array of biologically active diterpenoids. PMID:24990389

Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Dullat, Harpreet; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; Starks, Courtney; Hamberger, Björn; Bohlmann, Jörg

2014-09-01

94

Elevated activity of dolichyl phosphate mannose synthase enhances biocontrol abilities of Trichoderma atroviride.  

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Antagonism of Trichoderma spp. against phytopathogenic fungi is widely exploited for biocontrol of plant diseases. A crucial role in the biocontrol mechanism is attributed to cell-wall-degrading enzymes secreted by Trichoderma spp. Therefore, more efficient production and secretion of the enzymes should elevate the biocontrol abilities of Trichoderma spp. Because the majority of secretory hydrolases are glycoproteins, it has been postulated that the posttranslational modification of these proteins could constitute a bottleneck in their production and secretion. Our previous study showed that improvement of O-glycosylation elevated protein secretion by Trichoderma reesei. In this study, we enhanced the biocontrol abilities of T. atroviride P1 against plant pathogens by overexpressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DPM1 gene coding for dolichyl phosphate mannose (DPM) synthase, a key enzyme in the O-glycosylation pathway. The transformants we obtained showed doubled DPM synthase activity and, at the same time, significantly elevated cellulolytic activity. They also revealed an improved antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Pythium ultimum. PMID:21770768

Zembek, Patrycja; Perlinska-Lenart, Urszula; Brunner, Kurt; Reithner, Barbara; Palamarczyk, Grazyna; Mach, Robert L; Kruszewska, Joanna S

2011-12-01

95

Synthesis and antimicrobial and nitric oxide synthase inhibitory activities of novel isothiourea derivatives.  

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The reaction of substituted benzylhalides, or of halomethyl derivatives of thiophene or furane, with thiourea or its derivatives yielded the respective isothioureas as hydrohalide salts. The products (a total of 17, including 16 novel compounds) were tested for activity against five Gram-positive and nine Gram-negative bacterial strains, six yeast species and two protozoan species. The most active against Gram-positive bacteria were S-(2,4-dinitrobenzyl)isothiourea hydrochloride (MIC range for four out of five strains tested: 12.5-25 microg/mL) and S-(2,3,4,5,6-pentabromobenzyl)isothiourea hydrobromide (MIC range: 12.5-50 microg/mL). The lowest MICs of novel isothioureas for yeast and Gram-negative bacteria ranged between 50 and 100 microg/mL. Nine novel isothioureas showed appreciable genotoxicity in the Bacillus subtilis 'rec-assay' test, the most potent being S-2-(5-nitrofuran-2-ylmethyl)isothiourea and S-(2-nitrobenzyl) isothiourea. At 10 muM concentration, S-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)isothiourea hydrochloride and S-(2,3,4,5,6-pentabromobenzyl)isothiourea hydrobromide inhibited Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent (non-inducible) nitric oxide synthase activity in normal rat brain homogenates stronger (p nitric oxide synthase isoform selectivity of selected novel compounds is warranted. PMID:20607486

Kazimierczuk, Zygmunt; Chalimoniuk, Malgorzata; Laudy, Agnieszka Ewa; Moo-Puc, Rosa; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto; Starosciak, Bohdan Jerzy; Chrapusta, Stanislaw J

2010-06-01

96

Effect of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) flavonoids on aromatase (estrogen synthase) activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to study the effect of the prenylflavonoids xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, and 8-prenylnaringenin on the activity and expression of the enzyme aromatase (estrogen synthase). The effect of different kinds of beer containing these prenylflavonoids was also tested. Aromatase activity was determined by measuring the release of tritiated water during the conversion of [(3)H]androstenedione to estrone. Aromatase expression was determined by RT-PCR. This assay was carried out in choriocarcinoma-derived JAR cells. The tested prenylflavonoids were able to inhibit estrogen formation, and their IC(50) values were determined, although no effect on aromatase expression was found. Lager beer, alcohol-free beer, stout beer, and xanthohumol-rich stout beer (200 microL/mL) significantly decreased aromatase activity. In conclusion, prenylflavonoids are able to modulate aromatase activity, decreasing estrogen synthesis, with relevance for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-dependent disorders such as breast cancer. PMID:16608212

Monteiro, Rosário; Becker, Hans; Azevedo, Isabel; Calhau, Conceiçáo

2006-04-19

97

Extract of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus induces angiogenesis in vitro and activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase  

Science.gov (United States)

Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus has long been used as traditional Chinese medicine in oriental medicine. The angiogentic activity of the extract of M. meretrix was investigated in this study, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Extract of M. meretrix Linnaeus (AFG-25) was prepared with acetone and ethanol precipitation, and further separated by Sephadex G-25 column. The results show that AFG-25 promoted proliferation, migration, and capillary-like tube formation in HUVECs, and in the presence of eNOS inhibitor NMA, the tube formation induced by AFG-25 is inhibited significantly. Moreover, AFG-25 could also promote the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the resultant elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production. The results suggested that M. meretrix contains active ingredients with angiogentic activity and eNOS/NO signal pathway is in part involved in the proangiogenesis effect induced by AFG-25.

Liu, Ming; Wei, Jianteng; Wang, Hui; Ding, Lili; Zhang, Yuyan; Lin, Xiukun

2012-09-01

98

Changes in Carbohydrate Content and the Activities of Acid Invertase, Sucrose Synthase and Sucrose Phosphate Synthase in Vegetable Soybean During Fruit Development  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the changes in carbohydrate content and activities of acid invertase, sucrose synthase (SS and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS in two vegetable soybean cultivars (Glycine max (L. Merr. vars. Ajigen and Fuuki during fruit development ranging from 28 to 63 days after anthesis. In both cultivars, sucrose was the predominant sugar while fructose and glucose were found in trace amounts. Sucrose accumulation was highest at 35 and 42 days after anthesis in Fuuki and Ajigen, respectively. On the other hand, fructose and glucose were almost maintained throughout the experimental period. The activity of soluble acid invertase was highest at the 42 days but was not maintained until the 63 days after anthesis. The acid invertase activity in cell wall-bound fraction was highest in young fruit (28 days after anthesis and gradually decreased throughout development. Ajigen had higher activity than Fuuki. SS activity showed a continuous increase with time while SPS activity did not show specific inclining or declining pattern. SS and SPS activities in Fuuki were higher than Ajigen. There was a highly significant negative correlation observed between the acid invertase activity in cell wall-bound fraction and sucrose content in Ajigen. A significant positive correlation was also found between the SS and SPS activities and sucrose content in Fuuki. However, a highly significant negative correlation was observed between SS activity and other soluble sugars (glucose and fructose in both cultivars except glucose content in Fuuki. No significant correlation was found between the SPS activity and other soluble sugars (glucose and fructose in both cultivars.

Kassinee Sitthiwong

2005-01-01

99

Cyclic AMP-dependent and cyclic AMP-independent antagonism of insulin activation of cardiac glycogen synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hormonal regulation of glycogen synthase has been studied with isolated perfused hearts that were depleted of 85% of their endogenous glycogen. Glycogen depletion alone promoted a 3-fold activation of glycogen synthase and magnified by 3-fold the response to insulin. Glycogen depletion also facilitated the detection of epinephrine-promoted glycogen synthase inactivation. Hormonal effects on glycogen synthase have been correlated with changes in phosphorylase, phosphorylase kinase, and tissue cAMP levels. Insulin activation of glycogen synthase was observed within 90 s of hormone addition and was maximal by 4 min. A half-maximum effect was obtained at an insulin concentration of 100 microunits/ml. Insulin-dependent activation is reversed by beta-adrenergic agonists, alpha-adrenergic agonists, and glucagon. Each promote the same degree of inactivation and the maximum extent of inactivation produced by each is independent of whether or not the tissue has been stimulated with insulin. beta-Adrenergic agonists and glucagon act via cAMP, alpha-agonists most likely act via intracellular Ca2+ translocation, and insulin action would appear to be independent of either cAMP or Ca2+. The action of epinephrine on cardiac glycogen synthase is mediated by interaction with both alpha- and beta-receptors. As indicated by dose-response curves, receptor occupancy of each occurs to an almost equal extent at suboptimal epinephrine concentrations. Regulation of cardiac glycogen synthase by epinephrine thus is mediated by two second messenger systems which converge to produce the end physiological response. PMID:6276386

Ramachandran, C; Angelos, K L; Walsh, D A

1982-02-10

100

Syntheses and herbicidal activity of new triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonamides as acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilide, discovered from preparing bioisosteres of the sulfonylurea herbicides, is an important class of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 4.1.3.18) inhibitors. At least over ten triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilides have been commercialized as herbicides for the control of broadleaf weeds and grass with cereal crop selectivity. Herein, a series of triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilides were designed and synthesized with the aim of discovery of new herbicides with higher activity. The assay results of the inhibition activity of the synthesized compounds against Arabidopsis thatiana AHAS indicated that some compounds showed a little higher activity against flumetsulam (FS), the first commercial triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilide-type herbicide. The ki values of two promising compounds 3d and 8h are respectively, 1.61 and 1.29 microM, while that of FS is 1.85 microM. Computational simulation results indicated the ester group of compound 3d formed hydrogen bonds with the surrounding residues Arg'198 and Ser653, which accounts for its 11.5-folds higher AHAS inhibition activity than Y6610. Further green house assay showed that compound 3d has comparable herbicidal activity as FS. Even at the concentration of 37.5g.ai/ha, 3d showed excellent herbicidal activity against Galium aparine, Cerastium arvense, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Rmumex acetasa, moderate herbicidal activity against Polygonum humifusum, Cyperus iria, and Eclipta prostrate. The combination of in vitro and in vivo assay indicated that 3d could be regarded as a new potential acetohydroxyacid synthase-inhibiting herbicide candidate for further study. PMID:20598554

Chen, Chao-Nan; Chen, Qiong; Liu, Yu-Chao; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Niu, Cong-Wei; Xi, Zhen; Yang, Guang-Fu

2010-07-15

 
 
 
 
101

Correlation of Transcription of MALAT-1, a Novel Noncoding RNA, with Deregulated Expression of Tumor Suppressor p53 in Small DNA Tumor Virus Models  

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Full Text Available Although metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript (MALAT-1 is known to be consistently upregulated in several epithelial malignancies, little is known about its function or regulation. We therefore examined the relationship between MALAT-1 expression and candidate modulators such as DNA tumor virus oncoproteins human papillomavirus (HPV-16 E6 and E7, BK virus T antigen (BKVTAg, mouse polyoma virus middle T antigen (MPVmTAg and tumor suppressor genes p53 and pRb. Using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays, MALAT-1 was shown to be increased in viral oncongene-expressing salivary gland biopsies from humans and mice. The results also indicated that MALAT-1 transcripts and promoter activity were increased in vitro when viral oncongene-expressing plasmids were introduced into different cell types. These same viral oncogenes in addition to increasing MALAT-1 transcription have also been shown to inhibit p53 and/or pRb function. In p53 mutant or inactive cell lines MALAT-1 was also shown to be highly upregulated. We hypothesize that there is a correlation between MALAT-1 over-expression and p53 deregulation. In conclusion, we show that disruption of p53, by both polyoma and papilloma oncoproteins appear to play an important role in the up-regulation of MALAT-1. MALAT-1 might therefore represent a biomarker for p53 deregulation within malignancies.

Liesl K. Jeffers

2013-05-01

102

Functional characterization of a Plagiochasma appendiculatum flavone synthase I showing flavanone 2-hydroxylase activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

FNS I is a 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenase (2-ODD) found mainly in species of the Apiaceae family. Here, an FNS I cDNA sequence was isolated from the liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum (Aytoniaceae) and characterized. The recombinant protein exhibited high FNS I activity catalyzing the conversion of naringenin to apigenin and 2-hydroxynaringenin. The critical residue for flavanone-2-hydroxylation activity was Tyr240, as identified from homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis. The recombinant protein also showed some flavonol synthase activity, as it can convert dihydrokaempferol to kaempferol. When the Leu311 residue was mutated to Phe, the enzyme's capacity to convert dihydrokaempferol to kaempferol was substantially increased. PaFNS I represents a 2-ODD in which a hydrophobic ?-stacking interaction between the key residue and the naringenin A-ring determines 2-hydroxyflavanone formation. PMID:24859082

Han, Xiao-Juan; Wu, Yi-Feng; Gao, Shuai; Yu, Hai-Na; Xu, Rui-Xue; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Cheng, Ai-Xia

2014-06-27

103

Mitochondrial oxidant stress in locus coeruleus is regulated by activity and nitric oxide synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is a prominent feature of aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). The basis of this vulnerability is not understood. To explore possible physiological determinants, we studied LC neurons using electrophysiological and optical approaches in ex vivo mouse brain slices. We found that autonomous activity in LC neurons was accompanied by oscillations in dendritic Ca(2+) concentration that were attributable to the opening of L-type Ca(2+) channels. This oscillation elevated mitochondrial oxidant stress and was attenuated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. The relationship between activity and stress was malleable, as arousal and carbon dioxide increased the spike rate but differentially affected mitochondrial oxidant stress. Oxidant stress was also increased in an animal model of PD. Thus, our results point to activity-dependent Ca(2+) entry and a resulting mitochondrial oxidant stress as factors contributing to the vulnerability of LC neurons. PMID:24816140

Sanchez-Padilla, Javier; Guzman, Jaime N; Ilijic, Ema; Kondapalli, Jyothisri; Galtieri, Daniel J; Yang, Ben; Schieber, Simon; Oertel, Wolfgang; Wokosin, David; Schumacker, Paul T; Surmeier, D James

2014-06-01

104

An evolutionarily conserved alternate metal ligand is important for activity in ?-isopropylmalate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Members of the DRE-TIM metallolyase superfamily rely on an active-site divalent cation to catalyze various reactions involving the making and breaking of carbon-carbon bonds. While the identity of the metal varies, the binding site is well-conserved at the superfamily level with an aspartic acid and two histidine residues acting as ligands to the metal. Previous structural and bioinformatics results indicate that the metal can adopt an alternate architecture through the addition of an asparagine residue as a fourth ligand. This asparagine residue is strictly conserved in all members of the DRE-TIM metallolyase superfamily except fungal homocitrate synthase (HCS-lys) where it is replaced with isoleucine. The role of this additional metal ligand in ?-isopropylmalate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtIPMS) has been investigated using site-directed mutagenesis. Substitution of the asparagine ligand with alanine or isoleucine results in inactive enzymes with respect to ?-isopropylmalate formation. Control experiments suggest that the substitutions have not drastically affected the enzyme's structure indicating that the asparagine residue is essential for catalysis. Interestingly, all enzyme variants retained acetyl CoA hydrolysis activity in the absence of ?-ketoisovalerate, similar to the wild-type enzyme. In contrast to the requirement of magnesium for ?-isopropylmalate formation, hydrolytic activity could be inhibited by the addition of magnesium chloride in wild-type, D81E, and N321A MtIPMS, but not in the other variants studied. Attempts to rescue loss of activity in N321I MtIPMS by mimicking the fungal HCS active site through the D81E/N321I double variant were unsuccessful. This suggests epistatic constraints in evolution of function in IPMS and HCS-lys enzymes. PMID:25064783

Frantom, Patrick A; Birman, Yuliya; Hays, Brittani N; Casey, Ashley K

2014-10-01

105

2-alkylaminoethyl-1,1-bisphosphonic acids are potent inhibitors of the enzymatic activity of Trypanosoma cruzi squalene synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of our efforts aimed at searching for new antiparasitic agents, the effect of representative 2-alkylaminoethyl-1,1-bisphosphonic acids on Trypanosoma cruzi squalene synthase (TcSQS) was investigated. These compounds had proven to be potent inhibitors of T. cruzi. This cellular activity had been associated with an inhibition of the enzymatic activity of T. cruzi farnesyl diphosphate synthase. 2-Alkylaminoethyl-1,1-bisphosphonic acids appear to have a dual action, since they also inhibit TcSQS at the nanomolar range. PMID:22585217

Rodrígues-Poveda, Carlos A; González-Pacanowska, Dolores; Szajnman, Sergio H; Rodríguez, Juan B

2012-08-01

106

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha phosphorylates and regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoblast-specific transcription factor Osterix is a zinc-finger transcription factor that required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation. The function of Osterix can be modulated by post-translational modification. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha (GSK3?) is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in the Wnt signaling pathways and is implicated in the control of several regulatory proteins and transcription factors. In the present study, we investigated how GSK3? regulates Osterix during osteoblast differentiation. Wide type GSK3? up-regulated the protein level, protein stability and transcriptional activity of Osterix. These results suggest that GSK3? regulates osteogenic activity of Osterix. PMID:23583239

Li, Hongyan; Jeong, Hyung Min; Choi, You Hee; Lee, Sung Ho; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Lee, Kwang Youl

2013-05-10

107

HTRF-based assay for microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) catalyzes the formation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from the endoperoxide prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). Expression of this enzyme is induced during the inflammatory response, and mouse knockout experiments suggest it may be an attractive target for antiarthritic therapies. Assaying the activity of this enzyme in vitro is challenging because of the unstable nature of the PGH2 substrate. Here, the authors present an mPGES-1 activity assay suitable for characterization of enzyme preparations and for determining the potency of inhibitor compounds. This plate-based competition assay uses homogenous time-resolved fluorescence to measure PGE2 produced by the enzyme. The assay is insensitive to DMSO concentration up to 10% and does not require extensive washes after the initial enzyme reaction is concluded, making it a simple and convenient way to assess mPGES-1 inhibition. PMID:18626113

Goedken, Eric R; Gagnon, Andrew I; Overmeyer, Gary T; Liu, Junjian; Petrillo, Richard A; Burchat, Andrew F; Tomlinson, Medha J

2008-08-01

108

Cloning, expression and functional activity of deoxyhypusine synthase from Plasmodium vivax  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread human malaria parasite. However, genetic information about its pathogenesis is limited at present, due to the lack of a reproducible in vitro cultivation method. Sequencing of the Plasmodium vivax genome suggested the presence of a homolog of deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS from P. falciparum, the key regulatory enzyme in the first committed step of hypusine biosynthesis. DHS is involved in cell proliferation, and thus a valuable drug target for the human malaria parasite P. falciparum. A comparison of the enzymatic properties of the DHS enzymes between the benign and severe Plasmodium species should contribute to our understanding of the differences in pathogenicity and phylogeny of both malaria parasites. Results We describe the cloning of a 1368 bp putative deoxyhypusine synthase gene (dhs sequence from genomic DNA of P. vivax PEST strain Salvador I (Accession number AJ549098 after touchdown PCR. The corresponding protein was expressed and functionally characterized as deoxyhypusine synthase by determination of its specific activity and cross-reactivity to human DHS on a Western blot. The putative DHS protein from P. vivax displays a FASTA score of 75 relative to DHS from rodent malaria parasite, P. yoelii, and 74 relative to that from the human parasite, P. falciparum strain 3D7. The ORF encoding 456 amino acids was expressed under control of IPTG-inducible T7 promoter, and expressed as a protein of approximately 50 kDa (theoretically 52.7 kDa in E. coli BL21 DE3 cells. The N-terminal histidine-tagged protein was purified by Nickel-chelate affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions. DHS with a theoretical pI of 6.0 was present in both eluate fractions. The specific enzymatic activity of DHS was determined as 1268 U/mg protein. The inhibitor, N-guanyl-1, 7-diaminoheptane (GC7, suppressed specific activity by 36-fold. Western blot analysis performed with a polyclonal anti-human DHS antibody revealed cross-reactivity to DHS from P. vivax, despite an amino acid identity of 44% between the proteins. Conclusion We identify a novel DHS protein in the more benign malaria parasite,P. vivax, on the basis of specific enzymatic activity, cross-reactivity with a polyclonal antibody against human DHS, and amino acid identity with DHS homologs from the rodent malaria parasite, P. yoelii, and human P. falciparum strains.

Nassar Marwa

2006-10-01

109

The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera  

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Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) an...

Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

2013-01-01

110

Novel mechanism of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation mediated by caveolae internalization in endothelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Caveolin-1, the caveolae scaffolding protein, binds to and negatively regulates eNOS activity. As caveolin-1 also regulates caveolae-mediated endocytosis after activation of the 60-kDa albumin-binding glycoprotein gp60 in endothelial cells, we addressed the possibility that endothelial NO synthase (eNOS)-dependent NO production was functionally coupled to caveolae internalization. We observed that gp60-induced activation of endocytosis increased NO production within 2 minutes and up to 20 minutes. NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) prevented the NO production. To determine the role of caveolae internalization in the mechanism of NO production, we expressed dominant-negative dynamin-2 mutant (K44A) or treated cells with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. Both interventions inhibited caveolae-mediated endocytosis and NO generation induced by gp60. We determined the role of signaling via Src kinase in the observed coupling of endocytosis to eNOS activation. Src activation induced the phosphorylation of caveolin-1, Akt and eNOS, and promoted dissociation of eNOS from caveolin-1. Inhibitors of Src kinase and Akt also prevented NO production. In isolated perfused mouse lungs, gp60 activation induced NO-dependent vasodilation, whereas the response was attenuated in eNOS(-/-) or caveolin-1(-/-) lungs. Together, these results demonstrate a critical role of caveolae-mediated endocytosis in regulating eNOS activation in endothelial cells and thereby the NO-dependent vasomotor tone. PMID:16973909

Maniatis, Nikolaos A; Brovkovych, Viktor; Allen, Scott E; John, Theresa A; Shajahan, Ayesha N; Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy; Vogel, Stephen M; Skidgel, Randal A; Malik, Asrar B; Minshall, Richard D

2006-10-13

111

Modeling of annual variations of oak (Quercus robur L.) isoprene synthase activity to predict isoprene emission rates  

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Isoprene plays an important role in regulating the atmospheric trace gas composition, in particular the tropospheric ozone concentrations. Therefore realistic estimates of the seasonal variation of isoprene emission source strengths of strong isoprene-emitting deciduous trees such as pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) are required in temperate regions of Europe. In 1995 to 1997 a study was conducted to survey the annual fluctuations of oak isoprene synthase activity and photosynthetic pigment contents, the latter as a parameter for the development of the photosynthetic apparatus of oak leaves. Depending on annual temperature and light profiles (photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD)), different seasonal patterns of isoprene synthase activity were observed with maximum activities of 18.4±10.6 nmol m-2 s-1 14.1±5.8 nmol m-2 s-1 and 19.9±7.9 nmol m-2 s-1 in 1995, 1996, and 1997, respectively. On the basis of isoprene synthase activity, chlorophyll a measurements, and phenological data collected from pedunculate oaks of 89 ecological regions covering all of Germany a model was developed for the calculation of the seasonal variation of oak isoprene synthase activity in relation to annual fluctuation of temperature and PPFD. By coupling this model to a numeric process-based isoprene emission model it was possible to predict isoprene emission rates of individual pedunculate oak trees with a deviation of 55%.

Lehning, A.; Zimmer, W.; Zimmer, I.; Schnitzler, J.-P.

2001-02-01

112

A connecting hinge represses the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

In mammals, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has the weakest activity, being one-tenth and one-sixth as active as the inducible NOS (iNOS) and the neuronal NOS (nNOS), respectively. The basis for this weak activity is unclear. We hypothesized that a hinge element that connects the FMN module in the reductase domain but is shorter and of unique composition in eNOS may be involved. To test this hypothesis, we generated an eNOS chimera that contained the nNOS hinge and two mutants that either eliminated (P728IeNOS) or incorporated (I958PnNOS) a proline residue unique to the eNOS hinge. Incorporating the nNOS hinge into eNOS increased NO synthesis activity 4-fold, to an activity two-thirds that of nNOS. It also decreased uncoupled NADPH oxidation, increased the apparent K(m)O(2) for NO synthesis, and caused a faster heme reduction. Eliminating the hinge proline had similar, but lesser, effects. Our findings reveal that the hinge is an important regulator and show that differences in its composition restrict the activity of eNOS relative to other NOS enzymes. PMID:17517617

Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Panda, Koustubh; Tejero, Jesús; Aulak, Kulwant S; Fadlalla, Mohammed Adam; Mustovich, Anthony T; Stuehr, Dennis J

2007-05-29

113

Effect of hydrogen peroxide on rabbit urinary bladder citrate synthase activity in the presence and absence of a grape suspension  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: The etiology of obstructive bladder dysfunction includes free radical damage to mitochondria. Feeding rabbits a standardized grape suspension protects the ability of the bladder to contract and empty in part by preventing mitochondrial damage, thus maintaining smooth muscle and mucosal metabolism. The objective of the current study is to determine the direct effect of this grape suspension on the response of mitochondria to the oxidative effects of hydrogen peroxide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six male rabbits were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and the bladders excised. Four full thickness strips were obtained for contractile studies and the balance separated into smooth muscle and mucosa compartments by blunt dissection. The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the contractile response to field stimulation was quantitated. Each tissue was homogenized and the effects of increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in the presence and absence of grape suspension on citrate synthase activity was determined. RESULTS: Citrate synthase activity was significantly higher in the mucosa than in the muscle. The grape suspension had no effect on control citrate synthase activity. However, the grape suspension provided significant protection of both smooth muscle and mucosal citrate synthase activity. CONCLUSIONS: These studies support the conclusion that the grape suspension provides direct protection of mitochondrial function.

Vijay Venugopal

2010-12-01

114

Effect of hydrogen peroxide on rabbit urinary bladder citrate synthase activity in the presence and absence of a grape suspension  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: The etiology of obstructive bladder dysfunction includes free radical damage to mitochondria. Feeding rabbits a standardized grape suspension protects the ability of the bladder to contract and empty in part by preventing mitochondrial damage, thus maintaining smooth muscle and mucosal meta [...] bolism. The objective of the current study is to determine the direct effect of this grape suspension on the response of mitochondria to the oxidative effects of hydrogen peroxide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six male rabbits were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and the bladders excised. Four full thickness strips were obtained for contractile studies and the balance separated into smooth muscle and mucosa compartments by blunt dissection. The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the contractile response to field stimulation was quantitated. Each tissue was homogenized and the effects of increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in the presence and absence of grape suspension on citrate synthase activity was determined. RESULTS: Citrate synthase activity was significantly higher in the mucosa than in the muscle. The grape suspension had no effect on control citrate synthase activity. However, the grape suspension provided significant protection of both smooth muscle and mucosal citrate synthase activity. CONCLUSIONS: These studies support the conclusion that the grape suspension provides direct protection of mitochondrial function.

Vijay, Venugopal; Robert E., Leggett; Catherine, Schuler; Robert M., Levin.

115

Lid L11 of the glutamine amidotransferase domain of CTP synthase mediates allosteric GTP activation of glutaminase activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

GTP is an allosteric activator of CTP synthase and acts to increase the k(cat) for the glutamine-dependent CTP synthesis reaction. GTP is suggested, in part, to optimally orient the oxy-anion hole for hydrolysis of glutamine that takes place in the glutamine amidotransferase class I (GATase) domain of CTP synthase. In the GATase domain of the recently published structures of the Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus CTP synthases a loop region immediately proceeding amino acid residues forming the oxy-anion hole and named lid L11 is shown for the latter enzyme to be flexible and change position depending on the presence or absence of glutamine in the glutamine binding site. Displacement or rearrangement of this loop may provide a means for the suggested role of allosteric activation by GTP to optimize the oxy-anion hole for glutamine hydrolysis. Arg359, Gly360 and Glu362 of the Lactococcus lactis enzyme are highly conserved residues in lid L11 and we have analyzed their possible role in GTP activation. Characterization of the mutant enzymes R359M, R359P, G360A and G360P indicated that both Arg359 and Gly360 are involved in the allosteric response to GTP binding whereas the E362Q enzyme behaved like wild-type enzyme. Apart from the G360A enzyme, the results from kinetic analysis of the enzymes altered at position 359 and 360 showed a 10- to 50-fold decrease in GTP activation of glutamine dependent CTP synthesis and concomitant four- to 10-fold increases in K(A) for GTP. The R359M, R359P and G360P also showed no GTP activation of the uncoupled glutaminase reaction whereas the G360A enzyme was about twofold more active than wild-type enzyme. The elevated K(A) for GTP and reduced GTP activation of CTP synthesis of the mutant enzymes are in agreement with a predicted interaction of bound GTP with lid L11 and indicate that the GTP activation of glutamine dependent CTP synthesis may be explained by structural rearrangements around the oxy-anion hole of the GATase domain. PMID:15670165

Willemoës, Martin; Mølgaard, Anne; Johansson, Eva; Martinussen, Jan

2005-02-01

116

Lid L11 of the glutamine amidotransferase domain of CTP synthase mediates allosteric GTP activation of glutaminase activity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

GTP is an allosteric activator of CTP synthase and acts to increase the k(cat) for the glutamine-dependent CTP synthesis reaction. GTP is suggested, in part, to optimally orient the oxy-anion hole for hydrolysis of glutamine that takes place in the glutamine amidotransferase class I (GATase) domain of CTP synthase. In the GATase domain of the recently published structures of the Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus CTP synthases a loop region immediately proceeding amino acid residues forming the oxy-anion hole and named lid L11 is shown for the latter enzyme to be flexible and change position depending on the presence or absence of glutamine in the glutamine binding site. Displacement or rearrangement of this loop may provide a means for the suggested role of allosteric activation by GTP to optimize the oxy-anion hole for glutamine hydrolysis. Arg359, Gly360 and Glu362 of the Lactococcus lactis enzyme are highly conserved residues in lid L11 and we have analyzed their possible role in GTP activation. Characterization of the mutant enzymes R359M, R359P, G360A and G360P indicated that both Arg359 and Gly360 are involved in the allosteric response to GTP binding whereas the E362Q enzyme behaved like wild-type enzyme. Apart from the G360A enzyme, the results from kinetic analysis of the enzymes altered at position 359 and 360 showed a 10- to 50-fold decrease in GTP activation of glutamine dependent CTP synthesis and concomitant four- to 10-fold increases in K(A) for GTP. The R359M, R359P and G360P also showed no GTP activation of the uncoupled glutaminase reaction whereas the G360A enzyme was about twofold more active than wild-type enzyme. The elevated K(A) for GTP and reduced GTP activation of CTP synthesis of the mutant enzymes are in agreement with a predicted interaction of bound GTP with lid L11 and indicate that the GTP activation of glutamine dependent CTP synthesis may be explained by structural rearrangements around the oxy-anion hole of the GATase domain

Willemoës, Martin; MØlgaard, Anne

2005-01-01

117

Oligomerization of rice granule-bound starch synthase 1 modulates its activity regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Granule-bound starch synthase 1 (GBSS1) is responsible for amylose synthesis in cereals, and this enzyme is regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this study, we show that GBSS1 from Oryza sativa L. (OsGBSS1) can form oligomers in rice endosperm, and oligomerized OsGBSS1 exhibits much higher specific enzymatic activity than the monomer. A monomer-oligomer transition equilibrium for OsGBSS1 occurs in the endosperm during development. Redox potential is a key factor affecting the oligomer percentage as well as the enzymatic activity of OsGBSS1. Adenosine diphosphate glucose, the direct donor of glucose, also impacts OsGBSS1 oligomerization in a concentration-dependent manner. OsGBSS1 oligomerization is influenced by phosphorylation status, which was strongly enhanced by Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and ATP treatment and was sharply weakened by protein phosphatase (PPase) treatment. The activity of OsGBSS1 affects the ratio of amylose to amylopectin and therefore the eating quality of rice. Understanding the regulation of OsGBSS1 activity may lead to the improvement of rice eating quality. PMID:23849121

Liu, De-Rui; Huang, Wei-Xue; Cai, Xiu-Ling

2013-09-01

118

Arginase reciprocally regulates nitric oxide synthase activity and contributes to endothelial dysfunction in aging blood vessels  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Although abnormal L-arginine NO signaling contributes to endothelial dysfunction in the aging cardiovascular system, the biochemical mechanisms remain controversial. L-arginine, the NO synthase (NOS) precursor, is also a substrate for arginase. We tested the hypotheses that arginase reciprocally regulates NOS by modulating L-arginine bioavailability and that arginase is upregulated in aging vasculature, contributing to depressed endothelial function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inhibition of arginase with (S)-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine, HCl (BEC) produced vasodilation in aortic rings from young (Y) adult rats (maximum effect, 46.4+/-9.4% at 10(-5) mol/L, Parginase inhibitors N-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). This effect required intact endothelium and was prevented by 1H-oxadiazole quinoxalin-1-one (PArginase activity and expression were increased in O rings, whereas NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels were decreased. BEC and DFMO suppressed arginase activity and restored NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels in O vessels to those of Y. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that arginase modulates NOS activity, likely by regulating intracellular L-arginine availability. Arginase upregulation contributes to endothelial dysfunction of aging and may therefore be a therapeutic target.

Berkowitz, Dan E.; White, Ron; Li, Dechun; Minhas, Khalid M.; Cernetich, Amy; Kim, Soonyul; Burke, Sean; Shoukas, Artin A.; Nyhan, Daniel; Champion, Hunter C.; Hare, Joshua M.

2003-01-01

119

Arginase reciprocally regulates nitric oxide synthase activity and contributes to endothelial dysfunction in aging blood vessels  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Although abnormal L-arginine NO signaling contributes to endothelial dysfunction in the aging cardiovascular system, the biochemical mechanisms remain controversial. L-arginine, the NO synthase (NOS) precursor, is also a substrate for arginase. We tested the hypotheses that arginase reciprocally regulates NOS by modulating L-arginine bioavailability and that arginase is upregulated in aging vasculature, contributing to depressed endothelial function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inhibition of arginase with (S)-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine, HCl (BEC) produced vasodilation in aortic rings from young (Y) adult rats (maximum effect, 46.4+/-9.4% at 10(-5) mol/L, Parginine (nor-NOHA) and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). This effect required intact endothelium and was prevented by 1H-oxadiazole quinoxalin-1-one (Prat aortic rings (60+/-6% versus 39+/-6%, Parginine (10(-4) mol/L)-dependent vasorelaxant responses in O rings to those of Y. Arginase activity and expression were increased in O rings, whereas NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels were decreased. BEC and DFMO suppressed arginase activity and restored NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels in O vessels to those of Y. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that arginase modulates NOS activity, likely by regulating intracellular L-arginine availability. Arginase upregulation contributes to endothelial dysfunction of aging and may therefore be a therapeutic target.

Berkowitz, Dan E.; White, Ron; Li, Dechun; Minhas, Khalid M.; Cernetich, Amy; Kim, Soonyul; Burke, Sean; Shoukas, Artin A.; Nyhan, Daniel; Champion, Hunter C.; Hare, Joshua M.

2003-01-01

120

Expression Patterns, Activities and Carbohydrate-Metabolizing Regulation of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase, Sucrose Synthase and Neutral Invertase in Pineapple Fruit during Development and Ripening  

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Full Text Available Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SuSy activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582 and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581 were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated distinct patterns related to sugar accumulation and composition of pineapple fruits. It suggests that differential expressions of multiple gene families are necessary for sugar metabolism in various parts and developmental stages of pineapple fruit. A cycle of sucrose breakdown in the cytosol of sink tissues could be mediated through both Ac-SuSy and Ac-NI, and Ac-NI could be involved in regulating crucial steps by generating sugar signals to the cells in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion.

Yan-Li Yao

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Site-directed mutations of the gatekeeping loop region affect the activity of Escherichia coli spermidine synthase.  

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Spermidine synthase catalyzes the production of spermidine from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM), and plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and differentiation. The gatekeeping loop identified in the structure of spermidine synthase was predicted to contain residues important for substrate binding, but its correlation with enzyme catalysis has not been fully understood. In this study, recombinant Escherichia coli spermidine synthase (EcSPDS) was produced and its enzyme kinetics was characterized. Site-directed mutants of EcSPDS were obtained to demonstrate the importance of the amino acid residues in the gatekeeping loop. Substitution of Asp158 and Asp161 with alanine completely abolished EcSPDS activity, suggesting that these residues are absolutely required for substrate interaction. Reduction in enzyme activity was observed in the C159A, T160A, and P165Q variants, indicating that hydrophobic interactions contributed by Cys159, Thr160, and Pro165 are important for enzyme catalysis as well. On the other hand, replacement of Pro162 and Ile163 had no influence on EcSDPS activity. These results indicate that residues in the gatekeeping loop of spermidine synthase are indispensable for the catalytic reaction of EcSPDS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional study on the gatekeeping loop of EcSPDS by site-directed mutagenesis. PMID:23001854

Lee, Mon-Juan; Yang, Ya-Ting; Lin, Vivian; Huang, Haimei

2013-06-01

122

Light regulation of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity in the freezing-tolerant grass Deschampsia antarctica.  

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Deschampsia antarctica, a freezing-tolerant grass that has colonized the Maritime Antarctic, has an unusually high content of sucrose (Suc) in leaves, reaching up to 36% of dry weight. Suc accumulation has often been linked with increased activity of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC: 2.4.1.1.14). SPS, a key enzyme in sucrose biosynthesis, is controlled by an intricate hierarchy of regulatory mechanisms including allosteric modulators, reversible covalent modification in response to illumination, and transcriptional regulation. We hypothesized that during long day conditions in the Antarctic summer D. antarctica can maintain high SPS activity longer by indirect light regulation, thereby leading to a high sucrose accumulation in the leaves. The objectives of this study were to investigate a possible indirect light regulation of SPS activity and the effect of cold and day length on transcriptional and protein level of SPS in D. antarctica. Although SPS activity did not display an endogenous rhythm of activity in continuous light, activation of SPS at the end of the dark period was observed in D. antarctica. This activation of SPS is possibly controlled by covalent modification, because it was inhibited by okadaic acid while the SPS protein level did not significantly change. The highest SPS activity increase was observed after 21 days of cold-acclimation under long day conditions. This increased activity was not related to an increase in SPS gene expression or protein content. High SPS activity in cold long days leading to hyper accumulation of Suc appears to be among the features that permit D. antarctica to survive in the harsh Antarctic conditions. PMID:16143909

Zúñiga-Feest, Alejandra; Ort, Donald R; Gutiérrez, Ana; Gidekel, Manuel; Bravo, León A; Corcuera, Luis J

2005-01-01

123

Prostaglandin H synthase kinetics. The effect of substituted phenols on cyclooxygenase activity and the substituent effect on phenolic peroxidatic activity.  

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A series of p- and m-substituted phenols were examined for their effect on the cyclooxygenase activity of prostaglandin H synthase in 0.1 M phosphate buffer at pH 8.0 and 25.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C. A biphasic response was observed. At low concentrations phenols stimulate, but at higher concentrations inhibit, cyclooxygenase activity. Both enhancement and inhibition are increased by phenolic substituents which are electron-donating, quantified by Hammett sigma constants, and hydrophobic, quantified by Hantsch tau constants. The same series of substituted phenols was also reacted with compound II of prostaglandin H synthase at 4.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C. The compound II data fit the Hammett rho sigma equation; no hydrophobicity factors are required. Phenols inhibit cyclooxygenase activity by interfering with the binding of arachidonic acid to compound I and by competing directly with arachidonic acid as reducing substrates for compound I. Phenols stimulate cyclooxygenase activity by acting as reducing substrates for compound II, thereby accelerating the peroxidatic cycle. Phenols also protect the enzyme from self-catalyzed inactivation, most likely by removing the free radical of prostaglandin G2 by reducing it to prostaglandin G2. Kinetic parameters Km and kcat for cyclooxygenase activity were determined in the presence of phenols. Identical values of Km (15.3 +/- 0.5 mM) and kcat (89 +/- 2 s-1) were obtained regardless of which phenol was employed. Therefore these represent the true Km and kcat values for cyclooxygenase activity. PMID:1517213

Hsuanyu, Y; Dunford, H B

1992-09-01

124

Bifunctional catalysis by CDP-ribitol synthase: convergent recruitment of reductase and cytidylyltransferase activities in Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus.  

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CDP-ribitol synthase catalyzes the formation of CDP-ribitol from ribulose 5-phosphate, NADPH, and CTP. CDP-ribitol is an activated precursor for the synthesis of virulence-associated polysaccharides in the capsule of the Gram-negative pathogen Haemophilus influenzae and in the cell walls of Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus. We showed previously that CDP-ribitol synthase activity in H. influenzae is catalyzed by the bifunctional enzyme Bcs1 in a two-step reaction with reduction preceding cytidylyl transfer [Zolli, M., et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 5041-5048]. In the work reported here, we predicted a CDP-ribitol synthesis locus in S. aureus tandemly arranged as tarI, encoding an orthologue of the cytidylyltransferase domain of Bcs1, and tarJ, coding for an analogue of the reductase domain of Bcs1. We have shown the formation of a functional CDP-ribitol synthase complex between TarI and TarJ. Steady-state mechanistic studies of the CDP-ribitol synthases TarIJ and Bcs1 revealed that the analogous reductases and orthologous cytidylyltransferases undergo ordered mechanisms. The sequence of substrate binding and product release of the orthologous cytidylyltransferases differed. Steady-state analysis of the reductase and cytidylyltransferase activities of TarIJ indicated a 100-fold difference in the turnover where the primary reductase was rate limiting. Rapid mixing experiments revealed the presence of approximately 12 microM ribitol 5-phosphate at steady state, 100-fold lower than the observed K(m) for this intermediate. Analysis of the approach to steady state suggested that channeling was not occurring in the coupled enzyme complex and was an unlikely driving force in the convergent recruitment of reductase and cytidylyltransferase activities in the two CDP-ribitol synthases. PMID:15362865

Pereira, Mark P; Brown, Eric D

2004-09-21

125

Curcumin ameliorates ethanol-induced memory deficits and enhanced brain nitric oxide synthase activity in mice.  

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Ethanol consumption has well-known deleterious effects on memory. However, the mechanism by which ethanol exerts its effects on memory has received little attention, which has retarded the identification and development of effective therapeutic strategies against ethanol toxicity. The aim of this study was to explore the neuronal mechanisms underlying the protective action of curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound of Curcuma longa, against ethanol-induced memory deficits. Adult mice were pretreated with curcumin (40 mg/kg, i.p.) before administration of ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) for the memory acquisition measurement, or were sacrificed 30 min later for evaluation of regional brain differences in the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) concentration. The results showed that pretreatment with curcumin significantly ameliorated the memory deficits resulting from acute ethanol administration to mice in the novel object recognition and inhibitory avoidance tasks. Furthermore, acute ethanol treatment increased the NOS activity and NO production in brain regions associated with memory including prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala and hippocampus, while this enhancement was suppressed by pretreatment with curcumin. Taken together, these results suggest that the protective effects of curcumin on acute ethanol-induced memory deficits are mediated, at least in part, by suppressing NOS activity in the brain of mice. Thus, manipulation of the NOS/NO signaling pathway might be beneficial for the prevention of ethanol toxicity. PMID:23500667

Yu, Shu Yan; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Lin; Luo, Junxia; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Shuanglian

2013-07-01

126

Photo-control of nitric oxide synthase activity using a caged isoform specific inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in a number of physiological processes and is produced in mammalian cells by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isozymes. Because of the diverse functions of NO, pharmaceutical interventions which seek to abrogate adverse effects of excess NOS activity must not interfere with the normal regulation of NO levels in the body. A method has been developed for the control of NOS enzyme activity using the localized photochemical release of a caged isoform-specific NOS inhibitor. The caged form of an iNOS inhibitor has been synthesized and tested for photosensitivity and potency. UV and multiphoton uncaging were verified using a hemoglobin-based assay. IC(50) values were determined for the inhibitor (70+/-11 nM), the caged inhibitor (1098+/-172 nM), the UV uncaged inhibitor (67+/-26 nM) and the multiphoton uncaged inhibitor (73+/-11 nM). UV irradiation of the caged inhibitor resulted in a 86% reduction in iNOS activity after 5 min. Multiphoton uncaging had an apparent first order time constant of 0.007+/-0.001 min(-1). A therapeutic range exists, with molar excess of inhibitor to enzyme from 3- to 7-fold, over which the full dynamic range of the inhibition can be exploited. PMID:11937350

Montgomery, Heather J; Perdicakis, Basil; Fishlock, Dan; Lajoie, Gilles A; Jervis, Eric; Guy Guillemette, J

2002-06-01

127

Arginase reciprocally regulates nitric oxide synthase activity and contributes to endothelial dysfunction in aging blood vessels  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Although abnormal L-arginine NO signaling contributes to endothelial dysfunction in the aging cardiovascular system, the biochemical mechanisms remain controversial. L-arginine, the NO synthase (NOS) precursor, is also a substrate for arginase. We tested the hypotheses that arginase reciprocally regulates NOS by modulating L-arginine bioavailability and that arginase is upregulated in aging vasculature, contributing to depressed endothelial function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inhibition of arginase with (S)-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine, HCl (BEC) produced vasodilation in aortic rings from young (Y) adult rats (maximum effect, 46.4+/-9.4% at 10(-5) mol/L, PDFMO). This effect required intact endothelium and was prevented by 1H-oxadiazole quinoxalin-1-one (PDFMO-elicited vasodilation was greater in old (O) compared with Y rat aortic rings (60+/-6% versus 39+/-6%, PDFMO suppressed arginase activity and restored NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels in O vessels to those of Y. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that arginase modulates NOS activity, likely by regulating intracellular L-arginine availability. Arginase upregulation contributes to endothelial dysfunction of aging and may therefore be a therapeutic target.

Berkowitz, Dan E.; White, Ron; Li, Dechun; Minhas, Khalid M.; Cernetich, Amy; Kim, Soonyul; Burke, Sean; Shoukas, Artin A.; Nyhan, Daniel; Champion, Hunter C.; Hare, Joshua M.

2003-01-01

128

Inactivation of highly activated spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase by dephosphorylation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) can be phosphorylated and inactivated in vitro with [?-32P]ATP. Thus, it was surprising to find that SPS, extracted from leaves fed mannose in the light to highly activate the enzyme, could be inactivated in an ATP-independent manner when desalted crude extracts were preincubated at 25 degrees C before assay. The spontaneous inactivation involved a loss in activity measured with limiting substrate concentrations in the presence of the inhibitor, Pi, without affecting maximum catalytic activity. The spontaneous inactivation was unaffected by exogenous carrier proteins and protease inhibitors, but was inhibited by inorganic phosphate, fluoride, and molybdate, suggesting that a phosphatase may be involved. Okadaic acid, a potent inhibitor of mammalian type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases, had no effect up to 5 micromolar. Inactivation was stimulated about twofold by exogenous Mg2+ and was relatively insensitive to Ca2+ and to pH over the range pH 6.5 to 8.5. Radioactive phosphate incorporated into SPS during labeling of excised leaves with [32P]Pi (initially in the dark and then in the light with mannose) was lost with time when desalted crude extracts were incubated at 25 C, and the loss in radiolabel was substantially reduced by fluoride. These results provide direct evidence for action of an endogenous phosphatase(s) using SPS as substrate

129

Nitric oxide synthase activity in tissues of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala: Fabricius, 1794  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english Although insects lack the adaptive immune response of the mammalians, they manifest effective innate immune responses, which include both cellular and humoral components. Cellular responses are mediated by hemocytes, and humoral responses include the activation of proteolytic cascades that initiate [...] many events, including NO production. In mammals, nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are also present in the endothelium, the brain, the adrenal glands, and the platelets. Studies on the distribution of NO-producing systems in invertebrates have revealed functional similarities between NOS in this group and vertebrates. We attempted to localize NOS activity in tissues of naïve (UIL), yeast-injected (YIL), and saline-injected (SIL) larvae of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala, using the NADPH diaphorase technique. Our findings revealed similar levels of NOS activity in muscle, fat body, Malpighian tubule, gut, and brain, suggesting that NO synthesis may not be involved in the immune response of these larval systems. These results were compared to many studies that recorded the involvement of NO in various physiological functions of insects.

A. C., Faraldo; A, Sá-Nunes; L. H., Faccioli; E. A., Del Bel; E, Lello.

130

Nitric oxide synthase activity in tissues of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala: Fabricius, 1794  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although insects lack the adaptive immune response of the mammalians, they manifest effective innate immune responses, which include both cellular and humoral components. Cellular responses are mediated by hemocytes, and humoral responses include the activation of proteolytic cascades that initiate many events, including NO production. In mammals, nitric oxide synthases (NOSs are also present in the endothelium, the brain, the adrenal glands, and the platelets. Studies on the distribution of NO-producing systems in invertebrates have revealed functional similarities between NOS in this group and vertebrates. We attempted to localize NOS activity in tissues of naïve (UIL, yeast-injected (YIL, and saline-injected (SIL larvae of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala, using the NADPH diaphorase technique. Our findings revealed similar levels of NOS activity in muscle, fat body, Malpighian tubule, gut, and brain, suggesting that NO synthesis may not be involved in the immune response of these larval systems. These results were compared to many studies that recorded the involvement of NO in various physiological functions of insects.

A. C. Faraldo

2007-08-01

131

Expression of novel cytosolic malate dehydrogenases (cMDH) in Lupinus angustifolius nodules during phosphorus starvation.  

Science.gov (United States)

During P deficiency, the increased activity of malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) can lead to malate accumulation. Cytosolic- and nodule-enhanced MDH (cMDH and neMDH, respectively) are known isoforms, which contribute to MDH activity in root nodules. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the cMDH isoforms in nodule malate supply under P deficiency. Nodulated lupins (Lupinus angustifolius var. Tanjil) were hydroponically grown at adequate P (+P) or low P (-P). Total P concentration in nodules decreased under P deficiency, which coincided with an increase in total MDH activity. A consequence of higher MDH activity was the enhanced accumulation of malate derived from dark CO2 fixation via PEPC and not from pyruvate. Although no measurable neMDH presence could be detected via PCR, gene-specific primers detected two 1kb amplicons of cMDH, designated LangMDH1 (corresponding to +P, HQ690186) and LangMDH2 (corresponding to -P, HQ690187), respectively. Sequencing analyses of these cMDH amplicons showed them to be 96% identical on an amino acid level. There was a high degree of diversification between proteins detected in this study and other known MDH proteins, particularly those from other leguminous plants. Enhanced malate synthesis in P-deficient nodules was achieved via increased anaplerotic CO2 fixation and subsequent higher MDH activities. Novel isoforms of cytosolic MDH may be involved, as shown by gene expression of specific genes under P deficiency. PMID:25151130

Le Roux, Marcellous; Phiri, Ethel; Khan, Wesaal; Sakiro?lu, Muhammet; Valentine, Alex; Khan, Sehaam

2014-11-01

132

Active-site models for complexes of quinolinate synthase with substrates and intermediates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quinolinate synthase (QS) catalyzes the condensation of iminoaspartate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate to form quinolinate, the universal precursor for the de novo biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. QS has been difficult to characterize owing either to instability or lack of activity when it is overexpressed and purified. Here, the structure of QS from Pyrococcus furiosus has been determined at 2.8?Å resolution. The structure is a homodimer consisting of three domains per protomer. Each domain shows the same topology with a four-stranded parallel ?-sheet flanked by four ?-helices, suggesting that the domains are the result of gene triplication. Biochemical studies of QS indicate that the enzyme requires a [4Fe-4S] cluster, which is lacking in this crystal structure, for full activity. The organization of domains in the protomer is distinctly different from that of a monomeric structure of QS from P. horikoshii [Sakuraba et al. (2005), J. Biol. Chem. 280, 26645-26648]. The domain arrangement in P. furiosus QS may be related to protection of cysteine side chains, which are required to chelate the [4Fe-4S] cluster, prior to cluster assembly. PMID:23999292

Soriano, Erika V; Zhang, Yang; Colabroy, Keri L; Sanders, Jennie M; Settembre, Ethan C; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Begley, Tadhg P; Ealick, Steven E

2013-09-01

133

Activation of macrophage nuclear factor-?B and induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase by LPS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lung disease (CLD of prematurity is a major problem of neonatal care. Bacterial infection and inflammatory response have been thought to play an important role in the development of CLD and steroids have been given, with some benefit, to neonates with this disease. In the present study, we assessed the ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS to stimulate rat alveolar macrophages to produce nitric oxide (NO, express inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and activate nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B in vitro. In addition, we investigated the impact of dexamethasone and budesonide on these processes. Methods Griess reaction was used to measure the nitrite level. Western blot and a semi-quantitative RT-PCR were performed to detect iNOS expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA was performed to analyze the activation of NF-?B. Results We found that LPS stimulated the rat alveolar macrophages to produce NO in a dose (?10 ng/ml and time dependent manner (p -4–10-10 M and dexamethasone (10-4–10-6 M (p Conclusion Our findings imply that Gram-negative bacterial infection and the inflammatory responses are important factors in the development of CLD. The down-regulatory effect of steroids on iNOS expression and NO production might explain the beneficial effect of steroids in neonates with CLD.

Yan Zhong-Qun

2002-09-01

134

Aldosterone modulates endothelial permeability and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity by rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aldosterone (Aldo) is involved in vascular remodeling and inflammation; however, the mechanisms are imperfectly defined. We hypothesized that Aldo alters endothelial integrity and modifies paracellular permeability. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to Aldo (10(-9) mol/L) and alterations in paracellular permeability, assembly of tight and adherens junctions and activation of intracellular signaling pathways were determined. Aldo increased endothelial permeability for molecules ? 70 kDa within 60 minutes. A transient loss of cortical actin with formation of actin stress fibers and disruption of continuous adherens and tight junction strands accompanied these changes. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade, inhibition of RhoA, or disruption of extracellular-regulated protein kinase1/2 signaling pathways attenuated the Aldo-related effects. Moreover, Aldo-induced cytoskeletal rearrangement led to rapid dephosphorylation of protein kinase B and subsequent deactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Ex vivo tracer flux experiments with Evans blue-conjugated albumin demonstrated a concordant response to Aldo in freshly isolated umbilical arteries. Furthermore, low-dose cortisol (3 × 10(-10) to 3 × 10(-9) mol/L) mimics the effect of Aldo on endothelial integrity, and Aldo, by upregulating11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, might even aggravate this deleterious effect of low-dose cortisol. We suggest that these mechanisms may contribute to the vasculopathy induced by inappropriate mineralocorticoid receptor activation. PMID:23213194

Kirsch, Torsten; Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Klinge, Uwe; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Fiebeler, Anette

2013-02-01

135

Pharmacodynamic assay of thymidylate synthase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple, selective, and sensitive method utilizing tritium ((3)H) release from (3)H-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate (dUMP) substrate for accurate and precise determination of the low basal thymidylate synthase activity (TSA) in normal healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was developed and validated. The method is based on the removal of the remaining substrate after the TSA reaction by absorption onto activated carbon and measurement of the supernatant fluid by liquid scintillation counting. The method background was substantially decreased by using lyophilized substrate and optimized binding conditions of remaining substrate onto carbon after TSA reaction. The concentration of cofactor N (5),N (10) methylene-(6R,S)-tetrahydrofolate was increased to obtain maximal TSA. Method sensitivity was further increased by omission of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid from the reaction mix and by using longer reaction times. The validation parameters included specificity, linearity, sensitivity, precision, and stability. The lower limit of quantification was 25 ?g PBMC cytosolic lysate, which released 1.4 pmol?(3)H/h. TSA was stable in PBMC pellets stored for 6 months at -80 °C. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the successful determination of TSA in PBMC cytosolic lysates from ten healthy volunteers with and without the specific TSA inhibitor FdUMP. PMID:23314484

Pluim, Dick; Schilders, Kim A A; Jacobs, Bart A W; Vaartjes, Daniëlle; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M

2013-03-01

136

Insulin activation of mouse diaphragm glycogen synthase (GS) involves generation of electrophoretically distinct subunit species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glycogen synthase, the rate limiting enzyme for glycogen synthesis, was analyzed in mouse diaphragm extracts both by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting using specific antibodies raised to the rabbit muscle enzyme. Diaphragms, with the supporting ribs attached, were incubated either with or without [32P]P/sub i/ in the medium. In extracts from unincubated, rapidly frozen diaphragms, immunoblotting indicated the presence of 3 distinct species, separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In addition, phosphorylation of immunoprecipitated GS with the kinase F/sub A//GSK-3 converted the higher mobility forms into the low mobility species. In diaphragms incubated with [32P]P/sub i/, 32P was incorporated only into one of the GS species, that of lowest mobility, indicating differential labelling among the multiple subunit forms. Insulin action, which increased the -/+ glucose-6-P activity ratio from 0.2 to 0.4, converted the low mobility species to the two higher mobility forms. The authors propose that this effect of insulin can be explained by dephosphorylation in the proline/serine rich site 3 region of GS, which has potent influence on both mobility on SDS-PAGE and activity

137

Disruption of ATCSLD5 results in reduced growth, reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity and altered xylan occurrence in Arabidopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Members of a large family of cellulose synthase-like genes (CSLs) are predicted to encode glycosyl transferases (GTs) involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell walls. The CSLA and CSLF families are known to contain mannan and glucan synthases, respectively, but the products of other CSLs are unknown. Here we report the effects of disrupting ATCSLD5 expression in Arabidopsis. Both stem and root growth were significantly reduced in ATCSLD5 knock-out plants, and these plants also had increased susceptibility to the cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben. Antibody and carbohydrate-binding module labelling indicated a reduction in the level of xylan in stems, and in vitro GT assays using microsomes from stems revealed that ATCSLD5 knock-out plants also had reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity. Expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of ATCSLD5 and ATCSLD3, fluorescently tagged at either the C- or the N-terminal, indicated that these GTs are likely to be localized in the Golgi apparatus. However, the position of the fluorescent tag affected the subcellular localization of both proteins. The work presented provides a comprehensive analysis of the effects of disrupting ATCSLD5 in planta, and the possible role(s) of this gene and other ATCSLDs in cell wall biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:17892446

Bernal, Adriana Jimena; Jensen, Jakob Krüger; Harholt, Jesper; Sørensen, Susanne; Moller, Isabel; Blaukopf, Claudia; Johansen, Bo; de Lotto, Robert; Pauly, Markus; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Willats, William G T

2007-12-01

138

Mitochondrial-associated nitric oxide synthase activity inhibits cytochrome c oxidase: implications for breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitric oxide (NO) is produced and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity is expressed in many types of tumor cells, but their precise role in tumor proliferation has not been clearly elucidated. Recently, it has been observed that patients with triple-negative breast tumors expressing NOS have a significantly worse prognosis compared to those that do not express any NOS. We observed that NOS activity was associated with the mitochondria in two breast cancer cell lines, ZR-75-30 and BT-474, compared with another NO-producing benign breast epithelial cell line, MCF-12F, in which no significant mitochondrial-associated NOS activity was detected. The rate of proliferation of the malignant cells expressing mitochondrial-associated NOS was decreased in the presence of an inhibitor of NO synthesis, but it had no effect on the normal breast epithelial cells, MCF-12F, which also expressed NOS, but not associated with mitochondria. The basal rate of proliferation was not affected by ODQ, an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, indicating that the effects of the endogenous NO produced by the malignant cell lines on proliferation are cGMP independent. Our results indicate that mitochondrial-associated NOS activity exhibited by the cancer cell lines ZR-75-30 and BT-474 inhibited cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in increased production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which inhibited protein phosphatase 2A activity. This resulted in the maintenance of Akt and ERK1/2 in a phosphorylated state, leading to cell proliferation. PMID:23089229

Sen, Suvajit; Kawahara, Brian; Chaudhuri, Gautam

2013-04-01

139

PDZ-dependent activation of nitric-oxide synthases by the serotonin 2B receptor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taking advantage of three cellular systems, we established that 5-HT(2B) receptors are coupled with NO signaling pathways. In the 1C11 serotonergic cell line and Mastomys natalensis carcinoid cells, which naturally express the 5-HT(2B) receptor, as well as in transfected LMTK(-) fibroblasts, stimulation of the 5-HT(2B) receptor triggers intracellular cGMP production through dual activation of constitutive nitric-oxide synthase (cNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS). The group I PDZ motif at the C terminus of the 5-HT(2B) receptor is required for recruitment of the cNOS and iNOS transduction pathways. Indeed, the 5-HT(2B) receptor-mediated NO coupling is abolished not only upon introduction of a competitor C-terminal 5-HT(2B) peptide in the three cell types but also in LMTK(-) fibroblasts expressing a receptor C-terminally truncated or harboring a point mutation within the PDZ domain. The occurrence of a direct functional coupling between the receptor and cNOS activity is supported by highly significant correlations between the binding constants of drugs on the receptor and their effects on cNOS activity. The 5-HT(2B)/iNOS coupling mechanisms appear more complex because neutralization of endogenous Galpha(13) by specific antibodies cancels the cellular iNOS response while not interfering with cNOS activities. These findings may shed light on physiological links between the 5-HT(2B) receptor and NO and constitute the first demonstration that PDZ interactions participate in downstream transductional pathways of a G protein-coupled receptor. PMID:10734074

Manivet, P; Mouillet-Richard, S; Callebert, J; Nebigil, C G; Maroteaux, L; Hosoda, S; Kellermann, O; Launay, J M

2000-03-31

140

Subdomain II of ?-Isopropylmalate Synthase Is Essential for Activity: INFERRING A MECHANISM OF FEEDBACK INHIBITION.  

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The committed step of leucine biosynthesis, converting acetyl-CoA and ?-ketoisovalerate into ?-isopropylmalate, is catalyzed by ?-isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS), an allosteric enzyme subjected to feedback inhibition by the end product l-leucine. We characterized the short form IPMS from Leptospira biflexa (LbIPMS2), which exhibits a catalytic activity comparable with that of the long form IPMS (LbIPMS1) and has a similar N-terminal domain followed by subdomain I and subdomain II but lacks the whole C-terminal regulatory domain. We found that partial deletion of the regulatory domain of LbIPMS1 resulted in a loss of about 50% of the catalytic activity; however, when the regulatory domain was deleted up to Arg-385, producing a protein that is almost equivalent to the intact LbIPMS2, about 90% of the activity was maintained. Moreover, in LbIPMS2 or LbIPMS1, further deletion of several residues from the C terminus of subdomain II significantly impaired or completely abolished the catalytic activity, respectively. These results define a complete and independently functional catalytic module of IPMS consisting of both the N-terminal domain and the two subdomains. Structural comparison of LbIPMS2 and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis IPMS revealed two different conformations of subdomain II that likely represent two substrate-binding states related to cooperative catalysis. The biochemical and structural analyses together with the previously published hydrogen-deuterium exchange data led us to propose a conformation transition mechanism for feedback inhibition mediated by subdomains I and II that might associated with alteration of the binding affinity toward acetyl-CoA. PMID:25128527

Zhang, Zilong; Wu, Jian; Lin, Wei; Wang, Jin; Yan, Han; Zhao, Wei; Ma, Jun; Ding, Jianping; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Guo-Ping

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

Materials and methods for efficient succinate and malate production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Genetically engineered microorganisms have been constructed to produce succinate and malate in mineral salt media in pH-controlled batch fermentations without the addition of plasmids or foreign genes. The subject invention also provides methods of producing succinate and malate comprising the culture of genetically modified microorganisms.

Jantama, Kaemwich; Haupt, Mark John; Zhang, Xueli; Moore, Jonathan C; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O' Neal

2014-04-08

142

Fatty acid synthase inhibition activates AMP-activated protein kinase in SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid synthase (FAS), the enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of fatty acids, is highly expressed in ovarian cancers and most common human carcinomas. Inhibition of FAS and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) have been shown to be cytotoxic to human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we explore the cytotoxic mechanism of action of FAS inhibition and show that C93, a synthetic FAS inhibitor, increases the AMP/ATP ratio, activating AMPK in SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells, which leads to cytotoxicity. As a physiologic consequence of AMPK activation, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid synthesis, was phosphorylated and inhibited whereas glucose oxidation was increased. Despite these attempts to conserve energy, the AMP/ATP ratio increased with worsening cellular redox status. Pretreatment of SKOV3 cells with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, substantially rescued the cells from C93 cytotoxicity, indicating its dependence on AMPK activation. 5-(Tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid, an ACC inhibitor, did not activate AMPK despite inhibiting fatty acid synthesis pathway activity and was not significantly cytotoxic to SKOV3 cells. This indicates that substrate accumulation from FAS inhibition triggering AMPK activation, not end-product depletion of fatty acids, is likely responsible for AMPK activation. C93 also exhibited significant antitumor activity and apoptosis against SKOV3 xenografts in athymic mice without significant weight loss or cytotoxicity to proliferating cellular compartments such as bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, or skin. Thus, pharmacologic FAS inhibition selectively activates AMPK in ovarian cancer cells, inducing cytotoxicity while sparing most normal human tissues from the pleiotropic effects of AMPK activation. PMID:17409402

Zhou, Weibo; Han, Wan Fang; Landree, Leslie E; Thupari, Jagan N; Pinn, Michael L; Bililign, Tsion; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Vadlamudi, Aravinda; Medghalchi, Susan M; El Meskini, Rajaa; Ronnett, Gabriele V; Townsend, Craig A; Kuhajda, Francis P

2007-04-01

143

SIRT1 promotes endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation by activating endothelial nitric oxide synthase  

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Reduced caloric intake decreases arterial blood pressure in healthy individuals and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in obese and overweight individuals. The SIRT1 protein deacetylase mediates many of the effects of calorie restriction (CR) on organismal lifespan and metabolic pathways. However, the role of SIRT1 in regulating endothelium-dependent vasomotor tone is not known. Here we show that SIRT1 promotes endothelium-dependent vasodilation by targeting endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) for deacetylation. SIRT1 and eNOS colocalize and coprecipitate in endothelial cells, and SIRT1 deacetylates eNOS, stimulating eNOS activity and increasing endothelial nitric oxide (NO). SIRT1-induced increase in endothelial NO is mediated through lysines 496 and 506 in the calmodulin-binding domain of eNOS. Inhibition of SIRT1 in the endothelium of arteries inhibits endothelium-dependent vasodilation and decreases bioavailable NO. Finally, CR of mice leads to deacetylation of eNOS. Our results demonstrate that SIRT1 plays a fundamental role in regulating endothelial NO and endothelium-dependent vascular tone by deacetylating eNOS. Furthermore, our results provide a possible molecular mechanism connecting the effects of CR on the endothelium and vascular tone to SIRT1-mediated deacetylation of eNOS. PMID:17785417

Mattagajasingh, Ilwola; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Naqvi, Asma; Yamamori, Tohru; Hoffman, Timothy A.; Jung, Saet-Byel; DeRicco, Jeremy; Kasuno, Kenji; Irani, Kaikobad

2007-01-01

144

Development of high-throughput spermidine synthase activity assay using homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spermidine synthase (SPDS) catalyzes transfer of the propylamine group from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM) to putrescine to yield methylthioadenosine (MTA) and spermidine. SPDS plays a regulatory role in cell proliferation and differentiation. This article describes the development of a high-throughput SPDS activity assay using homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) based on energy transfer from europium cryptate as a donor to crosslinked allophycocyanin (XL665) as an acceptor. First a highly specific anti-MTA monoclonal antibody, MTA-7H8, was generated, and then a competitive immunoassay for MTA determination was developed using europium cryptate-labeled MTA-7H8 and XL665-labeled MTA. In our homogeneous immunoassay, the percentage molar cross-reactivity of dcSAM with MTA-7H8 was 0.01% and the detection limit of MTA was 2.6 pmol/well. Our HTRF assay uses only one assay plate in which both enzyme reaction and MTA determination can be done successively. Therefore, our method can enable automatic screening of SPDS inhibitors from large numbers of samples. PMID:16472757

Enomoto, Koji; Nagasaki, Tohru; Yamauchi, Akira; Onoda, Junji; Sakai, Katsunori; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Maekawa, Kazuhiko; Kinoshita, Yuko; Nishino, Ikuko; Kikuoka, Shino; Fukunaga, Takahiro; Kawamoto, Keiko; Numata, Yoshito; Takemoto, Hiroshi; Nagata, Kiyoshi

2006-04-15

145

Inhibition of platelet activation by lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS)-silenced (tearless) onion juice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Onion and garlic are renowned for their roles as functional foods. The health benefits of garlic are attributed to di-2-propenyl thiosulfinate (allicin), a sulfur compound found in disrupted garlic but not found in disrupted onion. Recently, onions have been grown with repressed lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) activity, which causes these onions to produce increased amounts of di-1-propenyl thiosulfinate, an isomer of allicin. This investigation into the key health attributes of LFS-silenced (tearless) onions demonstrates that they have some attributes more similar to garlic and that this is likely due to the production of novel thiosulfinate or metabolites. The key finding was that collagen-induced in vitro platelet aggregation was significantly reduced by tearless onion extract over normal onion extract. Thiosulfinate or derived compounds were shown not to be responsible for the observed changes in the inflammatory response of AGS (stomach adenocarcinoma) cells to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) when pretreated with model onion juices. A preliminary rat feeding trial indicated that the tearless onions may also play a key role in reducing weight gain. PMID:24147811

Thomson, Susan J; Rippon, Paula; Butts, Chrissie; Olsen, Sarah; Shaw, Martin; Joyce, Nigel I; Eady, Colin C

2013-11-01

146

Distinct parts of leukotriene C4 synthase interact with 5-lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase activating protein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leukotriene C4 is a potent inflammatory mediator formed from arachidonic acid and glutathione. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) and leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S) participate in its biosynthesis. We report evidence that LTC4S interacts in vitro with both FLAP and 5-LO and that these interactions involve distinct parts of LTC4S. FLAP bound to the N-terminal part/first hydrophobic region of LTC4S. This part did not bind 5-LO which bound to the second hydrophilic loop of LTC4S. Fluorescent FLAP- and LTC4S-fusion proteins co-localized at the nuclear envelope. Furthermore, GFP-FLAP and GFP-LTC4S co-localized with a fluorescent ER marker. In resting HEK293/T or COS-7 cells GFP-5-LO was found mainly in the nuclear matrix. Upon stimulation with calcium ionophore, GFP-5-LO translocated to the nuclear envelope allowing it to interact with FLAP and LTC4S. Direct interaction of 5-LO and LTC4S in ionophore-stimulated (but not un-stimulated) cells was demonstrated by BRET using GFP-5-LO and Rluc-LTC4S.

147

Mycophenolic acid inhibits activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rodent fibroblasts  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an immunosuppressive drug that acts as a selective inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). MMF has recently been shown to inhibit the enzymatic activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and subsequent production of the cytotoxic free radical nitric oxide (NO) in endothelial cells. We here investigated the effect of bioactive MMF compound mycophenolic acid (MPA) on iNOS-mediated NO synthesis in fibroblasts, which are important source of NO in rheumatoid arthritis and during rejection of solid organ transplants. MPA exerted dose-dependent inhibition of NO synthesis, measured as nitrite accumulation, in IFN-? + LPS-stimulated L929 mouse fibroblast cell line and rat primary fibroblasts. The effect of MPA was not mediated through interference with IMPDH-dependent synthesis of iNOS co-factor BH4 and subsequent suppression of iNOS enzymatic activity, as direct BH4 precursor sepiapterin failed to block the action of the drug. MPA suppressed the IFN-? + LPS-induced expression of fibroblast iNOS protein, as well as mRNA for iNOS and its transcription factor IRF-1, as assessed by cell-based ELISA and semiquantitative RT-PCR, respectively. MPA suppression of fibroblast NO release, iNOS, and IRF-1 activation, was efficiently prevented by exogenous guanosine, indicating that the drug acted through reduction of IMPDH-dependent synthesis of guanosine nucleotides. These results suggest that MPA inhibits NO production in fibroblasts by blocking guanosine nucleotide-dependent expression of iNOS gene, through mechanisms that might involve the interference with the induction of iNOS transcription factor IRF-1. PMID:12699411

MILJKOVIC, Dj; CVETKOVIC, I; STOSIC-GRUJICIC, S; TRAJKOVIC, V

2003-01-01

148

Dual regulation of muscle glycogen synthase during exercise by activation and compartmentalization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Glycogen synthase (GS) is considered the rate-limiting enzyme in glycogenesis but still today there is a lack of understanding on its regulation. We have previously shown phosphorylation-dependent GS intracellular redistribution at the start of glycogen re-synthesis in rabbit skeletal muscle (Prats, C., Cadefau, J. A., Cussó, R., Qvortrup, K., Nielsen, J. N., Wojtaszewki, J. F., Wojtaszewki, J. F., Hardie, D. G., Stewart, G., Hansen, B. F., and Ploug, T. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 23165-23172). In the present study we investigate the regulation of human muscle GS activity by glycogen, exercise, and insulin. Using immunocytochemistry we investigate the existence and relevance of GS intracellular compartmentalization during exercise and during glycogen re-synthesis. The results show that GS intrinsic activity is strongly dependent on glycogen levels and that such regulation involves associated dephosphorylation at sites 2+2a, 3a, and 3a + 3b. Furthermore, we report the existence of several glycogen metabolism regulatory mechanisms based on GS intracellular compartmentalization. After exhausting exercise, epinephrine-induced protein kinase A activation leads to GS site 1b phosphorylation targeting the enzyme to intramyofibrillar glycogen particles, which are preferentially used during muscle contraction. On the other hand, when phosphorylated at sites 2+2a, GS is preferentially associated with subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar glycogen particles. Finally, we verify the existence in human vastus lateralis muscle of the previously reported mechanism of glycogen metabolism regulation in rabbit tibialis anterior muscle. After overnight low muscle glycogen level and/or in response to exhausting exercise-induced glycogenolysis, GS is associated with spherical structures at the I-band of sarcomeres.

Prats, Clara; Helge, JØrn W

2009-01-01

149

Cancer cell-associated fatty acid synthase activates endothelial cells and promotes angiogenesis in colorectal cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Upregulation of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key enzyme of de novo lipogenesis, is associated with metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanisms of regulation are unknown. Since angiogenesis is crucial for metastasis, we investigated the role of FASN in the neovascularization of CRC. The effect of FASN on tumor vasculature was studied in orthotopic CRCs, the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and Matrigel plug models using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy. Cell secretion was evaluated by ELISA and antibody arrays. Proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis of endothelial cells (ECs) were assessed in CRC-EC coculture models. In this study, we found that stable knockdown of FASN decreased microvessel density in HT29 and HCT116 orthotopic CRCs and resulted in 'normalization' of tumor vasculature in both orthotopic and CAM models. Furthermore, FASN regulated secretion of pro- and antiangiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Mechanisms associated with the antiangiogenic activity noted with knockdown of FASN included: downregulation of VEGF(189), upregulation of antiangiogenic isoform VEGF(165b) and a decrease in expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Furthermore, conditioned medium from FASN knockdown CRC cells inhibited activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and its downstream signaling and decreased proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis of ECs as compared with control medium. Together, these results suggest that cancer cell-associated FASN regulates tumor vasculature through alteration of the profile of secreted angiogenic factors and regulation of their bioavailability. Inhibition of FASN upstream of VEGF-A and other angiogenic pathways can be a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent or inhibit metastasis in CRC. PMID:24510238

Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y; Elliott, Victoria A; Rychahou, Piotr; Mustain, W Conan; Kim, Ji Tae; Valentino, Joseph; Gao, Tianyan; O'Connor, Kathleen L; Neltner, Janna M; Lee, Eun Y; Weiss, Heidi L; Evers, B Mark

2014-06-01

150

Dual Regulation of Muscle Glycogen Synthase during Exercise by Activation and Compartmentalization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Glycogen synthase (GS) is considered the rate-limiting enzyme in glycogenesis but still today there is a lack of understanding on its regulation. We have previously shown phosphorylation-dependent GS intracellular redistribution at the start of glycogen re-synthesis in rabbit skeletal muscle (Prats, C., Cadefau, J. A., Cusso, R., Qvortrup, K., Nielsen, J. N., Wojtaszewki, J. F., Wojtaszewki, J. F., Hardie, D. G., Stewart, G., Hansen, B. F., and Ploug, T. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 23165-23172). In the present study we investigate the regulation of human muscle GS activity by glycogen, exercise, and insulin. Using immunocytochemistry we investigate the existence and relevance of GS intracellular compartmentalization during exercise and during glycogen re-synthesis. The results show that GS intrinsic activity is strongly dependent on glycogen levels and that such regulation involves associated dephosphorylation at sites 2 + 2a, 3a, and 3a + 3b. Furthermore, we report the existence of several glycogen metabolismregulatory mechanisms based on GS intracellular compartmentalization. After exhausting exercise, epinephrine-induced protein kinase A activation leads to GS site 1b phosphorylation targeting the enzyme to intramyofibrillar glycogen particles, which are preferentially used during muscle contraction. On the other hand, when phosphorylated at sites 2 + 2a, GS is preferentially associated with subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar glycogen particles. Finally, we verify the existence in human vastus lateralis muscle of the previously reported mechanism of glycogen metabolism regulation in rabbit tibialis anterior muscle. After overnight low muscle glycogen level and/or in response to exhausting exercise-induced glycogenolysis, GS is associated with spherical structures at the I-band of sarcomeres.

Prats, Clara; Helge, Jorn W.

2009-01-01

151

Mimicking natural evolution in vitro: An N-acetylneuraminate lyase mutant with an increased dihydrodipicolinate synthase activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

N-acetylneuraminate lyase (NAL) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) belong to the NAL subfamily of (?/?)8-barrels. They share a common catalytic step but catalyze reactions in different biological pathways. By rational design, we have introduced various mutations into the NAL scaffold from Escherichia coli to switch the activity toward DHDPS. These mutants were tested with respect to their catalytic properties in vivo and in vitro as well as their stability. One point mutation (L142R) ...

Joerger, Andreas C.; Mayer, Sebastian; Fersht, Alan R.

2003-01-01

152

Interrogation of Global Active Site Occupancy of a Fungal Iterative Polyketide Synthase Reveals Strategies for Maintaining Biosynthetic Fidelity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nonreducing iterative polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs) are responsible for assembling the core of fungal aromatic natural products with diverse biological properties. Despite recent advances in the field, many mechanistic details of polyketide assembly by these megasynthases remain unknown. To expand our understanding of substrate loading, polyketide elongation, cyclization, and product release, active site occupancy and product output were explored by Fourier transform mass spectrometry using ...

Vagstad, Anna L.; Bumpus, Stefanie B.; Belecki, Katherine; Kelleher, Neil L.; Townsend, Craig A.

2012-01-01

153

Functional regulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression and activity in the rat retina.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the nervous system within physiological conditions, nitric oxide (NO) production depends on the activity of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs), and particularly on the expression of the neuronal isoform (nNOS). In the sensory systems, the role of NO is poorly understood. In this study, we identified nNOS-positive cells in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of the rat retina, with distinct characteristics such as somata size, immunolabeling level and location. Employing mathematical cluster analysis, we determined that nNOS amacrine cells are formed by two distinct populations. We next investigated the molecular identity of these cells, which did not show colocalization with calbindin (CB), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), parvalbumin (PV) or protein kinase C (PKC), and only partial colocalization with calretinin (CR), revealing the accumulation of nNOS in specific amacrine cell populations. To access the functional, circuitry-related roles of these cells, we performed experiments after adaptation to different ambient light conditions. After 24h of dark-adaptation, we detected a subtle, yet statistically significant decrease in nNOS transcript levels, which returned to steady-state levels after 24h of normal light-dark cycle, revealing that nNOS expression is governed by ambient light conditions. Employing electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we demonstrated that dark-adaptation decreases NO production in the retina. Furthermore, nNOS accumulation changed in the dark-adapted retinas, with a general reduction in the inner plexiform layer. Finally, computational analysis based on clustering techniques revealed that dark-adaptation differently affected both types of nNOS-positive amacrine cells. Taken together, our data disclosed functional regulation of nNOS expression and activity, disclosing new circuitry-related roles of nNOS-positive cells. More importantly, this study indicated unsuspected roles for NO in the sensory systems, particularly related to adaptation to ambient demands. PMID:25116452

Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Schmeltzer, Christian; Sousa, Erica; Kinjo, Erika Reime; Rüdiger, Sten; Hamassaki, Dânia Emi; Cerchiaro, Giselle; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

2014-11-01

154

Methylene green electrodeposited on SWNTs-based "bucky" papers for NADH and l-malate oxidation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research introduces a cavity anode design based on new single-walled nanotube (SWNTs) papers, "bucky" papers, used for the oxidation (and regeneration) of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and the oxidation of l-malate. The materials designed are paper-like processed composites containing also additives: BP11 sample contains SWNTs and isopropanol (IPA); the BPMG sample contains SWNTs, IPA, and methylene green (MG). NADH/NAD(+) is the cofactor responsible for the oxidation of l-malate by malate dehydrogenase (MDH), in the Krebs' cycle. Because of the high overpotential of NADH oxidation, poly methylene green (PMG) was utilized as the electrocatalyst to produce NAD(+). The electrocatalyst was deposited on the surface of the "bucky" papers by electropolymerization by means of 10 voltammetric cycles in a range of -0.5 V and +1.3 V (vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode) at a scan rate of 5 mV/s. The catalytic performance of PMG was evaluated by chronoamperometric measurements of NADH oxidation at 0.3 V in phosphate buffer and l-malate oxidation at 0.1 V in the presence of MDH. For both "bucky" papers, the chronoamperometric curves of PMG, current vs NADH concentration, show a linear relationship demonstrating to have a first order Fick's law behavior for concentrations of NADH lower than 6 mM. The chronoamperometric curves in the presence of MDH, current against l-malate concentration, show a Michaelis-Menten behavior where no inhibition or competitive reaction are detected. Additionally, the anodic materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), the polymerization of MG is effectively observed in the form of particles nucleation. The anodes show an excellent electrocatalytic activity toward NADH oxidation. The electrode design is feasible, reproducible, and overall stable. PMID:21667995

Narváez Villarrubia, Claudia W; Rincón, Rosalba A; Radhakrishnan, Vinod K; Davis, Virginia; Atanassov, Plamen

2011-07-01

155

Yeast glycogen synthase kinase-3 activates Msn2p-dependent transcription of stress responsive genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has four genes, MCK1, MDS1 (RIM11), MRK1, and YOL128c, that encode homologues of mammalian glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). A gsk-3 null mutant in which these four genes are disrupted showed growth defects on galactose medium. We isolated several multicopy suppressors of this growth defect. Two of them encoded Msn2p and phosphoglucomutase (PGM). Msn2p is a transcription factor that binds to the stress-response element (STRE). PGM is an enzyme that interconverts glucose-1 phosphate and glucose-6 phosphate and is regulated by Msn2p at the transcriptional level. Expression of the mRNAs of PGM2 and DDR2, whose promoter regions possess STRE sequences, on induction by heat shock or salt stress was reduced not only in an msn2 msn4 (msn2 homologue) double mutant but also in the gsk-3 null mutant. STRE-dependent transcription was greatly inhibited in the gsk-3 null mutant or mck1 mds1 double mutant, and this phenotype was suppressed by the expression of Mck1p but not of a kinase-inactive form of Mck1p. Although Msn2p accumulated in the nucleus of the gsk-3 null mutant as well as in the wild-type strain under various stress conditions, its STRE-binding activity was reduced in extracts prepared from the gsk-3 null mutant or mck1 mds1 double mutant. These results suggest that yeast GSK-3 promotes formation of a complex between Msn2p and DNA, which is required for the proper response to different forms of stress. Because neither Msn2p-GSK-3 complex formation nor GSK-3-dependent phosphorylation of Msn2p could be detected, the regulation of Msn2p by GSK-3 may be indirect. PMID:12529445

Hirata, Yuzoh; Andoh, Tomoko; Asahara, Toshimasa; Kikuchi, Akira

2003-01-01

156

The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity and changes in CS activity is often assumed. However, this relationship and absolute values of CS and maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2max) has never been assessed across different studies. A systematic PubMed search on literature published from 1983 to 2013 was performed. The search profile included: citrate, synthase, human, skeletal, muscle, training, not electrical stimulation, not in-vitro, not rats. Studies that reported changes in CS activity and V.O2max were included. Different training types and subject populations were analyzed independently to assess correlation between relative changes in V.O2max and CS activity. 70 publications with 97 intervention groups were included. There was a positive (r = 0.45) correlation (P < 0.001) between the relative change in V.O2max and the relative change in CS activity. All reported absolute values of CS and V.O2max did not correlate (r =- 0.07, n = 148, P = 0.4). Training induced changes in whole body oxidative capacity is matched by changes in muscle CS activity in a nearly 1:1 relationship. Absolute values of CS across different studies cannot be compared unless a standardized analytical method is used by all laboratories

VigelsØ Hansen, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne Bjerre

2014-01-01

157

Cloning and characterization of a Neurospora crassa gene required for (1,3) beta-glucan synthase activity and cell wall formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The glucan synthase 1 gene (gs-1) is required for (1,3) beta-glucan synthase activity [E.C. 2.4.1.34; UDP glucose:1,3-beta-D-glucan 3-beta-D-glucosyltransferase] and for cell wall formation. The gs-1 gene was cloned by functional complementation of the cell-wall-less defect of the (1,3) beta-glucan synthase-deficient mutant, TM1, by using a genomic Neurospora crassa cosmid library. A 2568-nucleotide gs-1 cDNA sequence revealed a 532-amino acid open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 59 kDa. The predicted gs-1 gene product has no obvious signal peptide cleavage sites or transmembrane domains. A gs-1 null mutant is defective for cell wall formation and (1,3) beta-glucan synthase activity. The predicted GS-1 protein is weakly homologous to a putative Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptional regulatory protein. PMID:7937796

Enderlin, C S; Selitrennikoff, C P

1994-01-01

158

Factors affecting lactate and malate utilization by Selenomonas ruminantium.  

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Lactate utilization by Selenomonas ruminantium is stimulated in the presence of malate. Because little information is available describing lactate-plus-malate utilization by this organism, the objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting utilization of these two organic acids by two strains of S. ruminantium. When S. ruminantium HD4 and H18 were grown in batch culture on DL-lactate and DL-malate, both strains coutilized both organic acids for the initial 20 to 24 h of incubation ...

Evans, J. D.; Martin, S. A.

1997-01-01

159

Phosphorylation of inhibitor-2 and activation of MgATP-dependent protein phosphatase by rat skeletal muscle glycogen synthase kinase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rat skeletal muscle contains a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-M) which is not stimulated by Ca2+ or cAMP. This kinase has an apparent Mr of 62,000 and uses ATP but not GTP as a phosphoryl donor. GSK-M phosphorylated glycogen synthase at sites 2 and 3. It phosphorylated ATP-citrate lyase and activated MgATP-dependent phosphatase in the presence of ATP but not GTP. As expected, the kinase also phosphorylated phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2). Phosphatase incorporation reached approximately 0.3 mol/mol of I-2. Phosphopeptide maps were obtained by digesting 32P-labeled I-2 with trypsin and separating the peptides by reversed phase HPLC. Two partially separated 32P-labeled peaks were obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with either GSK-M or glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and these peptides were different from those obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CSU) or casein kinase II (CK-II). When I-2 was phosphorylated with GSK-M or GSK-3 and cleaved by CNBr, a single radioactive peak was obtained. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that I-2 was phosphorylated by GSK-M or GSK-3 predominately in Thr whereas CSU and CK-II phosphorylated I-2 exclusively in Ser. These results indicate that GSK-M is similar to GSK-3 and to ATP-citrate lyase kinase. However, it appears to differ in Mr from ATP-citrate lyase kinase and it differs from GSK-3 in that it phosphorylates glycogen synthase at site 2 and it does not use GTP as a phosphoryl donor

160

Malate dehydrogenases from actinomycetes: structural comparison of Thermoactinomyces enzyme with other actinomycete and Bacillus enzymes.  

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Malate dehydrogenases from bacteria belonging to the genus Thermoactinomyces are tetrameric, like those from Bacillus spp., and exhibit a high degree of structural homology to Bacillus malate dehydrogenase as judged by immunological cross-reactivity. Malate dehydrogenases from other actinomycetes are dimers and do not cross-react with antibodies to Bacillus malate dehydrogenase.

Smith, K.; Sundaram, T. K.; Kernick, M.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Malic acid production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: engineering of pyruvate carbosylation, oxaloacetate reduction and malate export  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malic acid is a potential biomass-derivable "building block" for chemical synthesis. Since wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produce only low levels of malate, metabolic engineering is required to achieve efficient malate production with this yeast. A promising pathway for malate production from glucose proceeds via carboxylation of pyruvate, followed by reduction of oxaloacetate to malate. This redox- and ATP-neutral, CO2-fixing pathway has a theoretical maximum yield of 2 mol malat...

Zelle, R. M.; Hulster, E.; Winden, W. A.; Waard, P.; Dijkema, C.; Winkler, A. A.; Geertman, J. M. A.

2008-01-01

162

Determination of amino-acidic positions important for Ocimum basilicum geraniol synthase activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Terpenes are one of the largest and most diversified families of natural compounds. Although they have found numerous industrial applications, the molecular basis of their synthesis in plants has, until now, not been fully understood. Plant genomes have been shown to contain dozens of terpene synthase (TPS genes, however knowledge of their amino-acidic protein sequence in not sufficient to predict which terpene(s will be produced by a particular enzyme. In order to investigate the structural basis of a TPS specificity, we performed site directed mutations in the geraniol synthase from Ocimum basilicum. The results obtained suggest that a specific region on the catalytic site plays an important role in GPP transformation, either by stabilizing the GPP substrate on the catalytic site, or by enabling its transformation into a monoterpenol via an intermediate carbocation.

Marc Bergdoll

2013-02-01

163

The effect of intermittent cryotherapy on the activities of citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase in regenerating skeletal muscle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study examined the effect of three sessions of cryotherapy (three sessions of 30 minutes applied each 2 h) and muscle compression in the regenerating skeletal muscle of the rats. The middle belly of tibialis anterior muscle was injured by a frozen iron bar and received one of the following inte [...] rvention: injury + cryotherapy (treated with cryotherapy); injury + placebo (sand pack), and injury (I).The enzymatic activities of citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in the presence of 1mM or 10mM pyruvate. The ANOVA and Tukey's test (p

Nuno Miguel Lopes de, Oliveira; João Luiz Quagliotti, Durigan; Flávia Simone, Munin; Maria Luiza Barcelos, Schwantes; Tania de Fátima, Salvini.

2013-02-01

164

The effect of intermittent cryotherapy on the activities of citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase in regenerating skeletal muscle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study examined the effect of three sessions of cryotherapy (three sessions of 30 minutes applied each 2 h) and muscle compression in the regenerating skeletal muscle of the rats. The middle belly of tibialis anterior muscle was injured by a frozen iron bar and received one of the following inte [...] rvention: injury + cryotherapy (treated with cryotherapy); injury + placebo (sand pack), and injury (I).The enzymatic activities of citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in the presence of 1mM or 10mM pyruvate. The ANOVA and Tukey's test (p

Nuno Miguel Lopes de, Oliveira; João Luiz Quagliotti, Durigan; Flávia Simone, Munin; Maria Luiza Barcelos, Schwantes; Tania de Fátima, Salvini.

165

New procedures to measure synthase and phosphatase activities of bis-phosphoglycerate mutase. Interest for development of therapeutic drugs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In red blood cells, a modulation of the level of the allosteric effector of hemoglobin, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) would have implications in the treatment of ischemia and sickle cell anemia. Its concentrations is determined by the relative activities of the synthase and phosphatase reactions of the multifunctional bis-phosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM). In this report we develop first a more direct synthase assay which uses glyceraldehyde phosphate to suppress the aldolase and triose phosphate isomerase reactions. Secondly we propose a radioactive phosphatase assay coupled to chromatographic separation and identification of the reaction products by paper electrophoresis. Such identification of these products allows us to show that the multifunctional BPGM expresses its mutase instead of its phosphatase activity in conditions of competition between the 3-phosphoglycerate and the 2-phospho-glycolate activator in the phosphatase reaction. These two more precise procedures could be used to study the effects of substrate and cofactor analogues regarding potential therapeutic approaches and could be used for clinical analyses to detect deficiency of BPGM. (author)

166

Anthocyanin accumulation and changes in activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase in roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) callus cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Time-course changes in anthocyanin accumulation, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and chalcone synthase activity were examined in roselle callus tissues incubated under different culture conditions. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity was not affected by either the kind of auxin supplemented to the medium or light regime. In contrast, chalcone synthase activity was markedly suppressed when the callus was cultured with a medium containing indole-3-acetic acid instead of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or in the dark. The results imply that in roselle callus cultures chalcone synthase plays a more important role in anthocyanin biosynthesis regulated by 2,4-D and light irradiation than phenylalanine ammonialyase. PMID:24233530

Mizukami, H; Tomita, K; Ohashi, H

1989-12-01

167

Overexpression of malate dehydrogenase in transgenic alfalfa enhances organic acid synthesis and confers tolerance to aluminum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Al toxicity is a severe impediment to production of many crops in acid soil. Toxicity can be reduced through lime application to raise soil pH, however this amendment does not remedy subsoil acidity, and liming may not always be practical or cost-effective. Addition of organic acids to plant nutrient solutions alleviates phytotoxic Al effects, presumably by chelating Al and rendering it less toxic. In an effort to increase organic acid secretion and thereby enhance Al tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), we produced transgenic plants using nodule-enhanced forms of malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase cDNAs under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. We report that a 1.6-fold increase in malate dehydrogenase enzyme specific activity in root tips of selected transgenic alfalfa led to a 4.2-fold increase in root concentration as well as a 7.1-fold increase in root exudation of citrate, oxalate, malate, succinate, and acetate compared with untransformed control alfalfa plants. Overexpression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase enzyme specific activity in transgenic alfalfa did not result in increased root exudation of organic acids. The degree of Al tolerance by transformed plants in hydroponic solutions and in naturally acid soil corresponded with their patterns of organic acid exudation and supports the concept that enhancing organic acid synthesis in plants may be an effective strategy to cope with soil acidity and Al toxicity. PMID:11743127

Tesfaye, M; Temple, S J; Allan, D L; Vance, C P; Samac, D A

2001-12-01

168

Insulin Induces an Increase in Cytosolic Glucose Levels in 3T3-L1 Cells with Inhibited Glycogen Synthase Activation  

Science.gov (United States)

Glucose is an important source of energy for mammalian cells and enters the cytosol via glucose transporters. It has been thought for a long time that glucose entering the cytosol is swiftly phosphorylated in most cell types; hence the levels of free glucose are very low, beyond the detection level. However, the introduction of new fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based glucose nanosensors has made it possible to measure intracellular glucose more accurately. Here, we used the fluorescent indicator protein (FLIPglu-600µ) to monitor cytosolic glucose dynamics in mouse 3T3-L1 cells in which glucose utilization for glycogen synthesis was inhibited. The results show that cells exhibit a low resting cytosolic glucose concentration. However, in cells with inhibited glycogen synthase activation, insulin induced a robust increase in cytosolic free glucose. The insulin-induced increase in cytosolic glucose in these cells is due to an imbalance between the glucose transported into the cytosol and the use of glucose in the cytosol. In untreated cells with sensitive glycogen synthase activation, insulin stimulation did not result in a change in the cytosolic glucose level. This is the first report of dynamic measurements of cytosolic glucose levels in cells devoid of the glycogen synthesis pathway. PMID:25279585

Chowdhury, Helena H.; Kreft, Marko; Jensen, J?rgen; Zorec, Robert

2014-01-01

169

Insulin Induces an Increase in Cytosolic Glucose Levels in 3T3-L1 Cells with Inhibited Glycogen Synthase Activation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glucose is an important source of energy for mammalian cells and enters the cytosol via glucose transporters. It has been thought for a long time that glucose entering the cytosol is swiftly phosphorylated in most cell types; hence the levels of free glucose are very low, beyond the detection level. However, the introduction of new fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based glucose nanosensors has made it possible to measure intracellular glucose more accurately. Here, we used the fluorescent indicator protein (FLIPglu-600µ to monitor cytosolic glucose dynamics in mouse 3T3-L1 cells in which glucose utilization for glycogen synthesis was inhibited. The results show that cells exhibit a low resting cytosolic glucose concentration. However, in cells with inhibited glycogen synthase activation, insulin induced a robust increase in cytosolic free glucose. The insulin-induced increase in cytosolic glucose in these cells is due to an imbalance between the glucose transported into the cytosol and the use of glucose in the cytosol. In untreated cells with sensitive glycogen synthase activation, insulin stimulation did not result in a change in the cytosolic glucose level. This is the first report of dynamic measurements of cytosolic glucose levels in cells devoid of the glycogen synthesis pathway.

Helena H. Chowdhury

2014-10-01

170

Inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and expression in a human colonic epithelial cell line, HT-29.  

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1 We have determined which cytokines regulate the expression of human inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and nitrite generation in the human colonic-epithelial cell line HT-29. 2 Growth arrested cell cultures were stimulated with the human recombinant cytokines interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), tumour necrosisfactor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) or vehicle added alone or in combination. Human iNOS mRNA was determined by Northern blot analysis and nitrite generation ...

Kolios, G.; Brown, Z.; Robson, R. L.; Robertson, D. A.; Westwick, J.

1995-01-01

171

Long-term effects of rapamycin treatment on insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB and glycogen synthase activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) is a Ser/Thr kinase that is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation/survival through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the regulation of glycogen metabolism through glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) and glycogen synthase (GS). Rapamycin is an inhibitor of mTOR. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rapamycin pretreatment on the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB phosphorylation and GS activity in parental HepG2 and HepG2 cells with overexpression of constitutively active Akt1/PKB-? (HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB). Rapamycin pretreatment resulted in a decrease (20-30%) in the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 (Ser 473) in parental HepG2 cells but showed an upregulation of phosphorylation in HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Rictor levels were decreased (20-50%) in parental HepG2 cells but were not significantly altered in the HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Furthermore, rictor knockdown decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser 473) by 40-60% upon rapamycin pretreatment. GS activity followed similar trends as that of phosphorylated Akt and so with rictor levels in these cells pretreated with rapamycin; parental HepG2 cells showed a decrease in GS activity, whereas as HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells showed an increase in GS activity. The changes in the levels of phosphorylated Akt/PKB (Ser 473) correlated with GS and protein phoshatase-1 activity

172

In situ disappearance of malate from alfalfa and bermudagrass hay.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of malate and dry matter disappearance from different forages in the rumen. Four nonlactating, ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were fed a hay-based diet. Samples of early and late harvested alfalfa, Coastal bermudagrass, and Tifton 85 bermudagrass hays were ground, placed in nylon in situ bags, and ruminally incubated for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. After incubation, samples were rinsed, freeze-dried, extracted, and analyzed for malate content by HPLC with an organic acid column. When forages were incubated in the rumen, malate concentrations were less than 0.55 mg/g of dry matter at 0.5 h and remained low for the 48-h incubation period. These results suggest that malate was solublized and utilized within 30 min after reaching the rumen. Dry matter digestibility of both forages increased with time and was different across forages. Both alfalfa samples were digested to a greater extent between 0.5 and 24 h than either type of bermudagrass, but after 48 h the early maturity Tifton 85 digestibility was similar to alfalfa. Even though it is more common to feed unground forages to ruminants, these in situ results suggest that once malate is available in the rumen it will disappear quickly. PMID:10714866

Martin, S A; Bertrand, J A; Sauls, B; Hill, G M

2000-02-01

173

Observation by 13C NMR of the EPSP synthase tetrahedral intermediate bound to the enzyme active site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Direct observation of the tetrahedral intermediate in the EPSP synthase reaction pathway was provided by 13C NMR by examining the species bound to the enzyme active site under internal equilibrium conditions and using [2-13C]PEP as a spectroscopic probe. The tetrahedral center of the intermediate bound to the enzyme gave a unique signal appearing at 104 ppm. Separate signals were observed for free EPSP and EPSP bound to the enzyme in a ternary complex with phosphate. These peak assignments account for the quantitation of the species bound to the enzyme and liberated upon quenching with either triethylamine or base. A comparison of quenching with acid, base, or triethylamine was conducted. After long times of incubation during the NMR measurement, a signal at 107 ppm appeared. The compound giving rise to this resonance was isolated and identified as an EPSP ketal. The rate of formation of the EPSP ketal was very slow establishing that it is a side product of the normal enzymatic reaction. To look for additional signals that might arise from a covalent adduct which has been postulated to arise from reaction of enzyme with PEP, and NMR experiment was performed with an analogue of S3P lacking the 4- and 5-hydroxyl groups. All of these results reaffirm identification of the tetrahedral species as the only observable intermediate in the EPSP synthase reaction

174

Observation by sup 13 C NMR of the EPSP synthase tetrahedral intermediate bound to the enzyme active site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Direct observation of the tetrahedral intermediate in the EPSP synthase reaction pathway was provided by {sup 13}C NMR by examining the species bound to the enzyme active site under internal equilibrium conditions and using (2-{sup 13}C)PEP as a spectroscopic probe. The tetrahedral center of the intermediate bound to the enzyme gave a unique signal appearing at 104 ppm. Separate signals were observed for free EPSP and EPSP bound to the enzyme in a ternary complex with phosphate. These peak assignments account for the quantitation of the species bound to the enzyme and liberated upon quenching with either triethylamine or base. A comparison of quenching with acid, base, or triethylamine was conducted. After long times of incubation during the NMR measurement, a signal at 107 ppm appeared. The compound giving rise to this resonance was isolated and identified as an EPSP ketal. The rate of formation of the EPSP ketal was very slow establishing that it is a side product of the normal enzymatic reaction. To look for additional signals that might arise from a covalent adduct which has been postulated to arise from reaction of enzyme with PEP, and NMR experiment was performed with an analogue of S3P lacking the 4- and 5-hydroxyl groups. All of these results reaffirm identification of the tetrahedral species as the only observable intermediate in the EPSP synthase reaction.

Anderson, K.S.; Sammons, R.D.; Leo, G.C.; Sikorski, J.A. (Monsanto Agricultural Company, St. Louis, MO (USA)); Benesi, A.J.; Johnson, K.A. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

1990-02-13

175

Inhibition of the thioesterase activity of human fatty acid synthase by 1,4- and 9,10-diones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is the enzyme that synthesizes fatty acids de novo in human cells. Although FASN is generally expressed at low levels in most normal tissues, its expression is highly upregulated in many cancers. Consistent with this notion, inhibition of FASN activity has demonstrated potential to halt proliferation and induce cell death in vitro and to block tumor growth in vivo. Consequently, FASN is widely recognized as a valuable therapeutic target. In this report, we describe a variety of 1,4-quinones and 9,10-anthraquinones, including several natural compounds and some newly synthesized compounds, that potently inhibit the thioesterase (TE) domain of FASN. Inhibition of recombinant TE activity, inhibition of cellular FASN, and cytotoxicity in human prostate cancer cell lines and normal fibroblasts, is shown for the most potent inhibitors. Collectively, the data illustrate the novel inhibitory capacity of the 1,4-quinone and 9,10-anthraquinone pharmacophores against FASN. PMID:25177021

Odens, Herman; Lowther, Todd; Kridel, Steven; Watts, Laura; Filipponi, Lauren; Schmitt, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

176

The effect of intermittent cryotherapy on the activities of citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase in regenerating skeletal muscle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the effect of three sessions of cryotherapy (three sessions of 30 minutes applied each 2 h and muscle compression in the regenerating skeletal muscle of the rats. The middle belly of tibialis anterior muscle was injured by a frozen iron bar and received one of the following intervention: injury + cryotherapy (treated with cryotherapy; injury + placebo (sand pack, and injury (I.The enzymatic activities of citrate synthase (CS and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were measured in the presence of 1mM or 10mM pyruvate. The ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05 were performed for the statistical analysis. In summary, the intermittent sessions of cryotherapy, associated to muscle compression and applied immediately after the primary muscle injury minimized the CS and LDH activity at 4h30 and 24h periods post-lesion, which could be related to the reduction in the secondary muscle injury inherent to cryotherapy treatment.

Nuno Miguel Lopes de Oliveira

2013-02-01

177

[Small doses of X-ray irradiation activate the NO-synthase component of the nitric oxide cycle].  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been shown that chronic X-ray irradiation, (CRI), activates the formation of NO in rats. This is apparent in the increase in the level of NO2- in the blood plasma from 12.59 +/- 1.7 to 39.79 +/- 2.9 nmol/ml after 10 days of irradiation. On the 20 and 30 day of CRI, the level of NO2(-)- was 21.05 +/- 1.2 and 30.73 +/- 1.9 nmol/ml respectively. The changes in the NO-synthase component of the NO cycle were accompanied by a decrease in the osmotic resistance of the erythrocytes and the nitritreductase activity of hemoglobin. PMID:12754805

Korobov, V N; Sorokina, L V; Korobova, O V; Datsiuk, L A

2003-01-01

178

Hexose-independent activation of glycogen synthase and pyruvate dehydrogenase by insulin is dissociated in the mouse BC3H-1 cell line.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied the effects of insulin on several aspects of cell metabolism in the insulin-sensitive, nonfusing muscle cell line BC3H-1. In the absence of exogenous hexose, insulin did not alter basal glycogen synthase percentage I activity, or attenuate the increase in intracellular cAMP content, the activation of glycogen phosphorylase a, or the decrease in glycogen synthase I brought about by beta-adrenergic receptor activation with epinephrine. In contrast, both insulin and the tumor-promoting phorbol ester, tetradecanoylyl phorbol acetate markedly increased mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in the absence of hexose. Both glycogen synthase phosphatase and glycogen synthase kinase activities were present in BC3H-1 cell extracts and were regulated in the expected manner by glucose 6-phosphate and cAMP, respectively. Since the pattern of partial insulin resistance seen in BC3H-1 myocytes would require that several potentially insulin-sensitive enzymes be insensitive to insulin-generated signals, the most likely explanation for these data is that the myocytes are defective in some mechanism of insulin signaling which is independent of the mechanism for pyruvate dehydrogenase activation. PMID:2431265

Luttrell, L M; Rogol, A D

1986-12-01

179

Phosphorylation and activation of calcineurin by glycogen synthase (casein) kinase-1 and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcineurin is a phosphoprotein phosphatase that is activated by divalent cations and further stimulated by calmodulin. In this study calcineurin is shown to be a substrate for both glycogen synthase (casein) kinase-1 (CK-1) and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase). Either kinase can catalyze the incorporation of 1.0-1.4 mol 32P/mol calcineurin. Analysis by SDS-PAGE revealed that only the ? subunit is phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of calcineurin by either kinase leads to its activation. Using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as a substrate the authors observed a 2-3 fold activation of calcineurin by either Mn2+ or Ni2+ (in the presence or absence of calmodulin) after phosphorylation of calcineurin by either CK-1 or A-kinase. In the absence of Mn2+ or Ni2+ phosphorylated calcineurin, like the nonphosphorylated enzyme, showed very little activity. Ni2+ was a more potent activator of phosphorylated calcineurin compared to Mn2+. Higher levels of activation (5-8 fold) of calcineurin by calmodulin was observed when phosphorylated calcineurin was pretreated with Ni2+ before measurement of phosphatase activity. These results indicate that phosphorylation may be an important mechanism by which calcineurin activity is regulated by Ca2+

180

The lazaroid, U-74389G, inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, reverses vascular failure and protects against endotoxin shock.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of the 21-aminosteroid U-74389G [21- < 4-(2,6-di-1-pyrrolidinyl-4-pyrimidinyl)-1-piperazinyl-pregna-1,4,9,(11) triene-3,20-dione(z)-2-butenedionate] on the l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in a rat model of endotoxin shock. Endotoxin shock was produced in male rats by a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of 20 mg/kg of Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats were treated with U-74389G (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg i.v.) or vehicle (1 ml/kg i.v.) 5 min after endotoxin challenge. Lipopolysaccharide administration reduced survival rate (0%, 72 h after endotoxin administration) decreased mean arterial blood pressure, enhanced plasma concentration of bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase and increased plasma nitrite concentrations. Lipopolysaccharide injection also increased the activity of inducible NO synthase in the liver and in the aorta. Furthermore aortic rings from shocked rats showed a marked hyporeactivity to phenylephrine (1 nM-10 microM). In addition lipopolysaccharide (50 microg/ml for 4 h) in vitro stimulation significantly increased nitrite production in peritoneal macrophages harvested from normal rats. Treatment with U-74389G (15 and 30 mg/kg i.v., 5 min after endotoxin challenge) significantly protected against lipopolysaccharide-induced lethality (90% survival rate 24 h and 80% 72 h after lipopolysaccharide injection, respectively, following the highest dose of the drug), reduced hypotension, ameliorated liver function, decreased plasma nitrite levels, restored the hyporeactivity of aortic rings to their control values and inhibited the activity of inducible NO synthase in the liver and in the aorta. Finally, U-74389G in vitro (12.5, 25 and 50 microM) significantly inhibited nitrite production in endotoxin stimulated peritoneal macrophages. The data suggest that U-74389G may exert beneficial effects in an experimental model of septic shock by inhibiting the activity of the inducible NO synthase. PMID:10204681

Altavilla, D; Squadrito, F; Campo, G M; Squadrito, G; Arlotta, M; Urna, G; Sardella, A; Quartarone, C; Saitta, A; Caputi, A P

1999-03-12

 
 
 
 
181

Doubling the CO{sub 2} concentration enhanced the activity of carbohydrate-metabolism enzymes, source carbohydrate production, photoassimilate transport, and sink strength for Opuntia ficus-indica  

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After exposure to a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration of 750 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} air for about 3 months, glucose and starch in the chlorenchyma of basal cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased 175 and 57%, respectively, compared with the current CO{sub 2} concentration of 370 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}, but sucrose content was virtually unaffected. Doubling the CO{sub 2} concentration increased the noncturnal malate production in basal cladodes by 75%, inorganic phosphate (Pi) by 32% soluble starch synthase activity by 30%, and sucrose-Pi synthase activity by 146%, but did not affect the activity of hexokinase. Doubling CO{sub 2} accelerated phloem transport of sucrose out of the basal cladodes, resulting in a 73% higher dry weight for the daughter cladodes. Doubling CO{sub 2} increased the glucose content in 14-d-old daughter cladodes by 167%, increased nocturnal malate production by 22%, decreased total amino acid content by 61%, and increased soluble starch synthase activity by 30% and sucrose synthase activity by 62%. No downward acclimation of photosynthesis during long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations occurs for O. ficus-indica, consistent with its higher source capacity and sink strength than under current CO{sub 2}. These changes apparently do not result in Pi limitation of photosynthesis or suppression of genes governing photosynthesis for this perennial Crassulacean acid metabolism species, as occur for some annual crops.

Wang, Ning; Nobel, P.S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1996-03-01

182

Integrin ?2?1 Promotes Activation of Protein Phosphatase 2A and Dephosphorylation of Akt and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3?  

Science.gov (United States)

Serine/threonine kinase Akt is a downstream effector protein of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3K). Many integrins can function as positive modulators of the PI-3K/Akt pathway. Integrin ?2?1 is a collagen receptor that has been shown to induce specific signals distinct from those activated by other integrins. Here, we found that, in contrast what was found for cells adherent to fibronectin, ?2?1-mediated cell adhesion to collagen leads to dephosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) and concomitantly to the induction of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity. PP2A activation can be inhibited by mutation in the ?2 cytoplasmic domain and by a function-blocking anti-?2 antibody. Akt can be coprecipitated with PP2A, and coexpression of Akt with PP2Ac (catalytic subunit) inhibits Akt kinase activity. Integrin ?2?1-related activation of PP2A is dependent on Cdc42. These results indicate that cell adhesion to collagen modulates Akt activity via the ?2?1-induced activation of PP2A. PMID:11839802

Ivaska, Johanna; Nissinen, Liisa; Immonen, Nina; Eriksson, John E.; Kahari, Veli-Matti; Heino, Jyrki

2002-01-01

183

Multitracer Stable Isotope Quantification of Arginase and Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in a Mouse Model of Pseudomonas Lung Infection  

Science.gov (United States)

Cystic fibrosis airways are deficient for L-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and arginases. The rationale for this study was to quantify NOS and arginase activity in the mouse lung. Anesthetized unventilated mice received a primed constant stable isotope intravenous infusion containing labeled L-arginine, ornithine, and citrulline. The isotopic enrichment of each of the infused isotopomers and its product amino acids were measured in plasma and organ homogenates using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The effect of infection was studied three days after direct tracheal instillation of Pseudomonas-coated agar beads. In the infusion model, lung infection resulted in a significant (28-fold) increase in NOS activity in lung but not in trachea, kidney, liver, or plasma. Absolute rates of arginase activity in solid tissues could not be calculated in this model. In an isolated lung perfusion model used for comparison increased NOS activity in infected lungs was confirmed (28.5-fold) and lung arginase activity was increased 9.7-fold. The activity of L-arginine metabolizing enzymes can be measured using stable isotope conversion in the mouse. Accumulation of L-ornithine in the whole mouse model hindered the exact quantification of arginase activity in the lung, a problem that was overcome utilizing an isolated lung perfusion model. PMID:25177109

Grasemann, Hartmut; Rafii, Mahroukh; Pencharz, Paul

2014-01-01

184

Role of glutamate 243 in the active site of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase from Bacillus circulans.  

Science.gov (United States)

2-Deoxy-scyllo-inosose (DOI) synthase is involved in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine-containing aminoglycoside antibiotics and catalyzes the carbocyclic formation from d-glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) into DOI. The reaction mechanism is proposed to be similar to that of dehydroquinate (DHQ) synthase in the shikimate pathway, and includes oxidation of C-4, beta-elimination of phosphate, reduction of C-4, ring opening, and intramolecular aldol cyclization. To investigate the reaction mechanism of DOI synthase, site-directed mutational analysis of three presumable catalytically important amino acids of DOI synthase derived from the butirosin producer Bacillus circulans (BtrC) was carried out. Steady state and pre-steady state kinetic analysis suggested that E243 of BtrC is catalytically involved in the phosphate elimination step. Further analysis of the mutant E243Q of BtrC using substrate analogue, glucose-6-phosphonate, clearly confirmed that E243 was responsible to abstract a proton at C-5 in G-6-P and set off phosphate elimination. This glutamate residue is completely conserved in all DOI synthases identified so far and the corresponding amino acid of DHQ synthase is completely conserved as asparagine. Therefore, this characteristic glutamate residue of DOI synthase is a key determinant to distinguish the reaction mechanism between DOI synthase and DHQ synthase as well as primary sequence. PMID:17035031

Hirayama, Toshifumi; Kudo, Fumitaka; Huang, Zhen; Eguchi, Tadashi

2007-01-01

185

A Selective Assay to Detect Chitin and Biologically Active Nano-Machineries for Chitin-Biosynthesis with Their Intrinsic Chitin-Synthase Molecules  

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Full Text Available A new assay system for chitin has been developed. It comprises the chitin-binding protein ChbB in fusion with a His-tag as well as with a Strep-tag, the latter of which was chemically coupled to horseradish peroxidase. With the resulting complex, minimal quantities of chitin are photometrically detectable. In addition, the assay allows rapid scoring of the activity of chitin-synthases. As a result, a refined procedure for the rapid purification of yeast chitosomes (nano-machineries for chitin biosynthesis has been established. Immuno-electronmicroscopical studies of purified chitosomes, gained from a yeast strain carrying a chitin-synthase gene fused to that for GFP (green-fluorescence protein, has led to the in situ localization of chitin-synthase-GFP molecules within chitosomes.

Hildgund Schrempf

2010-09-01

186

Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity improves focal cerebral damage induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in normotensive rats  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Nitric oxide seems to play a dual role in ischemia/reperfusion injury. Few studies have investigated whether it exacerbates or improves brain edema. In the present study, we inhibited the activity of nitric oxide synthase by L-NAME and evaluated the cerebral infarct volume, tissue swelling and brain edema, alongside the measurement of blood flow of the ischemic region. Methods: Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 12 hours reperfusion in rat. Experiments were performed in three groups of rats (n=12 each Sham, control ischemic, and L-NAME pretreated (1 mg/kg IP. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure the regional blood flow. After neurological deficit score (NDS testing, the brains were prepared for TTC staining or brain water content technique to measure the infarct volume and brain edema. Results: Pretreatment with L-NAME significantly reduced NDS (3.66 ± 0.33 to 1.5 ± 0.34, infarct volume of cortex (374 ± 34 to 160 ± 41 mm3 and striatum (158 ± 15 to 87 ± 16 mm3, tissue swelling (7.35 ± 1.27% to 4.05 ± 0.91% and brain edema (3.5 ± 0.48% to 1.6 ± 0.6% without significant alteration of blood flow of the ischemic region. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity reduces infarct volume and brain edema of the ischemic region induced during 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion. This effect is not accompanied with any alteration in the blood flow of the ischemic region.

Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi

2010-03-01

187

Important differences in nitric oxide synthase activity and predominant isoform in reproductive tissues from human and rat  

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Full Text Available Abstract For the extrapolation of data obtained from experimental animals to the human situation, it is important to know the similarities and differences between human and animal species. Some important characteristics of nitric oxide synthase (NOS in myometrium and vagina from human and rat were compared. NOS-activity was measured by the formation of 14C-citrulline from 14C-arginine and the expression of NOS isoforms was examined by Western blotting. NOS activity in human uterus and vagina was significantly lower than in the tissues from rat. In contrast to the rat where NOS activity was predominantly found in the cytosolic fractions, NOS activity in particulate and cytosolic fractions from both human myometrium and vagina was similar. Data from Western blots confirmed that eNOS and nNOS isoforms were concentrated in the particulate and cytosolic fractions, respectively. Estrogen treatment of rats resulted in a down regulation of uterine cytosolic NOS activity. A down regulation of NOS in the cytosolic fraction was also seen in the human pregnant myometrium as compared with the nonpregnant myometrium. The vaginal NOS activity was considerably higher than the uterus in both species. In spite of some clear-cut qualitative and other differences between human and rat tissues, there are some interesting similarities. Downregulation in pregnancy of human uterine NOS is probably due to, at least in part, the influence of estrogen and progesterone.

Al-Hijji J

2003-02-01

188

Constitutive activation of GSK3 down-regulates glycogen synthase abundance and glycogen deposition in rat skeletal muscle cells.  

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The effects of inhibition or constitutive activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) on glycogen synthase (GS) activity, abundance, and glycogen deposition in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells were investigated. GS protein expression increased approximately 5-fold during differentiation of L6 cells (comparing cells at the end of day 5 with those at the beginning of day 3). However, exposure of undifferentiated myoblasts (day 3) to 50 microM SB-415286, a GSK3 inhibitor, led to a significant elevation in GS protein that was not accompanied by changes in the abundance of GLUT4, another late differentiation marker. In contrast, stable expression of a constitutively active form of GSK3beta (GSK3S9A) led to a significant reduction (approximately 80%) in GS protein that was antagonized by SB-415286. Inhibition of GSK3 or expression of the constitutively active GSK3S9A did not result in any detectable changes in GS mRNA abundance. However, the increase in GS protein in undifferentiated myoblasts or that seen following incubation of cells expressing GSK3S9A with GSK3 inhibitors was blocked by cycloheximide suggesting that GSK3 influences GS abundance possibly via control of mRNA translation. Consistent with the reduction in GS protein, cells expressing GSK3S9A were severely glycogen depleted as judged using a specific glycogen-staining antibody. Inhibiting GSK3 in wild-type or GSK3S9A-expressing cells using SB-415286 resulted in an attendant activation of GS, but not that of glucose transport. However, GS activation alone was insufficient for stimulating glycogen deposition. Only when muscle cells were incubated simultaneously with insulin and SB-415286 or with lithium (which stimulates GS and glucose transport) was an increase in glycogen accretion observed. Our findings suggest that GSK3 activity is an important determinant of GS protein expression and that while glycogen deposition in muscle cells is inherently dependent upon the activity/expression of GS, glucose transport is a key rate-determining step in this process. PMID:15632169

MacAulay, Katrina; Blair, Anne S; Hajduch, Eric; Terashima, Tatsuo; Baba, Otto; Sutherland, Calum; Hundal, Harinder S

2005-03-11

189

Malic Acid Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Engineering of Pyruvate Carboxylation, Oxaloacetate Reduction, and Malate Export:  

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Malic acid is a potential biomass-derivable "building block" for chemical synthesis. Since wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produce only low levels of malate, metabolic engineering is required to achieve efficient malate production with this yeast. A promising pathway for malate production from glucose proceeds via carboxylation of pyruvate, followed by reduction of oxaloacetate to malate. This redox- and ATP-neutral, CO(2)-fixing pathway has a theoretical maximum yield of 2 mol mal...

Zelle, R. M.; Hulster, E.; Winden, W. A.; Waard, P.; Dijkema, C.; Winkler, A. A.; Geertman, J. M.; Dijken, J. P.; Pronk, J. T.; Maris, A. J. A.

2008-01-01

190

Relayed 13C magnetization transfer. Detection of malate dehydrogenase reaction in vivo  

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Malate dehydrogenase catalyzes rapid interconversion between dilute metabolites oxaloacetate and malate. Both oxaloacetate and malate are below the detection threshold of in vivo MRS. Oxaloacetate is also in rapid exchange with aspartate catalyzed by aspartate aminotransferase, the latter metabolite is observable in vivo using 13C MRS. We hypothesized that the rapid turnover of oxaloacetate can effectively relay perturbation of magnetization between malate and aspartate. Here we report indire...

Yang, Jehoon; Shen, Jun

2007-01-01

191

Overexpression of erg20 gene encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase has contrasting effects on activity of enzymes of the dolichyl and sterol branches of mevalonate pathway in Trichoderma reesei.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mevalonate pathway is the most diverse metabolic route resulting in the biosynthesis of at least 30,000 isoprenoid compounds, many of which, such as sterols or dolichols, are indispensable for living cells. In the filamentous fungus Trichoderma of major biotechnological interest isoprenoid metabolites are also involved in the biocontrol processes giving the mevalonate pathway an additional significance. On the other hand, little is known about genes coding for enzymes of the mevalonate pathway in Trichoderma. Here, we present cloning and functional analysis of the erg20 gene from Trichoderma reesei coding for farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) synthase (EC 2.5.1.10), an enzyme located at the branching point of the mevalonate pathway. Expression of the gene in a thermosensitive erg20-2 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae impaired in the FPP synthase activity suppressed the thermosensitive phenotype. The same gene overexpressed in T. reesei significantly enhanced the FPP synthase activity and also stimulated the activity of cis-prenyltransferase, an enzyme of the dolichyl branch of the mevalonate pathway. Unexpectedly, the activity of squalene synthase from the other, sterol branch, was significantly decreased without, however, affecting ergosterol level. PMID:24793581

Pi?syk, Sebastian; Perli?ska-Lenart, Urszula; Górka-Nie?, Wioletta; Graczyk, Sebastian; Antosiewicz, Beata; Zembek, Patrycja; Palamarczyk, Gra?yna; Kruszewska, Joanna S

2014-07-10

192

Nitric oxide in the bovine oviduct: influence on contractile activity and nitric oxide synthase isoforms localization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The oviducts of 64 Holstein cows in luteal (early I, early II and late) and follicular phases were evaluated to determine the protein expression and mRNA transcription of different nitric oxide synthase isoforms (eNOS, iNOS, nNOS) as well as the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on spontaneous contractility in vitro. The expression patterns of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in isthmus and ampulla (n = 6 for each phase) were determined by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. In the contractility studies, longitudinal and circular isolated strips of isthmus and ampulla (n = 10 for each phase) of oviducts located ipsilateral to the luteal structure or preovulatory follicle were treated as follows: a) L-arginine, an endogenous NO donor (10(-8) to 10(-3)m), b) N(?)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a NOS inhibitor (10(-5)m) and L-arginine (10(-3)m), c) methylene blue (MB), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate (10(-5)m) and L-arginine (10(-3)m) and d) sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an exogenous NO donor (10(-8) to 10(-4)m). Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed that endothelial NOS (eNOS) expression detected in epithelial layer of isthmus and ampulla was strong in early I luteal phase, moderate in follicular phase and weak in other phases. Neuronal NOS (nNOS) immunoreactivity was strong in isthmus and moderate in ampulla, and staining of nerve fibers was observed mostly in early I luteal and follicular phases. All eNOS, nNOS and inducible NOS (iNOS) isoforms were detected by RT-PCR. eNOS and iNOS proteins were evident, whereas nNOS was undetectable by Western blot analysis in the tissue examined. L-arginine applied alone or after L-NAME did not alter or increase the contractile tension of the strips in most tissues examined. However, L-arginine applied after MB increased contractile tension in the strips of ampulla and longitudinal isthmus from early I luteal phase and circular isthmus from follicular phase but decreased it in isthmus from early II luteal phase. SNP differentially modulated oviductal contraction depending on the type of muscular strips and period examined. These results showed the estrous phase-dependent changes related to endogenous NO system which might be of physiological importance to the oviduct for secretory and ciliary functions involved in gametes and embryo(s) transportation. PMID:22225690

Yilmaz, O; Ca?ka, J; Bukowski, R; Zalecki, M; Wasowicz, K; Jaroszewski, J J; Markiewicz, W; Bulbul, A; Ucar, M

2012-04-15

193

Insulin alters cAMP-activated lipolysis but not cAMP-inhibited glycogen synthase in permeabilized adipocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lipolysis and, to a lesser extent, glycogen synthase activity are regulated in adipocytes by cellular cAMP and counter-regulated by insulin. These activities were measured in situ in digitonin (20 ?g/ml) permeabilized rat adipocytes. Incorporation of 3H UDP-glucose into endogenous glycogen in the presence of KF, EDTA and 10mM glucose-6-phosphate was the basis of the G.S. assay. Cellular GS activity determined by this technique was 1.4 +/- 0.2 fold greater than that of matched homogenates. Insulin treatment of intact cells prior to permeabilization increased GS activity ratio (-/+ G-6-P) 2.5 fold when subsequently measured by the in situ assay. Following digitonin permeabilization, addition of cAMP to the suspension medium increased lipolysis 7 fold and decreased GS activity ratio to 0.38 +/- 0.01 from a basal value of 0.44 +/- 0.06. ATP had a negligible effect on lipolysis but decreased GS to 0.16 +/- 0.04. ATP plus cAMP was only slightly more effective on GS than ATP alone. Insulin at 10-9M inhibited cAMP-dependent lipolysis by 27% but had no effect on the cAMP- or ATP-dependent decrease in GS. These results suggest that insulin's counter-regulatory mechanisms on these two cAMP-dependent processes may be different

194

Involvement of Salicylic Acid on Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties, Anthocyanin Production and Chalcone Synthase Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Varieties  

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The effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (10?3 M and 10?5 M) was investigated on the production of secondary metabolites (flavonoids), chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity (against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) in two varieties of Malaysian ginger, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that application of SA induc...

Ehsan Karimi; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ali Ghasemzadeh

2012-01-01

195

Effect of malate on in vitro mixed ruminal microorganism fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of DL-malate (disodium salt) on the in vitro mixed ruminal microorganism fermentation of soluble starch or cracked corn. Ruminal fluid was collected from a steer fed 6.8 kg of forage and 2.3 kg of concentrate supplement once daily, and mixed ruminal microorganisms were incubated in anaerobic media (40 mL) that contained 20% (vol/vol) ruminal fluid in batch culture for 24 h at 39 degrees C. Malate was added to the incubation bottles (n = 4) to achieve final concentrations of 0, 4, 8, and 12 mM. When mixed ruminal microorganisms were incubated with only DL-malate as the substrate, final pH numerically increased, propionate and total VFA concentrations increased (P Fermentation of cracked corn in the presence of 8 or 12 mM DL-malate resulted in an increase (P ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7592102

Martin, S A; Streeter, M N

1995-07-01

196

Essential histidyl residues at the active site(s) of sucrose-phosphate synthase from Prosopis juliflora.  

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Chemical modification of sucrose-phosphate synthase (EC 2.4.1.14) from Prosopis juliflora by diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEP) and photo-oxidation in the presence of rose bengal (RB) which modify the histidyl residues of the protein resulted in the inactivation of the enzyme activity. This inactivation was dependent on the concentration of the modifying reagent and the time of incubation and followed pseudo-first order kinetics. For both the reagents, the inactivation was maximum at pH 7.5, which is consistent with the involvement and presence of histidine residues at the active site of the enzyme. Substrates, UDPG and F6P protected the enzyme against the inactivation by the modifying reagents suggesting that the histidine residues may be involved in the binding of these substrates and are essential for the catalytic activity. Specificity of DEP was indicated by an increase in absorbance at 240 nm along with concomitant inactivation of the enzyme and reactivation of the modified enzyme by hydroxylamine. These results strongly suggest the presence of histidine residue(s) at or near the active site of the enzyme. PMID:9858774

Sinha, A K; Pathre, U V; Sane, P V

1998-11-10

197

Role of dietary fish oil on nitric oxide synthase activity and oxidative status in mice red blood cells.  

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The consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from fish oil concomitant with a reduced intake of saturated fats is associated with cardiovascular benefits, which may result from the participation of nitric oxide (NO). In contrast, PUFAs are vulnerable to peroxidation, which could affect the oxidative stability of the cell and reduce NO bioavailability. Therefore, we investigated the effects of high fat diets with increasing amounts of fish oil (0-40% of energy) in place of lard on the l-arginine-NO pathway, the arginase pathway and oxidative status in mice red blood cells (RBC). We found that l-arginine transport, as well as NO synthase (NOS) expression and activity, was enhanced by the highest doses of fish oil (30 and 40%). In contrast, diets rich in lard led to NOS expression and activity impairment. Arginase expression was not significantly affected by any of the dietary regimens. No significant difference in protein and lipid oxidative markers was observed among any of the fish-oil fed mice; only lard feeding induced protein damage in addition to a decreased superoxide dismutase activity. These data suggest that a substantial dose of fish oil, but not low doses, activates the RBC l-arginine-NO pathway without resulting in oxidative damage. PMID:25317541

Martins, Marcela A; Moss, Monique B; Mendes, Iara K S; Aguila, Márcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Brunini, Tatiana M C; Mendes-Ribeiro, Antônio Cláudio

2014-11-19

198

Activation of cytoprotective prostaglandin synthase-1 by minoxidil as a possible explanation for its hair growth-stimulating effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from the literature indicate that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as indomethacin, naproxen, piroxicam, or ibuprofen, induce hair loss in vivo. These NSAIDs are well-known inhibitors of both the cytoprotective isoform of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-1 (PGHS-1) and of the inducible form (PGHS-2). By immunohistochemical staining, we found that PGHS-1 is the main isoform present in the dermal papilla from normal human hair follicle (either anagen or catagen), whereas PGHS-2 was only faintly and exclusively expressed in anagen dermal papilla. Thus, PGHS-1 might be the primary target of the hair growth-inhibitory effects of NSAIDs. We thus speculated that activation of PGHS-1 might be a mechanism by which minoxidil (2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine-3-oxyde) stimulates hair growth in vivo. We demonstrate here that minoxidil is a potent activator of purified PGHS-1 (AC50 = 80 microM), as assayed by oxygen consumption and PGE2 production. This activation was also evidenced by increased PGE2 production by BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts and by human dermal papilla fibroblasts in culture. Our findings suggest that minoxidil and its derivatives may have a cytoprotective activity in vivo and that more potent second-generation hair growth-promoting drugs might be designed, based on this mechanism. PMID:9008235

Michelet, J F; Commo, S; Billoni, N; Mahé, Y F; Bernard, B A

1997-02-01

199

Wound healing activity and docking of glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-beta-protein with isolated triterpenoid lupeol in rats.  

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A triterpene compound lupeol isolated from petroleum ether extract of leaves of Celastrus paniculatus was screened for wound healing activity (8 mg/ml of 0.2% sodium alginate gel) by excision, incision and dead space wound models on Swiss Albino rats (175-225 g). In lupeol treated groups wound healing activity was more significant (17.83+/-0.48) than the standard skin ointment nitrofurazone (18.33+/-0.42). Epithelialization of the incision wound was faster with a high rate of wound contraction (571.50+/-5.07) as compared with the control group. In dead space wound model also the weight of the granulation tissue of the lupeol treated animal was increased indicating increase of collagenation and absence of monocytes. The comparative docking of isolated lupeol molecule and standard drug nitrofurazone to glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta protein by Wnt signaling pathway also supported the wound healing property of lupeol. The activation domain of GSK3-beta consisted of Tyr216, with residues Asn64, Gly65, Ser66, Phe67, Gly68, Val70, Lys85, Leu132, Val135, Asp181 in the active pocket docked with lupeol at the torsional degree of freedom 0.5 units with Lamarckian genetic algorithm showed the inhibition constant of 1.38 x 10(-7). The inhibition constant of nitrofurazone was only 1.35 x 10(-4). PMID:18222664

Harish, B G; Krishna, V; Santosh Kumar, H S; Khadeer Ahamed, B M; Sharath, R; Kumara Swamy, H M

2008-09-01

200

Concurrent and sequential administration of sunitinib malate and docetaxel in human non-small cell lung cancer cells and xenografts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimal scheduling of chemotherapy with molecular-targeted agents is important to maximize clinical benefit. We compared the effects of concurrent and sequential administration of docetaxel and multi-target inhibitor sunitinib malate on tumor cells and xenografts and studied several mechanisms involved in drug interaction to provide experimental data in support of their clinical use in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), NCI-H460 human non-small lung carcinomas cells, and NCI-H460 xenograft were treated with docetaxel and Sunitinib malate, using concurrent and sequential treatment schedules. Cell proliferation was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)- 2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Cell cycle analysis was conducted using flow cytometry. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) phosphorylation was evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Effects on xenografts were assessed by tumor growth delay. There were no significant difference in the cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution of NCI-H460 cells between concurrent treatment and the first sequential treatment. Both docetaxel and sunitinib malate had no effect on each other in inhibiting ERK1/2 phosphorylation in sequential treatments, while docetaxel eliminated inhibitory activity of sunitinib malate on ERK1/2 phosphorylation in concurrent treatment. For NCI-H460 xenografts, the first sequential treatment showed superior effect to concurrent treatment on inhibiting tumor growth. Combined treatment with sunitinib malate and docetaxel had a greater therapeutic effect than monotherapy, and the first sequential scheduling was more effective than concurrent scheduling, which partly due to the effect of docetaxel on receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling pathway. PMID:21455800

Wang, Dongchun; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Luyong

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

A hypoxia-responsive element mediates a novel pathway of activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase promoter.  

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Picolinic acid, a catabolite of L-tryptophan, activates the transcription of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene (iNOS) in IFN-gamma-treated murine macrophages. We performed functional studies on the 5' flanking region of the iNOS gene linked to a CAT reporter gene to identify the cis-acting element(s) responsible for the activation of iNOS transcription by picolinic acid. Transient transfection assays showed that the full-length iNOS promoter in the murine macrophage cell line ANA-1 was activated by the synergistic interaction between IFN-gamma and picolinic acid. Deletion or mutation of the iNOS promoter region from -227 to -209, containing a sequence homology to a hypoxia-responsive enhancer (iNOS-HRE), decreased picolinic acid- but not LPS-induced CAT activity by more than 70%. Functional studies using a tk promoter-CAT reporter gene plasmid demonstrated that the iNOS-HRE was sufficient to confer inducibility by picolinic acid but not by IFN-gamma or LPS. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that picolinic acid alone induced a specific binding activity to the iNOS-HRE. Furthermore, we found that the iNOS-HRE activity was inducible by hypoxia and that hypoxia in combination with IFN-gamma activated the iNOS promoter in transient transfection assays and induced iNOS transcription and mRNA expression. These data establish that the iNOS-HRE is a novel regulatory element of the iNOS promoter activity in murine macrophages and provide the first evidence that iNOS is a hypoxia-inducible gene. PMID:7500013

Melillo, G; Musso, T; Sica, A; Taylor, L S; Cox, G W; Varesio, L

1995-12-01

202

NMR Crystallography of Enzyme Active Sites: Probing Chemically-Detailed, Three-Dimensional Structure in Tryptophan Synthase  

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Conspectus NMR crystallography – the synergistic combination of X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and computational chemistry – offers unprecedented insight into three-dimensional, chemically-detailed structure. From its initial role in refining diffraction data of organic and inorganic solids, NMR crystallography is now being developed for application to active sites in biomolecules, where it reveals chemically-rich detail concerning the interactions between enzyme site residues and the reacting substrate that is not achievable when X-ray, NMR, or computational methodologies are applied in isolation. For example, typical X-ray crystal structures (1.5 to 2.5 Å resolution) of enzyme-bound intermediates identify possible hydrogen-bonding interactions between site residues and substrate, but do not directly identify the protonation state of either. Solid-state NMR can provide chemical shifts for selected atoms of enzyme-substrate complexes, but without a larger structural framework in which to interpret them, only empirical correlations with local chemical structure are possible. Ab initio calculations and molecular mechanics can build models for enzymatic processes, but rely on chemical details that must be specified. Together, however, X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and computational chemistry can provide consistent and testable models for structure and function of enzyme active sites: X-ray crystallography provides a coarse framework upon which models of the active site can be developed using computational chemistry; these models can be distinguished by comparison of their calculated NMR chemical shifts with the results of solid-state NMR spectroscopy experiments. Conceptually, each technique is a puzzle piece offering a generous view of the big picture. Only when correctly pieced together, however, can they reveal the big picture at highest resolution. In this Account, we detail our first steps in the development of NMR crystallography for application to enzyme catalysis. We begin with a brief introduction to NMR crystallography and then define the process that we have employed to probe the active site in the ?-subunit of tryptophan synthase with unprecedented atomic-level resolution. This approach has resulted in a novel structural hypothesis for the protonation state of the quinonoid intermediate in tryptophan synthase and its surprising role in directing the next step in the catalysis of L-Trp formation. PMID:23537227

Dunn, Michael F.

2013-01-01

203

Neuroprotective Effect of a Prostacyclin Agonist (ONO-1301 with Thromboxane Synthase Inhibitory Activity in Rats Subjected to Cerebral Ischemia  

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Full Text Available ONO-1301 has been developed as a novel long-acting prostacyclin agonist with thromboxane synthase inhibitory activity. In the present study, we investigated the cerebroprotective effect of ONO-1301 on post-ischemic injury induced by cerebral ischemia in rats. ONO-1301 (1 and 10 mg/kg was administrated orally at reperfusion and then twice a day for 42 days. The cell damage induced by cerebral ischemia in the hippocampal CA1 was evaluated using both Nissl staining and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA staining on the 42 days after cerebral ischemia. Activated astrocytes were evaluated using immunofluorescence staining with GFAP on the 42 days after cerebral ischemia. Spatial learning was assessed using a Morris water maze (MWM task on the 56 days (i.e. after a 14 days washout period. ONO-1301- treated rats (1 and 10 mg/kg significantly improved cell death in the hippocampal CA1, the number of PCNA-positive cells and astrocyte activation. The spatial learning of ONO-1301-treated rats compared with vehicle- treated rats in the MWM task. These results suggest that repeated treatment with oral ONO-1301 could prevent or limit post-ischemic brain damage. In particular, treatment with ONO-1301 within 7 days after ischemia is most effective to improve ischemic damage.

Mai Hazekawa

2011-10-01

204

Toxoplasma gondii infection of activated J774-A1 macrophages causes inducible nitric oxide synthase degradation by the proteasome pathway.  

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Classically activated macrophages produce nitric oxide (NO), which is a potent microbicidal agent. NO production is catalyzed by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which uses arginine as substrate producing NO and citruline. However, it has been demonstrated that NO production is inhibited after macrophage infection of Toxoplasma gondii, the agent of toxoplasmosis, due to iNOS degradation. Three possible iNOS degradation pathways have been described in activated macrophages: proteasome, calpain and lysosomal. To identify the iNOS degradation pathway after T. gondii infection, J774-A1 macrophage cell line was activated with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma for 24 h, treated with the following inhibitors, lactacystin (proteasome), calpeptin (calpain), or concanamycin A (lysosomal), and infected with the parasite. NO production and iNOS expression were evaluated after 2 and 6 h of infection. iNOS was degraded in J774-A1 macrophages infected with T. gondii. However, treatment with lactacystin maintained iNOS expression in J774-A1 macrophages infected for 2 h by T. gondii, and after 6 h iNOS was localized in aggresomes. iNOS was degraded after parasite infection of J774-A1 macrophages treated with calpeptin or concanamycin A. NO production confirmed iNOS expression profiles. These results indicate that T. gondii infection of J774-A1 macrophages caused iNOS degradation by the proteasome pathway. PMID:24845536

Padrão, Juliana da Cruz; Cabral, Gabriel Rabello de Abreu; da Silva, Maria de Fátima Sarro; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

2014-10-01

205

Determination of delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthase activity in human bone marrow using high performance liquid chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is described for the rapid and specific determination of the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthase (ALA-S) in mitochondria prepared by sonication of human bone marrow cells. After incubation with 14C-?-ketoglutarate the 14C-delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) formed is converted to a pyrrole derivative, 2-methyl-3-carbethoxy-4-(3-propionic acid) pyrrole. This is isolated by reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography on a Hypersil-SAS column with methanol-water (45:155, v/v) in the presence of 0.005 mol/l l-heptanesulphonic acid (PIC B-7) as the mobile phase. The radioactivity of the isolated pyrrole is determined by scintillation counting. The optimal substrate concentration and pH were 0.17 mmol/l ?-ketoglutarate and pH 7.4, with an optimal period of sonication of 18s. Under these conditions ALA production was proportional to the concentrations of erythroblasts in the initial sample and was linear with time up to 60 min. The addition of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) did not affect ALA-S activity in normal subjects. The mean ALA-S activity in 10 haematologically normal control subjects was found to be 318.8 pmol.10-6 erythroblasts.h-1 (S.D. +- 125.8, range 193-444.6). (Auth.)

206

Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain folate metabolism and pseudouridine synthase gene mutants modulate macrophage caspase-1 activation.  

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Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of the disease tularemia. Escape of F. tularensis from the phagosome into the cytosol of the macrophage triggers the activation of the AIM2 inflammasome through a mechanism that is not well understood. Activation of the AIM2 inflammasome results in autocatalytic cleavage of caspase-1, resulting in the processing and secretion of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-18, which play a crucial role in innate immune responses to F. tularensis. We have identified the 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cycloligase gene (FTL_0724) as being important for F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) virulence. Infection of mice in vivo with a F. tularensis LVS FTL_0724 mutant resulted in diminished mortality compared to infection of mice with wild-type LVS. The FTL_0724 mutant also induced increased inflammasome-dependent IL-1? and IL-18 secretion and cytotoxicity in macrophages in vitro. In contrast, infection of macrophages with a F. tularensis LVS rluD pseudouridine synthase (FTL_0699) mutant resulted in diminished IL-1? and IL-18 secretion from macrophages in vitro compared to infection of macrophages with wild-type LVS. In addition, the FTL_0699 mutant was not attenuated in vivo. These findings further illustrate that F. tularensis LVS possesses numerous genes that influence its ability to activate the inflammasome, which is a key host strategy to control infection with this pathogen in vivo. PMID:23115038

Ulland, Tyler K; Janowski, Ann M; Buchan, Blake W; Faron, Matthew; Cassel, Suzanne L; Jones, Bradley D; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S

2013-01-01

207

Yeast beta-glucan synthesis: KRE6 encodes a predicted type II membrane protein required for glucan synthesis in vivo and for glucan synthase activity in vitro.  

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The KRE6 gene product is required for synthesis of the major beta-glucans of the yeast cell wall, as mutations in this gene confer reduced levels of both the (1----6)- and (1----3)-beta-D-glucan polymers. Cloning and sequencing of KRE6 reveals a gene encoding a predicted 80-kDa protein with a central transmembrane domain and the topology of a type II membrane protein. Null mutants of KRE6 grow slowly, have larger cells, and show a reduction in alkali-insoluble wall glucans. The mutants show good viability and are not osmotically sensitive, but they are more susceptible to beta-glucanase digestion and mechanical stress than wild-type cells. The specific activity of the GTP-dependent, membrane-associated, in vitro (1----3)-beta-glucan synthase is reduced 50% in kre6 null mutants, and this reduction correlates with the mutation in meiotic tetrads. Transformants of kre6 null mutants with a KRE6 gene expressed from a centomere-based vector show a 4- to 5-fold increase in in vitro (1----3)-beta-glucan synthase activity over transformants with the vector alone. The phenotype and structure of the KRE6 product, Kre6p, suggest that Kre6p may be a beta-glucan synthase, and if so, it implies that beta-glucan synthases are functionally redundant in yeast. Alternatively, Kre6p may be part of a single multiprotein glucan synthase or modulate its activity. Use of KRE6 should permit a genetic analysis of eukaryotic (1----3)-beta-glucan synthesis. PMID:1837148

Roemer, T; Bussey, H

1991-01-01

208

Relayed 13C magnetization transfer: Detection of malate dehydrogenase reaction in vivo  

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Malate dehydrogenase catalyzes rapid interconversion between dilute metabolites oxaloacetate and malate. Both oxaloacetate and malate are below the detection threshold of in vivo MRS. Oxaloacetate is also in rapid exchange with aspartate catalyzed by aspartate aminotransferase, the latter metabolite is observable in vivo using 13C MRS. We hypothesized that the rapid turnover of oxaloacetate can effectively relay perturbation of magnetization between malate and aspartate. Here, we report indirect observation of the malate dehydrogenase reaction by saturating malate C2 resonance at 71.2 ppm and detecting a reduced aspartate C2 signal at 53.2 ppm due to relayed magnetization transfer via oxaloacetate C2 at 201.3 ppm. Using this strategy the rate of the cerebral malate dehydrogenase reaction was determined to be 9 ± 2 ?mol/g wet weight/min (means ± SD, n = 5) at 11.7 Tesla in anesthetized adult rats infused with [1,6- 13C 2]glucose.

Yang, Jehoon; Shen, Jun

2007-02-01

209

Association between accumulation of allene oxide synthase activity and development of resistance against downy mildew disease of pearl millet.  

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The present study was aimed at understanding the possible association of allene oxide synthase (AOS), an enzyme implicated in the octadecanoid pathway during the pearl millet-downy mildew interaction. AOS 13-HPOT (13-hydroperoxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid) metabolizing activity assays assessed in various pearl millet cultivars with differential resistances against downy mildew revealed a positive correlation between cultivar resistance levels and AOS activities. Furthermore, the involvement of AOS in response to downy mildew was demonstrated by induction of AOS activity in both susceptible and resistant pearl millet cultivars during Sclerospora graminicola infection with higher induction observed in the resistant cultivar. Consistently, western blot analysis and tissue-blot immunoassay demonstrated the remarkable increase in AOS protein accumulation in the incompatible interaction. In addition, the tissue-blot immunoassay also showed the compartmentalization of AOS in the epidermis and vascular bundles of pearl millet seedlings. Expression analysis of a putative PgAOS1 gene revealed a marked difference in accumulation of PgAOS1 transcripts between contrasting plants, with pathogen-induced higher accumulation of the transcripts observed only in the resistant cultivar; a result which is in agreement with pathogen-induced AOS level and activity, indicating that PgAOS1 plays an important role in regulation of AOS level and activity in pearl millet upon S. graminicola infection. Our findings suggest an important role for AOS in regulation of responses to downy mildew disease in pearl millet. The differential AOS activities can potentially be used for selection of new disease-resistant pearl millet varieties, and the identified AOS-encoding gene(s) as genetic resource for development of enhanced downy mildew-resistant cultivars. PMID:24166513

Hosur Gnanaprakash, Pushpalatha; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Sreedhara, Ashok Prabhu; Nagraj Prashanth, Geetha; Kini, Ramachandra K; Shetty, Shekar Hunthrike

2013-12-01

210

Estrogen, but not progesterone, induces the activity of nitric oxide synthase within the medial preoptic area in female rats.  

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The control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion depends on the action of ovarian steroids and several substances, including nitric oxide (NO). NO in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) stimulates the proestrus surge of luteinizing hormone (LH). We studied the effect of estrogen (Tamoxifen-TMX) and progesterone (RU-486) antagonists on mRNA and protein expression of NO synthase (NOS), the enzyme that produces NO, as well as its activity within MPOA. Female rats received s.c. injections of TMX (3mg/animal) on first and second days of the estrous cycle (9 am), RU-486 (2mg/animal) on first, second, (8 am and 5 pm) and third days of the estrous cycle (8 am) or oil (controls) and were killed on the third day (5 pm). Real time-PCR and western blotting were performed to study NOS mRNA and protein expressions. The NOS activity was indirectly assessed by measuring the conversion from [(14)C]-L-arginine into [(14)C]-L-citrulline. TMX significantly decreased neuronal NOS (nNOS) mRNA expression (90%), and the activity of NOS, but did not alter nNOS protein expression. Also, TMX significantly decreased LH, FSH, estrogen and progesterone plasma levels. RU-486 nor affected NOS mRNA and protein expressions neither the NOS activity in the MPOA, but reduced FSH levels. The nitrergic system in the MPOA can be stimulated by estrogen whereas TMX decreased NOS activity and mRNA expression. In conclusion, the involvement of the nitrergic system in the MPOA to induce the surge of LH on proestrus depends on the estrogen action to stimulate the mRNA-nNOS expression and the activity of nNOS but it does not seem to depend on progesterone action. PMID:25044408

Lima, Fernanda Barbosa; Ota, Fábio Honda; Cabral, Fernanda Jankur; Del Bianco Borges, Bruno; Franci, Celso Rodrigues

2014-08-26

211

Changes in lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activities during hypoxia and after temperature acclimation in the armored fish, Rhinelepis strigosa (Siluriformes, Loricariidae Mudanças na atividade da lactato desidrogenase e malato desidrogenase durante hipóxia e após aclimatação a diferentes temperaturas no cascudo, Rhinelepis strigosa (Siluriformes, Loricariidae  

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Full Text Available Lactate (LDH and malate dehydrogenase (MDH of white skeletal muscle of fishes acclimated to 20, 25 and 30°C and thereafter submitted to hypoxia were studied in different substrate concentrations. Significant differences for LDH and MDH of white muscle enzyme activities are described here for the first time in Rhinelepis strigosa of fishes acclimated to 20°C and submitted to hypoxia for six hours. LDH presented a significant decrease in enzyme affinity for pyruvate in acute hypoxia, for fishes acclimated to 20°C and an increase for fishes acclimated to 30°C.Foram estudadas a lactato desidrogenase (LDH e malato desidrogenase (MDH de músculo branco de peixes aclimatados a 20, 25 e 30°C em diferentes concentrações de substrato e submetidos à hipóxia. Diferenças significativas em atividade enzimática para LDH e MDH são descritas aqui pela primeira vez em Rhinelepis strigosa em peixes aclimatados a 20°C e submetidos à hipóxia por seis horas. A LDH apresentou uma diminuição significativa na afinidade enzimática ao piruvato em hipóxia severa de peixes aclimatados a 20°C e um aumento significativo na afinidade enzimática ao piruvato em peixes aclimatados a 30°C.

L. PANEPUCCI

2000-05-01

212

Expression, purification and activity assay of a patchoulol synthase cDNA variant fused to thioredoxin in Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Probing a cDNA library extracted from Pogostemon cablin (Indian Patchouli) with gene specific primers, a variant of patchoulol synthase PTS (GenBank acc. No.: AY508730) was amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cloned cDNA exhibited a sequence variation of 3.4% compared to the annotated sequence. The enzyme variant tended to form inclusion bodies when expressed in Escherichia coli. The coding sequence was fused to the T7-tag, His-tag and to thioredoxin. Constructs were expressed in three different E. coli expression strains, with several strain/construct combinations yielding soluble enzyme. By fusion to thioredoxin and careful codon optimization of the eukaryotic sequence, soluble expression could be improved on average by 42% in comparison to an unoptimized, His-tagged construct. The thioredoxin-fused protein was successfully purified using a one-step Co(2+)-IMAC purification procedure. Bioactivity assays using prepared farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) in milliliter-scale batch reactions, showed activity of the fused enzyme even with thioredoxin attached. The product spectrum of the enzyme was compared to patchouli oil standards by GC-MS and the main products were identified. Interestingly, the variant showed a shift in product spectrum with germacrene A being the most abundant product instead of patchouli alcohol. In silico structural modeling shows a possible chemical and structural change in the active site of the enzyme, which might be responsible for the shift in product composition. PMID:24576659

Hartwig, S; Frister, T; Alemdar, S; Li, Z; Krings, U; Berger, R G; Scheper, T; Beutel, S

2014-05-01

213

Maintaining glycogen synthase kinase-3 activity is critical for mTOR kinase inhibitors to inhibit cancer cell growth.  

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mTOR kinase inhibitors that target both mTORC1 and mTORC2 are being evaluated in cancer clinical trials. Here, we report that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a critical determinant for the therapeutic response to this class of experimental drugs. Pharmacologic inhibition of GSK3 antagonized their suppressive effects on the growth of cancer cells similarly to genetic attenuation of GSK3. Conversely, expression of a constitutively activated form of GSK3? sensitized cancer cells to mTOR inhibition. Consistent with these findings, higher basal levels of GSK3 activity in a panel of human lung cancer cell lines correlated with more efficacious responses. Mechanistic investigations showed that mTOR kinase inhibitors reduced cyclin D1 levels in a GSK3?-dependent manner, independent of their effects on suppressing mTORC1 signaling and cap binding. Notably, selective inhibition of mTORC2 triggered proteasome-mediated cyclin D1 degradation, suggesting that mTORC2 blockade is responsible for GSK3-dependent reduction of cyclin D1. Silencing expression of the ubiquitin E3 ligase FBX4 rescued this reduction, implicating FBX4 in mediating this effect of mTOR inhibition. Together, our findings define a novel mechanism by which mTORC2 promotes cell growth, with potential implications for understanding the clinical action of mTOR kinase inhibitors. PMID:24626091

Koo, Junghui; Yue, Ping; Gal, Anthony A; Khuri, Fadlo R; Sun, Shi-Yong

2014-05-01

214

High-performance liquid chromatography method with radiochemical detection for measurement of nitric oxide synthase, arginase, and arginine decarboxylase activities.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nitric oxide has been shown to be involved in numerous biological processes, and many studies have aimed to measure nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Recently, it has been demonstrated that arginase and arginine decarboxylase (ADC), two enzymes that also employ arginine as a substrate, may regulate NOS activity. We aimed to develop a HPLC-based method to measure simultaneously the products of these three enzymes. Traditionally, the separation of amino acids and related compounds with HPLC has been carried out with precolumn derivatization and reverse phase chromatography. We describe here a simple and fast HPLC method with radiochemical detection to separate radiolabeled L-arginine, L-citrulline, L-ornithine, and agmatine. 3H-labeled L-arginine, L-citrulline, agmatine, and 14C-labeled L-citrulline were used as standards. These compounds were separated in the normal phase column (Allure Acidix 250 x 4.6 mm i.d.) under isocratic conditions in less than 20 min with good sensitivity. Using the current method,we have shown the formation of L-citrulline and L-ornithine in vitro using brain tissue homogenate of rats and that of agmatine by Escherichia coli ADC. Udgivelsesdato: null-null

Volke, A; Wegener, Gregers

2006-01-01

215

Synthesis of alkyl-ether glycerophospholipids in rat glomerular mesangial cells: evidence for alkyldihydroxyacetone phosphate synthase activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied the ability of rat glomerular mesangial cells and their microsomal fractions to incorporate 1-[14C]hexadecanol to glycerophospholipids via an O-alkyl ether linkage and assessed the presence and activity of the required enzyme: alkyl-dihydroxy acetone phosphate synthase. Suspensions of cultured mesangial cells incorporated 1-[14C]hexadecanol to the phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl choline lipid pools, via a bond resistant to acid and base hydrolysis. When cell homogenates or microsomal fractions were incubated with palmitoyl-DHAP and 1-[14C]hexadecanol, alkyl-DHAP and 1-O-alkyl glycerol were formed (alkyl:hexadecyl). The activity of the enzyme responsible for the O-alkyl product formation was calculated to be 2.5 +/- 0.3 and 544 +/- 50 pmoles/min/mg protein for mesangial cell homogenates and mesangial cell microsomes, respectively. These observations provide evidence that mesangial cells may elaborate either linked lipid precursors de novo for the biosynthesis of O-alkyl glycerophospholipids

216

Signalling pathway involved in nitric oxide synthase type II activation in chondrocytes: synergistic effect of leptin with interleukin-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of leptin, alone or in combination with IL-1, on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) type II activity in vitro in human primary chondrocytes, in the mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line, and in mature and hypertrophic ATDC5 differentiated chondrocytes. For completeness, we also investigated the signalling pathway of the putative synergism between leptin and IL-1. For this purpose, nitric oxide production was evaluated using the Griess colorimetric reaction in culture medium of cells stimulated over 48 hours with leptin (800 nmol/l) and IL-1 (0.025 ng/ml), alone or combined. Specific pharmacological inhibitors of NOS type II (aminoguanidine [1 mmol/l]), janus kinase (JAK)2 (tyrphostin AG490 and Tkip), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K; wortmannin [1, 2.5, 5 and 10 micromol/l] and LY294002 [1, 2.5, 5 and 10 micromol/l]), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)1 (PD098059 [1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 micromol/l]) and p38 kinase (SB203580 [1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 micromol/l]) were added 1 hour before stimulation. Nitric oxide synthase type II mRNA expression in ATDC5 chondrocytes was investigated by real-time PCR and NOS II protein expression was analyzed by western blot. Our results indicate that stimulation of chondrocytes with IL-1 results in dose-dependent nitric oxide production. In contrast, leptin alone was unable to induce nitric oxide production or expression of NOS type II mRNA or its protein. However, co-stimulation with leptin and IL-1 resulted in a net increase in nitric oxide concentration over IL-1 challenge that was eliminated by pretreatment with the NOS II specific inhibitor aminoguanidine. Pretreatment with tyrphostin AG490 and Tkip (a SOCS-1 mimetic peptide that inhibits JAK2) blocked nitric oxide production induced by leptin/IL-1. Finally, wortmannin, LY294002, PD098059 and SB203580 significantly decreased nitric oxide production. These findings were confirmed in mature and hypertrophic ATDC5 chondrocytes, and in human primary chondrocytes. This study indicates that leptin plays a proinflammatory role, in synergy with IL-1, by inducing NOS type II through a signalling pathway that involves JAK2, PI3K, MEK-1 and p38 kinase. PMID:15899045

Otero, Miguel; Lago, Rocío; Lago, Francisca; Reino, Juan Jesús Gomez; Gualillo, Oreste

2005-01-01

217

The ketogenic diet component decanoic acid increases mitochondrial citrate synthase and complex I activity in neuronal cells.  

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The Ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective treatment with regards to treating pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. However, there are difficulties around compliance and tolerability. Consequently, there is a need for refined/simpler formulations that could replicate the efficacy of the KD. One of the proposed hypotheses is that the KD increases cellular mitochondrial content which results in elevation of the seizure threshold. Here, we have focussed on the medium-chain triglyceride form of the diet and the observation that plasma octanoic acid (C8) and decanoic acid (C10) levels are elevated in patients on the medium-chain triglyceride KD. Using a neuronal cell line (SH-SY5Y), we demonstrated that 250-?M C10, but not C8, caused, over a 6-day period, a marked increase in the mitochondrial enzyme, citrate synthase along with complex I activity and catalase activity. Increased mitochondrial number was also indicated by electron microscopy. C10 is a reported peroxisome proliferator activator receptor ? agonist, and the use of a peroxisome proliferator activator receptor ? antagonist was shown to prevent the C10-mediated increase in mitochondrial content and catalase. C10 may mimic the mitochondrial proliferation associated with the KD and raises the possibility that formulations based on this fatty acid could replace a more complex diet. We propose that decanoic acid (C10) results in increased mitochondrial number. Our data suggest that this may occur via the activation of the PPAR? receptor and its target genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. This finding could be of significant benefit to epilepsy patients who are currently on a strict ketogenic diet. Evidence that C10 on its own can modulate mitochondrial number raises the possibility that a simplified and less stringent C10-based diet could be developed. PMID:24383952

Hughes, Sean David; Kanabus, Marta; Anderson, Glenn; Hargreaves, Iain P; Rutherford, Tricia; O'Donnell, Maura; Cross, J Helen; Rahman, Shamima; Eaton, Simon; Heales, Simon J R

2014-05-01

218

Beta-cyanoalanine synthase as a molecular marker for induced resistance by fungal glycoprotein elicitor and commercial plant activators.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum produces glycoprotein elicitor in the cell wall fraction, designated CWP, and induces resistance to a broad range of pathogens. To understand the mechanism of CWP-induced resistance to pathogens, gene expression at the early stage of CWP treatment in tomato roots was analyzed using a cDNA array. At 4 h after CWP treatment, 144 genes were up-regulated and 99 genes were down-regulated. In the 144 up-regulated genes, nine genes exhibited about eightfold increased expression. Analysis of the response of these nine genes to three commercial plant activators indicated that a high level of one gene, beta-cyanoalanine synthase gene (LeCAS) encoding hydrogen cyanide (HCN) detoxification enzyme, was stably induced in tomato roots by such treatment. However, expression of LeCAS was not significantly induced in tomato roots at 4 h by abiotic stresses, whereas only a very low level of induction of such expression by cold stress was observed. This LeCAS expression was also induced after exogenous treatment with a low level of 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate as the precursor of ethylene, but not with either salicylic acid or methyl jas-monate. The induction of LeCAS expression in CWP-treated and plant activator-treated roots is likely to be caused by the detoxification of HCN during ethylene production. Transient activation of LeCAS expression caused by ethylene production in tomato roots may be a general phenomenon in fungal elicitor-induced and synthetic plant activator-induced resistance. LeCAS seems to be useful for screening possible novel plant activators for plant protection against pathogens. PMID:18943757

Takahashi, Hideki; Ishihara, Takeaki; Hase, Shu; Chiba, Ayaka; Nakaho, Kazuhiro; Arie, Tsutomu; Teraoka, Tohru; Iwata, Michiaki; Tugane, Taneaki; Shibata, Daisuke; Takenaka, Shigehito

2006-08-01

219

Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin present in red wine, enhances expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background-Estrogens can upregulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells by increasing eNOS promoter activity and enhancing the binding activity of the transcription factor Sp1. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes and wine, has been reported to act as an agonist at the estrogen receptor. Therefore, we tested the effect of this putative phytoestrogen on eNOS expression in human endothelial cells. Methods and Results-Incubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and HUVEC-derived EA.hy 9226 cells with resveratrol for 24 to 72 hours upregulated eNOS mRNA expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (up to 2.8-fold). eNOS protein expression and eNOS-derived NO production were also increased after long-term incubation with resveratrol. Resveratrol increased the activity of the eNOS promoter (3.5-kb fragment) in a concentration-dependent fashion, with the essential trans-stimulated sequence being located in the proximal 263 bp of the promoter sequence. In addition, eNOS mRNA was stabilized by resveratrol. The effect of resveratrol on eNOS expression was not modified by the estrogen receptor antagonists ICI 182780 and RU 58668. In electrophoretic mobility C, shift assays, nuclear extracts from resveratrol-incubated EA.hy 926 cells showed no enhanced binding activity of the eNOS promoter-relevant transcription factors Sp1, GATA, PEA3, YY1, or Elf-1. In addition to its long-term effects on eNOS expression, resveratrol also enhanced the production of bioactive NO in the short-term (after a 2-minute incubation). Conclusions-In concert with other effects, the stimulation of eNOS expression and activity may contribute to the cardiovascular protective effects attributed to resveratrol.

Wallerath, Thomas; Deckert, Göran

2002-01-01

220

Gerfelin, a novel inhibitor of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase from Beauveria felina QN22047. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, and biological activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new compound, gerfelin, was isolated from a culture broth of Beauveria felina QN22047. It was purified by column chromatography on silica gel and by HPLC. Gerfelin has the molecular formula C15H14O6. It inhibited synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate, which was mediated by recombinant human geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (hGGPP synthase) in vitro. The inhibitory pattern of gerfelin was noncompetitive against isopentenyl diphosphate, and uncompetitive against farnesyl diphosphate. PMID:14513904

Zenitani, Satoko; Tashiro, Satoshi; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Nagai, Koji; Suzuki, Kenichi; Imoto, Masaya

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Biochemical, electrophoretic and immunohistochemical aspects of malate dehydrogenase in truffles (Ascomycotina).  

Science.gov (United States)

The malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC 1.1.1.37; L-malate-NAD(+)-oxidoreductase) activities of truffles of the genus Tuber (Tuber melanosporum Vittad., Tuber brumale Vittad., Tuber aestivum Vittad., Tuber magnatum Pico, Tuber rufum Pico) have been characterized with regard to the K(m) and V(max) values in the direct and reverse reactions. The isoelectrofocusing has revealed bands showing pI values ranging from pH 5.85 to 7.8. The MDH of T. melanosporum has been partially purified by hydroxyapatite treatment, DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-75 columns. With the partially purified T. melanosporum MDH activity polyclonal anti-T. melanosporum MDH antibodies have been prepared and used to localize MDH in the mycorrhizae and ascocarps of T. melanosporum. These antibodies inhibit T. melanosporum MDH activity as well as that of T. magnatum but not that of rabbit liver; this supports the specificity of the MDH antibodies used to localize MDH in truffle tissues. PMID:10754250

Zarivi, O; Cesare, P; Aimola, P; Ragnelli, A M; Scirri, C; Cimini, A; Bonfigli, A; Pacioni, G; Miranda, M

2000-04-15

222

Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Favor Conversion of Arginine into Ornithine despite a Widespread Genetic Potential for Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within ecosystems that are poor in carbohydrates, alternative substrates such as arginine may be of importance to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). However, the versatility of arginine conversion in CNS remains largely uncharted. Therefore, a set of 86 strains belonging to 17 CNS species was screened for arginine deiminase (ADI), arginase, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities, in view of their ecological relevance. In fermented meats, for instance, ADI could improve bacterial competitiveness, whereas NOS may serve as an alternative nitrosomyoglobin generator to nitrate and nitrite curing. About 80% of the strains were able to convert arginine, but considerable inter- and intraspecies heterogeneity regarding the extent and mechanism of conversion was found. Overall, ADI was the most commonly employed pathway, resulting in mixtures of ornithine and small amounts of citrulline. Under aerobic conditions, which are more relevant for skin-associated CNS communities, several strains shifted toward arginase activity, leading to the production of ornithine and urea. The obtained data indeed suggest that arginase occurs relatively more in CNS isolates from a dairy environment, whereas ADI seems to be more abundant in strains from a fermented meat background. With some exceptions, a reasonable match between phenotypic ADI and arginase activity and the presence of the encoding genes (arcA and arg) was found. With respect to the NOS pathway, however, only one strain (Staphylococcus haemolyticus G110) displayed phenotypic NOS-like activity under aerobic conditions, despite a wide prevalence of the NOS-encoding gene (nos) among CNS. Hence, the group of CNS displays a strain- and condition-dependent toolbox of arginine-converting mechanisms with potential implications for competitiveness and functionality. PMID:25281381

Sánchez Mainar, María; Weckx, Stefan; Leroy, Frédéric

2014-12-15

223

Malate. Jack of all trades or master of a few?  

Science.gov (United States)

The dicarboxylic acid malate has long been thought to play important roles in plant physiology. In addition to being a major photosynthate in C4 and CAM plants and an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle it has been proposed to play essential roles in pH regulation and important roles in pathogen response, as a component of the root exudates and as a regulatory osmolyte affecting stomatal function. Recent years have seen the cloning and functional analysis of a wide range of enzymes and transporters associated with malate metabolism. Here we attempt to provide a synthesis of research in this field as well as re-evaluating the role of this metabolite in mediating guard cell function. PMID:19473680

Fernie, Alisdair R; Martinoia, Enrico

2009-05-01

224

Pengaruh Pengasapan (Thermal Fogging) Insektisida Piretroid (Malation 95%) Terhadap Nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Culex quinquefasciatus di Pemukiman  

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The evaluation of piretroid insecticide (active ingredient Malation 95%) was con-ducted in Sub district Tengarang, Semarang Segency, Central Java Province. The insecti-cide was applied using thermal fogging method for dosages of 125, 250, 375, 500 and 625 ml/ha (diluted in diesel to 10 litters). The evaluation of the efficacy was conducted against two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti (the main dengue haemorrhagic fever) and Culex quinquefasciatus (the urban lymphatic fil-ariasis vector). Resul...

Hasan Boesri; Damar Tri Boewono

2009-01-01

225

Active site binding and catalytic role of bicarbonate in 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl coenzyme A synthases from vitamin K biosynthetic pathways.  

Science.gov (United States)

1,4-Dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl coenzyme A (DHNA-CoA) synthase, or MenB, catalyzes a carbon-carbon bond formation reaction in the biosynthesis of both vitamin K1 and K2. Bicarbonate is crucial to the activity of a large subset of its orthologues but lacks a clearly defined structural and mechanistic role. Here we determine the crystal structure of the holoenzymes from Escherichia coli at 2.30 Å and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 at 2.04 Å, in which the bicarbonate cofactor is bound to the enzyme active site at a position equivalent to that of the side chain carboxylate of an aspartate residue conserved among bicarbonate-insensitive DHNA-CoA synthases. Binding of the planar anion involves both nonspecific electrostatic attraction and specific hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. In the absence of bicarbonate, the anion binding site is occupied by a chloride ion or nitrate, an inhibitor directly competing with bicarbonate. These results provide a solid structural basis for the bicarbonate dependence of the enzymatic activity of type I DHNA-CoA synthases. The unique location of the bicarbonate ion in relation to the expected position of the substrate ?-proton in the enzyme's active site suggests a critical catalytic role for the anionic cofactor as a catalytic base in enolate formation. PMID:22606952

Sun, Yueru; Song, Haigang; Li, Jie; Jiang, Ming; Li, Yan; Zhou, Jiahai; Guo, Zhihong

2012-06-01

226

Eliglustat tartrate, an orally active glucocerebroside synthase inhibitor for the potential treatment of Gaucher disease and other lysosomal storage diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eliglustat tartrate (Genz-112638), currently under development by Genzyme Corp, is a glucocerebroside (glucosylceramide) synthase inhibitor for the treatment of Gaucher disease and other lysosomal storage disorders. Gaucher disease is an inherited defect of lysosomal functions caused by mutations in the GBA1 gene leading to accumulation of glucocerebroside, primarily in macrophages. Gaucher disease is characterized by visceromegaly and skeletal complications, including osteoporosis and painful episodes of osteonecrosis. In vitro studies demonstrated that, following exposure to eliglustat tartrate, the abundance of GM1 and GM3 gangliosides in cultured human erythroleukemia cells and murine melanoma cells was decreased. In vivo, eliglustat tartrate administered to Asp409Val/null mice lowered the concentrations of glucocerebroside in the liver, lung and spleen and reduced the number of Gaucher cells in the liver. In a phase Ib clinical trial in healthy volunteers, plasma glucocerebroside concentrations were decreased after dosing with eliglustat tartrate, and in phase II clinical trials in patients with type 1 (non-neuronopathic) Gaucher disease, spleen and liver volumes were diminished. Patients also demonstrated improved bone mineral density, correction of abnormal bone marrow signal with MRI and normalization of glucocerebroside and ganglioside GM3 levels. Eliglustat tartrate is orally active and, with potent effects on the primary identified molecular target for type 1 Gaucher disease and other glycosphingolipidoses, appears likely to fulfill high expectations for clinical efficacy. PMID:20872320

Cox, Timothy M

2010-10-01

227

Differing requirement for inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in clearance of primary and secondary Cryptococcus neoformans infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of nitric oxide in resistance to cryptococcal infection was investigated. Mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS) did not survive a primary intratracheal infection as did INOS-replete control mice. Despite adequate recruitment of host cells and generation of interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha at the site of infection, INOS-deficient mice failed to clear yeast from their lungs by five weeks of infection, in contrast to wild-type mice. INOS-deficient mice also had higher yeast brain burdens than did control mice after a primary intracerebral infection. Therefore, generation of nitric oxide is required for resistance to primary cryptococcal infection. However, INOS-deficient mice vaccinated subcutaneously and rechallenged intravenously had lung and brain yeast burdens equivalent to those of vaccinated controls, and therefore expressed effective acquired immunity to Cryptococcus neoformans. Cells harvested from infected INOS-deficient mice by bronchoalveolar lavage acted as anti-cryptococcal effectors in vitro at an effector:target ratio of 100:1, provided IFN-gamma was present, but did not inhibit yeast proliferation at a 10:1 effector:target ratio as cells from wild-type mice did. Therefore, INOS activity is important for anti-cryptococcal function of effectors of immunity during the primary response, but not for the generation or expression of secondary immunity to C. neoformans. PMID:11092381

Aguirre, K M; Gibson, G W

2000-10-01

228

Nitric oxide synthase-dependent NADPH-diaphorase activity in the optic lobes of male and female Ceratitis capitata mutants  

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Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is acknowledged as a messenger molecule in the nervous system with a pivotal role in the modulation of the chemosensory information. It has been shown to be present in the optic lobes of several insect species. In the present study, we used males and females from four different strains of the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae: or; or,wp (both orange eyed; w,M360 and w,Heraklion (both white eyed, as models to further clarify the involvement of NO in the mutants’ visual system and differences in its activity and localization in the sexes. Comparison of the localization pattern of NO synthase (NOS, through NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd staining, in the optic lobes of the four strains, revealed a stronger reaction intensity in the retina and in the neuropile region lamina than in medulla and lobula. Interestingly, the intensity of NADPHd staining differs, at least in some strains, in the optic lobes of the two sexes; all the areas are generally strongly labelled in the males of the or and w,M360 strains, whereas the w,Heraklion and or,wp mutants do not show evident sexdependent NADPHd staining. Taken as a whole, our data point to NO as a likely transmitter candidate in the visual information processes in insects, with a possible correlation among NOS distribution, eye pigmentation and visual function in C. capitata males. Moreover, NO could influence behavioural differences linked to vision in the two sexes.

G Bernocchi

2004-06-01

229

Vesicocutaneous fistula formation during treatment with sunitinib malate: Case report  

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Abstract Background The oral multi-kinase inhibitor sunitinib malate improves the survival of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) after the disease progresses or intolerance to imatinib mesylate develops. Urinary fistulae arising during treatment with sunitinib for GIST have not been described. Case presentation We describe a 62-year-old female patient diagnosed with unresectable GIST that involved the abdominal wall, urinary bladder wall, bowel...

Sakashita Hiroyuki; Hirashima Yoshinori; Kawano Sakura; Morinaga Ryotaro; Otsu Satoshi; Watanabe Koichiro

2010-01-01

230

Glia maturation factor overexpression in neuroblastoma cells activates glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and caspase-3.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study we report that a replication-defective adenovirus construct of GMF cDNA (GMF-V) induced overexpression of GMF protein in neuroblastoma (N18) cells caused cytotoxicity and loss of cell viability. A significant increase in activation of GSK-3beta occurred after infection with GMF-V when compared with mock and lacZ controls. Overexpression of GMF also increased caspase-3 activity, an early marker of apoptosis. Depletion of GMF gene by introducing GMF-specific siRNA (GsiRNA) completely blocked both activation of GSK-3beta and caspase-3 activation whereas a control scrambled siRNA (CsiRNA) had no effect. A cell-permeable peptide inhibitor of GSK-3beta, and lithium completely prevented GMF-dependent activation of caspase-3. These results demonstrate that GSK-3 mediates activation of the death domain caspase by GMF overexpression. We also show that the phosphorylation of GSK-3-dependent site of Tau was a consequence of GMF-overexpression in N18 cells. Taken together our results imply that GMF is involved in the signaling leading to the activation of GSK-3beta and caspase-3 in N18 cells and strongly suggest its involvement in neurodegeneration since GSK-3beta is known to hyperphosphorylate tau which is associated with the neurotoxicity of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:18054898

Zaheer, Asgar; Knight, Scott; Zaheer, Ashna; Ahrens, Marcus; Sahu, Shailendra K; Yang, Baoli

2008-01-23

231

Glia maturation factor overexpression in neuroblastoma cells activates glycogen synthase kinase-3? and caspase-3  

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In the present study we report that a replication-defective adenovirus construct of GMF cDNA (GMF-V) induced overexpression of GMF protein in neuroblastoma (N18) cells caused cytotoxicity and loss of cell viability. A significant increase in activation of GSK-3? occurred after infection with GMF-V when compared with mock and lacZ controls. Overexpression of GMF also increased caspase-3 activity, an early marker of apoptosis. Depletion of GMF gene by introducing GMF-specific siRNA (GsiRNA) completely blocked both activation of GSK-3? and caspase-3 activation whereas a control scrambled siRNA (CsiRNA) had no effect. A cell-permeable peptide inhibitor of GSK-3?, and lithium completely prevented GMF-dependent activation of caspase-3. These results demonstrate that GSK-3 mediates activation of the death domain caspase by GMF overexpression. We also show that the phosphorylation of GSK-3-dependent site of Tau was a consequence of GMF-overexpression in N18 cells. Taken together our results imply that GMF is involved in the signaling leading to the activation of GSK-3? and caspase-3 in N18 cells and strongly suggest its involvement in neurodegeneration since, GSK-3? is known to hyperphosphorylate tau which is associated with the neurotoxicity of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:18054898

Zaheer, Asgar; Knight, Scott; Zaheer, Ashna; Ahrens, Marcus; Sahu, Shailendra K.; Yang, Baoli

2008-01-01

232

Observation of an Unusual Electronically Distorted Semiquinone Radical of PCB Metabolites in the Active Site of Prostaglandin H Synthase-2  

Science.gov (United States)

The activation of the metabolites of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into highly reactive radicals is of fundamental importance. We found that human recombinant prostaglandin H synthase-2 (hPGHS-2) biotransforms dihydroxy-PCBs, such as 4-chlorobiphenyl-2?,5?-hydroquinone (4-CB-2?,5?H2Q), into semiquinone radicals via one-electron oxidation. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, we observed the formation of the symmetric quartet spectrum (1:3:3:1 by area) of 4-chlorobiphenyl-2?,5?-semiquinone radical (4-CB-2?,5?-SQ•?) from 4-CB-2?,5?H2Q. This spectrum changed to an asymmetric spectrum with time: the change can be explained as the overlap of two different semiquinone radical species. Hindered rotation of the 4-CB-2?,5?-SQ•? appears not to be a major factor for the change in lineshape because increasing the viscosity of the medium with glycerol produced no significant change in lineshape. Introduction of a fluorine, which increases the steric hindrance for rotation of the dihydroxy-PCB studied, also produced no significant changes. An in silico molecular docking model of 4-CB-2?,5?H2Q in the peroxidase site of hPGHS-2 together with ab initio quantum mechanical studies indicate that the close proximity of a negatively charged carboxylic acid in the peroxidase active site may be responsible for the observed perturbation in the spectrum. This study provides new insights into the formation of semiquinones from PCB metabolites and underscores the potential role of PGHS-2 in the metabolic activation of PCBs. PMID:20843536

Wangpradit, Orarat; Moman, Edelmiro; Nolan, Kevin B.; Buettner, Garry R.; Robertson, Larry W.; Luthe, Gregor

2013-01-01

233

Steady-state kinetics of the glutaminase reaction of CTP synthase from Lactococcus lactis. The role of the allosteric activator GTP incoupling between glutamine hydrolysis and CTP synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

CTP synthase catalyzes the reaction glutamine + UTP + ATP --> glutamate + CTP + ADP + Pi. The rate of the reaction is greatly enhanced by the allosteric activator GTP. We have studied the glutaminase half-reaction of CTP synthase from Lactococcus lactis and its response to the allosteric activator GTP and nucleotides that bind to the active site. In contrast to what has been found for the Escherichia coli enzyme, GTP activation of the L. lactis enzyme did not result in similar kcat values for the glutaminase activity and glutamine hydrolysis coupled to CTP synthesis. GTP activation of the glutaminase reaction never reached the levels of GTP-activated CTP synthesis, not even when the active site was saturated with UTP and the nonhydrolyzeable ATP-binding analog adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate. Furthermore, under conditions where the rate of glutamine hydrolysis exceeded that of CTP synthesis, GTP would stimulate CTP synthesis. These results indicate that the L. lactis enzyme differs significantly from the E. coli enzyme. For the E. coli enzyme, activation by GTP was found to stimulate glutamine hydrolysis and CTP synthesis to the same extent, suggesting that the major function of GTP binding is to activate the chemical steps of glutamine hydrolysis. An alternative mechanism for the action of GTP on L. lactis CTP synthase is suggested. Here the binding of GTP to the allosteric site promotes coordination of the phosphorylation of UTP and hydrolysis of glutamine for optimal efficiency in CTP synthesis rather than just acting to increase the rate of glutamine hydrolysis itself. PMID:12354108

Willemoës, Martin; Sigurskjold, Bent W

2002-10-01

234

Glia maturation factor overexpression in neuroblastoma cells activates glycogen synthase kinase-3? and caspase-3  

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In the present study we report that a replication-defective adenovirus construct of GMF cDNA (GMF-V) induced overexpression of GMF protein in neuroblastoma (N18) cells caused cytotoxicity and loss of cell viability. A significant increase in activation of GSK-3? occurred after infection with GMF-V when compared with mock and lacZ controls. Overexpression of GMF also increased caspase-3 activity, an early marker of apoptosis. Depletion of GMF gene by introducing GMF-specific siRNA (GsiRNA) co...

Zaheer, Asgar; Knight, Scott; Zaheer, Ashna; Ahrens, Marcus; Sahu, Shailendra K.; Yang, Baoli

2008-01-01

235

Reduced spinal microglial activation and neuropathic pain after nerve injury in mice lacking all three nitric oxide synthases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated the involvement of nitric oxide (NO in acute and chronic pain using mice lacking a single NO synthase (NOS gene among the three isoforms: neuronal (nNOS, inducible (iNOS and endothelial (eNOS. However, the precise role of NOS/NO in pain states remains to be determined owing to the substantial compensatory interactions among the NOS isoforms. Therefore, in this study, we used mice lacking all three NOS genes (n/i/eNOS-/-mice and investigated the behavioral phenotypes in a series of acute and chronic pain assays. Results In a model of tissue injury-induced pain, evoked by intraplantar injection of formalin, both iNOS-/-and n/i/eNOS-/-mice exhibited attenuations of pain behaviors in the second phase compared with that in wild-type mice. In a model of neuropathic pain, nerve injury-induced behavioral and cellular responses (tactile allodynia, spinal microglial activation and Src-family kinase phosphorylation were reduced in n/i/eNOS-/-but not iNOS-/-mice. Tactile allodynia after nerve injury was improved by acute pharmacological inhibition of all NOSs and nNOS. Furthermore, in MG-5 cells (a microglial cell-line, interferon-? enhanced NOSs and Mac-1 mRNA expression, and the Mac-1 mRNA increase was suppressed by L-NAME co-treatment. Conversely, the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, markedly increased mRNA expression of Mac-1, interleukin-6, toll-like receptor 4 and P2X4 receptor. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that the NOS/NO pathway contributes to behavioral pain responses evoked by tissue injury and nerve injury. In particular, nNOS may be important for spinal microglial activation and tactile allodynia after nerve injury.

Shimokawa Hiroaki

2011-07-01

236

Hypoxia-induced endothelial NO synthase gene transcriptional activation is mediated through the tax-responsive element in endothelial cells.  

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Although hypoxia is known to induce upregulation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) gene expression, the underlying mechanism is largely unclear. In this study, we show that hypoxia increases eNOS gene expression through the binding of phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein (pCREB) to the eNOS gene promoter. Hypoxia (1% O2) increased both eNOS expression and NO production, peaking at 24 hours, in bovine aortic endothelial cells, and these increases were accompanied by increases in pCREB. Treatment with the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 or transfection with dominant-negative inhibitor of CREB reversed the hypoxia-induced increases in eNOS expression and NO production, with concomitant inhibition of the phosphorylation of CREB induced by hypoxia, suggesting an involvement of protein kinase A/pCREB-mediated pathway. To map the regulatory elements of the eNOS gene responsible for pCREB binding under hypoxia, we constructed an eNOS gene promoter (-1600 to +22 nucleotides) fused with a luciferase reporter gene [pGL2-eNOS(-1600)]. Hypoxia (for 24-hour incubation) increased the promoter activity by 2.36+/-0.18-fold in the bovine aortic endothelial cells transfected with pGL2-eNOS(-1600). However, progressive 5'-deletion from -1600 to -873 completely attenuated the hypoxia-induced increase in promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift, anti-pCREB antibody supershift, and site-specific mutation analyses showed that pCREB is bound to the Tax-responsive element (TRE) site, a cAMP-responsive element-like site, located at -924 to -921 of the eNOS promoter. Our data demonstrate that the interaction between pCREB and the Tax-responsive element site within the eNOS promoter may represent a novel mechanism for the mediation of hypoxia-stimulated eNOS gene expression. PMID:16651461

Min, Jiho; Jin, Yoon-Mi; Moon, Je-Sung; Sung, Min-Sun; Jo, Sangmee Ahn; Jo, Inho

2006-06-01

237

Clustered Conserved Cysteines in Hyaluronan Synthase Mediate Cooperative Activation by Mg2+ Ions and Severe Inhibitory Effects of Divalent Cations  

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Hyaluronan synthase (HAS) uses UDP-GlcUA and UDP-GlcNAc to make hyaluronan (HA). Streptococcus equisimilis HAS (SeHAS) contains four conserved cysteines clustered near the membrane, and requires phospholipids and Mg2+ for activity. Activity of membrane-bound or purified enzyme displayed a sigmoidal saturation profile for Mg2+ with a Hill coefficient of 2. To assess if Cys residues are important for cooperativity we examined the Mg2+ dependence of mutants with various combinations of Cys-to-Ala mutations. All Cys-mutants lost the cooperative response to Mg2+. In the presence of Mg2+, other divalent cations inhibited SeHAS with different potencies (Cu2+~Zn2+ >Co2+ >Ni2+ >Mn2+ >Ba2+ Sr2+ Ca2+). Some divalent metal ions likely inhibit by displacement of Mg2+-UDP-Sugar complexes (e.g. Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ had apparent Ki values of 2-5 mM). In contrast, Zn2+ and Cu2+ inhibited more potently (apparent Ki ? 0.2 mM). Inhibition of Cys-null SeHAS by Cu2+, but not Zn2+, was greatly attenuated compared to wildtype. Double and triple Cys-mutants showed differing sensitivities to Zn2+ or Cu2+. Wildtype SeHAS allowed to make HA prior to exposure to Zn2+ or Cu2+ was protected from inhibition, indicating that access of metal ions to sensitive functional groups was hindered in processively acting HA•HAS complexes. We conclude that clustered Cys residues mediate cooperative interactions with Mg2+ and that transition metal ions inhibit SeHAS very potently by interacting with one or more of these –SH groups.

Tlapak-Simmons, Valarie L.; Medina, Andria P.; Baggenstoss, Bruce A.; Nguyen, Long; Baron, Christina A.; Weigel, Paul H.

2012-01-01

238

Spermidine levels are implicated in heavy metal tolerance in a spermidine synthase overexpressing transgenic European pear by exerting antioxidant activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

To verify whether spermidine synthase (SPDS) can confer long-term multi-heavy metal tolerance, in vitro shoots of a transgenic European pear (Pyrus communis L. 'Ballad') line #32 overexpressing apple SPDS (MdSPDS1), as well as a wild type (WT) line, were subjected to stress using either CdCl(2), PbCl(2), ZnCl(2), or a combination thereof. Based on either shoot height increment or fresh weight and morphological changes upon heavy metal stress, the performance of the transgenic line #32 was better than that of WT. Although SPDS expression levels and spermidine (Spd) contents in line #32 were higher than those in WT, possibly due to transgene (MdSPDS1) expression, no obvious inductions of SPDS expression and increases in Spd-content were observed by long-term stress treatments in both lines. When the glutathione (GSH) content was compared with or without stress in each line, GSH was significantly depleted in line #32 with stress, but not as much as in WT. The activities of glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase and the content of malondialdehyde, an indicator for lipid peroxidation, changed upon stress toward a more favorable status for survival in line #32 than in WT. These antioxidant parameters were positively related to Spd-content. The accumulation of heavy metals tended to be less in line #32 than in WT except for Zn stress, and the Ca content showed an opposite trend. These results suggest that Spd-levels are implicated in enhanced heavy metal tolerance, possibly by exerting an antioxidant activity as well as by the properties of Spd per se including metal chelator. PMID:19544002

Wen, Xiao-Peng; Ban, Yusuke; Inoue, Hiromichi; Matsuda, Narumi; Moriguchi, Takaya

2010-02-01

239

Plant Sunscreens in the UV-B: Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Jet-Cooled Sinapoyl Malate, Sinapic Acid, and Sinapate Ester Derivatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultraviolet spectroscopy of sinapoyl malate, an essential UV-B screening agent in plants, was carried out in the cold, isolated environment of a supersonic expansion to explore its intrinsic UV spectral properties in detail. Despite these conditions, sinapoyl malate displays anomalous spectral broadening extending well over 1000 cm(-1) in the UV-B region, presenting the tantalizing prospect that nature's selection of UV-B sunscreen is based in part on the inherent quantum mechanical features of its excited states. Jet-cooling provides an ideal setting in which to explore this topic, where complications from intermolecular interactions are eliminated. In order to better understand the structural causes of this behavior, the UV spectroscopy of a series of sinapate esters was undertaken and compared with ab initio calculations, starting with the simplest sinapate chromophore sinapic acid, and building up the ester side chain to sinapoyl malate. This "deconstruction" approach provided insight into the active mechanism intrinsic to sinapoyl malate, which is tentatively attributed to mixing of the bright V ((1)??*) state with an adiabatically lower (1)n?* state which, according to calculations, shows unique charge-transfer characteristics brought on by the electron-rich malate side chain. All members of the series absorb strongly in the UV-B region, but significant differences emerge in the appearance of the spectrum among the series, with derivatives most closely associated with sinapoyl malate showing characteristic broadening even under jet-cooled conditions. The long vibronic progressions, conformational distribution, and large oscillator strength of the V (??*) transition in sinapates makes them ideal candidates for their role as UV-B screening agents in plants. PMID:25295994

Dean, Jacob C; Kusaka, Ryoji; Walsh, Patrick S; Allais, Florent; Zwier, Timothy S

2014-10-22

240

Intermediate partitioning in the tartrate dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidative decarboxylation of D-malate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The oxidative decarboxylation of D-malate catalyzed by tartrate dehydrogenase has been examined in detail. Enzyme-catalyzed partitioning of oxalacetate has been determined to proceed with formation of pyruvate and D-malate in a ratio of 3.7 to 1. These data, along with the deuterium and tritium kinetic isotope effects on hydride transfer, allow exact calculation of the intrinsic isotope effect and the forward and reverse commitments to catalysis, which have values of 5.1 +/- 0.8, 6.3 +/- 1.0, and 2.0 +/- 0.3, respectively. The viscosity dependence of the tritium isotope effect was measured, which allowed determination of the internal and external components of the commitment factors. The reverse commitment has no external portion, but the forward commitment can be divided into external and internal portions of 3.7 +/- 1.2 and 2.6 +/- 1.6, respectively. These data indicate that the reaction becomes committed to catalysis in the forward direction by formation of the Michaelis complex; reverse hydride transfer from NADH to OAA is twice as fast as decarboxylation of OAA, and recarboxylation of pyruvate occurs at a negligible rate. The rate constant for dissociation of OAA from the enzyme active site was estimated to be approximately 4 orders of magnitude slower than that for dissociation of oxaloglycolate, which is the product of the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of (+)-tartrate. PMID:8457548

Tipton, P A

1993-03-23

 
 
 
 
241

Inibição da atividade da citrato sintase cerebral em um modelo animal de sepse / Inhibition of brain citrate synthase activity in an animal model of sepsis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Um amplo corpo de evidência oriundo de estudos experimentais indica que a sepse se associa com um aumento da produção de espécies de oxigênio reativo, depleção de antioxidantes, e acúmulo de marcadores de estresse oxidativo. Além disto, a disfunção mitocondrial foi implicada na patogênese [...] da síndrome de disfunção de múltiplos órgãos. A citrato sintase é uma enzima que se localiza no interior das células, na matriz mitocondrial, sendo uma etapa importante do ciclo de Krebs; esta enzima foi utilizada como um marcador enzimático quantitativo da presença de mitocôndrias intactas. Assim, investigamos a atividade da citrato sintase no cérebro de ratos submetidos ao modelo sepse com de ligadura e punção do ceco. MÉTODOS: Em diferentes horários (3, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas) após cirurgia de ligadura e punção do ceco, seis ratos foram sacrificados por decapitação, sendo seus cérebros removidos e dissecados o hipocampo, estriato, cerebelo, córtex cerebral e córtex pré-frontal, e utilizados para determinação da atividade de citrato sintase. RESULTADOS: Verificamos que a atividade de citrato sintase no córtex pré-frontal estava inibida após 12, 24 e 48 horas da ligadura e punção do ceco. No córtex cerebral, esta atividade estava inibida após 3, 12, 24 e 48 horas da ligadura e punção do ceco. Por outro lado a citrato sintase não foi afetada no hipocampo, estriato e cerebelo até 48 horas após a ligadura e punção do ceco. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando-se que é bem descrito o comprometimento da energia decorrente da disfunção mitocondrial na sepse, e que o estresse oxidativo desempenha um papel essencial no desenvolvimento da sepse, acreditamos que o comprometimento da energia pode também estar evolvido nestes processos. Se a inibição da citrato sintase também ocorre em um modelo de sepse, é tentador especular que a redução do metabolismo cerebral pode provavelmente estar relacionada com a fisiopatologia desta doença. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: An extensive body of evidence from experimental studies indicates that sepsis is associated with increased reactive oxygen species production, depletion of antioxidants, and accumulation of markers of oxidative stress. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathoge [...] nesis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Citrate synthase is an enzyme localized in the mitochondrial matrix and an important component of the Krebs cycle; consequently, citrate synthase has been used as a quantitative enzyme marker for the presence of intact mitochondria. Thus, we investigated citrate synthase activity in the brains of rats submitted to a cecal ligation puncture model of sepsis. METHODS: At several times points (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours) after the cecal ligation puncture operation, six rats were killed by decapitation. Their brains were removed, and the hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, cerebral cortex and prefrontal cortex were dissected and used to determine citrate synthase activity. RESULTS: We found that citrate synthase activity in the prefrontal cortex was inhibited 12, 24 and 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. In the cerebral cortex, citrate synthase activity was inhibited 3, 12, 24 and 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. Citrate synthase was not affected in the hippocampus, striatum or cerebellum up to 48 hours after cecal ligation puncture. CONCLUSION: Considering that energy impairment due to mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis has been well described and that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in sepsis development, we believe that energy impairment may also be involved in these processes. If citrate synthase inhibition also occurs in a sepsis model, it is tempting to speculate that a reduction in brain metabolism may be related to the pathophysiology of this disease.

Giselli, Scaini; Natália, Rochi; Joana, Benedet; Gabriela Kozuchovski, Ferreira; Brena Pereira, Teodorak; Clarissa Martinelli, Comim; Larissa de Souza, Constantino; Francieli, Vuolo; Leandra Celso, Constantino; João, Quevedo; Emilio Luiz, Streck; Felipe, Dal-Pizzol.

242

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, flavanone 3?-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase enzyme activity by a new in vitro assay method in berry fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

An HPLC method for the determination of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, flavanone 3?-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase enzyme activity is proposed. This method is based on the determination of the compounds produced and consumed on the enzymatic reaction in just one chromatographic analysis. Optimisation of the method considered kinetic studies to establish the incubation time to perform the assay. The method here described proved to be an interesting approach to measure the activities of the three enzymes simultaneously increasing the rapidity, selectivity and sensitivity over other exiting methods. The enzyme activity method developed was applied to strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, redcurrant and blackcurrant fruits. PMID:24491710

Flores, Gema; De la Peña Moreno, Fernando; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Del Castillo, Maria Luisa Ruiz

2014-06-15

243

L-Malate content in irradiated onions (Allium Cepa L.) cv. Valenciana sintetica 14  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of L-malate evaluation in control and irradiated onions, (v. 'Valenciana sintetica 14') and its correlation with sprouting cumulative values are reported. It was concluded that if on the 150th day of storage, the malate content reaches a maximum value and the sprouting is 1 per cent or less, then it would indicate that the samples have been irradiated. L-malate values are positively correlated to sprouting in control samples, while for irradiated ones correlation was negative. (author)

244

Primary structure of the light-dependent regulatory site of corn NADP-malate dehydrogenase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The light-activated NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) catalyzes the reduction of oxaloacetate to malate in higher plant chloroplasts. This enzyme is regulated in vivo by the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system through redox reactions. NADP-MDH has been photoactivated in vitro in a chloroplast system reconstituted from the pure protein components and thylakoid membranes. Photoactivation was accompanied by the appearance of new thiol groups (followed by (14C)iodoacetate incorporation). 14C-Carboxymethylated NADP-MDH has been purified from the incubation mixture and its amino-terminal sequence analyzed. Two (14C)carboxymethylcysteines were identified at positions 10 and 15 after light activation, while they were not detected in the dark-treated protein. In addition, the analysis of the tryptic digest of light-activated (14C)carboxymethylated NADP-MDH revealed that the radioactive label was mostly incorporated in Cys10 and Cys15, indicating that these 2 residues play a major role in the light activation mechanism. Moreover, an activation model, in which photoreduced thio-redoxin was replaced by the dithiol reductant dithio-threitol, has been developed. When NADP-MDH was activated in this way, the same sulfhydryls were found to be labeled, and alternatively, they did not incorporate any radioactivity when dithiothreitol reduction was performed after carboxymethylation in denaturating conditions. These results indicate that activation (by light or by dithiothreitol) proceeds on each subunit by reduction of a disulfide bridge located at the amino terminus of the enzyme between Cys10 and Cys15.

Decottignies, P.; Schmitter, J.M.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.; Le Marechal, P.; Jacquot, J.P.; Gadal, P.

1988-08-25

245

Primary structure of the light-dependent regulatory site of corn NADP-malate dehydrogenase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The light-activated NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) catalyzes the reduction of oxaloacetate to malate in higher plant chloroplasts. This enzyme is regulated in vivo by the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system through redox reactions. NADP-MDH has been photoactivated in vitro in a chloroplast system reconstituted from the pure protein components and thylakoid membranes. Photoactivation was accompanied by the appearance of new thiol groups (followed by [14C]iodoacetate incorporation). 14C-Carboxymethylated NADP-MDH has been purified from the incubation mixture and its amino-terminal sequence analyzed. Two [14C]carboxymethylcysteines were identified at positions 10 and 15 after light activation, while they were not detected in the dark-treated protein. In addition, the analysis of the tryptic digest of light-activated [14C]carboxymethylated NADP-MDH revealed that the radioactive label was mostly incorporated in Cys10 and Cys15, indicating that these 2 residues play a major role in the light activation mechanism. Moreover, an activation model, in which photoreduced thio-redoxin was replaced by the dithiol reductant dithio-threitol, has been developed. When NADP-MDH was activated in this way, the same sulfhydryls were found to be labeled, and alternatively, they did not incorporate any radioactivity when dithiothreitol reduction was performed after carboxymethylation in denaturating conditions. These results indicate that activation (by light or by dithiothreitol) proceeds o(by light or by dithiothreitol) proceeds on each subunit by reduction of a disulfide bridge located at the amino terminus of the enzyme between Cys10 and Cys15

246

Re-citrate synthase from Clostridium kluyveri is phylogenetically related to homocitrate synthase and isopropylmalate synthase rather than to Si-citrate synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis of citrate from acetyl-coenzyme A and oxaloacetate is catalyzed in most organisms by a Si-citrate synthase, which is Si-face stereospecific with respect to C-2 of oxaloacetate. However, in Clostridium kluyveri and some other strictly anaerobic bacteria, the reaction is catalyzed by a Re-citrate synthase, whose primary structure has remained elusive. We report here that Re-citrate synthase from C. kluyveri is the product of a gene predicted to encode isopropylmalate synthase. C. kluyveri is also shown to contain a gene for Si-citrate synthase, which explains why cell extracts of the organism always exhibit some Si-citrate synthase activity. PMID:17400742

Li, Fuli; Hagemeier, Christoph H; Seedorf, Henning; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Thauer, Rudolf K

2007-06-01

247

Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase enhances c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity: Implication in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO is an inflammatory mediator, which acts as a cytotoxic agent and modulates immune responses and inflammation. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal transduction pathway is activated by chemical and physical stress and regulates immune responses. Previous studies have shown that p38 MAPK pathway regulates NO production induced by inflammatory stimuli. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the regulation of inducible NO synthesis by p38 MAPK pathway. Results p38 MAPK inhibitors SB203580 and SB220025 stimulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression and NO production in J774.2 murine macrophages. Increased iNOS mRNA expression was associated with reduced degradation of iNOS mRNA. Treatment with SB220025 increased also LPS-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activity. Interestingly, JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed the effect of SB220025 on LPS-induced iNOS mRNA expression and NO production. Conclusion The results suggest that inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB220025 results in increased JNK activity, which leads to stabilisation of iNOS mRNA, to enhanced iNOS expression and to increased NO production.

Kankaanranta Hannu

2006-02-01

248

Lipopolysaccharide induces nitric oxide synthase expression and platelet-activating factor increases nitric oxide production in human fetal membranes in culture  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet-activating factor and nitric oxide may be involved in the initiation of human labour as inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study was to test whether platelet-activating factor and lipopolysaccharide were able to induce nitric oxide synthase expression and stimulate the production of nitric oxide in human fetal membrane explants in culture. Methods Fetal membranes were collected from Caesarean sections at term. RNA was extracted from membranes and subjected to a qualitative RT-PCR to assess the baseline expression of iNOS. Discs of fetal membranes were cultured for 24 hours in the presence of platelet-activating factor at a dose range of 0.1 nanomolar – 1 micomolar or 1 microgram/ml lipopolysaccharide. Nitric oxide production was measured via nitrite ions in the culture medium and mRNA for iNOS was detected by RT-PCR. Results Culturing the membrane discs in medium containing serum induced nitric oxide synthase expression and platelet-activating factor significantly stimulated the production of nitric oxide under these conditions. When cultured without serum inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was induced by lipopolysaccharide, but not by platelet-activating factor. Conclusion Platelet-activating factor may have a role in the initiation of labour, at term or preterm, via the increased local production of nitric oxide as an inflammatory mediator. In this model of intrauterine infection, lipopolysaccharide was found to induce iNOS expression by fetal membranes, and this mechanism could be involved in preterm labour.

Seyffarth Gunter

2004-06-01

249

Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in activated microglia following domoic acid (DA)-induced neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuronal degeneration followed by glial activation (microglia and astrocytes) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression in the hippocampus was investigated at 3 months after domoic acid (DA) administration and compared with DA treated rats at 5 days time interval which was reported earlier. Massive degeneration with complete absence of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions and hypertrophied microglial cells showing intense immunoreaction with the antibody OX-42 was observed at 3 months after DA administration. Sparsely distributed OX-42 positive microglial cells were observed in the hippocampus of control rats at 3 months after saline treatment No apparent changes could be observed in the immunoreactivity of GFAP at 3 months after saline and DA administration. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive neurons were completely absent in the hippocampus at 3 months after DA administration. In contrast, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemical analysis revealed absence of NADPH-d reactivity in the neurons, but positive reactivity in the microglial cells of CA1-CA3 regions in the hippocampus after DA treatment. Double immunofluorescense revealed co-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase with immunoreactive OX-42 positive microglial cells in the hippocampal subfields at 3 months after DA administration. The microglia-produced NO appears to be a secondary phenomenon in the prolonged inflammatory process following DA-induced neuronal degeneration. PMID:12565138

Ananth, C; Gopalakrishnakone, P; Kaur, C

2003-02-20

250

A heterodimer of human 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases is a new sulphate activating complex  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

3'-Phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases are fundamental to mammalian sulphate metabolism. These enzymes have recently been linked to a rising number of human diseases. Despite many studies, it is not yet understood how the mammalian PAPS synthases 1 and 2 interact with each other. We provide first evidence for heterodimerisation of these two enzymes by pull-down assays and Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Kinetics of dimer dissociation/association indicates that these heterodimers form as soon as PAPSS1 and -S2 encounter each other in solution. Affinity of the homo- and heterodimers were found to be in the low nanomolar range using anisotropy measurements employing proteins labelled with the fluorescent dye IAEDANS that - in spite of its low quantum yield - is well suited for anisotropy due to its large Stokes shift. Within its kinase domain, the PAPS synthase heterodimer displays similar substrate inhibition by adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (APS) as the homodimers. Due to divergent catalytic efficacies of PAPSS1 and -S2, the heterodimer might be a way of regulating PAPS synthase function within mammalian cells.

251

Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-? induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-?-induced nuclear factor-?B activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ? Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. ? Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca2+-dependent AMPK. ? Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. ? Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

252

Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-{alpha} induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-{alpha}-induced nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hien, Tran Thi [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Myung Ho [Heart Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon, E-mail: taecheon@ynu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyungsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-11-15

253

Functional Analysis of the Elaeis oleifera Sesquiterpene SynthasePromoter Reveals Non-Specific Tissue Expression and Activation under Stress Condition  

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This research aimed to evaluate the specificity of sesquiterpene synthase promoter (SesqPro) activity in the oil palm tissues and tomato hairy roots and to determine the functional region of the promoter. The effect of jasmonic acid (JA) on the promoter activation and gene expression was also analyzed. A series of 5’ sequence deletions on the full-length SesqPro were generated and individually cloned into the pCAMBIA 1301 vector. Functional analysis was carried out on leaves, mesocarp slice...

Nik Marzuki Sidik; Zamri Zainal; Chan Kok Fei; Norazreen Abdul Rahman; Che Radziah Che Mohd Zain; Ismanizan Ismail

2009-01-01

254

Human platelet nitric oxide synthase activity: an optimized method Atividade da óxido nítrico sintase em plaquetas humanas: um método otimizado  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigated the kinetic analysis of human platelet Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS activity by the rate of conversion of [³H] arginine to [³H]-citrulline in unstimulated fresh platelets. NOS activity was present in the membrane fraction and cytosol, and was Ca2+- and calmodulin dependent which is a characteristic of endothelial NOS. NOS activity was also dependent of NADPH since the omission of this cofactor induced an important decrease (85,2% in the enzyme activity. The kinetic varied with protein and arginine concentration but optimum concentrations were found up to 60 minutes, and up to 80 µg of protein at 120 nM of arginine and 0.5 µCi of ³H-arginine. NOS activity in the absence of FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide, FMN (flavin mononucleotide and BH4 (tetrahydrobiopterin was only 2.8% of the activity measured in the presence of these three cofactors. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by L-NAME (1 mM (98.1 % and EGTA (5 mM (98.8 %. Trifluoperazine (TFP caused 73.2% inhibition of the enzyme activity at 200 µM and 83.8 % at 500 µM. Under basal conditions, NOS Km for L-arginine was 0.84 ± 0.08 µM and mean Vmax values were 0.122 ± 0.025 pmol.mg-1.min-1. Mean human NOS platelet activity was 0.020 ± 0.010 pmol.mg-1.min-1. Results indicate that the eNOS in human platelet can be evaluated by conversion of [³H]-arginine to [³H]citrulline in an optimized method, which provide reproducible and accurate results with good sensitivity to clinical experiments involving neurological and psychiatric diseases.A análise cinética da atividade da óxido nítrico sintase (NOS plaquetária foi avaliada pela conversão de [³H]-arginina em [³H]-citrulina em plaquetas humanas frescas não estimuladas. A atividade da NOS foi detectada na fração citosólica e na membrana, além de ser dependente de Ca2+-calmodulina, que é uma característica da NOS endotelial (eNOS. A omissão de NADPH levou à diminuição da atividade da NOS dependente da dose causando redução de 85,2% da atividade enzimática. A cinética variou de acordo com as concentrações de proteína e de arginina, sendo que as melhores leituras foram obtidas com 80 µg de proteína, 120 nM de arginina em 0,5 µCi de ³H arginina, em 60 minutos de incubação. A atividade da NOS na ausência de FAD (flavina adenina dinucleotídeo, FMN (flavina mononucleotídeo e BH4 (tetrahidrobiopterina foi de apenas 2,8% da atividade medida na presença destes três cofatores. A atividade da enzima foi completamente inibida pelo L-NAME (1 mM; 98,1 %, EGTA (5 mM; 98,8 % e adição de trifluoperazina (TFP, nas concentrações de 200 µM e 500 µM, inibiu a atividade da enzima em 73,2% e 83,8 %, respectivamente. Em condições basais, o Km da NOS para Larginina foi de 0,84 ± 0,08 µM e o valor de Vmax foi de 0,122 ± 0,025 pmol.mg-1.min-1. A atividade média da NOS plaquetária humana foi de 0,020 ± 0,010 pmol.mg-1.min-1. Os resultados indicam que a eNOS em plaquetas humanas pode ser avaliada pelo método da conversão de [³H]-arginina em [³H]-citrulina, que em condições otimizadas, fornece resultados reprodutíveis e precisos com ótima sensibilidade para experimentos clínicos envolvendo doenças neurológicas e psiquiátricas.

Elisa Mitiko Kawamato

2002-09-01

255

Human platelet nitric oxide synthase activity: an optimized method / Atividade da óxido nítrico sintase em plaquetas humanas: um método otimizado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A análise cinética da atividade da óxido nítrico sintase (NOS) plaquetária foi avaliada pela conversão de [³H]-arginina em [³H]-citrulina em plaquetas humanas frescas não estimuladas. A atividade da NOS foi detectada na fração citosólica e na membrana, além de ser dependente de Ca2+-calmodulina, que [...] é uma característica da NOS endotelial (eNOS). A omissão de NADPH levou à diminuição da atividade da NOS dependente da dose causando redução de 85,2% da atividade enzimática. A cinética variou de acordo com as concentrações de proteína e de arginina, sendo que as melhores leituras foram obtidas com 80 µg de proteína, 120 nM de arginina em 0,5 µCi de ³H arginina, em 60 minutos de incubação. A atividade da NOS na ausência de FAD (flavina adenina dinucleotídeo), FMN (flavina mononucleotídeo) e BH4 (tetrahidrobiopterina) foi de apenas 2,8% da atividade medida na presença destes três cofatores. A atividade da enzima foi completamente inibida pelo L-NAME (1 mM; 98,1 %), EGTA (5 mM; 98,8 %) e adição de trifluoperazina (TFP), nas concentrações de 200 µM e 500 µM, inibiu a atividade da enzima em 73,2% e 83,8 %, respectivamente. Em condições basais, o Km da NOS para Larginina foi de 0,84 ± 0,08 µM e o valor de Vmax foi de 0,122 ± 0,025 pmol.mg-1.min-1. A atividade média da NOS plaquetária humana foi de 0,020 ± 0,010 pmol.mg-1.min-1. Os resultados indicam que a eNOS em plaquetas humanas pode ser avaliada pelo método da conversão de [³H]-arginina em [³H]-citrulina, que em condições otimizadas, fornece resultados reprodutíveis e precisos com ótima sensibilidade para experimentos clínicos envolvendo doenças neurológicas e psiquiátricas. Abstract in english We investigated the kinetic analysis of human platelet Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) activity by the rate of conversion of [³H] arginine to [³H]-citrulline in unstimulated fresh platelets. NOS activity was present in the membrane fraction and cytosol, and was Ca2+- and calmodulin dependent which is a [...] characteristic of endothelial NOS. NOS activity was also dependent of NADPH since the omission of this cofactor induced an important decrease (85,2%) in the enzyme activity. The kinetic varied with protein and arginine concentration but optimum concentrations were found up to 60 minutes, and up to 80 µg of protein at 120 nM of arginine and 0.5 µCi of ³H-arginine. NOS activity in the absence of FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), FMN (flavin mononucleotide) and BH4 (tetrahydrobiopterin) was only 2.8% of the activity measured in the presence of these three cofactors. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by L-NAME (1 mM) (98.1 %) and EGTA (5 mM) (98.8 %). Trifluoperazine (TFP) caused 73.2% inhibition of the enzyme activity at 200 µM and 83.8 % at 500 µM. Under basal conditions, NOS Km for L-arginine was 0.84 ± 0.08 µM and mean Vmax values were 0.122 ± 0.025 pmol.mg-1.min-1. Mean human NOS platelet activity was 0.020 ± 0.010 pmol.mg-1.min-1. Results indicate that the eNOS in human platelet can be evaluated by conversion of [³H]-arginine to [³H]citrulline in an optimized method, which provide reproducible and accurate results with good sensitivity to clinical experiments involving neurological and psychiatric diseases.

Elisa Mitiko, Kawamato; Isaias, Glezer; Carolina Demarchi, Munhoz; Cristiane, Bernardes; Cristoforo, Scavone; Tania, Marcourakis.

2002-09-01

256

Spectroscopic, thermal and structural studies on manganous malate crystals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prismatic crystals of manganous malate have been prepared by controlled ionic diffusion in hydrosilica gel. The structure was elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystals are orthorhombic with space group Pbca. Vibrations of the functional groups were identified by the FTIR spectrum. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA) were carried out to explore the thermal decomposition pattern of the material. Structural information derived from FTIR and TG-DTA studies is in conformity with the single crystal XRD data.

257

Guillain-Barr? Syndrome following Treatment with Sunitinib Malate  

Science.gov (United States)

Sunitinib malate (Sutent, SU011248) is an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) used for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and imatinib (Gleevec)—resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with few reported side effects including asthenia, myelosuppression, diarrhea, and mucositis. Scarce literature exists regarding the rare but often serious toxicities of sunitinib. Autoimmune and neurological side effects have been linked to sunitinib's inhibition of VEGF receptors with a corresponding increase in VEGF levels, which is associated with development of different neuropathies. We hereby report an interesting case of Guillain-Barré syndrome in a middle-aged patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma following sunitinib treatment. PMID:25018885

Saha, Sandip; Kumar, Sarwan

2014-01-01

258

Guillain-Barré Syndrome following Treatment with Sunitinib Malate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sunitinib malate (Sutent, SU011248) is an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) used for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and imatinib (Gleevec)-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with few reported side effects including asthenia, myelosuppression, diarrhea, and mucositis. Scarce literature exists regarding the rare but often serious toxicities of sunitinib. Autoimmune and neurological side effects have been linked to sunitinib's inhibition of VEGF receptors with a corresponding increase in VEGF levels, which is associated with development of different neuropathies. We hereby report an interesting case of Guillain-Barré syndrome in a middle-aged patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma following sunitinib treatment. PMID:25018885

Kanaan, Ziad; Kulairi, Zain; Titianu, Mirela; Saha, Sandip; Kumar, Sarwan

2014-01-01

259

Farnesyl diphosphate synthase assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS) catalyzes the sequential head-to-tail condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP, C5) with dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP, C5) and geranyl diphosphate (GPP, C10) to produce farnesyl diphosphate (FPP, C15). This short-chain prenyl diphosphate constitutes a key branch-point of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway from which a variety of bioactive isoprenoids that are vital for normal plant growth and survival are produced. Here we describe a protocol to obtain highly purified preparations of recombinant FPS and a radiochemical assay method for measuring FPS activity in purified enzyme preparations and plant tissue extracts. PMID:24777789

Arró, Montserrat; Manzano, David; Ferrer, Albert

2014-01-01

260

Limited proteolysis of Escherichia coli cytidine 5'-triphosphate synthase. Identification of residues required for CTP formation and GTP-dependent activation of glutamine hydrolysis.  

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Cytidine 5'-triphosphate synthase catalyses the ATP-dependent formation of CTP from UTP using either ammonia or l-glutamine as the source of nitrogen. When glutamine is the substrate, GTP is required as an allosteric effector to promote catalysis. Limited trypsin-catalysed proteolysis, Edman degradation, and site-directed mutagenesis were used to identify peptide bonds C-terminal to three basic residues (Lys187, Arg429, and Lys432) of Escherichia coli CTP synthase that were highly susceptible to proteolysis. Lys187 is located at the CTP/UTP-binding site within the synthase domain, and cleavage at this site destroyed all synthase activity. Nucleotides protected the enzyme against proteolysis at Lys187 (CTP > ATP > UTP > GTP). The K187A mutant was resistant to proteolysis at this site, could not catalyse CTP formation, and exhibited low glutaminase activity that was enhanced slightly by GTP. K187A was able to form tetramers in the presence of UTP and ATP. Arg429 and Lys432 appear to reside in an exposed loop in the glutamine amide transfer (GAT) domain. Trypsin-catalyzed proteolysis occurred at Arg429 and Lys432 with a ratio of 2.6 : 1, and nucleotides did not protect these sites from cleavage. The R429A and R429A/K432A mutants exhibited reduced rates of trypsin-catalyzed proteolysis in the GAT domain and wild-type ability to catalyse NH3-dependent CTP formation. For these mutants, the values of kcat/Km and kcat for glutamine-dependent CTP formation were reduced approximately 20-fold and approximately 10-fold, respectively, relative to wild-type enzyme; however, the value of Km for glutamine was not significantly altered. Activation of the glutaminase activity of R429A by GTP was reduced 6-fold at saturating concentrations of GTP and the GTP binding affinity was reduced 10-fold. This suggests that Arg429 plays a role in both GTP-dependent activation and GTP binding. PMID:12752439

Simard, Dave; Hewitt, Kerry A; Lunn, Faylene; Iyengar, Akshai; Bearne, Stephen L

2003-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Evolution of enzymatic activity in the enolase superfamily: functional studies of the promiscuous o-succinylbenzoate synthase from Amycolatopsis.  

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o-Succinylbenzoate synthase (OSBS) from Amycolatopsis, a member of the enolase superfamily, catalyzes the Mn2+-dependent exergonic dehydration of 2-succinyl-6R-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1R-carboxylate (SHCHC) to 4-(2'-carboxylphenyl)-4-oxobutyrate (o-succinylbenzoate or OSB) in the menaquinone biosynthetic pathway. This enzyme first was identified as an N-acylamino acid racemase (NAAAR), with the optimal substrates being the enantiomers of N-acetyl methionine. This laboratory subsequently discovered that this protein is a much better catalyst of the OSBS reaction, with the value of k(cat)/K(M), for dehydration, 2.5 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), greatly exceeding that for 1,1-proton transfer using the enantiomers of N-acetylmethionine as substrate, 3.1 x 10(2) M(-1) s(-1) [Palmer, D. R., Garrett, J. B., Sharma, V., Meganathan, R., Babbitt, P. C., and Gerlt, J. A. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 4252-8]. The efficiency of the promiscuous NAAAR reaction is enhanced with alternate substrates whose structures mimic that of the SHCHC substrate for the OSBS reaction, for example, the value of k(cat)/K(M) for the enantiomers of N-succinyl phenylglycine, 2.0 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), is comparable to that for the OSBS reaction. The mechanisms of the NAAAR and OSBS reactions have been explored using mutants of Lys 163 and Lys 263 (K163A/R/S and K263A/R/S), the putative acid/base catalysts identified by sequence alignments with other OSBSs, including the structurally characterized OSBS from Escherichia coli. Although none of the mutants display detectable OSBS or NAAAR activities, K163R and K163S catalyze stereospecific exchange of the alpha-hydrogen of N-succinyl-(S)-phenylglycine with solvent hydrogen, and K263R and K263 catalyze the stereospecific exchange the alpha-hydrogen of N-succinyl-(R)-phenylglycine, consistent with formation of a Mn2+-stabilized enolate anion intermediate. The rates of the exchange reactions catalyzed by the wild-type enzyme exceed those for racemization. That this enzyme can catalyze two different reactions, each involving a stabilized enediolate anion intermediate, supports the hypothesis that evolution of function in the enolase superfamily proceeds by pathways involving functional promiscuity. PMID:14705949

Taylor Ringia, Erika A; Garrett, James B; Thoden, James B; Holden, Hazel M; Rayment, Ivan; Gerlt, John A

2004-01-13

262

Inhibition of glucosylceramide synthase reversibly decreases the capsaicin-induced activation and TRPV1 expression of cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons.  

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Recent studies have demonstrated significant changes in the neuronal ganglioside status associated with altered functional states of nociceptive primary sensory neurons. In the present study, therefore, the effects of the inhibition of glucosylceramide synthase, the key enzyme of ganglioside synthesis, were studied on chemically defined populations and on the activation of TRPV1 of cultured adult rat sensory ganglion neurons. In control cultures, capsaicin resulted in the activation of TRPV1 in 29.7+/-2.5% of the neurons, as assessed with the cobalt uptake assay. Pretreatment of the cultures for 4days with an inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase, d-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (d-PDMP), significantly decreased the proportion of capsaicin-activated neurons to 11.6+/-1.2%. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that, in control cultures, 37.5+/-1.4% of the neurons displayed TRPV1 immunoreactivity, whereas in d-PDMP-treated cultures the proportion of TRPV1-immunoreactive neurons was diminished to 18.2+/-2.1%. Further experiments disclosed that these effects of d-PDMP were reversible. The capsaicin-, but not the high potassium-induced release of CGRP, was also significantly reduced after d-PDMP treatment, as measured with ELISA. The proportions of IB4- and CGRP-positive neurons were not significantly affected by d-PDMP. The present observations demonstrate that inhibition of neuronal ganglioside synthesis profoundly modulates the expression of the TRPV1 receptor, apparently leaving other markers of nociceptive neurons, such as CGRP and IB4, unaffected. The findings indicate that as yet unidentified ganglioside(s) synthesized by the glucosylceramide synthase pathway may be essential for nociception through mechanisms which may implicate membrane lipid raft function and/or altered nerve growth factor signaling, which are essential for the TRPV1 receptor function. PMID:20427129

Sántha, Péter; Oszlács, Orsolya; Dux, Mária; Dobos, Ildikó; Jancsó, Gábor

2010-07-01

263

An active site mutant of Escherichia coli cyclopropane fatty acid synthase forms new non-natural fatty acids providing insights on the mechanism of the enzymatic reaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have produced and purified an active site mutant of the Escherichia coli cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (CFAS) by replacing the strictly conserved G236 within cyclopropane synthases, by a glutamate residue, which corresponds to E146 of the homologous mycolic acid methyltransferase, Hma, producing hydroxymethyl mycolic acids. The G236E CFAS mutant had less than 1% of the in vitro activity of the wild type enzyme. We expressed the G236E CFAS mutant in an E. coli (DE3) strain in which the chromosomal cfa gene had been deleted. After extraction of phospholipids and conversion into the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), we observed the formation of cyclopropanated FAMEs suggesting that the mutant retained some of the normal activity in vivo. However, we also observed the formation of new C17 methyl-branched unsaturated FAMEs whose structures were determined using GC/MS and NMR analyses. The double bond was located at different positions 8, 9 or 10, and the methyl group at position 10 or 9. Thus, this new FAMEs are likely arising from a 16:1 acyl chain of a phospholipid that had been transformed by the G236E CFAS mutant in vivo. The reaction catalyzed by this G236E CFAS mutant thus starts by the methylation of the unsaturated acyl chain at position 10 or 9 yielding a carbocation at position 9 or 10 respectively. It follows then two competing steps, a normal cyclopropanation or hydride shift/elimination events giving different combinations of alkenes. This study not only provides further evidence that cyclopropane synthases (CSs) form a carbocationic intermediate but also opens the way to CSs engineering for the synthesis of non-natural fatty acids. PMID:23954860

E, Guangqi; Drujon, Thierry; Correia, Isabelle; Ploux, Olivier; Guianvarc'h, Dominique

2013-12-01

264

Role of peroxynitrite and activation of poly (ADP-ribose) synthase in the vascular failure induced by zymosan-activated plasma.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Zymosan is a wall component of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Injection of zymosan into experimental animals is known to produce an intense inflammatory response. Recent studies demonstrated that the zymosan-induced inflammatory response in vivo can be ameliorated by inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis. The cytotoxic effects of NO are, in part, mediated by the oxidant preoxynitrite and subsequent activation of the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS). In the present in vitro study, we have investigated the cellular mechanisms of vascular failure elicited by zymosan-activated plasma and the contribution of peroxynitrite production and activation of PARS to the changes. 2. Incubation of rat aortic smooth muscle cells with zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP) induced the production of nitrite, the breakdown product of NO, due to the expression of the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) over 6 24 h. In addition, ZAP triggered the production of peroxynitrite in these cells, as measured by the oxidation of the fluorescent dye dihydrorhodamine 123 and by nitrotyrosine Western blotting. 3. Incubation of the smooth muscle cells with ZAP induced DNA single strand breakage and PARS activation. These effects were reduced by inhibition of NOS with NG-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA, 3 mM), and by glutathione (3 mM), a scavenger of peroxynitrite. The PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (1 mM) inhibited the ZAP-induced activation of PARS. 4. Incubation of thoracic aortae with ZAP in vitro caused a reduction of the contractions of the blood vessels to noradrenaline (vascular hyporeactivity) and elicited a reduced responsiveness to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (endothelial dysfunction). 5. Preincubation of the thoracic aortae with L-NMA (1 mM), glutathione (3 mM) or by the PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (1 mM) prevented the development of vascular hyporeactivity in response to ZAP. Moreover, glutathione and 3-aminobenzamide treatment protected against the ZAP-induced development of endothelial dysfunction. The PARS-related loss of the vascular contractility was evident at 30 min after incubation in endothelium-intact, but not in endothelium-denuded vessels and also manifested at 6 h after incubation with ZAP in endothelium-denuded rings. The acute response is probably related, therefore, to peroxynitrite formation (involving the endothelial NO synthase), whereas the delayed response may be related to the expression of iNOS in the smooth muscle. 6. The data obtained suggest that zymosan-activated plasma causes vascular dysfunction by inducing the simultaneous formation of superoxide and NO. These radicals combine to form peroxynitrite, which, in turn causes DNA injury and PARS activation. The protective effect of 3-aminobenzamide demonstrates that PARS activation contributes both to the development of vascular hyporeactivity and endothelial dysfunction during the vascular failure induced by ZAP. PMID:9351506

Cuzzocrea, S; Zingarelli, B; O'Connor, M; Salzman, A L; Caputi, A P; Szabó, C

1997-10-01

265

Fingolimod potentiates the effects of sunitinib malate in a rat breast cancer model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of the antiangiogenic strategies used in oncology principally target endothelial cells through the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. Multiple kinase inhibitors can secondarily reduce mural cell stabilization of the vessels by blocking platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) activity. However, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which is also implicated in mural cell recruitment, has yet to be targeted in clinical practice. We therefore investigated the potential of a simultaneous blockade of the PDGF and S1P pathways on the chemotactic responses of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the resulting effects of this blockade on breast tumor growth. Due to crosstalk between the S1P and PDGF pathways, we used AG1296 and/or VPC-23019 to inhibit PDGFR-? and S1PR1/S1PR3 receptors, respectively. We showed that S1PR1 and S1PR3 are the principal receptors that mediate the S1P chemotactic signal on rat VSMCs and that they act synergistically with PDGFR-? during PDGF-B signaling. We also showed that simultaneous blockade of the PDGFR-? and S1PR1/S1PR3 signals had a synergistic effect, decreasing VSMC migration velocity toward endothelial cell and breast carcinoma cell-secreted cytokines by 65-90%. This blockade also strongly decreased the ability of VSMCs to form a three-dimensional cell network. Similar results were obtained with the combination of sunitinib malate (a VEGFR/PDGFR kinase inhibitor) and fingolimod (an S1P analog). Sunitinib malate is a clinically approved cancer treatment, whereas fingolimod is currently indicated only for treatment of multiple sclerosis. Orally administered, the combination of these drugs greatly decreased rat breast tumor growth in a syngeneic cancer model (Walker 256). This bi-therapy did not exert cumulative toxicity and histological analysis of the tumors revealed normalization of the tumor vasculature. The simultaneous blockade of these signaling pathways with sunitinib malate and fingolimod may provide an effective means of reducing tumor angiogenesis, and may improve the delivery of other chemotherapies. PMID:22160641

Mousseau, Yoanne; Mollard, Séverine; Faucher-Durand, Karine; Richard, Laurence; Nizou, Angélique; Cook-Moreau, Jeanne; Baaj, Yasser; Qiu, Hao; Plainard, Xavier; Fourcade, Laurent; Funalot, Benoit; Sturtz, Franck G

2012-07-01

266

Up-regulation of platelet-activating factor synthases and its receptor in spinal cord contribute to development of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet-activating factor (PAF; 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine is a lipid mediator derived from cell membrane. It has been reported that PAF is involved in various pathological conditions, such as spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain and intrathecal administration of PAF leads to tactile allodynia. However, the expression of PAF synthases and its receptor in the spinal cord following peripheral nerve injury is unknown. Methods Using the rat spared nerve injury (SNI model, we investigated the expression of PAF synthases (LPCAT1 and 2 and PAF receptor (PAFr mRNAs in the spinal cord. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and double-labeling analysis of in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH with immunohistochemistry (IHC were employed for the analyses. Pain behaviors were also examined with PAFr antagonist (WEB2086. Results RT-PCR showed that LPCAT2 mRNA was increased in the ipsilateral spinal cord after injury, but not LPCAT1 mRNA. Double-labeling of ISHH with IHC revealed that LPCAT1 and 2 mRNAs were constitutively expressed by a subset of neurons, and LPCAT2 mRNA was increased in spinal microglia after nerve injury. RT-PCR showed that PAFr mRNA was dramatically increased in the ipsilateral spinal cord after nerve injury. Double-labeling analysis of ISHH with IHC revealed that after injury PAFr mRNA was predominantly colocalized with microglia in the spinal cord. Continuous intrathecal administration of the PAFr antagonist suppressed mechanical allodynia following peripheral nerve injury. Delayed administration of a PAFr antagonist did not reverse the mechanical allodynia. Conclusions Our data show the histological localization of PAF synthases and its receptor in the spinal cord following peripheral nerve injury, and suggest that PAF/PAFr signaling in the spinal cord acts in an autocrine or paracrine manner among the activated microglia and neurons, thus contributing to development of neuropathic pain.

Okubo Masamichi

2012-02-01

267

[The changes of the activity of NO-synthases and oxidative processes under conditions of 5-HT receptors activation in the stomach and large intestine in streptozocin-induced diabetes mellitus].  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the activity of NO-synthases, lipoperoxidation processes, antioxidant defense enzymes in the muscular layers of stomach and large intestine. The L-arginine concentration in blood plasma was also monitored under conditions of 2-weeks activation of 5-HT4 receptors by mosaprid in streptozocin-induced diabetes mellitus. We showed that the onset of diabetes mellitus is accompanied by a 2.4-2.8-fold increase in the activity of inducible NO-synthase and a 23-40% increase in the SOD activity. The nitric oxide content and TBA products in the muscular layers of stomach and large intestine were increased, whereas the motor-evacuational function of the stomach and large intestine decreased. Activation of 5-HT4 receptors by mosaprid under conditions of diabetes mellitus decreased the activity of inducible NO-synthase, the lipoperoxidation processes, nitrite anion content and TBA products in muscular layers of stomach and large intestine by 23%. At the same time, we observed an increase in the motor-evacuational function of stomach and large intestine without affecting the blood sugar level. PMID:23233943

Skliarov, O Ia; Detsyk, O I

2012-01-01

268

Fluvoxamine alters the activity of energy metabolism enzymes in the brain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective: Several studies support the hypothesis that metabolism impairment is involved in the pathophysiology of depression and that some antidepressants act by modulating brain energy metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and cre [...] atine kinase in the brain of rats subjected to prolonged administration of fluvoxamine. Methods: Wistar rats received daily administration of fluvoxamine in saline (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) for 14 days. Twelve hours after the last administration, rats were killed by decapitation and the prefrontal cortex, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were rapidly isolated. Results: The activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV were decreased after prolonged administration of fluvoxamine in rats. However, the activities of complex II, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase were increased. Conclusions: Alterations in activity of energy metabolism enzymes were observed in most brain areas analyzed. Thus, we suggest that the decrease in citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV can be related to adverse effects of pharmacotherapy, but long-term molecular adaptations cannot be ruled out. In addition, we demonstrated that these changes varied according to brain structure or biochemical analysis and were not dose-dependent.

Gabriela K., Ferreira; Mariane R., Cardoso; Isabela C., Jeremias; Cinara L., Gonçalves; Karolina V., Freitas; Rafaela, Antonini; Giselli, Scaini; Gislaine T., Rezin; João, Quevedo; Emilio L., Streck.

2014-09-01

269

Fluvoxamine alters the activity of energy metabolism enzymes in the brain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective: Several studies support the hypothesis that metabolism impairment is involved in the pathophysiology of depression and that some antidepressants act by modulating brain energy metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and cre [...] atine kinase in the brain of rats subjected to prolonged administration of fluvoxamine. Methods: Wistar rats received daily administration of fluvoxamine in saline (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) for 14 days. Twelve hours after the last administration, rats were killed by decapitation and the prefrontal cortex, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were rapidly isolated. Results: The activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV were decreased after prolonged administration of fluvoxamine in rats. However, the activities of complex II, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase were increased. Conclusions: Alterations in activity of energy metabolism enzymes were observed in most brain areas analyzed. Thus, we suggest that the decrease in citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV can be related to adverse effects of pharmacotherapy, but long-term molecular adaptations cannot be ruled out. In addition, we demonstrated that these changes varied according to brain structure or biochemical analysis and were not dose-dependent.

Gabriela K., Ferreira; Mariane R., Cardoso; Isabela C., Jeremias; Cinara L., Goncalves; Karolina V., Freitas; Rafaela, Antonini; Giselli, Scaini; Gislaine T., Rezin; Joao, Quevedo; Emilio L., Streck.

2014-03-17

270

Liraglutide ameliorates renal injury in streptozotocin?induced diabetic rats by activating endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity via the downregulation of the nuclear factor??B pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulating evidence has implicated that liraglutide, one of the human glucagon?like peptide?1 (GLP?1) analogues, elicits protective effects on diabetic nephropathy; however, the mechanism has yet to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to assess the effect and underlying mechanisms of liraglutide in diabetic nephropathy. Wistar rats with streptozotocin?induced diabetes mellitus were subcutaneously injected with liraglutide or phosphate buffer for 12 weeks at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg/12 h. The biochemical parameters were determined, renal histological examination was performed by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid Schiff base staining, and the mRNA levels of nuclear factor ?B (NF??B) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the protein expression of NF??B and eNOS as well as eNOS phosphorylation were examined by western blot analysis and the levels of inflammatory cytokines downstream of NF??B were evaluated by fluorescence-assisted cell sorting and finally, the eNOS activity and nitric oxide (NO) production were evaluated by ELISA. Liraglutide decreased the levels of total cholesterol, urine, 24-h urinary albumin, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and histological damage. Liraglutide also reduced the expression of NF??B at mRNA and protein levels; the expression of tumor necrosis factor??, interferon??, interleukin?6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein?1 were also reduced. By contrast, eNOS phosphorylation, eNOS activity and NO production appeared to have increased. Liraglutide may have a direct beneficial effect on diabetic nephropathy by improving eNOS activity by inhibiting the NF??B pathway without eliciting a glucose lowering effect. PMID:25215431

Zhou, Sai-Jun; Bai, Lian; Lv, Lin; Chen, Rui; Li, Chun-Jun; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Yu, De-Min; Yu, Pei

2014-11-01

271

Nitric Oxide synthases and atrial fibrillation  

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Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. There are multiple systems in the myocardium which contribute to redox homeostasis, and loss of homeostasis can result in oxidative stress. Potential sources of oxidants include nitric oxide synthases, which normally produce nitric oxide in the heart. Two nitric oxide synthase isoforms (1 and 3 are normally expressed in the heart. During pathologies such as heart failure, there is induction of nitric oxide synthase 2 in multiple cell types in the myocardium. In certain conditions, the NOS enzymes may become uncoupled, shifting from production of nitric oxide to superoxide anion, a potent free radical and oxidant. Multiple lines of evidence suggest a role for nitric oxide synthases in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. Therapeutic approaches to reduce atrial fibrillation by modulation of nitric oxide synthase activity may be beneficial, although further investigation of this strategy is needed.

CynthiaAnnCarnes

2012-04-01

272

Photofermentation of malate for biohydrogen production - A modeling approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A kinetic model for photofermentative biohydrogen production is developed in this study to predict the dynamics of the process. The proposed model contains 17 parameters to describe cell growth, substrate consumption, and hydrogen evolution as well as inhibition of the process by biomass, light intensity, and substrate. Batch experimental results from the literature were used to calibrate and validate the model with malic acid as a model substrate, using Rhodobacter sphaeroides as a model biomass. Temporal hydrogen evolution and cell growth predicted by the proposed model agreed well with the experimentally measured data obtained from four literature reports, with statistically significant correlation coefficients exceeding 0.9. Based on sensitivity analysis performed with the validated model, only six of the 17 parameters were found to be significant. Model simulations indicated that the range of optimal light intensity for maximum hydrogen yield from malate by R. sphaeroides was 150-250 W/m{sup 2}. (author)

Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Sukumaran, Anoop; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany; Thein Myint, Maung [Civil Engineering Department, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

2008-05-15

273

Structural requirements for the activation of Escherichia coli CTP synthase by the allosteric effector GTP are stringent, but requirements for inhibition are lax.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytidine 5'-triphosphate synthase catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of CTP from UTP using either NH(3) or l-glutamine (Gln) as the source of nitrogen. GTP acts as an allosteric effector promoting Gln hydrolysis but inhibiting Gln-dependent CTP formation at concentrations of >0.15 mM and NH(3)-dependent CTP formation at all concentrations. A structure-activity study using a variety of GTP and guanosine analogues revealed that only a few GTP analogues were capable of activating Gln-dependent CTP formation to varying degrees: GTP approximately 6-thio-GTP > ITP approximately guanosine 5'-tetraphosphate > O(6)-methyl-GTP > 2'-deoxy-GTP. No activation was observed with guanosine, GMP, GDP, 2',3'-dideoxy-GTP, acycloguanosine, and acycloguanosine monophosphate, indicating that the 5'-triphosphate, 2'-OH, and 3'-OH are required for full activation. The 2-NH(2) group plays an important role in binding recognition, whereas substituents at the 6-position play an important role in activation. The presence of a 6-NH(2) group obviates activation, consistent with the inability of ATP to substitute for GTP. Nucleotide and nucleoside analogues of GTP and guanosine, respectively, all inhibited NH(3)- and Gln-dependent CTP formation (often in a cooperative manner) to a similar extent (IC(50) approximately 0.2-0.5 mM). This inhibition appeared to be due solely to the purine base and was relatively insensitive to the identity of the purine with the exception of inosine, ITP, and adenosine (IC(50) approximately 4-12 mM). 8-Oxoguanosine was the best inhibitor identified (IC(50) = 80 microM). Our findings suggest that modifying 2-aminopurine or 2-aminopurine riboside may serve as an effective strategy for developing cytidine 5'-triphosphate synthase inhibitors. PMID:18003612

Lunn, Faylene A; MacDonnell, Jennifer E; Bearne, Stephen L

2008-01-25

274

[Ureido-¹?N]citrulline UPLC-MS/MS nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity assay: development, validation, and applications to assess NOS uncoupling and human platelets NOS activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

In healthy human subjects, less than 0.2% of l-arginine is converted to l-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthases (NOS), a metabolic pathway present in all cell types. Assessment of NOS activity in vitro and in vivo by measuring l-citrulline or NO is difficult. l-citrulline is formed from l-arginine to a much higher extent by other pathways including the urea cycle. Furthermore, NO is a very short-lived gaseous molecule and is oxidized to nitrite and nitrate which are ubiquitous. In fact, nitrite and nitrate are also derived from food and air and are major laboratory contaminants. Further, NOS (in the uncoupled state) are also able to produce superoxide in addition and/or instead of l-citrulline and NO. The difficulties of NOS assays based on l-citrulline and NO measurement can only in part be overcome by sophisticated techniques including use of radio-labeled ((3)H or (14)C) and stable-isotope labeled ((15)N2 at the guanidine group) l-arginine analogs as substrates for NOS and measurement of radio-labeled l-citrulline and (15)N-labeled nitrite and nitrate, respectively. In the present work, we report on the development, validation and application of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the assessment of the activity of recombinant NOS enzymes by using [guanidino-(15)N2]-l-arginine (20 ?M for recombinant NOS, 5mM in cell systems) as the substrate and by measuring [ureido-(15)N]-l-citrulline as the reaction product (usually formed at concentrations below 1 ?M) using (2)H7-l-citrulline as the internal standard. The lower limit of detection of the method is about 80 fmol (2)H7-l-citrulline. In cell systems, exceeding [guanidino-(15)N2]-l-arginine is removed by strong cation exchanger solid-phase extraction. The method was cross-validated by a GC-MS assay that measures simultaneously (15)N-nitrite and (15)N-nitrate as pentafluorobenzyl derivatives, with unlabeled nitrite and nitrate serving as the internal standards. By means of this UPLC-MS/MS (15)N-citrulline assay, N(G)-nitro-arginine (100 ?M) was found to inhibit recombinant inducible NOS (iNOS) activity (by 38%), whereas nitrite and GSSG (each at 500 ?M) did not affect iNOS activity at all. Nitrite and GSSG at pathophysiological concentrations are unlikely to uncouple NOS. NOS activity was not detectable in platelets of healthy humans by the UPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS assays. PMID:25033468

Böhmer, Anke; Gambaryan, Stepan; Flentje, Markus; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

2014-08-15

275

ATPase/synthase activity of Paracoccus denitrificans Fo·F1 as related to the respiratory control phenomenon.  

Science.gov (United States)

The time course of ATP synthesis, oxygen consumption, and change in the membrane potential in Paracoccus denitrificans inside-out plasma membrane vesicles was traced. ATP synthesis initiated by the addition of a limited amount of either ADP or inorganic phosphate proceeded up to very low residual concentrations of the limiting substrate. Accumulated ATP did not decrease the rate of its synthesis initiated by the addition of ADP. The amount of residual ADP determined at State 4 respiration was independent of ten-fold variation of Pi or the presence of ATP. The pH-dependence of Km for Pi could not be fitted to a simple phosphoric acid dissociation curve. Partial inhibition of respiration resulted in a decrease in the rate of ATP synthesis without affecting the ATP/ADP reached at State 4. At pH8.0, hydrolysis of ATP accumulated at State 4 was induced by a low concentration of an uncoupler, whereas complete uncoupling results in rapid inactivation of ATPase. At pH7.0, no reversal of the ATP synthase reaction by the uncoupler was seen. The data show that ATP/ADP×Pi ratio maintained at State 4 is not in equilibrium with respiratory-generated driving force. Possible mechanisms of kinetic control and unidirectional operation of the Fo·F1-ATP synthase are discussed. PMID:24732246

Zharova, Tatyana V; Vinogradov, Andrei D

2014-08-01

276

Akt2 influences glycogen synthase activity in human skeletal muscle through regulation of NH2-terminal (sites 2+2a) phosphorylation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by reduced muscle glycogen synthesis. The key enzyme in this process, glycogen synthase (GS), is activated via proximal insulin signaling, but the exact molecular events remain unknown. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of Threonine-308 on Akt (pAkt-T308), Akt2 activity, and GS activity in muscle were positivity associated with insulin sensitivity. Now, in the same study population, we determined the influence of several upstream elements in the canonical PI3K signaling on muscle GS activation. 181 non-diabetic twins were examined with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with excision of muscle biopsies. Insulin signaling was evaluated at the levels of the insulin receptor, IRS-1-associated PI3K (IRS-1-PI3K), Akt, and GS employing kinase activity assays and phospho-specific western blotting. The insulin-stimulated GS activity was positively associated with pAkt-T308 (P=0.01) and Akt2 activity (P=0.04), but not pAkt-S473 or IRS-1-PI3K activity. Furthermore, pAkt-T308 and Akt2 activity were negatively associated with NH(2)-terminal GS phosphorylation (P=0.001 for both), which in turn was negatively associated with insulin-stimulated GS activity (P

Friedrichsen, Martin; Birk, Jesper Bratz

2013-01-01

277

Oligomycin A-induced inhibition of mitochondrial ATP-synthase activity suppresses boar sperm motility and in vitro capacitation achievement without modifying overall sperm energy levels.  

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Incubation of boar spermatozoa in a capacitation medium with oligomycin A, a specific inhibitor of the F0 component of the mitochondrial ATP synthase, induced an immediate and almost complete immobilisation of cells. Oligomycin A also inhibited the ability of spermatozoa to achieve feasible in vitro capacitation (IVC), as measured through IVC-compatible changes in motility patterns, tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the acrosomal p32 protein, membrane fluidity and the ability of spermatozoa to achieve subsequent, progesterone-induced in vitro acrosome exocytosis (IVAE). Both inhibitory effects were caused without changes in the rhythm of O2 consumption, intracellular ATP levels or mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). IVAE was accompanied by a fast and intense peak in O2 consumption and ATP levels in control spermatozoa. Oligomycin A also inhibited progesterone-induced IVAE as well as the concomitant peaks of O2 consumption and ATP levels. The effect of oligomycin on IVAE was also accompanied by concomitant alterations in the IVAE-induced changes on intracellular Ca(2+) levels and MMP. Our results suggest that the oligomycin A-sensitive mitochondrial ATP-synthase activity is instrumental in the achievement of an adequate boar sperm motion pattern, IVC and IVAE. However, this effect seems not to be linked to changes in the overall maintenance of adequate energy levels in stages other than IVAE. PMID:25319379

Ramió-Lluch, Laura; Yeste, Marc; Fernández-Novell, Josep M; Estrada, Efrén; Rocha, Luiz; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Concha, Ilona I; Ramírez, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E

2014-08-01

278

Deficient sucrose synthase activity in developing wood does not specifically affect cellulose biosynthesis, but causes an overall decrease in cell wall polymers.  

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The biosynthesis of wood in aspen (Populus) depends on the metabolism of sucrose, which is the main transported form of carbon from source tissues. The largest fraction of the wood biomass is cellulose, which is synthesized from UDP-glucose. Sucrose synthase (SUS) has been proposed previously to interact directly with cellulose synthase complexes and specifically supply UDP-glucose for cellulose biosynthesis. To investigate the role of SUS in wood biosynthesis, we characterized transgenic lines of hybrid aspen with strongly reduced SUS activity in developing wood. No dramatic growth phenotypes in glasshouse-grown trees were observed, but chemical fingerprinting with pyrolysis-GC/MS, together with micromechanical analysis, showed notable changes in chemistry and ultrastructure of the wood in the transgenic lines. Wet chemical analysis showed that the dry weight percentage composition of wood polymers was not changed significantly. However, a decrease in wood density was observed and, consequently, the content of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose was decreased per wood volume. The decrease in density was explained by a looser structure of fibre cell walls as shown by increased wall shrinkage on drying. The results show that SUS is not essential for cellulose biosynthesis, but plays a role in defining the total carbon incorporation to wood cell walls. PMID:24920335

Gerber, Lorenz; Zhang, Bo; Roach, Melissa; Rende, Umut; Gorzsás, András; Kumar, Manoj; Burgert, Ingo; Niittylä, Totte; Sundberg, Björn

2014-09-01

279

Effects of polyporus polysaccharide on activity and mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in peritoneal macrophages of mice  

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Full Text Available Objective: To study the mechanisms of the antitumor and immunoregulation functions of polyporus polysaccharide (PPS. Methods: The production of nitric oxide (NO, the activity and mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in peritoneal macrophages of mice administered with different dose of PPS were observed by Griess reaction, fluorimetry assay and RT-PCR, respectively. Results: PPS could elevate the iNOS activity with dose-dependence and stimulate the iNOS mRNA expression of peritoneal macrophages in mice. Conclusion: The regulation of PPS on the production of NO in peritoneal macrophages of mice may occur at transcriptional level of iNOS. This indicates that the mechanism of PPS's antitumor and immunoregulation functions may be related to increasing NO output of macrophages through stimulating iNOS's denovo synthesis.

HUANG Di-Nan

2004-09-01

280

Fimasartan, anti-hypertension drug, suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase expressions via nuclear factor-kappa B and activator protein-1 inactivation.  

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Since inhibition of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor reduces chronic inflammation associated with hypertension, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory potential and the underlying mechanism of fimasartan, a Korean Food and Drug Administration approved anti-hypertension drug, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Fimasartan suppressed the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by down-regulating its transcription, and subsequently inhibited the productions of nitric oxide (NO). In addition, fimasartan attenuated LPS-induced transcriptional and DNA-binding activities of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). These reductions were accompanied by parallel reductions in the nuclear translocation of NF-?B and AP-1. Taken together, our data suggest that fimasartan down-regulates the expression of the iNOS in macrophages via NF-?B and AP-1 inactivation. PMID:23449332

Ryu, Suran; Shin, Ji-Sun; Cho, Young-Wuk; Kim, Hyoung Kook; Paik, Soo Heui; Lee, Joo Han; Chi, Yong Ha; Kim, Ji Han; Kim, Je Hak; Lee, Kyung-Tae

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Phosphofructokinase and malate dehydrogenase participate in the in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes.  

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Oocyte maturation depends on the metabolic activity of cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) that performs nutritive and regulatory functions during this process. In this work, the enzymes [phosphofructokinase (PFK) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH)] were tested to elucidate the metabolic profile of porcine COCs during the in vitro maturation (IVM). Enzymatic activity was expressed in U/COC and U/mg protein (specific activity) as mean ± SEM. In vitro maturation was performed with 2-oxoglutarate (5, 10 and 20 mm) or hydroxymalonate (30, 60 and 100 mm) inhibitors of PFK and MDH, respectively. The PFK and MDH activities (U) remained constant during maturation. For PFK, the U were (2.48 ± 0.23) 10(-5) and (2.54 ± 0.32) 10(-5) , and for MDH, the U were (4.72 ± 0.42) 10(-5) and (4.38 ± 0.25) 10(-5) for immature and in vitro matured COCs, respectively. The specific activities were significantly lower after IVM, for PFK (4.29 ± 0.48) 10(-3) and (0.94 ± 0.12) 10(-3) , and for MDH (9.08 ± 0.93) 10(-3) and (1.89 ± 0.10) 10(-3) for immature and in vitro matured COCs, respectively. In vitro maturation percentages and enzymatic activity diminished with 20 mm 2-oxoglutarate or 60 mm hydroxymalonate (p energy metabolism of the porcine oocyte during IVM is confirmed in this study. PMID:25307885

Breininger, E; Vecchi Galenda, Be; Alvarez, Gm; Gutnisky, C; Cetica, Pd

2014-12-01

282

Piperine Inhibits the Activities of Platelet Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 and Thromboxane A2 Synthase without Affecting Cyclooxygenase-1 Activity: Different Mechanisms of Action Are Involved in the Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation and Macrophage Inflammatory Response  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: Piperine, a major alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum and long pepper (Piper longum, was shown to have anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 gene expression and enzyme activity. It is also reported to exhibit anti-platelet activity, but the mechanism underlying this action remains unknown. In this study, we investigated a putative anti-platelet aggregation mechanism involving arachidonic acid (AA metabolism and how this compares with the mechanism by which it inhibits macrophage inflammatory responses; METHODS: Rabbit platelets and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated with piperine, and the effect of piperine on the activity of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2, COX-1, COX-2, and thromboxane A2 (TXA2 synthase, as well as its effect on AA liberation from the plasma membrane components, were assessed using isotopic labeling methods and enzyme immunoassay kit; RESULTS: Piperine significantly suppressed AA liberation by attenuating cPLA2 activity in collagen-stimulated platelets. It also significantly inhibited the activity of TXA2 synthase, but not of COX-1, in platelets. These results suggest that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation by attenuating cPLA2 and TXA2 synthase activities, rather than through the inhibition of COX-1 activity. On the other hand, piperine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of prostaglandin (PGE2 and PGD2 in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activity of COX-2, without effect on cPLA2; CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation and macrophage inflammatory response by different mechanisms.

Dong Ju Son

2014-08-01

283

Bacterial NO Synthases.  

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Unlike mammalian NO synthases, bacterial NO synthases do not contain a reductase domain. The only exception from this rule is the NO synthase from myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, but its reductase domain has unusual structure and location in the enzyme molecule. Recent achievements in bacterial genome sequencing have revealed the gene coding NO synthase (represented as an oxygenase domain) in some bacteria and have advanced the study of structure and functions of bacterial NO synthases. Important features of structure, sources of reducing equivalents, evolutionary connections, and functions of bacterial NO synthases (i.e. participation in nitration of the indole ring of Trp, in reparation of UV-radiation damage, role in adaptation of bacteria to oxidative stress, participation in the synthesis of cGMP, and resistance of bacteria against antibiotics) are described. PMID:21166639

Filippovich, S Iu

2010-10-01

284

Mechanism of phosphate solubilization and antifungal activity of Streptomyces spp. isolated from wheat roots and rhizosphere and their application in improving plant growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) at field scale has been hindered by an inadequate understanding of the mechanisms that enhance plant growth, rhizosphere incompetence and the inability of bacterial strains to thrive in different soil types and environmental conditions. Actinobacteria with their sporulation, nutrient cycling, root colonization, bio-control and other plant-growth-promoting activities could be potential field bio-inoculants. We report the isolation of five rhizospheric and two root endophytic actinobacteria from Triticum aestivum (wheat) plants. The cultures exhibited plant-growth-promoting activities, namely phosphate solubilization (1916 mg l(-1)), phytase (0.68 U ml(-1)), chitinase (6.2 U ml(-1)), indole-3-acetic acid (136.5 mg l(-1)) and siderophore (47.4 mg l(-1)) production, as well as utilizing all the rhizospheric sugars under test. Malate (50-55 mmol l(-1)) was estimated in the culture supernatant of the highest phosphate solublizer, Streptomyces mhcr0816. The mechanism of malate overproduction was studied by gene expression and assays of key glyoxalate cycle enzymes - isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS). The significant increase in gene expression (ICL fourfold, MS sixfold) and enzyme activity (ICL fourfold, MS tenfold) of ICL and MS during stationary phase resulted in malate production as indicated by lowered pH (2.9) and HPLC analysis (retention time 13.1 min). Similarly, the secondary metabolites for chitinase-independent biocontrol activity of Streptomyces mhcr0817, as identified by GC-MS and (1)H-NMR spectra, were isoforms of pyrrole derivatives. The inoculation of actinobacterial isolate mhce0811 in T. aestivum (wheat) significantly improved plant growth, biomass (33%) and mineral (Fe, Mn, P) content in non-axenic conditions. Thus the actinobacterial isolates reported here were efficient PGPR possessing significant antifungal activity and may have potential field applications. PMID:24430493

Jog, Rahul; Pandya, Maharshi; Nareshkumar, G; Rajkumar, Shalini

2014-04-01

285

Biochemistry: Acetohydroxyacid Synthase  

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Full Text Available Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6; formerly known as acetolactate synthase, ALS is a thiamin-and FAD-dependent enzyme which catalyses the first common step in the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA isoleucine, leucine and valine. The enzyme is inhibited by several commercial herbicides and has been studied over the last 20 to 30 years. A short introductory note about acetohydroxyacid synthase has been provided.

Pham Ngoc Chien

2010-02-01

286

The prostaglandin F synthase activity of the human aldose reductase AKR1B1 brings new lenses to look at pathologic conditions.  

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Full Text Available Prostaglandins are important regulators of female reproductive functions to which aldose reductases exhibiting hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity also contribute. Our work on the regulation of reproductive function by prostaglandins (PGs, lead us to the discovery that AKR1B5 and later AKR1B1 were highly efficient and physiologically relevant PGF synthases. PGE2 and PGF2? are the main prostanoids produced in the human endometrium and proper balance in their relative production is important for normal menstruation and optimal fertility. Recent evidence suggests that PGE2 and PGF2? may constitute a functional dyad with physiological relevance at least as important as the prostacyclin-thromboxane dyad in the vascular system. We have recently reported that AKR1B1 was expressed and modulated in association with PGF2? production in response to IL-1? in the human endometrium. In the present study, we show that the human AKR1B1 (gene ID: 231 also known as ALDR1 or ALR2 is a functional PGF2? synthase in different models of living cells and tissues. Using human endometrial cells, prostate and vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells we demonstrate that IL-1? is able to up regulate COX-2 and AKR1B1 proteins as well as PGF2? production under normal glucose concentrations. We show that the promoter activity of AKR1B1 gene is increased by IL-1? particularly around the multiple stress response region (MSRR containing two putative antioxidant response elements (ARE adjacent to TonE and AP1.We also show that AKR1B1 is able to regulate PGE2 production through PGF2? acting on its FP receptor and that aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs like alrestatin, statil (ponalrestat and EBPC exhibit distinct and characteristic inhibition of PGF2? production in different cell models. The PGF synthase activity of AKR1B1 represents a new and important target to regulate ischemic and inflammatory responses associated with several human pathologies.

MichelAFortier

2012-05-01

287

Formation of triple-helical structures by the 3'-end sequences of MALAT1 and MEN? noncoding RNAs.  

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Stability of the long noncoding-polyadenylated nuclear (PAN) RNA from Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is conferred by an expression and nuclear retention element (ENE). The ENE protects PAN RNA from a rapid deadenylation-dependent decay pathway via formation of a triple helix between the U-rich internal loop of the ENE and the 3'-poly(A) tail. Because viruses borrow molecular mechanisms from their hosts, we searched highly abundant human long-noncoding RNAs and identified putative ENE-like structures in metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) and multiple endocrine neoplasia-? (MEN?) RNAs. Unlike the PAN ENE, the U-rich internal loops of both predicted cellular ENEs are interrupted by G and C nucleotides and reside upstream of genomically encoded A-rich tracts. We confirmed the ability of MALAT1 and MEN? sequences containing the predicted ENE and A-rich tract to increase the levels of an intronless ?-globin reporter RNA. UV thermal denaturation profiles at different pH values support formation of a triple-helical structure composed of multiple U•A-U base triples and a single C•G-C base triple. Additional analyses of the MALAT1 ENE revealed that robust stabilization activity requires an intact triple helix, strong stems at the duplex-triplex junctions, a G-C base pair flanking the triplex to mediate potential A-minor interactions, and the 3'-terminal A of the A-rich tract to form a blunt-ended triplex lacking unpaired nucleotides at the duplex-triplex junction. These examples of triple-helical, ENE-like structures in cellular noncoding RNAs, are unique. PMID:23129630

Brown, Jessica A; Valenstein, Max L; Yario, Therese A; Tycowski, Kazimierz T; Steitz, Joan A

2012-11-20

288

Akt2 influences glycogen synthase activity in human skeletal muscle through regulation of NH?-terminal (sites 2 + 2a) phosphorylation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by reduced muscle glycogen synthesis. The key enzyme in this process, glycogen synthase (GS), is activated via proximal insulin signaling, but the exact molecular events remain unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that phosphorylation of Thr³?? on Akt (p-Akt-Thr³??), Akt2 activity, and GS activity in muscle were positively associated with insulin sensitivity. Here, in the same study population, we determined the influence of several upstream elements in the canonical PI3K signaling on muscle GS activation. One-hundred eighty-one nondiabetic twins were examined with the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with excision of muscle biopsies. Insulin signaling was evaluated at the levels of the insulin receptor, IRS-1-associated PI3K (IRS-1-PI3K), Akt, and GS employing activity assays and phosphospecific Western blotting. The insulin-stimulated GS activity was positively associated with p-Akt-Thr³?? (P = 0.01) and Akt2 activity (P = 0.04) but not p-Akt-Ser??³ or IRS-1-PI3K activity. Furthermore, p-Akt-Thr³?? and Akt2 activity were negatively associated with NH?-terminal GS phosphorylation (P = 0.001 for both), which in turn was negatively associated with insulin-stimulated GS activity (P <0.001). We found no association between COOH-terminal GS phosphorylation and Akt or GS activity. Employing whole body Akt2-knockout mice, we validated the necessity for Akt2 in insulin-mediated GS activation. However, since insulin did not affect NH?-terminal phosphorylation in mice, we could not use this model to validate the observed association between GS NH?-terminal phosphorylation and Akt activity in humans. In conclusion, our study suggests that although COOH-terminal dephosphorylation is likely necessary for GS activation, Akt2-dependent NH?-terminal dephosphorylation may be the site for "fine-tuning" insulin-mediated GS activation in humans.

Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Poulsen, Pernille

2013-01-01

289

Involvement of Salicylic Acid on Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties, Anthocyanin Production and Chalcone Synthase Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Varieties  

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Full Text Available The effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA at different concentrations (10?3 M and 10?5 M was investigated on the production of secondary metabolites (flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity (against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 in two varieties of Malaysian ginger, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis showed that application of SA induced the synthesis of anthocyanin and fisetin in both varieties. Anthocyanin and fisetin were not detected in the control plants. Accordingly, the concentrations of some flavonoids (rutin and apigenin decreased significantly in plants treated with different concentrations of SA. The present study showed that SA enhanced the chalcone synthase (CHS enzyme activity (involving flavonoid synthesis and recorded the highest activity value of 5.77 nkat /mg protein in Halia Bara with the 10?5 M SA treatment. As the SA concentration was decreased from 10?3 M to 10?5 M, the free radical scavenging power (FRAP increased about 23% in Halia Bentong and 10.6% in Halia Bara. At a concentration of 350 ?g mL?1, the DPPH antioxidant activity recorded the highest value of 58.30%–72.90% with the 10?5 M SA treatment followed by the 10?3 M SA (52.14%–63.66% treatment. The lowest value was recorded in the untreated control plants (42.5%–46.7%. These results indicate that SA can act not only as an inducer but also as an inhibitor of secondary metabolites. Meanwhile, the highest anticancer activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines was observed for H. Bara extracts treated with 10?5 M SA with values of 61.53 and 59.88%, respectively. The results suggest that the high anticancer activity in these varieties may be related to the high concentration of potent anticancer components including fisetin and anthocyanin. The results thus indicate that the synthesis of flavonoids in ginger can be increased by foliar application of SA in a controlled environment and that the anticancer activity in young ginger extracts could be improved.

Ehsan Karimi

2012-11-01

290

Involvement of salicylic acid on antioxidant and anticancer properties, anthocyanin production and chalcone synthase activity in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) varieties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (10-3 M and 10-5 M) was investigated on the production of secondary metabolites (flavonoids), chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity (against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) in two varieties of Malaysian ginger, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that application of SA induced the synthesis of anthocyanin and fisetin in both varieties. Anthocyanin and fisetin were not detected in the control plants. Accordingly, the concentrations of some flavonoids (rutin and apigenin) decreased significantly in plants treated with different concentrations of SA. The present study showed that SA enhanced the chalcone synthase (CHS) enzyme activity (involving flavonoid synthesis) and recorded the highest activity value of 5.77 nkat /mg protein in Halia Bara with the 10-5 M SA treatment. As the SA concentration was decreased from 10-3 M to 10-5 M, the free radical scavenging power (FRAP) increased about 23% in Halia Bentong and 10.6% in Halia Bara. At a concentration of 350 ?g mL-1, the DPPH antioxidant activity recorded the highest value of 58.30%-72.90% with the 10-5 M SA treatment followed by the 10-3 M SA (52.14%-63.66%) treatment. The lowest value was recorded in the untreated control plants (42.5%-46.7%). These results indicate that SA can act not only as an inducer but also as an inhibitor of secondary metabolites. Meanwhile, the highest anticancer activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines was observed for H. Bara extracts treated with 10-5 M SA with values of 61.53 and 59.88%, respectively. The results suggest that the high anticancer activity in these varieties may be related to the high concentration of potent anticancer components including fisetin and anthocyanin. The results thus indicate that the synthesis of flavonoids in ginger can be increased by foliar application of SA in a controlled environment and that the anticancer activity in young ginger extracts could be improved. PMID:23203096

Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan

2012-01-01

291

Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase genes in entomopathogenic fungi.  

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Based on comparative amino-acid sequence alignment of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthase from filamentous fungi, degenerated oligonucleotide primers were designed for searching GGPP synthase gene(s) in entomopathogenic fungi. Polymerase chain reaction with the designed primers amplified GGPP synthase homologues from five representative entomopathogenic fungi: Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana, Verticillium lecanii, Paecilomyces farinosus, and Nomuraea rileyi. Sequence comparison of the amplified of GGPP synthase homologue fragments revealed that M. anisopliae and B. bassiana have at least two different types of the GGPP synthase gene homologues. The first type (designated as ggs1), which is highly conserved among the five strains, has a unique Ser-rich region, SSXSSVSGSSS (X refers to L, A, V, or S), and is constitutively expressed throughout growth. In contrast, the second type of GGPP synthase gene homologue (ggs2) was discovered only in some strains, and genes of this type possessed high similarity to each other but showed relatively weak similarity to the ggs1 genes, with no detectable transcription under the cultivation conditions applied in this experiment. The ggs1 cloned from M. anisopliae, which encoded a putative protein of 359 amino acid residues, was heterologously expressed in E. coli. The recombinant protein showed activity to synthesize GGPP from farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate. These results strongly suggested that the ggs1 gene encodes a GGPP synthase involved in primary metabolism. PMID:19690851

Singkaravanit, Suthitar; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Ihara, Fumio; Nihira, Takuya

2010-02-01

292

Processes of malate catabolism during the anaerobic metabolism of grape berries  

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In order to precise malate fate during the anaerobic metabolism of grape, malate-3-14C was injected into Carignan berries kept in darkness at 350C under carbon dioxide atmosphere. The injection of labelled malate was effected in presence or not of non-labelled oxalate which inhibits malic enzyme (EC I.I.I.40). The analyses of the samples fixed after 3 and 7 days anaerobiosis concerned the titration of various substrates, organic acids, amino-acids and glycolysis products, and the measuring of the NADP+-malic enzyme (EC I.I.I.40) and malate dehydrogenase (EC I.I.I.40). Radioactivity is mainly observed in ethanol, amino-butyrate the non-separated group glycerate-shikimate and succinate. Malic enzyme acts in the first sequence of a process leading from malate to ethanol. Alanin synthesis seems to be stimulated in presence of oxalate. The results obtained and some hypotheses presented in the literature induce to suggest a utilization scheme for malate in the anaerobic metabolism of grape

293

Effect of simulated microgravity and centrifugation on nitric oxide synthase activity of osteocyte-like cell line MLO-Y4  

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Bone is a highly mechanosensitive tissue, which can adapt functionally to varying levels of mechanical loads throughout a lifetime. Osteocytes are thought to be the most mechanically sensitive bone cell population. In order to understand the mechanism of microgravity-induced bone loss, it's very important to research the behavior of osteocytes under microgravity. In this study, rotary cell culture system was used to simulate microgravity. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in osteocyte-like cell MLO-Y4 was investigated under simulated microgravity. And the effect of centrifugation on NOS activity in sedentary and rotary culture cell was also investi-gated. The cultured cells were divided into four groups, including sedentary control (CON), sedentary control and centrifugation (CONC), rotary culture (RT), rotary and centrifugation (RTC). In CONC and RTC, NOS activity was determined after centrifugation (1100g 5min). The results showed NOS activity decreased significantly in RT compared with CON. However, this difference disappeared after centrifugation. On the other hand, NOS activity increased significant in RTC compared with RT while there was no difference between CON and CONC. These results indicate the normal centrifugation could counter the effect of simulated micro-gravity on NOS activity. However, it has no effect on the cells cultured under 1G. In general, osteocytes under simulated microgravity are more sensitive to centrifugation than that under 1G.

Sun, Lian-Wen; Yang, Xiao; Fan, Yu-Bo

294

Vibrational, optical and microhardness studies of trimethoprim DL -malate  

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Trimethoprim malate, an organic crystal, has been synthesized using slow evaporation method from its aqueous solution. Structural, optical and the mechanical properties of the grown crystal have been investigated by various characterization techniques which include FTIR spectra, single crystal XRD, UV-Vis spectra and Vickers microhardness testing. The structure of the compound predicted by analysing the recorded FTIR spectrum compliments the structure determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that the crystals are monoclinic[P2{sub 1}/c, a=12.9850A, b=9.3038A, c=15.6815A and {beta}=111.065 ]. The UV-Vis spectrum exhibits maximum transparency (98%) for a wide range suggesting the suitability of the title compound for optical applications. The optical constants have been calculated and illustrated graphically. Microhardness tests have been performed on the crystal under study and the Vicker hardness number has been calculated. The work hardening coefficient is found to be 2.85 which suggest that the crystal belongs to the family of soft materials. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Franklin, S.; Bhuvana, K.P.; Balasubramanian, T. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli-620015, Tamilnadu (India)

2009-12-15

295

Vesicocutaneous fistula formation during treatment with sunitinib malate: Case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The oral multi-kinase inhibitor sunitinib malate improves the survival of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST after the disease progresses or intolerance to imatinib mesylate develops. Urinary fistulae arising during treatment with sunitinib for GIST have not been described. Case presentation We describe a 62-year-old female patient diagnosed with unresectable GIST that involved the abdominal wall, urinary bladder wall, bowel, mesentery and peritoneum in the pelvic cavity. Intestinocutaneous fistulae developed on a surgical lesion after orally administered imatinib was supplemented by an arterial infusion of 5-flurouracil. Sunitinib was started after the patient developed resistance to imatinib. On day 4 of the fourth course of sunitinib, a widely dilated cutaneous fistula discharged large amounts of fluid accompanied by severe abdominal pain. Urinary communication was indicated based on the results of an intravenous injection of indigo carmine. Computed tomography findings suggested a small opening on the anterior urinary bladder wall and fistulous communication between the bladder and abdominal walls bridged by a subcutaneous cavity. The fistula closed and the amount of discharge decreased when sunitinib was discontinued. Therefore, sunitinib might have been associated with the development of the vesicocutaneous fistula in our patient. Conclusion This is the first description of a vesicocutaneous fistula forming while under sunitinib treatment. Clinicians should be aware of the possible complication of vesicocutaneous fistula formation during treatment with molecular targeting agents in patients with extravesical invasion and peritoneal dissemination of GIST.

Sakashita Hiroyuki

2010-11-01

296

Effects of Ca(2+)-activated calmodulin on neuronal nitric oxide synthase reductase activity and binding of substrates: pH dependence of kinetic parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pH dependence of basal and calmodulin- (CaM-) stimulated neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) reduction of 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP) and cytochrome c(3+) was investigated. The wave-shaped log V versus pH profile revealed that optimal DCIP reduction occurred when a group, pK(a) of 7.6-7.8, was ionized. The (V/K)(NADPH) and (V/K)(DCIP) versus pH profiles increased with the protonation of a group with a pK(a) of 6.5 or 5.9 and the ionization of two groups with the same pK(a) of 7.5 or 7.0, respectively. (V/K)(DCIP) decreased with the ionization of a group, pK(a) of 9.0. Similar V, (V/K)(NADPH), and (V/K)(DCIP) versus pH profiles for DCIP reduction were obtained with and without CaM, indicating that CaM does not influence ionizable groups involved in catalysis or substrate binding. In contrast, CaM affected the pH dependence of cytochrome c(3+) reduction. The wave-shaped log V versus pH profile for basal cytochrome c(3+) reduction revealed that ionization of a group, pK(a) of 8.6, increased catalysis. Log V for CaM-stimulated cytochrome c(3+) reduction displayed a bell-shaped pH dependence with the protonation of a group with a pK(a) of 6.4 and the ionization of a group with a pK(a) of 9.3, resulting in a loss of activity. The log(V/K)(cytc) versus pH profiles with and without CaM were bell-shaped with the ionization of a group at pK(a) of 7.1 or 7.6 (CaM) or pK(a) of 9.4 or 9.6 (CaM), increasing and decreasing (V/K)(cytc). These results suggest that CaM may change the nature of the rate-limiting catalytic steps or ionizable groups involved in cytochrome c(3+) reduction. PMID:11772018

Wolthers, Kirsten R; Schimerlik, Michael I

2002-01-01

297

The alpha2-5'AMP-activated protein kinase is a site 2 glycogen synthase kinase in skeletal muscle and is responsive to glucose loading  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a potential antidiabetic drug target. Here we show that the pharmacological activation of AMPK by 5-aminoimidazole-1-beta-4-carboxamide ribofuranoside (AICAR) leads to inactivation of glycogen synthase (GS) and phosphorylation of GS at Ser 7 (site 2). In muscle of mice with targeted deletion of the alpha2-AMPK gene, phosphorylation of GS site 2 was decreased under basal conditions and unchanged by AICAR treatment. In contrast, in alpha1-AMPK knockout mice, the response to AICAR was normal. Fuel surplus (glucose loading) decreased AMPK activation by AICAR, but the phosphorylation of the downstream targets acetyl-CoA carboxylase-beta and GS was normal. Fractionation studies suggest that this suppression of AMPK activation was not a direct consequence of AMPK association with membranes or glycogen, because AMPK was phosphorylated to a greater extent in response to AICAR in the membrane/glycogen fraction than in the cytosolic fraction. Thus, the downstream action of AMPK in response to AICAR was unaffected by glucose loading, whereas the action of the kinase upstream of AMPK, as judged by AMPK phosphorylation, was decreased. The fact that alpha2-AMPK is a GS kinase that inactivates GS while simultaneously activating glucose transport suggests that a balanced view on the suitability for AMPK as an antidiabetic drug target should be taken.

JØrgensen, Sebastian B; Nielsen, Jakob N.

2004-01-01

298

Truncation of Arabidopsis thaliana and Selaginella lepidophylla trehalose-6-phosphate synthase unlocks high catalytic activity and supports high trehalose levels on expression in yeast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Selaginella lepidophylla, contain genes homologous with the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) genes of bacteria and fungi. Most plants do not accumulate trehalose with the desert resurrection plant S. lepidophylla, being a notable exception. Overexpression of the plant genes in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae tps1 mutant results in very low TPS-catalytic activity and trehalose accumulation. We show that truncation of the plant-specific N-terminal extension in the A. thaliana AtTPS1 and S. lepidophylla SlTPS1 homologues results in 10-40-fold higher TPS activity and 20-40-fold higher trehalose accumulation on expression in yeast. These results show that the plant TPS enzymes possess a high-potential catalytic activity. The growth defect of the tps1 strain on glucose was restored, however, the proper homoeostasis of glycolytic flux was not restored, indicating that the plant enzymes were unable to substitute for the yeast enzyme in the regulation of hexokinase activity. Further analysis of the N-terminus led to the identification of two conserved residues, which after mutagenesis result in strongly enhanced trehalose accumulation upon expression in yeast. The plant-specific N-terminal region may act as an inhibitory domain allowing modulation of TPS activity. PMID:11978181

Van Dijck, Patrick; Mascorro-Gallardo, Jose O; De Bus, Martien; Royackers, Katrien; Iturriaga, Gabriel; Thevelein, Johan M

2002-01-01

299

??-Glycoprotein I inhibits endothelial cell migration through the nuclear factor ?B signalling pathway and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

??-GPI (??-glycoprotein I) is a plasma glycoprotein ascribed with an anti-angiogenic function; however, the biological role and molecular basis of its action in cell migration remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the contribution of ??-GPI to HAEC (human aortic endothelial cell) migration and the details of its underlying mechanism. Using wound healing and Boyden chamber assays, we found that ??-GPI inhibited endothelial cell migration, which was restored by its neutralizing antibody. NF-?B (nuclear factor ?B) inhibitors and lentiviral siRNA (small interfering RNA) silencing of NF-?B significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of ??-GPI on cell migration. Moreover, ??-GPI was found to induce I?B? (inhibitor of NF-?B) phosphorylation and translocation of p65 and p50. We further demonstrated that mRNA and protein levels of eNOS [endothelial NO (nitric oxide) synthase] and NO production were all increased by ??-GPI and these effects were remarkably inhibited by NF-?B inhibitors and siRNAs of p65 and p50. Furthermore, ??-GPI-mediated inhibition of cell migration was reversed by eNOS inhibitors and eNOS siRNAs. The findings of the present study provide novel insight into the ability of ??-GPI to inhibit endothelial cell migration predominantly through the NF-?B/eNOS/NO signalling pathway, which indicates a potential direction for clinical therapy in vascular diseases. PMID:22489810

Chiu, Wen-Chin; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Chiang, An-Na

2012-07-01

300

Impact of trans-resveratrol-sulfates and -glucuronides on endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, nitric oxide release and intracellular reactive oxygen species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a polyphenolic natural product mainly present in grape skin, berries and peanuts. In the vasculature resveratrol is thought to boost endothelial function by increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, by enhancing eNOS activity, and by reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Recent studies show that dietary resveratrol is metabolized in the liver and intestine into resveratrol-sulfate and -glucuronide derivatives questioning the relevance of multiple reported mechanistic in vitro data on resveratrol. In this study, we compare side by side different physiologically relevant resveratrol metabolites (resveratrol sulfates- and -glucuronides) and their parent compound in their influence on eNOS enzyme activity, endothelial NO release, and intracellular ROS levels. In contrast to resveratrol, none of the tested resveratrol metabolites elevated eNOS enzyme activity and endothelial NO release or affected intracellular ROS levels, leaving the possibility that not tested metabolites are active and able to explain in vivo findings. PMID:25329867

Ladurner, Angela; Schachner, Daniel; Schueller, Katharina; Pignitter, Marc; Heiss, Elke H; Somoza, Veronika; Dirsch, Verena M

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Impact of Trans-Resveratrol-Sulfates and -Glucuronides on Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity, Nitric Oxide Release and Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene is a polyphenolic natural product mainly present in grape skin, berries and peanuts. In the vasculature resveratrol is thought to boost endothelial function by increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression, by enhancing eNOS activity, and by reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. Recent studies show that dietary resveratrol is metabolized in the liver and intestine into resveratrol-sulfate and -glucuronide derivatives questioning the relevance of multiple reported mechanistic in vitro data on resveratrol. In this study, we compare side by side different physiologically relevant resveratrol metabolites (resveratrol sulfates- and -glucuronides and their parent compound in their influence on eNOS enzyme activity, endothelial NO release, and intracellular ROS levels. In contrast to resveratrol, none of the tested resveratrol metabolites elevated eNOS enzyme activity and endothelial NO release or affected intracellular ROS levels, leaving the possibility that not tested metabolites are active and able to explain in vivo findings.

Angela Ladurner

2014-10-01

302

Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from 14C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as 14C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We compare utilization of fatty acids produced by FASN to those derived exogenously. • Cancer cells do not have a specific requirement for fatty acids produced by FASN. • Fatty acids produced by FASN are in excess of cell requirements and are excreted. • Increased FASN activity is not required to sustain elevations in glycolysis

303

Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from {sup 14}C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as {sup 14}C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We compare utilization of fatty acids produced by FASN to those derived exogenously. • Cancer cells do not have a specific requirement for fatty acids produced by FASN. • Fatty acids produced by FASN are in excess of cell requirements and are excreted. • Increased FASN activity is not required to sustain elevations in glycolysis.

Hopperton, Kathryn E., E-mail: kathryn.hopperton@mail.utoronto.ca [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada); Duncan, Robin E., E-mail: robin.duncan@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada); Bazinet, Richard P., E-mail: richard.bazinet@utoronto.ca [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada); Archer, Michael C., E-mail: m.archer@utoronto.ca [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada)

2014-01-15

304

Induction of human microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 by activated oncogene RhoA GTPase in A549 human epithelial cancer cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? As a target of oncogene RhoA-linked signal, a prostaglandin metabolism is assessed. ? RhoA activation increases PGE2 levels and its metabolic enzyme mPGES-1. ? RhoA-activated NF-?B and EGR-1 are positively involved in mPGES-1 induction. -- Abstract: Oncogenic RhoA GTPase has been investigated as a mediator of pro-inflammatory responses and aggressive carcinogenesis. Among the various targets of RhoA-linked signals, pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major prostaglandin metabolite, was assessed in epithelial cancer cells. RhoA activation increased PGE2 levels and gene expression of the rate-limiting PGE2 producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1). In particular, human mPGES-1 was induced by RhoA via transcriptional activation in control and interleukin (IL)-1?-activated cancer cells. To address the involvement of potent signaling pathways in RhoA-activated mPGES-1 induction, various signaling inhibitors were screened for their effects on mPGES-1 promoter activity. RhoA activation enhanced basal and IL-1?-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-?B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 proteins, all of which were positively involved in RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1. As one potent down-stream transcription factor of ERK1/2 signals, early growth response gene 1 product also mediated RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1 by enhancing transcriptional activity. Since oncogene-triggered PGE2 production is a critical modulator of epithelial tumor cells, RhoA-associated mPGES-1 represents a promising chemo-preventive or therapeutic target for epithelial inflammation and its associated cancers.

305

Induction of human microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 by activated oncogene RhoA GTPase in A549 human epithelial cancer cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} As a target of oncogene RhoA-linked signal, a prostaglandin metabolism is assessed. {yields} RhoA activation increases PGE{sub 2} levels and its metabolic enzyme mPGES-1. {yields} RhoA-activated NF-{kappa}B and EGR-1 are positively involved in mPGES-1 induction. -- Abstract: Oncogenic RhoA GTPase has been investigated as a mediator of pro-inflammatory responses and aggressive carcinogenesis. Among the various targets of RhoA-linked signals, pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), a major prostaglandin metabolite, was assessed in epithelial cancer cells. RhoA activation increased PGE{sub 2} levels and gene expression of the rate-limiting PGE{sub 2} producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1). In particular, human mPGES-1 was induced by RhoA via transcriptional activation in control and interleukin (IL)-1{beta}-activated cancer cells. To address the involvement of potent signaling pathways in RhoA-activated mPGES-1 induction, various signaling inhibitors were screened for their effects on mPGES-1 promoter activity. RhoA activation enhanced basal and IL-1{beta}-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-{kappa}B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 proteins, all of which were positively involved in RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1. As one potent down-stream transcription factor of ERK1/2 signals, early growth response gene 1 product also mediated RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1 by enhancing transcriptional activity. Since oncogene-triggered PGE{sub 2} production is a critical modulator of epithelial tumor cells, RhoA-associated mPGES-1 represents a promising chemo-preventive or therapeutic target for epithelial inflammation and its associated cancers.

Choi, Hye Jin [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Hyung [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Juil; Do, Kee Hun [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); An, Tae Jin; Ahn, Young Sup; Park, Chung Berm [Department of Herbal Crop Research, NIHHS, RDA, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Yuseok, E-mail: moon@pnu.edu [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Institute and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2011-09-30

306

Purification and Properties of Malate Dehydrogenase from the Extreme Thermophile Bacillus Caldolyticus  

Science.gov (United States)

The enzyme malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) from an extreme thermophileB. Caldolyticus was purified to about 91% homogeneity. The molar mass of the enzyme was determined as 73 000 daltons and it is composed of two subunits, each with a molar mass of 37 000. Initial velocity studies with oxaloacetic acid and NADH as substrates at pH 8.1, over a range of temperatures, indicate that the enzyme operates via a sequential type mechanism. Van't Hoff plots of the kinetic parameters displayed sharp changes in slope at characteristic temperatures, whereas the Arrhenius plot exhibited no such breaks over the temperature interval investigated. The enzyme was found to be stable at 41°C and lower temperatures. At 51°C and 59°C an almost immediate 20% reduction in activity was obtained, but no further inactivation occurred during the 60 min of incubation. At 59°C the enzyme lost 50% of its initial activity in about 38 s. High concentration of NADH was observed to greatly stabilize the enzyme at that temperature. It is suggested that the slope changes in the Van't Hoff plots and the stability profies at 51°C and 59°C are representative of a temperature induced conformational change in the enzyme.

Kristjansson, Hordur; Ponnamperuma, Cyril

1980-06-01

307

An NADH-tetrazolium-coupled sensitive assay for malate dehydrogenase in mitochondria and crude tissue homogenates.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sensitive spectrophotometric assay for determining mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase activity is described. The assay measures NADH production by coupling it to the reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride (INT). Via an intermediate electron carrier, either phenazine methosulfate or lipoamide dehydrogenase, INT accepts electrons and is reduced to a red-colored formazan, which can be quantified by spectrophotometer at 500 nm. This assay uses only commercial reagents but gives a 2-5 fold (with lipoamide dehydrogenase) or 5-20 fold (with phenazine methosulfate) activity increase over currently available assays for pure enzyme in mitochondria isolated from human neuroblastoma cells, rat brain and liver, and crude homogenates of rat brain and liver. The assay can be easily performed with 96-well plate and less than 2.5 microg protein of isolated mitochondria or crude tissue homogenate. These results suggest that this assay is a simple, sensitive, stable and inexpensive method with wide application. PMID:16740313

Luo, Cheng; Wang, Xuemin; Long, Jiangang; Liu, Jiankang

2006-08-31

308

Manipulation of Rumen Ecology by Yeast and Malate in Dairy Heifer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four, one-year old of dairy heifers were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 vs 1,000 g with yeast at 1,000 vs 2,000 g in concentrate. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of malate at 500 g + yeast at 1,000 g; T2 = supplementation of malate at 500 g + yeast at 2,000 g; T3 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g + yeast at 1,000 g; T4 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g + yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate, respectively. The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at 1 %BW and ruzi grass was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. However, the concentration of volatile fatty acid was significantly different especially the concentration of propionic acid was slightly higher in heifer receiving T4 than T3, T2 and T1 (24.4, 22.9, 22.4 and 19.7%, respectively. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate level and yeast. In conclusion, the combined use of concentrate containing high level of cassava chip at 70% DM with malate at 1,000 g and yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate with ruzi grass as a roughage could improved rumen ecology in dairy heifers.

Sittisak Khampa

2009-01-01

309

Manipulation of Rumen Ecology by Malate and Yeast in Native Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four, one-year old of native cattle were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 and 1,000 g with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 1,000 and 2,000 g in concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T2 = supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 2,000 g; T3 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T4 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate, respectively. The animals were offered the treatment concentrate at 1% BW of DM and urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that concentration of volatile fatty acid was significantly different especially the concentration of propionic acid was slightly higher in cattle receiving T4 than T3, T2 and T1 (23.3, 21.9, 20.9 and 18.0%, respectively. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate level and yeast. In conclusion, the combined use of concentrate containing high level of cassava chip at 70% DM with malate at 1,000 g and yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate with urea-treated rice straw as a roughage could improved rumen ecology in native cattle.

Sittisak Khampa

2009-01-01

310

Homochiral Cu(II) and Ni(II) malates with tunable structural features  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four new homochiral metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) based on S-malate anions and N-donor linkers of different length have been prepared under solvothermal conditions. [Cu(mal)(bpy)]·H2O (1), [Cu(mal)(bpe)]·2H2O (2), [Ni(mal)(bpy)]·1.3CH3OH (3) and [Ni(mal)(bpe)]·4H2O (4) (mal=S-malate, bpy=4,4?-bipyridil, bpe=trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene) were characterized by a number of analytical methods including powder X-ray diffraction, elemental, thermogravimetric analyses, IR spectroscopy. Compounds 1–3 were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The absence of the chiral ligand racemization under synthetic conditions was unambiguously confirmed by polarimetry experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 contain metal-malate layered motives, connected by N-donor linkers and contribute to the family of isoreticular Cu(II) malates and tartrates [Cu(mal)L] and [Cu(tart)L], (tart=tartrate; L=ditopic rigid organic ligand). The Ni-based compounds 3 and 4 share 1D chiral (Ni(mal)) motives and possess novel type of the chiral framework, previously unknown for chiral carboxylates. The linear N-donor linkers connect these chiral chains, thus controlling the channel diameter and guest accessible volume of the homochiral structure, which exceeds 60 %. - Graphical abstract: Four new homochiral metal–organic frameworks are built from Ni2+ or Cu2+ cations, S-malate anions and N-donor linkers of different length, which controls the size of pores and guest accessible volume of the homochiral structure. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Four new homohiral metal–organic frameworks based on Ni2+ and Cu2+. • Cu(II)–malate layers and Ni(II)–malate chains are connected by N-donor linkers. • N-donor linkers of different length control the size of pores

311

Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3? counteracts ligand-independent activity of the androgen receptor in castration resistant prostate cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to generate genomic signals, the androgen receptor (AR) has to be transported into the nucleus upon androgenic stimuli. However, there is evidence from in vitro experiments that in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells the AR is able to translocate into the nucleus in a ligand-independent manner. The recent finding that inhibition of the glycogen-synthase-kinase 3? (GSK-3?) induces a rapid nuclear export of the AR in androgen-stimulated prostate cancer cells prompted us to analyze the effects of a GSK-3? inhibition in the castration-resistant LNCaP sublines C4-2 and LNCaP-SSR. Both cell lines exhibit high levels of nuclear AR in the absence of androgenic stimuli. Exposure of these cells to the maleimide SB216763, a potent GSK-3? inhibitor, resulted in a rapid nuclear export of the AR even under androgen-deprived conditions. Moreover, the ability of C4-2 and LNCaP-SSR cells to grow in the absence of androgens was diminished after pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3? in vitro. The ability of SB216763 to modulate AR signalling and function in CRPC in vivo was additionally demonstrated in a modified chick chorioallantoic membrane xenograft assay after systemic delivery of SB216763. Our data suggest that inhibition of GSK-3? helps target the AR for export from the nucleus thereby diminishing the effects of mislocated AR in CRPC cells. Therefore, inhibition of GSK-3? could be an interesting new strategy for the treatment of CRPC. PMID:21980429

Schütz, Stefanie V; Schrader, Andres J; Zengerling, Friedemann; Genze, Felicitas; Cronauer, Marcus V; Schrader, Mark

2011-01-01

312

Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 deficiency increases hyaluronan synthesis by up-regulation of Hyaluronan synthase 2 through decreased ceramide production and activation of Akt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fibroblasts from the fro/fro mouse, with a deletion in the Smpd3 gene coding for the active site of neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (NSMase2), secreted increased amounts of hyaluronan (HA). This was reversed by transfection with the Smpd3 gene, suggesting a connection between sphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism. The deficiency of NSMase2 resulted in storage of sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol with a 50% reduction in ceramides (Cer). RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that increased HA secretion resulted from increased hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) activity localized to sphingolipid-enriched lipid rafts. Although cholesterol levels were also elevated in lipid rafts from mouse fibroblasts deficient in lysosomal acid SMase activity (deletion of the Smpd1(-/-) gene), there was no increase in HA secretion. We then showed that in fro/fro fibroblasts, the reduced ceramide was associated with decreased phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and increased phosphorylation of its substrate Akt-p, together with PI3K, PDK1, mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), and p70S6K, although PTEN was unaffected. Exogenous ceramide, as well as inhibitors of Akt (Akt inhibitor VIII), PI 3-kinase (LY294002 and wortmannin), and mTOR (rapamycin) reduced secretion of HA, whereas the NSMase2 inhibitor GW4869 increased HA synthesis and secretion. We propose that NSMase2/Cer are the key mediators of the regulation of HA synthesis, via microdomains and the Akt/mTOR pathway. PMID:22383528

Qin, Jingdong; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Poirer, Christophe; Schwartz, Nancy B; Dawson, Glyn

2012-04-20

313

Development of a biomarker for Geobacter activity and strain composition: Proteogenomic analysis of the citrate synthase protein during bioremediation of U(VI)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monitoring the activity of target microorganisms during stimulated bioremediation is a key problem for the development of effective remediation strategies. At the US Department of Energy's Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, CO, the stimulation of Geobacter growth and activity via subsurface acetate addition leads to precipitation of U(VI) from groundwater as U(IV). Citrate synthase (gltA) is a key enzyme in Geobacter central metabolism that controls flux into the TCA cycle. Here, we utilize shotgun proteomic methods to demonstrate that the measurement of gltA peptides can be used to track Geobacter activity and strain evolution during in situ biostimulation. Abundances of conserved gltA peptides tracked Fe(III) reduction and changes in U(VI) concentrations during biostimulation, whereas changing patterns of unique peptide abundances between samples suggested sample-specific strain shifts within the Geobacter population. Abundances of unique peptides indicated potential differences at the strain level between Fe(III)-reducing populations stimulated during in situ biostimulation experiments conducted a year apart at the Rifle IFRC. These results offer a novel technique for the rapid screening of large numbers of proteomic samples for Geobacter species and will aid monitoring of subsurface bioremediation efforts that rely on metal reduction for desired outcomes.

Wilkins, M.J.; Callister, S.J.; Miletto, M.; Williams, K.H.; Nicora, C.D.; Lovley, D.R.; Long, P.E.; Lipton, M.S.

2010-02-15

314

Glycogen synthase kinase-3?-mediated CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta phosphorylation in astrocytes promotes migration and activation of microglia/macrophages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alzheimer's disease is neuropathologically characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-? protein into senile plaques that are sites of chronic inflammation involving reactive microglia, astrocytes, and proinflammatory molecules, such as interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-?. The human CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP) delta (CEBPD) is known to be induced in many inflammation-related diseases. In Alzheimer's disease, this protein is responsive to amyloid-? and proinflammatory cytokines in astrocytes. However, the functional role of CEBPD in astrocytes remains largely unclear. In this study, we show that CEBPD is upregulated by interleukin-1? through the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (MAPKp38) signaling pathway and phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3? at Ser167 in astrocytes. CEBPD in astrocytes is associated with microglia activation and migration in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice (AppTg) mice. We further identified that the monocyte chemotactic protein-1, a chemoattractive factor, and migration factors matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -3 are responsive to GSK3?-mediated CEBPD Ser167 phosphorylation. Our results revealed the novel regulation of LiCl on astrocytes and that GSK3?-mediated CEBPD phosphorylation in astrocytes plays an important role in the activation of microglia. PMID:23993701

Ko, Chiung-Yuan; Wang, Wen-Ling; Wang, Shao-Ming; Chu, Yu-Yi; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wang, Ju-Ming

2014-01-01

315

Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3? phosphorylates and protects nuclear myosin 1c from proteasome-mediated degradation to activate rDNA transcription in early G1 cells.  

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Nuclear myosin 1c (NM1) mediates RNA polymerase I (pol I) transcription activation and cell cycle progression by facilitating PCAF-mediated H3K9 acetylation, but the molecular mechanism by which NM1 is regulated remains unclear. Here, we report that at early G1 the glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3? phosphorylates and stabilizes NM1, allowing for NM1 association with the chromatin. Genomic analysis by ChIP-Seq showed that this mechanism occurs on the rDNA as active GSK3? selectively occupies the gene. ChIP assays and transmission electron microscopy in GSK3?-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts indicated that at G1 rRNA synthesis is suppressed due to decreased H3K9 acetylation leading to a chromatin state incompatible with transcription. We found that GSK3? directly phosphorylates the endogenous NM1 on a single serine residue (Ser-1020) located within the NM1 C-terminus. In G1 this phosphorylation event stabilizes NM1 and prevents NM1 polyubiquitination by the E3 ligase UBR5 and proteasome-mediated degradation. We conclude that GSK3?-mediated phosphorylation of NM1 is required for pol I transcription activation. PMID:24901984

Sarshad, Aishe A; Corcoran, Martin; Al-Muzzaini, Bader; Borgonovo-Brandter, Laura; Von Euler, Anne; Lamont, Douglas; Visa, Neus; Percipalle, Piergiorgio

2014-06-01

316

Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK) 3? Phosphorylates and Protects Nuclear Myosin 1c from Proteasome-Mediated Degradation to Activate rDNA Transcription in Early G1 Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear myosin 1c (NM1) mediates RNA polymerase I (pol I) transcription activation and cell cycle progression by facilitating PCAF-mediated H3K9 acetylation, but the molecular mechanism by which NM1 is regulated remains unclear. Here, we report that at early G1 the glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3? phosphorylates and stabilizes NM1, allowing for NM1 association with the chromatin. Genomic analysis by ChIP-Seq showed that this mechanism occurs on the rDNA as active GSK3? selectively occupies the gene. ChIP assays and transmission electron microscopy in GSK3??/? mouse embryonic fibroblasts indicated that at G1 rRNA synthesis is suppressed due to decreased H3K9 acetylation leading to a chromatin state incompatible with transcription. We found that GSK3? directly phosphorylates the endogenous NM1 on a single serine residue (Ser-1020) located within the NM1 C-terminus. In G1 this phosphorylation event stabilizes NM1 and prevents NM1 polyubiquitination by the E3 ligase UBR5 and proteasome-mediated degradation. We conclude that GSK3?-mediated phosphorylation of NM1 is required for pol I transcription activation. PMID:24901984

Sarshad, Aishe A.; Corcoran, Martin; Al-Muzzaini, Bader; Borgonovo-Brandter, Laura; Von Euler, Anne; Lamont, Douglas; Visa, Neus; Percipalle, Piergiorgio

2014-01-01

317

Development of a biomarker for Geobacter activity and strain composition; Proteogenomic analysis of the citrate synthase protein during bioremediation of U(VI)  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Monitoring the activity of target microorganisms during stimulated bioremediation is a key problem for the development of effective remediation strategies. At the US Department of Energy's Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, CO, the stimulation of Geobacter growth and activity via subsurface acetate addition leads to precipitation of U(VI) from groundwater as U(IV). Citrate synthase (gltA) is a key enzyme in Geobacter central metabolism that controls flux into the TCA cycle. Here, we utilize shotgun proteomic methods to demonstrate that the measurement of gltA peptides can be used to track Geobacter activity and strain evolution during in situ biostimulation. Abundances of conserved gltA peptides tracked Fe(III) reduction and changes in U(VI) concentrations during biostimulation, whereas changing patterns of unique peptide abundances between samples suggested sample?specific strain shifts within the Geobacter population. Abundances of unique peptides indicated potential differences at the strain level between Fe(III)?reducing populations stimulated during in situ biostimulation experiments conducted a year apart at the Rifle IFRC. These results offer a novel technique for the rapid screening of large numbers of proteomic samples for Geobacter species and will aid monitoring of subsurface bioremediation efforts that rely on metal reduction for desired outcomes. PMID:21255372

Wilkins, Michael J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Miletto, Marzia; Williams, Kenneth H.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Lovley, Derek R.; Long, Philip E.; Lipton, Mary S.

2011-01-01

318

Development of a biomarker for Geobacter activity and strain composition; Proteogenomic analysis of the citrate synthase protein during bioremediation of U(VI).  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monitoring the activity of target microorganisms during stimulated bioremediation is a key problem for the development of effective remediation strategies. At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, CO, the stimulation of Geobacter growth and activity via subsurface acetate addition leads to precipitation of U(VI) from groundwater as U(IV). Citrate synthase (gltA) is a key enzyme in Geobacter central metabolism that controls flux into the TCA cycle. Here, we utilize shotgun proteomic methods to demonstrate that the measurement of gltA peptides can be used to track Geobacter activity and strain evolution during in situ biostimulation. Abundances of conserved gltA peptides tracked Fe(III) reduction and changes in U(VI) concentrations during biostimulation, whereas changing patterns of unique peptide abundances between samples suggested sample-specific strain shifts within the Geobacter population. Abundances of unique peptides indicated potential differences at the strain level between Fe(III)-reducing populations stimulated during in situ biostimulation experiments conducted a year apart at the Rifle IFRC. These results offer a novel technique for the rapid screening of large numbers of proteomic samples for Geobacter species and will aid monitoring of subsurface bioremediation efforts that rely on metal reduction for desired outcomes.

Wilkins, Michael J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Miletto, Marzia; Williams, Kenneth H.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Lovely, Derek R.; Long, Philip E.; Lipton, Mary S.

2011-01-01

319

Constitutive activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? correlates with better prognosis and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in human gastric cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3? has been implicated in several human cancers; however, it has not been reported in the gastric cancer tissues to date. The present study was performed to determine the expression status of active form of GSK-3? phosphorylated at Tyr216 (pGSK-3? and its relationship with other tumor-associated proteins in human gastric cancers. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue array slides containing 281 human gastric carcinoma specimens. In addition, gastric cancer cells were cultured and treated with a GSK-3? inhibitor lithium chloride (LiCl for immunoblot analysis. Results We found that pGSK-3? was expressed in 129 (46% of 281 cases examined, and was higher in the early-stages of pathologic tumor-node-metastasis (P P P P P Conclusions GSK-3? activation was frequently observed in early-stage gastric carcinoma and was significantly correlated with better prognosis. Thus, these findings suggest that GSK-3? activation is a useful prognostic marker for the early-stage gastric cancer.

Cho Yu

2010-08-01

320

Day-night variations in malate concentration, osmotic pressure, and hydrostatic pressure in Cereus validus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malate concentration and stem osmotic pressure concomitantly increase during nighttime CO/sub 2/ fixation and then decrease during the daytime in the obligate Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant, Cereus validus (Cactaceae). Changes in malate osmotic pressure calculated using the Van't Hoff relation match the changes in stem osmotic pressure, indicating that changes in malate level affected the water relations of the succulent stems. In contrast to stem osmotic pressure, stem water potential showed little day-night changes, suggesting that changes in cellular hydrostatic pressure occurred. This was corroborated by direct measurements of hydrostatic pressure using the Juelich pressure probe where a small oil-filled micropipette is inserted directly into chlorenchyma cells, which indicated a 4-fold increase in hydrostatic pressure from dusk to dawn. A transient increase of hydrostatic pressure at the beginning of the dark period was correlated with a short period of stomatal closing between afternoon and nighttime CO/sub 2/ fixation, suggesting that the rather complex hydrostatic pressure patterns could be explained by an interplay between the effects of transpiration and malate levels. A second CAM plant, Agave deserti, showed similar day-night changes in hydrostatic pressure in its succulent leaves. It is concluded that, in addition to the inverted stomatal rhythm, the oscillations of malate markedly affect osmotic pressures and hence water relations of CAM plants. 13 references, 4 figures.

Luettge, U.; Nobel, P.S.

1984-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

Synergistic effect between cisplatin and sunitinib malate on human urinary bladder-cancer cell lines.  

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The aim of this paper is to analyse sunitinib malate in vitro ability to enhance cisplatin cytotoxicity in T24, 5637, and HT1376 human urinary bladder-cancer cell lines. Cells were treated with cisplatin (3, 6, 13, and 18 ?M) and sunitinib malate (1, 2, 4, 6, and 20 ?M), either in isolation or combined, over the course of 72 hours. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, acridine orange, and monodansylcadaverine staining and flow cytometry were performed. The combination index (CI) was calculated based on the Chou and Talalay method. In isolation, cisplatin and sunitinib malate statistically (P sunitinib malate, in isolation, respectively. Treatment of urinary bladder-cancer cells with a combination of cisplatin and sunitinib malate showed a synergistic effect (CI < 1). Autophagy and apoptosis studies showed a greater incidence when the combined treatment was put into use. This hints at the possibility of a new combined therapeutic approach. If confirmed in vivo, this conjugation may provide a means of new perspectives in muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer treatment. PMID:24369536

Arantes-Rodrigues, Regina; Pinto-Leite, Rosário; Fidalgo-Gonçalves, Lio; Palmeira, Carlos; Santos, Lúcio; Colaço, Aura; Oliveira, Paula

2013-01-01

322

Vascular endothelial growth factor acts through novel, pregnancy-enhanced receptor signalling pathways to stimulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in uterine artery endothelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

During pregnancy, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) regulates in part endothelial angiogenesis and vasodilation. In the present study we examine the relative roles of VEGFRs (VEGF receptors) and associated signalling pathways mediating the effects of VEGF(165) on eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) activation. Despite equal expression levels of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in UAECs (uterine artery endothelial cells) from NP (non-pregnant) and P (pregnant) sheep, VEGF(165) activates eNOS at a greater level in P- compared with NP-UAEC, independently of Akt activation. The selective VEGFR-1 agonist PlGF (placental growth factor)-1 elicits only a modest activation of eNOS in P-UAECs compared with VEGF(165), whereas the VEGFR-2 kinase inhibitor blocks VEGF(165)-stimulated eNOS activation, suggesting VEGF(165) predominantly activates eNOS via VEGFR-2. Although VEGF(165) also activates ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase)-1/2, this is not necessary for eNOS activation since U0126 blocks ERK-1/2 phosphorylation, but not eNOS activation, and the VEGFR-2 kinase inhibitor inhibits eNOS activation, but not ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the inability of PlGF to activate ERK-1/2 and the ability of the VEGFR-2 selective agonist VEGF-E to activate ERK-1/2 and eNOS suggests again that both eNOS and ERK-1/2 activation occur predominantly via VEGFR-2. The lack of VEGF(165)-stimulated Akt phosphorylation is consistent with a lack of robust phosphorylation of Ser(1179)-eNOS. Although VEGF(165)-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation is observed at Ser(617) and Ser(635), pregnancy does not significantly alter this response. Our finding that VEGF(165) activation of eNOS is completely inhibited by wortmannin but not LY294002 implies a downstream kinase, possibly a wortmannin-selective PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), is acting between the VEGFR-2 and eNOS independently of Akt. PMID:18816248

Grummer, Mary A; Sullivan, Jeremy A; Magness, Ronald R; Bird, Ian M

2009-01-15

323

Functional Analysis of the Elaeis oleifera Sesquiterpene SynthasePromoter Reveals Non-Specific Tissue Expression and Activation under Stress Condition  

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Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the specificity of sesquiterpene synthase promoter (SesqPro activity in the oil palm tissues and tomato hairy roots and to determine the functional region of the promoter. The effect of jasmonic acid (JA on the promoter activation and gene expression was also analyzed. A series of 5’ sequence deletions on the full-length SesqPro were generated and individually cloned into the pCAMBIA 1301 vector. Functional analysis was carried out on leaves, mesocarp slices and Immature Embryos (IE of oil palm and tomato hairy roots that had been transformed with full-length SesqPro (PSPr-VF6. GUS expression was found in all the tissues and a higher activity was detected in IE and mesocarp slices. All the constructed derivatives of SesqPro were transformed into IE and mesocarp slices in order to determine the promoter regions which are responsible for gene expression. The reduction of GUS activity was found to be related to the removal of DNA sequences within the promoter region. The promoter was induced by the elicitor molecule JA, thus suggesting the presence of JA responsive elements within the promoter. Incubation with 100 ?M of JA showed higher GUS activity in IE and mesocarp slices that had been transformed with PSPr-VF4 to PSPr-VF6. Nevertheless, the GUS activity was drastically reduced in IE and mesocarp slices containing the PSPr-VF3 promoter, suggesting that the presence of the G/A hybrid box located at -622 to -617 act as a specific element in response to elicitors. This study has shown that the action of SesqPro is non-specific and was influenced by JA induction.

Nik Marzuki Sidik

2009-01-01

324

Impaired insulin activation and dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase in skeletal muscle of women with polycystic ovary syndrome is reversed by pioglitazone treatment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

CONTEXT: Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The molecular mechanisms underlying reduced insulin-mediated glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle of patients with PCOS have not been established. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We investigated protein content, activity, and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase (GS) and its major upstream inhibitor, GS kinase (GSK)-3 in skeletal muscle biopsies from 24 PCOS patients (before treatment) and 14 matched control subjects and 10 PCOS patients after 16 wk treatment with pioglitazone. All were metabolically characterized by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps and indirect calorimetry. RESULTS: Reduced insulin-mediated glucose disposal (P < 0.05) was associated with a lower insulin-stimulated GS activity in PCOS patients (P < 0.05), compared with controls. This was, in part, explained by absent insulin-mediated dephosphorylation of GS at the NH2-terminal sites 2+2a, whereas dephosphorylation at the COOH-terminal sites 3a+3b was intact in PCOS subjects (P < 0.05). Consistently, multiple linear regression analysis showed that insulin activation of GS was dependent on dephosphorylation of sites 3a+3b in women with PCOS. No significant abnormalities in GSK-3alpha or -3beta were found in PCOS subjects. Pioglitazone treatment improved insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism and GS activity in PCOS (all P < 0.05) and restored the ability of insulin to dephosphorylate GS at sites 2 and 2a. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired insulin activation of GS including absent dephosphorylation at sites 2+2a contributes to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle in PCOS. The ability of pioglitazone to enhance insulin sensitivity, in part, involves improved insulin action on GS activity and dephosphorylation at NH2-terminal sites.

Glintborg, Dorte; HØjlund, Kurt

2008-01-01

325

Higher plant cellulose synthases  

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The sole function of cellulose synthases, which are found in plants bacteria, fungi, and animals, is to produce the biopolymer cellulose. Although no crystal structure has yet been solved, a considerable amount is known about their structure, function and evolution.

Richmond, Todd

2000-01-01

326

Inhibition of MEK/ERK1/2 signalling alters endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in an agonist-dependent manner.  

Science.gov (United States)

eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) activity is post-translationally regulated in a complex fashion by acylation, protein-protein interactions, intracellular trafficking and phosphorylation, among others. Signalling pathways that regulate eNOS activity include phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt, cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases [PKA (protein kinase A) and PKG], PKC, as well as ERKs (extracellular-signal-regulated kinases). The role of ERKs in eNOS activation remains controversial. In the present study, we have examined the role of ERK1/2 in eNOS activation in HUVEC-CS [transformed HUVEC (human umbilical-vein endothelial cells)] as well as a widely used model for eNOS study, transiently transfected COS-7 cells. U0126 pretreatment of HUVEC-CS potentiated ATP-stimulated eNOS activity, independent of changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). In COS-7 cells transiently expressing ovine eNOS, U0126 potentiated A23187-stimulated eNOS activity, but inhibited ATP-stimulated activity. Compensatory changes in phosphorylation of five key eNOS residues did not account for changes in A23187-stimulated activity. However, in the case of ATP, altered phosphorylation and changes in [Ca2+]i may partially contribute to U0126 inhibition of activity. Finally, seven eNOS alanine mutants of putative ERK1/2 targets were generated and the effects of U0126 pretreatment on eNOS activity were gauged with A23187 and ATP treatment. T97A-eNOS was the only construct significantly different from wild-type after U0126 pretreatment and ATP stimulation of eNOS activation. In the present study, eNOS activity was either potentiated or inhibited in COS-7 cells, suggesting agonist dependence for MEK/ERK1/2 signalling [where MEK is MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK kinase] to eNOS and a complex mechanism including [Ca2+]i, phosphorylation and, possibly, intracellular trafficking. PMID:16716148

Cale, Jacqueline M; Bird, Ian M

2006-09-01

327

A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study on a few series of potent, highly selective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

QSAR study was performed on a series of 1,2-dihydro-4-quinazolinamines, 4,5-dialkylsubstituted-2-imino-1,3-thiazolidine derivatives and 4,5-disubstituted-1,3-oxazolidin-2-imine derivatives studied by Tinker et al. [J Med Chem (2003), 46, 913-916], Ueda et al. [Bioorg Med Chem (2004) 12, 4101-4116] and Ueda et al. [Bioorg Med Chem Lett (2004) 14, 313-316], respectively, as potent, highly selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The iNOS inhibition activity of the whole series of compounds was analyzed in relation to the physicochemical and molecular properties of the compounds. The QSAR analysis revealed that the inhibition potency of the compounds was controlled by a topological parameter 1chi(v) (Kier's first order valence molecular connectivity index), density (D), surface tension (St) and length (steric parameter) of a substituent. This suggested that the drug-receptor interaction predominantly involved the dispersion interaction, but the bulky molecule would face steric problem because of which the molecule may not completely fit in active sites of the receptor and thus may not have the optimum interaction. PMID:24791414

Bharti, Vishwa Deepak; Gupta, Satya P; Kumar, Harish

2014-02-01

328

Molecular basis of ergosterol-induced protection of grape against botrytis cinerea: induction of type I LTP promoter activity, WRKY, and stilbene synthase gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Type I lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are basic, 9-kDa cystein-rich proteins believed to be involved in plant defense mechanisms. A 2,100-bp fragment containing the coding region of Vitis vinifera lipid transfer protein 1 (VvLTP1) and 1,420-bp of its promoter region was isolated by screening a grape genomic library. In silico analysis revealed several putative, defense-related, cis-regulatory elements such as W- and MYB-boxes, involved in the binding of WRKY and MYB transcription factors, respectively. The 5'-truncated versions of the VvLTP1 promoter were generated, cloned in front of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene, and introduced in tobacco plants and grapevine cell suspensions using Agrobacterium spp. Single MYB- and the W-boxes identified on the 0.250-kbp fragment were sufficient to induce GUS activity in transgenic tobacco plants after transient expression of MYB and WRKY. Ergosterol, a nonspecific fungal elicitor, induced GUS activity in transgenic grapevine cell suspensions transformed with the 1,420- and 750-bp promoter containing a palindromic arrangement of two W-boxes but not the 650- or 250-bp fragment, where only one W-box was present. Moreover, ergosterol triggered WRKY, VvLTP1, and stilbene synthase gene expression in grape plantlets and enhanced protection against Botrytis cinerea. The molecular basis of ergosterol-induced protection is discussed. PMID:17022174

Laquitaine, Laurent; Gomès, Eric; François, Julie; Marchive, Chloé; Pascal, Stéphanie; Hamdi, Saïd; Atanassova, Rossitza; Delrot, Serge; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre

2006-10-01

329

Activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) signaling pathway in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced neurotoxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been reported to cause alterations in cognitive and motor behavior during both development and adulthood. In this study, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) signaling pathway was investigated in differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells to better understand the mechanisms of TCDD-induced neurotoxicity. TCDD exposure induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in nNOS expression. High levels of nitric oxide (NO) production by nNOS activation induced mitochondrial cytochrome c (Cyt-c) release and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Additionally, TCDD increased the expression of active caspase-3 and significantly led to apoptosis in PC12 cells. However, these effects above could be effectively inhibited by the addition of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a highly selective nNOS inhibitor. Moreover, in the brain cortex of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, nNOS was also found to have certain relationship with TCDD-induced neuronal apoptosis. Together, our findings establish a role for nNOS as an enhancer of TCDD-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. PMID:24930124

Jiang, Junkang; Duan, Zhiqing; Nie, Xiaoke; Xi, Hanqing; Li, Aihong; Guo, Aisong; Wu, Qiyun; Jiang, Shengyang; Zhao, Jianya; Chen, Gang

2014-07-01

330

Aronia melanocarpa juice, a rich source of polyphenols, induces endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary arteries via the redox-sensitive activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the ability of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) juice, a rich source of polyphenols, to cause NO-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine the underlying mechanism and the active polyphenols. A. melanocarpa juice caused potent endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary artery rings. Relaxations to A. melanocarpa juice were minimally affected by inhibition of the formation of vasoactive prostanoids and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated responses, and markedly reduced by N(?)-nitro-l-arginine (endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) inhibitor), membrane permeant analogs of superoxide dismutase and catalase, PP2 (Src kinase inhibitor), and wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor). In cultured endothelial cells, A. melanocarpa juice increased the formation of NO as assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using the spin trap iron(II)diethyldithiocarbamate, and reactive oxygen species using dihydroethidium. These responses were associated with the redox-sensitive phosphorylation of Src, Akt and eNOS. A. melanocarpa juice-derived fractions containing conjugated cyanidins and chlorogenic acids induced the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. The present findings indicate that A. melanocarpa juice is a potent stimulator of the endothelial formation of NO in coronary arteries; this effect involves the phosphorylation of eNOS via the redox-sensitive activation of the Src/PI3-kinase/Akt pathway mostly by conjugated cyanidins and chlorogenic acids. PMID:23973200

Kim, Jong Hun; Auger, Cyril; Kurita, Ikuko; Anselm, Eric; Rivoarilala, Lalainasoa Odile; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

2013-11-30

331

Angiotensin-converting enzyme activity is involved in the mechanism of increased endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the elevation of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, in hypertensive patients, so the present study was designed to examine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity is also involved in the mechanism of ADMA elevation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). A crossover study was performed to determine if ACE inhibition with perindopril (4 mg/day) for 4 weeks decreases serum ADMA concentration and plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF) level (a marker of endothelial injury) in 11 patients with NIDDM. None of the patients was treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs, and none had major diabetic complications. Before the protocol began, serum ADMA and plasma vWF were significantly higher in the 11 NIDDM patients, when compared with 8 control subjects without diabetes. Perindopril did not affect blood pressure or glucose metabolism, but did significantly decrease serum ADMA and plasma vWF. These results suggest that endothelial injury associated with ADMA elevation may be present even in patients with non-complicated NIDDM, and that increased activity of ACE may be involved in such endothelial dysfunction. PMID:12224817

Ito, Akira; Egashira, Kensuke; Narishige, Takahiro; Muramatsu, Kouhei; Takeshita, Akira

2002-09-01

332

Flow Shear Stress Stimulates Gab1 Tyrosine Phosphorylation to Mediate Protein Kinase B and Endothelial Nitric-oxide Synthase Activation in Endothelial Cells*  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluid shear stress generated by blood flow modulates endothelial cell function via specific intracellular signaling events. We showed previously that flow activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) via Src kinase-dependent transactivation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). The scaffold protein Gab1 plays an important role in receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated signal transduction. We found here that laminar flow (shear stress = 12 dynes/cm2) rapidly stimulated Gab1 tyrosine phosphorylation in both bovine aortic endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which correlated with activation of Akt and eNOS. Gab1 phosphorylation as well as activation of Akt and eNOS by flow was inhibited by the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 (4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine) and VEGFR2 kinase inhibitors SU1498 and VTI, suggesting that flow-mediated Gab1 phosphorylation is Src kinase-dependent and VEGFR2-dependent. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Gab1 by flow was functionally important, because flow stimulated the association of Gab1 with the PI3K subunit p85 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, transfection of a Gab1 mutant lacking p85 binding sites inhibited flow-induced activation of Akt and eNOS. Finally, knockdown of endogenous Gab1 by small interference RNA abrogated flow activation of Akt and eNOS. These data demonstrate a critical role of Gab1 in flow-stimulated PI3K/Akt/eNOS signal pathway in endothelial cells. PMID:15665327

Jin, Zheng-Gen; Wong, Chelsea; Wu, Jie; Berk, Bradford C.

2014-01-01

333

Effects of L-arginine supplementation on glucose and nitric oxide (NO) levels and activity of NO synthase in corticosterone-challenged broiler chickens (Gallus gallus).  

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In the present study, three experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of oral supplementation of l-arginine (ARG) on the disposal of glucose in stressed-broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). In all the three experiments, the broiler chickens were randomly subjected to one of the four treatments at the beginning of the experiments: oral administration of saline, glucose (2.0g/kg body weight, BW), l-arginine (0.5g/kg BW) or mixed solution (2.0g glucose+0.5g arginine/kg BW). Immediately after the oral treatment, the experimental chickens were subcutaneously injected with corn oil (Experiment 1), corticosterone (CORT, 4mg/kg BW, Experiment 2) or insulin (1U/kg BW, Experiment 3), respectively. Blood samples were obtained at the beginning (0-h), 0.5-, 1- and 2-h time points after injection and the levels of plasma glucose, urate, nitric oxide (NO) and activity of NO synthase (NOS) were measured. The results showed that plasma NO levels and NOS activity were significantly suppressed while glucose and insulin concentrations were increased by CORT treatment. In contrast, insulin administration improved the circulating level of NO and activity of NOS. ARG supplementation could not improve the circulating levels of NO and NOS activity in CORT-challenged chickens and, in turn, the glucose disposal. The result suggests that NO is involved in insulin-mediated glucose transport in chickens, as well as that in mammals. The reduced circulating level of NO resulted from the suppressed activity of NOS rather than the reduced substrate concentration. PMID:19615465

Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Song, Z G; Lin, H

2009-11-01

334

Chitin synthase 2 is essential for septum formation and cell division in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Previous work led to the puzzling conclusion that chitin synthase 1, the major chitin synthase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is not required for synthesis of the chitinous primary septum. The mechanism of in vivo synthesis of chitin has now been clarified by cloning the structural gene for the newly found chitin synthase 2, a relatively minor activity in yeast. Disruption of the chitin synthase 2 gene results in the loss of well-defined septa and in growth arrest, establishing that th...

Silverman, S. J.; Sburlati, A.; Slater, M. L.; Cabib, E.

1988-01-01

335

Purification of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase activity from pea tissue. Two polypeptides of 55 kDa and 70 kDa copurify with enzyme activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

From pea plasma membranes isolated by aqueous polymer two-phase partitioning we have purified 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase [glucan synthase-II (GS-II) or callose synthase], an enzyme that several reports have suggested consists of between six and nine different subunits. The procedure involves (a) preliminary removal of peripheral proteins by 0.1% digitonin; (b) solubilization of GS-II with 0.5% digitonin; (c) precipitation of activity-irrelevant proteins from the digitonin extract by Ca2+, spermine and cellobiose, which are GS-II effectors needed in step (d); (d) product entrapment by formation of 1,3-beta-D-glucan from UDP-Glc by GS-II in the presence of the mentioned effectors, followed by centrifugal sedimentation of product micelles and elution of proteins therefrom with buffer; (e) preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF) of product-entrapped proteins; and (f) glycerol gradient centrifugation of the fractions of peak GS-II activity from IEF. The procedure yields 300-fold enrichment of GS-II specific activity over that in isolated plasma membranes, and 5500-fold over that in the original homogenate. Out of approximately six principal polypeptides that occur after the product entrapment step, the glycerol gradient GS-II activity peak contains only two major polypeptides, one of 55 kDa and another of 70 kDa, plus minor amounts of one or two others whose distribution and occurrence indicate are not responsible for GS-II activity. Antisera against either the 55-kDa or the 70-kDa polypeptide adsorb more than 60% of the GS-II activity from a product-entrapped preparation. After native gel electrophoresis, GS-II activity is associated with a single protein band of very large molecular mass, whose principal components are the 55-kDa and 70-kDa polypeptides, accompanied by minor amounts of a few other polypeptides most of which do not occur in enzyme preparations purified by the previously described procedure. The 55-kDa but not the 70-kDa component can be labeled by ultraviolet irradiation of the plasma membranes in the presence of [alpha-32P]UDP-Glc under GS-II assay conditions. It seems likely, therefore, that the 55-kDa and 70-kDa polypeptides form a large catalytic complex of which the 55-kDa component is the UDP-Glc-binding subunit. PMID:8143748

Dhugga, K S; Ray, P M

1994-03-15

336

ADP-Stimulated Activation of Akt During Integrin Outside-in Signaling Promotes Platelet Spreading by Inhibiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3?  

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Objective Integrins mediate platelet adhesion and transmit “outside in” signals, leading to platelet spreading. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinases (PI3Ks) play a critical role in outside-in signaling and platelet spreading; however, the mechanisms of PI3K activation and function in outside-in signaling are unclear. We sought to determine the role of the Akt family of serine/threonine kinases and activation mechanisms of the PI3K/Akt pathway in outside-in signaling. Methods and Results Akt inhibitors and Akt3 knockout inhibited platelet spreading on fibrinogen, indicating that Akt is important in integrin outside-in signaling. Akt inhibitors and Akt3 knockout also diminished integrin-dependent phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Inhibition of GSK-3? reversed the inhibitory effects of Akt3 knockout and inhibitors of Akt or PI3K on platelet spreading, indicating that GSK-3? is a downstream target of Akt in outside-in signaling. Integrin-dependent activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway requires Src Family Kinase (SFK). Akt phosphorylation is also significantly inhibited in ADP receptor P2Y12 knockout platelets and further inhibited in P2Y12 knockout platelets treated with a P2Y1 antagonist. Consistently, P2Y12 knockout and P2Y1 inhibition together reduced platelet spreading. Conclusion These results demonstrate that integrin outside-in signaling and platelet spreading requires SFK-dependent and ADP receptor-amplified activation of the PI3K-Akt-GSK-3? pathway. PMID:22814751

O’Brien, Kelly A.; Gartner, T. Kent; Hay, Nissim; Du, Xiaoping

2012-01-01

337

Indomethacin inhibits activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the rat kidney: Possible role of this effect in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced renal damage.  

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The clinical use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is often associated with adverse effects in the kidney. Indomethacin, an NSAID that has been shown to induce oxidative stress in the kidney, was used to study the pathogenesis of renal damage induced by the drug in a rat model. Experimental animals were given indomethacin (20mg/kg) by oral gavage, sacrificed 1, 12 or 24h (h) later and the kidneys studied. Evidence of glomerular and tubular damage in the kidney was found in response to the drug. Renal tissue nitrite levels, a surrogate marker of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, were significantly decreased at 12 and 24h. Indomethacin did not affect protein and mRNA levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) or inducible NOS (iNOS). However, it significantly reduced the ratio of dimeric (active) to monomeric (inactive) eNOS in the kidney, 12 and 24h after drug administration. This was associated with reductions in heme content, both in renal tissue and in NOS. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) mRNA (at 1 and 12h), protein (at 12 and 24h) and activity (at 1, 12 and 24h) were elevated in response to indomethacin. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 (at 12h) and p38 MAPK signaling (at 12h and 24h), both of which are known to induce HO-1, also occurred in response to the drug. In summary, our results show that indomethacin reduced levels of activated eNOS in the kidney. This effect is possibly mediated by heme depletion, secondary to HO-1 induction that occurred downstream of Nrf2 and p38 MAPK signaling. We postulate that reduced renal eNOS activity may result in decreased NO levels, and hence reduced renal perfusion, leading to glomerular and tubular injury with subsequent renal damage. PMID:25110317

Nagappan, Arumugam Suriyam; Varghese, Joe; Pranesh, Gautham Tumkur; Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Jacob, Molly

2014-09-25

338

The N-terminal portion of autoinhibitory element modulates human endothelial nitric-oxide synthase activity through coordinated controls of phosphorylation at Thr495 and Ser1177  

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Full Text Available NO production catalysed by eNOS (endothelial nitric-oxide synthase plays an important role in the cardiovascular system. A variety of agonists activate eNOS through the Ser1177 phosphorylation concomitant with Thr495 dephosphorylation, resulting in increased ·NO production with a basal level of calcium. To date, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We have previously demonstrated that perturbation of the AIE (autoinhibitory element in the FMN-binding subdomain can also lead to eNOS activation with a basal level of calcium, implying that the AIE might regulate eNOS activation through modulating phosphorylation at Thr495 and Ser1177. Here we generated stable clones in HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney 293 cells with a series of deletion mutants in both the AIE (?594–604, ?605–612 and ?626–634 and the C-terminal tail (?14; deletion of 1164–1177. The expression of ?594–604 and ?605–612 mutants in non-stimulated HEK-293 cells substantially increased nitrate/nitrite release into the culture medium; the other two mutants, ?626–634 and ?1164–1177, displayed no significant difference when compared with WTeNOS (wild-type eNOS. Intriguingly, mutant ?594–604 showed close correlation between Ser1177 phosphorylation and Thr495 dephosphorylation, and NO production. Our results have indicated that N-terminal portion of AIE (residues 594–604 regulates eNOS activity through coordinated phosphorylation on Ser1177 and Thr495.

Pei?Rung Wu

2014-08-01

339

Involvement of constitutive nitric oxide synthase in ghrelin-induced cytosolic phospholipase A(2) activation in gastric mucosal cell protection against ethanol cytotoxicity.  

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Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is an important regulator of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme systems, the products of which are of major significance to the processes of gastric mucosal defense and repair. Here, using primary culture of rat gastric mucosal cells, we report on the mechanism of ghrelin protection against ethanol cytotoxicity. We show that the protective effect of ghrelin was associated with the increase in NO and PGE2 production, and characterized by a marked up-regulation in cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) activity and arachidonic acid (AA) release. The loss in countering effect of ghrelin on the ethanol cytotoxicity was attained with constitutive NOS (cNOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, as well as indomethacin and a specific COX-1 inhibitor, SC-560, while specific COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, and a selective inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor, 1400W, had no effect. The effect of L-NAME was reflected in the inhibition of ghrelin-induced mucosal cell capacity for NO production, cPLA(2) activation, and PGE2 generation, whereas indomethacin caused only the inhibition in PGE2 generation. Moreover, the ghrelin-induced up-regulation in AA release was reflected in the cPLA(2) enzyme protein phosphorylation and S-nitrosylation. Preincubation with L-NAME resulted in the inhibition of the ghrelin-induced S-nitrosylation, whereas the ERK inhibitor, PD98059, caused the blockage in cPLA(2) protein phosphorylation as well as S-nitrosylation. The findings demonstrate that ghrelin protection of gastric mucosa against ethanol cytotoxicity involves cNOS-derived NO induction of cPLA(2) activation for the increase in PGE2 synthesis. This activation process apparently includes the cPLA(2) phosphorylation followed by S-nitrosylation. PMID:19757089

Slomiany, B L; Slomiany, A

2009-10-01

340

Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid based inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3?.  

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The synthesis, GSK-3? inhibitory activity, and anti-microbial activity of bicyclic and tricyclic derivatives of the 5,7-diamino-6-fluoro-4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid scaffold were studied. Kinase selectivity profiling indicated that members of this class were potent and highly selective GSK-3 inhibitors. PMID:21873061

Cociorva, Oana M; Li, Bei; Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon; Li, Qiang; Nakamura, Ayako; Nakamura, Kai; Nomura, Masahiro; Okada, Kyoko; Seto, Shigeki; Yumoto, Kazuhiro; Liyanage, Marek; Zhang, Melissa C; Aban, Arwin; Leen, Brandon; Szardenings, Anna Katrin; Rosenblum, Jonathan S; Kozarich, John W; Kohno, Yasushi; Shreder, Kevin R

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

An aureobasidin A resistance gene isolated from Aspergillus is a homolog of yeast AUR1, a gene responsible for inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase activity.  

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The AUR1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutations in which confer resistance to the antibiotic aureobasidin A, is necessary for inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase activity. We report the molecular cloning and characterization of the Aspergillus nidulans aurA gene, which is homologous to AUR1. A single point mutation in the aurA gene of A. nidulans confers a high level of resistance to aureobasidin A. The A. nidulans aurA gene was used to identify its homologs in other Aspergillus species, including A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. oryzae. The deduced amino acid sequence of an aurA homolog from the pathogenic fungus A. fumigatus showed 87% identity to that of A. nidulans. The AurA proteins of A. nidulans and A. fumigatus shared common characteristics in primary structure, including sequence, hydropathy profile, and N-glycosylation sites, with their S. cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Candida albicans counterparts. These results suggest that the aureobasidin resistance gene is conserved evolutionarily in various fungi. PMID:10102364

Kuroda, M; Hashida-Okado, T; Yasumoto, R; Gomi, K; Kato, I; Takesako, K

1999-03-01

342

Induction of ATP synthase ? by H2O2 induces melanogenesis by activating PAH and cAMP/CREB/MITF signaling in melanoma cells.  

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Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production due to oxidative stress is associated with apoptosis and melanogenesis in melanocytes. Here, we analyzed the effects of H2O2 on melanogenesis by measuring the melanin content and analyzing the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins, including cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase (TYR), and phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). Treatment with 1mM H2O2 increased the cellular melanin content; the expression of PAH, TYR, and MITF; and the phosphorylation of CREB in B16F10 and SK-Mel-2 cells. In addition, H2O2 increased the expression of ATP synthase ? (ATP5B), a mitochondrial F1 complex, and increased intracellular ATP levels. Studies using the ATP5B inhibitor oligomycin (OM) showed that the induction of cAMP resulted from an increase in ATP caused by the induction of ATP5B. OM treatment increased H2O2-mediated apoptosis via accelerated ATP depletion and apoptosis-related gene expressions. In summary, H2O2 may induce melanogenesis via the upregulation of PAH and activation of cAMP/p-CREB/MITF signaling by increasing intracellular cAMP levels through the induction of ATP5B. PMID:23523934

Kim, Hye-Eun; Lee, Seong-Gene

2013-07-01

343

Disrupted ATP synthase activity and mitochondrial hyperpolarisation-dependent oxidative stress is associated with p66Shc phosphorylation in fibroblasts of NARP patients.  

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p66Shc is an adaptor protein involved in cell proliferation and differentiation that undergoes phosphorylation at Ser36 in response to oxidative stimuli, consequently inducing a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial disruption and apoptosis. Its role during several pathologies suggests that p66Shc mitochondrial signalling can perpetuate a primary mitochondrial defect, thus contributing to the pathophysiology of that condition. Here, we show that in the fibroblasts of neuropathy, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) patients, the p66Shc phosphorylation pathway is significantly induced in response to intracellular oxidative stress related to disrupted ATP synthase activity and mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarisation. We postulate that the increased phosphorylation of p66Shc at Ser36 is partially responsible for further increasing ROS production, resulting in oxidative damage of proteins. Oxidative stress and p66Shc phosphorylation at Ser36 may be mitigated by antioxidant administration or the use of a p66Shc phosphorylation inhibitor. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Bioenergetic dysfunction, adaptation and therapy. PMID:22885148

Lebiedzinska, Magdalena; Karkucinska-Wieckowska, Agnieszka; Wojtala, Aleksandra; Suski, Jan M; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Wilczynski, Grzegorz; Wlodarczyk, Jakub; Diogo, Catia V; Oliveira, Paulo J; Tauber, Jan; Ježek, Petr; Pronicki, Maciej; Duszynski, Jerzy; Pinton, Paolo; Wieckowski, Mariusz R

2013-01-01

344

Cryptococcus neoformans neutralizes macrophage and astrocyte derived nitric oxide without interfering with inducible nitric oxide synthase induction or catalytic activity - possible involvement of nitric oxide consumption.  

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The effect of Cryptococcus neoformans on the accumulation of nitrite, an indicator of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, was investigated in cytokine (interferon-gamma [IFN-gamma] and interleukin [IL]-1)-stimulated cultures of rat peritoneal macrophages and C6 astrocytoma cells. Cytokine-induced nitrite generation in cultures of both cell types was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by live C. neoformans, but not by heat-killed cryptococcal cells or conditioned medium from yeast cultures. C. neoformans-mediated reduction of nitrite formation coincided with impairment of NO-dependent macrophage tumoricidal activity. Cytokine-triggered induction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was unaffected in C6 cells, and only marginally reduced in macrophages. When cells were pretreated with cytokines for 24 h to induce iNOS, and any further induction was prevented by inhibition of protein synthesis, C. neoformans was still able to reduce nitrite accumulation in cultures of both cell types. Finally, live C. neoformans, but not heat-killed yeast cells or yeast culture supernatant, significantly reduced nitrite production in a culture solution of NO-releasing compound S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Thus, it appears that cryptococcal reduction of nitrite formation in macrophage and C6 cultures was caused by the consumption of NO by some yeast molecule, rather than by the inhibition of cellular NO synthesis. PMID:10736111

Trajkovic, V; Stepanovic, S; Samardzic, T; Jankovic, V; Badovinac, V; Mostarica Stojkovic, M

2000-04-01

345