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Sample records for magnetoencephalography multipolar modeling

  1. MEG (Magnetoencephalography) multipolar modeling of distributed sources using RAP-MUSIC (Recursively Applied and Projected Multiple Signal Characterization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, J. C. (John C.); Baillet, S. (Sylvain); Jerbi, K. (Karim); Leahy, R. M. (Richard M.)

    2001-01-01

    We describe the use of truncated multipolar expansions for producing dynamic images of cortical neural activation from measurements of the magnetoencephalogram. We use a signal-subspace method to find the locations of a set of multipolar sources, each of which represents a region of activity in the cerebral cortex. Our method builds up an estimate of the sources in a recursive manner, i.e. we first search for point current dipoles, then magnetic dipoles, and finally first order multipoles. The dynamic behavior of these sources is then computed using a linear fit to the spatiotemporal data. The final step in the procedure is to map each of the multipolar sources into an equivalent distributed source on the cortical surface. The method is illustrated through an application to epileptic interictal MEG data.

  2. Magnetoencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although magnetoencephalography (MEG) may not be familiar to many pediatric radiologists, it is an increasingly available neuroimaging technique both for evaluating normal and abnormal intracranial neural activity and for functional mapping. By providing spatial, temporal, and time-frequency spectral information, MEG affords patients with epilepsy, intracranial neoplasia, and vascular malformations an opportunity for a sensitive and accurate non-invasive preoperative evaluation. This technique can optimize selection of surgical candidates as well as increase confidence in preoperative counseling and prognosis. Research applications that appear promising for near-future clinical translation include the evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorder, traumatic brain injury, and schizophrenia. (orig.)

  3. Magnetoencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Erin Simon [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Lurie Family Foundations MEG Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Edgar, J.C.; Gaetz, William C.; Roberts, Timothy P.L. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Lurie Family Foundations MEG Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Although magnetoencephalography (MEG) may not be familiar to many pediatric radiologists, it is an increasingly available neuroimaging technique both for evaluating normal and abnormal intracranial neural activity and for functional mapping. By providing spatial, temporal, and time-frequency spectral information, MEG affords patients with epilepsy, intracranial neoplasia, and vascular malformations an opportunity for a sensitive and accurate non-invasive preoperative evaluation. This technique can optimize selection of surgical candidates as well as increase confidence in preoperative counseling and prognosis. Research applications that appear promising for near-future clinical translation include the evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorder, traumatic brain injury, and schizophrenia. (orig.)

  4. Particle modelling of plasma confinement by a multipolar magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multipolar plasma confinement is known to result in enhanced plasma density, homogeneous plasma of a large volume, and quiescent plasmas. The effects of a multipolar magnetic field on the dc discharge are confirmed using the particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo (PIC/MC) method. The gas is argon. The present PIC/MC simulation made it possible to consider three roles: (1) magnetic mirror effect near the cusp of two magnetic poles, (2) suppressed electron diffusion in the direction normal to magnetic field line, and (3) electron repelling in the sheath on the chamber wall. Electron number density for the magnetic field |B?|max = 0.1 T is up to nine times higher than that for no field for our plasma dimensions. The multipolar confinement is effective when the mean free path of fast electrons is of the order or larger than the discharge size. In order to give design criteria of the magnet system, the effects of magnetic field, number of magnetic poles, and gas pressure on the plasma density are examined systematically

  5. Multipolar electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Salvatore; Hughes, Timothy J; Popelier, Paul L A

    2014-06-14

    Atomistic simulation of chemical systems is currently limited by the elementary description of electrostatics that atomic point-charges offer. Unfortunately, a model of one point-charge for each atom fails to capture the anisotropic nature of electronic features such as lone pairs or ?-systems. Higher order electrostatic terms, such as those offered by a multipole moment expansion, naturally recover these important electronic features. The question remains as to why such a description has not yet been widely adopted by popular molecular mechanics force fields. There are two widely-held misconceptions about the more rigorous formalism of multipolar electrostatics: (1) Accuracy: the implementation of multipole moments, compared to point-charges, offers little to no advantage in terms of an accurate representation of a system's energetics, structure and dynamics. (2) Efficiency: atomistic simulation using multipole moments is computationally prohibitive compared to simulation using point-charges. Whilst the second of these may have found some basis when computational power was a limiting factor, the first has no theoretical grounding. In the current work, we disprove the two statements above and systematically demonstrate that multipole moments are not discredited by either. We hope that this perspective will help in catalysing the transition to more realistic electrostatic modelling, to be adopted by popular molecular simulation software. PMID:24741671

  6. A continuum solvent model of the multipolar dispersion solvation energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duignan, Timothy T; Parsons, Drew F; Ninham, Barry W

    2013-08-15

    The dispersion energy is an important contribution to the total solvation energies of ions and neutral molecules. Here, we present a new continuum model calculation of these energies, based on macroscopic quantum electrodynamics. The model uses the frequency dependent multipole polarizabilities of molecules in order to accurately calculate the dispersion interaction of a solute particle with surrounding water molecules. It includes the dipole, quadrupole, and octupole moment contributions. The water is modeled via a bulk dielectric susceptibility with a spherical cavity occupied by the solute. The model invokes damping functions to account for solute-solvent wave function overlap. The assumptions made are very similar to those used in the Born model. This provides consistency and additivity of electrostatic and dispersion (quantum mechanical) interactions. The energy increases in magnitude with cation size, but decreases slightly with size for the highly polarizable anions. The higher order multipole moments are essential, making up more than 50% of the dispersion solvation energy of the fluoride ion. This method provides an accurate and simple way of calculating the notoriously problematic dispersion contribution to the solvation energy. The result establishes the importance of using accurate calculations of the dispersion energy for the modeling of solvation. PMID:23837890

  7. Magnetoencephalography recording and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Jayabal; Sinha, Sanjib; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy

    2014-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) non-invasively measures the magnetic field generated due to the excitatory postsynaptic electrical activity of the apical dendritic pyramidal cells. Such a tiny magnetic field is measured with the help of the biomagnetometer sensors coupled with the Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) inside the magnetically shielded room (MSR). The subjects are usually screened for the presence of ferromagnetic materials, and then the head position indicator coils, electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes (if measured simultaneously), and fiducials are digitized using a 3D digitizer, which aids in movement correction and also in transferring the MEG data from the head coordinates to the device and voxel coordinates, thereby enabling more accurate co-registration and localization. MEG data pre-processing involves filtering the data for environmental and subject interferences, artefact identification, and rejection. Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI) is processed for correction and identifying fiducials. After choosing and computing for the appropriate head models (spherical or realistic; boundary/finite element model), the interictal/ictal epileptiform discharges are selected and modeled by an appropriate source modeling technique (clinically and commonly used - single equivalent current dipole - ECD model). The equivalent current dipole (ECD) source localization of the modeled interictal epileptiform discharge (IED) is considered physiologically valid or acceptable based on waveform morphology, isofield pattern, and dipole parameters (localization, dipole moment, confidence volume, goodness of fit). Thus, MEG source localization can aid clinicians in sublobar localization, lateralization, and grid placement, by evoking the irritative/seizure onset zone. It also accurately localizes the eloquent cortex-like visual, language areas. MEG also aids in diagnosing and delineating multiple novel findings in other neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinsonism, Traumatic brain injury, autistic disorders, and so oon. PMID:24791077

  8. Magnetoencephalography in pediatric epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hunmin Kim; Chun Kee Chung; Hee Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) records the magnetic field generated by electrical activity of cortical neurons. The signal is not distorted or attenuated, and it is contactless recording that can be performed comfortably even for longer than an hour. It has excellent and decent temporal resolution, especially when it is combined with the patient's own brain magnetic resonance imaging (magnetic source imaging). Data of MEG and electroencephalography are not mutually exclusive and it is recorded ...

  9. Searching for the best model: ambiguity of inverse solutions and application to fetal magnetoencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetal brain signals produce weak magnetic fields at the maternal abdominal surface. In the presence of much stronger interference these weak fetal fields are often nearly indistinguishable from noise. Our initial objective was to validate these weak fetal brain fields by demonstrating that they agree with the electromagnetic model of the fetal brain. The fetal brain model is often not known and we have attempted to fit the data to not only the brain source position, orientation and magnitude, but also to the brain model position. Simulation tests of this extended model search on fetal MEG recordings using dipole fit and beamformers revealed a region of ambiguity. The region of ambiguity consists of a family of models which are not distinguishable in the presence of noise, and which exhibit large and comparable SNR when beamformers are used. Unlike the uncertainty of a dipole fit with known model plus noise, this extended ambiguity region yields nearly identical forward solutions, and is only weakly dependent on noise. The ambiguity region is located in a plane defined by the source position, orientation, and the true model centre, and will have a diameter approximately 0.67 of the modelled fetal head diameter. Existence of the ambiguity region allows us to only state that the fetal brain fields do not contradict the electromagnetic model; we can associate them with a family of models belonging to the ambiguity region, but not with any specific model. In addition to prwith any specific model. In addition to providing a level of confidence in the fetal brain signals, the ambiguity region knowledge in combination with beamformers allows detection of undistorted temporal waveforms with improved signal-to-noise ratio, even though the source position cannot be uniquely determined

  10. Searching for the best model: ambiguity of inverse solutions and application to fetal magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrba, J.; Robinson, S. E.; McCubbin, J.; Lowery, C. L.; Eswaran, H.; Murphy, P.; Preissl, H.

    2007-02-01

    Fetal brain signals produce weak magnetic fields at the maternal abdominal surface. In the presence of much stronger interference these weak fetal fields are often nearly indistinguishable from noise. Our initial objective was to validate these weak fetal brain fields by demonstrating that they agree with the electromagnetic model of the fetal brain. The fetal brain model is often not known and we have attempted to fit the data to not only the brain source position, orientation and magnitude, but also to the brain model position. Simulation tests of this extended model search on fetal MEG recordings using dipole fit and beamformers revealed a region of ambiguity. The region of ambiguity consists of a family of models which are not distinguishable in the presence of noise, and which exhibit large and comparable SNR when beamformers are used. Unlike the uncertainty of a dipole fit with known model plus noise, this extended ambiguity region yields nearly identical forward solutions, and is only weakly dependent on noise. The ambiguity region is located in a plane defined by the source position, orientation, and the true model centre, and will have a diameter approximately 0.67 of the modelled fetal head diameter. Existence of the ambiguity region allows us to only state that the fetal brain fields do not contradict the electromagnetic model; we can associate them with a family of models belonging to the ambiguity region, but not with any specific model. In addition to providing a level of confidence in the fetal brain signals, the ambiguity region knowledge in combination with beamformers allows detection of undistorted temporal waveforms with improved signal-to-noise ratio, even though the source position cannot be uniquely determined.

  11. Magnetoencephalography: Basic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay P

    2014-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is the measurement of the magnetic field generated by the electrical activity of neurons. It is usually combined with a magnetic resonance imaging to get what is called magnetic source imaging. The technology that has helped record these minute magnetic fields is super-conducting quantum interference detector which is like a highly sensitive magnetic field meter. To attenuate the external magnetic noise the MEG is housed inside a magnetically shielded room. The actual sensors recording magnetic fields are magnetometers and/or gradiometers. MEG fields pass through the head without any distortion. This is a significant advantage of MEG over electroencephalography. MEG provides a high spatial and temporal resolution. The recording and identification information should be according to the American Clinical Magnetoencephalography Society guidelines published in 2011. MEG currently has two approved indications in the United States, one is for pre-operative brain mapping and the other is for use in epilepsy surgery. MEG studies have shown functional brain tissue inside brain tumors. PMID:24791076

  12. Magnetoencephalography in pediatric epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hunmin; Chung, Chun Kee; Hwang, Hee

    2013-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) records the magnetic field generated by electrical activity of cortical neurons. The signal is not distorted or attenuated, and it is contactless recording that can be performed comfortably even for longer than an hour. It has excellent and decent temporal resolution, especially when it is combined with the patient's own brain magnetic resonance imaging (magnetic source imaging). Data of MEG and electroencephalography are not mutually exclusive and it is recorded simultaneously and interpreted together. MEG has been shown to be useful in detecting the irritative zone in both lesional and nonlesional epilepsy surgery. It has provided valuable and additive information regarding the lesion that should be resected in epilepsy surgery. Better outcomes in epilepsy surgery were related to the localization of the irritative zone with MEG. The value of MEG in epilepsy surgery is recruiting more patients to epilepsy surgery and providing critical information for surgical planning. MEG cortical mapping is helpful in younger pediatric patients, especially when the epileptogenic zone is close to the eloquent cortex. MEG is also used in both basic and clinical research of epilepsy other than surgery. MEG is a valuable diagnostic modality for diagnosis and treatment, as well as research in epilepsy. PMID:24244211

  13. Magnetoencephalography in pediatric epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunmin Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoencephalography (MEG records the magnetic field generated by electrical activity of cortical neurons. The signal is not distorted or attenuated, and it is contactless recording that can be performed comfortably even for longer than an hour. It has excellent and decent temporal resolution, especially when it is combined with the patient’s own brain magnetic resonance imaging (magnetic source imaging. Data of MEG and electroencephalography are not mutually exclusive and it is recorded simultaneously and interpreted together. MEG has been shown to be useful in detecting the irritative zone in both lesional and nonlesional epilepsy surgery. It has provided valuable and additive information regarding the lesion that should be resected in epilepsy surgery. Better outcomes in epilepsy surgery were related to the localization of the irritative zone with MEG. The value of MEG in epilepsy surgery is recruiting more patients to epilepsy surgery and providing critical information for surgical planning. MEG cortical mapping is helpful in younger pediatric patients, especially when the epileptogenic zone is close to the eloquent cortex. MEG is also used in both basic and clinical research of epilepsy other than surgery. MEG is a valuable diagnostic modality for diagnosis and treatment, as well as research in epilepsy.

  14. Spin-Orbital Wave Excitations in Orbitally Degenerate Exchange Model with Multipolar Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kusunose, H; Kusunose, Hiroaki; Kuramoto, Yoshio

    2001-01-01

    Elementary excitations in the multipole ordered state, which models the phase III in CeB6, are investigated by means of a generalized Holstein-Primakoff formalism. When different kinds of nearest-neighbor exchange interactions between multipoles are comparable to each other, orbital-flip excitations exhibit almost one-dimensional dispersion along the z axis. With high symmetry of the interactions, zero modes appear due to the macroscopic degeneracy of the ground state. The next-nearest-neighbor dipole-dipole interaction, which stabilizes the magnetic order of the phase III in CeB6, lifts the degeneracy and leads to gapfull excitation spectrum. When the octupole-octupole next-nearest-neighbor interaction exists simultaneously, the spectrum shows softening at \\Gamma and Z points. These excitations may be probed by neutron scattering and ultrasonic measurements.

  15. A Detailed Spatiokinematic Model of the Conical Outflow of the Multipolar Planetary Nebula, NGC 7026

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, D M; Steffen, W; Richer, M G

    2012-01-01

    We present an extensive, long-slit, high-resolution coverage of the complex planetary nebula (PN), NGC 7026. We acquired ten spectra using the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer at San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, Mexico, and each shows exquisite detail, revealing the intricate structure of this object. Incorporating these spectra into the 3-dimensional visualization and kinematic program, SHAPE, and using HST images of NGC 7026, we have produced a detailed structural and kinematic model of this PN. NGC 7026 exhibits remarkable symmetry consisting of three lobe-pairs and four sets of knots, all symmetrical about the nucleus and displaying a conical outflow. Comparing the 3-D structure of this nebula to recent, XMM-Newton X-ray observations, we investigate the extended X-ray emission in relation to the nebular structure. We find that the X-ray emission, while confined to the closed, northern lobes of this PN, shows an abrupt termination in the middle of the SE lobe, which our long slit data shows ...

  16. A Graphical Model for Estimating Stimulus-Evoked Brain Responses from Magnetoencephalography Data with Large Background Brain Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Attias, Hagai T.; Hild, Kenneth E.; Sekihara, Kensuke

    2005-01-01

    This paper formulates a novel probabilistic graphical model for noisy stimulus-evoked MEG and EEG sensor data obtained in the presence of large background brain activity. The model describes the observed data in terms of unobserved evoked and background factors with additive sensor noise. We present an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm that estimates the model parameters from data. Using the model, the algorithm cleans the stimulus-evoked data by removing interference from background fa...

  17. Evaluation of the solid state dipole moment and pyroelectric coefficient of phosphangulene by multipolar modeling of X-ray structure factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, G.K.H.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2000-01-01

    The electron density distribution of the molecular pyroelectric material phosphangulene has been studied by multipolar modeling of X-ray diffraction data. The "in-crystal" molecular dipole moment has been evaluated to 4.7 D corresponding to a 42% dipole moment enhancement compared with the dipole moment measured in a chloroform solution. It is substantiated that the estimated standard deviation of the dipole moment is about 0.8 D. The standard uncertainty (s.u.) of the derived dipole moment has been derived by splitting the dataset into three independent datasets. A novel method for obtaining pyroelectric coefficients has been introduced by combining the derived dipole moment with temperature-dependent measurements of the unit cell volume. The derived pyroelectric coefficient of 3.8(7)x 10(-6) Cm-2K-1 is in very good agreement with the measured pyroelectric coefficient of p = 3 +/- 1 x 10(-6) Cm-2 K-1. This method for obtaining the pyroelectric coefficient uses information from the X-ray diffraction experiment alone and can be applied to much smaller crystals than traditional methods.

  18. The role of multipolar magnetic fields in pulsar magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Asséo, E; Asseo, Estelle; Khechinashvili, David

    2002-01-01

    We explore the role of complex multipolar magnetic fields in determining physical processes near the surface of rotation powered pulsars. We model the actual magnetic field as the sum of global dipolar and star-centered multipolar fields. In configurations involving axially symmetric and uniform multipolar fields, 'neutral points' and 'neutral lines' exist close to the stellar surface. Also, the curvature radii of magnetic field lines near the stellar surface can never be smaller than the stellar radius, even for very high order multipoles. Consequently, such configurations are unable to provide an efficient pair creation process above pulsar polar caps, necessary for plasma mechanisms of generation of pulsar radiation. In configurations involving axially symmetric and non-uniform multipoles, the periphery of the pulsar polar cap becomes fragmented into symmetrically distributed narrow sub-regions where curvature radii of complex magnetic field lines are less than the radius of the star. The pair production p...

  19. Strategies for Business Schools in a Multi-Polar World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dameron, Stephanie; Durand, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the contours of the emerging business education and institutions in a multi-polar world and to identify the causes of the strategic convergence of management education, to explore the limitations of the dominant models of management education and to propose a range of strategic alternatives for…

  20. Multipolar excitation in triangular nanoprisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuford, Kevin L; Ratner, Mark A; Schatz, George C

    2005-09-15

    Theoretical studies on the optical properties of gold triangular prisms in solution are presented to determine how structural modifications affect the extinction spectrum. Well-defined trends in the particle extinction are found to depend on the triangular edge length and the prism thickness. Calculations performed on large, thin triangular prisms indicate multipolar excitation and display numerous peaks in the extinction spectrum. The dominant peaks are assigned to different in-plane modes corresponding to the lowest three orders of a multipole expansion. Vector polarization plots are presented to support the peak assignments. Altering the prisms by snipping off the points of the triangular cross section significantly blueshifts the dipole peak, but the higher-order modes are only slightly affected. Snipping off large volumes can lead to the suppression of high-order multipoles in the extinction spectrum. PMID:16392589

  1. Multipolar response of small metallic spheres: Nonlocal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multipolar response of a small metallic sphere is studied with use of a nonlocal dielectric function. Results obtained with the hydrodynamic and Lindhard-Mermin models are presented and compared to those given by the local Drude model. We find an enhancement of the imaginary part of the multipole polarizabilities at low frequencies and pole order l< l/sub c/, where l/sub c/ is a cutoff order that corresponds to excitations at the high-wave-vector edge of the electron-hole pair continuum. The absorption coefficient for two very close spheres is calculated and the effect of nonlocality on the number and position of the multipolar absorption peaks is discussed

  2. Multipolar Interactions in the Anderson Lattice with Orbital Degeneracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Gen'ya; Kuramoto, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    Microscopic investigation is performed for intersite multipolar interactions in the orbitally degenerate Anderson lattice, with CeB6 taken as an exemplary target. In addition to the f0 intermediate state, f2 Hund’s-rule ground states are included as intermediate states for the interactions. The conduction-band states are taken as plane waves and the hybridization as spherically symmetric. The spatial dependences of multipolar interactions are given by the relative weight of partial wave components along the pair of sites. It is clarified how the the anisotropy arises in the interactions depending on the orbital degeneracy and the spatial configuration. The stability of the ?5 antiferro-quadrupole order in the phase II of CeB6 is consistent with our model. Moreover, the pseudo-dipole interactions follow a tendency required by the phenomenological model for the phase III.

  3. Multipolar representation of protein structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourne Philip E

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background That the structure determines the function of proteins is a central paradigm in biology. However, protein functions are more directly related to cooperative effects at the residue and multi-residue scales. As such, current representations based on atomic coordinates can be considered inadequate. Bridging the gap between atomic-level structure and overall protein-level functionality requires parameterizations of the protein structure (and other physicochemical properties in a quasi-continuous range, from a simple collection of unrelated amino acids coordinates to the highly synergistic organization of the whole protein entity, from a microscopic view in which each atom is completely resolved to a "macroscopic" description such as the one encoded in the three-dimensional protein shape. Results Here we propose such a parameterization and study its relationship to the standard Euclidian description based on amino acid representative coordinates. The representation uses multipoles associated with residue C? coordinates as shape descriptors. We demonstrate that the multipoles can be used for the quantitative description of the protein shape and for the comparison of protein structures at various levels of detail. Specifically, we construct a (dissimilarity measure in multipolar configuration space, and show how such a function can be used for the comparison of a pair of proteins. We then test the parameterization on a benchmark set of the protein kinase-like superfamily. We prove that, when the biologically relevant portions of the proteins are retained, it can robustly discriminate between the various families in the set in a way not possible through sequence or conventional structural representations alone. We then compare our representation with the Cartesian coordinate description and show that, as expected, the correlation with that representation increases as the level of detail, measured by the highest rank of multipoles used in the representation, approaches the dimensionality of the fold space. Conclusion The results described here demonstrate how a granular description of the protein structure can be achieved using multipolar coefficients. The description has the additional advantage of being immediately generalizable for any residue-specific property therefore providing a unitary framework for the study and comparison of the spatial profile of various protein properties.

  4. Magnetoencephalography from signals to dynamic cortical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Aine, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    "Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides a time-accurate view into human brain function. The concerted action of neurons generates minute magnetic fields that can be detected---totally noninvasively---by sensitive multichannel magnetometers. The obtained millisecond accuracycomplements information obtained by other modern brain-imaging tools. Accurate timing is quintessential in normal brain function, often distorted in brain disorders. The noninvasiveness and time-sensitivityof MEG are great assets to developmental studies, as well. This multiauthored book covers an ambitiously wide range of MEG research from introductory to advanced level, from sensors to signals, and from focal sources to the dynamics of cortical networks. Written by active practioners of this multidisciplinary field, the book contains tutorials for newcomers and chapters of new challenging methods and emerging technologies to advanced MEG users. The reader will obtain a firm grasp of the possibilities of MEG in the study of audition, vision...

  5. SQUID-based multichannel system for Magnetoencephalography

    CERN Document Server

    Rombetto, S; Vettoliere, A; Trebeschi, A; Rossi, R; Russo, M

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a multichannel system based on superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) for magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements, developed and installed at Istituto di Cibernetica (ICIB) in Naples. This MEG system, consists of 163 full integrated SQUID magnetometers, 154 channels and 9 references, and has been designed to meet specifications concerning noise, dynamic range, slew rate and linearity through optimized design. The control electronics is located at room temperature and all the operations are performed inside a Magnetically Shielded Room (MSR). The system exhibits a magnetic white noise level of approximatively 5 fT/Hz1=2. This MEG system will be employed for both clinical and routine use. PACS numbers: 74.81.Fa, 85.25.Hv, 07.20.Mc, 85.25.Dq, 87.19.le, 87.85.Ng

  6. Revised Huang-Yang multipolar pseudopotential

    CERN Document Server

    Derevianko, A

    2005-01-01

    A number of authors have recently pointed out inconsistencies of results obtained with the Huang-Yang multipolar pseudo-potential for low-energy scattering [K. Huang and K. C. Yang, Phys. Rev. A, v 105, 767 (1957); later revised in K. Huang, ``Statistical Mechanics'', (Wiley, New York, 1963)]. The conceptual validity of their original derivation has been questioned. Here I show that these inconsistencies are rather due to an {\\em algebraic} mistake made by Huang and Yang. With the corrected error, I present the revised version of the multipolar pseudo-potential.

  7. The role of magnetoencephalography in "nonlesional" epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Michael E; Moore, Kevin; Orrison, William W; Lewine, Jeffrey David

    2011-07-01

    The surgical management of neocortical epilepsy is challenging because many patients are without obvious structural lesions, or lesions are small and easily overlooked during routine clinical interpretation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Even when functional imaging data suggest focal epileptiform pathology, in the absence of a concordant structural lesion, invasive monitoring is often required to confirm that an appropriate surgical target has been identified. This study sought to determine the extent to which knowledge of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data can augment the MRI-based detection of structural brain lesions. MRI and whole-head MEG data were obtained from 40 patients with neocortical epilepsy. As a result of MEG data, 29 cases were sent for MRI reevaluation. In seven of these cases, MEG-guided review led to specification of now clear, but previously unidentified, lesions. There were two additional cases for which follow-up high-resolution imaging did not confirm structural abnormalities. In patients with neocortical epilepsy, MEG is a useful adjunct to MRI for the identification of structural lesions. PMID:21732934

  8. Lithologic mapping in a sedimentary environment using multipolarization SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. L.; Schenck, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    Multipolarization Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the NASA/JPL aircraft SAR were used in conjunction with LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM), Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data as part of a three-year research program to evaluate the utility of remote sensing measurements for analysis of sedimentary basins. The purpose of this research effort is to construct stratigraphic columns, map variations in the lithology, geometry, and structure of sedimentary rocks in the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming, and to integrate remote sensing data with conventional rain models of basin formation and evolution.

  9. High-resolution EEG (HR-EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaret, M; Maillard, L; Jung, J

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution EEG (HR-EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) allow the recording of spontaneous or evoked electromagnetic brain activity with excellent temporal resolution. Data must be recorded with high temporal resolution (sampling rate) and high spatial resolution (number of channels). Data analyses are based on several steps with selection of electromagnetic signals, elaboration of a head model and use of algorithms in order to solve the inverse problem. Due to considerable technical advances in spatial resolution, these tools now represent real methods of ElectroMagnetic Source Imaging. HR-EEG and MEG constitute non-invasive and complementary examinations, characterized by distinct sensitivities according to the location and orientation of intracerebral generators. In the presurgical assessment of drug-resistant partial epilepsies, HR-EEG and MEG can characterize and localize interictal activities and thus the irritative zone. HR-EEG and MEG often yield significant additional data that are complementary to other presurgical investigations and particularly relevant in MRI-negative cases. Currently, the determination of the epileptogenic zone and functional brain mapping remain rather less well-validated indications. In France, in 2014, HR-EEG is now part of standard clinical investigation of epilepsy, while MEG remains a research technique. PMID:25648821

  10. On Multipolar Analytical Potentials for Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, D

    2005-01-01

    We present analytical potential-density pairs in three dimensions for the gravitational field of galaxies, obtained by thickening the multipolar expansion up to the quadrupole term. These may be interpreted as generalizations of the Miyamoto and Nagai potential-density pairs. With a suitable restriction on the possible values of the multipole moments, the density distributions are positive and monotone decreasing functions of the radial and axial coordinates.

  11. Revised Huang-Yang multipolar pseudopotential

    OpenAIRE

    Derevianko, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    A number of authors have recently pointed out inconsistencies of results obtained with the Huang-Yang multipolar pseudo-potential for low-energy scattering [K. Huang and K. C. Yang, Phys. Rev. A, v 105, 767 (1957); later revised in K. Huang, ``Statistical Mechanics'', (Wiley, New York, 1963)]. The conceptual validity of their original derivation has been questioned. Here I show that these inconsistencies are rather due to an {\\em algebraic} mistake made by Huang and Yang. Wi...

  12. Modulated Multipolar Structures in Magnetic Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Vedmedenko, Elena; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Electric and magnetic multipole moments are important quantities in studies of intermolecular forces, electrostatic and magnetostatic potentials. The experimental determination of multipole moments in multipole-multipole coupling is difficult and therefore the theoretical prediction of these quantities is important. The aim of the present review is to give a general theoretical description of multipolar ordering on two-dimensional periodic and aperiodic latt...

  13. Magnetoencephalography: From first steps to clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmoniemi, Risto

    2014-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG), the study of femtotesla-range magnetic fields produced by neuronal currents in the brain, originated in the 1960's. After Baule and McFee's (Am Heart J 66:95-6,1963) measurement of the cardiac magnetic field using induction-coil sensors, Cohen (Science 16:784-6, 1968) used a similar multi-turn coil to detect the brain's alpha rhythm. The introduction of the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) by Zimmerman et al. (J Appl Phys 41: 1572-80) improved the sensitivity of magnetic sensing by several orders of magnitude, making MEG practical. The SQUID enabled the unaveraged recording of spontaneous brain rhythms (D. Cohen, Science 175:664-6, 1972) as well as evoked magnetic fields (Brenner et al., Science 190:480-2, 1975; Teyler et al., Life Sci 17:683-91, 1975). Subsequently, a large number of evoked-field variants were demonstrated. The main benefit of MEG is its ability to locate electrical activity in the brain at high temporal resolution. For practical work, we need large arrays of highly sensitive SQUIDs; such arrays were first built in the 1990's (Knuutila et al., IEEE Trans Magn 29:3315-20, 1993). While the intrinsic spatial accuracy of locating sources with well-calibrated large sensor arrays is better than one millimeter, uncertainties in determining the location and geometry of the cortex with respect to the array may lead to source-location errors of 5-10 mm or more. These errors could be reduced to 1 mm if one could obtain the structural image of the brain with the same sensors that are used for MEG and if the conductivity geometry of the head would be accurately known. This may indeed be possible if MRI is recorded with SQUIDs (McDermott et al., PNAS 21:7857-61, 2004) concurrently with MEG (Zotev et al., J Magn Reson 194:115-20, 2008), especially if large arrays are developed (Vesanen et al., Magn Reson Med 69:1795-1804, 2013); the conductivity distribution of the head might be possible to determine with current-density imaging (Nieminen et al. Magn Reson Imaging, 2013). MEG has established itself as a standard tool in human neuroscience (Hamalainen et al., Rev Mod Phys 65:413-97, 1993). It is used increasingly in clinical applications such as in locating motor or language areas prior to brain surgery or in determining characteristics of epileptic activity of patients. Support from the Academy of Finland is acknowledged.

  14. Astronomical relativistic reference systems with multipolar expansion: the global one

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yi

    2014-01-01

    With rapid development of techniques for astronomical observations, the precision of measurements has been significantly increasing. Theories of astronomical relativistic reference systems, which are the foundation for processing and interpreting these data now and in the future, may require extensions to satisfy the needs of these trends. Besides building a framework compatible with alternative theories of gravity and the pursuit of higher order post-Newtonian approximation, it will also be necessary to make the first order post-Newtonian multipole moments of celestial bodies be explicitly expressed in the astronomical relativistic reference systems. This will bring some convenience into modeling the observations and experiments and make it easier to distinguish different contributions in measurements. As the first step, the global solar system reference system is multipolarly expanded and the post-Newtonian mass and spin moments are shown explicitly in the metric which describes the coordinates of the syste...

  15. Deep brain stimulation for chronic pain investigated with magnetoencephalography.

    OpenAIRE

    Kringelbach, ML; Jenkinson, N; Green, AL; Owen, SL; Hansen, PC; Cornelissen, PL; Holliday, IE; Stein, J.; Aziz, TZ

    2007-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation has shown remarkable potential in alleviating otherwise treatment-resistant chronic pain, but little is currently known about the underlying neural mechanisms. Here for the first time, we used noninvasive neuroimaging by magnetoencephalography to map changes in neural activity induced by deep brain stimulation in a patient with severe phantom limb pain. When the stimulator was turned off, the patient reported significant increases in subjective pain. Corresponding signi...

  16. Non-Parametric Statistical Thresholding for Sparse Magnetoencephalography Source Reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    JuliaParsonsOwen; KensukeSekihara; SrikantanS.Nagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Uncovering brain activity from magnetoencephalography (MEG) data requires solving an ill-posed inverse problem, greatly confounded by noise, interference, and correlated sources. Sparse reconstruction algorithms, such as Champagne, show great promise in that they provide focal brain activations robust to these confounds. In this paper, we address the technical considerations of statistically thresholding brain images obtained from sparse reconstruction algorithms. The source power distributio...

  17. Design of a light stimulator for fetal and neonatal magnetoencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, safety analysis and performance of a fetal visual stimulation system suitable for fetal and neonatal magnetoencephalography studies are presented. The issue of fetal, neonatal and maternal safety is considered and the maximum permissible exposure is computed for the maternal skin and the adult eye. The risk for neonatal eye exposure is examined. It is demonstrated that the fetus, neonate and mother are not at risk. (note)

  18. Arbitrary order permanent Cartesian multipolar electrostatic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, H A; Todorov, I T

    2015-01-21

    Recently, there has been a concerted effort to implement advanced classical potential energy surfaces by adding higher order multipoles to fixed point charge electrostatics in a bid to increase the accuracy of simulations of condensed phase systems. One major hurdle is the unwieldy nature of the expressions which in part has limited developers mostly to including only dipoles and quadrupoles. In this paper, we present a generalization of the Cartesian formulation of electrostatic multipolar interactions that enables the specification of an arbitrary order of multipoles. Specifically, we derive formulas for arbitrary order implementation of the particle mesh Ewald method and give a closed form formula for the stress tensor in the reciprocal space. In addition, we provide recurrence relations for common electrostatic potentials employed in molecular simulations, which allows for the generalization to arbitrary order and guarantees a computational cost that scales as O(p(3)) for Cartesian multipole interactions of order p. PMID:25612699

  19. Theory of multipolar excitations and neutron scattering spectra of CeB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, R.; Shiba, H.; Thalmeier, P.; Takahashi, A.; Sakai, O.

    2003-07-01

    Multipolar excitations in the antiferroquadrupolar ordering phase of CeB6 are studied theoretically. We develop the method of boson expansion of multipoles, and apply it to the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida model, which has been introduced previously for CeB6. Then the neutron scattering spectra are calculated within the dipole approximation and compared with experimental results obtained by Bouvet. The origin of the characteristic peak structures and their dependence on the magnetic field are discussed.

  20. THICK DISKS WITH NEWTONIAN MULTIPOLAR MOMENTS / DISCOS GRUESOS CON MOMENTOS MULTIPOLARES NEWTONIANOS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Framsol, López-Suspes; Guillermo A., González.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una nueva familia de discos gruesos newtonianos estables a partir del método de desplazamiento, corte, llenado y reflexión construidos en (González & Letelier, 2004; Vogt & Letelier, 2005). Soluciones de la ecuación de Laplace en coordenadas cilíndricas son consideradas, éstas representa [...] rán el campo gravitacional de objetos con momentos multipolares externos solamente. Se definen y calculan las cantidades físicas en el plano del disco, tales como, la frecuencia epicíclica, kapa, la frecuencia vertical, ny, y la velocidad circular, ípsilonc de las partículas. Además, se determina la densidad superficial de masa, sigma, la densidad del disco grueso, rho, y el criterio de estabilidad de los discos gruesos a través del momentum angular o el criterio de Rayleigh (Rayleigh, 1917; Landau, 1987). Finalmente, se representan las propiedades físicas para algunos parámetros considerando sólo hasta el término cuadrupolar en la expansión multipolar del potencial gravitacional. Abstract in english We present a new family of stable thick discs from known displace, cut, fill and reflect method (González & Letelier, 2004; Vogt & Letelier, 2005) is presented. Solutions of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates are considered, these one represent the gravitational field of objects with on [...] ly external multipole moments. The physical quantities in the plane of the disk, are defined and calculated such as, the epicyclic frequency, kappa, the vertical frequency, nu, and the circular velocity, upsilonc of particles. The surface density, sigma, density of thick disk, rho, and stability of thick disks through of specific angular momentum or Rayleigh criterion (Rayleigh, 1917), and (Landau, 1987) were calculated. Finally, the physical properties are shown for only some parameters considering only until quadrupolar term in the expasion gravitational potential multipolar

  1. Electrokinetic behavior of two touching inhomogeneous biological cells and colloidal particles: effects of multipolar interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J P; Karttunen, Mikko; Yu, K W; Dong, L; Gu, G Q

    2004-05-01

    We present a theory to investigate electrokinetic behavior, namely, electrorotation and dielectrophoresis under alternating current (ac) applied fields for a pair of touching inhomogeneous colloidal particles and biological cells. These inhomogeneous particles are treated as graded ones with physically motivated model dielectric and conductivity profiles. The mutual polarization interaction between the particles yields a change in their respective dipole moments, and hence in the ac electrokinetic spectra. The multipolar interactions between polarized particles are accurately captured by the multiple images method. In the point-dipole limit, our theory reproduces the known results. We find that the multipolar interactions as well as the spatial fluctuations inside the particles can affect the ac electrokinetic spectra significantly. PMID:15244819

  2. Electrokinetic behavior of two touching inhomogeneous biological cells and colloidal particles: Effects of multipolar interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, J P; Yu, K W; Dong, L; Gu, G Q; Karttunen, Mikko

    2004-01-01

    We present a theory to investigate electro-kinetic behavior, namely, electrorotation and dielectrophoresis under alternating current (AC) applied fields for a pair of touching inhomogeneous colloidal particles and biological cells. These inhomogeneous particles are treated as graded ones with physically motivated model dielectric and conductivity profiles. The mutual polarization interaction between the particles yields a change in their respective dipole moments, and hence in the AC electrokinetic spectra. The multipolar interactions between polarized particles are accurately captured by the multiple images method. In the point-dipole limit, our theory reproduces the known results. We find that the multipolar interactions as well as the spatial fluctuations inside the particles can affect the AC electrokinetic spectra significantly.

  3. Detection of magnetic nanoparticles with magnetoencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Wenyan [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Xu, Guizhi [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, 300130 (China); Sclabassi, Robert J. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Zhu Jiangang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Melon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Bagic, Anto [Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Sun Mingui [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)], E-mail: mrsun@neuronet.pitt.edu

    2008-04-15

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) have been widely utilized in biomedical applications due to their extremely high sensitivity to magnetic signals. The present study explores the feasibility of a new type of nanotechnology-based imaging method using standard clinical magnetoencephalographic (MEG) systems equipped with SQUID sensors. Previous studies have shown that biological targets labeled with non-toxic, magnetized nanoparticles can be imaged by measuring the magnetic field generated by these particles. In this work, we demonstrate that (1) the magnetic signals from certain nanoparticles can be detected without magnetization using standard clinical MEG, (2) for some types of nanoparticles, only bound particles produce detectable signals, and (3) the magnetic field of particles several hours after magnetization is significantly stronger than that of un-magnetized particles. These findings hold promise in facilitating the potential application of magnetic nanoparticles to in vivo tumor imaging. The minimum amount of nanoparticles that produce detectable signals is predicted by theoretical modeling and computer simulation.

  4. A global optimization approach to multi-polarity sentiment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinmiao; Li, Jing; Wu, Yukeng

    2015-01-01

    Following the rapid development of social media, sentiment analysis has become an important social media mining technique. The performance of automatic sentiment analysis primarily depends on feature selection and sentiment classification. While information gain (IG) and support vector machines (SVM) are two important techniques, few studies have optimized both approaches in sentiment analysis. The effectiveness of applying a global optimization approach to sentiment analysis remains unclear. We propose a global optimization-based sentiment analysis (PSOGO-Senti) approach to improve sentiment analysis with IG for feature selection and SVM as the learning engine. The PSOGO-Senti approach utilizes a particle swarm optimization algorithm to obtain a global optimal combination of feature dimensions and parameters in the SVM. We evaluate the PSOGO-Senti model on two datasets from different fields. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti model can improve binary and multi-polarity Chinese sentiment analysis. We compared the optimal feature subset selected by PSOGO-Senti with the features in the sentiment dictionary. The results of this comparison indicated that PSOGO-Senti can effectively remove redundant and noisy features and can select a domain-specific feature subset with a higher-explanatory power for a particular sentiment analysis task. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti approach is effective and robust for sentiment analysis tasks in different domains. By comparing the improvements of two-polarity, three-polarity and five-polarity sentiment analysis results, we found that the five-polarity sentiment analysis delivered the largest improvement. The improvement of the two-polarity sentiment analysis was the smallest. We conclude that the PSOGO-Senti achieves higher improvement for a more complicated sentiment analysis task. We also compared the results of PSOGO-Senti with those of the genetic algorithm (GA) and grid search method. From the results of this comparison, we found that PSOGO-Senti is more suitable for improving a difficult multi-polarity sentiment analysis problem. PMID:25909740

  5. Magnetar Giant Flares in Multipolar Magnetic Fields. I. Fully and Partially Open Eruptions of Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Yu, Cong

    2014-04-01

    We propose a catastrophic eruption model for the enormous energy release of magnetars during giant flares, in which a toroidal and helically twisted flux rope is embedded within a force-free magnetosphere. The flux rope stays in stable equilibrium states initially and evolves quasi-statically. Upon the loss of equilibrium, the flux rope cannot sustain the stable equilibrium states and erupts catastrophically. During the process, the magnetic energy stored in the magnetosphere is rapidly released as the result of destabilization of global magnetic topology. The magnetospheric energy that could be accumulated is of vital importance for the outbursts of magnetars. We carefully establish the fully open fields and partially open fields for various boundary conditions at the magnetar surface and study the relevant energy thresholds. By investigating the magnetic energy accumulated at the critical catastrophic point, we find that it is possible to drive fully open eruptions for dipole-dominated background fields. Nevertheless, it is hard to generate fully open magnetic eruptions for multipolar background fields. Given the observational importance of the multipolar magnetic fields in the vicinity of the magnetar surface, it would be worthwhile to explore the possibility of the alternative eruption approach in multipolar background fields. Fortunately, we find that flux ropes may give rise to partially open eruptions in the multipolar fields, which involve only partial opening of background fields. The energy release fractions are greater for cases with central-arcaded multipoles than those with central-caved multipoles that emerged in background fields. Eruptions would fail only when the centrally caved multipoles become extremely strong.

  6. Antiferro multipolar ordering and it's identification by NMR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antiferro-ordering of multipolar moments often plays important roles in the low temperature phase transition of f-electron systems. The splitting of NMR spectra, which is analyzed in terms of the invariant hyperfine coupling between the nuclear spin and the multipolar moments of magnetic ions, gives important information about the multipolar ordering. Experimental and theoretical studies on CeB6 and NpO2 are presented as typical examples. The study on the low temperature phase of PrFe4P12, whose nature has been controversial, are reviewed. It was concluded that it has an antiferro order with the order-parameter characterized by the identity representation of the point group. The large anisotropy of NMR splitting in the magnetic field direction dependence suggests important roles of moments with higher ranks in PrFe4P12. (author)

  7. Note: Optical receiver system for 152-channel magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong

    2014-11-01

    An optical receiver system composing 13 serial data restore/synchronizer modules and a single module combiner converted optical 32-bit serial data into 32-bit synchronous parallel data for a computer to acquire 152-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. A serial data restore/synchronizer module identified 32-bit channel-voltage bits from 48-bit streaming serial data, and then consecutively reproduced 13 times of 32-bit serial data, acting in a synchronous clock. After selecting a single among 13 reproduced data in each module, a module combiner converted it into 32-bit parallel data, which were carried to 32-port digital input board in a computer. When the receiver system together with optical transmitters were applied to 152-channel superconducting quantum interference device sensors, this MEG system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/?Hz @ 100 Hz at a sample rate of 1 kSample/s per channel.

  8. Synchronized brain activity and neurocognitive function in patients with low-grade glioma: A magnetoencephalography study

    OpenAIRE

    Bosma, Ingeborg; Douw, Linda; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Heimans, Jan J.; Dijk, Bob W.; Postma, Tjeerd J.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Klein, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms underlying neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) by relating functional connectivity revealed by magnetoencephalography to neurocognitive function. We administered a battery of standardized neurocognitive tests measuring six neurocognitive domains to a group of 17 LGG patients and 17 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and educational level. Magnetoencephalography recordings were conducted during an eyes-closed “resting state,?...

  9. Multichannel System Based on a High Sensitivity Superconductive Sensor for Magnetoencephalography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rombetto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We developed a multichannel system based on superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs for magnetoencephalography measurements. Our system consists of 163 fully-integrated SQUID magnetometers, 154 channels and 9 references, and all of the operations are performed inside a magnetically-shielded room. The system exhibits a magnetic field noise spectral density of approximatively 5 fT/Hz1=2. The presented magnetoencephalography is the first system working in a clinical environment in Italy.

  10. Multipolar electromagnetic fields around neutron stars: exact vacuum solutions and related properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétri, J.

    2015-06-01

    The magnetic field topology in the surrounding of neutron stars is one of the key questions in pulsar magnetospheric physics. A very extensive literature exists about the assumption of a dipolar magnetic field but very little progress has been made in attempts to include multipolar components in a self-consistent way. In this paper, we study the effect of multipolar electromagnetic fields anchored in the star. We give exact analytical solutions in closed form for any order l and apply them to the retarded point quadrupole (l = 2), hexapole (l = 3) and octopole (l = 4), a generalization of the retarded point dipole (l = 1). We also compare the Poynting flux from each multipole and show that the spin-down luminosity depends on the ratio R/rL, R being the neutron star radius and rL the light-cylinder radius. Therefore the braking index also depends on R/rL. As such multipole fields possess very different topology, most importantly smaller length scales compared to the dipolar field, especially close to the neutron star, we investigate the deformation of the polar caps induced by these multipolar fields. Such fields could have a strong impact on the interpretation of the pulsed radio emission suspected to emanate from these polar caps as well as on the inferred geometry deduced from the high-energy light-curve fitting and on the magnetic field strength. Discrepancies between the two-pole caustic model and our new multipole caustic model are emphasized with the quadrupole field. To this respect, we demonstrate that working with only a dipole field can be very misleading.

  11. Noise-free magnetoencephalography recordings of brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perhaps the greatest impediment to acquiring high-quality magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings is the ubiquitous ambient magnetic field noise. We have designed and built a whole-head MEG system using a helmet-like superconducting imaging surface (SIS) surrounding the array of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers used to measure the MEG signal. We previously demonstrated that the SIS passively shields the SQUID array from ambient magnetic field noise, independent of frequency, by 25-60 dB depending on sensor location. SQUID 'reference sensors' located on the outside of the SIS helmet measure ambient magnetic fields in very close proximity to the MEG magnetometers while being nearly perfectly shielded from all sources in the brain. The fact that the reference sensors measure no brain signal yet are located in close proximity to the MEG sensors enables very accurate estimation and subtraction of the ambient field noise contribution to the MEG sensors using an adaptive algorithm. We have demonstrated total ambient noise reduction factors in excess of 106 (>120 dB). The residual noise for most MEG SQUID channels is at or near the intrinsic SQUID noise floor, typically 2-3 f T Hz-1/2. We are recording MEG signals with greater signal-to-noise than equivalent EEG measurements

  12. Investigating the neural correlates of the Stroop effect with magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galer, Sophie; Op De Beeck, Marc; Urbain, Charline; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Ligot, Noémie; Wens, Vincent; Marty, Brice; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Peigneux, Philippe; De Tiège, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Reporting the ink color of a written word when it is itself a color name incongruent with the ink color (e.g. "red" printed in blue) induces a robust interference known as the Stroop effect. Although this effect has been the subject of numerous functional neuroimaging studies, its neuronal substrate is still a matter of debate. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of interference-related neural events using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and voxel-based analyses (SPM8). Evoked magnetic fields (EMFs) were acquired in 12 right-handed healthy subjects performing a color-word Stroop task. Behavioral results disclosed a classic interference effect with longer mean reaction times for incongruent than congruent stimuli. At the group level, EMFs' differences between incongruent and congruent trials spanned from 380 to 700 ms post-stimulus onset. Underlying neural sources were identified in the left pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and in the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) confirming the role of these regions in conflict processing. PMID:24752907

  13. Wavelet-based localization of oscillatory sources from magnetoencephalography data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, J M; Chowdhury, R; Lemay, E; Kobayashi, E; Grova, C

    2014-08-01

    Transient brain oscillatory activities recorded with Eelectroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG) are characteristic features in physiological and pathological processes. This study is aimed at describing, evaluating, and illustrating with clinical data a new method for localizing the sources of oscillatory cortical activity recorded by MEG. The method combines time-frequency representation and an entropic regularization technique in a common framework, assuming that brain activity is sparse in time and space. Spatial sparsity relies on the assumption that brain activity is organized among cortical parcels. Sparsity in time is achieved by transposing the inverse problem in the wavelet representation, for both data and sources. We propose an estimator of the wavelet coefficients of the sources based on the maximum entropy on the mean (MEM) principle. The full dynamics of the sources is obtained from the inverse wavelet transform, and principal component analysis of the reconstructed time courses is applied to extract oscillatory components. This methodology is evaluated using realistic simulations of single-trial signals, combining fast and sudden discharges (spike) along with bursts of oscillating activity. The method is finally illustrated with a clinical application using MEG data acquired on a patient with a right orbitofrontal epilepsy. PMID:22410322

  14. Complexity Measures in Magnetoencephalography: Measuring "Disorder" in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Matthew J.; Hall, Emma L.; Robson, Siân E.; Price, Darren; Palaniyappan, Lena; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Liddle, Peter F.; Robinson, Stephen E.; Morris, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper details a methodology which, when applied to magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, is capable of measuring the spatio-temporal dynamics of ‘disorder’ in the human brain. Our method, which is based upon signal entropy, shows that spatially separate brain regions (or networks) generate temporally independent entropy time-courses. These time-courses are modulated by cognitive tasks, with an increase in local neural processing characterised by localised and transient increases in entropy in the neural signal. We explore the relationship between entropy and the more established time-frequency decomposition methods, which elucidate the temporal evolution of neural oscillations. We observe a direct but complex relationship between entropy and oscillatory amplitude, which suggests that these metrics are complementary. Finally, we provide a demonstration of the clinical utility of our method, using it to shed light on aberrant neurophysiological processing in schizophrenia. We demonstrate significantly increased task induced entropy change in patients (compared to controls) in multiple brain regions, including a cingulo-insula network, bilateral insula cortices and a right fronto-parietal network. These findings demonstrate potential clinical utility for our method and support a recent hypothesis that schizophrenia can be characterised by abnormalities in the salience network (a well characterised distributed network comprising bilateral insula and cingulate cortices). PMID:25886553

  15. Optical Torque from Enhanced Scattering by Multipolar Plasmonic Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Yoonkyung E; Jin, Dafei; Fang, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the optical angular momentum transfer from a circularly polarized plane wave to thin metal nanoparticles of different rotational symmetries. While absorption has been regarded as the predominant mechanism of torque generation on the nanoscale, we demonstrate numerically how the contribution from scattering can be enhanced by using multipolar plasmon resonance. The multipolar modes in non-circular particles can convert the angular momentum carried by the scattered field, thereby producing scattering-dominant optical torque, while a circularly symmetric particle cannot. Our results show that the optical torque induced by resonant scattering can contribute to 80% of the total optical torque in gold particles. This scattering-dominant torque generation is extremely mode-specific, and deserves to be distinguished from the absorption-dominant mechanism. Our findings might have applications in optical manipulation on the nanoscale as well as new designs in plasmonics and metamateria...

  16. Fragmentation of high multipolar vibrational strength in a semiclassical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent variational approach to the Vlasov equation has shown its ability to describe some splitting of the strength corresponding to nuclear giant resonances (l=2-4), as a consequence of the allowance for rotation flow. This fragmentation of strength should be understood as a manifestation in a finite system of the phenomenon of Landau damping, which is well-known, for instance, in the electron gas. In this work we extend previous studies, in order to discuss the fragmentation of strength with higher multipolarity (l=5-7). We observe a progressive increase of the fragmentation, so that there are no well defined collective modes for l ? 6. This conclusion is in agreement with RPA studies, although the loss of coherence for high multipolar modes is not so pronounced in the semiclassical approach as in the quantal case

  17. Multipolar test body equations of motion in generalized gravity theories

    OpenAIRE

    Obukhov, Yuri N.; Puetzfeld, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    We give an overview of the derivation of multipolar equations of motion of extended test bodies for a wide set of gravitational theories beyond the standard general relativistic framework. The classes of theories covered range from simple generalizations of General Relativity, e.g. encompassing additional scalar fields, to theories with additional geometrical structures which are needed for the description of microstructured matter. Our unified framework even allows to handl...

  18. Identification of equivalent multipolar electromagnetic sources by space filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Benjamin; Chadebec, Olivier; Schanen, Jean-luc; Berger, Ke?vin; Perrussel, Ronan; Kra?henbu?hl, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    New sensors of magnetic induction in near field, dedicated to studies of electromagnetic compatibility, are proposed according to the principle of the Standard CISPR16-1 coils. The new coil shape allows the sensors to be sensitive to only some specific components of the multipolar expansion, which is similar to a spatial filtering. Our proposition follows previous works. By means of rotations of the spherical harmonics functions, our aim is to simplify the geometry of the sensor coils introdu...

  19. Identification of equivalent multipolar electromagnetic sources by spatial filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Benjamin; Chadebec, Olivier; Schanen, Jean-luc; Berger, Ke?vin; Perrussel, Ronan; Kra?henbu?hl, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    New sensors of magnetic induction in near field, dedicated to studies of electromagnetic compatibility, are proposed based on the Standard CISPR16-1 coils. The new coil shape allows the sensors to be sensitive only to specific components of the multipolar expansion, which is similar to a spatial filtering. In comparison with our previous approach in which we designed a complete set of coils, we aim to simplify the sensor coil geometry by rotating the spherical harmonics functions. After a des...

  20. Multipolar nonlinear light-matter interactions with Gaussian vector beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Mikko J.; Mäkitalo, Jouni; Bautista, Godofredo; Kauranen, Martti

    2014-05-01

    We show that surface second-harmonic generation (SHG) with focused Gaussian vector beams can be described in terms of effective Mie-type multipolar contributions to the SHG signal even in the electric dipole approximation of constitutive relations. Traditionally, Mie-type multipoles arise from field retardation across nanoparticles. In our case, the multipolar light-matter interaction is due to excitation with Gaussian vector beams and the tensorial properties of the SH response. As different multipoles have different radiative properties, we demonstrate the presence of multipoles by measuring strongly asymmetric SH emission into reflected and transmitted directions from a nonlinear thin film with isotropic surface symmetry, where symmetric emission is expected using traditional formalisms based on plane-wave excitation. The proposed multipole approach provides a convenient way to explain the measured asymmetric emission. Secondly, we generalize the treatment beyond the electric dipole approximation and propose that analogous vector excitation-induced multipolar effects could also occur in the microscopic light-matter interaction. Our results may allow new possibilities to designing confined and thin nonlinear sources with desired radiation patterns.

  1. Sequential Monte Carlo samplers for semi-linear inverse problems and application to magnetoencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the use of a recent class of sequential Monte Carlo methods for solving inverse problems characterized by a semi-linear structure, i.e. where the data depend linearly on a subset of variables and nonlinearly on the remaining ones. In this type of problems, under proper Gaussian assumptions one can marginalize the linear variables. This means that the Monte Carlo procedure needs only to be applied to the nonlinear variables, while the linear ones can be treated analytically; as a result, the Monte Carlo variance and/or the computational cost decrease. We use this approach to solve the inverse problem of magnetoencephalography, with a multi-dipole model for the sources. Here, data depend nonlinearly on the number of sources and their locations, and depend linearly on their current vectors. The semi-analytic approach enables us to estimate the number of dipoles and their location from a whole time-series, rather than a single time point, while keeping a low computational cost. (paper)

  2. Supplementary motor area activation preceding voluntary movement is detectable with a whole-scalp magnetoencephalography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdler, M; Beisteiner, R; Mayer, D; Kaindl, T; Edward, V; Windischberger, C; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L

    2000-06-01

    Despite the fact that the knowledge about the structure and the function of the supplementary motor area (SMA) is steadily increasing, the role of the SMA in the human brain, e.g., the contribution of the SMA to the Bereitschaftspotential, still remains unclear and controversial. The goal of this study was to contribute further to this discussion by taking advantage of the increased spatial information of a whole-scalp magnetoencephalography (MEG) system enabling us to record the magnetic equivalent of the Bereitschaftspotential 1, the Bereitschaftsfeld 1 (BF 1) or readiness field 1. Five subjects performed a complex, and one subject a simple, finger-tapping task. It was possible to record the BF 1 for all subjects. The first appearance of the BF 1 was in the range of -1.9 to -1.7 s prior to movement onset, except for the subject performing the simple task (-1 s). Analysis of the development of the magnetic field distribution and the channel waveforms showed the beginning of the Bereitschaftsfeld 2 (BF 2) or readiness field 2 at about -0.5 s prior to movement onset. In the time range of BF 1, dipole source analysis localized the source in the SMA only, whereas dipole source analysis containing also the time range of BF 2 resulted in dipole models, including dipoles in the primary motor area. In summary, with a whole-head MEG system, it was possible for the first time to detect SMA activity in healthy subjects with MEG. PMID:10860797

  3. Synchronous neural interactions assessed by magnetoencephalography: a functional biomarker for brain disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.; Karageorgiou, Elissaios; Leuthold, Arthur C.; Lewis, Scott M.; Lynch, Joshua K.; Alonso, Aurelio A.; Aslam, Zaheer; Carpenter, Adam F.; Georgopoulos, Angeliki; Hemmy, Laura S.; Koutlas, Ioannis G.; Langheim, Frederick J. P.; Riley McCarten, J.; McPherson, Susan E.; Pardo, José V.; Pardo, Patricia J.; Parry, Gareth J.; Rottunda, Susan J.; Segal, Barbara M.; Sponheim, Scott R.; Stanwyck, John J.; Stephane, Massoud; Westermeyer, Joseph J.

    2007-12-01

    We report on a test to assess the dynamic brain function at high temporal resolution using magnetoencephalography (MEG). The essence of the test is the measurement of the dynamic synchronous neural interactions, an essential aspect of the brain function. MEG signals were recorded from 248 axial gradiometers while 142 human subjects fixated a spot of light for 45-60 s. After fitting an autoregressive integrative moving average (ARIMA) model and taking the stationary residuals, all pairwise, zero-lag, partial cross-correlations (PCCij0) and their z-transforms (zij0) between i and j sensors were calculated, providing estimates of the strength and sign (positive, negative) of direct synchronous coupling at 1 ms temporal resolution. We found that subsets of zij0 successfully classified individual subjects to their respective groups (multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, Sjögren's syndrome, chronic alcoholism, facial pain, healthy controls) and gave excellent external cross-validation results. Contribution by the authors: Designed research (APG); acquired data (AAA, IGK, FJPL, ACL, SML, JJS); analyzed data (APG, EK, ACL, JKL); wrote the paper (APG, EK, ACL, SML); contributed subjects (AAA, ZA, AFC, AG, LSH, IGK, FJPL, SML, JRM, SEM, JVP, PJP, GJP, SJR, BMS, SRS, MS, JJS, JJW); discussed results (All); contributed equally (ZA, AFC, AG, LSH, FJPL, JRM, SEM, JVP, PJP, GJP, SJR, BMS, SRS, MS, JJS, JJW).

  4. Mechanisms to suppress multipolar divisions in cancer cells with extra centrosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Mijung; Godinho, Susana A.; Chandhok, Namrata S.; Ganem, Neil J.; Azioune, Ammar; Thery, Manuel; Pellman, David

    2008-01-01

    Multiple centrosomes in tumor cells create the potential for multipolar divisions that can lead to aneuploidy and cell death. Nevertheless, many cancer cells successfully divide because of mechanisms that suppress multipolar mitoses. A genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells and a secondary analysis in cancer cells defined mechanisms that suppress multipolar mitoses. In addition to proteins that organize microtubules at the spindle poles, we identified novel roles for the spindle assem...

  5. Multipolar excitations in small metallic spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dielectric function E(?,l) appropriate to a small metallic sphere is obtained within the semiclassical infinite barrier model, where l is the multipole order. An excitation diagram in the l,? plane based on the structure of this function is proposed. It represents the spherical analog of the excitation structure of an infinite medium in the k,? plane. 8 refs., 1 fig

  6. Multipolar test body equations of motion in generalized gravity theories

    CERN Document Server

    Obukhov, Yuri N

    2015-01-01

    We give an overview of the derivation of multipolar equations of motion of extended test bodies for a wide set of gravitational theories beyond the standard general relativistic framework. The classes of theories covered range from simple generalizations of General Relativity, e.g. encompassing additional scalar fields, to theories with additional geometrical structures which are needed for the description of microstructured matter. Our unified framework even allows to handle theories with nonminimal coupling to matter, and thereby for a systematic test of a very broad range of gravitational theories.

  7. Multipolar localized resonances for multi-band metamaterial perfect absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A metamaterial structure, comprising of metallic circular micro-discs (gold or aluminum) separated from a metallic thin film by a dielectric zinc sulphide film, behaves as a multi-band perfect absorber at infra red wavelengths due to the excitation of multipole resonances. With micro-discs of 3.2 ?m diameter, the fabricated metamaterial absorber shows peak absorbance of over 90% in multiple selected bands spanning the 3–14 ?m wavelengths. Absorption bands corresponding to the different resonance modes have been measured and computational simulations show these resonances originate from the higher order multipolar resonances of the disk. (special issue article)

  8. BRICS and the myth of the multipolar world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takis Fotopoulos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show that the BRICS countries not only don’t form part of a multi-polar world, but in reality are far from sovereign states in any sense of the word. In fact, if their real goal was indeed the creation of an alternative pole of sovereign nation-states, they should have planned at the outset to break their direct dependence on the globalized capitalist market economy, cutting their ties with global institutions controlled by the Transnational Elite (WTO, IMF and World Bank, and moving towards self-reliant economies, so that they could regain their sovereignty.

  9. First-Principles Theory of Multipolar Order in Neptunium Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Michi-To; MAGNANI, NICOLA; Oppeneer, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a first-principle, materials-specific theory of multipolar order and superexchange in NpO$_2$ by means of a non-collinear local-density approximation +$U$ (LDA+$U$) method. Our calculations offer a precise microscopic description of the triple-$q$-antiferro ordered phase in the absence of any dipolar moment. We find that, while the most common non-dipolar degrees of freedom (e.g., electric quadrupoles and magnetic octupoles) are active in the ordered phase, both t...

  10. The effects of undersampling on multipolarization SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, A.; Dubois, P. C.; Klein, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The scattering matrix and Stokes matrix formats for multipolarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images are introduced. The effects of converting to the Stokes matrix format, without first doubling the sampling rate to allow for the conversion from a complex to an intensity format is quantified and discussed. It is shown that for most applications the Stokes matrix format is acceptable, since errors introduced by undersampling tend to average out when large numbers of pixels are averaged. For those applications requiring analysis of single image pixels, the scattering matrix format is recommended.

  11. Impact of polydispersity on multipolar resonant scattering in emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Benoit; Brunet, Thomas; Poncelet, Olivier; Aristégui, Christophe; Raffy, Simon; Mondain-Monval, Olivier; Leng, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    The influence of size polydispersity on the resonant acoustic properties of dilute emulsions, made of fluorinated-oil droplets, is quantitatively investigated. Ultrasound attenuation and dispersion measurements on various samples with controlled size polydispersities, ranging from 1% to 13%, are found to be in excellent agreement with predictions based on the independent scattering approximation. By relating the particle-size distribution of the synthesized emulsions to the quality factor of the predicted multipolar resonances, the number of observable acoustic resonances is shown to be imposed by the sample polydispersity. These results are briefly discussed into the context of metamaterials for which scattering resonances are central to their effective properties. PMID:23556570

  12. Between thought and expression, a magnetoencephalography study of the "tip-of-the-tongue" phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Karmen; Bradbury, David; Barnes, Gareth R; Leff, Alex P

    2014-10-01

    "Tip-of-the-tongue" (TOT) is the phenomenon associated with the inaccessibility of a known word from memory. It is universally experienced, increases in frequency with age, and is most common for proper nouns. It is a good model for the symptom of anomia experienced much more frequently by some aphasic patients following brain injury. Here, we induced the TOT state in older participants while they underwent brain scanning with magnetoencephalography to investigate the changes in oscillatory brain activity associated with failed retrieval of known words. Using confrontation naming of pictures of celebrities, we successfully induced the TOT state in 29% of trials and contrasted it with two other states: "Know" where the participants both correctly recognized the celebrity's face and retrieved their name and "Don't Know" when the participants did not recognize the celebrity. We wished to test Levelt's influential model of speech output by carrying out two analyses, one epoching the data to the point in time when the picture was displayed and the other looking back in time from when the participants first articulated their responses. Our main findings supported the components of Levelt's model, but not their serial activation over time as both semantic and motor areas were identified in both analyses. We also found enduring decreases in the alpha frequency band in the left ventral temporal region during the TOT state, suggesting ongoing semantic search. Finally, we identified reduced beta power in classical peri-sylvian language areas for the TOT condition, suggesting that brain regions that encode linguistic memories are also involved in their attempted retrieval. PMID:24673407

  13. The Role of Angular Momentum in the Construction of Electromagnetic Multipolar Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Nora; Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Multipolar solutions of Maxwell's equations are used in many practical applications and are essential for the understanding of light-matter interactions at the fundamental level. Unlike the set of plane wave solutions of electromagnetic fields, the multipolar solutions do not share a standard derivation or notation. As a result, expressions…

  14. Bilateral cerebral activity for unilateral foot movement revealed by whole-head magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hiroshi; Kato, Yuichiro; Kizuka, Tomohiro; Masuda, Tadashi; Takeda, Tsunehiro

    2004-03-01

    The primary motor cortices controlling foot movement are located on opposite sides of the longitudinal fissure. As a separation of closely located activity sources is not successful, the possibility of bilateral activation for lower limb movement remains undetermined. We therefore examined cerebral activity during unilateral foot movement to investigate the possibility of bilateral activation of primary foot motor cortices. Self-paced foot movement and finger movement (for comparison) were performed on ten subjects. Brain magnetic fields were recorded using a 64-channel whole-cortex magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. Brain activities were identified using 1- to 3-dipole models. Results evaluating finger movement were similar to previous reports. Equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) for foot movements were estimated in the primary foot motor and sensory regions. Sensory activity was always localized to the contralateral hemisphere. Motor activity was estimated by one ECD, but the laterality differed between subjects. Additional activity was discovered together with the primary motor activity, localized around the precentral sulcus. In contrast to consistent results of primary sensory activity, the variation of laterality of the foot primary motor ECD can be explained with a cancellation model, in which the magnetic fields generated from two closely spaced ECDs overlap to cancel each other out. Consequently, activation of the primary foot motor cortices was determined to be bilateral. Furthermore, it was estimated that additional activity may occur in the premotor area. This work suggests not only the bilateral activation of the primary foot motor cortices but also the possibility of a contribution of the premotor area. PMID:15203972

  15. Anatomy of the binary black hole recoil: A multipolar analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a multipolar analysis of the gravitational recoil computed in recent numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescence, for both unequal masses and nonzero, nonprecessing spins. We show that multipole moments up to and including l=4 are sufficient to accurately reproduce the final recoil velocity (within ?2%) and that only a few dominant modes contribute significantly to it (within ?5%). We describe how the relative amplitudes, and more importantly, the relative phases, of these few modes control the way in which the recoil builds up throughout the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases. We also find that the numerical results can be reproduced by an 'effective Newtonian' formula for the multipole moments obtained by replacing the radial separation in the Newtonian formulas with an effective radius computed from the numerical data. Beyond the merger, the numerical results are reproduced by a superposition of three Kerr quasinormal modes. Analytic formulas, obtained by expressing the multipole moments in terms of the fundamental quasinormal modes of a Kerr black hole, are able to explain the onset and amount of 'antikick' for each of the simulations. Lastly, we apply this multipolar analysis to help explain the remarkable difference between the amplitudes of planar and nonplanar kicks for equal-mass spinning black holes

  16. Transition between viscous dipolar and inertial multipolar dynamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruba, Ludivine; Dormy, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the transition from steady dipolar to reversing multipolar dynamos. The Earth has been argued to lie close to this transition, which could offer a scenario for geomagnetic reversals. We show that the transition between dipolar and multipolar dynamos is characterized by a three terms balance (as opposed to the usually assumed two terms balance), which involves the nongradient parts of inertial, viscous and Coriolis forces. We introduce from this equilibrium the sole parameter RoE-1/3?ReE2/3, which accurately describes the transition for a wide database of 132 fully three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of spherical rotating dynamos (courtesy of U. Christensen). This resolves earlier contradictions in the literature on the relevant two terms balance at the transition. Considering only a two terms balance between the nongradient part of the Coriolis force and of inertial forces provides the classical Ro/?u. This transition can be equivalently described by Re ?u2, which corresponds to the two terms balance between the nongradient part of inertial forces and viscous forces.

  17. Anatomy of the Binary Black Hole Recoil: A Multipolar Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Buonanno, Alessandra; vanMeter, James R.; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.

    2007-01-01

    We present a multipolar analysis of the recoil velocity computed in recent numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescence, for both unequal masses and non-zero, non-precessing spins. We show that multipole moments up to and including 1 = 4 are sufficient to accurately reproduce the final recoil velocity (= 98%) and that only a few dominant modes contribute significantly to it (2 95%). We describe how the relative amplitude, and more importantly, the relative phase, of these few modes control the way in which the recoil builds up throughout the inspiral, merger, and ring-down phases. We also find that the numerical results can be reproduced, to a high level of accuracy, by an effective Newtonian formula for the multipole moments obtained by replacing in the Newtonian formula the radial separation with an effective radius computed from the numerical data. Beyond the merger, the numerical results are reproduced by a superposition of three Kerr quasi-normal modes. Analytic formulae, obtained by expressing the multipole moments in terms of the fundamental QNMs of a Kerr BH, are able to explain the onset and amount of '.anti-kick" for each of the simulations. Lastly, we apply this multipolar analysis to understand the remarkable difference between the amplitudes of planar and non-planar kicks for equal-mass spinning black holes.

  18. Assessment of cortical dysfunction in human strabismic amblyopia using magnetoencephalography (MEG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to use the technique of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to determine the effects of strabismic amblyopia on the processing of spatial information within the occipital cortex of humans. We recorded evoked magnetic responses to the onset of a chromatic (red/green) sinusoidal grating of periodicity 0.5-4.0 c deg-1 using a 19-channel SQUID-based neuromagnetometer. Evoked responses were recorded monocularly on six amblyopes and six normally-sighted controls, the stimuli being positioned near the fovea in the lower right visual field of each observer. For comparison, the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for the detection of chromatic gratings was measured for one amblyope and one control using a two alternate forced-choice psychophysical procedure. We chose red/green sinusoids as our stimuli because they evoke strong magnetic responses from the occipital cortex in adult humans (Fylan, Holliday, Singh, Anderson and Harding. (1997). Neuroimage, 6, 47-57). Magnetic field strength was plotted as a function of stimulus spatial frequency for each eye of each subject. Interocular differences were only evident within the amblyopic group: for stimuli of 1-2 c deg-1, the evoked responses had significantly longer latencies and reduced amplitudes through the amblyopic eye (P<0.05). Importantly, the extent of the deficit was uncorrelated with either Snellen acuity or contrast sensitivity. Localization of the evoked responses was peocalization of the evoked responses was performed using a single equivalent current dipole model. Source localizations, for both normal and amblyopic subjects, were consistent with neural activity at the occipital pole near the V1/V2 border. We conclude that MEG is sensitive to the deficit in cortical processing associated with human amblyopia, and can be used to make quantitative neurophysiological measurements. The nature of the cortical deficit is discussed. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Inferring task-related networks using independent component analysis in magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhoo, H.; Hale, J.R.; Stokes, M.G.; Nobre, A.C.; Morris, P.G.; Brookes, M.J.; Woolrich, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    A novel framework for analysing task-positive data in magnetoencephalography (MEG) is presented that can identify task-related networks. Techniques that combine beamforming, the Hilbert transform and temporal independent component analysis (ICA) have recently been applied to resting-state MEG data and have been shown to extract resting-state networks similar to those found in fMRI. Here we extend this approach in two ways. First, we systematically investigate optimisation of time-frequency windows for connectivity measurement. This is achieved by estimating the distribution of functional connectivity scores between nodes of known resting-state networks and contrasting it with a distribution of artefactual scores that are entirely due to spatial leakage caused by the inverse problem. We find that functional connectivity, both in the resting-state and during a cognitive task, is best estimated via correlations in the oscillatory envelope in the 8–20 Hz frequency range, temporally down-sampled with windows of 1–4 s. Second, we combine ICA with the general linear model (GLM) to incorporate knowledge of task structure into our connectivity analysis. The combination of ICA with the GLM helps overcome problems of these techniques when used independently: namely, the interpretation and separation of interesting independent components from those that represent noise in ICA and the correction for multiple comparisons when applying the GLM. We demonstrate the approach on a 2-back working memory task and show that this novel analysis framework is able to elucidate the functional networks involved in the task beyond that which is achieved using the GLM alone. We find evidence of localised task-related activity in the area of the hippocampus, which is difficult to detect reliably using standard methods. Task-positive ICA, coupled with the GLM, has the potential to be a powerful tool in the analysis of MEG data. PMID:22569064

  20. Transition between viscous dipolar and inertial multipolar dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Oruba, Ludivine

    2014-01-01

    We show that the transition between steady dipolar and fluctuating multipolar dynamos is characterized by a three terms balance between the non-gradient parts of inertial, viscous and Coriolis forces. We derive from this equilibrium the sole parameter Ro E$^{-1/3} \\equiv$ Re E$^{2/3}$, which accurately describes the transition for a wide database of 132 fully three dimensional direct numerical simulations of spherical rotating dynamos (courtesy of U. Christensen). This transition can be equivalently described by Ro/l$^\\star_u$ (resp. Re l$^{\\star\\, 2}_u$), which correspond to the two terms balance between the non-gradient part of the Coriolis force and of inertial (resp. viscous) forces. An appropriate definition of the non-dimensional dissipation length scale l$^\\star_u$ (as introduced in Oruba and Dormy, 2014) provides a critical value of this parameter of order unity at the transition.

  1. Nanoscale interference patterns of gap-mode multipolar plasmonic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshito; Sanada, Akio; Sasaki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    Arbitrary spatial distributions of the electric field of light are formed through the interference of individual wavenumber mode fields with appropriate amplitudes and phases, while the maximum wavenumber in the far field is limited by the wavelength of light. In contrast, localized surface plasmons (LSPs) possess the ability to confine photons strongly into nanometer-scale areas, exceeding the diffraction limit. In particular, gap-mode LSPs produce single-nanometer-sized, highly intense localized fields, known as hot spots. Here, we show the nanoscale spatial profiles of the LSP fields within hot spots, which exhibit complicated fine structures, rather than single peaks. The nanopatterns are created by constructive and destructive interferences of dipolar, quadrupolar, and higher-order multipolar plasmonic modes, which can be drastically altered by controlling parameters of the excitation optical system. The analysis in this study would be useful for proposing new concepts for manipulation and control of light-matter interactions in nanospaces. PMID:23097686

  2. Wavenumber Dependence of Multipolar Interactions in the Anderson Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Gen'ya; Kuramoto, Yoshio

    2005-03-01

    Multipolar interactions are derived in the orbitally degenerate Anderson lattice with a spherical Fermi surface and one conduction electron per unit cell of the simple cubic lattice. As the crystalline-electric-field (CEF) ground state of f 1 configuration, the four-fold degenerate ?8 is mainly studied. Intersite interactions up to a sufficiently distant pair are Fourier transformed to the wavenumber space. For the ?8 case, quadrupolar and octupolar interactions favor the staggered order with q = (1/2,1/2,1/2), while the dipolar interaction favors an incommensurate magnetic structure with a long modulation period.The latter is due to a Kohn anomaly which is found to be sharply peaked for interaction channels with large angular momenta. Implications of results are discussed for multipole orders in CeB6, and the incommensurate magnetic structure in a quasi-cubic system CeB2C2.

  3. Simulated multipolarized MAPSAR images to distinguish agricultural crops

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wagner Fernando, Silva; Bernardo Friedrich Theodor, Rudorff; Antonio Roberto, Formaggio; Waldir Renato, Paradella; José Claudio, Mura.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have shown the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images for agricultural applications, particularly for monitoring regions with limitations in terms of acquiring cloud free optical images. Recently, Brazil and Germany began a feasibility study on the construction of an orb [...] ital L-band SAR sensor referred to as MAPSAR (Multi-Application Purpose SAR). This sensor provides L-band images in three spatial resolutions and polarimetric, interferometric and stereoscopic capabilities. Thus, studies are needed to evaluate the potential of future MAPSAR images. The objective of this study was to evaluate multipolarized MAPSAR images simulated by the airborne SAR-R99B sensor to distinguish coffee, cotton and pasture fields in Brazil. Discrimination among crops was evaluated through graphical and cluster analysis of mean backscatter values, considering single, dual and triple polarizations. Planting row direction of coffee influenced the backscatter and was divided into two classes: parallel and perpendicular to the sensor look direction. Single polarizations had poor ability to discriminate the crops. The overall accuracies were less than 59 %, but the understanding of the microwave interaction with the crops could be explored. Combinations of two polarizations could differentiate various fields of crops, highlighting the combination VV-HV that reached 78 % overall accuracy. The use of three polarizations resulted in 85.4 % overall accuracy, indicating that the classes pasture and parallel coffee were fully discriminated from the other classes. These results confirmed the potential of multipolarized MAPSAR images to distinguish the studied crops and showed considerable improvement in the accuracy of the results when the number of polarizations was increased.

  4. Inferring task-related networks using independent component analysis in magnetoencephalography

    OpenAIRE

    Luckhoo, H.; Hale, Jr; Stokes, Mg; Nobre, Ac; Morris, PG; Brookes, Mj; Woolrich, Mw

    2012-01-01

    A novel framework for analysing task-positive data in magnetoencephalography (MEG) is presented that can identify task-related networks. Techniques that combine beamforming, the Hilbert transform and temporal independent component analysis (ICA) have recently been applied to resting-state MEG data and have been shown to extract resting-state networks similar to those found in fMRI. Here we extend this approach in two ways. First, we systematically investigate optimisation of time-frequency wi...

  5. The Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Decision to Rest in the Presence of Fatigue: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Akira; Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Adequate rest is essential to avoid fatigue and disruption of homeostasis. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the decision to rest are not well understood. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the neural mechanisms of this decision-making process using magnetoencephalography. Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in decision and control experiments performed in a cross-over fashion. In the decision experiment, participants performed 1,200 reverse Stroop test trials and were inte...

  6. Development of human somatosensory cortical functions – what have we learned from magnetoencephalography: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Päivi Nevalainen; Elina Pihko

    2014-01-01

    The mysteries of early development of cortical processing in humans have started to unravel with the help of new noninvasive brain research tools like multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this review, we evaluate, within a wider neuroscientific and clinical context, the value of MEG in studying normal and disturbed functional development of the human somatosensory system. The combination of excellent temporal resolution and good localization accuracy provided by MEG has, in the case ...

  7. Localization Value of Magnetoencephalography Interictal Spikes in Adult Nonlesional Neocortical Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Woorim; Chung, Chun Kee; Kim, June Sic

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have included magnetoencephalography (MEG) when assessing the diagnostic value of presurgical modalities in a nonlesional epilepsy population. Here, we compare single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), video-EEG (VEEG), and MEG, with intracranial EEG (iEEG) to determine the value of individual modalities to surgical decisions. We analyzed 23 adult epilepsy patients with no abnormal MRI findings who had undergone surgical resection. Loc...

  8. High-resolution imaging and spectroscopy of multipolar plasmonic resonances in aluminum nanoantennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jérôme; Kociak, Mathieu; Mahfoud, Zackaria; Proust, Julien; Gérard, Davy; Plain, Jérôme

    2014-10-01

    We report on the high resolution imaging of multipolar plasmonic resonances in aluminum nanoantennas using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Plasmonic resonances ranging from near-infrared to ultraviolet (UV) are measured. The spatial distributions of the multipolar resonant modes are mapped and their energy dispersion is retrieved. The losses in the aluminum antennas are studied through the full width at half-maximum of the resonances, unveiling the weight of both interband and radiative damping mechanisms of the different multipolar resonances. In the blue-UV spectral range, high order resonant modes present a quality factor up to 8, two times higher than low order resonant modes at the same energy. This study demonstrates that near-infrared to ultraviolet tunable multipolar plasmonic resonances in aluminum nanoantennas with relatively high quality factors can be engineered. Aluminum nanoantennas are thus an appealing alternative to gold or silver ones in the visible and can be efficiently used for UV plasmonics. PMID:25207386

  9. Multipolar mitosis of tetraploid cells: inhibition by p53 and dependency on Mos

    OpenAIRE

    Vitale, Ilio; Senovilla, Laura; Jemaa?, Mohamed; Michaud, Mickae?l; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Nanty, Lisa; Criollo, Alfredo; Rello-varona, Santiago; Manic, Gwenola; Me?tivier, Didier; Vivet, Sonia; Tajeddine, Nicolas; Joza, Nicholas; Valent, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Tetraploidy can constitute a metastable intermediate between normal diploidy and oncogenic aneuploidy. Here, we show that the absence of p53 is not only permissive for the survival but also for multipolar asymmetric divisions of tetraploid cells, which lead to the generation of aneuploid cells with a near-to-diploid chromosome content. Multipolar mitoses (which reduce the tetraploid genome to a sub-tetraploid state) are more frequent when p53 is downregulated and the product of the Mos oncoge...

  10. Multipolar Spindle Pole Coalescence Is a Major Source of Kinetochore Mis-Attachment and Chromosome Mis-Segregation in Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Silkworth, William T.; Nardi, Isaac K.; Scholl, Lindsey M.; Cimini, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Many cancer cells display a CIN (Chromosome Instability) phenotype, by which they exhibit high rates of chromosome loss or gain at each cell cycle. Over the years, a number of different mechanisms, including mitotic spindle multipolarity, cytokinesis failure, and merotelic kinetochore orientation, have been proposed as causes of CIN. However, a comprehensive theory of how CIN is perpetuated is still lacking. We used CIN colorectal cancer cells as a model system to investigate the possible cel...

  11. Determination of discrete transition multipolarity using the generalized oscillator strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generalized oscillator strengths (GOS's) for quadrupole and monopole (and their sums) excitation of the outer np?(n+1)p,(n+2)p levels of the noble gas atoms Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe are investigated over the broad range of momentum transfer q values, from q=0 up to q=8 a.u., the region of their accessibility. The purpose of this investigation is to understand and delineate the relative contributions to the GOS of the various discrete transition multipolarities to guide measurements. This study has been motivated by recent absolute measurements of the GOS's for the lowest nondipole discrete transition in Ar [X. W. Fan and K. T. Leung, Phys. Rev. A 62, 062703 (2000)] and their subsequent reinterpretation.. The calculations are performed in the one-electron Hartree-Fock approximation and with many-electron correlation effects taken into account within the random phase approximation with exchange for the quadrupole and monopole excitations. We find that the GOS's for the quadrupole np?(n+1)p transitions of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe are characterized by two maxima, while the corresponding GOS's for monopole excitations have only a single maximum

  12. Possible multipolar transition in NdB 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical properties of neodymium tetraboride NdB4 which crystallizes in the ThB4-type structure belonging to space group D4h5 - P4/mbm have been studied. The specific heat measurement on single crystal of NdB4 shows that this material undergoes successive phase transitions at TQ = 17.2 K (second-order transition), TN1 = 7.0 K (second-order transition) and TN2 = 4.8 K (first-order transition). The magnetic entropy of approximately R ln2 and R ln 4 is released below TN1 and TC, respectively. The crystalline electric field (CEF) ground state of NdB4 is a pseudo-quartet consisting of two Kramers doublets. At around TQ, no anomalies of the magnetic susceptibility along the c-direction which is easy axis of magnetization are observed. Moreover, the susceptibility within the ab-plane shows only a very small peak. These results seem to indicate that NdB4 undergoes a quadrupolar (or higher rank multipolar) transition at TQ followed by two magnetic transitions since the behaviors are quite different from those of conventional magnet.

  13. Ion energy distribution function in a multipolar confinement plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results are presented on the ion distribution function measured in a multipolar confinement plasma system used for generation of low energy ion beam. The ion beam is produced in argon plasma at a pressure of about 10-4 mbar using dc discharges similar to so called DP machine. Plasma parameters in the source chamber were: electron density in the range 108 to 1010 cm-3 and electron temperature in the range 0.5 to 6.0 eV. The target chamber was used as a technological one in which plasma density ranges between zero and 107 cm-3 but electron temperature was similar to that in the source chamber. The ion energy distribution function was measured with two types of electrostatic analyzers, one with a diameter of 10 cm made of a mesh grid with 70% transparency and a plane collector, and the other one with a diameter of 8 mm made of two mesh grids both with 48% transparency. Energy distribution function of the ions in the target plasma has been measured versus plasma density, beam density and energy. (authors)

  14. Magnetoencephalography - a noninvasive brain imaging method with 1 ms time resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelGratta, Cosimo; Pizzella, Vittorio; Tecchio, Franca; Luca Romani, Gian

    2001-12-01

    The basics of magnetoencephalography (MEG), i.e. the measurement and the analysis of the tiny magnetic fields generated outside the scalp by the working human brain, are reviewed. Three main topics are discussed: (1) the relationship between the magnetic field and its generators, including on one hand the neurophysiological basis and the physical theory of magnetic field generation, and on the other hand the techniques for the estimation of the sources from the magnetic field measurements; (2) the instrumental techniques and the laboratory practice of neuromagnetic field measurement and (3) the main applications of MEG in basic neurophysiology as well as in clinical neurology.

  15. Role of the multipolar electrostatic interaction energy components in strong and weak cation-? interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlubanski, Pawel; Calderón-Mojica, Katherine; Rodriguez, Weyshla A; Majumdar, D; Roszak, Szczepan; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2013-08-22

    Density functional and Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation (MP2) calculations have been carried out on various model cation-? complexes formed through the interactions of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and NH4(+) cations with benzene, p-methylphenol, and 3-methylindole. Partial hydration of the metal cations was also considered in these model studies to monitor the effect of hydration of cations in cation-? interactions. The binding energies of these complexes were computed from the fully optimized structures using coupled cluster calculations including triple excitations (CCSD(T)) and Gaussian-G4-MP2 (G4MP2) techniques. An analysis of the charge sharing between the donor (the ?-systems) and the acceptors (the cations) together with the partitioning of total interaction energies revealed that the strong and weak cation-? interactions have similar electrostatic interaction properties. Further decomposition of such electrostatic terms into their multipolar components showed the importance of the charge-dipole, charge-quadrupole, and charge-octopole terms in shaping the electrostatic forces in such interactions. The computed vibrational spectra of the complexes were analyzed for the specific cation-? interaction modes and have been shown to contain the signature of higher order electrostatic interaction energy components (quadrupole and octopole) in such interactions. PMID:23895641

  16. Magnetar Giant Flares in Multipolar Magnetic Fields --- II. Flux Rope Eruptions With Current Sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    We propose a physical mechanism to explain giant flares and radio afterglows in terms of a magnetospheric model containing both a helically twisted flux rope and a current sheet (CS). With the appearance of CS, we solve a mixed boundary value problem to get the magnetospheric field based on a domain decomposition method. We investigate properties of the equilibrium curve of the flux rope when the CS is present in background multipolar fields. In response to the variations at the magnetar surface, it quasi-statically evolves in stable equilibrium states. The loss of equilibrium occurs at a critical point and, beyond that point, it erupts catastrophically. New features show up when the CS is considered. Especially, we find two kinds of physical behaviors, i.e., catastrophic state transition and catastrophic escape. Magnetic energy would be released during state transitions. The released magnetic energy is sufficient to drive giant flares. The flux rope would go away from the magnetar quasi-statically, which is ...

  17. On the exterior magnetic field and silent sources in magnetoencephalography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Kariotou

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Two main results are included in this paper. The first one deals with the leading asymptotic term of the magnetic field outside any conductive medium. In accord with physical reality, it is proved mathematically that the leading approximation is a quadrupole term which means that the conductive brain tissue weakens the intensity of the magnetic field outside the head. The second one concerns the orientation of the silent sources when the geometry of the brain model is not a sphere but an ellipsoid which provides the best possible mathematical approximation of the human brain. It is shown that what characterizes a dipole source as “silent” is not the collinearity of the dipole moment with its position vector, but the fact that the dipole moment lives in the Gaussian image space at the point where the position vector meets the surface of the ellipsoid. The appropriate representation for the spheroidal case is also included.

  18. The role of angular momentum in the construction of electromagnetic multipolar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multipolar solutions of Maxwell’s equations are used in many practical applications and are essential for the understanding of light-matter interactions at the fundamental level. Unlike the set of plane wave solutions of electromagnetic fields, the multipolar solutions do not share a standard derivation or notation. As a result, expressions originating from different derivations can be difficult to compare. Some of the derivations of the multipolar solutions do not explicitly show their relation to the angular momentum operators, thus hiding important properties of these solutions. In this paper, the relation between two of the most common derivations of this set of solutions is explicitly shown and their relation to the angular momentum operators is exposed. (paper)

  19. The role of angular momentum in the construction of electromagnetic multipolar fields

    CERN Document Server

    Tischler, Nora; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Multipolar solutions of Maxwell's equations are used in many practical applications and are essential for the understanding of light-matter interactions at the fundamental level. Unlike the set of plane wave solutions of electromagnetic fields, the multipolar solutions do not share a standard derivation or notation. As a result, expressions originating from different derivations can be difficult to compare. Some of the derivations of the multipolar solutions do not explicitly show their relation to the angular momentum operators, thus hiding important properties of these solutions. In this article, the relation between two of the most common derivations of this set of solutions is explicitly shown and their relation to the angular momentum operators is exposed.

  20. Feasibility study of a double-lens internal-pair spectrometer for multipolarity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of semicircular Si(Li) detectors with two magnetic-lens spectrometers is shown to offer a possibility to construct an effective spectroscopic instrument for multipolarity determinations. The proposed method is based on the fact that the angular correlation between the electron-positron pair is sensitive to multipolarity, even at high transition energies. Response characteristics and multipole discrimination power are given for different conversion-electron or internal-pair spectrometers. The results show that for multipolarity analysis of high-energy nuclear transitions internal-pair spectrometry with a double lens spectrometer may be a superior method in the low- and intermediate-Z region. Optimum multipole discrimination effects are obtained using two detectors on the spectrometer axis placed at 1800 relative to the target. The calculations are based on the zero-order Born approximation (ZBA) and are sufficiently accurate for at least E>1.5 MeV and Z<50. (orig.)

  1. Study of Multipolar RF Kicks from the main deflecting mode in Compact Crab Cavities for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco García, J; De Maria, R; Giovannozzi, M; Grudiev, A; Tomás, R

    2012-01-01

    A crab cavity (CC) system is under design in the framework of the High Luminosity LHC project. Due to transverse space constraints on one hand and the RF frequency requirements on the other hand, the design of the crab cavities has to be compact. This results in the crab cavity shape being far from axially symmetric and, as a consequence, higher order multipolar components of the main deflecting mode are non-zero. In this paper, multipolar RF-kicks from the main deflecting mode are calculated in the compact CC for LHC. They are compared to the multipolar error in LHC magnets. The possible influence of the RF-kicks on the beam dynamics has been investigated by means of analytical estimates.

  2. Study on radiation following the 205At decay. Multipolarities of the 205Po transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is performed of spectra of #betta#-rays, conversion electrons and e#betta#-coincidences with the use of monoisotopic 205At sources. The admixture of 206At and 207At made up approximately 1%, that of 208At - about 0.3%, by activity. A study of the 205At ? 205Po decay shows 148 #betta#-transitions, 94 of them being observed for the first time. Multipolarities for 70 #betta#-transitions have been determined, for 54 of them - for the first time. For 20 #betta#-transitions the internal conversion coefficients are estimated and, respectively, probable multipolarity

  3. Post-Newtonian factorized multipolar waveforms for spinning, non-precessing black-hole binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Yi; Buonanno, Alessandra; Fujita, Ryuichi; Racine, Etienne; Tagoshi, Hideyuki

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the factorized resummation of multipolar waveforms introduced by Damour, Iyer and Nagar to spinning black holes. For a nonspinning test-particle spiraling a Kerr black hole in the equatorial plane, we find that factorized multipolar amplitudes which replace the residual relativistic amplitude f_{l m} with its l-th root, \\rho_{l m} = f_{l m}^{1/l}, agree quite well with the numerical amplitudes up to the Kerr-spin value q \\leq 0.95 for orbital velocities v \\leq ...

  4. Turkey’s multi-polar diplomacy on its way to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lika Mkrtchyan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey conducts a multi-polar foreign diplomacy in order to strengthen its positions in the region, to gain control over the neighboring countries; as well as to make its way towards the European Union. Being on the EU’s waiting list, Turkey strives to get advantages of its prolonged status as a candidate country

  5. Denoising and Frequency Analysis of Noninvasive Magnetoencephalography Sensor Signals for Functional Brain Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Ukil, A

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is an important noninvasive, nonhazardous technology for functional brain mapping, measuring the magnetic fields due to the intracellular neuronal current flow in the brain. However, most often, the inherent level of noise in the MEG sensor data collection process is large enough to obscure the signal(s) of interest. In this paper, a denoising technique based on the wavelet transform and the multiresolution signal decomposition technique along with thresholding is presented, substantiated by application results. Thereafter, different frequency analysis are performed on the denoised MEG signals to identify the major frequencies of the brain oscillations present in the denoised signals. Time-frequency plots (spectrograms) of the denoised signals are also provided.

  6. Epistemics for Learning Disabilities: Contributions from Magnetoencephalography, a Functional Neuroimaging Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR SANTIUSTE-BERMEJO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome known as Learning Disabilities (LD was described by S. Kirk in 1963. From that point on, institutions from the US, Canada and Spain have engaged in refining the concept and classification of LDs. The Complutense University in Spain, has proposed a descriptive and all-embracing definition, and has studied the different manifestations of LD, pursuing the description of biological markers and neurological features of LD’s main expressions: dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysorthographia, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder –ADHD, and so forth. Findings in LD using functional neuroimaging techniques, namely Magnetoencephalography (MEG, are described. MEG is a non-invasive technique, which records magnetic fields naturally generated by the brain and their spatial distribution. It allows simultaneous functional and structural information. MEG is therefore used in the study of primary and superior cognitive functions, in surveillance of patterns of normal cognitive function and those specific to the different LD clinical manifestations.

  7. Brain activity during bilateral rapid alternate finger tapping measured with magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi; Odagaki, Masato; Hiwaki, Osamu; Kodabashi, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), brain regions involved in an alternate bimanual tapping task by index fingers triggered with spontaneous timing were investigated. The tapping mode in which both index fingers moved simultaneously was interlaced during the task. The groups of the alternate tapping (AL mode) and the simultaneous tapping (SI mode) were extracted from the successive alternating taps with a histogram of intervals between the right and left index fingers. MEG signals in each mode were averaged separately before and after the tapping initiation of the dominant index finger. The activities of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex before and after the tapping initiation in the AL mode were larger than that in the SI mode. The result indicates that the activity of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex depends on the degree of achievement in the difficult motor task such as the voluntary alternate tapping movements.

  8. The neurochemical basis of human cortical auditory processing: combining proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetoencephalography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tollkötter Melanie

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A combination of magnetoencephalography and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to correlate the electrophysiology of rapid auditory processing and the neurochemistry of the auditory cortex in 15 healthy adults. To assess rapid auditory processing in the left auditory cortex, the amplitude and decrement of the N1m peak, the major component of the late auditory evoked response, were measured during rapidly successive presentation of acoustic stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that: (i the amplitude of the N1m response and (ii its decrement during rapid stimulation are associated with the cortical neurochemistry as determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results Our results demonstrated a significant association between the concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, a marker of neuronal integrity, and the amplitudes of individual N1m responses. In addition, the concentrations of choline-containing compounds, representing the functional integrity of membranes, were significantly associated with N1m amplitudes. No significant association was found between the concentrations of the glutamate/glutamine pool and the amplitudes of the first N1m. No significant associations were seen between the decrement of the N1m (the relative amplitude of the second N1m peak and the concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, choline-containing compounds, or the glutamate/glutamine pool. However, there was a trend for higher glutamate/glutamine concentrations in individuals with higher relative N1m amplitude. Conclusion These results suggest that neuronal and membrane functions are important for rapid auditory processing. This investigation provides a first link between the electrophysiology, as recorded by magnetoencephalography, and the neurochemistry, as assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, of the auditory cortex.

  9. Spherical tensor multipolar electrostatics and smooth particle mesh Ewald summation: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, François; Popelier, Paul L A

    2014-07-01

    The point-charge approximation, typically used by classical molecular mechanics force-fields, can be overcome by a multipolar expansion. For decades multipole moments were only used in the context of the rigid body approximation but recently it has become possible to combine multipolar electrostatics with molecular flexibility. The program DL_MULTI, which is derived from DL_POLY_2, includes efficient multipolar Ewald functionality up to the hexadecapole moment but the code is restricted to rigid bodies. The incorporation of flexibility into DL_MULTI would cause too large an impact on its architecture whereas the package DL_POLY_4 offers a more attractive and sustainable route to handle multipolar electrostatics. This package inherently handles molecular flexibility, which warrants sufficiently transferable atoms or atoms that are "knowledgeable" about their chemical environment (as made possible by quantum chemical topology and machine learning). DL_MULTI uses the spherical multipole formalism, which is mathematically more involved than the Cartesian one but which is more compact. DL_POLY_4 uses the computationally efficient method of smooth particle mesh Ewald (SPME) summation, which has also been parallellized by others. Therefore, combining the strengths of DL_POLY_4 and DL_MULTI poses the challenge of merging SPME with multipolar electrostatics by spherical multipole. In an effort to recast as clearly as possible the principles behind DL_MULTI, its key equations have been reformulated by the more streamlined route involving the algebra of complex numbers, and some of these equations' peculiarities clarified. This article explores theoretically the repercussions of the merging of SPME with spherical multipole electrostatics (as implemented in DL_MULTI). Difficulties in design and implementation of possible future code are discussed. PMID:24958301

  10. Abnormal thalamocortical dynamics may be altered by deep brain stimulation: using magnetoencephalography to study phantom limb pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Nj; Jenkinson, N.; Kringelbach, Ml; Hansen, Pc; Pereira, Ea; Brittain, Js; Holland, P.; Holliday, Ie; Owen, S.; Stein, J.; Aziz, T.

    2009-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used to alleviate chronic pain. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study the mechanisms of DBS for pain is difficult because of the artefact caused by the stimulator. We were able to record activity over the occipital lobe of a patient using DBS for phantom limb pain during presentation of a visual stimulus. This demonstrates that MEG can be used to study patients undergoing DBS provided control stimuli are used to check the reliability of the data. We then ...

  11. The value of magnetoencephalography for seizure-onset zone localization in magnetic resonance imaging-negative partial epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Julien; Bouet, Romain; Delpuech, Claude; Ryvlin, Philippe; Isnard, Jean; Guenot, Marc; Bertrand, Olivier; Hammers, Alexander; Mauguière, François

    2013-01-01

    Surgical treatment of epilepsy is a challenge for patients with non-contributive brain magnetic resonance imaging. However, surgery is feasible if the seizure-onset zone is precisely delineated through intracranial electroencephalography recording. We recently described a method, volumetric imaging of epileptic spikes, to delineate the spiking volume of patients with focal epilepsy using magnetoencephalography. We postulated that the extent of the spiking volume delineated with volumetric ima...

  12. Magnetoencefalografía: mapeo de la dinámica espaciotemporal de la actividad neuronal / Magnetoencephalography: mapping the spatiotemporal dynamics of neuronal activity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yang, Zhang; Wenbo, Zhang; Vicenta, Reynoso Alcántara; Juan, Silva-Pereyra.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La magnetoencefalografía es una técnica de neuroimagen no invasiva que mide, con gran exactitud temporal, los campos magnéticos en la superficie de la cabeza producidos por corrientes neuronales en regiones cerebrales. Esta técnica es sumamente útil en la investigación básica y clínica, porque ademá [...] s permite ubicar el origen de la actividad neural en el cerebro. En esta revisión se abordan aspectos básicos de la biofísica del método y se discuten los hallazgos sobre procesos como la percepción del habla, la atención auditiva y la integración de la información visual y auditiva, que son importantes en la investigación. Igualmente, se ilustran sus ventajas, sus limitaciones y las nuevas tendencias en la investigación con magnetoencefalografía. Abstract in english Magnetoencephalography is a noninvasive imaging technique that measures the magnetic fields on the surface of the head --produced by neuronal currents in brain regions -- and provides highly accurate temporal information. Magnetoencephalography is extremely useful in basic and clinical research as i [...] t can also locate the sources of neural activity in the brain. This review chiefly approaches biophysics-related aspects of the method; findings are also discussed on issues such as speech perception, auditory attention and integration of visual-auditory information, which are quintessential in this type of research. Lastly, this review discusses the benefits and limitations of magnetoencephalography and outlines new trends in research with this technique.

  13. The emerging multi-polar world and China's grand game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Rajan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-19

    This talk outlines a scenario describing an emerging multipolar world that is aligned with geographical regions. The stability and security of this multipolar world is examined with respect to demographics, trade (economics), resource constraints, and development. In particular I focus on Asia which has two large countries, China and India, competing for resources and markets and examine the emerging regional relations, opportunities and threats. These relationships must overcome many hurdles - the Subcontinent is in a weak position politically and strategically and faces many threats, and China's growing power could help stabilize it or create new threats. Since the fate of 1.5 billion (2.4 billion by 2050) people depends on how the Subcontinent evolves, this talk is meant to initiates a discussion of what China and India can do to help the region develop and stabilize.

  14. Temperature and Field Dependence of Multipolar Excitations in CeB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmeier, Peter; Shiina, Ryousuke; Shiba, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Sakai, Osamu

    2003-12-01

    We study the temperature and field dependence of multipolar excitations in CeB6 within RPA theory for the dynamical susceptibility. It is shown that the destruction of AFQ order at constant field close to TQ(H) should lead to a collapse of the high energy part of the excitation spectrum. In the disordered state above TQ(H) the dispersions show a qualitative change due to the vanishing multipolar order parameters. We also study the field dependence of excitations at constant temperature and compare with experimental results obtained at the X(001) point. In the low temperature T ? TQ and intermediate to high field regime H ? TQ we compare the results to those of the extended Holstein Primakoff (HP) approach and find complete agreement.

  15. Multipolar excitations in the antiferroquadrupolar phase of CeB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmeier, P.; Shiina, R.; Shiba, H.; Takahashi, A.; Sakai, O.

    2004-07-01

    The hexaboride compound CeB6 exhibits quadrupolar Oxy type and magnetic order due to the four-fold degenerate Ce3+-?8 CEF-states. The B-T phase diagram shows anomalous large positive slope of the critical field curve. This is due to a new type of induced octupolar Txyz order parameter. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments by Bouvet have provided direct evidence for the existence of collective excitations. Their nature is shown to be of mixed multipolar character and their dispersion and intensities are calculated using a RPA-type approach and a Holstein-Primakoff approach which show excellent agreement. Temperature and field dependence of the multipolar excitations are calculated and the latter is compared to experimental results.

  16. Left atrial voltage remodeling after pulmonary venous isolation with multipolar radiofrequency ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Laurenzi; Piergiuseppe De Girolamo; Augusto Pappalardo; Andrea Avella

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is the accepted primary endpoint for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of PVI by PVAC, a multipolar circular catheter utilizing bipolar/unipolar radiofrequency (RF) energy. Methods: Twenty patients with paroxysmal AF underwent PVAC ablation. PVI was validated by voltage reduction and pacing tests. Before and after RF ablation, left atrium (LA) and PV electroanatomic mapping (EAM) were performe...

  17. On the gravitational field of static and stationary axial symmetric bodies with multi-polar structure

    OpenAIRE

    Letelier, Patricio S.

    1998-01-01

    We give a physical interpretation to the multi-polar Erez-Rozen-Quevedo solution of the Einstein Equations in terms of bars. We find that each multi-pole correspond to the Newtonian potential of a bar with linear density proportional to a Legendre Polynomial. We use this fact to find an integral representation of the $\\gamma$ function. These integral representations are used in the context of the inverse scattering method to find solutions associated to one or more rotating ...

  18. Loop Antennas for Near-Field Multipolar-Expansion Identification: First Experimental Validations

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Benjamin; Chadebec, Olivier; Schanen, Jean-luc; Berger, Ke?vin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, electromagnetic compatibility is assessed using novel magnetic induction sensors based on the standard CISPR16-1 coils. The new coil shape allows the sensors to be sensitive only to specific components of the multipolar expansion, which is similar to a spatial filtering. The aim is to simplify the geometry of sensor coils introduced in the previous work by rotating the spherical-harmonic functions. This paper describes the mathematical tools required as well as the design metho...

  19. Synthetic Aperture Radar Multi-Polarization Ocean Characteristics and Ship Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    In our study, sea surface characteristics imaged by multi-polarization space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) have been investigated. For the first time, a decomposition of different scattering mechanisms have been performed for ocean satellite SAR imagery to better understand the non-Bragg (Scalar) contribution to the total radar cross section (RCS) and Doppler measurements. Characteristics retrieval and target classification have been established, using polarimetry and Bayesian detectio...

  20. Transformation of the multipolar components of gravitational radiation under rotations and boosts

    OpenAIRE

    Gualtieri, L.; Berti, E; Cardoso, V.; U. Sperhake

    2008-01-01

    We study the transformation of multipolar decompositions of gravitational radiation under rotations and boosts. Rotations to the remnant black hole's frame simplify the waveforms from the merger of generic spinning black hole binaries. Boosts may be important to get an accurate gravitational-wave phasing, especially for configurations leading to large recoil velocities of the remnant. As a test of our formalism we revisit the classic problem of point particles falling into a...

  1. RP58 Regulates the Multipolar-Bipolar Transition of Newborn Neurons in the Developing Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Ohtaka-Maruyama

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that many brain diseases are associated with defects in neuronal migration, suggesting that this step of neurogenesis is critical for brain organization. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal migration remain largely unknown. Here, we identified the zinc-finger transcriptional repressor RP58 as a key regulator of neuronal migration via multipolar-to-bipolar transition. RP58?/? neurons exhibited severe defects in the formation of leading processes and never shifted to the locomotion mode. Cre-mediated deletion of RP58 using in utero electroporation in RP58flox/flox mice revealed that RP58 functions in cell-autonomous multipolar-to-bipolar transition, independent of cell-cycle exit. Finally, we found that RP58 represses Ngn2 transcription to regulate the Ngn2-Rnd2 pathway; Ngn2 knockdown rescued migration defects of the RP58?/? neurons. Our findings highlight the critical role of RP58 in multipolar-to-bipolar transition via suppression of the Ngn2-Rnd2 pathway in the developing cerebral cortex.

  2. POWER-SHIFTS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY. TRANSITION TOWARDS A MULTIPOLAR WORLD ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IGNAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the new realities and trends related to the new polarity of the global economy, and thus the reconfiguration of global power centers, a process characterized by two simultaneous trends: the rise of new powers and the relative decline of traditional powers. At the beginning of 21st century, global power is suffering two major changes: on the one hand it manifests a transition from West to East, from Atlantic to the Asia-Pacific, and on the other hand, a diffusion from state to non-state actors. Current global economic power has a multipolar distribution, shared between the United States, European Union, Japan and BRICs, with no balance of power between these poles, opposed by the strong ambition of rising countries, China especially, China that rivals the traditional powers represented by the developed countries. The evolution of the main macroeconomic indicators given by the most important global organizations, shows a gradual transition towards a multipolar world. Therefore, the United States is and will remain for a long period of time the global economic leader. However, as China, India and Brazil are growing rapidly, and Russia is looking for lost status, the world is becoming multipolar.

  3. Changes in language-specific brain activation after therapy for aphasia using magnetoencephalography: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breier, Joshua I; Maher, Lynn M; Schmadeke, Stephanie; Hasan, Khader M; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2007-06-01

    A patient with chronic aphasia underwent functional imaging during a language comprehension task using magnetoencephalography (MEG) before and after constraint induced language therapy (CILT). In the pre- and immediate post-treatment (TX) scans MEG activity sources were observed within right hemisphere only, and were located in areas homotopic to left hemisphere language areas. There was a significant increase in activation in these areas between the two sessions. This change was not observed in an age-matched patient with chronic aphasia who underwent sequential language testing and MEG scanning across a similar time period without being administered therapy. In the 3-month post-TX scan bilateral activation was observed, including significant activation within the left temporal lobe. The changes in the spatial parameters of the maps of receptive language function after therapy were accompanied by improvement in language function. Results provide support, in the same individual, for a role for both hemispheres in recovery of language function after therapy for chronic aphasia. PMID:17786776

  4. Development of human somatosensory cortical functions – what have we learned from magnetoencephalography: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Nevalainen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The mysteries of early development of cortical processing in humans have started to unravel with the help of new noninvasive brain research tools like multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG. In this review, we evaluate, within a wider neuroscientific and clinical context, the value of MEG in studying normal and disturbed functional development of the human somatosensory system. The combination of excellent temporal resolution and good localization accuracy provided by MEG has, in the case of somatosensory studies, enabled the differentiation of activation patterns from the newborn’s primary (SI and secondary somatosensory (SII areas. Furthermore, MEG has shown that the functioning of both SI and SII in newborns has particular immature features in comparison with adults. In extremely preterm infants, the neonatal MEG response from SII also seems to potentially predict developmental outcome: those lacking SII responses at term show worse motor performance at age two years than those with normal SII responses at term. In older children with unilateral early brain lesions, bilateral alterations in somatosensory cortical activation detected in MEG imply that the impact of a localized insult may have an unexpectedly wide effect on cortical somatosensory networks. The achievements over the last decade show that MEG provides a unique approach for studying the development of the somatosensory system and its disturbances in childhood. MEG well complements other neuroimaging methods in studies of cortical processes in the developing brain.

  5. Development of Human Somatosensory Cortical Functions - What have We Learned from Magnetoencephalography: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Päivi; Lauronen, Leena; Pihko, Elina

    2014-01-01

    The mysteries of early development of cortical processing in humans have started to unravel with the help of new non-invasive brain research tools like multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this review, we evaluate, within a wider neuroscientific and clinical context, the value of MEG in studying normal and disturbed functional development of the human somatosensory system. The combination of excellent temporal resolution and good localization accuracy provided by MEG has, in the case of somatosensory studies, enabled the differentiation of activation patterns from the newborn's primary (SI) and secondary somatosensory (SII) areas. Furthermore, MEG has shown that the functioning of both SI and SII in newborns has particular immature features in comparison with adults. In extremely preterm infants, the neonatal MEG response from SII also seems to potentially predict developmental outcome: those lacking SII responses at term show worse motor performance at age 2?years than those with normal SII responses at term. In older children with unilateral early brain lesions, bilateral alterations in somatosensory cortical activation detected in MEG imply that the impact of a localized insult may have an unexpectedly wide effect on cortical somatosensory networks. The achievements over the last decade show that MEG provides a unique approach for studying the development of the somatosensory system and its disturbances in childhood. MEG well complements other neuroimaging methods in studies of cortical processes in the developing brain. PMID:24672468

  6. Functional mapping of the sensorimotor cortex: combined use of magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, and motor evoked potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined use of magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI), and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) was carried out on one patient in an attempt to localise precisely a structural lesion to the central sulcus. A small cyst in the right frontoparietal region was thought to be the cause of generalised seizures in an otherwise asymptomatic woman. First the primary sensory cortex was identified with magnetic source imaging (MSI) of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields using MEG and MRI. Second, the motor area of the hand was identified using f-MRI during handsqueezing. Then transcranial magnetic stimulation localised the hand motor area on the scalp, which was mapped onto the MRI. There was a good agreement between MSI, f-MRI and MEP as to the location of the sensorimotor cortex and its relationship to the lesion. Multimodality mapping techniques may thus prove useful in the precise localisation of cortical lesions, and in the preoperative determination of the best treatment for peri-rolandic lesions. (orig.)

  7. Functional mapping of the sensorimotor cortex: combined use of magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, and motor evoked potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fujii, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukui, M. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Mizushima, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Matsumoto, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Hasuo, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Tobimatsu, S. [Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology, Neurological Inst., Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Combined use of magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI), and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) was carried out on one patient in an attempt to localise precisely a structural lesion to the central sulcus. A small cyst in the right frontoparietal region was thought to be the cause of generalised seizures in an otherwise asymptomatic woman. First the primary sensory cortex was identified with magnetic source imaging (MSI) of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields using MEG and MRI. Second, the motor area of the hand was identified using f-MRI during handsqueezing. Then transcranial magnetic stimulation localised the hand motor area on the scalp, which was mapped onto the MRI. There was a good agreement between MSI, f-MRI and MEP as to the location of the sensorimotor cortex and its relationship to the lesion. Multimodality mapping techniques may thus prove useful in the precise localisation of cortical lesions, and in the preoperative determination of the best treatment for peri-rolandic lesions. (orig.)

  8. Simultaneous measurement of neuronal activity and cortical hemodynamics by unshielded magnetoencephalography and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yusuke; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Kandori, Akihiko; Maki, Atsushi; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2012-10-01

    The correlation between neuronal activity and cortical hemodynamics, namely, neurovascular coupling (NVC), is important to shed light on the mechanism of a variety of brain functions or neuronal diseases. NVC can be studied by simultaneously measuring neuronal activity and cortical hemodynamics. Consequently, noninvasive measurements of the NVC have been widely studied using both electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, electromagnetic interference between EEG and fMRI is still a major problem. On the other hand, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is another promising tool for detecting cortical hemodynamics because it can be combined with EEG or magnetoencephalography (MEG) without any electromagnetic interference. Accordingly, in the present study, a simultaneous measurement system-combining an unshielded MEG using a two-dimensional gradiometer based on a low-T superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and an NIRS using nonmagnetic thin probes-was developed. This combined system was used to simultaneously measure both an auditory-evoked magnetic field and blood flow change in the auditory cortex. It was experimentally demonstrated that the combined unshielded MEG/NIRS system can simultaneously measure neuronal activity and cortical hemodynamics.

  9. Magnetoencephalography based on high-Tc superconductivity: a closer look into the brain?

    CERN Document Server

    Öisjöen, F; Figueras, G A; Chukharkin, M L; Kalabukhov, A; Hedström, A; Elam, M; Winkler, D

    2011-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) enables the study of brain activity by recording the magnetic fields generated by neural currents and has become an important technique for neuroscientists in research and clinical settings. Unlike the liquid-helium cooled low-Tc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) that have been at the heart of modern MEG systems since their invention, high-Tc SQUIDs can operate with liquid nitrogen cooling. The relaxation of thermal insulation requirements allows for a reduction in the stand-off distance between the sensor and the room-temperature environment from a few centimeters to less than a millimeter, where MEG signal strength is significantly higher. Despite this advantage, high-Tc SQUIDs have only been used for proof-of-principle MEG recordings of well-understood evoked activity. Here we show high-Tc SQUID-based MEG may be capable of providing novel information about brain activity due to the close proximity of the sensor to the head. We have performed single- and two-...

  10. Localization value of magnetoencephalography interictal spikes in adult nonlesional neocortical epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woorim; Chung, Chun Kee; Kim, June Sic

    2012-11-01

    Few studies have included magnetoencephalography (MEG) when assessing the diagnostic value of presurgical modalities in a nonlesional epilepsy population. Here, we compare single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), video-EEG (VEEG), and MEG, with intracranial EEG (iEEG) to determine the value of individual modalities to surgical decisions. We analyzed 23 adult epilepsy patients with no abnormal MRI findings who had undergone surgical resection. Localization of individual presurgical tests was determined for hemispheric and lobar locations based on visual analysis. Each localization result was compared with the ictal onset zone (IOZ) defined by using iEEG. The highest to the lowest hemispheric concordance rates were MEG (83%) > ictal VEEG (78%) > PET (70%) > ictal SPECT (57%). The highest to lowest lobar concordance rates were ictal VEEG = MEG (65%) > PET (57%) > ictal SPECT (52%). Statistical analysis showed MEG to have a higher hemispheric concordance than that of ictal SPECT (P = 0.031). We analyzed the effects of MEG clustered-area resection on surgical outcome. Patients who had resection of MEG clusters showed a better surgical outcome than those without such resection (P = 0.038). It is suggested that MEG-based localization had the highest concordance with the iEEG-defined IOZ. Furthermore, MEG cluster resection has prognostic significance in predicting surgical outcome. PMID:23166423

  11. Oscillatory neuronal dynamics associated with manual acupuncture: a magnetoencephalography study using beamforming analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AzizAsghar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoencephalography (MEG enables non-invasive recording of neuronal activity, with reconstruction methods providing estimates of underlying brain source locations and oscillatory dynamics from externally recorded neuromagnetic fields. The aim of our study was to use MEG to determine the effect of manual acupuncture on neuronal oscillatory dynamics. A major problem in MEG investigations of manual acupuncture is the absence of onset times for each needle manipulation. Given that beamforming (spatial filtering analysis is not dependent upon stimulus-driven responses being phase-locked to stimulus onset, we postulated that beamforming could reveal source locations and induced changes in neuronal activity during manual acupuncture. In a beamformer analysis, a two-minute period of manual acupuncture needle manipulation delivered to the ipsilateral right LI-4 (Hegu acupoint was contrasted with a two-minute baseline period. We considered oscillatory power changes in the theta (4-8Hz, alpha (8-13Hz, beta (13-30Hz and gamma (30-100Hz frequency bands. We found significant decreases in beta band power in the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex and superior frontal gyrus. In the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere, we found significant power decreases in beta and gamma frequency bands in only the superior frontal gyrus. No significant power modulations were found in theta and alpha bands. Our results indicate that beamforming is a useful analytical tool to reconstruct underlying neuronal activity associated with manual acupuncture. Our main finding was of beta power decreases in primary somatosensory cortex and superior frontal gyrus, which opens up a line of future investigation regarding whether this contributes towards an underlying mechanism of acupuncture.

  12. Effects of Contralateral Noise on the 20-Hz Auditory Steady State Response - Magnetoencephalography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usubuchi, Hajime; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Kanno, Akitake; Yahata, Izumi; Miyazaki, Hiromitsu; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Kawashima, Ryuta; Katori, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    The auditory steady state response (ASSR) is an oscillatory brain response, which is phase locked to the rhythm of an auditory stimulus. ASSRs have been recorded in response to a wide frequency range of modulation and/or repetition, but the physiological features of the ASSRs are somewhat different depending on the modulation frequency. Recently, the 20-Hz ASSR has been emphasized in clinical examinations, especially in the area of psychiatry. However, little is known about the physiological properties of the 20-Hz ASSR, compared to those of the 40-Hz and 80-Hz ASSRs. The effects of contralateral noise on the ASSR are known to depend on the modulation frequency to evoke ASSR. However, the effects of contralateral noise on the 20-Hz ASSR are not known. Here we assessed the effects of contralateral white noise at a level of 70 dB SPL on the 20-Hz and 40-Hz ASSRs using a helmet-shaped magnetoencephalography system in 9 healthy volunteers (8 males and 1 female, mean age 31.2 years). The ASSRs were elicited by monaural 1000-Hz 5-s tone bursts amplitude-modulated at 20 and 39 Hz and presented at 80 dB SPL. Contralateral noise caused significant suppression of both the 20-Hz and 40-Hz ASSRs, although suppression was significantly smaller for the 20-Hz ASSRs than the 40-Hz ASSRs. Moreover, the greatest suppression of both 20-Hz and 40-Hz ASSRs occurred in the right hemisphere when stimuli were presented to the right ear with contralateral noise. The present study newly showed that 20-Hz ASSRs are suppressed by contralateral noise, which may be important both for characterization of the 20-Hz ASSR and for interpretation in clinical situations. Physicians must be aware that the 20-Hz ASSR is significantly suppressed by sound (e.g. masking noise or binaural stimulation) applied to the contralateral ear. PMID:24915061

  13. Cortical activity associated with the detection of temporal gaps in tones: A magnetoencephalography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Mitsudo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We used magnetoencephalography (MEG in two experiments to investigate spatio-temporal profiles of brain responses to gaps in tones. Stimuli consisted of leading and trailing markers with gaps between the two markers of 0, 30, or 80 ms. Leading and trailing markers were 300 ms pure tones at 800 Hz or 3200 Hz. Two conditions were examined: the within-frequency (WF condition in which the leading and trailing markers had identical frequencies, and the between-frequency (BF condition in which they had different frequencies. Using minimum-norm estimates (MNE, we localized the source activations at the time of the peak response to the trailing markers. Results showed that MEG signals in response to 800 Hz and 3200 Hz tones were localized in different regions within the auditory cortex, indicating that the frequency pathways activated by the two markers were spatially represented. The time course of regional activity (RA was extracted from each localized region for each condition. In Experiment 1, which used a continuous tone for the WF 0-ms stimulus, the N1m amplitude for the trailing marker in the WF condition differed depending on gap duration but not tonal frequency. In contrast, N1m amplitude in BF conditions differed depending on the frequency of the trailing marker. In Experiment 2, in which the 0-ms gap stimulus in the WF condition was made from two markers and included an amplitude reduction in the middle, the amplitude in WF and BF conditions changed depending on frequency, but not gap duration. The difference in temporal characteristics between WF and BF conditions could be observed in the regional activity.

  14. High-Tc superconducting quantum interference device recordings of spontaneous brain activity: Towards high-Tc magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öisjöen, F.; Schneiderman, J. F.; Figueras, G. A.; Chukharkin, M. L.; Kalabukhov, A.; Hedström, A.; Elam, M.; Winkler, D.

    2012-03-01

    We have performed single- and two-channel high transition temperature (high-Tc) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of spontaneous brain activity in two healthy human subjects. We demonstrate modulation of two well-known brain rhythms: the occipital alpha rhythm and the mu rhythm found in the motor cortex. We further show that despite higher noise-levels compared to their low-Tc counterparts, high-Tc SQUIDs can be used to detect and record physiologically relevant brain rhythms with comparable signal-to-noise ratios. These results indicate the utility of high-Tc technology in MEG recordings of a broader range of brain activity.

  15. Simultaneous multipolar radiofrequency ablation in the monopolar mode increases lesion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, S; Thornton, L; He, D S; Marcus, F I; Lampe, L F

    1996-07-01

    Delivery of radiofrequency (RF) energy from the distal tip of electrophysiology catheters produces lesions that may be too small to ablate arrhythmogenic sites during a single application of RF energy. To produce larger lesions, we delivered RF energy via a quadripolar catheter in which all four electrodes were connected in unipolar fashion. The catheter (Webster Labs) had a 4-mm tip, 2-mm ring electrodes, and 2-mm interelectrode distance. Lesion size was compared using RF energy delivered in a multipolar configuration with that delivered only to the distal tip using fresh bovine ventricular tissue. In vivo, RF lesions were made in dogs using the distal tip as well as all four poles of the same catheter inserted percutaneously. RF energy was delivered using a constant voltage at a frequency of 400 kHz. Preliminary experiments were conducted to determine the maximum power deliverable without coagulation using each electrode configuration. The use of simultaneous multipolar RF ablation produced significantly larger lesions both in vitro and in vivo. The length of the lesion was increased by a factor of approximately 2 in both the in vitro and in vivo experiments. There was a trend toward an increasing depth of the lesion by simultaneously applying RF energy to all four electrodes. Lesion width was significantly increased in the in vivo studies. We concluded that simultaneous multipolar delivery of RF energy produces larger lesions than can be obtained with delivery of RF energy to the distal tip alone. This technique may offer a means of increasing lesion size, leading to a decrease in the number of applications of RF energy necessary for ablation of arrhythmias. PMID:8823830

  16. Post-Newtonian factorized multipolar waveforms for spinning, nonprecessing black-hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We generalize the factorized resummation of multipolar waveforms introduced by Damour, Iyer, and Nagar to spinning black holes. For a nonspinning test particle spiraling a Kerr black hole in the equatorial plane, we find that factorized multipolar amplitudes which replace the residual relativistic amplitude flm with its lth root, ?lm=flm1/l, agree quite well with the numerical amplitudes up to the Kerr-spin value q?0.95 for orbital velocities v?0.4. The numerical amplitudes are computed solving the Teukolsky equation with a spectral code. The agreement for prograde orbits and large spin values of the Kerr black-hole can be further improved at high velocities by properly factoring out the lower-order post-Newtonian contributions in ?lm. The resummation procedure results in a better and systematic agreement between numerical and analytical amplitudes (and energy fluxes) than standard Taylor-expanded post-Newtonian approximants. This is particularly true for higher-order modes, such as (2,1), (3,3), (3,2), and (4,4), for which less spin post-Newtonian terms are known. We also extend the factorized resummation of multipolar amplitudes to generic mass-ratio, nonprecessing, spinning black holes. Lastly, in our study we employ new, recently computed, higher-order post-Newtonian terms in several subdominant modes and compute explicit expressions for the half and one-and-half post-Newtonian contributions to the odd-pNewtonian contributions to the odd-parity (current) and even-parity (odd) multipoles, respectively. Those results can be used to build more accurate templates for ground-based and space-based gravitational-wave detectors.

  17. Study on the radiations in the 205At decay. Transition multipolarities in the 205Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectra of radiations in the 205At decay (Tsub(1/2=26.2 min)) are studied by means of semiconductor detectors and iron-free toroidal ?-spectrometer. In the measurements was used the monoisotopic sources of the 205At. 148 ?-transitions have been discovered which accompany the 205At decay, information about 94 transition has been derived for the first time. The total 70 transition multipolarity has been determined, for 54 of them - for the first time. The measurements of e-? - coincidences were performed. (author)

  18. Multipolarity of the continuum ?-rays in 152Dy and 160Er via linear polarisation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multipolarity of the continuum transitions in 152Dy and 160Er has been deduced from ?-ray linear polarisation and angular distribution measurements. The yrast part for 160Er agrees with the predicted stretched E2 cascade. The statistical parts for both 152Dy and 160Er consist of a mixture of dipolar stretched and non-stretched transitions, predominantly of electrical character. Below 1.5 MeV, the data of 152Dy exhibit a different structure, and reveal a stretched M1 component in the low-energy region. (Auth.)

  19. Left atrial voltage remodeling after pulmonary venous isolation with multipolar radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Laurenzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI is the accepted primary endpoint for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of PVI by PVAC, a multipolar circular catheter utilizing bipolar/unipolar radiofrequency (RF energy. Methods: Twenty patients with paroxysmal AF underwent PVAC ablation. PVI was validated by voltage reduction and pacing tests. Before and after RF ablation, left atrium (LA and PV electroanatomic mapping (EAM were performed by EnSite NavX system. Voltage abatement was considered for potentials 24mm: 9/20 (45% vs 11/57 (19%, p

  20. Multipolar ordering and magnetization reversal in two-dimensional nanomagnet arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedmedenko, E Y; Mikuszeit, N; Oepen, H P; Wiesendanger, R

    2005-11-11

    The low-temperature stable states and the magnetization reversal of realistic two-dimensional nanoarrays with higher-order magnetostatic interactions are studied theoretically. For a general calculus of the multipole-multipole interaction energy we introduce a Hamiltonian in spherical coordinates into the Monte Carlo scheme. We demonstrate that higher-order interactions considerably change the dipolar ground states of in-plane magnetized arrays favoring collinear configurations. The multipolar interactions lead to enhancement or decrease of the coercivity in arrays with in-plane or out-of-plane magnetization. PMID:16384092

  1. Enhancement of bulk-type multipolar second-harmonic generation arising from surface morphology of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold films of 20 and 150 nm nominal thickness were characterized by two-beam second-harmonic generation to address their second-order nonlinear optical responses of surface (dipolar) and bulk (higher multipolar) origin. The surface response is enhanced by ?20% in the case of the 20 nm film, as expected due to its higher surface roughness. Surprisingly, the bulk-type response is enhanced to a greater extent, exceeding 80%, and this can be explained by effective quadrupolar nonlinearity arising from the field interaction with the local nonlinearity of nanoscale surface features.

  2. Transformation of the multipolar components of gravitational radiation under rotations and boosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the transformation of multipolar decompositions of gravitational radiation under rotations and boosts. Rotations to the remnant black hole's frame simplify the waveforms from the merger of generic spinning black hole binaries. Boosts may be important to get an accurate gravitational-wave phasing, especially for configurations leading to large recoil velocities of the remnant. As a test of the formalism we revisit the classic problem of point particles falling into a Schwarzschild black hole. Then we highlight by specific examples the importance of choosing the right frame in numerical simulations of unequal mass, spinning binary black-hole mergers.

  3. Transformation of the multipolar components of gravitational radiation under rotations and boosts

    CERN Document Server

    Gualtieri, L; Cardoso, V; Sperhake, U

    2008-01-01

    We study the transformation of multipolar decompositions of gravitational radiation under rotations and boosts. Rotations to the remnant black hole's frame simplify the waveforms from the merger of generic spinning black hole binaries. Boosts may be important to get an accurate gravitational-wave phasing, especially for configurations leading to large recoil velocities of the remnant. As a test of our formalism we revisit the classic problem of point particles falling into a Schwarzschild black hole. Then we highlight by specific examples the importance of choosing the right frame in numerical simulations of unequal-mass, spinning binary black-hole mergers.

  4. NMR relaxation rate and dynamical structure factors in nematic and multipolar liquids of frustrated spin chains under magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Masahiro; Momoi, Tsutomu; Furusaki, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that spin nematic (quadrupolar) or higher multipolar correlation functions exhibit a quasi long-range order in the wide region of the field-induced Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid (TLL) phase in spin-1/2 zigzag chains. In this paper, we point out that the temperature dependence of the NMR relaxation rate 1/T_1 in these multipolar TLLs is qualitatively different from that in more conventional TLLs of one-dimensional quantum magnets (e.g., the spin-1/2 He...

  5. Observation of multipolar scattering in holmium with non-resonant X-ray scattering at the LNLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multipolar ordering in metallic holmium 4f shell was studied by non resonant X-ray scattering at the helical antiferromagnetic phase. The quadrupolar nature of the 2? satellite peaks is confirmed from the good agreement of the measured values of the form factor with calculated values for quadrupolar scattering. The strong spin-orbit coupling drives the multipolar order, experimentally confirmed through the temperature dependence of the quadrupolar ordering wave vector 2?. Form factors of the satellite peaks observed at 4? are higher than those expected for the octupolar scattering

  6. BabySQUID: A mobile, high-resolution multichannel magnetoencephalography system for neonatal brain assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshio; Pratt, Kevin; Atwood, Christopher; Mascarenas, Anthony; Reineman, Richard; Nurminen, Jussi; Paulson, Douglas

    2006-02-01

    We developed a prototype of a mobile, high-resolution, multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) system, called babySQUID, for assessing brain functions in newborns and infants. Unlike electroencephalography, MEG signals are not distorted by the scalp or the fontanels and sutures in the skull. Thus, brain activity can be measured and localized with MEG as if the sensors were above an exposed brain. The babySQUID is housed in a moveable cart small enough to be transported from one room to another. To assess brain functions, one places the baby on the bed of the cart and the head on its headrest with MEG sensors just below. The sensor array consists of 76 first-order axial gradiometers, each with a pickup coil diameter of 6mm and a baseline of 30mm, in a high-density array with a spacing of 12-14mm center-to-center. The pickup coils are 6±1mm below the outer surface of the headrest. The short gap provides unprecedented sensitivity since the scalp and skull are thin (as little as 3-4mm altogether) in babies. In an electromagnetically unshielded room in a hospital, the field sensitivity at 1kHz was ˜17fT/?Hz. The noise was reduced from ˜400to200fT/?Hz at 1Hz using a reference cancellation technique and further to ˜40fT/?Hz using a gradient common mode rejection technique. Although the residual environmental magnetic noise interfered with the operation of the babySQUID, the instrument functioned sufficiently well to detect spontaneous brain signals from babies with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of as much as 7.6:1. In a magnetically shielded room, the field sensitivity was 17fT/?Hz at 20Hz and 30fT/?Hz at 1Hz without implementation of reference or gradient cancellation. The sensitivity was sufficiently high to detect spontaneous brain activity from a 7month old baby with a SNR as much as 40:1 and evoked somatosensory responses with a 50Hz bandwidth after as little as four averages. We expect that both the noise and the sensor gap can be reduced further by approximately half with a gain in SNR of about four. Thus, we conclude from the performance of the prototype that it should be feasible to improve the babySQUID to detect cortical activity in infants in real time with high spatial resolution.

  7. An analysis of the electromagnetic field in multi-polar linear induction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a new method for determination of the electromagnetic field vectors in a multi-polar linear induction system (LIS) is described. The analysis of the electromagnetic field has been done by four dimensional electromagnetic potentials in conjunction with theory of the magnetic loops . The electromagnetic field vectors are determined in the Minkovski's space as elements of the Maxwell's tensor. The results obtained are compared with those got from the analysis made by the finite elements method (FEM).With the method represented in this paper one can determine the electromagnetic field vectors in the multi-polar linear induction system using four-dimensional potential. A priority of this method is the obtaining of analytical results for the electromagnetic field vectors. These results are also valid for linear media. The dependencies are valid also at high speeds of movement. The results of the investigated linear induction system are comparable to those got by the finite elements method. The investigations may be continued in the determination of other characteristics such as drag force, levitation force, etc. The method proposed in this paper for an analysis of linear induction system can be used for optimization calculations. (Author)

  8. Multipolar electromagnetic fields around neutron stars: exact vacuum solutions and related properties

    CERN Document Server

    Petri, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic field topology in the surrounding of neutron stars is one of the key questions in pulsar magnetospheric physics. A very extensive literature exists about the assumption of a dipolar magnetic field but very little progress has been made in attempts to include multipolar components in a self-consistent way. In this paper, we study the effect of multipolar electromagnetic fields anchored in the star. We give exact analytical solutions in closed form for any order $l$ and apply them to the retarded point quadrupole ($l=2$), hexapole ($l=3$) and octopole ($l=4$), a generalization of the retarded point dipole ($l=1$). We also compare the Poynting flux from each multipole and show that the spin down luminosity depends on the ratio $R/r_{\\rm L}$, $R$ being the neutron star radius and $r_{\\rm L}$ the light-cylinder radius. Therefore the braking index also depends on $R/r_{\\rm L}$. As such multipole fields possess very different topology, most importantly smaller length scales compared to the dipolar field...

  9. GSI promotes vincristine-induced apoptosis by enhancing multi-polar spindle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akannsha; Zapata, Mariana C; Choi, Yong Sung; Yoon, Sun-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Gamma secretase inhibitors (GSI), cell-permeable small-molecule inhibitors of gamma secretase activity, had been originally developed for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. In recent years, it has been exploited in cancer research to inhibit Notch signaling that is aberrantly activated in various cancers. We previously found that GSI could synergize with anti-microtubule agent, vincristine (VCR) in a Notch-independent manner. Here, we delineate the underlying cell cycle-related mechanism using HeLa cells, which have strong mitotic checkpoints. GSI enhanced VCR-induced cell death, although GSI alone did not affect cell viability at all. GSI augmented VCR-induced mitotic arrest in a dose-dependent manner, which was preceded by apoptotic cell death, as shown by an increase in Annexin V-positive and caspase-positive cell population. Furthermore, GSI amplified multi-polar spindle formation triggered by VCR. Altogether, we show the evidence that GSI enhances VCR-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells via multi-polar mitotic spindle formation, independent of Notch signaling. These data suggest that one or more GS substrates, yet to be identified, in a post-GS processed form, may play a role in maintaining functional centrosomes/mitotic spindles. More significantly, the synergistic effect of GSI in combination with VCR could be exploited in clinical setting to improve the efficacy of VCR. PMID:24200971

  10. Improved resummation of post-Newtonian multipolar waveforms from circularized compact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault; Nagar, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    We improve and generalize a resummation method of post-Newtonian multipolar waveforms from circular compact binaries introduced in Refs. \\cite{Damour:2007xr,Damour:2007yf}. One of the characteristic features of this resummation method is to replace the usual {\\it additive} decomposition of the standard post-Newtonian approach by a {\\it multiplicative} decomposition of the complex multipolar waveform $h_{\\lm}$ into several (physically motivated) factors: (i) the ``Newtonian'' waveform, (ii) a relativistic correction coming from an ``effective source'', (iii) leading-order tail effects linked to propagation on a Schwarzschild background, (iv) a residual tail dephasing, and (v) residual relativistic amplitude corrections $f_{\\lm}$. We explore here a new route for resumming $f_{\\lm}$ based on replacing it by its $\\ell$-th root: $\\rho_{\\lm}=f_{\\lm}^{1/\\ell}$. In the extreme-mass-ratio case, this resummation procedure results in a much better agreement between analytical and numerical waveforms than when using stan...

  11. Post-Newtonian factorized multipolar waveforms for spinning, non-precessing black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Yi; Fujita, Ryuichi; Racine, Etienne; Tagoshi, Hideyuki

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the factorized resummation of multipolar waveforms introduced by Damour, Iyer and Nagar to spinning black holes. For a nonspinning test-particle spiraling a Kerr black hole in the equatorial plane, we find that factorized multipolar amplitudes which replace the residual relativistic amplitude f_{l m} with its l-th root, \\rho_{l m} = f_{l m}^{1/l}, agree quite well with the numerical amplitudes up to the Kerr-spin value q \\leq 0.95 for orbital velocities v \\leq 0.4. The numerical amplitudes are computed solving the Teukolsky equation with a spectral code. The agreement for prograde orbits and large spin values of the Kerr black hole can be further improved at high velocities by properly factoring out the lower-order post-Newtonian contributions in \\rho_{l m}. The resummation procedure results in a better and systematic agreement between numerical and analytical amplitudes (and energy fluxes) than standard Taylor-expanded post-Newtonian approximants. This is particularly true for higher-order mode...

  12. Plasma diffusion through a two-dimensional magnetic field. Application to multipolar discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a collisional plasma diffusion theory through a two dimensional magnetic field is presented. This study allows to define two types of diffusion domains: the weak field domain, where diffusion is practically isotropic, and strong field domain where diffusion is only parallel to field lines. The inversion and ion confinement by ambipolar electric field, perpendicular to line fields, is also understood. This theory is applied to a multipolar discharge. A sheath thickness can be defined, which is the width of the region in which the plasma diffusion is limited by the magnetic field. Little dependence with magnetic field is found. All these results have been observed experimentally. The diffusion equation numerical solution allows to find the density and potential profiles. The comparison of the density in the middle of the plasma with and without multicusp field is done

  13. Nd Ion Doping Effects on the Multipolar Interactions in CeB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Shinichiro; Tsuji, Shigenari; Tou, Hideki; Sera, Masafumi; Iga, Fumitoshi; Zenitani, Yuji; Akimitsu, Jun

    2004-01-01

    The Nd ion doping effects on the multipolar interactions in CeB6 were studied. At high magnetic fields, the antiferro-quadrupolar (AFQ) phase II is not significantly affected by Nd doping. This may be because the Nd ion is in the paramagnetic state. However, with decreasing magnetic field, the Nd doping effect becomes apparent. This may be because Nd-Nd interaction dominates the long-range ordering at low magnetic fields. At low magnetic fields, just after TQ and TN coincide with each other when Nd ion is doped, new phases, namely, phases IIIA and V appear. Phase IIIA is the AF magnetic state where all types of quadrupolar interaction are small. The nature of phase V seems to change largely at x ˜ 0.5. For x 0.5, the AF magnetic state where both Ce and Nd ions contribute may be realized.

  14. Study of multipolar effects in rare earth and actinide intermetallic compounds by µSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, A.; Solt, G.

    2004-10-01

    A review is presented of µSR measurements on CeB6, Ce1-xLaxB6, CeAg, PrCu2, HoB2C2, DyPd3S4 and UPd3 which reveal multipolar, in particular quadrupolar, effects. mgr+ Knight shift data imply that the spin polarization of conduction electrons at the mgr+ may acquire an unusual temperature dependence and anisotropy in the presence of a non-spherical charge distribution of the f-electrons. This feature is also discussed theoretically. The interplay of dipolar magnetic and electric quadrupolar order is shown to possibly explain properties of the spontaneous fields at the mgr+ in the magnetically ordered state, as well as aspects of the mgr+ spin lattice relaxation. The possibility of magnetic-octupolar effects is briefly considered.

  15. Direct Observation of an Incommensurate Multipolar Order in CeB6 Doped with Pr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Sera, Masafumi; Katsumata, Koichi; Lovesey, Stephen W.; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Shimomura, Susumu; Kikkawa, Akiko; Iga, Fumitoshi; Kishimoto, Shuji

    2006-07-01

    Observations on an ordered alloy Ce0.7Pr0.3B6 by non-resonant X-ray diffraction are reported. We find incommensurate reflections (2?, 1/2, 0) (? ˜ 0.23) below about 3 K in zero applied magnetic field. The wave vector dependence of the intensity is compelling evidence for the first direct observation of an incommensurate multipolar ordering (MPO). The incommensurate MPO appears to coexist with a commensurate MPO with a wave vector (1/2, 1/2, 1/2), which is the ground state configuration. Additional insight to the properties is derived from extensive measurements made with the alloy placed in a magnetic field ranging up to 6 T. We propose that a competition among RKKY-like exchange interactions between the Ce-Ce, Ce-Pr, and Pr-Pr multipoles is a main source for the appearance of the incommensurate MPO.

  16. Measurements of multipolarities in 227Ra as tests of evidence for stable octupole deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multipolarities of ?30 transitions in 227Ra have been established by measuring conversion electrons following the ?- decay of 227Fr. For this purpose a 'mini-orange'-type electron spectrometer has been constructed. The 227Fr isotopes were produced by the ISOLDE on-line separator at the CERN Synchro-cyclotron. Internal conversion coefficients were obtained from singles spectra and also from simultaneous ?e- and ?? coincidence measurements. The new results support the placement of levels and transitions in the earlier level scheme but require changes in the previously assigned parities for four of the levels. Also, one E0 transition was identified. The results are consistent with previous interpretations for most of the levels that have been used to argue in favour of a small permanent octupole deformation for 227Ra. (orig.)

  17. SQUID-based systems for co-registration of ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance images and magnetoencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ultra-low magnetic fields (ULF) of ?100 ?T, using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detection, has enabled a new class of magnetoencephalography (MEG) instrumentation capable of recording both anatomical (via the ULF MRI) and functional (biomagnetic) information about the brain. The combined ULF MRI/MEG instrument allows both structural and functional information to be co-registered to a single coordinate system and acquired in a single device. In this paper we discuss the considerations and challenges required to develop a combined ULF MRI/MEG device, including pulse sequence development, magnetic field generation, SQUID operation in an environment of pulsed pre-polarization, and optimization of pick-up coil geometries for MRI in different noise environments. We also discuss the design of a “hybrid” ULF MRI/MEG system under development in our laboratory that uses SQUID pick-up coils separately optimized for MEG and ULF MRI.

  18. SQUID-based systems for co-registration of ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance images and magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlashov, A. N.; Burmistrov, E.; Magnelind, P. E.; Schultz, L.; Urbaitis, A. V.; Volegov, P. L.; Yoder, J.; Espy, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    The ability to perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ultra-low magnetic fields (ULF) of ?100 ?T, using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detection, has enabled a new class of magnetoencephalography (MEG) instrumentation capable of recording both anatomical (via the ULF MRI) and functional (biomagnetic) information about the brain. The combined ULF MRI/MEG instrument allows both structural and functional information to be co-registered to a single coordinate system and acquired in a single device. In this paper we discuss the considerations and challenges required to develop a combined ULF MRI/MEG device, including pulse sequence development, magnetic field generation, SQUID operation in an environment of pulsed pre-polarization, and optimization of pick-up coil geometries for MRI in different noise environments. We also discuss the design of a “hybrid” ULF MRI/MEG system under development in our laboratory that uses SQUID pick-up coils separately optimized for MEG and ULF MRI.

  19. Eficacia de los imanes permanentes multipolares en el tratamiento del dolor crónico en pacientes con osteoartrosis generalizada / Effectiveness of the multipolar permanent magnets in the treatment of chronic pain in patients with generalized osteoarthrosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mario, Hechavarría Sánchez; Mercedes, Gay Muguercia; César, Hernández Acosta; Luis Enrique, Bergues Cabrales.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio longitudinal y controlado de 100 pacientes con osteoartrosis generalizada, atendidos en el Servicio de Medicina Natural y Tradicional del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico "Saturnino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre del 2010, a fin de ev [...] aluar la eficacia de los imanes permanentes multipolares en el tratamiento del dolor crónico en los afectados. Estos imanes se ubicaron y fijaron en diferentes puntos de acupunturas para aliviar la dolencia. Los niveles de dolor se cuantificaron mediante la Escala Visual Análoga, por sexo y rango de edades; se evaluaron a los 0, 30, 60 y 90 días durante la terapia. Se demostró la factibilidad del uso de los imanes permanentes multipolares en el alivio del dolor de los pacientes con osteoartrosis generalizada por ser simples, seguros, eficaces y no inducir efectos adversos en el organismo. Abstract in english A longitudinal and controlled study of 100 patients with generalized osteoarthrosis, assisted in the Service of Natural and Traditional Medicine of "Saturnino Lora Torres" Clinical Surgical Teaching Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba was carried out from January to December, 2010, in order to e [...] valuate the effectiveness of the multipolar permanent magnets in the treatment of the chronic pain in those affected. These magnets were placed and fixed in different acupuncture points to reduce pain. The pain levels were quantified by means of the Analogue Visual Scale, by sex and age range; they were evaluated at the 0, 30, 60 and 90 days during the therapy. The feasibility of the use of the multipolar permanent magnets was demonstrated in the relief of pain of the patients with generalized osteoarthrosis as they are simple, sure, effective and induce no adverse effects in the organism.

  20. Low-Noise ASIC and New Layout of Multipolar Electrode for Both High ENG Selectivity and Parasitic Signal Rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Serge; Gouyet, Lionel; Cathebras, Guy; Soulier, Fabien; Guiraud, David; Bertrand, Yves

    2007-01-01

    In order to extract and separate Action Potential (AP) signals according to their nerve fascicule origins, we propose a new architecture of a multipolar cuff electrode and an optimized integrated acquisition circuit. The proposed electrode has a specific layout of a large number of poles in order to both reject parasitic signals, such as electromyogram and provide a maximum of spatial selectivity for ENG signals. For one channel to be recorded, we need to consider seven recording sites. A low...

  1. Nucleation capacity and presence of centrioles define a distinct category of centrosome abnormalities that induces multipolar mitoses in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Howard, Tamara; Camps, Jordi; Nguyen, Quang Tri; Ferris, Douglas K.; Sackett, Dan L.; Ried, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of centrosome number and structure has become one means of assessing the potential for aberrant chromosome segregation and aneuploidy in tumor cells. Centrosome amplification directly causes multipolar catastrophic mitoses in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient for the tumor suppressor genes Brca1 or Trp53. We observed supernumerary centrosomes in cell lines established from aneuploid, but not from diploid, colorectal carcinomas, however, multipolar mitoses were never observed. This discrepancy prompted us to thoroughly characterize the centrosome abnormalities in these and other cancer cell lines with respect to both structure and function. The most striking result was that supernumerary centrosomes in aneuploid colorectal cancer cell lines were unable to nucleate microtubules despite the presence of ?-tubulin, pericentrin, PLK1 and AURKA. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy revealed that these supernumerary structures are devoid of centrioles, a result significantly different from observations in aneuploid pancreatic cancer cell lines and in Trp53 or Brca1 deficient MEFs. Thus, multipolar mitoses are dependent upon the ability of extra ?-tubulin containing structures to nucleate microtubules, and this correlated with the presence of centrioles. The assessment of centrosome function with respect to chromosome segregation must therefore take into consideration the presence of centrioles and the capacity to nucleate microtubules. PMID:19768832

  2. The Evolutionary Dynamics of Biofuel Value Chains : From Unipolar and Government-Driven to Multipolar Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I propose to push the frontier of global value chain (GVC) governance analysis through the concept of ‘polarity’. Much of the existing GVC literature has focused on ‘unipolar’ value chains, where one group of ‘lead firms’ inhabiting a specific function in a chain plays a dominant role in governing it. Some scholars have explored the dynamics of governance in GVCs characterized as ‘bipolar’, where two sets of actors in different functional positions both drive the chain. I expand this direction further to suggest conceptualizing governance within a continuum between unipolarity and multipolarity. Empirically, I do so by examining the evolutionary dynamics of governance in biofuel value chains, with specific focus on the key regulatory and institutional features that facilitated their emergence and expansion. First, I examine the formation, evolution, and governance of three national/regional value chains (in Brazil, the US, and the EU); then, I provide evidence to support a trend towards the increasing but still partial formation of a global biofuel value chain and examine its governance traits.

  3. Neutron star deformation due to arbitrary-order multipolar magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mastrano, Alpha; Melatos, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Certain multi-wavelength observations of neutron stars, such as intermittent radio emissions from rotation-powered pulsars beyond the pair-cascade death line, the pulse profile of the magnetar SGR 1900+14 after its 1998 August 27 giant flare, and X-ray spectral features of PSR J0821-4300 and SGR 0418+5729, suggest that the magnetic fields of non-accreting neutron stars are not purely dipolar and may contain higher-order multipoles. Here, we calculate the ellipticity of a non-barotropic neutron star with (i) a quadrupole poloidal-toroidal field, and (ii) a purely poloidal field containing arbitrary multipoles, deriving the relation between the ellipticity and the multipole amplitudes. We present, as a worked example, a purely poloidal field comprising dipole, quadrupole, and octupole components. We show the correlation between field energy and ellipticity for each multipole, that the l=4 multipole has the lowest energy, and that l=5 has the lowest ellipticity. We show how a mixed multipolar field creates an ob...

  4. Effective plasma confinement by applying multipolar magnetic fields in an internal linear inductively coupled plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel internal-type linear inductive antenna referred to as 'double comb-type antenna' was used for a large-area plasma source with the substrate area of 880 mmx660 mm and the effect of plasma confinement by applying multi-polar magnetic field was investigated. High-density plasmas on the order of 3.18x1011 cm-3, which is 50% higher than that obtained for the source without the magnetic field, could be obtained at the pressure of 15 mTorr Ar and at the inductive power of 5000 W with good plasma stability. The plasma uniformity less than 3% could also be obtained within the substrate area. When SiO2 film was etched using the double comb-type antenna, the average etch rate of about 2100 A/min could be obtained with the etch uniformity of 5.4% on the substrate area using 15 mTorr SF6, 5000 W of rf power, and -34 V of dc bias voltage

  5. Inspiral, merger and ringdown of unequal mass black hole binaries: a multipolar analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Berti, E; Cardoso, V; González, J A; Hannam, M; Husa, S; Sperhake, U; Berti, Emanuele; Bruegmann, Bernd; Cardoso, Vitor; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Hannam, Mark; Husa, Sascha; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    We study the inspiral, merger and ringdown of unequal mass black hole binaries by analyzing a catalogue of numerical simulations for seven different values of the mass ratio (from q=M2/M1=1 to q=4). We compare numerical and Post-Newtonian results by projecting the waveforms onto spin-weighted spherical harmonics, characterized by angular indices (l,m). We find that the Post-Newtonian equations predict remarkably well the relation between the wave amplitude and the orbital frequency for each (l,m), and that the convergence of the Post-Newtonian series to the numerical results is non-monotonic. To leading order the total energy emitted in the merger phase scales like eta^2 and the spin of the final black hole scales like eta, where eta=q/(1+q)^2 is the symmetric mass ratio. We study the multipolar distribution of the radiation, finding that odd-l multipoles are suppressed in the equal mass limit. Higher multipoles carry a larger fraction of the total energy as q increases. We introduce and compare three differe...

  6. Evaluation of focused multipolar stimulation for cochlear implants in acutely deafened cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Shefin S.; Wise, Andrew K.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Shepherd, Robert K.; Fallon, James B.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. The conductive nature of the fluids and tissues of the cochlea can lead to broad activation of spiral ganglion neurons using contemporary cochlear implant stimulation configurations such as monopolar (MP) stimulation. The relatively poor spatial selectivity is thought to limit implant performance, particularly in noisy environments. Several current focusing techniques have been proposed to reduce the spread of activation with the aim towards achieving improved clinical performance. Approach. The present research evaluated the efficacy of focused multipolar (FMP) stimulation, a relatively new focusing technique in the cochlea, and compared its efficacy to both MP stimulation and tripolar (TP) stimulation. The spread of neural activity across the inferior colliculus (IC), measured by recording the spatial tuning curve, was used as a measure of spatial selectivity. Adult cats (n = 6) were acutely deafened and implanted with an intracochlear electrode array before multi-unit responses were recorded across the cochleotopic gradient of the contralateral IC. Recordings were made in response to acoustic and electrical stimulation using the MP, TP and FMP configurations. Main results. FMP and TP stimulation resulted in greater spatial selectivity than MP stimulation. However, thresholds were significantly higher (p stimulation compared to MP stimulation. There were no differences found in spatial selectivity and threshold between FMP and TP stimulation. Significance. The greater spatial selectivity of FMP and TP stimulation would be expected to result in improved clinical performance. However, further research will be required to demonstrate the efficacy of these modes of stimulation after longer durations of deafness.

  7. Brain activity patterns in stable and progressive mild cognitive impairment during working memory as evidenced by magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestú, Fernando; Yubero, Raquel; Moratti, Stephan; Campo, Pablo; Gil-Gregorio, Pedro; Paul, Nuria; Solesio, Elena; del Pozo, Francisco; Nevado, Angel

    2011-04-01

    It has been reported that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, when compared with controls, show increased activity in different brain regions within the ventral pathway during memory tasks. A key question is whether this profile of increased activity could be useful to predict which patients will develop dementia. Herein, we present profiles of brain magnetic activity during a memory task recorded with magnetoencephalography from MCI patients (N = 10), Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (N = 10), and healthy volunteers (N = 17). After 2½ years of follow-up, five of the MCI patients developed AD. Patients who progressed to AD (PMCI) showed higher activity than those who remained stable (SMCI), AD patients and controls. This increased activity in PMCI patients involves regions within the ventral and dorsal pathways. In contrast, SMCI patients showed higher activation than controls only along the ventral pathway. This increase in both the ventral and dorsal pathways in PMCI patients may reflect a compensatory mechanism for the loss in efficiency in memory networks, which would be absent in AD patients as they showed lower activity levels than the rest of the groups. PMID:21399524

  8. SQUID-based systems for co-registration of ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance images and magnetoencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlashov, A.N., E-mail: matlach@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-D454, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Burmistrov, E.; Magnelind, P.E.; Schultz, L.; Urbaitis, A.V.; Volegov, P.L.; Yoder, J.; Espy, M.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-D454, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    The ability to perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ultra-low magnetic fields (ULF) of {approx}100 {mu}T, using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detection, has enabled a new class of magnetoencephalography (MEG) instrumentation capable of recording both anatomical (via the ULF MRI) and functional (biomagnetic) information about the brain. The combined ULF MRI/MEG instrument allows both structural and functional information to be co-registered to a single coordinate system and acquired in a single device. In this paper we discuss the considerations and challenges required to develop a combined ULF MRI/MEG device, including pulse sequence development, magnetic field generation, SQUID operation in an environment of pulsed pre-polarization, and optimization of pick-up coil geometries for MRI in different noise environments. We also discuss the design of a 'hybrid' ULF MRI/MEG system under development in our laboratory that uses SQUID pick-up coils separately optimized for MEG and ULF MRI.

  9. The stability of source localization in a whole-head magnetoencephalography system demonstrated by auditory evoked field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuen-Lin; Yang, Hong-Chang; Tsai, Sung-Ying; Liu, Yu-Wei; Liao, Shu-Hsien; Horng, Herng-Er; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kwon, Hyukchan

    2011-10-01

    Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), which is a very sensitive magnetic sensor, has been widely used to detect the ultra-small magnetic signals in many different territories, especially in the biomagnetic measurement. In this study, a 128-channel SQUID first-order axial gradiometer system for whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements was setup to characterize the auditory evoked magnetic fields (AEFs). A 500 Hz monaural pure tone persisting 425 ms with the sound pressure level of 80 dB was randomly applied to the left ear of subject with the inter-stimulus interval of 1.5 ˜ 2.8 s to prevent fatigue of nerves. We demonstrated the characteristic waveforms of AEFs can be accurately recorded and analyzed. Using source localization processes, the origins of AEFs were successfully calculated to be at the auditory cortices which are brain areas known for responsive to sound stimulus. A phantom experiment also proved the good localization accuracy of the established MEG system and measurement procedures. The validated performance of the SQUID system suggests that this technique can also be employed in other brain research.

  10. The Kennaugh element framework for multi-scale, multi-polarized, multi-temporal and multi-frequency SAR image preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Andreas; Wendleder, Anna; Hinz, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    As the number of space-borne SAR sensors increases, a rising number of different SAR acquisition modes is in use, resulting in a higher variation within the image products. This variability in acquisition geometry, radiometry, and last but not least polarimetry raises the need for a consistent SAR image description incorporating all available sensors and acquisition modes. This paper therefore introduces the framework of the Kennaugh elements to comparably represent all kinds of multi-scale, multi-temporal, multi-polarized, multi-frequency, and hence, multi-sensor data in a consistent mathematical framework. Furthermore, a novel noise model is introduced that estimates the significance and thus the (polarimetric) information content of the Kennaugh elements. This facilitates an advanced filtering approach, called multi-scale multi-looking, which is shown to improve the radiometric accuracy while preserving the geometric resolution of SAR images. The proposed methodology is finally demonstrated using sample applications that include TerraSAR-X (X-band), Envisat-ASAR, RADARSAT-2 (C-band) and ALOS-PALSAR (L-band) data as well as the combination of all three frequencies. Thus the suitability of the Kennaugh element framework for practical use in proved for advanced SAR remote sensing.

  11. Crisis del lóbulo temporal registrada mediante magnetoencefalografía: caso clínico Temporal lobe seizure recorded by magnetoencephalography: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Amo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La localización del inicio de las crisis es un factor importante para la evaluación prequirúrgica de la epilepsia. En este trabajo se describe la localización del inicio de una crisis registrada mediante magnetoencefalografía (MEG en un niño de 12 años que presenta crisis parciales complejas farmacorresistentes. La RM muestra una lesión de 20mm de diámetro en el hipocampo izquierdo. EEG de superficie con ondas theta temporales izquierdas. Registro MEG interictal con punta-onda aislada posterior e inferior a la lesión de la RM. Registro MEG ictal con punta-onda (2 Hz. La localización de los dipolos indica el inicio de la crisis en la circunvolución temporal inferior en la misma localización que la actividad interictal MEG. Esta actividad ictal se propaga bilateralmente a áreas frontales. El registro corticográfico intraquirúrgico confirma los resultados de la localización interictal mediante MEG.Ictal onset localization is a important factor in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. This paper describes the localization of a seizure onset recorded by magnetoencephalography (MEG from a 12-year-old male patient who suffered from complex partial drug-resistant seizures. MRI revealed a 20mm diameter lesion located in left hippocampus. Scalp EEG showed left temporal theta waves. Interictal MEG registrations detected isolated spike-wave activity posterior and inferior to the MRI lesion. Ictal MEG showed continuous spike-wave activity (2 Hz. Dipole localization sited seizure onset in the inferior left temporal gyrus, the same localization of the interictal MEG activity. This ictal activity spreads bilaterally to frontal areas. Intrasurgical electrocorticography recording confirmed interictal MEG results.

  12. Crisis del lóbulo temporal registrada mediante magnetoencefalografía: caso clínico / Temporal lobe seizure recorded by magnetoencephalography: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Amo; Marta, Santiuste; Fernando, Maestú; Alberto, Fernández; Renata, Egatz; Mercedes, González-Hidalgo; Cristóbal, Saldaña; Antonio, Sáiz; Tomás, Ortiz.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La localización del inicio de las crisis es un factor importante para la evaluación prequirúrgica de la epilepsia. En este trabajo se describe la localización del inicio de una crisis registrada mediante magnetoencefalografía (MEG) en un niño de 12 años que presenta crisis parciales complejas farmac [...] orresistentes. La RM muestra una lesión de 20mm de diámetro en el hipocampo izquierdo. EEG de superficie con ondas theta temporales izquierdas. Registro MEG interictal con punta-onda aislada posterior e inferior a la lesión de la RM. Registro MEG ictal con punta-onda (2 Hz). La localización de los dipolos indica el inicio de la crisis en la circunvolución temporal inferior en la misma localización que la actividad interictal MEG. Esta actividad ictal se propaga bilateralmente a áreas frontales. El registro corticográfico intraquirúrgico confirma los resultados de la localización interictal mediante MEG. Abstract in english Ictal onset localization is a important factor in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. This paper describes the localization of a seizure onset recorded by magnetoencephalography (MEG) from a 12-year-old male patient who suffered from complex partial drug-resistant seizures. MRI revealed a 20mm diame [...] ter lesion located in left hippocampus. Scalp EEG showed left temporal theta waves. Interictal MEG registrations detected isolated spike-wave activity posterior and inferior to the MRI lesion. Ictal MEG showed continuous spike-wave activity (2 Hz). Dipole localization sited seizure onset in the inferior left temporal gyrus, the same localization of the interictal MEG activity. This ictal activity spreads bilaterally to frontal areas. Intrasurgical electrocorticography recording confirmed interictal MEG results.

  13. Proposal for a new method for multipolarity determinations: an application of the electron-positron angular correlation in internal-pair transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of semicircular Si(Li) detectors with two magnetic lens spectrometers is shown to offer a possibility to construct an effective spectroscopic instrument for multipolarity determinations. The method is based on the fact that the angular correlation between the electron-positron pair is sensitive to multipolarity, even at high transition energies. Response characteristics and multipole discrimination power are given for different detection geometries. The calculations are based on the zero-order Born approximation (ZBA) and are sufficiently accurate at least for k>3 and Z<50. (author)

  14. Injection and Confinement of Plasma in a Stellarator with a Multipolar (? =2) Helical Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give the results of external injection of plasma into a closed magnetic trap and on the investigation of the effect of helical fields on the maintenance of the plasma. The ''L-I'' apparatus consists of a toroidal magnetic trap of stellarator type with a continuous ''double-thread'' multipolar (? = 2) helical field. The large diameter of the torus is 120 cm and the diameter of the vacuum chamber section 10 cm. The maximum value of the longitudinal field H is 104 Oe. The magnetic field of the stellarator is variable in time, to enable a study of adiabatic heating of the plasma in a trap of this type. The L-I stellarator and low-energy electron beams were used to investigate the structure of the magnetic surfaces. The method made it possible to determine the existence and form of closed magnetic surfaces over a wide range of the ratio of the helical and longitudinal fields. Resonance perturbations of the magnetic surfaces were detected that led to splitting of the latter and the formation of rosettes. Magnetic measurements confirmed the theoretical postulates regarding the magnetic surfaces and the effect of perturbations in resonance and non-resonance cases. Filling of the trap with plasma was effected by injecting plasma jets from spark guns into the transverse magnetic field. The total number of charged particles generated at each injection was ?5 x 1014. Injection could be made both .while the field was growing, with subsequent adiabatic compression of the plasma, and while the field was quasi-constant. Filling of the trap took place over a time of the order of tens of us. The inital density of the plasma was ?1011 cm-3, and the electron temperature ?15 eV. The density of the plasma was measured by the resonance ultra-high-frequency method and its distribution over the section was determined by twin Langmuir probes. The experiments showed the effective influence of a helical field on plasma. In the absence of a helical field, the density distribution was non-symmetrical relative to the centre of the chamber and the plasma drifted towards the external wall of the torus; its lifetime was the order of 100 to 200 ?s. When a helical field was applied then density distribution was symmetrical about the axis of the chamber and was determined by the form of the magnetic surfaces; the constant of density fall-off time was ?1 to 2 ms. The measured lifetime of the plasma when the apparatus is working as a stellarator cannot be explained by conventional diffusion. The spectrum of oscillations in the plasma electric fields was studied, and we discuss the various mechanisms capable of explaining the anomalously high plasma diffusion rates that we observed. (author)

  15. Study of fundamental mode multipolar kicks in double- and single-feed power couplers for the CLIC main linac accelerating structure

    CERN Document Server

    Latina, A; Schulte, D

    2012-01-01

    Multipolar kicks from the fundamental mode have been calculated in the CLIC baseline accelerating structure with double-feed input and output power couplers. The influence of such multipolar kicks on the main linac beam dynamics has been investigated. Furthermore, an alternative design of the couplers with single-feed has been studied and compared with the double-feed. Such an alternative would significantly simplify the waveguide system of the main linac but potentially introduce an harmful dipolar kick from the fundamental mode. The geometry of the coupler has been optimized in order to minimize such a dipolar kick and keep it below threshold levels determined with beam dynamics simulations. Influence of the higher order multipoles has been investigated as well and acceptable levels have been determined.

  16. Establishment of M1 multipolarity of a 6.5 mu_N^2 resonance in 172-Yb at E_gamma=3.3 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Schiller, A; Algin, E; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; Guttormsen, M; Nelson, R O; Rekstad, J; Siem, S

    2004-01-01

    Two-step-cascade spectra in 172-Yb have been measured after thermal neutron capture. They are compared to calculations based on experimental values of the level density and radiative strength function (RSF) obtained from the 173-Yb(3-He,alpha gamma)172-Yb reaction. The multipolarity of a 6.5(15) mu_N^2 resonance at E_gamma=3.3(1) MeV in the RSF is determined to be M1 by this comparison.

  17. Electroexcitation of low-multipolarity magnetic transitions in {sup 36}Ar and {sup 38}Ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, C.W.; Sober, D.I.; Fagg, L.W. [Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. 20064 (United States); Graef, H.D.; Richter, A.; Spamer, E. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, 6100 Darmstadt (Germany); Brown, B.A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Measurements of inelastic electron scattering from {sup 36}Ar and {sup 38}Ar have been performed at low energy and backward angle to determine the distribution of {ital M}1 and {ital M}2 strength in these nuclei. The total observed {ital M}1 strength in {sup 36}Ar is approximately 93% of that predicted in the measured energy region by shell-model calculations using effective {ital M}1 operators. In {sup 38}Ar, the single strong {ital M}1 transition predicted by shell-model calculations was not observed. Instead, a number of weak transitions were observed, with total {ital M}1 strength equal to about 134% of the predicted strength.

  18. Electroexcitation of low-multipolarity magnetic transitions in 36Ar and 38Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of inelastic electron scattering from 36Ar and 38Ar have been performed at low energy and backward angle to determine the distribution of M1 and M2 strength in these nuclei. The total observed M1 strength in 36Ar is approximately 93% of that predicted in the measured energy region by shell-model calculations using effective M1 operators. In 38Ar, the single strong M1 transition predicted by shell-model calculations was not observed. Instead, a number of weak transitions were observed, with total M1 strength equal to about 134% of the predicted strength

  19. Multipolarity remanences in lower oceanic crustal gabbros recovered by drilling at Hess Deep (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 345)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Antony; Horst, Andrew; Friedman, Sarah; Nozaka, Toshio

    2015-04-01

    A long-term goal of the scientific ocean drilling community is to understand the processes by which the ocean crust is constructed through magmatism, deformation, metamorphism and hydrothermal cooling. Insights into the magnetic properties of the lower crust have come from drilling at oceanic core complexes and in tectonic windows. At the Hess Deep Rift, propagation of the Cocos-Nazca Ridge into young, fast-spreading East Pacific Rise crust exposes a dismembered, but nearly complete lower crustal section. Here, IODP Expedition 345 (Site U1415) recovered primitive plutonic lithologies including gabbro, troctolitic gabbro and olivine gabbronorite. These rocks exhibit cumulate textures similar to those found in layered basic intrusions and some ophiolite complexes. Metamorphism is dominated by background greenschist facies alteration associated with cataclastic deformation that likely results from Cocos-Nazca rifting. Some intervals display complex, multiple remanence components within individual samples. A high temperature component unblocks above 500°-520°C and an intermediate temperature component of nearly antipodal direction unblocks between 425°-450°C and 500°-520°C. In addition, a few samples display a third component that unblocks between 100-350°C that is nearly parallel to the highest temperature component. These multiple, nearly antipodal components suggest that remanence was acquired in different geomagnetic chrons, and represent the first multipolarity remanences seen in Pacific lower oceanic crust. Similar remanence structures, however, have been reported in lower crustal gabbros recovered from slow-spreading rate crust along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and have been interpreted to reflect protracted accretion or protracted cooling. In contrast, at Hess Deep unblocking temperatures appear consistent with temperatures inferred for successive phases of alteration, suggesting an alteration history spanning at least two polarity chrons.

  20. Towards an accurate representation of electrostatics in classical force fields: efficient implementation of multipolar interactions in biomolecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagui, Celeste; Pedersen, Lee G; Darden, Thomas A

    2004-01-01

    The accurate simulation of biologically active macromolecules faces serious limitations that originate in the treatment of electrostatics in the empirical force fields. The current use of "partial charges" is a significant source of errors, since these vary widely with different conformations. By contrast, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) obtained through the use of a distributed multipole moment description, has been shown to converge to the quantum MEP outside the van der Waals surface, when higher order multipoles are used. However, in spite of the considerable improvement to the representation of the electronic cloud, higher order multipoles are not part of current classical biomolecular force fields due to the excessive computational cost. In this paper we present an efficient formalism for the treatment of higher order multipoles in Cartesian tensor formalism. The Ewald "direct sum" is evaluated through a McMurchie-Davidson formalism [L. McMurchie and E. Davidson, J. Comput. Phys. 26, 218 (1978)]. The "reciprocal sum" has been implemented in three different ways: using an Ewald scheme, a particle mesh Ewald (PME) method, and a multigrid-based approach. We find that even though the use of the McMurchie-Davidson formalism considerably reduces the cost of the calculation with respect to the standard matrix implementation of multipole interactions, the calculation in direct space remains expensive. When most of the calculation is moved to reciprocal space via the PME method, the cost of a calculation where all multipolar interactions (up to hexadecapole-hexadecapole) are included is only about 8.5 times more expensive than a regular AMBER 7 [D. A. Pearlman et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 91, 1 (1995)] implementation with only charge-charge interactions. The multigrid implementation is slower but shows very promising results for parallelization. It provides a natural way to interface with continuous, Gaussian-based electrostatics in the future. It is hoped that this new formalism will facilitate the systematic implementation of higher order multipoles in classical biomolecular force fields. PMID:15267263

  1. Investigation of multifrequency/multipolarization radar signatures of rain cells over the ocean using SIR-C/X-SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsheimer, Christian; Alpers, Werner; Gade, Martin

    1998-08-01

    Radar signatures of rain cells are investigated using multifrequency/multipolarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired from the space shuttle Endeavour during the spaceborne imaging radar-C/X-band SAR (SIR-C/X-SAR) missions in April and October 1994. In SIR-C/X-SAR images, radar signatures of rain cells over the ocean usually consist of irregularly shaped bright and dark patches that strongly depend on radar frequency and polarization. The radar signatures of rain cells observed in SIR-C/X-SAR imagery of the ocean originate from (1) the scattering and attenuation of the microwaves by raindrops and ice particles in the atmosphere and (2) the modification of the sea surface roughness induced by the impact of raindrops and by wind gusts associated with rain cells. Raindrops impinging on the sea surface generate ring waves, which enhance the sea surface roughness, but they also generate turbulence in the upper water layer, which reduces the sea surface roughness. Depending on the radar wavelength, ocean areas struck by rain can have higher or lower normalized radar cross section (NRCS) than the surrounding rain-free area; in ocean areas where heavy rain is impinging on the sea surface, the X- and C-band NRCS is usually enhanced, and the L-band NRCS is reduced. From the phase difference between the horizontally and vertically copolarized signals, estimates of the rain rate are obtained. The present analysis shows further that the presently used wind speed retrieval algorithms for the scatterometers aboard the ERS and ADEOS satellites may yield biased wind fields if several rain cells lie within a scatterometer resolution cell.

  2. Electrokinetic behavior of two touching inhomogeneous biological cells and colloidal particles: Effects of multipolar interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, J. P.; Karttunen, Mikko; Yu, K. W.; Dong, L.; Gu, G. Q.

    2003-01-01

    We present a theory to investigate electro-kinetic behavior, namely, electrorotation and dielectrophoresis under alternating current (AC) applied fields for a pair of touching inhomogeneous colloidal particles and biological cells. These inhomogeneous particles are treated as graded ones with physically motivated model dielectric and conductivity profiles. The mutual polarization interaction between the particles yields a change in their respective dipole moments, and hence ...

  3. Sensitivity analysis on the relationship between vegetation growth and multi-polarized radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodici, F.; La Loggia, G.; D'Urso, G.; Maltese, A.; Ciraolo, G.

    2009-09-01

    Spatially distributed soil moisture is required for watershed applications such as drought and flood prediction, crop irrigation scheduling, etc. In particular, an accurate assessment of the spatial and temporal variation of soil moisture is necessary to improve the predictive capability of runoff models, and for improving and validating hydrological processes forecasting. In recent years, several models have been developed in order to retrieve soil moisture using RADAR data. However, these models need precise prior knowledge about surface roughness. Within this framework, the present research aims to investigate the capabilities of multi polarimetric RADAR images to overcome the use of in situ data for surface roughness assessment. The research is carried out on a 24 km² test-site of DEMMIN (Görmin farm), Mecklenburg Vorpommern, in the North-East of Germany approximately 150 km north from Berlin. Data were acquired within ESA-funded project AgriSAR 2006 between April and July 2006. Images used include L-band in HH, VV and HV polarizations acquired from the airborne sensor E-SAR system operated by the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt - DLR). Two models have been coupled in order to obtain a rms Surface Roughness Index (rSRI) that is related to terrain physical characteristics as well as vegetation surface properties. These are the PSEM (Polarimetric Semi-Empirical Model) published by Oh et al. in 2002 and a semi empirical model developed by Dubois in 1995. A finite difference iterative solution allowed rSRI retrieval without the use of in situ data. Results have been compared both with in situ rms roughness over bare soil and with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained from Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS) optical images collected over the whole phenological cycle. They show a good agreement with bare soil in situ data, describing its whole range of variability well, and moreover the NDVI vs. rSRI relationship seems similar to that occurring between NDVI and Leaf Area Index (LAI) for most crop types meaning that rSRI can be considered as LAI look like.

  4. Multipolar SPM machines for direct drive application: a comprehensive design approach

    OpenAIRE

    Boazzo, Barbara; Pellegrino, Gian-mario Luigi; Vagati, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    A closed-form, per-unit formulation is proposed, for the design of surface mounted permanent magnet motors with high number of poles. The model evaluates the shear stress, the power factor and the specific Joule loss as the indicators of the machine performance, and demonstrates that this is determined by the correct choice of a very limited set of key-geometrical parameters. The design criteria are described analytically and then applied to example designs, FEA validated. Distributed- and co...

  5. Unusual pressure dependence of the multipolar interactions in CexLa1-xB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, S.; Umeo, K.; Tou, H.; Sera, M.; Iga, F.; Kunii, S.

    We performed the mean field calculation of the magnetization under pressure for the four sublattice model to understand the unusual pressure effect of CeB6. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental results and the canted ferromagnetic ground state is predicted to appear at higher pressure. We studied the electrical resistivity of Ce0.75La0.25B6 under pressure. We found that the phase III is rapidly suppressed by pressure and T increases with pressure. At P=0.6 GPa, the direct phase transition from IV to II is found, which will be the clue to understanding the phase IV.

  6. Experimental investigation of microwave interaction with magnetoplasma in miniature multipolar configuration using impedance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Indranuj, E-mail: indranuj@aees.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Toyoda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    A miniature microwave plasma source employing both radial and axial magnetic fields for plasma confinement has been developed for micro-propulsion applications. Plasma is initiated by launching microwaves via a short monopole antenna to circumvent geometrical cutoff limitations. The amplitude and phase of the forward and reflected microwave power is measured to obtain the complex reflection coefficient from which the equivalent impedance of the plasma source is determined. Effect of critical plasma density condition is reflected in the measurements and provides insight into the working of the miniature plasma source. A basic impedance calculation model is developed to help in understanding the experimental observations. From experiment and theory, it is seen that the equivalent impedance magnitude is controlled by the coaxial discharge boundary conditions, and the phase is influenced primarily by the plasma immersed antenna impedance.

  7. Experimental investigation of microwave interaction with magnetoplasma in miniature multipolar configuration using impedance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Indranuj; Toyoda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    A miniature microwave plasma source employing both radial and axial magnetic fields for plasma confinement has been developed for micro-propulsion applications. Plasma is initiated by launching microwaves via a short monopole antenna to circumvent geometrical cutoff limitations. The amplitude and phase of the forward and reflected microwave power is measured to obtain the complex reflection coefficient from which the equivalent impedance of the plasma source is determined. Effect of critical plasma density condition is reflected in the measurements and provides insight into the working of the miniature plasma source. A basic impedance calculation model is developed to help in understanding the experimental observations. From experiment and theory, it is seen that the equivalent impedance magnitude is controlled by the coaxial discharge boundary conditions, and the phase is influenced primarily by the plasma immersed antenna impedance.

  8. Experimental investigation of microwave interaction with magnetoplasma in miniature multipolar configuration using impedance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A miniature microwave plasma source employing both radial and axial magnetic fields for plasma confinement has been developed for micro-propulsion applications. Plasma is initiated by launching microwaves via a short monopole antenna to circumvent geometrical cutoff limitations. The amplitude and phase of the forward and reflected microwave power is measured to obtain the complex reflection coefficient from which the equivalent impedance of the plasma source is determined. Effect of critical plasma density condition is reflected in the measurements and provides insight into the working of the miniature plasma source. A basic impedance calculation model is developed to help in understanding the experimental observations. From experiment and theory, it is seen that the equivalent impedance magnitude is controlled by the coaxial discharge boundary conditions, and the phase is influenced primarily by the plasma immersed antenna impedance

  9. Multipolar Force Fields and Their Effects on Solvent Dynamics around Simple Solutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sofie; Bereau, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    The performance of multipole (MTP) and point charge (PC) force fields in classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of condensed-phase systems for both equilibrium and dynamical quantities is compared. MTP electrostatics provides an improved description of the anisotropic electrostatic potential, which is especially important to describe key, challenging interactions, such as lone pairs, ?-interactions, and hydrogen bonds. These chemical environments are probed by focusing on the hydration properties of two molecules: N-methylacetamide and phenyl bromide. Both, equilibrium and dynamical, quantities are affected by the quality of the electrostatic model. The alteration of the first solvation shell in MTP simulations is validated by comparing with lifetimes and correlation times of solute–solvent interactions from experiment. The improved dynamical behavior found in the MTP simulations—observed for molecules parametrized using very different protocols—suggests that a systematic improvement of both equilibrium and dynamical quantities when using MTP electrostatics is possible.

  10. Magnetar Giant Flares in Multipolar Magnetic Fields --- I. Fully and Partially Open Eruptions of Flux Ropes

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    We propose a catastrophic eruption model for magnetar's enormous energy release during giant flares, in which a toroidal and helically twisted flux rope is embedded within a force-free magnetosphere. The flux rope stays in stable equilibrium states initially and evolves quasi-statically. Upon the loss of equilibrium point is reached, the flux rope cannot sustain the stable equilibrium states and erupts catastrophically. During the process, the magnetic energy stored in the magnetosphere is rapidly released as the result of destabilization of global magnetic topology. The magnetospheric energy that could be accumulated is of vital importance for the outbursts of magnetars. We carefully establish the fully open fields and partially open fields for various boundary conditions at the magnetar surface and study the relevant energy thresholds. By investigating the magnetic energy accumulated at the critical catastrophic point, we find that it is possible to drive fully open eruptions for dipole dominated background...

  11. The Fate of Sub-micron Circumplanetary Dust Grains II: Multipolar Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We study the radial and vertical stability of dust grains launched with all charge-to-mass ratios at arbitrary distances from rotating planets with complex magnetic fields. We show that the aligned dipole magnetic field model analyzed by Jontof-Hutter and Hamilton (2012) is an excellent approximation in most cases, but that fundamentally new physics arises with the inclusion of non-axisymmetric magnetic field terms. In particular, large numbers of distant negatively-charged dust grains, stable in a magnetic dipole, can be driven to escape by a more complex field. We trace the origin of the instability to overlapping Lorentz resonances which are extremely powerful when the gravitational and electromagnetic forces on a dust grain are comparable. These resonances enable a dust grain to tap the spin energy of the planet to power its escape. We also explore the relatively minor influence of different launch speeds and the far more important effects of variable grain charge. Only the latter are capable of significa...

  12. Disruption of functional brain networks in Alzheimer's disease: what can we learn from graph spectral analysis of resting-state magnetoencephalography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Willem; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Wang, Huijuan; Van Mieghem, Piet F A; Scheltens, Philip; Stam, Cornelis J

    2012-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), structural and functional brain network organization is disturbed. However, many of the present network analysis measures require a priori assumptions and methodological choices that influence outcomes and interpretations. Graph spectral analysis (GSA) is a more direct algebraic method that describes network properties, which might lead to more reliable results. In this study, GSA was applied to magnetoencephalography (MEG) data to explore functional network integrity in AD. Sensor-level resting-state MEG was performed in 18 Alzheimer patients (age 67 ± 9, 6 women) and 18 healthy controls (age 66 ± 9, 11 women). Weighted, undirected graphs were constructed based on functional connectivity analysis using the Synchronization likelihood, and GSA was performed with a focus on network connectivity, synchronizability, and node centrality. The main outcomes were a global loss of network connectivity and altered synchronizability in most frequency bands. Eigenvector centrality mapping confirmed the hub status of the parietal areas, and demonstrated a low centrality of the left temporal region in the theta band in AD patients that was strongly related to the mini mental state examination (global cognitive function test) score (r=0.67, p=0.001). Summarizing, GSA is a theoretically solid approach that is able to detect the disruption of functional network topology in AD. In addition to the previously reported overall connectivity losses and parietal area hub status, impaired network synchronizability and a clinically relevant left temporal centrality loss were found in AD patients. Our findings imply that GSA is valuable for the purpose of studying altered brain network topology and dynamics in AD. PMID:22480296

  13. Consistencia epistémica del síndrome de Dificultades del Aprendizaje: aportaciones de la magnetoencefalografía como técnica de neuroimagen funcional / Epistemics for Learning Disabilities: Contributions from Magnetoencephalography, a Functional Neuroimaging Tool

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    VÍCTOR, SANTIUSTE-BERMEJO; MARTA, SANTIUSTE-DÍAZ.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome Dificultades del Aprendizaje (DA) fue descrito en 1963 por S. Kirk. Desde entonces, diversas escuelas en EE.UU., Canadá y España han afinado su concepto y clasificación. La UCM en España ha propuesto una definición descriptiva y totalizadora, y ha estudiado empíricamente distintas manife [...] staciones, intentando descubrir sus marcadores biológicos y las características neurológicas de sus principales manifestaciones (dislexia, discalculia, disortografia, TDA, TDAH, etc.). Se describen los hallazgos en DA a partir de estudios como la magnetoencefalografía (MEG), técnica inocua que recoge campos magnéticos generados naturalmente por el cerebro y analiza su distribución espacial para localizar los generadores neuronales responsables, proporcionando información simultánea sobre la estructura y la función cerebral en patrones de normalidad en el procesamiento cognitivo y patrones aberrantes propios de las particulares manifestaciones clínicas del síndrome DA. Abstract in english The syndrome known as Learning Disabilities (LD) was described by S. Kirk in 1963. From that point on, institutions from the US, Canada and Spain have engaged in refining the concept and classification of LDs. The Complutense University in Spain, has proposed a descriptive and all-embracing definiti [...] on, and has studied the different manifestations of LD, pursuing the description of biological markers and neurological features of LD’s main expressions: dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysorthographia, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder -ADHD, and so forth. Findings in LD using functional neuroimaging techniques, namely Magnetoencephalography (MEG), are described. MEG is a non-invasive technique, which records magnetic fields naturally generated by the brain and their spatial distribution. It allows simultaneous functional and structural information. MEG is therefore used in the study of primary and superior cognitive functions, in surveillance of patterns of normal cognitive function and those specific to the different LD clinical manifestations.

  14. Parametrized post-Newtonian theory of reference frames, multipolar expansions and equations of motion in the N-body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-Newtonian relativistic theory of astronomical reference frames based on Einstein's general theory of relativity was adopted by General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union in 2000. This theory is extended in the present paper by taking into account all relativistic effects caused by the presumable existence of a scalar field and parametrized by two parameters, ? and ?, of the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. We use a general class of the scalar-tensor (Brans-Dicke type) theories of gravitation to work out PPN concepts of global and local reference frames for an astronomical N-body system. The global reference frame is a standard PPN coordinate system. A local reference frame is constructed in the vicinity of a weakly self-gravitating body (a sub-system of the bodies) that is a member of the astronomical N-body system. Such local inertial frame is required for unambiguous derivation of the equations of motion of the body in the field of other members of the N-body system and for construction of adequate algorithms for data analysis of various gravitational experiments conducted in ground-based laboratories and/or on board of spacecrafts in the solar system.We assume that the bodies comprising the N-body system have weak gravitational field and move slowly. At the same time we do not impose any specific limitations on the distribution of density, velocity and the equation of state of the body's matter. Scalar-tensor equations of the gravitr. Scalar-tensor equations of the gravitational field are solved by making use of the post-Newtonian approximations so that the metric tensor and the scalar field are obtained as functions of the global and local coordinates. A correspondence between the local and global coordinate frames is found by making use of asymptotic expansion matching technique. This technique allows us to find a class of the post-Newtonian coordinate transformations between the frames as well as equations of translational motion of the origin of the local frame along with the law of relativistic precession of its spatial axes. These transformations depend on the PPN parameters ? and ?, generalize general relativistic transformations of the IAU 2000 resolutions, and should be used in the data processing of the solar system gravitational experiments aimed to detect the presence of the scalar field. These PPN transformations are also applicable in the precise time-keeping metrology, celestial mechanics, astrometry, geodesy and navigation.We consider a multipolar post-Newtonian expansion of the gravitational and scalar fields and construct a set of internal and external gravitational multipoles depending on the parameters ? and ?. These PPN multipoles generalize the Thorne-Blanchet-Damour multipoles defined in harmonic coordinates of general theory of relativity. The PPN multipoles of the scalar-tensor theory of gravity are split in three classes-active, conformal, and scalar multipoles. Only two of them are algebraically independent and we chose to work with the conformal and active multipoles. We derive the laws of conservations of the multipole moments and show that they must be formulated in terms of the conformal multipoles. We focus then on the law of conservation of body's linear momentum which is defined as a time derivative of the conformal dipole moment of the body in the local coordinates. We prove that the local force violating the law of conservation of the body's linear momentum depends exclusively on the active multipole moments of the body along with a few other terms which depend on the internal structure of the body and are responsible for the violation of the strong principle of equivalence (the Nordtvedt effect).The PPN translational equations of motion of extended bodies in the global coordinate frame and with all gravitational multipoles taken into account are derived from the law of conservation of the body's linear momentum supplemented by the law of motion of the origin of the local frame derived from the matching procedure. We use these equations to analyz

  15. Inspiral-merger-ringdown multipolar waveforms of nonspinning black-hole binaries using the effective-one-body formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Yi; Buonanno, Alessandra; Boyle, Michael; Buchman, Luisa T.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Scheel, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    We calibrate an effective-one-body (EOB) model to numerical-relativity simulations of mass ratios 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, by maximizing phase and amplitude agreement of the leading (2,2) mode and of the subleading modes (2,1), (3,3), (4,4) and (5,5). Aligning the calibrated EOB waveforms and the numerical waveforms at low frequency, the phase difference of the (2,2) mode between model and numerical simulation remains below 0.1 rad throughout the evolution for all mass ratios cons...

  16. Inspiral-merger-ringdown multipolar waveforms of nonspinning black-hole binaries using the effective-one-body formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Yi; Boyle, Michael; Buchman, Luisa T; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    We calibrate an effective-one-body (EOB) model to numerical-relativity simulations of mass ratios 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, by maximizing phase and amplitude agreement of the leading (2,2) mode and of the subleading modes (2,1), (3,3), (4,4) and (5,5). Aligning the calibrated EOB waveforms and the numerical waveforms at low frequency, the phase difference of the (2,2) mode between model and numerical simulation remains below 0.1 rad throughout the evolution for all mass ratios considered. The fractional amplitude difference at peak amplitude of the (2,2) mode is 2% and grows to 12% during the ringdown. Using the Advanced LIGO noise curve we study the effectualness and measurement accuracy of the EOB model, and stress the relevance of modeling the higher-order modes for parameter estimation. We find that the effectualness, measured by the mismatch, between the EOB and numerical-relativity polarizations which include only the (2,2) mode is smaller than 0.2% for binaries with total mass 20-200 Msun and mass ratios 1, 2...

  17. Inspiral-merger-ringdown multipolar waveforms of nonspinning black-hole binaries using the effective-one-body formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calibrate an effective-one-body (EOB) model to numerical-relativity simulations of mass ratios 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, by maximizing phase and amplitude agreement of the leading (2, 2) mode and of the subleading modes (2, 1), (3, 3), (4, 4) and (5, 5). Aligning the calibrated EOB waveforms and the numerical waveforms at low frequency, the phase difference of the (2, 2) mode between model and numerical simulation remains below ?0.1 rad throughout the evolution for all mass ratios considered. The fractional amplitude difference at peak amplitude of the (2, 2) mode is 2% and grows to 12% during the ringdown. Using the Advanced LIGO noise curve we study the effectualness and measurement accuracy of the EOB model, and stress the relevance of modeling the higher-order modes for parameter estimation. We find that the effectualness, measured by the mismatch between the EOB and numerical-relativity polarizations which include only the (2, 2) mode, is smaller than 0.2% for binaries with total mass 20-200M· and mass ratios 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. When numerical-relativity polarizations contain the strongest seven modes, and stellar-mass black holes with masses less than 50M· are considered, the mismatch for mass ratio 6 (1) can be as high as 7% (0.2%) when only the EOB (2, 2) mode is included, and an upper bound of the mismatch is 0.5% (0.07%) when all the four subleading EOB modes calibrated in this paper are taken into account. For binaries with intermediateccount. For binaries with intermediate-mass black holes with masses greater than 50M· the mismatches are larger. We also determine for which signal-to-noise ratios the EOB model developed here can be used to measure binary parameters with systematic biases smaller than statistical errors due to detector noise.

  18. Phase Transition in Size- and Charge-Asymmetric Model Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Khomkin, A. L.; Mulenko, I. A.

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical model of vapor-liquid phase transition in a system of charged hard cores of different diameters is suggested (with the parameters of the transition obtained in a number of studies using the Monte Carlo method). The model is based on the assumption that, in the neighborhood of the critical point, the system of charged cores is a mixture of multipolarly interacting neutral complexes.

  19. Imagens multipolarizadas do sensor Palsar/Alos na discriminação das fases fenológicas da cana?de?açúcar / Multipolarized Palsar/Alos images to discriminate sugarcane phenological phases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michelle Cristina Araujo, Picoli; Rubens Augusto, Lamparelli; Edson Eyji, Sano; Jansle Vieira, Rocha.

    1307-13-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial das imagens multipolarizadas do sensor?radar Palsar/Alos em diferenciar as fases fenológicas da cana?de?açúcar. Valores digitais de quatro imagens do sensor, dos meses de fevereiro, maio, agosto e outubro de 2008, com polarizações HH (emissão e receb [...] imento de onda na polarização horizontal) e HV (emissão de onda na polarização horizontal e recebimento na vertical), foram convertidos para coeficientes de retroespalhamento (?°), para a análise de dados de cana?de?açúcar, cultivadas em talhões na região nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. Foram selecionadas três variedades, em diferentes estágios fenológicos: RB85?5156, seis talhões; RB86?7515, dez talhões; e RB92?5345, dez talhões. As diferenças entre as fases fenológicas foram avaliadas para cada uma das variedades e, também, entre as variedades. A utilização simultânea ou não dos dados do sensor Palsar/Alos, obtidos em duas polarizações, foi capaz de discriminar as diferentes fases de crescimento da cana?de?açúcar, com exceção da fase de crescimento dos colmos e a fase de maturação, em que não foi observada diferença significativa. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of multipolarized Palsar/Alos satellite images to discriminate phenological phases of sugarcane. Digital values from four digital images of February, May, August, and October 2008, with HH (sending and receiving wave in horizontal polarization [...] ) and HV polarizations (sending wave in horizontal polarization and receiving in vertical polarization), were converted to backscattering coefficients (?°) for data analysis of sugarcane cultivated in the northeastern of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Three varieties were selected at different phenological stages: RB85?5156, six stands; RB86?7515, ten stands; and RB92?5345, ten stands. The differences between the phenological phases were analyzed for each variety, and also between varieties. The single or dual?poralized Palsar/Alos data, obtained in two polarizations, were able of discriminating the different phases of sugarcane growth, except for the grand growth period and maturity phase, in which no significant difference was observed.

  20. Multipolar representation of protein structure

    OpenAIRE

    Bourne Philip E; Gramada Apostol

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background That the structure determines the function of proteins is a central paradigm in biology. However, protein functions are more directly related to cooperative effects at the residue and multi-residue scales. As such, current representations based on atomic coordinates can be considered inadequate. Bridging the gap between atomic-level structure and overall protein-level functionality requires parameterizations of the protein structure (and other physicochemical properties) i...

  1. Magnetoencephalography Using High Temperature rf SQUIDs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi; Tavrin, Yuri; Mück-Weymann, Michael; Braginski, Alex I.; Heiden, Christoph; Hampson, Sarah; Pantev, Christo; Elbert, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    We have developed high-critical-temperature radio-frequency Super conducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) with step-edge grain-boundary Josephson junctions and large flux focusers. These planar devices were fabricated from epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7 films and operated in the magnetometer and first-order gradiometer configurations while immersed in liquid nitrogen. At the temperature of 77K, we have attained a magnetic field resolution for the magnetometer better than 200 fT/Hz1/2 down to le...

  2. Description of the magnetic moments of 117Sb, 115Sb, and 113Sn in the quasiparticle-phonon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 11/2- isomeric states of 117Sb, 115Sb, and 113Sn are described in the framework of the quasiparticle-phonon model. Phonon multipolarities lambda = 2 and 3 are used for description of these states. The magnetic moments of these states and the spectroscopic factors and probabilities of B(E3) transitions to the ground state are calculated. The admixture of higher configurations involving core polarization is also taken into account in calculation of the matrix elements

  3. Finding optimal radial-function parameters for S atoms in the Hansen-Coppens multipole model through refinement of theoretical densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, P. M.; Coppens, P.

    2006-05-01

    The multipolar model of the valence-electron-density distribution for sulfur has been optimized based on theoretical structure factors for six organic molecules. It is shown that: (a) the ratio of the n(l) values for different l is more important than their absolute values, and (b) the (2,4,6,8) set of n(l) with [kappa] ' refined as a single value is an optimal choice of radial function parameters for S atoms.

  4. Scaling laws, force balances and dynamo generation mechanisms in numerical dynamo models: influence of boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaraj, G.; Stanley, S.; Qu, A. C.

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the influence of different thermal and velocity boundary conditions on numerical geodynamo models. We concentrate on the implications for magnetic field morphology, heat transport scaling laws, force balances and generation mechanisms. The field morphology most strongly depends on the local Rossby number, but there is some variation in the dipolarity of the field with boundary condition. Scaling laws also depend on the boundary conditions, but a diffusivity-free scaling is a good first order approximation for all our dipolar models. Our multipolar models, however, obey different scaling laws from dipolar models implying a different force balance in these models. We find that our dipolar models have a stronger degree of Lorentz-Coriolis balance compared to our multipolar models which have a stronger degree of Lorentz-inertial balance.The models with a stronger Lorentz-Coriolis dominance can be generated by either ??, ?2? or ?2 mechanisms whereas the models with a stronger Lorentz-inertial balance are all ?2 dynamos. These results imply that some caution is necessary when extrapolating results from dynamo models to Earth-like parameters since the choice of boundary conditions can have important effects.

  5. Information Content Analysis for the Multi-Viewing, Multi-Channel, Multi-Polarization Imaging (3MI) Instrument : Toward Retrieval of Vertically Resolved Cloud Properties from Passive Only Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedi, J.; Merlin, G.; Labonnote, L.; Cornet, C.; Ferlay, N.; Desmons, M.; Dubuisson, P.; Parol, F.; Davis, A. B.; Marbach, T.

    2014-12-01

    The EUMETSAT Polar System- Second Generation (EPS-SG) is currently under development to take over the current EUMETSAT Polar System at the 2020 horizon. As part of it, the Multi-Viewing Multi-Channel Multi-Polarization Imaging mission (3MI) will be dedicated to the operational monitoring of aerosols but will also provide unique observations for characterization of cloud properties building on the legacy of POLDER and particularly of its 3rd mission (PARASOL) within the A-Train. Through the synergy of POLDER3/PARASOL and MODIS/AQUA several studies have demonstrated the great interest of combining multispectral, multiangle and polarization measurements in the visible, near and shortwave infrared to better constrain retrieval of clouds microphysical and macrophysical properties. Remote-sensing of cloud thermodynamic phase (Riedi et al, 2010), liquid (Bréon and Doutriaux-Boucher, 2005) or ice clouds microphysics (Zhang et al, 2009; Cole et al, 2012), cloud radiative (Zeng et al, 2012) or macrophysical properties (Ferlay et al, 2010; Desmons et al, 2013) can unarguably benefit from the additional information content brought by polarization and multiangle measurements. At the same time, retrieval algorithms are gaining further complexity and skills. Thanks to availability of computational resources, practical implementation of optimal estimation or related optimization techniques (Delanoe & Hogan, 2008; Dubovik et al, 2013) have appeared that allow simultaneous and consistent retrieval of larger sets of parameters from constantly growing observations vectors. Therefore 3MI observations will not only allow to improve accuracy of future cloud products but also opens perspectives for the development of new retrieval algorithms. A major challenge for cloud remote-sensing from passive measurements is to obtain information on clouds properties vertical distribution and structure. Through results of a comprehensive information content analysis we will illustrate our current efforts to obtain vertically resolved information on cloud properties from 3MI passive measurements only. In particular the synergy of multiangle polarization measurements at 443 and 865 nm with Oxygen A-band differential absorption information to retrieve cloud geometrical thickness will be discussed.

  6. Multipolar corrections for Lense-Thirring precession

    CERN Document Server

    Zimbres, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    For stationary axially symmetric spacetimes we find a simple expression for the Lense-Thirring precession in terms of the Ernst potential. This expression is used to compute, in the weak field approximation, the major non-spherical contributions to the precession of a gyroscope orbiting the Earth. We reproduce previously known results and give a new estimation for non-spherical contributions.

  7. Multipolar hierarchy of efficient quantum polarization measures

    OpenAIRE

    de la Hoz, P.; Klimov, A. B.; Björk, Gunnar; Kim, Y. -H.; Müller, C.; Marquardt, Ch.; Leuchs, G.; Sanchez-Soto, L.L.

    2014-01-01

    We advocate a simple multipole expansion of the polarisation density matrix. The resulting multipoles appear as successive moments of the Stokes variables and can be obtained from feasible measurements. In terms of these multipoles, we construct a whole hierarchy of measures that accurately assess higher-order polarization fluctuations.

  8. Detailed magnetic model simulations of the H- injection chicane magnets for the CERN PS Booster Upgrade, including eddy currents and influence on beam dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, E; Borburgh, J; Carli, C; Martini, M; Forte, V

    2014-01-01

    The CERN PS Booster will be upgraded with an H- injection system. The chicanemagnets for the injection bump ramp-down in 5 ms and generate eddy currents in the inconel vacuum chamber which perturb the homogeneity of the magnetic field. The multipolar field components are extracted from 3D OPERA simulations and are included in the lattice model. The -beating correction is computed all along the ramp and complete tracking simulations including space-charge are performed to evaluate the impact of these perturbations and correction on beam dynamics.

  9. Modelling the dispersion energy for Van der Waals complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Sanz-Garcia, A

    2002-01-01

    Strictly ab initio calculations of the dispersion energy are unfeasible in practice but for the smallest systems. A sensible alternative is to model the dispersion contribution through a damped multipolar expansion. This thesis proposes to represent the dispersion energy by means of a non-empirical, atom-atom model using damping functions scaled from 'exact' results for one electron-one electron systems. We start by investigating the scalability of ab initio calculated damping functions for closed-shell atom-atom dimers. Ab initio scaling parameters are employed to assess the quality of the damping functions yielded by a predictor scheme based on the charge overlap between the interacting monomers. The investigation of the scaling properties is extended to atom-linear molecule systems, focusing on the dependence on orientation of the short-range dispersion energy and how to account for it using isotropic damping parameters. We study the possibilities of an 'atomic' (multicentre) representation of the dispersi...

  10. Distorted cortical networks in dislexia: findings using Magnetoencephalography (MEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo M. Catillo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In dyslexic children a functional deficit in the brain circuitry supporting some of the cognitive operations taking place while they learn how the printed words maps onto spoken language is suspected. Until recently, however, no information existed regarding the functional status of this circuit during the early stages of reading acquisition. In the context of three studies we sought to address key issues in the pathophysiology of this condition using Magnetoencephalograhy (MEG at the University of Texas-Houston. The first study, including 30 kindergarten children at risk for developing reading problems and 15 not-at-risk controls, ascertained that the aberrant neural circuit that underlies reading problems appears to be present in the initial stages of reading acquisition. A subset of these children were retested a year later using identical procedures in a second study. Children in the at-risk group showed the most prominent changes in brain activation profiles and successfully predicted individual differences in the growth of reading skill measures. The results of a third study showed clearly that the aberrant activation profile can be normalized following intensive behavioral instruction. These findings are consistent with the view that dyslexia represents a functional deficit in the neural network that mediates the conversion of print to sound, which is amenable to change given adequate instruction.

  11. Noise cancellation in magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography with isolated reference sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Jr., Robert H.; Espy, Michelle A.; Matlachov, Andrei; Volegov, Petr

    2010-06-01

    An apparatus measures electromagnetic signals from a weak signal source. A plurality of primary sensors is placed in functional proximity to the weak signal source with an electromagnetic field isolation surface arranged adjacent the primary sensors and between the weak signal source and sources of ambient noise. A plurality of reference sensors is placed adjacent the electromagnetic field isolation surface and arranged between the electromagnetic isolation surface and sources of ambient noise.

  12. Equation of Motion for the Solvent Polarization Apparent Charges in the Polarizable Continuum Model: Application to Real-Time TDDFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corni, Stefano; Pipolo, Silvio; Cammi, Roberto

    2015-05-28

    When a solute charge density is evolving in time, e.g., due to an external perturbation, the solvent reaction field also becomes time-dependent, in a nontrivial way due to the delayed response of the solvent polarization rooted in its frequency-dependent dielectric constant. In polarizable continuum models, the time-dependent reaction field is represented by time-dependent apparent surface charges. Here, we derive general expressions for such charges. In particular, for all the main flavors of PCM, including IEF-PCM, we show how the frequency-dependent dielectric function terms can be singled-out in diagonal matrices, most convenient for Fourier transforming. For spherical cavities such formulation highlights the relation with multipolar solvation models and, when applied to the related context of metal nanoparticles, discloses a direct connection with multipolar plasmons. Using the Debye dielectric function, we derive a simple equation of motion for the apparent charges, free from system history. Such an equation has been coupled to real time time-dependent density functional theory (RT-TDDFT), to simulate the time evolution of the solute density rigorously accounting for the delayed solvent reaction field. The presented method seamlessly encompasses previous nonequilibrium approaches limited to an instantaneous solute potential change (e.g., a sudden electronic excitation), does not require additional assumptions besides the basic PCM's, and is not limited to iterative inversion procedures. Numerical examples are given, showing the importance of accounting for the delayed solvent-response effects. PMID:25485456

  13. Electro-magneto-encephalography for the three-shell model: numerical implementation via splines for distributed current in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic inverse problems for the functional imaging techniques of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) consist in estimating the neuronal current in the brain from the measurement of the electric potential on the scalp and of the magnetic field outside the head. Here we present a rigorous derivation of the relevant formulae for a three-shell spherical model in the case of independent as well as simultaneous MEG and EEG measurements. Furthermore, we introduce an explicit and stable technique for the numerical implementation of these formulae via splines. Numerical examples are presented using the locations and the normal unit vectors of the real 102 magnetometers and 70 electrodes of the Elekta Neuromag (R) system. These results may have useful implications for the interpretation of the reconstructions obtained via the existing approaches. (paper)

  14. Electro-magneto-encephalography for the three-shell model: numerical implementation via splines for distributed current in spherical geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokas, A. S.; Hauk, O.; Michel, V.

    2012-03-01

    The basic inverse problems for the functional imaging techniques of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) consist in estimating the neuronal current in the brain from the measurement of the electric potential on the scalp and of the magnetic field outside the head. Here we present a rigorous derivation of the relevant formulae for a three-shell spherical model in the case of independent as well as simultaneous MEG and EEG measurements. Furthermore, we introduce an explicit and stable technique for the numerical implementation of these formulae via splines. Numerical examples are presented using the locations and the normal unit vectors of the real 102 magnetometers and 70 electrodes of the Elekta Neuromag (R) system. These results may have useful implications for the interpretation of the reconstructions obtained via the existing approaches.

  15. Automatic procedure for realistic 3D finite element modelling of human brain for bioelectromagnetic computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristovich, K Y; Khan, S H, E-mail: kirill.aristovich.1@city.ac.u [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Realistic computer modelling of biological objects requires building of very accurate and realistic computer models based on geometric and material data, type, and accuracy of numerical analyses. This paper presents some of the automatic tools and algorithms that were used to build accurate and realistic 3D finite element (FE) model of whole-brain. These models were used to solve the forward problem in magnetic field tomography (MFT) based on Magnetoencephalography (MEG). The forward problem involves modelling and computation of magnetic fields produced by human brain during cognitive processing. The geometric parameters of the model were obtained from accurate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data and the material properties - from those obtained from Diffusion Tensor MRI (DTMRI). The 3D FE models of the brain built using this approach has been shown to be very accurate in terms of both geometric and material properties. The model is stored on the computer in Computer-Aided Parametrical Design (CAD) format. This allows the model to be used in a wide a range of methods of analysis, such as finite element method (FEM), Boundary Element Method (BEM), Monte-Carlo Simulations, etc. The generic model building approach presented here could be used for accurate and realistic modelling of human brain and many other biological objects.

  16. Critical examination of the radial functions in the Hansen-Coppens multipole model through topological analysis of primary and refined theoretical densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, A; Coppens, P

    2001-07-01

    A double-zeta (DZ) multipolar model has been applied to theoretical structure factors of four organic molecular crystals as a test of the ability of the multipole model to faithfully retrieve a theoretical charge density. The DZ model leads to significant improvement in the agreement with the theoretical charge density along the covalent bonds and its topological parameters, and eliminates some of the bias introduced by the limited flexibility of the radial functions when a theoretical density is projected into the conventional multipole formalism. The DZ model may be too detailed for analysis of experimental data sets of the accuracy and resolution typically achieved at present, but provides guidance for the type of algorithms to be adapted in future studies. PMID:11418749

  17. Bayesian mixture models for source separation in MEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the problem of imaging electromagnetic brain activity from measurements of the induced magnetic field outside the head. This imaging modality, magnetoencephalography (MEG), is known to be severely ill posed, and in order to obtain useful estimates for the activity map, complementary information needs to be used to regularize the problem. In this paper, a particular emphasis is on finding non-superficial focal sources that induce a magnetic field that may be confused with noise due to external sources and with distributed brain noise. The data are assumed to come from a mixture of a focal source and a spatially distributed possibly virtual source; hence, to differentiate between those two components, the problem is solved within a Bayesian framework, with a mixture model prior encoding the information that different sources may be concurrently active. The mixture model prior combines one density that favors strongly focal sources and another that favors spatially distributed sources, interpreted as clutter in the source estimation. Furthermore, to address the challenge of localizing deep focal sources, a novel depth sounding algorithm is suggested, and it is shown with simulated data that the method is able to distinguish between a signal arising from a deep focal source and a clutter signal. (paper)

  18. Bayesian mixture models for source separation in MEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvetti, Daniela; Homa, Laura; Somersalo, Erkki

    2011-11-01

    This paper discusses the problem of imaging electromagnetic brain activity from measurements of the induced magnetic field outside the head. This imaging modality, magnetoencephalography (MEG), is known to be severely ill posed, and in order to obtain useful estimates for the activity map, complementary information needs to be used to regularize the problem. In this paper, a particular emphasis is on finding non-superficial focal sources that induce a magnetic field that may be confused with noise due to external sources and with distributed brain noise. The data are assumed to come from a mixture of a focal source and a spatially distributed possibly virtual source; hence, to differentiate between those two components, the problem is solved within a Bayesian framework, with a mixture model prior encoding the information that different sources may be concurrently active. The mixture model prior combines one density that favors strongly focal sources and another that favors spatially distributed sources, interpreted as clutter in the source estimation. Furthermore, to address the challenge of localizing deep focal sources, a novel depth sounding algorithm is suggested, and it is shown with simulated data that the method is able to distinguish between a signal arising from a deep focal source and a clutter signal.

  19. Refined modeling of superconducting double helical coils using finite element analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinon, S.; Fabbricatore, P.

    2012-06-01

    Double helical coils are becoming more and more attractive for accelerator magnets and other applications. Conceptually, a sinusoidal modulation of the longitudinal position of the turns allows virtually any multipolar field to be produced and maximizes the effectiveness of the supplied ampere turns. Being intrinsically three-dimensional, the modeling of such structures is very complicated, and several approaches, with different degrees of complexity, can be used. In this paper we present various possibilities for solving the magnetostatic problem of a double helical coil, through both finite element analyses and direct integration of the Biot-Savart law, showing the limits and advantages of each solution and the corresponding information which can be derived.

  20. A variational Bayes spatiotemporal model for electromagnetic brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathoo, F S; Babul, A; Moiseev, A; Virji-Babul, N; Beg, M F

    2014-03-01

    In this article, we present a new variational Bayes approach for solving the neuroelectromagnetic inverse problem arising in studies involving electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). This high-dimensional spatiotemporal estimation problem involves the recovery of time-varying neural activity at a large number of locations within the brain, from electromagnetic signals recorded at a relatively small number of external locations on or near the scalp. Framing this problem within the context of spatial variable selection for an underdetermined functional linear model, we propose a spatial mixture formulation where the profile of electrical activity within the brain is represented through location-specific spike-and-slab priors based on a spatial logistic specification. The prior specification accommodates spatial clustering in brain activation, while also allowing for the inclusion of auxiliary information derived from alternative imaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We develop a variational Bayes approach for computing estimates of neural source activity, and incorporate a nonparametric bootstrap for interval estimation. The proposed methodology is compared with several alternative approaches through simulation studies, and is applied to the analysis of a multimodal neuroimaging study examining the neural response to face perception using EEG, MEG, and fMRI. PMID:24354514

  1. Mathematical framework for large-scale brain network modeling in The Virtual Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Leon, Paula; Knock, Stuart A; Spiegler, Andreas; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2015-05-01

    In this article, we describe the mathematical framework of the computational model at the core of the tool The Virtual Brain (TVB), designed to simulate collective whole brain dynamics by virtualizing brain structure and function, allowing simultaneous outputs of a number of experimental modalities such as electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG, MEG) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). The implementation allows for a systematic exploration and manipulation of every underlying component of a large-scale brain network model (BNM), such as the neural mass model governing the local dynamics or the structural connectivity constraining the space time structure of the network couplings. Here, a consistent notation for the generalized BNM is given, so that in this form the equations represent a direct link between the mathematical description of BNMs and the components of the numerical implementation in TVB. Finally, we made a summary of the forward models implemented for mapping simulated neural activity (EEG, MEG, sterotactic electroencephalogram (sEEG), fMRI), identifying their advantages and limitations. PMID:25592995

  2. Mercado Simbólico: um modelo de comunicação para políticas públicas / The symbolic market: a communication model for public policies / Mercado Simbólico: un modelo de comunicación para políticas públicas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Inesita Soares de, Araújo.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho tem como objetivo propor um modelo para análise e planejamento estratégico da comunicação nas políticas públicas, considerando que os modelos correntes não dão conta adequadamente da prática comunicativa nos processos de intervenção social, frustrando os altos investimentos e expectativas [...] que despertam. O "Modelo do Mercado Simbólico", em rede, descentrado e multipolar, é composto por uma formulação teórica, uma representação gráfica dos principais componentes e suas relações e de uma matriz de análise e planejamento estratégico das relações comunicativas. A representação gráfica contempla: a rede de sentidos sociais, os interlocutores e seus contextos e "lugar de interlocução". A matriz inclui fontes, campos, instâncias, comunidades discursivas e uma tipologia de fatores de mediação. Abstract in spanish El trabajo tiene como objetivo proponer un modelo para análisis y planificación estratégica de la comunicación en las políticas públicas, considerando que los modelos corrientes no sustentan adecuadamente la práctica comunicativa en los procesos de intervención social, frustrando las altas inversion [...] es y expectativas que despiertan. El "Modelo del Mercado Simbólico", en red, descentrado y multipolar, es compuesto por una formulación teórica, una representación gráfica de los principales componentes y sus relaciones y de una matriz de análisis y planificación estratégica de las relaciones comunicativas. La representación gráfica contempla: la red de sentidos sociales, los interlocutores y sus contextos y "lugar de interlocución". La matriz incluye fuentes, campos, instancias, comunidades discursivas y una tipología de factores de mediación. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to put forth a model for the analysis and strategic planning of the communication of public policies, given that the current models fail to adequately fulfill communication requirements in the processes of social intervention, frustrating the high investments and expecta [...] tions that they give rise to. The "Symbolic Market Model", in network form, both decentralized and multipolar, is comprised of (i) a theoretical formulation, (ii) a graphical representation of the main components and the relations between them and (iii) an analysis and strategic planning matrix of communicative relations. The graphic representation takes into account: the network of social senses, the interlocutors and their contexts, and the "place of dialogue". The matrix includes sources, fields, instances, discursive communities and a typology of mediation factors.

  3. The filamentary Multi-Polar Planetary Nebula NGC 5189

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, L; López, J A; García-Díaz, Ma T; Ramos-Larios, G

    2012-01-01

    We present a set of optical and infrared images combined with long-slit, medium and high dispersion spectra of the southern planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5189. The complex morphology of this PN is puzzling and has not been studied in detail so far. Our investigation reveals the presence of a new dense and cold infrared torus (alongside the optical one) which probably generated one of the two optically seen bipolar outflows and which might be responsible for the twisted appearance of the optical torus via an interaction process. The high-resolution MES-AAT spectra clearly show the presence of filamentary and knotty structures as well as three expanding bubbles. Our findings therefore suggest that NGC 5189 is a quadrupolar nebula with multiple sets of symmetrical condensations in which the interaction of outflows has determined the complex morphology.

  4. Bipolar and multipolar Jets in protoplanetary and planetary nebulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahai Raghvendra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los retos m as emocionantes con que actualmente se enfrentan las teor as de evoluci on posterior a la secuencia principal, es entender c omo estrellas AGB (ingl. "Asymptotic Giant Branch" y sus envolturas cicunestelares esf ericas (siglas en ingl es: CSEs se transforman en nebulosas planetarias (NPs con su asombrosa variedad de morfolog as asf ericas. El modelo m as exitoso para dar forma a los NPs|el modelo generalizado de vientos estelares interactuantes, en el cual un viento esf erico de alta velocidad (> 1000 km s...

  5. Sustaining multilateral trade cooperation in a multipolar world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekman, Bernard M.

    2013-01-01

    The deadlock in the WTO Doha Round has been accompanied by an increased focus on the negotiation of preferential trade agreements, including so-called ‘mega-regionals’. This paper discusses possible implications for—and possible responses by—excluded countries that have little prospects of participating in most of the mega-regionals. A number of complementary avenues are identified through which such countries might attenuate the potential downsides of preferential trade liberalizatio...

  6. The filamentary multi-polar planetary nebula NGC 5189

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Sabin; R., Vázquez; J. A., López; Ma. T., García-Díaz; G., Ramos-Larios.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos un conjunto de imágenes ópticas e infrarrojas combinadas con espectros de rendija larga de mediana y alta dispersión de la Nebulosa Planetaria (NP) del sur NGC 5189. La compleja morfología de esta NP es desconcertante y no había sido estudiada en detalle hasta ahora. Nuestra investigació [...] n revela la presencia de un toroide denso y frío, en el infrarrojo, el cual probablemente generó uno de los dos flujos bipolares vistos en el óptico y podría, mediante un proceso de interacción, ser también responsable de la apariencia retorcida del toroide óptico. Los espectros de alta resolución del MES-AAT muestran claramente la presencia de nudos y estructuras filamentosas, así como tres burbujas en expansión. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que NGC 5189 es una NP cuadrupolar con varios conjuntos de condensaciones simétricas en la cual la interacción de flujos determinó su compleja morfología. Abstract in english We present a set of optical and infrared images combined with long-slit, medium and high dispersion spectra of the southern planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5189. The complex morphology of this PN is puzzling and has not been studied in detailed so far. Our investigation reveals the presence of a new dense [...] and cold infrared torus (alongside the optical one) which probably generated one of the two optically seen bipolar outflows and which might be responsible for the twisted appearance of the optical torus via an interaction process. The high-resolution MES-AAT spectra clearly show the presence of filamentary and knotty structures as well as three expanding bubbles. Our findings therefore suggest that NGC 5189 is a quadrupolar nebula with multiple sets of symmetrical condensations in which the interaction of outflows has determined its complex morphology.

  7. A pair spectrometer for measuring multipolarities of energetic nuclear transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Gulyás, J; Krasznahorkay, A J; Csatlós, M; Csige, L; Gácsi, Z; Hunyadi, M; Krasznahorkay, A; Vitéz, A; Tornyi, T G

    2015-01-01

    A multi-detector array has been designed and constructed for the simultaneous measurement of energy- and angular correlations of electron-positron pairs. Experimental results are obtained over a wide angular range for high-energy transitions in 16O, 12C and 8Be. A comparison with GEANT simulations demonstrates that angular correlations between 50 and 180 degrees of the electron-positron pairs in the energy range between 6 and 18 MeV can be determined with sufficient resolution and efficiency.

  8. Nanoscale interference patterns of gap-mode multipolar plasmonic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshito Tanaka; Akio Sanada; Keiji Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    Arbitrary spatial distributions of the electric field of light are formed through the interference of individual wavenumber mode fields with appropriate amplitudes and phases, while the maximum wavenumber in the far field is limited by the wavelength of light. In contrast, localized surface plasmons (LSPs) possess the ability to confine photons strongly into nanometer-scale areas, exceeding the diffraction limit. In particular, gap-mode LSPs produce single-nanometer-sized, highly intense loca...

  9. Neutron star deformation due to multipolar magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrano, Alpha; Lasky, Paul D; Melatos, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Certain multi-wavelength observations of neutron stars, such as intermittent radio emissions from rotation-powered pulsars beyond the pair-cascade death line, the pulse profile of the magnetar SGR 1900+14 after its 1998 August 27 giant flare, and X-ray spectral features of PSR J0821-4300 and SGR 0418+5729, suggest that the magnetic fields of non-accreting neutron stars are not purely dipolar and may contain higher-order multipoles. Here, we calculate the ellipticity of a non...

  10. RF Multipolar Characterization of the Latest LHC Deflecting Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro-Tapia, M; Calaga, R

    2013-01-01

    Deflecting cavity geometries considered for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) crab scheme lack axial symmetry resulting in non-zero higher-order components of the deflecting field. A formalism to express the higher-order multipoles was developed and applied on previous cavity designs to characterize their influence on the beam stability. In this paper, the radio frequency (RF) multipoles are numerically estimated for the latest cavity geometries and compared to the older versions. A sensitivity study is carried out to understand the numerical errors levels and define mechanical tolerances.

  11. FRAGMENTATION OF HIGH MULTIPOLAR VIBRATIONAL STRENGTH IN A SEMICLASSICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Fiolhais, C.; Brito, L.

    1987-01-01

    A recent variational approach to the Vlasov equation has shown its ability to describe some splitting of the strength corresponding to nuclear giant resonances (l = 2- 4), as a consequence of the allowance for rotation flow. This fragmentation of strength should be understood as a manifestation in a finite system of the phenomenon of Landau damping, which is well-known, for instance, in the electron gas. In this work we extend previous studies, in order to discuss the fragmentation of strengt...

  12. Astronomical relativistic reference systems with multipolar expansion: the global one

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yi

    2014-01-01

    With rapid development of techniques for astronomical observations, the precision of measurements has been significantly increasing. Theories of astronomical relativistic reference systems, which are the foundation for processing and interpreting these data now and in the future, may require extensions to satisfy the needs of these trends. Besides building a framework compatible with alternative theories of gravity and the pursuit of higher order post-Newtonian approximation...

  13. China's Soft Diplomacy in an Emerging Multi-polar World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Keynote presentation for the conference"The Growing Prominence of China on the World Stage: Exploring the Political, Economic, and Cultural Relations of China and Global Stakeholders" International Conference, Berlin, September 15th - 18th, 2011 - Held Parallel to the "Berlin - Asia Pacific Weeks Conference 2011

  14. China's Soft Diplomacy in an Emerging Multi-polar World

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2012-01-01

    Keynote presentation for the conference"The Growing Prominence of China on the World Stage: Exploring the Political, Economic, and Cultural Relations of China and Global Stakeholders" International Conference, Berlin, September 15th - 18th, 2011 - Held Parallel to the "Berlin - Asia Pacific Weeks Conference 2011

  15. Rapidly recomputable EEG forward models for realistic head shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermer, John J.; Mosher, John C.; Baillet, Sylvain; Leahy, Richard M.

    2001-04-01

    With the increasing availability of surface extraction techniques for magnetic resonance and x-ray computed tomography images, realistic head models can be readily generated as forward models in the analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. Inverse analysis of this data, however, requires that the forward model be computationally efficient. We propose two methods for approximating the EEG forward model using realistic head shapes. The `sensor-fitted sphere' approach fits a multilayer sphere individually to each sensor, and the `three-dimensional interpolation' scheme interpolates using a grid on which a numerical boundary element method (BEM) solution has been precomputed. We have characterized the performance of each method in terms of magnitude and subspace error metrics, as well as computational and memory requirements. We have also made direct performance comparisons with traditional spherical models. The approximation provided by the interpolative scheme had an accuracy nearly identical to full BEM, even within 3 mm of the inner skull surface. Forward model computation during inverse procedures was approximately 30 times faster than for a traditional three-shell spherical model. Cast in this framework, high-fidelity numerical solutions currently viewed as computationally prohibitive for solving the inverse problem (e.g. linear Galerkin BEM) can be rapidly recomputed in a highly efficient manner. The sensor-fitting method has a similar one-time cost to the BEM method, and while it produces some improvement over a standard three-shell sphere, its performance does not approach that of the interpolation method. In both methods, there is a one-time cost associated with precomputing the forward solution over a set of grid points.

  16. Remote sensing of forest ecosystem dynamics: Measurements and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Darrel L.; Ranson, K. Jon; Knox, Robert G.; Levine, Elissa R.

    1994-01-01

    The development of an integrated approach to the modeling of forest dynamics encompassing submodels of forest growth and succession, soil processes and radiation interactions, is reported. Remote sensing technology is a key element of this study in that it provides data for developing, initializing, updating, and validating the models. The objectives are reviewed, the data collected and models in use are discussed, and a framework for studying interactions between the forest growth, soil process and energy interaction components, is described. Remote sensing technology used in the study includes optical and microwave field, aircraft and satellite borne instruments. The types of data collected during intensive field and aircraft campaigns included bidirectional reflectance, thermal emittance and multifrequency, multipolarization synthetic aperture radar backscatter. Synthetic imagery of derived products such as forest biomass and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetative Index), and collections of ground data are being assembled in a georeferenced data base. These data are used to drive or test multidiscipline simulations of forested ecosystems. Enhancements to the modeling environment permit considerable flexibility in configuring simulations and selecting results for reporting and graphical display.

  17. Differences between MEG and high-density EEG source localizations using a distributed source model in comparison to fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamer, Silke; Elshahabi, Adham; Lerche, Holger; Braun, Christoph; Erb, Michael; Scheffler, Klaus; Focke, Niels K

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are widely used to localize brain activity and their spatial resolutions have been compared in several publications. While most clinical studies demonstrated higher accuracy of MEG source localization, simulation studies suggested a more accurate EEG than MEG localization for the same number of channels. However, studies comparing real MEG and EEG data with equivalent number of channels are scarce. We investigated 14 right-handed healthy subjects performing a motor task in MEG, high-density-(hd-) EEG and fMRI as well as a somatosensory task in MEG and hd-EEG and compared source analysis results of the evoked brain activity between modalities with different head models. Using individual head models, hd-EEG localized significantly closer to the anatomical reference point obtained by fMRI than MEG. Source analysis results were least accurate for hd-EEG based on a standard head model. Further, hd-EEG and MEG localized more medially than fMRI. Localization accuracy of electric source imaging is dependent on the head model used with more accurate results obtained with individual head models. If this is taken into account, EEG localization can be more accurate than MEG localization for the same number of channels. PMID:25296614

  18. Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Spädtke, P

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of technical machines became a standard technique since computer became powerful enough to handle the amount of data relevant to the specific system. Simulation of an existing physical device requires the knowledge of all relevant quantities. Electric fields given by the surrounding boundary as well as magnetic fields caused by coils or permanent magnets have to be known. Internal sources for both fields are sometimes taken into account, such as space charge forces or the internal magnetic field of a moving bunch of charged particles. Used solver routines are briefly described and some bench-marking is shown to estimate necessary computing times for different problems. Different types of charged particle sources will be shown together with a suitable model to describe the physical model. Electron guns are covered as well as different ion sources (volume ion sources, laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron resonance ion sources, and H$^-$-sources) together with some remarks on beam transport.

  19. Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This last volume in the series of textbooks on environmental isotopes in the hydrological cycle provides an overview of the basic principles of existing conceptual formulations of modelling approaches. While some of the concepts provided in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 are of general validity for quantitative interpretation of isotope data; the modelling methodologies commonly employed for incorporating isotope data into evaluations specifically related to groundwater systems are given in this volume together with some illustrative examples. Development of conceptual models for quantitative interpretations of isotope data in hydrogeology and the assessment of their limitations and field verification has been given priority in the research and development efforts of the IAEA during the last decade. Several Co-ordinated Research Projects on this specific topic were implemented and results published by the IAEA. Based on these efforts and contributions made by a number of scientists involved in this specific field, the IAEA has published two Technical Documents entitled ''Mathematical models and their applications to isotope studies in groundwater studies -- IAEA TECDOC-777, 1994'' and ''Manual on Mathematical models in isotope hydrogeology -- IAEA TECDOC-910, 1996''. Results of a recently completed Co-ordinated Research Project by the IAEA entitled ''Use of isotopes for analysis of flow and transport dynamics in groundwater systems'' will also soon be published by the IAEA. will also soon be published by the IAEA. This is the reason why the IAEA was involved in the co-ordination required for preparation of this volume; the material presented is a condensed overview prepared by some of the scientists that were involved in the above cited IAEA activities. This volume VI providing such an overview was included into the series to make this series self-sufficient in its coverage of the field of Isotope Hydrology. A special chapter on the methodologies and concepts related to geochemical modelling in groundwater systems would have been most desirable to include. The reader is referred to IAEA-TECDOC-910 and other relevant publications for guidance in this specific field

  20. Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slurry flows occur in many circumstances, including chemical manufacturing processes, pipeline transfer of coal, sand, and minerals; mud flows; and disposal of dredged materials. In this section we discuss slurry flow applications related to radioactive waste management. The Hanford tank waste solids and interstitial liquids will be mixed to form a slurry so it can be pumped out for retrieval and treatment. The waste is very complex chemically and physically. The ARIEL code is used to model the chemical interactions and fluid dynamics of the waste

  1. Generalized model of interacting bosons for collective states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of overcoming the difficulties of theoretical description of collective excitations of heavy nuclei it is suggested to expand the ineracting boson model including in it along with monopole S and quadrupole d-bosons dipole p-bosons. The SU(3)-symmetric hamiltonian and T(E2)-boson operator are considered. The results of calculations of energy spectra and probabilities of E2-transitions B(E2) are compared with experimental values for the most studied 232Th and 236U actinide nuclei. The calculated spectra reproduce the structures of levels observed in the experiment. The agreement of experimental and theoretical data for B(E2) in main band for 236U is slightly better than for 232Th. The conclusion is drawn that inclusion of dipole bosonic degrees of freedom along with bosons of other multipolarities (monopole, quadrupole, octupole, if there is octupole static deformation) is undoubtedly necessary for describing the properties of collective excitations of low energy in heavy nuclei

  2. Detecting single-trial EEG evoked potential using a wavelet domain linear mixed model: application to error potentials classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinnato, J.; Roubaud, M.-C.; Burle, B.; Torrésani, B.

    2015-06-01

    Objective. The main goal of this work is to develop a model for multisensor signals, such as magnetoencephalography or electroencephalography (EEG) signals that account for inter-trial variability, suitable for corresponding binary classification problems. An important constraint is that the model be simple enough to handle small size and unbalanced datasets, as often encountered in BCI-type experiments. Approach. The method involves the linear mixed effects statistical model, wavelet transform, and spatial filtering, and aims at the characterization of localized discriminant features in multisensor signals. After discrete wavelet transform and spatial filtering, a projection onto the relevant wavelet and spatial channels subspaces is used for dimension reduction. The projected signals are then decomposed as the sum of a signal of interest (i.e., discriminant) and background noise, using a very simple Gaussian linear mixed model. Main results. Thanks to the simplicity of the model, the corresponding parameter estimation problem is simplified. Robust estimates of class-covariance matrices are obtained from small sample sizes and an effective Bayes plug-in classifier is derived. The approach is applied to the detection of error potentials in multichannel EEG data in a very unbalanced situation (detection of rare events). Classification results prove the relevance of the proposed approach in such a context. Significance. The combination of the linear mixed model, wavelet transform and spatial filtering for EEG classification is, to the best of our knowledge, an original approach, which is proven to be effective. This paper improves upon earlier results on similar problems, and the three main ingredients all play an important role.

  3. Inverse modeling in magnetic source imaging: Comparison of MUSIC, SAM(g2), and sLORETA to interictal intracranial EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gooijer-van de Groep, Karin L; Leijten, Frans S S; Ferrier, Cyrille H; Huiskamp, Geertjan J M

    2013-09-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is used in the presurgical work-up of patients with focal epilepsy. In particular, localization of MEG interictal spikes may guide or replace invasive electroencephalography monitoring that is required in difficult cases. From literature, it is not clear which MEG source localization method performs best in this clinical setting. Therefore, we applied three source localization methods to the same data from a large patient group for which a gold standard, interictal spikes as identified in electrocorticography (ECoG), was available. The methods used were multiple signal classification (MUSIC), Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry kurtosis [SAM(g2)], and standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography. MEG and ECoG data from 38 patients with refractory focal epilepsy were obtained. Results of the three source localization methods applied to the interictal MEG data were assigned to predefined anatomical regions. Interictal spikes as identified in ECoG were also assigned to these regions. Identified regions by each MEG method were compared to ECoG. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of each MEG method were calculated. All three MEG methods showed a similar overall correlate with ECoG spikes, but the methods differ in which regions they detect. The choice of the inverse model thus has an unexpected influence on the results of magnetic source imaging. Combining inverse methods and seeking consensus can be used to improve specificity at the cost of some sensitivity. Combining MUSIC with SAM(g2) gives the best results (sensitivity = 38% and PPV = 82%). PMID:22431346

  4. Ordering and Fluctuation of Quantum Multipoles in CeB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Ryousuke

    2003-02-01

    The effect of multipolar fluctuations on the quadrupolar phase transition in CeB6 is investigated theoretically. It is shown that the fluctuations become strong and field-dependent, reflecting the competition of coupled multipolar interactions. Some unusual phenomena around the transition in CeB6 are shown to be reasonably explained within the RKKY model.

  5. Effects of Contralateral Noise on the 20-Hz Auditory Steady State Response - Magnetoencephalography Study

    OpenAIRE

    Usubuchi, Hajime; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Kanno, Akitake; Yahata, Izumi; Miyazaki, Hiromitsu; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Kawashima, Ryuta; Katori, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    The auditory steady state response (ASSR) is an oscillatory brain response, which is phase locked to the rhythm of an auditory stimulus. ASSRs have been recorded in response to a wide frequency range of modulation and/or repetition, but the physiological features of the ASSRs are somewhat different depending on the modulation frequency. Recently, the 20-Hz ASSR has been emphasized in clinical examinations, especially in the area of psychiatry. However, little is known about the physiological ...

  6. Early development of cortical brain responses in newborns and fetuses ? cognitive studies with fetal magnetoencephalography

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan, Carolin

    2008-01-01

    Entwicklungsdefizite entstehen häufig schon während der pränatalen Kortexgenese, wohingegen ihre Diagnose zumeist viel später erfolgt, wenn sich z.B. das Verhalten des Kindes nicht Altersgemäß entwickelt. In den pränatalen und beginnenden neonatalen Entwicklungsstadien verfügt der Kortex über eine hohe Plastizität, die mit zunehmendem Alter abnimmt. Somit ist der Einsatz von Interventionsmethoden möglichst früh im Entwicklungsverlauf wünschenswert, um irreversiblen Defiziten ...

  7. Sparse Multiview Methods for Classification of Musical Genre from Magnetoencephalography Recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Diethe, Tom; Teodoru, Gabi; Furl, Nick; Shawe-taylor, John

    2009-01-01

    Classification of musical genre from audio is a well-researched area of music research. However to the authors’ knowledge no studies have been performed that attempt to identify the genre of music a person is listening to from recordings of their brain activity. It is believed that with the appropriate choice of experimental stimuli and analysis procedures, this discrimination is possible. The main goal of this experiment is to see whether it is possible to detect the genre of music that a ...

  8. Tinnitus perception and distress is related to abnormal spontaneous brain activity as measured by magnetoencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying tinnitus perception are not well understood. Surprisingly, there have been no group studies comparing abnormalities in ongoing, spontaneous neuronal activity in individuals with and without tinnitus perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we show that the spontaneous neuronal activity of a group of individuals with tinnitus (n = 17 is characterised by a marked reduction in alpha (8-12 Hz power together with an enhancement in delta (1.5-4 Hz as compared to a normal hearing control group (n = 16. This pattern was especially pronounced for temporal regions. Moreover, correlations with tinnitus-related distress revealed strong associations with this abnormal spontaneous activity pattern, particularly in right temporal and left frontal areas. Overall, effects were stronger for the alpha than for the delta frequency band. A data stream of 5 min, recorded with a whole-head neuromagnetometer under a resting condition, was sufficient to extract the marked differences. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some limitations, there are arguments that the regional pattern of abnormal spontaneous activity we found could reflect a tinnitus-related cortical network. This finding, which suggests that a neurofeedback approach could reduce the adverse effects of this disturbing condition, could have important implications for the treatment of tinnitus.

  9. Alpha-band hypersynchronization in progressive mild cognitive impairment: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María Eugenía; Bruña, Ricardo; Aurtenetxe, Sara; Pineda-Pardo, José Ángel; Marcos, Alberto; Arrazola, Juan; Reinoso, Ana Isabel; Montejo, Pedro; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando

    2014-10-29

    People with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) show a high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD; Petersen et al., 2001). Nonetheless, there is a lack of studies about how functional connectivity patterns may distinguish between progressive (pMCI) and stable (sMCI) MCI patients. To examine whether there were differences in functional connectivity between groups, MEG eyes-closed recordings from 30 sMCI and 19 pMCI subjects were compared. The average conversion time of pMCI was 1 year, so they were considered as fast converters. To this end, functional connectivity in different frequency bands was assessed with phase locking value in source space. Then the significant differences between both groups were correlated with neuropsychological scores and entorhinal, parahippocampal, and hippocampal volumes. Both groups did not differ in age, gender, or educational level. pMCI patients obtained lower scores in episodic and semantic memory and also in executive functioning. At the structural level, there were no differences in hippocampal volume, although some were found in left entorhinal volume between both groups. Additionally, pMCI patients exhibit a higher synchronization in the alpha band between the right anterior cingulate and temporo-occipital regions than sMCI subjects. This hypersynchronization was inversely correlated with cognitive performance, both hippocampal volumes, and left entorhinal volume. The increase in phase synchronization between the right anterior cingulate and temporo-occipital areas may be predictive of conversion from MCI to AD. PMID:25355209

  10. Development of Theory of Mind Stimuli in Magnetoencephalography for Nursing Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwon Park

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the development of animation stimuli for theory of mind (ToM in magnetoencepalography (MEG. We will discuss apparatus for presenting animation stimuli and a technical problem like an eye movement signal generated from following triangles in the animations, and its rejection using independent component analysis (ICA. With the ToM animations and the apparatus, we conducted MEG measurements for 8 normal controls and 6 schizophrenic patients. We present a preliminary assessment result for the developed animation stimuli as a tool for ToM test, which has been obtained by scoring in the followingup interview after the MEG measurement.

  11. Spatially sparse source cluster modeling by compressive neuromagnetic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Tang; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2010-10-15

    Magnetoencephalography enables non-invasive detection of weak cerebral magnetic fields by utilizing super-conducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). Solving the MEG inverse problem requires reconstructing the locations and orientations of the underlying neuronal current sources based on the extracranial measurements. Most inverse problem solvers explicitly favor either spatially more focal or diffuse current source patterns. Naturally, in a situation where both focal and spatially extended sources are present, such reconstruction methods may yield inaccurate estimates. To address this problem, we propose a novel ComprEssive Neuromagnetic Tomography (CENT) method based on the assumption that the current sources are compressible. The compressibility is quantified by the joint sparsity of the source representation in the standard source space and in a transformed domain. The purpose of the transformation sparsity constraint is to incorporate local spatial structure adaptively by exploiting the natural redundancy of the source configurations in the transform domain. By combining these complementary constraints of standard and transformed domain sparsity we obtain source estimates, which are not only locally smooth and regular but also form globally separable clusters. In this work, we use the l(1)-norm as a measure of sparsity and convex optimization to yield compressive estimates in a computationally tractable manner. We study the Laplacian matrix (CENT(L)) and spherical wavelets (CENT(W)) as alternatives for the transformation in the compression constraint. In addition to the two prior constraints on the sources, we control the discrepancy between the modeled and measured data by restricting the power of residual error below a specified value. The results show that both CENT(L) and CENT(W) are capable of producing robust spatially regular source estimates with high computational efficiency. For simulated sources of focal, diffuse, or combined types, the CENT method shows better accuracy on estimating the source locations and spatial extents than the minimum l(1)-norm or minimum l(2)-norm constrained inverse solutions. Different transformations yield different benefits: By utilizing CENT with the Laplacian matrix it is possible to suppress physiologically atypical activations extending across two opposite banks of a deep sulcus. With the spherical wavelet transform CENT can improve the detection of two nearby yet not directly connected sources. As demonstrated by simulations, CENT is capable of reflecting the spatial extent for both focal and spatially extended current sources. The analysis of in vivo MEG data by CENT produces less physiologically inconsistent "clutter" current sources in somatosensory and auditory MEG measurements. Overall, the CENT method is demonstrated to be a promising tool for adaptive modeling of distributed neuronal currents associated with cognitive tasks. PMID:20488248

  12. A modelling study to inform specification and optimal electrode placement for imaging of neuronal depolarization during visual evoked responses by electrical and magnetic detection impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has the potential to achieve non-invasive functional imaging of fast neuronal activity in the human brain due to opening of ion channels during neuronal depolarization. Local changes of resistance in the cerebral cortex are about 1%, but the size and location of changes recorded on the scalp are unknown. The purpose of this work was to develop an anatomically realistic finite element model of the adult human head and use it to predict the amplitude and topography of changes on the scalp, and so inform specification for an in vivo measuring system. A detailed anatomically realistic finite element (FE) model of the head was produced from high resolution MRI. Simulations were performed for impedance changes in the visual cortex during evoked activity with recording of scalp potentials by electrodes or magnetic flux density by magnetoencephalography (MEG) in response to current injected with electrodes. The predicted changes were validated by recordings in saline filled tanks and with boundary voltages measured on the human scalp. Peak changes were 1.03 ± 0.75 µV (0.0039 ± 0.0034%) and 27 ± 13 fT (0.2 ± 0.5%) respectively, which yielded an estimated peak signal-to-noise ratio of about 4 for in vivo averaging over 10 min and 1 mA current injection. The largest scalp changes were over the occipital cortex. This modelling suggests, for the first time, that reproducible changes could be recorded on the scalp in vivo in single channels, although a higher SNR would be desirable for accurate image production. The findings suggest that an in vivo study is warranted in order to determine signal size but methods to improve SNR, such as prolonged averaging or other signal processing may be needed for accurate image production

  13. Multiplex genetic fate mapping reveals a novel route of neocortical neurogenesis, which is altered in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, William A; Haydar, Tarik F

    2013-03-20

    While several major classes of neocortical neural precursor cells have been identified, the lineal relationships and molecular profiles of these cells are still largely unknown. Furthermore, the individual contribution of each cell class to neocortical growth during normal development and in neurodevelopmental disorders has not been determined. Using a novel fate-mapping approach, we demonstrate that precursors in the embryonic ventricular (VZ) and subventricular zones (SVZ), which give rise to excitatory neurons, are divided into distinct subtypes based on lineage profile, morphology, and transcription factor expression in vivo. Using this technique, we show that short neural precursors are a unique class of VZ intermediate progenitors derived from radial glial cells and are distinct from the multipolar Tbr2((+)) intermediate progenitors, which divide in the SVZ. To test whether these multiple groups of intermediate progenitors are redundant or whether they are necessary for proper neocortical growth, we measured precursor cell diversity in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome (DS), which exhibits reduced neurogenesis and postnatal microcephaly. We report that SNP generation is markedly reduced in the Ts65Dn VZ during mid-neurogenesis, indicating that faulty specification of this progenitor pool is a central component of the neocortical abnormality in DS. Together, these findings demonstrate that neocortical neurons are produced via multiple indirect routes during embryonic development and that these parallel streams of neurogenesis collectively contribute to the proper growth and development of the neocortex. PMID:23516277

  14. The impact of the new Earth gravity models on the measurement of the Lense-Thirring effect with a new satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, L

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the opportunities offered by the new Earth gravity models from the dedicated CHAMP and, especially, GRACE missions to the project of measuring the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect with a new Earth's artificial satellite. It turns out that it would be possible to abandon the stringent, and expensive, requirements on the orbital geometry of the originally prosed LARES mission (same semimajor axis a=12270 km of the existing LAGEOS and inclination i=70 deg) by inserting the new spacecraft in a relatively low, and cheaper, orbit (a=7500-8000 km, i\\sim 70 deg) and suitably combining its node Omega with those of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II in order to cancel out the first even zonal harmonic coefficients of the multipolar expansion of the terrestrial gravitational potential J_2, J_4 along with their temporal variations. The total systematic error due to the mismodelling in the remaining even zonal harmonics would amount to \\sim 1% and would be insensitive to departures of the inclinat...

  15. Human in vitro reporter model of neuronal development and early differentiation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdahn Ulrich

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During developmental and adult neurogenesis, doublecortin is an early neuronal marker expressed when neural stem cells assume a neuronal cell fate. To understand mechanisms involved in early processes of neuronal fate decision, we investigated cell lines for their capacity to induce expression of doublecortin upon neuronal differentiation and develop in vitro reporter models using doublecortin promoter sequences. Results Among various cell lines investigated, the human teratocarcinoma cell line NTERA-2 was found to fulfill our criteria. Following induction of differentiation using retinoic acid treatment, we observed a 16-fold increase in doublecortin mRNA expression, as well as strong induction of doublecortin polypeptide expression. The acquisition of a neuronal precursor phenotype was also substantiated by the establishment of a multipolar neuronal morphology and expression of additional neuronal markers, such as Map2, ?III-tubulin and neuron-specific enolase. Moreover, stable transfection in NTERA-2 cells of reporter constructs encoding fluorescent or luminescent genes under the control of the doublecortin promoter allowed us to directly detect induction of neuronal differentiation in cell culture, such as following retinoic acid treatment or mouse Ngn2 transient overexpression. Conclusion Induction of doublecortin expression in differentiating NTERA-2 cells suggests that these cells accurately recapitulate some of the very early events of neuronal determination. Hence, the use of reporter genes under the control of the doublecortin promoter in NTERA-2 cells will help us to investigate factors involved early in the course of neuronal differentiation processes. Moreover the ease to detect the induction of a neuronal program in this model will permit to perform high throughput screening for compounds acting on the early neuronal differentiation mechanisms.

  16. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Of Gold Nanostructures: Role Of Dipolar And Multipolar Localized Surface Plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Nicolas; Fremaux, Benoît; Amor, Salem Ben; Shen, Hong; Peron, Olivier; Toury, Timothée; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Lamy de la Chapelle, Marc

    2010-08-01

    We have studied the Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) of shape controlled metallic nanoparticles: nanocylinders and nanowires, designed through electron beam lithography and lift off techniques. We have notably studied the influence of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) on the efficiency of SERS. We will demonstrate that the nanowires have specific enhancement behavior and can actually act as nano-antenna.

  17. Multipolar universal relations between f -mode frequency and tidal deformability of compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. K.; Sham, Y.-H.; Leung, P. T.; Lin, L.-M.

    2014-12-01

    Though individual stellar parameters of compact stars usually demonstrate obvious dependence on the equation of state (EOS), EOS-insensitive universal formulas relating these parameters remarkably exist. In the present paper, we explore the interrelationship between two such formulas, namely the f -I relation connecting the f -mode quadrupole oscillation frequency ?2 and the moment of inertia I , and the I -Love-Q relations relating I , the quadrupole tidal deformability ?2, and the quadrupole moment Q , which have been proposed by Lau, Leung, and Lin [Astrophys. J. 714, 1234 (2010)] and Yagi and Yunes [Science 341, 365 (2013)], respectively. A relativistic universal relation between ?l and ?l with the same angular momentum l =2 ,3 ,… , the so-called "diagonal f -Love relation" that holds for realistic compact stars and stiff polytropic stars, is unveiled here. An in-depth investigation in the Newtonian limit is further carried out to pinpoint its underlying physical mechanism and hence leads to a unified f -I -Love relation. We reach the conclusion that these EOS-insensitive formulas stem from a common physical origin—compact stars can be considered as quasiincompressible when they react to slow time variations introduced by f -mode oscillations, tidal forces and rotations.

  18. Multi-Polarization ASAR Backscattering from Herbaceous Wetlands in Poyang Lake Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyong Sang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems on Earth. There is an urgent need to quantify the biophysical parameters (e.g., plant height, aboveground biomass and map total remaining areas of wetlands in order to evaluate the ecological status of wetlands. In this study, Environmental Satellite/Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ENVISAT/ASAR dual-polarization C-band data acquired in 2005 is tested to investigate radar backscattering mechanisms with the variation of hydrological conditions during the growing cycle of two types of herbaceous wetland species, which colonize lake borders with different elevation in Poyang Lake region, China. Phragmites communis (L. Trin. is semi-aquatic emergent vegetation with vertical stem and blade-like leaves, and the emergent Carex spp. has rhizome and long leaves. In this study, the potential of ASAR data in HH-, HV-, and VV-polarization in mapping different wetland types is examined, by observing their dynamic variations throughout the whole flooding cycle. The sensitivity of ASAR backscattering coefficients to vegetation parameters of plant height, fresh and dry biomass, and vegetation water content is also analyzed for Phragmites communis (L. Trin. and Carex spp. The research for Phragmites communis (L. Trin. shows that HH polarization is more sensitive to plant height and dry biomass than HV polarization. ASAR backscattering coefficients are relatively less sensitive to fresh biomass, especially in HV polarization. However, both are highly dependent on canopy water content. In contrast, the dependence of HH- and HV- backscattering from Carex community on vegetation parameters is poor, and the radar backscattering mechanism is controlled by ground water level.

  19. Multipolar correlations and deformation effect on nuclear transition matrix elements of double-$\\beta $ decay

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, R.; Chaturvedi, K.; Rath, P. K.; Raina, P. K.; Hirsch, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    The two neutrino and neutrinoless double beta decay of $^{94,96}$Zr, $^{98,100}$Mo, $^{104}$Ru, $^{110}$Pd, $^{128,130}$Te and $^{150}$Nd isotopes for the $0^{+}\\to 0^{+}$ transition is studied within the PHFB framework along with an effective two-body interaction consisting of pairing, quadrupole-quadrupole and hexadecapole-hexadecapole correlations. It is found that the effect of hexadecapolar correlations can be assimilated substantially as a renormalization of the quadru...

  20. Multipolarity or cosmopolitanism? : A critique of Mouffe from a hegemony-theoretical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Dreyer

    In a series of publications Chantal Mouffe (2004, 2005a, 2005b, 2008, 2009, 2013) has criticized cosmopolitanism for its lack of conceptualization of power, conflict and struggle, in short of politics. Even though this critique is largely well placed, the conclusions drawn from the analysis by Mouffe are flawed. As she puts it, if a cosmopolitan democracy “was ever realized, it could only signify the world hegemony of a dominant power that would have been able to impose its conception of the world on the entire planet and which, identifying its interests with those of humanity, would treat any disagreement as an illegitimate challenge to its ‘rational’ leadership”. Mouffe, On the Political pp. 106–7. I argue that Mouffe paradoxically seems to be using a traditional 'realist' conceptualization of hegemony, signifying simply domination. Against this I argue that a post-structuralist understanding of hegemony – as developed by herself and Laclau in Hegemony and Socialist Strategy, (Laclau and Mouffe,1985), precisely allows us to see the distance between universal values, such as freedom and equality for all, and their actual interpretation and use. The fact that the West are using democracy and human rights as legitimating devises for non-democratic goals, should not make us abandon the realization of these values on the global scale as the political goal.

  1. Pathological documentation of complete elimination of Barrett's metaplasia following endoscopic multipolar electrocoagulation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Fennerty, M.; Corless, C.; Sheppard, B.; Faigel, D.; Lieberman, D.; Sampliner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The previous paradigm that Barrett's is an irreversible premalignant lesion has recently been challenged by a proliferation of reports documenting elimination of Barrett's by a variety of endoscopic techniques. Whether Barrett's is entirely eliminated is unknown as endoscopic biopsy samples the surface of the epithelium only. Numerous reports document underlying specialised columnar epithelium in many of these trials. Until now there have been no reports of pathological examination of the ent...

  2. NGC 6309, a Planetary Nebula that Shifted from Round to Multipolar

    CERN Document Server

    Rubio, Gabriel; Ramos-Larios, Gerardo; Guerrero, Martin A; Olguin, Lorenzo; Guillen, Pedro F; Mata, Hector

    2014-01-01

    We present new narrow-band Ha, [N II], and [O III] high-resolution images of the quadrupolar planetary nebula (PN) NGC 6309 that show in great detail its bipolar lobes and reveal new morphological features. New high- and low-dispersion long-slit spectra have been obtained to help in the investigation of the new nebular components. The images and spectra unveil two diffuse blobs, one of them located at 55 arcsec from the central star along the NE direction (PA= +71) and the other at 78 arcsec in the SW direction (PA= -151). Therefore, these structures do not share the symmetry axes of the inner bipolar outflows. Their radial velocities relative to the system are quite low: +3 and -4 km/s, respectively. Spectroscopic data confirm a high [O III] to Ha ratio, indicating that the blobs are being excited by the UV flux from the central star. Our images convincingly show a spherical halo 60 arcsec in diameter encircling the quadrupolar nebula. The expansion velocity of this shell is low, 66 km/s. The software SHAPE ...

  3. Reshaping Europe In A Multipolar World: Can The EU Rise To The Challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Carroll

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation and the emergence of economic players such as Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC have led to predictions that US hegemony will quickly decline as a new world order emerges. With the European Union (EU also facing a downgrading of its own status – as economic, political and cultural power shifts from west to east – now is the time to ensure the Union has a strategy in place to remain an influential global actor despite its lack of natural resources and member state sovereign debt arising from the 2008/9 economic crisis. Only concerted efforts at institutional future-proofing (or widening and deepening plus by the EU and a global vision for the supranational body will ensure its survival and prosperity.

  4. Multipolar universal relations between f-mode frequency and tidal deformability of compact stars

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, T K; Sham, Y. -H.; Leung, P.T.; Lin, L. -M.

    2014-01-01

    Though individual stellar parameters of compact stars usually demonstrate obvious dependence on the equation of state (EOS), EOS-insensitive universal formulas relating these parameters remarkably exist. In the present paper, we explore the interrelationship between two such formulas, namely the $f$-$I$ relation connecting the $f$-mode quadrupole oscillation frequency $\\omega_2$ and the moment of inertia $I$, and the $I$-Love-$Q$ relations relating $I$, the quadrupole tidal ...

  5. Treatment of atrial fibrillation with radiofrequency ablation and simultaneous multipolar mapping of the pulmonary veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Neto Almino C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility and safety of simultaneous catheterization and mapping of the 4 pulmonary veins for ablation of atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Ten patients, 8 with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and 2 with persistent atrial fibrillation, refractory to at least 2 antiarrhythmic drugs and without structural cardiopathy, were consecutively studied. Through the transseptal insertion of 2 long sheaths, 4 pulmonary veins were simultaneously catheterized with octapolar microcatheters. After identification of arrhythmogenic foci radiofrequency was applied under angiographic or ultrasonographic control. RESULTS: During 17 procedures, 40 pulmonary veins were mapped, 16 of which had local ectopic activity, related or not with the triggering of atrial fibrillation paroxysms. At the end of each procedure, suppression of arrhythmias was obtained in 8 patients, and elimination of pulmonary vein potentials was accomplished in 4. During the clinical follow-up of 9.6±3 months, 7 patients remained in sinus rhythm, 5 of whom were using antiarrhythmic drugs that had previously been ineffective. None of the patients had pulmonary hypertension or evidence of stenosis in the pulmonary veins. CONCLUSION: Selective and simultaneous catheterization of the 4 pulmonary veins with microcatheters for simultaneous recording of their electrical activity is a feasible and safe procedure that may help ablation of atrial fibrillation.

  6. Multipolar representation of Maxwell and Schroedinger equations: Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms: Examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of quantum engineering put forward new theoretical problems. Behaviour of a single mesoscopic cell (device) we may usually describe by equations of quantum mechanics. However, if experimentators gather hundreds of thousands of similar cells there arises some artificial medium that one already needs to describe by means of new electromagnetic equations. The same problem arises when we try to describe e.g. a sublattice structure of such complex substances like perovskites. It is demonstrated that the inherent primacy of vector potential in quantum systems leads to a generalization of the equations of electromagnetism by introducing in them toroid polarizations. To derive the equations of motion the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formalisms are used. Some examples where electromagnetic properties of molecules are described by the toroid moment are pointed out. (author). 26 refs, 7 figs

  7. Multipolar universal relations between f-mode frequency and tidal deformability of compact stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, T K; Leung, P T; Lin, L -M

    2014-01-01

    Though individual stellar parameters of compact stars usually demonstrate obvious dependence on the equation of state (EOS), EOS-insensitive universal formulas relating these parameters remarkably exist. In the present paper, we explore the inter-relationship between two such formulas, namely the f-I relation connecting the $f$-mode quadrupole oscillation frequency $\\omega_2$ and the moment of inertia $I$, and the I-Love-Q relations relating $I$, the quadrupole tidal deformability $\\lambda_2$, and the quadrupole moment $Q$, which have been proposed by Lau et al. [Astrophys. J. {\\bf 714}, 1234 (2010)], and Yagi and Yunes [Science, {\\bf 341}, 365 (2013)], respectively. A relativistic universal relation between $\\omega_l$ and $\\lambda_l$ with the same angular momentum $l=2,3,\\ldots$, the so called "diagonal f-Love relation" that holds for realistic compact stars and stiff polytropic stars, is unveiled here. An in-depth investigation in the Newtonian limit is further carried out to pinpoint its underlying physica...

  8. Sequence of multipolar transitions: A scenario for URu2Si2

    CERN Document Server

    Fazekas, P; Radnoczi, K; Fazekas, Patrik; Kiss, Annamaria; Radnoczi, Katalin

    2005-01-01

    d- and f-shells support a large number of local degrees of freedom: dipoles, quadrupoles, octupoles, hexadecapoles, etc. Usually, the ordering of any multipole component leaves the system sufficiently symmetrical to allow a second symmetry breaking transition. To classify the possibilities, one has to construct the symmetry group of the first ordered phase, and then re-classify the order parameters in the new symmetry. While this is straightforward for dipole or quadrupole order, it is less familiar for octupole order. We give a group theoretical analysis, and some illustrative mean field calculations, for the case when a second ordering transition follows T(xyz) octupolar ordering in a tetragonal system. If quadrupoles appear in the second phase transition, they must be accompanied by a time-reversal-odd multipole as an induced order parameter. For O(xy), O(xz), or O(yz) quadrupoles, this would be one of the components of J, which should be easy either to check or to rule out. However, a pre-existing octupol...

  9. Inspiral, merger and ringdown of unequal mass black hole binaries: a multipolar analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Sperhake, Ulrich; Hannam, Mark; Husa, Sascha; Bruegmann, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    We study the inspiral, merger and ringdown of unequal mass black hole binaries by analyzing a catalogue of numerical simulations for seven different values of the mass ratio (from q=M2/M1=1 to q=4). We compare numerical and Post-Newtonian results by projecting the waveforms onto spin-weighted spherical harmonics, characterized by angular indices (l,m). We find that the Post-Newtonian equations predict remarkably well the relation between the wave amplitude and the orbital fr...

  10. Ce site substitution effect on the multipolar ordering in CeB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the Ce-cite substitution effect by R(=Pr, Nd) ion on the multipole interactions in CeB6. We found that TQ of Ce0.9Nd0.1B6 in magnetic fields is higher than that of Ce0.9Pr0.1B6 and the magnetization is larger in the former than in the latter. The larger suppression of TQ in CexPr1-xB6 suggests the larger reduction of the Txyz antiferro-octupolar (AFO) interaction in this system considering that TQ at H=0 is nearly the same in both systems. The smaller magnetization in CexPr1-xB6 than in CexNd1-xB6 originates from the larger suppression of Txyz AFO interaction and also the larger Ce-Pr AF exchange interaction than in CexNd1-xB6

  11. High-order multipolar hyperpolarizabilities with imaginary frequency for H and He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations are reported of Xzz,zz,z,z3(-i?; i?, 0,0), Xzz,zz,x,x3 (-i?; i?; 0,0), Xzzz,z,z,z3(-i?; i?,0,0), Xzz,z,z,z,z4(-i?; i?, 0,0,0), and Xzz,x,x,z,z4(-i?; i?, 0,0,0) for H and He. These are the independent components of the atomic (quadrupole)2-(dipole)2, (octupole)-(dipole)3, and (quadrupole)-(dipole)4 hyperpolarizability tensors for an imaginary frequency i?. The first three quantities have been used for the determination of the R-8 dispersion contribution to the H-H, H-He, and He-He collision-induced pair polarizability functions. The last two quantities will be needed in future calculations of the leading order (R-7) dispersion contributions to the collision-induced first hyperpolarizability (?) for the H-He pair. The calculations were based on sum-over-states formulations with near-exact wave functions for H and highly accurate explicitly electron-correlated wave functions for He. For this reason the authors believe them to be of benchmark quality. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Ce site substitution effect on the multipolar ordering in CeB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera, M.; Kawaguchi, M.; Kishimoto, S.; Kondo, A.; Iwakubo, H.; Tou, H.; Umeo, K.; Iga, F.

    We have studied the Ce-cite substitution effect by R(=Pr, Nd) ion on the multipole interactions in CeB6. We found that TQ of Ce0.9Nd0.1B6 in magnetic fields is higher than that of Ce0.9Pr0.1B6 and the magnetization is larger in the former than in the latter. The larger suppression of TQ in CexPr1-xB6 suggests the larger reduction of the Txyz antiferro-octupolar (AFO) interaction in this system considering that TQ at H=0 is nearly the same in both systems. The smaller magnetization in CexPr1-xB6 than in CexNd1-xB6 originates from the larger suppression of Txyz AFO interaction and also the larger Ce-Pr AF exchange interaction than in CexNd1-xB6.

  13. Non-Collinear Magnetism due to Orbital Degeneracy and Multipolar Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kusunose, H; Kusunose, Hiroaki; Kuramoto, Yoshio

    2001-01-01

    The origin of non-collinear magnetism under quadrupolar ordering is investigated with CeB6 taken as a target system. The mode-mixing effect among 15 multipoles is analyzed based on the Ginzburg-Landau free energy. Then the lower magnetic transition temperature and the order parameters are derived within the mean-field approximation. In the presence of pseudo-dipole-type interactions for the next-nearest neighbors, the observed pattern of non-collinear ordering is indeed stabilized for certain set of interaction parameters. The stability of the phase III' in the magnetic field is also explained, which points to the importance of the next-nearest-neighbor octupole-octupole interaction. Concerning the phase IV in CexLa1-xB6 with x ~ 0.75, a possibility of pure octupole ordering is discussed based on slight modifications of the strength of interactions.

  14. Resonant X-ray scattering and multipolar order in actinide dioxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The discovery in 2002 of electric quadrupole ordering in the NpO2 opened a new chapter in the understanding of the low-temperature ground states of actinide dioxides, insulating compounds with the simple cubic CaF2 crystal structure and general formula U1-xNpxO2 (0 ? x ? 1). The phenomenon found at 25 K in NpO2 is that the 5f charge distribution develops an anisotropic component, with long-range ordering of the charge quadrupoles driven by a primary magnetic octupolar order parameter belonging to the totally symmetric irreducible representation of L = 3 in D3d symmetry (?1). The experiments consist of tuning the photon energy to the actinide M absorption edge (at which photon energy core 3d electrons are promoted to the partially occupied 5f valence states), and then, once the repeat of the anisotropic charge distribution is known, to measure the azimuthal distribution of the scattered resonant x-ray intensity. This intensity distribution is related to the symmetry of the 5f anisotropic charge distribution. The experiments were performed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France, with the single crystals mounted in ITU. NpO2 shows no measurable magnetic dipole component. In 2003 experiments were performed on a single crystal with x = 0.25. Dipole ordering was found on both the U and Np ions, and quad on both the U and Np ions, and quadrupolar ordering was also found associated with both ions. However, these were different from those in pure NpO2. Whereas a longitudinal (L) 3-k configuration was found for NpO2, the x = 0.25 sample was found to have a transverse (T) 3-k configuration. The understanding of these different configurations then allowed an experiment to be performed in 2005 on a single crystal of UO2. The azimuthal dependence of the intensity from non-specular reflections reveals 3-k T anti-ferro-electric-quadrupolar order also UO2. The complication in UO2 is that both dipole ordering and an internal distortion of the oxygen atoms due to the quadrupole ordering are present; these have contrived to make it difficult to observe directly the quadrupole ordering in UO2, although such ordering was predicted almost 40 years ago, and the oxygen displacements reported 30 years ago [5]. These experiments also suggest a qualitative explanation of the unusual behaviour of the mixed oxides with 0.40 < x < 0.80. In this region there is competition between the L and T quadrupole ordering, resulting in quadrupolar frustration and only short-range dipole and quadrupole ordering. (authors)

  15. Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bray, C. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Butler, E. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hangst, J.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Hardy, W.N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hayano, R.S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hayden, M.E. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 (Canada); Humphries, A.J. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Hydomako, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Jorgensen, L.V.; Kerrigan, S.J. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Kurchaninov, L. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    2010-03-01

    Antihydrogen production in a neutral atom trap formed by an octupole-based magnetic field minimum is demonstrated using field-ionization of weakly bound anti-atoms. Using our unique annihilation imaging detector, we correlate antihydrogen detection by imaging and by field-ionization for the first time. We further establish how field-ionization causes radial redistribution of the antiprotons during antihydrogen formation and use this effect for the first simultaneous measurements of strongly and weakly bound antihydrogen atoms. Distinguishing between these provides critical information needed in the process of optimizing for trappable antihydrogen. These observations are of crucial importance to the ultimate goal of performing CPT tests involving antihydrogen, which likely depends upon trapping the anti-atom.

  16. Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antihydrogen production in a neutral atom trap formed by an octupole-based magnetic field minimum is demonstrated using field-ionization of weakly bound anti-atoms. Using our unique annihilation imaging detector, we correlate antihydrogen detection by imaging and by field-ionization for the first time. We further establish how field-ionization causes radial redistribution of the antiprotons during antihydrogen formation and use this effect for the first simultaneous measurements of strongly and weakly bound antihydrogen atoms. Distinguishing between these provides critical information needed in the process of optimizing for trappable antihydrogen. These observations are of crucial importance to the ultimate goal of performing CPT tests involving antihydrogen, which likely depends upon trapping the anti-atom.

  17. Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen, G. B.; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C L; CHAPMAN, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W.N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Antihydrogen production in a neutral atom trap formed by an octupole-based magnetic field minimum is demonstrated using field-ionization of weakly bound anti-atoms. Using our unique annihilation imaging detector, we correlate antihydrogen detection by imaging and by field-ionization for the first time. We further establish how field-ionization causes radial redistribution of the antiprotons during antihydrogen formation and use this effect for the first simultaneous measurem...

  18. Multi-Polarization ASAR Backscattering from Herbaceous Wetlands in Poyang Lake Region, China

    OpenAIRE

    Huiyong Sang; Jixian Zhang; Hui Lin; Liang Zhai

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems on Earth. There is an urgent need to quantify the biophysical parameters (e.g., plant height, aboveground biomass) and map total remaining areas of wetlands in order to evaluate the ecological status of wetlands. In this study, Environmental Satellite/Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ENVISAT/ASAR) dual-polarization C-band data acquired in 2005 is tested to investigate radar backscattering mechanisms with the variation of hydrological conditi...

  19. How neurons migrate: a dynamic in-silico model of neuronal migration in the developing cortex

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Setty, Yaki

    2011-09-30

    Abstract Background Neuronal migration, the process by which neurons migrate from their place of origin to their final position in the brain, is a central process for normal brain development and function. Advances in experimental techniques have revealed much about many of the molecular components involved in this process. Notwithstanding these advances, how the molecular machinery works together to govern the migration process has yet to be fully understood. Here we present a computational model of neuronal migration, in which four key molecular entities, Lis1, DCX, Reelin and GABA, form a molecular program that mediates the migration process. Results The model simulated the dynamic migration process, consistent with in-vivo observations of morphological, cellular and population-level phenomena. Specifically, the model reproduced migration phases, cellular dynamics and population distributions that concur with experimental observations in normal neuronal development. We tested the model under reduced activity of Lis1 and DCX and found an aberrant development similar to observations in Lis1 and DCX silencing expression experiments. Analysis of the model gave rise to unforeseen insights that could guide future experimental study. Specifically: (1) the model revealed the possibility that under conditions of Lis1 reduced expression, neurons experience an oscillatory neuron-glial association prior to the multipolar stage; and (2) we hypothesized that observed morphology variations in rats and mice may be explained by a single difference in the way that Lis1 and DCX stimulate bipolar motility. From this we make the following predictions: (1) under reduced Lis1 and enhanced DCX expression, we predict a reduced bipolar migration in rats, and (2) under enhanced DCX expression in mice we predict a normal or a higher bipolar migration. Conclusions We present here a system-wide computational model of neuronal migration that integrates theory and data within a precise, testable framework. Our model accounts for a range of observable behaviors and affords a computational framework to study aspects of neuronal migration as a complex process that is driven by a relatively simple molecular program. Analysis of the model generated new hypotheses and yet unobserved phenomena that may guide future experimental studies. This paper thus reports a first step toward a comprehensive in-silico model of neuronal migration.

  20. 109Pd: Difficulties in particle-rotor models for unique-parity states and revision of spectroscopic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary and secondary ? rays following thermal and p-wave resonant (2.96 eV) neutron capture on 108Pd were measured to study ?-ray transitions in 109Pd. Average resonance capture spectra at 2 and 24 keV were also recorded and the 108Pd(n,?ce) reaction was studied and transition multipolarities were deduced. A detailed level scheme up to approx. 1400 keV has been constructed. Numerous spin assignments have been revised, leading to substantial changes in the (d,p) and (d,t) spectroscopic factors, in particular for the g/sub 7/2/ orbit. The data on primary transition intensities for the 2.96 eV resonance are compared with the valence neutron capture model. The level scheme deduced for 109Pd sheds new light on the previously proposed g/sub 7/2/-h/sub 11/2/ anomaly in the filling of these orbits, suggesting that, at least in 109Pd, the appearance of the anomaly was largely due to spin misassignments. The revised systematics in the occupation of shell model orbits for a number of nuclei in this mass region is reviewed. Within the level scheme is a group of low-spin negative-parity levels which belong to the same family as the high-spin, decoupled, unique-parity states known in other odd mass Pd isotopes. These states correspond to the favored and unfavored anti-aligned levels for core rotations R < or = 6. Calculations in the framework of the particle-rotor model cannot reproduce these level energiese these level energies

  1. Efficient multipoles modeling for linear magnetized beads manipulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kauffmann, Paul; Haguet, Vincent; Reyne, Gilbert; Delinchant, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    Many Magnetic MEMS have been recently developed to manipulate spherical diamagnetic or superparamagnetic particles. Magnetic forces can be computed using the dipole method or the semi-numerical integral. However, these methods appear inaccurate or time consuming, respectively. This paper proposes a multipolar approach which provides a satisfying compromise between precision and rapidity to compute the magnetic force on linear magnetized beads. Gain in precision and CPU time will be detailed f...

  2. Effect of nuclear deformation on the alpha-decay half-life of even-even alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-decay half-life of even-even emitters has been calculated in terms of a tunnelling through a quantum mechanical potential barrier. A multipolar expansion of Coulomb potential has been developed taking into account the nuclear quadrupole, hexadecapole, and hexacontatetrapole deformations. We show that using a free-parameter model the calculated half-lives do not vary significantly with higher order multipolarities of the daughter nucleus deformation. (author)

  3. A semi-Markov model for mitosis segmentation in time-lapse phase contrast microscopy image sequences of stem cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-An; Li, Kang; Kanade, Takeo

    2012-02-01

    We propose a semi-Markov model trained in a max-margin learning framework for mitosis event segmentation in large-scale time-lapse phase contrast microscopy image sequences of stem cell populations. Our method consists of three steps. First, we apply a constrained optimization based microscopy image segmentation method that exploits phase contrast optics to extract candidate subsequences in the input image sequence that contains mitosis events. Then, we apply a max-margin hidden conditional random field (MM-HCRF) classifier learned from human-annotated mitotic and nonmitotic sequences to classify each candidate subsequence as a mitosis or not. Finally, a max-margin semi-Markov model (MM-SMM) trained on manually-segmented mitotic sequences is utilized to reinforce the mitosis classification results, and to further segment each mitosis into four predefined temporal stages. The proposed method outperforms the event-detection CRF model recently reported by Huh as well as several other competing methods in very challenging image sequences of multipolar-shaped C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells. For mitosis detection, an overall precision of 95.8% and a recall of 88.1% were achieved. For mitosis segmentation, the mean and standard deviation for the localization errors of the start and end points of all mitosis stages were well below 1 and 2 frames, respectively. In particular, an overall temporal location error of 0.73 ± 1.29 frames was achieved for locating daughter cell birth events. PMID:21954199

  4. Task-modulated “what” and “where” pathways in human auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Ahveninen, Jyrki; Ja?a?skela?inen, Iiro P.; Raij, Tommi; Bonmassar, Giorgio; Devore, Sasha; Ha?ma?la?inen, Matti; Leva?nen, Sari; Lin, Fa-hsuan; Sams, Mikko; Shinn-cunningham, Barbara G.; Witzel, Thomas; Belliveau, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Human neuroimaging studies suggest that localization and identification of relevant auditory objects are accomplished via parallel parietal-to-lateral-prefrontal “where” and anterior-temporal-to-inferior-frontal “what” pathways, respectively. Using combined hemodynamic (functional MRI) and electromagnetic (magnetoencephalography) measurements, we investigated whether such dual pathways exist already in the human nonprimary auditory cortex, as suggested by animal models, and whether se...

  5. Leadership Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Thomas J.

    This paper discusses six different models of organizational structure and leadership, including the scalar chain or pyramid model, the continuum model, the grid model, the linking pin model, the contingency model, and the circle or democratic model. Each model is examined in a separate section that describes the model and its development, lists…

  6. Las relaciones entre Colombia y Brasil en un contexto de regionalización diversificada en Suramérica y de un mundo multipolar emergente / The Relationship between Colombia and Brazil in the Context of Regional Diversification in South America and an Increasingly Multipolar World

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Pastrana Buelvas; Diego, Vera Piñeros.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo interpreta los desafíos que tiene la política exterior colombiana, tanto en el plano regional como en el global, de cara a la proyección de Brasil como potencia regional y jugador global. Para ello, en primer lugar, se lleva a cabo un acercamiento teórico al escenario regional actual y a [...] l horizonte de las relaciones colombo-brasileñas, desde la perspectiva de algunos presupuestos del realismo neoclásico (predominantemente) y del neoliberalismo institucional (subsidiariamente). En segundo lugar, se examinan las fuentes y alcances de la presunta caída de la hegemonía norteamericana y el ascenso gradual de la hegemonía brasileña en Suramérica. En tercer lugar, se analiza la calidad de Colombia como potencia secundaria, luego la diversificación geográfica y temática de su política exterior a partir de agosto de 2010, y sus estrategias de competencia y cooperación con respecto a Brasil en la región. Finalmente, se identifican y se interpretan las perspectivas bilaterales y multilaterales de la profundización de los intercambios y compromisos entre Colombia y Brasil, que tendrían un alto potencial para institucionalizar una alianza estratégica multitemática con repercusiones importantes para impulsar y afianzar el proceso de regionalización en Suramérica. Abstract in english This article interprets the challenges of Colombia's foreign policy, both on a regional and global level, with regard to Brazil's ambitions as a regional power and global player. First, a theoretical analysis of the current regional scenario and the horizon of the Colombian-Brazilian relations is do [...] ne, mainly from various neoclassical realist positions and also from institutional neoliberal viewpoints. Second, sources and impact of the proclaimed decay of the North American hegemony and the gradual rise of a Brasilian hegemony in South America are examined. Third, Colombia's capacity as a secondary power is analized, followed by an analysis of the geographic and thematic diversification of its foreign policy since August 2010, as well as its strategy of competition and cooperation with Brazil in the region. Finally, those bilateral and multilateral perspectives of profundization of the exchanges and committments between Brazil and Colombia are identified and interpreted, which would have a high potential to be institutionalized as a strategic multithematic alliance with an important impact to promote and strengthen the regionalization process in South America.

  7. Política e acção pública: Entre uma regulação centralizada e uma regulação multipolar / Politique et action publique.: D’une régulation centrale à une régulation multipolaire / Policy and public action.: From central regulation to multipolar regulation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Madalena, Fontoura.

    Full Text Available Este texto situa-se no campo alargado da análise política e tem o propósito de contribuir para a compreensão do processo de construção e regulação das políticas públicas, dando conta da complexidade do processo que vai muito para além do momento da decisão, implicando diferentes instâncias e uma gra [...] nde multiplicidade de actores. Constitui uma reflexão, construída a partir das análises, interrogações, comentários e críticas produzidas por diferentes autores, a partir de diferentes prismas, que incidiram sobre a política educativa portuguesa das últimas décadas, no que diz respeito à autonomia das escolas e aos efeitos observados na aplicação das medidas que a invocaram, particularmente no que se refere aos projectos, aqui considerados como instrumentos para resolver problemas e criar oportunidades na fronteira entre o social e o político. Representa ainda a oportunidade de mostrar a importância do tempo na construção e análise das políticas públicas. Abstract in english This text provides an overview of the broadened field of the policy analysis with the aim of contributing for the understanding of the process of construction and regulation of public policies. It gives account of the complexity of the process that goes beyond the moment of decision, implying differ [...] ent spaces and a great multiplicity of actors. Our reflection derives from the critical analyses, interrogations and commentaries on the Portuguese educational policy, made by different authors, and from different prisms, in the last decades, on the autonomy of the schools, and the effects observed in the implementation of the measures invoked by that autonomy. Particularly, we will consider projects, considered here as tools to solve problems and create opportunities on the borders between the social and the political. It also represents an opportunity to show the importance of the space and temporal dimension for the construction and analysis of the public policies.

  8. The African Union (AU), new partnership for African Aevelopment (NEPAD) and regional integration in Africa in a multipolar word

    OpenAIRE

    Asogwa, Felix Chinwe

    2014-01-01

    It is trite to argue that regional integration or cooperation in Africa is deeply rooted in the historical evolution of the continent’s socio-political forces. No doubt, the trans-Atlantic slave trade created a huge social, political, economic, and cultural distortion in Africa. It was a period when millions of productive Africans were forcefully uprooted from the continent and taken to Europe and the Americas. However, the end of the slave trade opened a new vista in the efforts of people...

  9. Multi-frequency and multi-polarization measurements of water surface radar cross section and brightness temperature angular dependences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelyan, Artashes K.; Hambaryan, Astghik K.; Arakelyan, Arsen A.; Grigoryan, Melanya L.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper the results of simultaneous and spatially coincident, multi-frequency, polarimetric, spatio-temporally collocated measurements of waved pool water surface microwave reflective (radar backscattering coefficient) and emissive (brightness temperature) characteristics angular dependences at 5.6GHz, 15GHz and 37GHz are presented. Angular measurements were carried out for various water surface roughness parameters at clear air, cloudy and rain conditions. For these measurements C-, Ku and Ka-band, polarimetric, combined scatterometric-radiometric systems were used, set jointly on a mobile buggy moving along the measuring platform. Structures, operational features and the main technical characteristics of the utilized systems are presented too. The paper has an aim as well to attract attention of interested researchers and to invite them to perform their own or joint researches using available devices and facilities.

  10. Preferred Ice Crystal Orientation Fabric Measurements within the Greenland Ice Sheet Using Multi-Polarization Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Gonzalez, J. A.; JiLu, L.; Leuschen, C.; Gogineni, P.; Van der Veen, C. J.; Tsoflias, G. P.; Drews, R.; Harish, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Discharge of ice from the Greenland Ice Sheet to the ocean has increased significantly over the last 25 years due to the acceleration of important outlet glaciers. It was reported that the Greenland Ice Sheet contributed about 2.5 m out of about 6 m of sea-level rise during the Eemian interglacial period. The temperatures during Eemian were reported to be about 8o×4o C higher than the mean of the past millennium. Laboratory measurements have shown that glacial ice, characterized by preferred crystal orientation fabric (COF), is three times more deformable than ice with randomly oriented crystalline structures. Layers characterized by preferred ice COF can influence the flow behavior of a glacier or ice sheet. However, COF measurements are typically obtained from ice cores, and thus are very spatially limited and mostly constrained to areas with little ice flow. A more efficient technique to map the extent of ice fabric over larger regions of ice sheets is needed to better understand the effects on large scale ice flow processes. Radar measurements are capable of discriminating between reflections caused by changes in density, electrical permittivity and COF by exploiting the anisotropic and birefringent properties of ice crystals. For this investigation two radar datasets were collected during the survey of the Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling Site (77.45°N 51.06°W) in August 2008, using a ground-based and chirped-pulse Multi-Channel Radar Depth Sounder (MCRDS) developed by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS). The radar used two transmit and eight receive antennas at the center frequency of 150 MHz with a bandwidth of 30 MHz. The first data set consisted of polarimatric measurements acquired in a circular pattern (radius: 35 m) with two co-polarized antenna orientations (one transmitter and four receivers oriented with 90° offsets in the directions of the incident H-Field and E-Field, respectively). Analysis of the circular data shows a periodic power variation with four distinct extinction patterns occurring at 90 degree intervals starting at approximately 700 m depth. Furthermore a 20 degree phase change is observed between the E- and H-field data. Both observations suggest that approximately 72% of the 2542m ice column exhibits birefringent anisotropy caused by preferred ice crystal orientation. The second dataset was acquired in a grid pattern consisting of twenty 10-Km 2D lines (NW to SE) spaced at 0.5-Km and three 10-Km lines (NE to SW) spaced at 2.5-Km. Both transmit and eight receive antenna were oriented parallel to the vehicle track, resulting in E-Field co-polarized data. We will determine the dominant COF relative to the ice divide for a 100 square Km region around the NEEM camp using the results from both datasets. The results of this investigation will be compared to the NEEM ice core observations to determine the accuracy of the analysis. In this investigation we will provide a brief overview of the system and experiments and present the results of data analysis.

  11. Vector chiral and multipolar orders in the spin-1/2 frustrated ferromagnetic chain in magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Hikihara, Toshiya; Kecke, Lars; Momoi, Tsutomu; Furusaki, Akira

    2008-01-01

    We study the one-dimensional spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with competing ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor J_1 and antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor J_2 exchange couplings in the presence of magnetic field. We use both numerical approaches (the density matrix renormalization group method and exact diagonalization) and effective field-theory approach, and obtain the ground-state phase diagram for wide parameter range of the coupling ratio J_1/J_2. The phase diagram is rich an...

  12. Design of mini-orange spectrometers and their application to nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and properties of a mini-orange spectrometer for internal conversion experiments are described. The application of such a system to the study of the decay of Coulomb excited /sup 191,193/Ir nuclei is presented. Some E2/M1 mixing ratios of the transitions with mixed multipolarities are deduced. The experimental energy levels and reduced matrix elements of the excited /sup 191,193/Ir are compared with two model calculations, namely the particle-plus-triaxial rotor model and the interacting boson fermion model. A mini-orange spectrometer was also used to study the multipolarities of the decay of high spin continuum states in 130Ce

  13. Model’s comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Three popular disease spread simulation models were used to simulate the spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Denmark. The models’ predictions in term of disease spread, consequence, and the ranking of the applied control strategies were compared. The original Davis Animal Disease Spread (DADS version 0.05) was adapted to DTU-DADS, and this model as well as InterSpread Plus (ISP version 2.001.11) and the North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM version 3.0.81) were all used to simulate hypothetical spread of FMD in Denmark. Data on Danish herds were used including herd type, movements, and location in the period 1st October 2006 to 30th September 2007. The three models to the highest possible extend set up to simulate the same epidemics in 3 different control scenarios: 1) A basic scenario representing EU and Danish control strategies, 2) pre-emptive depopulation of susceptible herds in a 500 meters radius around the detected herds, and 3) suppressive vaccination of susceptible herds in a 1,000 meters radius around the detected herds. Depopulation and vaccination started either 14 days following the detection of the first infected herd or following detection of 50 infected herds. Five thousand index herds were selected randomly in which there were 1,000 cattle herds located in high density cattle area and 1,000 in low density cattle area, 1,000 swine herds located in high density swine area and 1,000 in low density swine area, and 1,000 sheep herds. Generally, NAADSM predicted the largest, longest duration and costliest epidemics. DTU-DADS predicted larger, longer duration and costlier epidemics than ISP, except when epidemics started in cattle herds located in high density cattle area. ISP predicted suppressive vaccination to be less costly than depopulation, while the least costly control strategy predicted by DTU-DADS differed depending on the species and density area of the index herd. It was not possible to run the depopulation scenarios in the NAADSM due to limitations in the model. Running several models in parallel gives better insight in disease spread, limits typing and coding errors and improves understanding of modeled processes. The chosen control strategy might depend on the chosen model.

  14. Modelling the models

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    By analysing the production of mesons in the forward region of LHC proton-proton collisions, the LHCf collaboration has provided key information needed to calibrate extremely high-energy cosmic ray models.   Average transverse momentum (pT) as a function of rapidity loss ?y. Black dots represent LHCf data and the red diamonds represent SPS experiment UA7 results. The predictions of hadronic interaction models are shown by open boxes (sibyll 2.1), open circles (qgsjet II-03) and open triangles (epos 1.99). Among these models, epos 1.99 shows the best overall agreement with the LHCf data. LHCf is dedicated to the measurement of neutral particles emitted at extremely small angles in the very forward region of LHC collisions. Two imaging calorimeters – Arm1 and Arm2 – take data 140 m either side of the ATLAS interaction point. “The physics goal of this type of analysis is to provide data for calibrating the hadron interaction models – the well-known &...

  15. Modelling Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the practicalities of building, testing, deploying and maintaining models. It gives specific advice for each phase of the modelling cycle. To do this, a modelling framework is introduced which covers: problem and model definition; model conceptualization; model data requirements; model construction; model solution; model verification; model validation and finally model deployment and maintenance. Within the adopted methodology, each step is discussedthrough the consideration of key issues and questions relevant to the modelling activity. Practical advice, based on many years of experience is providing in directing the reader in their activities.Traps and pitfalls are discussed and strategies also given to improve model development towards “fit-for-purpose” models. The emphasis in this chapter is the adoption and exercise of a modelling methodology that has proven very successful in many model building activities. It is vital that good methodologies are adopted for both thoroughness andefficiency purposes. Asking good questions for each modelling stage can aid in getting to effective and efficient solutions in modelling practice. Modelling is very much a ‘goal oriented’ activity, under constraints of system insight, time, cost and human resources. The George Box dictum that “all models are wrong, some are useful” should be coupled with the parsimony principle to ensure optimal outcomes.

  16. Modeling Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela B. Shiflet

    In this module, we develop models of the effects of malaria on various populations of humans and mosquitoes. After considering differential equations to model a system, we create a model using the systems modeling tool STELLA. Projects involve various refinements of the model.

  17. Fair Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betty Blecha

    The Fair model web site includes a freely available United States macroeconomic econometric model and a multicounty econometric model. The models run on the Windows OS. Instructors can use the models to teach forecasting, run policy experiments, and evaluate historical episodes of macroeconomic behavior. The web site includes extensive documentation for both models. The simulation is for upper-division economics courses in macroeconomics or econometrics. The principle developer is Ray Fair at Yale University.

  18. Models within models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anyone who worries that physicists are running out of interesting challenges to tackle and important problems to solve should read the two, very different feature articles in this issue. In 'Climate change: complexity in action', Klaus Hasselmann and colleagues write about the challenges of including economic and political dimensions in computer simulations of climate change. It is hard to imagine a physics-based topic that has a greater impact on the world at large. In 'Quarks, diquarks and pentaquarks', Robert Jaffe and Frank Wilczek describe our current understanding of quantum chromodynamics and the strong nuclear force. In this case it is hard to think of many more difficult problems in fundamental physics. Traditional climate modelling is difficult enough because a whole range of effects in the atmosphere and the oceans have to be taken into account. It typically takes weeks for a state-of-the-art supercomputer to simulate 100 years of climate change with a horizontal resolution of 100 km. But climate change is about much more than solving difficult differential equations - there are crucial social, political and economic influences as well. Some researchers, including a significant number of physicists, have started to look at this integrated-assessment approach. The first challenge is to develop climate models that take minutes to run on a laptop. The next challenge is to develop analogous models that work in the social, political and ecothat work in the social, political and economic arenas - which is not a trivial task - and then integrate all these different models and explore all the possible global-warming scenarios. Physicists also hope to integrate quantum chromodynamics (QCD) into the larger framework of a so-called theory of everything. Like climate modellers, particle theorists working on QCD require enormous computational resources for their calculations, and even then there are limits to what can be achieved (e.g. the mass of the proton has yet to be calculated from first principles). However, QCD can explain the results of an enormous range of experiments, and has recently been given some new particles - 'pentaquarks' - to get its teeth into. Moreover, physicists searching for a theory of everything can take heart from the fact that, unlike researchers working on integrated-assessment models, they already have highly successful theories for the phenomena they are trying to unify. However, the ultimate challenge for the climate community will be to persuade governments and big business that they need to do something to avoid the potentially disastrous consequences of climate change. The UK's chief scientific advisor, David King, made headlines recently when he wrote that, in his view, 'climate change is the most severe problem that we are facing today - more serious even than the threat of terrorism' (Science 303 176-177). It is too soon to say if the message is getting through, but at least climate scientists now have an unlikely ally in the shape of the climate-change disaster movie The Day After Tomorrow. (U.K.)

  19. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, CC

    2012-01-01

    Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko

  20. Landau damping and one-body dissipation in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the theory of Fermi liquids, the wall formula describes a type of Landau damping of the collective motion. It is found that in this model the ratio between width and energy of the giant resonances is of the order of 1, essentially independent of the multipolarity. This result, which is in contradiction with the experimental findings, is due to the fact that the boundary is externally imposed. With the possible exception of the monopole, the Landau damping is not the appropriate process for describing the dissipation of the low-multipole giant resonances, being only effective for deformations corresponding to high multipolarities (? ? 6)

  1. Dynamics of Multipoles and Neutron Scattering Spectra in Quadrupolar Ordering Phase of CeB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Ryousuke; Shiba, Hiroyuki; Thalmeier, Peter; Takahashi, Atsushi; Sakai, Osamu

    2003-05-01

    Excitations and neutron scattering spectra in the antiferro-quadrupolar ordering phase of CeB6 are studied theoretically. We develop a general formulation of the boson expansion method of multipoles and clarify the selection rules governing the multipolar dynamics. We apply the method to the RKKY model, which was introduced before for this material, and discuss the dispersions of excitation energies and their dependence on the magnetic field. Then neutron scattering spectra are calculated within the dipole approximation and compared quantitatively with the experiments by Bouvet. Possible interpretations of the peak structures in the observed spectra are discussed in connection with the characteristic multipolar interactions in CeB6.

  2. Inter-trial effect in luminance processing revealed by magnetoencephalography / Efecto inter-ensayo en el procesamiento de iluminación revelado por magnetoencefalografía

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aki, Kondo; Katsumi, Watanabe.

    2013-12-15

    Full Text Available En este estudio, se examinó si el procesamiento de iluminación en el sistema visual humano exhibie algún efecto de historia (es decir, modulación inter-ensayo) en experimentos psicofísicos y de magnetoencefalografía (MEG). Un disco se presentó contra un fondo negro en varios niveles de iluminación e [...] n un orden aleatorio. Durante el registro de MEG, los participantes fueron instruidos para clasificar el brillo del disco (estimación de magnitud) y reportarlo durante el intervalo inter-ensayo. Los resultados de MEG mostraron que la activación neuromagnetica alrededor 200-220 ms después de la aparición de estímulo en las regiones occipito-temporal izquierda en un ensayo dade fue más débil cuando la iluminación de disco en el ensayo inmediatamente antes fue mayor. También se observó un efecto inverso inter-ensayo en el experimento psicofísico. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la actividad neuromagnética refleja la modulación inter-ensayo de procesamiento de iluminación que se correlaciona con la percepción subjetiva de brillo. Abstract in english In this study, we examined whether luminance processing in the human visual system would exhibit any history effect (i.e., inter-trial modulation) in psychophysical and magnetoencephalographic experiments. A disk was presented against a black background at various luminance levels in a randomized or [...] der. During the MEG recording, participants were instructed to rate the brightness of the disk (magnitude estimation) and to report it aloud during inter-stimulus interval. The MEG results showed that the neuromagnetic activation around 200-220 ms after the stimulus onset in the left occipito-temporal regions at a given trial was weaker when the disk luminance in the immediately prior trial was higher. An inverse inter-trial effect was also observed in the psychophysical experiment. These findings suggest that the neuromagnetic activity reflects the inter-trial modulation of luminance processing that correlates with the subjective perception of brightness.

  3. Crowd modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Mikkel; Xiao, Wence; Christensen, Troels; Albrechtsen, Dan Elmkvist; Thrane, Malik; Høiland-jørgensen, Toke

    2011-01-01

    We look at social force models as a way to model the behaviour of human crowds, in order to eval- uate how well these types of models simulate crowd behaviour, and what the models’ strengths and weaknesses are. In order to do this evaluation, we implement a computer simulation of an exemplary social force model. In order to create this simulation, we pick an exemplary model that is well described in the article that presents it, and analyse it in detail, filling in details from other art...

  4. Model Building

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, Paul H.

    1997-01-01

    In this talk I begin with some general discussion of model building in particle theory, emphasizing the need for motivation and testability. Three illustrative examples are then described. The first is the Left-Right model which provides an explanation for the chirality of quarks and leptons. The second is the 331-model which offers a first step to understanding the three generations of quarks and leptons. Third and last is the SU(15) model which can accommodate the light le...

  5. Magnetosphere models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the most recent magnetospheric models are reviewed. After a short overview of the particle environment, a synthetic survey of the problem is given. For each feature of magnetospheric modelling (boundary, current sheet, ring-current) the approaches used by different authors are described. In the second part a description is given of the magnetospheric models, divided into four groups. In the last part, the different uses of magnetospheric models are illustrated by means of examples

  6. Computable models

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Computational models can be found everywhere in present day science and engineering. In providing a logical framework and foundation for the specification and design of specification languages, Raymond Turner uses this framework to introduce and study computable models. In doing so he presents the first systematic attempt to provide computational models with a logical foundation. Computable models have wide-ranging applications from programming language semantics and specification languages, through to knowledge representation languages and formalism for natural language semantics. They are al

  7. Landscape Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Marchetti

    In this assignment students model different scenarios of landscape evolution using an on-line landscape evolution model. The assignment takes them through several situations involving changes in commonly modeled landscape variables like overland flow, faulting and uplift, erosivity, and drainage incision. At the end I have students devise a situation (of variables) that tests a hypothesis or the sensitivity of the model to changes in a variable. Designed for a geomorphology course Uses online and/or real-time data

  8. Numerical models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Manoj, N.T.

    2007-01-01

    tidal cycle, partic- ularly when the tidal range is large (well over a metre). For practical applications such as determination of the fate of pollutants and other passive and active tracers, it is often important to simulate this more energetic... of these models is a one-dimensional model, often used for application to a narrow estuary. If wider sections are present in one such estuary, then such models can be supplemented by two-dimensional models. This chapter describes models of Mandovi and Zuari...

  9. Actor Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The Actor model is a mathematical theory that treats "Actors" as the universal primitives of concurrent digital computation. The model has been used both as a framework for a theoretical understanding of concurrency, and as the theoretical basis for several practical implementations of concurrent systems. Unlike previous models of computation, the Actor model was inspired by physical laws. It was also influenced by the programming languages Lisp, Simula 67 and Smalltalk-72, as well as ideas for Petri Nets, capability-based systems and packet switching. The advent of massive concurrency through client-cloud computing and many-core computer architectures has galvanized interest in the Actor model.

  10. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Piccolo, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic procedure is introduced for the analysis and solution of property models. Models that capture and represent the temperature dependent behaviour of physical properties are introduced, as well as equation of state models (EOS) such as the SRK EOS. Modelling of liquid phase activity coefficients are also covered, illustrating several models such as the Wilson equation and NRTL equation, along with their solution strategies. A section shows how to use experimental data to regress the property model parameters using a least squares approach. A full model analysis is applied in each example that discusses the degrees of freedom, dependent and independent variables and solution strategy. Vapour-liquid and solid-liquid equilibrium is covered, and applications to droplet evaporation and kinetic models are given.

  11. ICRF modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture provides a survey of the methods used to model fast magnetosonic wave coupling, propagation, and absorption in tokamaks. The validity and limitations of three distinct types of modelling codes, which will be contrasted, include discrete models which utilize ray tracing techniques, approximate continuous field models based on a parabolic approximation of the wave equation, and full field models derived using finite difference techniques. Inclusion of mode conversion effects in these models and modification of the minority distribution function will also be discussed. The lecture will conclude with a presentation of time-dependent global transport simulations of ICRF-heated tokamak discharges obtained in conjunction with the ICRF modelling codes. 52 refs., 15 figs

  12. Eclipse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three existing eclipse models for the PSR 1957 + 20 pulsar are discussed in terms of their requirements and the information they yield about the pulsar wind: the interacting wind from a companion model, the magnetosphere model, and the occulting disk model. It is shown out that the wind model requires an MHD wind from the pulsar, with enough particles that the Poynting flux of the wind can be thermalized; in this model, a large flux of energetic radiation from the pulsar is required to accompany the wind and drive the wind off the companion. The magnetosphere model requires an EM wind, which is Poynting flux dominated; the advantage of this model over the wind model is that the plasma density inside the magnetosphere can be orders of magnitude larger than in a magnetospheric tail blown back by wind interaction. The occulting disk model also requires an EM wind so that the interaction would be pushed down onto the companion surface, minimizing direct interaction of the wind with the orbiting macroscopic particles

  13. Ventilation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis and model report (AMR) for the Ventilation Model is to analyze the effects of pre-closure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts and provide heat removal data to support EBS design. It will also provide input data (initial conditions, and time varying boundary conditions) for the EBS post-closure performance assessment and the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Process Model. The objective of the analysis is to develop, describe, and apply calculation methods and models that can be used to predict thermal conditions within emplacement drifts under forced ventilation during the pre-closure period. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Provide a general description of effects and heat transfer process of emplacement drift ventilation. (2) Develop a modeling approach to simulate the impacts of pre-closure ventilation on the thermal conditions in emplacement drifts. (3) Identify and document inputs to be used for modeling emplacement ventilation. (4) Perform calculations of temperatures and heat removal in the emplacement drift. (5) Address general considerations of the effect of water/moisture removal by ventilation on the repository thermal conditions. The numerical modeling in this document will be limited to heat-only modeling and calculations. Only a preliminary assessment of the heat/moisture ventilation effects and modeling method will be performed in this revision. Modeling of moisture effects on heat removal and emplacement drift temperature may be performed in the future

  14. Turbulence modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an introduction course in modelling turbulent thermohydraulics, aimed at computational fluid dynamics users. No specific knowledge other than the Navier Stokes equations is required beforehand. Chapter I (which those who are not beginners can skip) provides basic ideas on turbulence physics and is taken up in a textbook prepared by the teaching team of the ENPC (Benque, Viollet). Chapter II describes turbulent viscosity type modelling and the 2k-? two equations model. It provides details of the channel flow case and the boundary conditions. Chapter III describes the 'standard' (Rij-?) Reynolds tensions transport model and introduces more recent models called 'feasible'. A second paper deals with heat transfer and the effects of gravity, and returns to the Reynolds stress transport model. (author)

  15. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can be characterized by their occurrence times and the participating books and borrowers. When we characterize events as information objects we focus on concepts like information structures. When viewed as change agents events are phenomena that trigger change. For example, when borrow event occurs books are moved temporarily from bookcases to borrowers. When we characterize events as change agents we focus on concepts like transactions, entity processes, and workflow processes.

  16. Floodplain Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    Students explore the impact of changing river volumes and different floodplain terrain in experimental trials with table top-sized riverbed models. The models are made using modeling clay in aluminum baking pans placed on a slight incline. Water added "upstream" at different flow rates and to different riverbed configurations simulates different potential flood conditions. Students study flood dynamics as they modify the riverbed with blockages or levees to simulate real-world scenarios.

  17. Spherical models

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, Magnus J

    2014-01-01

    Well-illustrated, practical approach to creating star-faced spherical forms that can serve as basic structures for geodesic domes. Complete instructions for making models from circular bands of paper with just a ruler and compass. Discusses tessellation, or tiling, and how to make spherical models of the semiregular solids and concludes with a discussion of the relationship of polyhedra to geodesic domes and directions for building models of domes. "". . . very pleasant reading."" - Science. 1979 edition.

  18. Flare models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of solar flare modeling is reviewed. Primary and secondary observational features that a proposed flare model should be capable of explaining are discussed, including energy storage and release, particle acceleration, mass ejection, heating of the temperature minimum region, X-ray, EUV, UV, visible and radio emission and mass flow. Consideration is then given to the twisted flux tube paramagnetic recombination model of Gold and Hoyle (1960), the current model of Alfven and Carlqvist (1967), closed current-sheet models such as those of Syrovatskii (1966, 1969, 1977) and Uchida and Sakurai (1977), open-field models such as those of Carmichael (1964) and Barnes and Sturrock (1972), the emerging flux model of Heyvaerts and Priest (1974, 1977, 1978) and the loop-flare models of Spicer (1977) and Colgate (1978). It is noted that no one model can yet account for all the observational features, and that there may turn out to be several types of flare, each requiring its own explanation

  19. Model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this talk I begin with some general discussion of model building in particle theory, emphasizing the need for motivation and testability. Three illustrative examples are then described. The first is the Left-Right model which provides an explanation for the chirality of quarks and leptons. The second is the 331-model which offers a first step to understanding the three generations of quarks and leptons. Third and last is the SU(15) model which can accommodate the light leptoquarks possibly seen at HERA

  20. Ventilation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. The purposes of Revision 01 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to initialize post-closure thermal models (Section 6.6). (3) To satisfy the remainder of KTI agreement TEF 2.07 (Reamer and Williams 2001b). Specifically to provide the results of post-test ANSYS modeling of the Atlas Facility forced convection tests (Section 7.1.2). This portion of the model report also serves as a validation exercise per AP-SIII.10Q, Models, for the ANSYS ventilation model. (4) To further satisfy KTI agreements RDTME 3.01 and 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a) by providing the source documentation referred to in the KTI Letter Report, ''Effect of Forced Ventilation on Thermal-Hydrologic Conditions in the Engineered Barrier System and Near Field Environment'' (Williams 2002). Specifically to provide the results of the MULTIFLUX model which simulates the coupled processes of heat and mass transfer in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. This portion of the model report is presented as an Alternative Conceptual Model with a numerical application, and also provides corroborative results used for model validation purposes (Section 6.3 and 6.4)

  1. Model Selection for Geostatistical Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Davis, Richard A.; Merton, Andrew A.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2006-02-01

    We consider the problem of model selection for geospatial data. Spatial correlation is typically ignored in the selection of explanatory variables and this can influence model selection results. For example, the inclusion or exclusion of particular explanatory variables may not be apparent when spatial correlation is ignored. To address this problem, we consider the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) as applied to a geostatistical model. We offer a heuristic derivation of the AIC in this context and provide simulation results that show that using AIC for a geostatistical model is superior to the often used approach of ignoring spatial correlation in the selection of explanatory variables. These ideas are further demonstrated via a model for lizard abundance. We also employ the principle of minimum description length (MDL) to variable selection for the geostatistical model. The effect of sampling design on the selection of explanatory covariates is also explored.

  2. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GØtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human pathology, to biomarkers in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation, to drug testing and targeted medicine.

  3. Neurofuzzy Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    A neural network can approximate a function, but it is impossible to interpret the result in terms of natural language. The fusion of neural networks and fuzzy logic in neurofuzzy models provide learning as well as readability. Control engineers find this useful, because the models can be interpreted and supplemented by process operators.

  4. OSPREY Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2013-01-01

    The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of off-gas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data is obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data and parameters were input into the adsorption model to develop models specific for krypton adsorption. The same can be done for iodine, xenon, and tritium. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Customers will be given access to OSPREY to used and evaluate the model.

  5. Linear constraint minimum variance beamformer functional magnetic resonance inverse imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Witzel, Thomas; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Belliveau, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the timing of neural activity is required to fully model the information flow among functionally specialized regions whose joint activity underlies perception, cognition and action. Attempts to detect the fine temporal structure of task-related activity would benefit from functional imaging methods allowing higher sampling rates. Spatial filtering techniques have been used in magnetoencephalography source imaging applications. In this work, we use the linear constraint ...

  6. A probabilistic algorithm for robust interference suppression in bioelectromagnetic sensor data

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Attias, Hagai T.; Hild, Kenneth E.; Sekihara, Kensuke

    2007-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) sensor measurements are often contaminated by several interferences such as background activity from outside the regions of interest, by biological and non-biological artifacts, and by sensor noise. Here, we introduce a probabilistic graphical model and inference algorithm based on variational-Bayes expectation-maximization for estimation of activity of interest through interference suppression. The algorithm exploits the fact that...

  7. The electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation: A comparison between analytic and fem solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Porzig Konstantin; Brauer Hartmut; Toepfer Hannes

    2014-01-01

    The induced electric field profiles in a homogeneous isotropic sphere, were calculated and compared between an analytic and a finite-element method in the framework of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This model can also be applied for concentric spheres in the framework of magnetic induction tomography (MIT), non destructive testing (NDT) or to calculate the lead field in magnetoencephalography (MEG). The calculations were performed using Eaton’s m...

  8. Modeling Arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Insepov, Zeke; Veitzer, Seth; Mahalingam, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    Although vacuum arcs were first identified over 110 years ago, they are not yet well understood. We have since developed a model of breakdown and gradient limits that tries to explain, in a self-consistent way: arc triggering, plasma initiation, plasma evolution, surface damage and gra- dient limits. We use simple PIC codes for modeling plasmas, molecular dynamics for modeling surface breakdown, and surface damage, and mesoscale surface thermodynamics and finite element electrostatic codes for to evaluate surface properties. Since any given experiment seems to have more variables than data points, we have tried to consider a wide variety of arcing (rf structures, e beam welding, laser ablation, etc.) to help constrain the problem, and concentrate on common mechanisms. While the mechanisms can be comparatively simple, modeling can be challenging.

  9. Anchor Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regardt, Olle; Rönnbäck, Lars; Bergholtz, Maria; Johannesson, Paul; Wohed, Petia

    Maintaining and evolving data warehouses is a complex, error prone, and time consuming activity. The main reason for this state of affairs is that the environment of a data warehouse is in constant change, while the warehouse itself needs to provide a stable and consistent interface to information spanning extended periods of time. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique for data warehousing, called anchor modeling, that offers non-destructive extensibility mechanisms, thereby enabling robust and flexible management of changes in source systems. A key benefit of anchor modeling is that changes in a data warehouse environment only require extensions, not modifications, to the data warehouse. This ensures that existing data warehouse applications will remain unaffected by the evolution of the data warehouse, i.e. existing views and functions will not have to be modified as a result of changes in the warehouse model.

  10. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  11. Paleoclimate Modeling

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Computer simulations of past climate. Variables provided as model output are described by parameter keyword. In some cases the parameter keywords are a subset of...

  12. Thermocouple modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature measurements provided by thermocouples (TCs) are important for the operation of pressurized water reactors. During severe inadequate core cooling incidents, extreme temperatures may cause type K thermocouples (TCs) used for core exit temperature monitoring to perform poorly. A model of TC electrical behavior has been developed to determine how TCs react under extreme temperatures. The model predicts the voltage output of the TC and its impedance. A series of experiments were conducted on a length of type K thermocouple to validate the model. Impedance was measured at several temperatures between 220C and 11000C and at frequencies between dc and 10 MHz. The model was able to accurately predict impedance over this wide range of conditions. The average percentage difference between experimental data and the model was less than 6.5%. Experimental accuracy was +-2.5%. There is a sriking difference between impedance versus frequency plots at 3000C and at higher temperatures. This may be useful in validating TC data during accident conditions

  13. Transducer Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Juha Reinhold

    This chapter discusses the basic models with emphasis on audio applications. Loudspeakers are most commonly used as an example of electroacoustic transducers yet, from a modelling point of view, they present the broadest range of challenges to the theoreticians. The fundamental principles are, however, applicable to all transducer problems (microphones, hydrophones, ultrasonics). The reader is assumed to be reasonably familiar with the fundamental concepts of electroacoustics; introductory summaries have been presented by, e.g., Poldy (1994) and Hickson and Busch-Vishniac (1997).

  14. Molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Aarti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to be tailored to decrease the harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modeling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported by the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  15. Defect modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations, drawing principally on developments at AERE Harwell, of the relaxation about lattice defects are reviewed with emphasis on the techniques required for such calculations. The principles of defect modelling are outlined and various programs developed for defect simulations are discussed. Particular calculations for metals, ionic crystals and oxides, are considered. (UK)

  16. Quasimolecular modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Greenspan, Donald

    1991-01-01

    In this book the author has tried to apply "a little imagination and thinking" to modelling dynamical phenomena from a classical atomic and molecular point of view. Nonlinearity is emphasized, as are phenomena which are elusive from the continuum mechanics point of view. FORTRAN programs are provided in the Appendices.

  17. Eclipse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the question of, if one overlooks their idiosyncratic difficulties, what could be learned from the various models about the pulsar wind? The wind model requires an MHD wind from the pulsar, namely, one with enough particles that the Poynting flux of the wind can be thermalized. Otherwise, there is no shock and the pulsar wind simply reflects like a flashlight beam. Additionally, a large flux of energetic radiation from the pulsar is required to accompany the wind and drive the wind off the companion. The magnetosphere model probably requires an EM wind, which is Poynting flux dominated. Reflection in this case would arguably minimize the intimate interaction between the two flows that leads to tail formation and thereby permit a weakly magnetized tail. The occulting disk model also would point to an EM wind so that the interaction would be pushed down onto the companion surface (to form the neutral fountain) and so as to also minimize direct interaction of the wind with the orbiting macroscopic particles

  18. Marshmallow Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    2010-01-01

    No glue is needed for learners of any age to become marshmallow architects or engineers. Using marshmallows and water (and maybe edible decorations like peanut butter, pretzels, gumdrops, etc.), learners wet a few marshamallows at a time and stick them together bit by bit to construct whatever models they want.

  19. Cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An LRS Bianchi type II cosmological model is built with a state equation that is a function of the cosmic time t. The ratio p/? is 1/3 when t ? 0 and is insignificant when t ? ?. Thus, the matter content behaves like radiation for small t and like dust for large t

  20. Why Model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OlafWolkenhauer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing technologies are bringing about a renaissance of mining approaches. A comprehensive picture of the genetic landscape of an individual patient will be useful, for example, to identify groups of patients that do or do not respond to certain therapies. The high expectations may however not be satisfied if the number of patient groups with similar characteristics is going to be very large. I therefore doubt that mining sequence data will give us an understanding of why and when therapies work. For understanding the mechanisms underlying diseases, an alternative approach is to model small networks in quantitative mechanistic detail, to elucidate the role of gene and proteins in dynamically changing the functioning of cells. Here an obvious critique is that these models consider too few components, compared to what might be relevant for any particular cell function. I show here that mining approaches and dynamical systems theory are two ends of a spectrum of methodologies to choose from. Drawing upon personal experience in numerous interdisciplinary collaborations, I provide guidance on how to model by discussing the question "Why model?"

  1. Modeling Business

    OpenAIRE

    Vitolins, Valdis; Kalnins, Audris

    2003-01-01

    Business concepts are studied using a metamodel-based approach, using UML 2.0. The Notation Independent Business concepts metamodel is introduced. The approach offers a mapping between different business modeling notations which could be used for bridging BM tools and boosting the MDA approach.

  2. Diffusion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexei Sharov

    Web-based intructional material describing the use of diffusion models in population ecology. This page is part of a set of on-line lectures on Quantitative Population Ecology produced by Alexei Sharov in the Department of Entomology at Virginia Tech.

  3. Modeling Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    As teachers learn new pedagogical strategies, they crave explicit demonstrations that show them how the new strategies will work with their students in their classrooms. Successful instructional coaches, therefore, understand the importance of modeling lessons to help teachers develop a vision of effective instruction. The author, an experienced…

  4. Criticality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alsaed

    2004-09-14

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality computational method will be used for evaluating the criticality potential of configurations of fissionable materials (in-package and external to the waste package) within the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada for all waste packages/waste forms. The criticality computational method is also applicable to preclosure configurations. The criticality computational method is a component of the methodology presented in ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). How the criticality computational method fits in the overall disposal criticality analysis methodology is illustrated in Figure 1 (YMP 2003, Figure 3). This calculation will not provide direct input to the total system performance assessment for license application. It is to be used as necessary to determine the criticality potential of configuration classes as determined by the configuration probability analysis of the configuration generator model (BSC 2003a).

  5. Criticality Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality computational method will be used for evaluating the criticality potential of configurations of fissionable materials (in-package and external to the waste package) within the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada for all waste packages/waste forms. The criticality computational method is also applicable to preclosure configurations. The criticality computational method is a component of the methodology presented in ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). How the criticality computational method fits in the overall disposal criticality analysis methodology is illustrated in Figure 1 (YMP 2003, Figure 3). This calculation will not provide direct input to the total system performance assessment for license application. It is to be used as necessary to determine the criticality potential of configuration classes as determined by the configuration probability analysis of the configuration generator model (BSC 2003a)

  6. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabilistic functionalism, and concerns the environment and the mind, and adaptation by the latter to the former. This entry is about the lens model, and probabilistic functionalism more broadly. Focus will mostly be on firms and their employees, but, to fully appreciate the scope, we have to keep in mind the fact that probabilistic functionalism extends to all purposive organisms. Probabilistic functionalism is currently experiencing growing interest among strategy scholars, and some very recent papers are highlighted in conclusion.

  7. Leadership model

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Leandro S.; Cruz, José Fernando A.; Ferreira, Helena Isabel dos Santos Ribeiro; Pinto, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior studies the decision-making mechanisms of individuals. We propose the Nash Equilibria as one, of many, possible mechanisms of transforming human intentions in behavior. This process corresponds to the best strategic individual decision taking in account the collective response. We built a game theoretical model to understand the role of leaders in decision-making of individuals or groups. We study the characteristics of the leaders that can have a...

  8. Linear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    This site uses linear models to demonstrate the change in bird populations on a barren island over time, supply and demand, and the natural cleaning of a polluted lake by fresh water over time. The problems are laid out and turned into both graphic and equation form in order to understand the rate of change happening in each scenario. There are also links to previously covered materials that can help student review material from past math lessons.

  9. Adsorption Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Musin, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    In this study, adsorption was explored to remove toxic metals from wastewaters. The main focus of the research work lies on adsorption process, which is described theoretically and studied experimentally. Theoretical part involves studying of the adsorption concepts, adsorbents and adsorption process modelling. Experimental part of the work was aimed to create a condition which will allow examining the adsorption process by using adsorbents to remove toxic metal from aqueous solution. The exp...

  10. Nuclear Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction).Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the wn series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  11. Model Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    In this quick activity about pollutants and groundwater (page 2 of PDF), learners build a model well with a toilet paper tube. Learners use food coloring to simulate pollutants and observe how they can be carried by groundwater and eventually enter water sources such as wells, rivers, and streams. This activity is associated with nanotechnology and relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Water Clean-up.

  12. Modelling tsunamis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We doubt the relevance of soliton theory to the modelling of tsunamis, and present a case in support of an alternative view. Although the shallow-water equations do provide, we believe, an appropriate basis for this phenomenon, an asymptotic analysis of the solution for realistic variable depths, and for suitable background flows, is essential for a complete understanding of this phenomenon. In particular we explain how a number of tsunami waves can arrive at a shoreline. (letter to the editor)

  13. Modeling biomembranes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimpton, Steven James; Heffernan, Julieanne; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Stevens, Mark Jackson; Frink, Laura J. Douglas

    2005-11-01

    Understanding the properties and behavior of biomembranes is fundamental to many biological processes and technologies. Microdomains in biomembranes or ''lipid rafts'' are now known to be an integral part of cell signaling, vesicle formation, fusion processes, protein trafficking, and viral and toxin infection processes. Understanding how microdomains form, how they depend on membrane constituents, and how they act not only has biological implications, but also will impact Sandia's effort in development of membranes that structurally adapt to their environment in a controlled manner. To provide such understanding, we created physically-based models of biomembranes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and classical density functional theory (DFT) calculations using these models were applied to phenomena such as microdomain formation, membrane fusion, pattern formation, and protein insertion. Because lipid dynamics and self-organization in membranes occur on length and time scales beyond atomistic MD, we used coarse-grained models of double tail lipid molecules that spontaneously self-assemble into bilayers. DFT provided equilibrium information on membrane structure. Experimental work was performed to further help elucidate the fundamental membrane organization principles.

  14. Ozone modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NOx concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NOx coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NOx ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented

  15. Synaptic characteristics of identified pyramidal and multipolar non-pyramidal neurons in the visual cortex of young and adult rabbits. A quantitative Golgi-electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, L J; Verwer, R W; Nunes Cardozo, B; Vrensen, G

    1984-08-01

    The visual cortex of 20 day old rats and rabbits has been considered as mature on the basis of the observations that the dendritic arborization and the overall synaptic population have almost reached their adult stage in these animals. In the present study we have investigated the visual cortex of 20 day and 7 month old (adult) rabbits in order to determine whether this apparent adult appearance also holds for the synaptic organization of individual neurons. Neurons mainly located in layers III and IV of the primary visual cortex (area 17) were Golgi-impregnated, gold toned and deimpregnated and were then, after embedding in plastic, sectioned serially. The number and length of synaptic profiles, and the length of the neuronal boundaries were analysed in every tenth section. From these counts and measurements the size distribution of the synaptic discs, the number of synapses per 100 micron2 neuronal surface and the receptive surface expressed as the percentage of the total neuronal surface covered with synaptic contacts were estimated using stereological methods. At both ages studied, the density of synapses was significantly higher for the non-pyramidal neurons than for the pyramidal neurons. Differences in the amount of receptive surface were parallel to the differences observed for the number of synapses per 100 micron2. At day 20 the receptive surface of the non-pyramidal neurons was significantly larger than that of the pyramidal neurons. The receptive surface of the non-pyramidal neurons in the adult stage was not only larger than that of the pyramidal neurons in the adults, but also larger than that of the day 20 non-pyramidal neurons. From our results the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) The synaptic input received by the pyramidal neurons is mainly established at day 20 of postnatal life, i.e. prior to the establishment of adult visual behaviour. (2) The non-pyramidal neurons complete their maturation in a later stage than the pyramidal neurons. (3) Medium to large sized synaptic contacts are newly formed after day 20 and are mainly added to the synaptic population on dendrites of non-pyramidal neurons. (4) The specific increase in the number of synapses on non-pyramidal neurons is discussed in relation to intracortical inhibition which is thought to be important for the fine regulation of visual function during development. PMID:6483191

  16. The role of higher-multipolar and repulsive forces in the calculation of collision-broadened line-widths of linear molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanasi, P.; Sarangi, S.

    1974-01-01

    Collision-broadened line widths in CO-CO2 and CO-O2 collisions have been calculated by incorporating interactions due to octopoles and hexadecapoles and short-range repulsive interactions into Anderson's (1949) theory. It is shown how these higher-order interactions can be manipulated to yield good agreement with experimental data. A critical evaluation of this totally empirical manipulation suggests that a thorough revision of the theory is required for all but simple dipole-dipole interactions. In the process of the evaluation, the values of the multipole moments are discussed.

  17. Pre-Modeling Ensures Accurate Solid Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, George

    2010-01-01

    Successful solid modeling requires a well-organized design tree. The design tree is a list of all the object's features and the sequential order in which they are modeled. The solid-modeling process is faster and less prone to modeling errors when the design tree is a simple and geometrically logical definition of the modeled object. Few high…

  18. Model Awal Dan Model Klasik Struktur Informasi

    OpenAIRE

    Widayati, Dwi

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes early models of information structure and classical models of information structure. Early models of information structure consist of (1) subject- predicate structure, (2) the early psychological model, (3) the communicative model, and (4) linguistics, psychology, and information structure. Classical models is begun from the Prague school, Halliday and the American structuralists, Chafe on givenness, and Chomsky on focus and presupposition. The most characteristic feat...

  19. Modeling materials with phase field crystal models

    OpenAIRE

    Jaatinen, Akusti

    2010-01-01

    The phase field crystal (PFC) model is a novel approach for modeling phenomena on atomistic length and diffusive time scales. In this dissertation, we present new advances in the methodology of the PFC model and describe applications to solidification and grain boundaries. We present an extended phase diagram for the original formulation of the PFC model that allows to model three dimensional hexagonal and cubic close-packed crystal structures. The original PFC model is also applied to study ...

  20. Modelling intonational structure using hidden markov models.

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Helen; Taylor, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    A method is introduced for using hidden Markov models (HMMs) to model intonational structure. HMMs are probabilistic and can capture the variability in structure which previous finite state network models lack. We show how intonational tunes can be modelled by separate HMMs and how HMMs can be used in a recognition system to automatically determine the tune type of an utterance.

  1. Skyrme model and strong-coupling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By comparing the Skyrme model with the strong-coupling model of the pion-nucleon interaction in the static limit the collective coordinates in the Skyrme model are shown to be proportional to the square roots of the fields of the pions bound to the bare nucleons in the strong-coupling model

  2. Rotating universe models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is made of some properties of the rotating Universe models. Godel's model is identified as a generalized filted model. Some properties of new solutions of the Einstein's equations, which are rotating non-stationary Universe models, are presented and analyzed. These models have the Godel's model as a particular case. Non-stationary cosmological models are found which are a generalization of the Godel's metrics in an analogous way in which Friedmann is to the Einstein's model. (L.C.)

  3. Concept Modeling vs. Data modeling in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This chapter shows the usefulness of terminological concept modeling as a first step in data modeling. First, we introduce terminological concept modeling with terminological ontologies, i.e. concept systems enriched with characteristics modeled as feature specifications. This enables a formal account of the inheritance of characteristics and allows us to introduce a number of principles and constraints which render concept modeling more coherent than earlier approaches. Second, we explain how terminological ontologies can be used as the basis for developing conceptual and logical data models. We also show how to map from the various elements in the terminological ontology to elements in the data models, and explain the differences between the models. Finally the usefulness of terminological ontologies as a prerequisite for IT development and data modeling is illustrated with examples from the Danish public sector (a user interface for drug prescription and a data model for food control).

  4. Weibull model selection for reliability modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of models have been derived from the two-parameter Weibull distribution and are referred to as Weibull models. They exhibit a wide range of shapes for the density and hazard functions, which makes them suitable for modelling complex failure data sets. The WPP and IWPP plot allows one to determine in a systematic manner if one or more of these models are suitable for modelling a given data set. This paper deals with this topic

  5. Robust model selection in generalized linear models

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Samuel; Welsh, A. H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we extend to generalized linear models (including logistic and other binary regression models, Poisson regression and gamma regression models) the robust model selection methodology developed by Mueller and Welsh (2005; JASA) for linear regression models. As in Mueller and Welsh (2005), we combine a robust penalized measure of fit to the sample with a robust measure of out of sample predictive ability which is estimated using a post-stratified m-out-of-n boots...

  6. Example of a stable wormhole in general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Bronnikov, K. A.; Lipatova, L. N.; Novikov, I. D.; Shatskiy, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    We study a static, spherically symmetric wormhole model whose metric coincides with that of the so-called Ellis wormhole but the material source of gravity consists of a perfect fluid with negative density and a source-free radial electric or magnetic field. For a certain class of fluid equations of state, it has been shown that this wormhole model is linearly stable under both spherically symmetric perturbations and axial perturbations of arbitrary multipolarity. A similar ...

  7. Common Modeling Language for Model Checkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathiah A.  Samat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are many different model checkers that have been developed. Each of the model checkers is based on different input languages and they are suitable for model checking different types of systems. Thus it is important for us to choose the right model checker or modeling and verifying a given system. However, moving from one model checker to another is not an easy task since we have to deal with different input languages. Approach: In order to solve the problem we propose a common modeling language that is based on UML state chart. Some translation rules for translating the model described in the common modeling language into the input languages of model checkers are also presented. Results: The result of the case study shows that our approach has been successfully applied in modeling the control system through the process of transformation and translation. Conclusion: Common modeling language can be used as a front end to help users to properly model a system before it is translated into input language of model checkers.

  8. Cognitive models embedded in system simulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If we are to discuss and consider cognitive models, we must first come to grips with two questions: (1) What is cognition; (2) What is a model. Presumably, the answers to these questions can provide a basis for defining a cognitive model. Accordingly, this paper first places these two questions into perspective. Then, cognitive models are set within the context of computer simulation models and a number of computer simulations of cognitive processes are described. Finally, pervasive issues are discussed vis-a-vis cognitive modeling in the computer simulation context

  9. Applied stochastic modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, Byron JT

    2008-01-01

    Introduction and Examples Introduction Examples of data sets Basic Model Fitting Introduction Maximum-likelihood estimation for a geometric model Maximum-likelihood for the beta-geometric model Modelling polyspermy Which model? What is a model for? Mechanistic models Function Optimisation Introduction MATLAB: graphs and finite differences Deterministic search methods Stochastic search methods Accuracy and a hybrid approach Basic Likelihood ToolsIntroduction Estimating standard errors and correlations Looking at surfaces: profile log-likelihoods Confidence regions from profiles Hypothesis testi

  10. Modeling, computation and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Neogy, S K

    2009-01-01

    This volume provides recent developments and a state-of-the-art review in various areas of mathematical modeling, computation and optimization. It contains theory, computation as well as the applications of several mathematical models to problems in statistics, games, optimization and economics for decision making. It focuses on exciting areas like models for wireless networks, models of Nash networks, dynamic models of advertising, application of reliability models in economics, support vector machines, optimization, complementarity modeling and games.

  11. Business Model Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Dodgson, Mark; Gann, David; Phillips, Nelson; Massa, Lorenzo; Tucci, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The chapter offers a broad review of the literature at the nexus between Business Models and innovation studies, and examines the notion of Business Model Innovation in three different situations: Business Model Design in newly formed organizations, Business Model Reconfiguration in incumbent firms, and Business Model Innovation in the broad context of sustainability. Tools and perspectives to make sense of Business Models and support managers and entrepreneurs in dealing with Business Model ...

  12. Wake modelling combining mesoscale and microscale models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Jake; Volker, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the basis for introducing thrust information from microscale wake models into mesocale model wake parameterizations will be described. A classification system for the different types of mesoscale wake parameterizations is suggested and outlined. Four different mesoscale wake parameterizations are demonstrated in theWeather Research and Forecasting mesoscale model (WRF) in an idealized atmospheric flow. The model framework is the Horns Rev I wind farm experiencing an 7.97 m/s wind from 269.4o. Three of the four parameterizations use thrust output from the CRESflow-NS microscale model. The characteristics of the mesoscale wake that developed from the four parameterizations are examined. In addition the mesoscale model wakes are compared to measurement data from Horns Rev I. Overall it is seen as an advantage to incorporate microscale model data in mesocale model wake parameterizations.

  13. The modeling process and model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment of underground disposal of nuclear or toxic wastes requires the use of models. Such models need to be validated to ensure, as much as possible, that they are a good representation of the actual processes occurring in the real system. In this paper an attempt is made to take a broad view by reviewing step by step the modeling process and bringing out the need for validating every step of this process. Thus, model validation includes not only comparison of modeling results with data from selected experiments, but also evaluation of procedures for the construction of conceptual models and calculational models as well as methodologies for studying data and parameter correlation. The need for advancing basic scientific knowledge in related fields, for multiple assessment groups, and for presenting the modeling efforts in open literature for public scrutiny is also emphasized

  14. QSMSR QUALITATIVE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Abdullah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software architecture design and requirement engineering are core and independent areas of engineering. A lot of research, education and practice are carried on Requirement elicitation and doing refine it, but it is a major issue of engineering. QSMSR model act as a bridge between requirement and design there is a huge gap between these two areas of software architecture and requirement engineering. The QSMSR model divide into two sub model qualitative model and Principal model in this research we focus on Qualitative model which further divide into two sub models fabricated model and classified model. Classified model make the sub groups of the role and match it with components. The Fabricated model link QSMSR Principal Model to an architecture design. At the end it provides the QSMSR Architecture model of the system as output.

  15. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application of the laws of physics on the system. The unknown (or uncertain) parameters are estimated with Maximum Likelihood (ML) parameter estimation. The identified model has been evaluated by comparing the measurements with simulation of the model. The identified model was much more capable of describing the dynamics of the system than the deterministic model.

  16. Modelling binary data

    CERN Document Server

    Collett, David

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Some Examples The Scope of this Book Use of Statistical Software STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR BINARY DATA The Binomial Distribution Inference about the Success Probability Comparison of Two Proportions Comparison of Two or More Proportions MODELS FOR BINARY AND BINOMIAL DATA Statistical Modelling Linear Models Methods of Estimation Fitting Linear Models to Binomial Data Models for Binomial Response Data The Linear Logistic Model Fitting the Linear Logistic Model to Binomial Data Goodness of Fit of a Linear Logistic Model Comparing Linear Logistic Models Linear Trend in Proportions Co

  17. Model Checking of Boolean Process Models

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Christoph; Wehler, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    In the field of Business Process Management formal models for the control flow of business processes have been designed since more than 15 years. Which methods are best suited to verify the bulk of these models? The first step is to select a formal language which fixes the semantics of the models. We adopt the language of Boolean systems as reference language for Boolean process models. Boolean systems form a simple subclass of coloured Petri nets. Their characteristics are ...

  18. BIM Modeling For Contractors - Improving Model Takeoffs

    OpenAIRE

    André Monteiro; João Pedro Poças Martins

    2012-01-01

    As industry stakeholders investigate on the best uses for Building Information Modeling (BIM), its shortcomings begin to be realized, the need for modeling parameterization becomes more evident and methods to better approach these issues developed. Automatic quantity takeoff is one of the most important BIM-based features. Research conducted by the authors shows that in order to be successfully used, quantity takeoff requires specific model definition. Adapting a model for qua...

  19. Semantic Business Process Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Markovic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a process-oriented business modeling framework based on semantic technologies. The framework consists of modeling languages, methods, and tools that allow for semantic modeling of business motivation, business policies and rules, and business processes. Quality of the proposed modeling framework is evaluated based on the modeling content of SAP Solution Composer and several real-world business scenarios.

  20. Automated data model evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modeling process is essential phase within information systems development and implementation. This paper presents methods and techniques for analysis and evaluation of data model correctness. Recent methodologies and development results regarding automation of the process of model correctness analysis and relations with ontology tools has been presented. Key words: Database modeling, Data model correctness, Evaluation

  1. China model: Energy modeling the modern dynasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.

    1996-05-01

    In this paper a node-based microeconomic analysis is used to model the Chinese energy system. This model is run across multiple periods employing Lagrangian Relaxation techniques to achieve general equilibrium. Later, carbon dioxide emissions are added and the model is run to answer the question, {open_quotes}How can greenhouse gas emissions be reduced{close_quotes}?

  2. Calogero Model(s and Deformed Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Milekovic

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review some recent results concerning algebraical (oscillator aspects of the N-body single-species and multispecies Calogero models in one dimension. We show how these models emerge from the matrix generalization of the harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian. We make some comments on the solvability of these models.

  3. Modeling transient rootzone salinity (SWS Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combined, water quality criteria for irrigation, water and ion processes in soils, and plant and soil response is sufficiently complex that adequate analysis requires computer models. Models for management are also needed but these models must consider that the input requirements must be reasona...

  4. Composite Linear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statistical Software Composite Linear Models (Written by Stuart G. Baker) The composite linear models software is a matrix approach to compute maximum likelihood estimates and asymptotic standard errors for models for incomplete multinomial data. It

  5. Wildfire Risk Main Model

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The model combines three modeled fire behavior parameters (rate of spread, flame length, crown fire potential) and one modeled ecological health measure (fire...

  6. Solicited abstract: Global hydrological modeling and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chong-Yu

    2010-05-01

    The origins of rainfall-runoff modeling in the broad sense can be found in the middle of the 19th century arising in response to three types of engineering problems: (1) urban sewer design, (2) land reclamation drainage systems design, and (3) reservoir spillway design. Since then numerous empirical, conceptual and physically-based models are developed including event based models using unit hydrograph concept, Nash's linear reservoir models, HBV model, TOPMODEL, SHE model, etc. From the late 1980s, the evolution of global and continental-scale hydrology has placed new demands on hydrologic modellers. The macro-scale hydrological (global and regional scale) models were developed on the basis of the following motivations (Arenll, 1999). First, for a variety of operational and planning purposes, water resource managers responsible for large regions need to estimate the spatial variability of resources over large areas, at a spatial resolution finer than can be provided by observed data alone. Second, hydrologists and water managers are interested in the effects of land-use and climate variability and change over a large geographic domain. Third, there is an increasing need of using hydrologic models as a base to estimate point and non-point sources of pollution loading to streams. Fourth, hydrologists and atmospheric modellers have perceived weaknesses in the representation of hydrological processes in regional and global climate models, and developed global hydrological models to overcome the weaknesses of global climate models. Considerable progress in the development and application of global hydrological models has been achieved to date, however, large uncertainties still exist considering the model structure including large scale flow routing, parameterization, input data, etc. This presentation will focus on the global hydrological models, and the discussion includes (1) types of global hydrological models, (2) procedure of global hydrological model development, (3) state-of-the-art of existing global hydrological models, and (4) challenges. Acknowledgment: Thanks to Lebing Gong, Elin Widén-Nilsson, and Sven Halldin of Uppsala University for the team work in global hydrological models.

  7. Armas estratégicas e poder no sistema internacional: o advento das armas de energia direta e seu impacto potencial sobre a guerra e a distribuição multipolar de capacidades / Strategic weapons and power in international system: the arise of direct energy weapons and their potential impact over the war and multipolar distribution of capabilities

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabrício Schiavo, Ávila; José Miguel, Martins; Marco, Cepik.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O pós-Guerra Fria (1991-2006) apresenta uma mudança significativa no cenário estratégico: a maior acessibilidade da tecnologia militar e o surgimento de novas armas capazes de modificar o poder coercitivo dos países - como as armas de energia direta - acabam pondo em xeque a ideia de que a primazia [...] nuclear é condição suficiente para garantir a unipolaridade. Focando-se no atual recrudescimento das tensões entre EUA e Rússia - especialmente com a proposta norte-americana de implementação do Escudo Antimíssil no Leste Europeu - e analisando as relações de poder entre os três países, procuramos revelar que tipo de competição ocorrerá no sistema internacional nas próximas décadas. O presente artigo analisa as reais possibilidades de que a primazia nuclear norte-americana se torne efetiva, uma vez que, para tanto, é necessário o desarmamento estratégico das demais potências. Como uma guerra nuclear entre os três países possui um custo político muito elevado, as disputas tendem a ser decididas na esfera das operações. Para ilustrar esta última afirmação, usamos um cenário contrafactual de guerra nuclear limitada entre Estados Unidos, Rússia e China, por meio do qual tentamos evidenciar as precondições táticas e operacionais para uma eventual vitória da coalizão sino-russa. Abstract in english The evolution of the Post-Cold War (1991-2006) international system shows a significant amount of change regarding the strategic capabilities of United States, Russia, and China. The rise of a new class of strategic weapons called directed energy weapons (lasers and high power microwaves), as well a [...] s the great costs associated with the quest for nuclear primacy, demand closer examination of the current assumption about the links between nuclear primacy and unipolar distribution of power in the International System. Starting with the current tensions between US and Russia, we try to reveal in this article what kind of competition might be observed in the international system over the next decade. The present work analyzes the real possibilities of the USA achieving an effective nuclear primacy condition, which requires the complete disarmament of all other powers. Since a nuclear war between the three countries has a very high political cost, disputes tend to be settled on the operational sphere. In order to demonstrate this final point, we made comparative use of two nuclear war scenarios. The article concludes by establishing the tactical and operational conditions that Russia and China seems to counting with in order to defeat United States if a shooting war comes.

  8. Armas estratégicas e poder no sistema internacional: o advento das armas de energia direta e seu impacto potencial sobre a guerra e a distribuição multipolar de capacidades Strategic weapons and power in international system: the arise of direct energy weapons and their potential impact over the war and multipolar distribution of capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Schiavo Ávila

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O pós-Guerra Fria (1991-2006 apresenta uma mudança significativa no cenário estratégico: a maior acessibilidade da tecnologia militar e o surgimento de novas armas capazes de modificar o poder coercitivo dos países - como as armas de energia direta - acabam pondo em xeque a ideia de que a primazia nuclear é condição suficiente para garantir a unipolaridade. Focando-se no atual recrudescimento das tensões entre EUA e Rússia - especialmente com a proposta norte-americana de implementação do Escudo Antimíssil no Leste Europeu - e analisando as relações de poder entre os três países, procuramos revelar que tipo de competição ocorrerá no sistema internacional nas próximas décadas. O presente artigo analisa as reais possibilidades de que a primazia nuclear norte-americana se torne efetiva, uma vez que, para tanto, é necessário o desarmamento estratégico das demais potências. Como uma guerra nuclear entre os três países possui um custo político muito elevado, as disputas tendem a ser decididas na esfera das operações. Para ilustrar esta última afirmação, usamos um cenário contrafactual de guerra nuclear limitada entre Estados Unidos, Rússia e China, por meio do qual tentamos evidenciar as precondições táticas e operacionais para uma eventual vitória da coalizão sino-russa.The evolution of the Post-Cold War (1991-2006 international system shows a significant amount of change regarding the strategic capabilities of United States, Russia, and China. The rise of a new class of strategic weapons called directed energy weapons (lasers and high power microwaves, as well as the great costs associated with the quest for nuclear primacy, demand closer examination of the current assumption about the links between nuclear primacy and unipolar distribution of power in the International System. Starting with the current tensions between US and Russia, we try to reveal in this article what kind of competition might be observed in the international system over the next decade. The present work analyzes the real possibilities of the USA achieving an effective nuclear primacy condition, which requires the complete disarmament of all other powers. Since a nuclear war between the three countries has a very high political cost, disputes tend to be settled on the operational sphere. In order to demonstrate this final point, we made comparative use of two nuclear war scenarios. The article concludes by establishing the tactical and operational conditions that Russia and China seems to counting with in order to defeat United States if a shooting war comes.

  9. Predictive Models for Music

    OpenAIRE

    Paiement, Jean-François; Grandvalet, Yves; Bengio, Samy

    2008-01-01

    Modeling long-term dependencies in time series has proved very difficult to achieve with traditional machine learning methods. This problem occurs when considering music data. In this paper, we introduce generative models for melodies. We decompose melodic modeling into two subtasks. We first propose a rhythm model based on the distributions of distances between subsequences. Then, we define a generative model for melodies given chords and rhythms based on modeling sequences of Narmour featur...

  10. Dynamic vector hysteresis modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of considering dynamic effects in three vector hysteresis models is investigated. The friction model of oriented Preisach operators which rotate due to the torque exerted by the external field, the coercive spheres model, the 3D analogue of the classical Preisach model, and a further collective model based on micromagnetic analogy are considered. Furthermore, the 'external' dynamic generalization of the static hysteresis models is introduced for the vector case

  11. Environmental Satellite Models for a Macroeconomic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To support national environmental policy, it is desirable to forecast and analyse environmental indicators consistently with economic variables. However, environmental indicators are physical measures linked to physical activities that are not specified in economic models. One way to deal with this is to develop environmental satellite models linked to economic models. The system of models presented gives a frame of reference where emissions of greenhouse gases, acid gases, and leaching of nutrients to the aquatic environment are analysed in line with - and consistently with - macroeconomic variables. This paper gives an overview of the data and the satellite models. Finally, the results of applying the model system to calculate the impacts on emissions and the economy are reviewed in a few illustrative examples. The models have been developed for Denmark; however, most of the environmental data used are from the CORINAIR system implemented in numerous countries

  12. Accelerated life models modeling and statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bagdonavicius, Vilijandas

    2001-01-01

    The authors of this monograph have developed a large and important class of survival analysis models that generalize most of the existing models. In a unified, systematic presentation, this monograph fully details those models and explores areas of accelerated life testing usually only touched upon in the literature.Accelerated Life Models: Modeling and Statistical Analysis presents models, methods of data collection, and statistical analysis for failure-time regression data in accelerated life testing and for degradation data with explanatory variables. In addition to the classical results, the authors devote considerable attention to models with time-varying explanatory variables and to methods of semiparametric estimation. They also examine the simultaneous analysis of degradation and failure-time data when the intensities of failure in different modes depend on the level of degradation and the values of explanatory variables.The authors avoid technical details by explaining the ideas and referring to reso...

  13. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M and O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the repository design. These downstream models include the hydrologic flow models and the radionuclide transport models. All the models and the repository design, in turn, will be incorporated into the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of the potential radioactive waste repository block and vicinity to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a host for the repository. The interrelationship of the three components of the ISM and their interface with downstream uses are illustrated in Figure 2

  14. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the repository design. These downstream models include the hydrologic flow models and the radionuclide transport models. All the models and the repository design, in turn, will be incorporated into the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of the potential radioactive waste repository block and vicinity to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a host for the repository. The interrelationship of the three components of the ISM and their interface with downstream uses are illustrated in Figure 2.

  15. Simplicity, Complexity and Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Christie, Mike; Dawid, Philip; Senn, Stephen S

    2011-01-01

    Several points of disagreement exist between different modelling traditions as to whether complex models are always better than simpler models, as to how to combine results from different models and how to propagate model uncertainty into forecasts. This book represents the result of collaboration between scientists from many disciplines to show how these conflicts can be resolved. Key Features: Introduces important concepts in modelling, outlining different traditions in the use of simple and complex modelling in statistics. Provides numerous case studies on complex modelling, such as clima

  16. Modelling Food Webs

    CERN Document Server

    Drossel, B

    2002-01-01

    We review theoretical approaches to the understanding of food webs. After an overview of the available food web data, we discuss three different classes of models. The first class comprise static models, which assign links between species according to some simple rule. The second class are dynamical models, which include the population dynamics of several interacting species. We focus on the question of the stability of such webs. The third class are species assembly models and evolutionary models, which build webs starting from a few species by adding new species through a process of "invasion" (assembly models) or "speciation" (evolutionary models). Evolutionary models are found to be capable of building large stable webs.

  17. Simplicity, complexity and modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Christie, Mike; Dawid, Philip; Senn, Stephen S

    2011-01-01

    Several points of disagreement exist between different modelling traditions as to whether complex models are always better than simpler models, as to how to combine results from different models and how to propagate model uncertainty into forecasts. This book represents the result of collaboration between scientists from many disciplines to show how these conflicts can be resolved. Key Features: Introduces important concepts in modelling, outlining different traditions in the use of simple and complex modelling in statistics. Provides numerous case studies on complex modelling, such as c

  18. Continuous system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, Francois E.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic introduction is presented for the concepts associated with 'modeling', involving the transition from a physical system down to an abstract description of that system in the form of a set of differential and/or difference equations, and basing its treatment of modeling on the mathematics of dynamical systems. Attention is given to the principles of passive electrical circuit modeling, planar mechanical systems modeling, hierarchical modular modeling of continuous systems, and bond-graph modeling. Also discussed are modeling in equilibrium thermodynamics, population dynamics, and system dynamics, inductive reasoning, artificial neural networks, and automated model synthesis.

  19. Multilevel modeling using R

    CERN Document Server

    Finch, W Holmes; Kelley, Ken

    2014-01-01

    A powerful tool for analyzing nested designs in a variety of fields, multilevel/hierarchical modeling allows researchers to account for data collected at multiple levels. Multilevel Modeling Using R provides you with a helpful guide to conducting multilevel data modeling using the R software environment.After reviewing standard linear models, the authors present the basics of multilevel models and explain how to fit these models using R. They then show how to employ multilevel modeling with longitudinal data and demonstrate the valuable graphical options in R. The book also describes models fo

  20. Analytical potential-density pairs for bars

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, D; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17232.x

    2010-01-01

    An identity that relates multipolar solutions of the Einstein equations to Newtonian potentials of bars with linear densities proportional to Legendre polynomials is used to construct analytical potential-density pairs of infinitesimally thin bars with a given linear density profile. By means of a suitable transformation, softened bars that are free of singularities are also obtained. As an application we study the equilibrium points and stability for the motion of test particles in the gravitational field for three models of rotating bars.

  1. On electromagnetic transitions between highly excited states of deformed odd-A nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strength function method developed earlier is generalized to calculation of transition probabilities between states of deformed nuclei lying at excitations of an order of the nucleon binding energy and lower. The structure of these states is described within the quasiparticle-phonon model. The used phonon operator contains the components of different multipolarities of electric and magnetic types for the projection ? of its momentum onto the nucleus symmetry axis. The results of methodical calculations are discussed. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Role of Fragment Higher Static Deformations in the Cold Binary Fission of $^{252}$Cf

    OpenAIRE

    Sandulescu, A; Misicu, S.; Carstoiu, F.; Florescu, A.; Greiner, W

    1998-01-01

    We study the binary cold fission of $^{252}$Cf in the frame of a cluster model where the fragments are born to their respective ground states and interact via a double-folded potential with deformation effects taken into account up to multipolarity $\\lambda=4$. The preformation factors were neglected. In the case when the fragments are assumed to be spherical or with ground state quadrupole deformation, the $Q$-value principle dictates the occurence of a narrow region around...

  3. The Principles of Causal Conspiracy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael M. Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The human mind understands logical processes and causality and formulates theories based on logical descriptions of empirical evidence. The Principles of Causal Conspiracy is based on defining information as logical charges similar to electric charges. Such information charges can be modeled in the vacuum of a quantum probability firmament as symmetry of quantum charges with a zero net charge. Observation of a state lifts one of these charges in a Möbius transformation from a multipolar f...

  4. Structure studies on fp-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, the structure of fp-shell nuclei is studied for the mass region 52-62. Model calculations are done to investigate excitation energies, electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole moments and transitions. Next, collective states are analyzed microscopically, single-particle transfer strength for more than twenty reactions are discussed. The next chapter deals with electron scattering form factors. Besides elastic magnetic scattering and inelastic quadrupole scattering, attention is given to excitations of high multipolarity

  5. Optimal magnetic sensor location for spherical harmonics identification applied to radiated electrical devices

    OpenAIRE

    Rouve, Laure-line; Schmerber, Louis; Chadebec, Olivier; Foggia, Albert

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of spherical harmonic representation to identify the magnetic multipolar sources associated to a given item, by measuring the near field around it. If the model presents many advantages, its use in an inverse problem approach requires special caution to critical points like the choice of sensor number and location. A method is presented that makes it possible, from a high number of information, to reduce the sensor number to a minimum and to optimize their locati...

  6. What controls the magnetic geometry of M dwarfs?

    OpenAIRE

    Gastine, T.; Morin, J.; Duarte, L.; Reiners, A.; Christensen, U. R.; Wicht, J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: observations of rapidly rotating M dwarfs show a broad variety of large-scale magnetic fields encompassing dipole-dominated and multipolar geometries. In dynamo models, the relative importance of inertia in the force balance -- quantified by the local Rossby number -- is known to have a strong impact on the magnetic field geometry. Aims: we aim to assess the relevance of the local Rossby number in controlling the large-scale magnetic field geometry of M dwarfs. Meth...

  7. What controls the large-scale magnetic fields of M dwarfs?

    OpenAIRE

    Gastine, T.; Morin, J.; Duarte, L.; Reiners, A.; Christensen, U.; Wicht, J.

    2013-01-01

    Observations of active M dwarfs show a broad variety of large-scale magnetic fields encompassing dipole-dominated and multipolar geometries. We detail the analogy between some anelastic dynamo simulations and spectropolarimetric observations of 23 M stars. In numerical models, the relative contribution of inertia and Coriolis force in the global force balance -estimated by the so-called local Rossby number- is known to have a strong impact on the magnetic field geometry. We ...

  8. Laboratory simulation of ionospheric heating experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonant absorption of an electromagnetic wave (f = 3.5 GHz) in a multipolar discharge (ne ? 1011 cm-3) with an adjustable density gradient is studied. Around the resonant location, nonlinear effects appear, associated with the ponderomotive force arising from the plasma wave. These effects are modeled by the Zakharov equations. Experimental and numerical results both exhibit a transition from a nonlinear steady state regime toward chaos when the amplitude of the electromagnetic wave or the gradient length is increased

  9. Damping rates of surface plasmons for particles of size from nano- to micrometers; reduction of the nonradiative decay

    OpenAIRE

    Kolwas, Krystyna; Derkachova, Anastasiya

    2012-01-01

    Damping rates of multipolar, localized surface plasmons (SP) of gold and silver nanospheres of radii up to $1000nm$ were found with the tools of classical electrodynamics. The significant increase in damping rates followed by noteworthy decrease for larger particles takes place along with substantial red-shift of plasmon resonance frequencies as a function of particle size. We also introduced interface damping into our modeling, which substantially modifies the plasmon dampi...

  10. The many-body problem for anisotropic membrane inclusions and the self-assembly of "saddle" defects into an "egg carton".

    OpenAIRE

    Dommersnes, Paul G; Fournier, Jean-Baptiste

    2002-01-01

    We calculate the many-body, nonpairwise interaction between N rigid, anisotropic membrane inclusions by modeling them as point-like constraints on the membrane's curvature tensor and by minimizing the membrane's curvature energy. Because multipolar distortions of higher-order decay on very short distances, our calculation gives the correct elastic interaction energy for inclusions separated by distances of the order of several times their size. As an application, we show by thermally equilibr...

  11. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate records on momentum reconstruction procedure for a nonfocusing spectrometer with wide-aperture analyzing magnet and nonuniform field, analysis of data from 4? experiments on relativistic nuclei beams at Dubna synchrophasotron based on automodelity, production of the cumulative particles in the FRITIOF model, decay of 152Tb and transitions in 152Gd with E0 multipolarities and first experiment on relativistic deuteron extraction from the Nuclotron with a bent crystal

  12. Internal conversion coefficients for superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Dragoun, O; Spalek, A

    2000-01-01

    The internal conversion coefficients (ICC) were calculated for all atomic subshells of the elements with 104<=Z<=126, the E1...E4, M1...M4 multipolarities and the transition energies between 10 and 1000 keV. The atomic screening was treated in the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater model. The Tables comprising almost 90000 subshell and total ICC were recently deposited at LANL preprint server.

  13. Biosphere Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), the TSPA-LA. The ERMYN model provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs), the reference biosphere, the human receptor, and assumptions (Section 6.2 and Section 6.3); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN model compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim iosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN model by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); and (8) Validating the ERMYN model by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7)

  14. What model(s) for program understanding?

    CERN Document Server

    Détienne, Françoise

    2007-01-01

    The first objective of this paper is to present and discuss various types of models of program understanding. They are discussed in relation to models of text understanding. The second objective of this paper is to assess the effect of purpose for reading, or more specifically programming task, on the cognitive processes involved and representations constructed in program understanding. This is done in the theoretical framework of van Dijk and Kintsch's model of text understanding (1983).

  15. AIDS Epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  16. Mesoscale Ocean Circulation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMET

    2009-05-21

    This module examines mesoscale ocean circulation models and features and processes that they predict. These models simulate temperature, salinity, currents, and elevation in 3 dimensions through a period of time. They have sufficient resolution to simulate features like fronts, eddies, upwelling, and internal tides. In this module, we examine current operational models, limitations to model forecasts, examples of predicted ocean features, and potential applications.

  17. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including description of biological phosphorus removal, physicalchemical processes, hydraulics and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2D/3D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise. Efficient and good modeling practice therefore requires the use of a proper set of guidelines, thus grounding the modeling studies on a general and systematic framework. Last but not least, general limitations of WWTP models – more specifically activated sludge models – are introduced since these define a boundary of validity for WWTP model applications.

  18. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including description of biological phosphorus removal, physical–chemical processes, hydraulics, and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2-D/3-D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise. Efficient and good modeling practice therefore requires the use of a proper set of guidelines, thus grounding the modeling studies on a general and systematic framework. Last but not least, general limitations of WWTP models – more specifically, activated sludge models – are introduced since these define a boundary of validity for WWTP model applications.

  19. Modeling the Accidental Deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyam Hafeez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The model for accidental deaths in the city of Lahore has been developed by using a class of Generalized Linear Models. Various link functions have been used in developing the model. The diagnostic checks have been carried out to see the validity of the fitted model.

  20. Complex Game Design Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanasamy, Viknashvaran; Wong, Kok Wai; Rai, Shri; Chiou, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at the game design and engineering approach to model the game design. The game modeling framework discussed in this paper could be a systematic alternative for implementing in the game engine architecture. The suggested game modeling framework incorporates structural game component, temporal game component and boundary game component frameworks. It is suitable to model most complex games and game engines.

  1. Models of mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Klarbring, Anders

    2006-01-01

    A new universal approach to modelling in mechanicsA larger scope than existing texts on continuum mechanicsGives a step-by-step approach to modellingGives a platform for deriving new models of applied useNovel treatments of classical models off, e.g., pipe flow and beams

  2. Fire Model Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-14

    The Fire Model Matrix is an on-line resource that presents four fire community models in a matrix that facilitates the exploration of the characteristics of each model. As part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course, this matrix is meant to sensitize forecasters to the use of weather data in these fire models to forecast potential fire activity.

  3. Modelling Decision Rules in System Dynamics Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Arango

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on modelling decision rules, fundamental components of simulation models and one of the most difficult tasks in modelling and analysis. Modelling decision rules in system dynamics modelsfollows the process described by the Scientific Method, by which scientists (in this case, modellers make an effort to construct an accurate representation of the world (in this case, representations of human decisions in systems dynamics models. Consequently, the paper is organized in the light of the scientific method. Decision rulesshould be shaped by the purpose of the model and be based on a theory of human decision making. I believe that human decision fail to satisfy most of the assumptions of the rational choice theory. This leads to persistent and systematic deviations from the prediction of the rational choice theory. Therefore, if there is an agreement thatmodels should represent reality, the use of bounded rationality theory is a better approximation to model human decisions. Techniques for building decision rules from system dynamics and other modelling schools are presented.

  4. Validation of HEDR models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project has developed a set of computer models for estimating the possible radiation doses that individuals may have received from past Hanford Site operations. This document describes the validation of these models. In the HEDR Project, the model validation exercise consisted of comparing computational model estimates with limited historical field measurements and experimental measurements that are independent of those used to develop the models. The results of any one test do not mean that a model is valid. Rather, the collection of tests together provide a level of confidence that the HEDR models are valid

  5. Nearshore Wave Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-14

    Ocean waves near shore impact public safety, commerce, navigation, and, of course recreation. Predicting these waves has driven efforts to model them for more than two decades. This module introduces forecasters to different nearshore wave models, including phase-resolving and 1- and 2-dimensional spectral models. It describes the processes that wave models simulate, the assumptions they make, the initial and boundary conditions required to run the models, and potential sources of error in model forecasts. While focusing on SWAN, the module also examines the Navy Standard surf Model and Bouss-2D.

  6. Calibrated Properties Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00. These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions

  7. Nuclear cluster models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review on different simple and microscopic cluster models is given. The main features of cluster models (cluster correlations, Pauli principle, exact mass spectrum motion, uniform treatment of bound and scattering states, use of a variational principle) are analyzed and illustrated by simle models (local alpha model of Buck, Saito model of orthogonality condition). The oscillatory cluster model is discussed to demonstate the effect of anti-symmetrization according to the Pauli principle. Two advanced microscopic cluster models, the resonating-group model and the generator-coordinate model are described in detail and their connections are shown. The capacities, advantages and problems of different cluster models are described and compared. (D.Gy.)

  8. The nuclear symplectic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview and status report is given on the symplectic model, the symplectic shell model and various approximations to these models. Particular emphasis is given to the physical content of the symplectic model, the kinds of phenomena it can describe and its relationship to other models. It is shown that the basic model gives rise to low lying rotational bands and giant monopole and giant quadrupole resonances built upon them. The low lying vibrational states of the collective model, e.g., beta vibrations, come from mixing of irreducible symplectic representations which arise, for example, from the spin-orbit and pairing interactions. It is shown how the spin degrees of freedom can be accommodated within the model and that the symplectic shell model is, in principle, an exact model. The deficiencies of the approach and some problems that need to be addressed are also discussed

  9. Calibrated Properties Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00 (CRWMS M and O 1999c). These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions

  10. Calibrated Properties Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Ahlers; H. Liu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00. These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions.

  11. Lumped Thermal Household Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss two different approaches to model the flexible power consumption of heat pump heated households: individual household modeling and lumped modeling. We illustrate that a benefit of individual modeling is that we can overview and optimize the complete flexibility of a heat pump portfolio. Following, we illustrate two disadvantages of individual models, namely that it requires much computational effort to optimize over a large portfolio, and second that it is difficult to accurately model the houses in certain time periods due to local disturbances. Finally, we propose a lumped model approach as an alternative to the individual models. In the lumped model, the portfolio is seen as baseline consumption superimposed with an ideal storage of limited power and energy capacity. The benefit of such a lumped model is that the computational effort of flexibility optimization is significantly reduced. Further, the individual disturbances will smooth out as the number of houses in the portfolio increases.

  12. Modeling in Chemical Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Jaap van Brakel

    2000-01-01

    Models underlying the use of similarity considerations, dimensionless numbers, and dimensional analysis in chemical engineering are discussed. Special attention is given to the many levels at which models and ceteris paribus conditions play a role and to the modeling of initial and boundary conditions. It is shown that both the laws or dimensionless number correlations and the systems to which they apply are models. More generally, no matter which model or description one picks out, what is b...

  13. Model Evolution and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Levendovszky, Tihamer; Rumpe, Bernhard; Scha?tz, Bernhard; Sprinkle, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    As complex software and systems development projects need models as an important planning, structuring and development technique, models now face issues resolved for software earlier: models need to be versioned, differences captured, syntactic and semantic correctness checked as early as possible, documented, presented in easily accessible forms, etc. Quality management needs to be established for models as well as their relationship to other models, to code and to requirem...

  14. Dynamical Dirichlet Mixture Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Le; Barber, David; Odobez, Jean-marc

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we propose a statistical model to deal with the discrete-distribution data varying over time. The proposed model -- HMM+DM -- extends the Dirichlet mixture model to the dynamic case: Hidden Markov Model with Dirichlet mixture output. Both the inference and parameter estimation procedures are proposed. Experiments on the generated data verify the proposed algorithms. Finally, we discuss the potential applications of the current model.

  15. Inference for Multiplicative Models

    OpenAIRE

    Wexler, Ydo; Meek, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces a generalization for known probabilistic models such as log-linear and graphical models, called here multiplicative models. These models, that express probabilities via product of parameters are shown to capture multiple forms of contextual independence between variables, including decision graphs and noisy-OR functions. An inference algorithm for multiplicative models is provided and its correctness is proved. The complexity analysis of the inference al...

  16. The Oz programming model

    OpenAIRE

    Smolka, Gert

    1995-01-01

    The Oz Programming Model (OPM) is a concurrent programming model subsuming higher-order functional and object-oriented programming as facets of a general model. This is particularly interesting for concurrent object-oriented programming, for which no comprehensive formal model existed until now. The model can be extended so that it can express encapsulated problem solvers generalizing the problem solving capabilities of constraint logic programming. OPM has been developed together with a conc...

  17. Competing risks models

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Gerard J.

    2005-01-01

    A competing risks model is a model for multiple durations that start at the same point of time for a given subject, where the subject is observed until the first duration is completed and one also observes which of the durations is completed first. This article gives an overview of the main issues in the empirical econometric analysis of competing risks models. The central problem is the non-identification of dependent competing risks models. Models with regressors can overcome this problem, ...

  18. Multilevel statistical models

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a clear introduction to this important area of statistics. The author provides a wide of coverage of different kinds of multilevel models, and how to interpret different statistical methodologies and algorithms applied to such models. This 4th edition reflects the growth and interest in this area and is updated to include new chapters on multilevel models with mixed response types, smoothing and multilevel data, models with correlated random effects and modeling with variance.

  19. Measuring Model Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbertsen, Philipp; Stahl, Gerhard; Luedtke, Corinna

    2013-01-01

    Model risk as part of the operational risk is a serious problem for financial institutions. As the pricing of derivatives as well as the computation of the market or credit risk of an institution depend on statistical models the application of a wrong model can lead to a serious over- or underestimation of the institution's risk. Because the underlying data generating process is unknown in practice evaluating the model risk is a challenge. So far, definitions of model risk are either applicat...

  20. Modelling: Nature and Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Engineering of products and processes is increasingly “model-centric”. Models in their multitudinous forms are ubiquitous, being heavily used for a range of decision making activities across all life cycle phases. This chapter gives an overview of what is a model, the principal activities in the formation of a model for a specific purpose and the wide range of problem types that characterise the application areas of those models. In particular, a strong systems and life cycle perspective is presented which emphasises the development and application of models within each of the life cycle phases. The modelling goal is emphasised and discussed in terms of a triplet of: the model, amodel application and the type of system under study. The much wider length and time scale phenomena now being addressed through modelling is discussed. This change has broadened modelling practice from a dominance on the mesoscale phenomena towards higher and lower scales. This breadth in scale-spread of the partial models being developed presents significant challenges around multiscale modelling and the integration frameworks for such complex system modelling. A number of these frameworks are given in the chapter and are discussed. Throughout the chapter a number of taxonomies around model types and formshelp summarise the current modelling situation within much of product and process applications.

  1. Damping rates of surface plasmons for particles of size from nano- to micrometers; reduction of the nonradiative decay

    CERN Document Server

    Kolwas, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    Damping rates of multipolar, localized surface plasmons (SP) of gold and silver nanospheres of radii up to $1000nm$ were found with the tools of classical electrodynamics. The significant increase in damping rates followed by noteworthy decrease for larger particles takes place along with substantial red-shift of plasmon resonance frequencies as a function of particle size. We also introduced interface damping into our modeling, which substantially modifies the plasmon damping rates of smaller particles. We demonstrate unexpected reduction of the multipolar SP damping rates in certain size ranges. This effect can be explained by the suppression of the nonradiative decay channel as a result of the lost competition with the radiative channel. We show that experimental dipole damping rates [H. Baida, et al., Nano Lett. 9(10) (2009) 3463, and C. S\\"onnichsen, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002) 077402], and the resulting resonance quality factors can be described in a consistent and straightforward way within our ...

  2. Excessive centrosome abnormalities without ongoing numerical chromosome instability in a Burkitt's lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cin Paola

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical and structural centrosome abnormalities are detected in various human malignancies and have been implicated in the formation of multipolar mitoses, chromosome missegregation, and chromosomal instability. Despite this association between centrosome abnormalities and cancerous growth, a causative role of centrosome aberrations in generating chromosomal instability and aneuploidy has not been universally established. We report here excessive numerical and structural centrosome abnormalities in a malignant Burkitt's lymphoma harboring the characteristic t(8;14 chromosomal translocation. Using conventional karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, we detected no signs of ongoing numerical chromosome instability, although the tumor displayed sporadic multipolar metaphases. These findings demonstrate that centrosome abnormalities are not a universal surrogate marker for chromosomal instability in malignant tumors. Moreover, our results suggest a model in which additional cellular alterations may be required to promote centrosome-related mitotic defects in tumor cells.

  3. Gamma-gamma directional correlation measurements following thermal neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An on-line angular correlation facility to measure directional correlation coefficients of gamma ray cascades following thermal neutron capture is described. This computer based facility at the Institut Laue-Langevin can collect four 2K coincidence spectra simultaneously, which are treated on-line for subtraction of background and accidental events. The apparatus has been used to perform directional correlation measurements on sup(162,164)Dy, with the main aim of measuring the multipolarities of the gamma ray transitions between the gamma and ground state bands. Multipolarities of fifteen transitions in 162Dy and nine in 164Dy were measured; in addition new coincidence relationships were found in both isotopes. The measured M1 admixtures in the transitions between the gamma and ground state bands have been investigated theoretically using the symmetric rotor model of Bohr and Mottelson. (author)

  4. Model Checking of Boolean Process Models

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    In the field of Business Process Management formal models for the control flow of business processes have been designed since more than 15 years. Which methods are best suited to verify the bulk of these models? The first step is to select a formal language which fixes the semantics of the models. We adopt the language of Boolean systems as reference language for Boolean process models. Boolean systems form a simple subclass of coloured Petri nets. Their characteristics are low tokens to model explicitly states with a subsequent skipping of activations and arbitrary logical rules of type AND, XOR, OR etc. to model the split and join of the control flow. We apply model checking as a verification method for the safeness and liveness of Boolean systems. Model checking of Boolean systems uses the elementary theory of propositional logic, no modal operators are needed. Our verification builds on a finite complete prefix of a certain T-system attached to the Boolean system. It splits the processes of the Boolean sy...

  5. Bubble models, data acquisition and model applicability.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jebavá, Marcela; Kloužek, Jaroslav; N?mec, Lubomír

    Vsetín : GLASS SERVICE,INC, 2005, s. 182-191. ISBN 80-239-4687-0. [International Seminar on Mathematical Model ing and Advanced Numerical Methods in Furnace Design and Operation /8./. Velké Karlovice (CZ), 19.05.2005-20.05.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : bubble model s Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  6. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation, density of accumulation, and the geometry of the accumulation zone. The density of accumulation and the geometry of the accumulation zone are calculated using a characterization of the fracture system based on field measurements made in the proposed repository (BSC 2001k). The model predicts that accumulation would spread out in a conical accumulation volume. The accumulation volume is represented with layers as shown in Figure 1. This model does not directly feed the assessment of system performance. The output from this model is used by several other models, such as the configuration generator, criticality, and criticality consequence models, prior to the evaluation of system performance

  7. Modeling Population Growth: Exponential and Hyperbolic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Hathout

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A standard part of the calculus curriculum is learning exponential growth models. This paper, designed to serve as a teaching aid, extends the standard modeling by showing that simple exponential models, relying on two points to fit parameters do not do a good job in modeling population data of the distant past. Moreover, they provide a constant doubling time. Therefore, the student is introduced to hyperbolic modeling, and it is demonstrated that with only two population data points, an amazing amount of information can be obtained, such as reasonably accurate doubling times that are a function of t, as well as accurate estimates of such entertaining topics as the total number of people that have ever lived on earth.

  8. Pavement Aging Model by Response Surface Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzano-Ramírez A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, surface course aging was modeled by Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The Marshall specimens were placed in a conventional oven for time and temperature conditions established on the basis of the environment factors of the region where the surface course is constructed by AC-20 from the Ing. Antonio M. Amor refinery. Volatilized material (VM, load resistance increment (?L and flow resistance increment (?F models were developed by the RSM. Cylindrical specimens with real aging were extracted from the surface course pilot to evaluate the error of the models. The VM model was adequate, in contrast (?L and (?F models were almost adequate with an error of 20 %, that was associated with the other environmental factors, which were not considered at the beginning of the research.

  9. Operational risk modeling analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Panjer, Harry H

    2006-01-01

    Discover how to optimize business strategies from both qualitative and quantitative points of viewOperational Risk: Modeling Analytics is organized around the principle that the analysis of operational risk consists, in part, of the collection of data and the building of mathematical models to describe risk. This book is designed to provide risk analysts with a framework of the mathematical models and methods used in the measurement and modeling of operational risk in both the banking and insurance sectors.Beginning with a foundation for operational risk modeling and a focus on the modeling process, the book flows logically to discussion of probabilistic tools for operational risk modeling and statistical methods for calibrating models of operational risk. Exercises are included in chapters involving numerical computations for students'' practice and reinforcement of concepts.Written by Harry Panjer, one of the foremost authorities in the world on risk modeling and its effects in business management, this is ...

  10. Model Validation Status Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M and O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and engineered barriers, plus the TSPA model itself Description of the model areas is provided in Section 3, and the documents reviewed are described in Section 4. The responsible manager for the Model Validation Status Review was the Chief Science Officer (CSO) for Bechtel-SAIC Co. (BSC). The team lead was assigned by the CSO. A total of 32 technical specialists were engaged to evaluate model validation status in the 21 model areas. The technical specialists were generally independent of the work reviewed, meeting technical qualifications as discussed in Section 5

  11. Trapped Radiation Model Uncertainties: Model-Data and Model-Model Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    2000-01-01

    The standard AP8 and AE8 models for predicting trapped proton and electron environments have been compared with several sets of flight data to evaluate model uncertainties. Model comparisons are made with flux and dose measurements made on various U.S. low-Earth orbit satellites (APEX, CRRES, DMSP, LDEF, NOAA) and Space Shuttle flights, on Russian satellites (Photon-8, Cosmos-1887, Cosmos-2044), and on the Russian Mir Space Station. This report gives the details of the model-data comparisons-summary results in terms of empirical model uncertainty factors that can be applied for spacecraft design applications are given in a combination report. The results of model-model comparisons are also presented from standard AP8 and AE8 model predictions compared with the European Space Agency versions of AP8 and AE8 and with Russian-trapped radiation models.

  12. Models for Dynamic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter covers aspects of the dynamic modelling and simulation of several complex operations that include a controlled blending tank, a direct methanol fuel cell that incorporates a multiscale model, a fluidised bed reactor, a standard chemical reactor and finally a polymerisation reactor. These models help illustrate aspects of model formulation, the generation of the underlying assumptions about the systems, the degrees of freedom analysis and finally the solution and simulation of the models subject to changes in a variety of inputs. It is shown how an integrated system such as ICAS-MoT can be applied to formulate, analyse and solve these dynamic problems and how in the case of the fuel cell problem the model consists of coupledmeso and micro scale models. It is shown how data flows are handled between the models and how the solution is obtained within the modelling environment.

  13. Model Validation Status Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and engineered barriers, plus the TSPA model itself Description of the model areas is provided in Section 3, and the documents reviewed are described in Section 4. The responsible manager for the Model Validation Status Review was the Chief Science Officer (CSO) for Bechtel-SAIC Co. (BSC). The team lead was assigned by the CSO. A total of 32 technical specialists were engaged to evaluate model validation status in the 21 model areas. The technical specialists were generally independent of the work reviewed, meeting technical qualifications as discussed in Section 5.

  14. Multiple Model Approaches to Modelling and Control,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Why Multiple Models?This book presents a variety of approaches which produce complex models or controllers by piecing together a number of simpler subsystems. Thisdivide-and-conquer strategy is a long-standing and general way of copingwith complexity in engineering systems, nature and human problem solving. More complex plants, advances in information technology, and tightened economical and environmental constraints in recent years have lead topractising engineers being faced with modelling and control problems of increasing complexity. When confronted with such problems, there is a strongintuitive appeal in building systems which operate robustly over a wide range of operating conditions by decomposing them into a number of simplerlinear modelling or control problems, even for nonlinear modelling or control problems. This appeal has been a factor in the development of increasinglypopular `local' and multiple-model approaches to coping with strongly nonlinear and time-varying systems.Such local approaches are directly based on the divide-and-conquer strategy, in the sense that the core of the representation of the model or controlleris a partitioning of the system's full range of operation into multiple smaller operating regimes each of which is associated a locally valid model orcontroller. This can often give a simplified and transparent nonlinear model or control representation. In addition, the local approach has computationaladvantages, it lends itself to adaptation and learning algorithms, and allows direct incorporation of high-level and qualitative plant knowledge into themodel. These advantages have proven to be very appealing for industrial applications, and the practical, intuitivelyappealing nature of the framework isdemonstrated in chapters describing applications of local methods to problems in the process industries, biomedical applications and autonomoussystems. The successful application of the ideas to demanding problems is already encouraging, but creative development of the basic framework isneeded to better allow the integration of human knowledge with automated learning. The underlying question is `How should we partition the system - what is `local'?'. This book presents alternative ways of bringing submodels together,which lead to varying levels of performance and insight. Some are further developed for autonomous learning of parameters from data, while others havefocused on the ease with which prior knowledge can be incorporated. It is interesting to note that researchers in Control Theory, Neural Networks,Statistics, Artificial Intelligence and Fuzzy Logic have more or less independently developed very similar modelling methods, calling them Local ModelNetworks, Operating Regime based Models, Multiple Model Estimation and Adaptive Control, Gain Scheduled Controllers Heterogeneous Control,Mixtures of Experts, Piecewise Models, Local Regression techniques, or Tagaki-Sugeno Fuzzy Models}, among other names. Each of these approacheshas different merits, varying in the ease of introduction of existing knowledge, as well as the ease of model interpretation. This book attempts to outlinemuch of the common ground between the various approaches, encouraging the transfer of ideas.Recent progress in algorithms and analysis is presented, with constructive algorithms for automated model development and control design, as well astechniques for stability analysis, model interpretation and model validation.

  15. Reduced Vector Preisach Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Umesh D.; Torre, Edward Della; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new vector Preisach model, called the Reduced Vector Preisach model (RVPM), was developed for fast computations. This model, derived from the Simplified Vector Preisach model (SVPM), has individual components that like the SVPM are calculated independently using coupled selection rules for the state vector computation. However, the RVPM does not require the rotational correction. Therefore, it provides a practical alternative for computing the magnetic susceptibility using a differential approach. A vector version, using the framework of the DOK model, is implemented. Simulation results for the reduced vector Preisach model are also presented.

  16. Models for singularity categories

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Hanno

    2012-01-01

    In this article we construct various models for singularity categories of modules over differential graded rings. The main technique is the connection between abelian model structures, cotorsion pairs and deconstructible classes, and our constructions are based on more general results about localization and transfer of abelian model structures. We indicate how recollements of triangulated categories can be obtained model categorically, discussing in detail Krause's recollement for the stable derived category. In the special case of curved mixed Z-graded complexes, we show that one of our singular models is Quillen equivalent to Positselski's contraderived model for the homotopy category of matrix factorizations.

  17. Holographic twin higgs model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-15

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at m_{KK}, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider. PMID:26024160

  18. Microsoft tabular modeling cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Braak, Paul te

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style with recipes explaining the steps for developing analytic data using Business Intelligence Semantic Models.This book is designed for developers who wish to develop powerful and dynamic models for users as well as those who are responsible for the administration of models in corporate environments. It is also targeted at analysts and users of Excel who wish to advance their knowledge of Excel through the development of tabular models or who wish to analyze data through tabular modeling techniques. We assume no prior knowledge of tabular modeling

  19. Modeling worldwide highway networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Letter addresses the problem of modeling the highway systems of different countries by using complex networks formalism. More specifically, we compare two traditional geographical models with a modified geometrical network model where paths, rather than edges, are incorporated at each step between the origin and the destination vertices. Optimal configurations of parameters are obtained for each model and used for the comparison. The highway networks of Australia, Brazil, India, and Romania are considered and shown to be properly modeled by the modified geographical model.

  20. Zephyr - the prediction models.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    This paper briefly describes new models and methods for predicationg the wind power output from wind farms. The system is being developed in a project which has the research organization Risø and the department of Informatics and Mathematical Modelling (IMM) as the modelling team and all the Danish utilities as partners and users. The new models are evaluated for five wind farms in Denmark as well as one wind farm in Spain. It is shown that the predictions based on conditional parametric models are superior to the predictions obatined by state-of-the-art parametric models.

  1. Holographic Twin Higgs Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-01

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at mKK , naturally allowing for mKK beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider.

  2. Five models of capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides analyzing capitalist societies historically and thinking of them in terms of phases or stages, we may compare different models or varieties of capitalism. In this paper I survey the literature on this subject, and distinguish the classification that has a production or business approach from those that use a mainly political criterion. I identify five forms of capitalism: among the rich countries, the liberal democratic or Anglo-Saxon model, the social or European model, and the endogenous social integration or Japanese model; among developing countries, I distinguish the Asian developmental model from the liberal-dependent model that characterizes most other developing countries, including Brazil.

  3. Five models of capitalism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Carlos, Bresser-Pereira.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides analyzing capitalist societies historically and thinking of them in terms of phases or stages, we may compare different models or varieties of capitalism. In this paper I survey the literature on this subject, and distinguish the classification that has a production or business approach from [...] those that use a mainly political criterion. I identify five forms of capitalism: among the rich countries, the liberal democratic or Anglo-Saxon model, the social or European model, and the endogenous social integration or Japanese model; among developing countries, I distinguish the Asian developmental model from the liberal-dependent model that characterizes most other developing countries, including Brazil.

  4. Energy-consumption modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  5. Marine Wave Model Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-14

    The Marine Wave Model Matrix provides information on the formulation of wave models developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and other modeling centers, including how these models forecast the generation, propagation, and dissipation of ocean waves using NWP model forecasts for winds and near-surface temperature and stability. Additionally, information is provided on data assimilation, post-processing of data, and verfication of wave models currently in operation. Within the post-processing pages are links to forecast output both in graphical and raw form, including links for data downloads. Links to COMET training on wave processes are also provided.

  6. Biosphere Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Wu; A.J. Smith

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), TSPA-LA. The ERMYN provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs) (Section 6.2), the reference biosphere (Section 6.1.1), the human receptor (Section 6.1.2), and approximations (Sections 6.3.1.4 and 6.3.2.4); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model (Section 6.3) and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); (8) Validating the ERMYN by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).

  7. Biosphere Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), TSPA-LA. The ERMYN provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs) (Section 6.2), the reference biosphere (Section 6.1.1), the human receptor (Section 6.1.2), and approximations (Sections 6.3.1.4 and 6.3.2.4); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model (Section 6.3) and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); (8) Validating the ERMYN by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7)

  8. Empirical Model Building Data, Models, and Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, James R

    2011-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "This...novel and highly stimulating book, which emphasizes solving real problems...should be widely read. It will have a positive and lasting effect on the teaching of modeling and statistics in general." - Short Book Reviews This new edition features developments and real-world examples that showcase essential empirical modeling techniques Successful empirical model building is founded on the relationship between data and approximate representations of the real systems that generated that data. As a result, it is essential for researchers who construct these m

  9. Financial modeling using Gaussian process models.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petelin, D.; Šindelá?, Jan; P?ikryl, Jan; Kocijan, J.

    Piscataway : IEEE, 2011, s. 672-677. ISBN 978-1-4577-1424-5. [6th International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications. Prague (CZ), 15.09.2011-17.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA TA ?R TA01030603; GA ?R GA102/08/0567; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB091015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : gaussian process models * autoregression * financial * efficient markets Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/sindelar-financial modeling using gaussian process models.pdf

  10. Modeling Guru: Knowledge Base for NASA Modelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seablom, M. S.; Wojcik, G. S.; van Aartsen, B. H.

    2009-05-01

    Modeling Guru is an on-line knowledge-sharing resource for anyone involved with or interested in NASA's scientific models or High End Computing (HEC) systems. Developed and maintained by the NASA's Software Integration and Visualization Office (SIVO) and the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS), Modeling Guru's combined forums and knowledge base for research and collaboration is becoming a repository for the accumulated expertise of NASA's scientific modeling and HEC communities. All NASA modelers and associates are encouraged to participate and provide knowledge about the models and systems so that other users may benefit from their experience. Modeling Guru is divided into a hierarchy of communities, each with its own set forums and knowledge base documents. Current modeling communities include those for space science, land and atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, and oceanography. In addition, there are communities focused on NCCS systems, HEC tools and libraries, and programming and scripting languages. Anyone may view most of the content on Modeling Guru (available at http://modelingguru.nasa.gov/), but you must log in to post messages and subscribe to community postings. The site offers a full range of "Web 2.0" features, including discussion forums, "wiki" document generation, document uploading, RSS feeds, search tools, blogs, email notification, and "breadcrumb" links. A discussion (a.k.a. forum "thread") is used to post comments, solicit feedback, or ask questions. If marked as a question, SIVO will monitor the thread, and normally respond within a day. Discussions can include embedded images, tables, and formatting through the use of the Rich Text Editor. Also, the user can add "Tags" to their thread to facilitate later searches. The "knowledge base" is comprised of documents that are used to capture and share expertise with others. The default "wiki" document lets users edit within the browser so others can easily collaborate on the same document, even allowing the author to select those who may edit and approve the document. To maintain knowledge integrity, all documents are moderated before they are visible to the public. Modeling Guru, running on Clearspace by Jive Software, has been an active resource to the NASA modeling and HEC communities for more than a year and currently has more than 100 active users. SIVO will soon install live instant messaging support, as well as a user-customizable homepage with social-networking features. In addition, SIVO plans to implement a large dataset/file storage capability so that users can quickly and easily exchange datasets and files with one another. Continued active community participation combined with periodic software updates and improved features will ensure that Modeling Guru remains a vibrant, effective, easy-to-use tool for the NASA scientific community.

  11. Monte Carlo Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Joiner

    Monte Carlo modeling refers to the solution of mathematical problems with the use of random numbers. This can include both function integration and the modeling of stochastic phenomena using random processes.

  12. Dimer models for parallelograms

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Kazushi; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the relation between dimer models and coamoebas associated with lattice parallelograms. We also discuss homological mirror symmetry for the product of two projective lines, emphasizing the role of a non-isoradial dimer model.

  13. The ATLAS Analysis Model

    CERN Multimedia

    Amir Farbin

    The ATLAS Analysis Model is a continually developing vision of how to reconcile physics analysis requirements with the ATLAS offline software and computing model constraints. In the past year this vision has influenced the evolution of the ATLAS Event Data Model, the Athena software framework, and physics analysis tools. These developments, along with the October Analysis Model Workshop and the planning for CSC analyses have led to a rapid refinement of the ATLAS Analysis Model in the past few months. This article introduces some of the relevant issues and presents the current vision of the future ATLAS Analysis Model. Event Data Model The ATLAS Event Data Model (EDM) consists of several levels of details, each targeted for a specific set of tasks. For example the Event Summary Data (ESD) stores calorimeter cells and tracking system hits thereby permitting many calibration and alignment tasks, but will be only accessible at particular computing sites with potentially large latency. In contrast, the Analysis...

  14. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  15. NASA breakup model implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Alessandro; Koppenwallner, G.; Krisko, Paula H.; Oswald, M.; Xu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of the NASA model for the breakup of spacecraft is compared between five different groups. The purpose is to identify possible sources of differences in the evolutionary models, related to the breakup simulation.

  16. Bounding species distribution models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. STOHLGREN, Catherine S. JARNEVICH, Wayne E. ESAIAS,Jeffrey T. MORISETTE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART and maximum entropy (Maxent models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5: 642–647, 2011].

  17. CCF model comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes a simple comparison of two CCF-models, the ECLM, and the Beta-model. The objective of the comparison is to identify differences in the results of the models by applying the models in some simple test data cases. The comparison focuses mainly on theoretical aspects of the above mentioned CCF-models. The properties of the model parameter estimates in the data cases is also discussed. The practical aspects in using and estimating CCFmodels in real PSA context (e.g. the data interpretation, properties of computer tools, the model documentation) are not discussed in the report. Similarly, the qualitative CCF-analyses needed in using the models are not discussed in the report. (au)

  18. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2005-01-01

    One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing setof classifiers is the \\NB models. These models rely on twoassumptions: $(i)$ All the attributes used to describe an instanceare conditionally independent given the class of that instance,and $(ii)$ all attributes follow a specific parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions of the \\NB classifier. In theproposed model the continuous attributes are described by amixture of multivariate Gaussians, where the conditionaldependencies among the attributes are encoded using latentvariables. We present algorithms for learning both the parametersand the structure of a latent classification model, and wedemonstrate empirically that the accuracy of the proposed model issignificantly higher than the accuracy of other probabilisticclassifiers. Udgivelsesdato: JUN

  19. World Magnetic Model 2010

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Magnetic Model is the standard model used by the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.K. Ministry of Defence, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  20. World Magnetic Model 2015

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Magnetic Model is the standard model used by the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.K. Ministry of Defence, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  1. Tissue repair modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Luis; Bagnerini, Patrizia; Habbal, Abderrahmane; Noselli, Stéphane; Serman, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    We propose a Partial Differential Equation Model for epidermal wound healing and Dorsal Closure in Drosophila embryos. We implement a numerical simulation of this model and compare the predicted evolution with the one observed experimentally.

  2. Supersymmetry and model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An introductory review of supersymmetry and supersymmetric model building is presented. The topics discussed include, a brief introduction to the formalism of supersymmetry, the gauge hierarchy problem, the minimal supersymmetric standard model and supersymmetric grand unified theories

  3. Modeling DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  4. Make a DNA Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Museum of Natural History

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners make a 3-D model of DNA using paper and toothpicks. While constructing this model, learners will explore the composition and structure of DNA. The activity also gives suggestions for alternate materials and challenges to explore.

  5. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  6. Introduction to Modeling (SAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students are introduced to "key characteristics of 2D and 3D models as they are created and used in the Molecular Workbench Software. It ranges from 2D modeling of a superball to roving through 3-D molecules." The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In the activity, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment full of demonstrations, illustrations, and models they can manipulate. The content of the module is divided into seven pages: Designing a computer model, Running and visualizing the model, Extended visualization, Annotation and sharing, Using the model to do experiments, Modeling an atom, and 3D static models. In addition to the activity, visitors will find an overview of the activity and details of the central concepts.

  7. Modelling of Corrosion Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2003-01-01

    Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed.

  8. Graphical Models with R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØjsgaard, SØren; Edwards, David

    2012-01-01

    Graphical models in their modern form have been around since the late 1970s and appear today in many areas of the sciences. Along with the ongoing developments of graphical models, a number of different graphical modeling software programs have been written over the years. In recent years many of these software developments have taken place within the R community, either in the form of new packages or by providing an R ingerface to existing software. This book attempts to give the reader a gentle introduction to graphical modeling using R and the main features of some of these packages. In addition, the book provides examples of how more advanced aspects of graphical modeling can be represented and handled within R. Topics covered in the seven chapters include graphical models for contingency tables, Gaussian and mixed graphical models, Bayesian networks and modeling high dimensional data

  9. How Mesoscale Models Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-14

    The goal of this training module is to help you increase your understanding of how mesoscale models work. Such understanding, in turn, can help you more efficiently and accurately evaluate model-generated forecast products.

  10. Modelling pelagic biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Donald B.; Hood, Raleigh R.

    Various combinations of physical and biological models are used to explore factors that determine the distribution of organisms in the world's oceans. The physical models examined include simple box models with parameterized inter-box exchanges that take into account variable box geometries, and specified continuous flows either in the Eulerian frame as stream-functions or as Lagrangian trajectories. A 1-dimensional mixed-layer model and a primitive equation channel model are introduced as examples of dynamical models depicting ocean physics. Biological models are discussed starting with a simple nitrogen (N), phytoplankton (P), zooplankton (Z) and detritus (D), NPZD formulation. The equilibria of this model is explored analytically as an example of computing steady state solutions, and then considering where in parameter space extinction occurs. Nonlinearities and expansion of NPZD to multi-species models are also treated. This is followed by the introduction of a nonlinear three-component food chain model, multi-species Lotka-Voltera competition models, and finally a discussion of structured population models including a derivation of a genetics model written in terms of genotypes. The physical models are then coupled with the biological ones in a series of examples. Both the box model with Lotka-Voltera multi-species population dynamics, and the 1-dimensional mixed-layer model with NPZD are used to demonstrate how the existence of spatial and temporal niches can allow a large number of species to coexist within biogeographic domains even though conditions at most sites and times are not conducive to supporting such diversity. These models recreate the basic diversity patterns observed in the pelagic ecosystem at various latitudes. The box model simulations also demonstrate the tendency for diffusive models to overestimate the dispersion of a species. In order to explore the dynamics of the edges of biogeographic domains a three species food chain model is combined with a Lagrangian trajectory calculation that specifies the dynamics of populations in a meandering jet environment. This model shows that the interaction of biological and physical dynamics can produce complex species distribution patterns that would be difficult to interpret from field observations of species abundance alone. Finally, results from a population genetics box model show that even when there is significant exchange of organisms between domains and natural selection affects allele and genotype proportions, genotype frequencies are in approximate Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This demonstrates the overly restrictive nature of some of the Hardy-Weinberg assumptions and provides a means for exploring population dynamics in a biogeographic context.

  11. Modeling Design Process

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Hideaki; Veerkamp, Paul; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses building a computable design process model, which is a prerequisite for realizing intelligent computer-aided design systems. First, we introduce general design theory, from which a descriptive model of design processes is derived. In this model, the concept of metamodels plays a crucial role in describing the evolutionary nature of design. Second, we show a cognitive design process model obtained by observing design processes using a protocol analysis method. We then di...

  12. Model averaging in economics

    OpenAIRE

    Moral-Benito, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Fragility of regression analysis to arbitrary assumptions and decisions about choice of control variables is an important concern for applied econometricians (e.g. Leamer (1983)). Sensitivity analysis in the form of model averaging represents an (agnostic) approach that formally addresses this problem of model uncertainty. This paper presents an overview of model averaging methods with emphasis on recent developments in the combination of model averaging with IV and panel data settings.

  13. A Quasar Wind Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ruff, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    A quasar wind model is proposed to describe the spatial and velocity structure of the broad line region. This model requires detailed photoionization and magnetohydrodynamic simulation, as the broad line region it too small for direct spatial resolution. The emission lines are Doppler broadened, since the gas is moving at high velocity. The high velocity is attained by the gas from a combination of radiative and magnetic driving forces. Once this model is complete, the model...

  14. Animal models of atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Getz, Godfrey S.; Reardon, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    In this mini-review several commonly used animal models of atherosclerosis have been discussed. Among them, emphasis has been made on mice, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates. Although these animal models have played a significant role in our understanding of induction of atherosclerotic lesions, we still lack a reliable animal model for regression of the disease. Researchers have reported several genetically modified and transgenic animal models that replicate human atherosclerosis, howeve...

  15. Model Driven Reactive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Tony; Kramer, Dean; Oussena, Samia

    2015-01-01

    Reactive applications (rapps) are of interest because of the explosion of mobile, tablet and web-based platforms. The complexity and proliferation of implementation technologies makes it attractive to use model-driven techniques to develop rapp systems. This article proposes a domain specific language for rapps consisting of stereotyped class models for the structure of the application and state machine models for the application behaviour. The models are given a semantics i...

  16. Modelling Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Morten Peter; Viuf, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this report we present a model of interlocking systems, and describe how the model may be validated by simulation. Station topologies are modelled by graphs in which the nodes denote track segments, and the edges denote connectivity for train traÆc. Points and signals are modelled by annotations on the edges, thereby restricting the driving possibilities. We de ne the safe station states as predicates on the graph, and present a rst step towards an implementation of these predicates.

  17. On combinatorial model categories

    OpenAIRE

    Rosicky, J.

    2007-01-01

    Combinatorial model categories were introduced by J. H. Smith as model categories which are locally presentable and cofibrantly generated. He has not published his results yet but proofs of some of them were presented by T. Beke or D. Dugger. We are contributing to this endeavour by proving that weak equivalences in a combinatorial model category form an accessible category. We also present some new results about weak equivalences and cofibrations in combinatorial model cate...

  18. Computer modelling of biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Justinas Terešius; Vytautas Ašeris

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical model of biosensor with competitive substrates conversion is analysed in this work. Model is described by partial differential reaction-diffusion equations with non-linear reaction term. Because of the non-linearity the analytical solutions exist only for extreme parameter values and thus the model in general case is solved by finite difference methods. The validity of the computational model is checked by comparing numerically obtained results to the known analytical solutions a...

  19. MODELS IN MAGNETISM

    OpenAIRE

    EMIL BURZO

    2011-01-01

    This is only a short review on the basic features and of connection between the models. Two types of basic models, those considering that the magnetic moments are localized at lattice sites and band models, respectively, were elaborated. These are situated in the right part of figure (localized) and left part (band). The models having features from both above descriptions are plotted in the intermediate regions.

  20. Future of groundwater modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D.; Panday, Sorab

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing need to better manage water resources, the future of groundwater modeling is bright and exciting. However, while the past can be described and the present is known, the future of groundwater modeling, just like a groundwater model result, is highly uncertain and any prediction is probably not going to be entirely representative. Thus we acknowledge this as we present our vision of where groundwater modeling may be headed.