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Sample records for magnetoencephalography multipolar modeling

  1. MEG (Magnetoencephalography) multipolar modeling of distributed sources using RAP-MUSIC (Recursively Applied and Projected Multiple Signal Characterization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, J. C. (John C.); Baillet, S. (Sylvain); Jerbi, K. (Karim); Leahy, R. M. (Richard M.)

    2001-01-01

    We describe the use of truncated multipolar expansions for producing dynamic images of cortical neural activation from measurements of the magnetoencephalogram. We use a signal-subspace method to find the locations of a set of multipolar sources, each of which represents a region of activity in the cerebral cortex. Our method builds up an estimate of the sources in a recursive manner, i.e. we first search for point current dipoles, then magnetic dipoles, and finally first order multipoles. The dynamic behavior of these sources is then computed using a linear fit to the spatiotemporal data. The final step in the procedure is to map each of the multipolar sources into an equivalent distributed source on the cortical surface. The method is illustrated through an application to epileptic interictal MEG data.

  2. Magnetoencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Erin Simon [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Lurie Family Foundations MEG Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Edgar, J.C.; Gaetz, William C.; Roberts, Timothy P.L. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Lurie Family Foundations MEG Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Although magnetoencephalography (MEG) may not be familiar to many pediatric radiologists, it is an increasingly available neuroimaging technique both for evaluating normal and abnormal intracranial neural activity and for functional mapping. By providing spatial, temporal, and time-frequency spectral information, MEG affords patients with epilepsy, intracranial neoplasia, and vascular malformations an opportunity for a sensitive and accurate non-invasive preoperative evaluation. This technique can optimize selection of surgical candidates as well as increase confidence in preoperative counseling and prognosis. Research applications that appear promising for near-future clinical translation include the evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorder, traumatic brain injury, and schizophrenia. (orig.)

  3. Magnetoencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although magnetoencephalography (MEG) may not be familiar to many pediatric radiologists, it is an increasingly available neuroimaging technique both for evaluating normal and abnormal intracranial neural activity and for functional mapping. By providing spatial, temporal, and time-frequency spectral information, MEG affords patients with epilepsy, intracranial neoplasia, and vascular malformations an opportunity for a sensitive and accurate non-invasive preoperative evaluation. This technique can optimize selection of surgical candidates as well as increase confidence in preoperative counseling and prognosis. Research applications that appear promising for near-future clinical translation include the evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorder, traumatic brain injury, and schizophrenia. (orig.)

  4. On MEG forward modelling using multipolar expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a non-invasive functional imaging modality based on the measurement of the external magnetic field produced by neural current sources within the brain. The reconstruction of the underlying sources is a severely ill-posed inverse problem typically tackled using either low-dimensional parametric source models, such as an equivalent current dipole (ECD), or high-dimensional minimum-norm imaging techniques. The inability of the ECD to properly represent non-focal sources and the over-smoothed solutions obtained by minimum-norm methods underline the need for an alternative approach. Multipole expansion methods have the advantages of the parametric approach while at the same time adequately describing sources with significant spatial extent and arbitrary activation patterns. In this paper we first present a comparative review of spherical harmonic and Cartesian multipole expansion methods that can be used in MEG. The equations are given for the general case of arbitrary conductors and realistic sensor configurations and also for the special cases of spherically symmetric conductors and radially oriented sensors. We then report the results of computer simulations used to investigate the ability of a first-order multipole model (dipole and quadrupole) to represent spatially extended sources, which are simulated by 2D and 3D clusters of elemental dipoles. The overall field of a cluster is analysed using singular value decomposition and compared singular value decomposition and compared to the unit fields of a multipole, centred in the middle of the cluster, using subspace correlation metrics. Our results demonstrate the superior utility of the multipolar source model over ECD models in providing source representations of extended regions of activity. (author)

  5. Bremsstrahlung during $\\alpha$-decay: quantum multipolar model

    OpenAIRE

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the improved multipolar model of bremsstrahlung accompanied the $\\alpha$-decay is presented. The angular formalism of calculations of the matrix elements, being enough complicated component of the model, is stated in details. A new definition of the angular (differential) probability of the photon emission in the $\\alpha$-decay is proposed where direction of motion of the $\\alpha$-particle outside (with its tunneling inside barrier) is defined on the basis of a...

  6. A wind-shell interaction model for multipolar planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, W; Esquivel, A; Garcia-Segura, G; Garcia-Diaz, Ma T; Lopez, J A; Magnor, M

    2013-01-01

    We explore the formation of multipolar structures in planetary and pre-planetary nebulae from the interaction of a fast post-AGB wind with a highly inhomogeneous and filamentary shell structure assumed to form during the final phase of the high density wind. The simulations were performed with a new hydrodynamics code integrated in the interactive framework of the astrophysical modeling package SHAPE. In contrast to conventional astrophysical hydrodynamics software, the new code does not require any programming intervention by the user for setting up or controlling the code. Visualization and analysis of the simulation data has been done in SHAPE without external software. The key conclusion from the simulations is that secondary lobes in planetary nebulae, such as Hubble 5 and K3-17, can be formed through the interaction of a fast low-density wind with a complex high density environment, such as a filamentary circumstellar shell. The more complicated alternative explanation of intermittent collimated outflow...

  7. Error bounds in MEG (Magnetoencephalography) multipole localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerbi, K. (Karim); Mosher, J. C. (John C.); Baillet, S. (Sylvain); Leahy, R. M. (Richard M.)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a non-invasive method that enables the measurement of the magnetic field produced by neural current sources within the human brain. Unfortunately, MEG source estimation is a severely ill-posed inverse problem. The two major approaches used to tackle this problem are 'imaging' and 'model-based' methods. The first class of methods relies on a tessellation of the cortex, assigning an elemental current source to each area element and solving the linear inverse problem. Accurate tessellations lead to a highly underdetermined problem, and regularized linear methods lead to very smooth current distributions. An alternative approach widely used is a parametric representation of the neural source. Such model-based methods include the classic equivalent current dipole (ECD) and its multiple current dipole extension [1]. The definition of such models has been based on the assumption that the underlying sources are focal and small in number. An alternative approach reviewed in [4], [5] is to extend the parametric source representations within the model-based framework to allow for distributed sources. The multipolar expansion of the magnetic field about the centroid of a distributed source readily offers an elegant parametric model, which collapses to a dipole model in the limiting case and includes higher order terms in the case of a spatially extended source. While multipolar expansions have been applied to magnetocardiography (MCG) source modeling [2], their use in MEG has been restricted to simplified models [7]. The physiological interpretation of these higher-order components in non-intuitive, therefore limiting their application in this community (cf. [8]). In this study we investigate both the applicability of dipolar and multipolar models to cortical patches, and the accuracy with which we can locate these sources. We use a combination of Monte Carlo analyses and Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs), paralleling the work in [3] for the ECD. Results are presented for both point sources and cortical patches.

  8. Force-balance model of suppression of multipolar division in cancer cells with extra centrosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie

    2013-03-01

    Cancer cells often possess extra centrosomes which have the potential to cause cell death due to catastrophic multipolar division. Many cancer cells, however, are able to escape multipolar mitosis by clustering the extra centrosomes to form bipolar spindles. The mechanism of centrosome clustering is therefore of great interest to the development of anti-cancer drugs because the de-clustering of extra centrosomes provides an appealing way to eliminate cancer cells while keeping healthy cells intact. We present a physical model assuming 1) dynamic centrosomal microtubules interact with chromosomes by both pushing on chromosome arms and pulling along kinetochores; 2) these microtubules interact with force generators associated with actin/adhesion structures at the cell boundary; and 3) motors act on anti-parallel microtubules from different centrosomes. We find via computer simulations that chromosomes tend to aggregate near the cell center while centrosomes can be either clustered to form bipolar spindles or scattered to form multipolar spindles, depending on the strengths of relative forces, cell shape and adhesion geometry. The model predictions agree with data from cells plated on adhesive micropatterns and from biochemically or genetically perturbed cells. Furthermore, our model is able to explain various microtubule distributions in interphase cells on patterned substrates.

  9. Multipolar electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Salvatore; Hughes, Timothy J; Popelier, Paul L A

    2014-06-14

    Atomistic simulation of chemical systems is currently limited by the elementary description of electrostatics that atomic point-charges offer. Unfortunately, a model of one point-charge for each atom fails to capture the anisotropic nature of electronic features such as lone pairs or ?-systems. Higher order electrostatic terms, such as those offered by a multipole moment expansion, naturally recover these important electronic features. The question remains as to why such a description has not yet been widely adopted by popular molecular mechanics force fields. There are two widely-held misconceptions about the more rigorous formalism of multipolar electrostatics: (1) Accuracy: the implementation of multipole moments, compared to point-charges, offers little to no advantage in terms of an accurate representation of a system's energetics, structure and dynamics. (2) Efficiency: atomistic simulation using multipole moments is computationally prohibitive compared to simulation using point-charges. Whilst the second of these may have found some basis when computational power was a limiting factor, the first has no theoretical grounding. In the current work, we disprove the two statements above and systematically demonstrate that multipole moments are not discredited by either. We hope that this perspective will help in catalysing the transition to more realistic electrostatic modelling, to be adopted by popular molecular simulation software. PMID:24741671

  10. Hybrid MEG (Magnetoencephalography) source characterization by cortical remapping and imaging of parametric source models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillet, S. (Sylvain); Mosher, J. C. (John C.); Jerbi, K. (Karim); Leahy, R. M. (Richard M.)

    2001-01-01

    Reliable estimation of the local spatial extent of neural activity is a key to the quantitative analysis of MEG sources across subjects and conditions. In association with an understanding of the temporal dynamics among multiple areas, this would represent a major advance in electrophysiological source imaging. Parametric current dipole approaches to MEG (and EEG) source localization can rapidly generate a physical model of neural current generators using a limited number of parameters. However, physiological interpretation of these models is often difficult, especially in terms of the spatial extent of the true cortical activity. In new approaches using multipolar source models [3, 5], similar problems remain in the analysis of the higher-order source moments as parameters of cortical extent. Image-based approaches to the inverse problem provide a direct estimate of cortical current generators, but computationally expensive nonlinear methods are required to produce focal sources [1,4]. Recent efforts describe how a cortical patch can be grown until a best fit to the data is reached in the least-squares sense [6], but computational considerations necessitate that the growth be seeded in predefined regions of interest. In a previous study [2], a source obtained using a parametric model was remapped onto the cortex by growing a patch of cortical dipoles in the vicinity of the parametric source until the forward MEG or EEG fields of the parametric and cortical sources matched. The source models were dipoles and first-order multipoles. We propose to combine the parametric and imaging methods for MEG source characterization to take advantage of (i) the parsimonious and computationally efficient nature of parametric source localization methods and (ii) the anatomical and physiological consistency of imaging techniques that use relevant a priori information. By performing the cortical remapping imaging step by matching the multipole expansions of the original parametric source and the equivalent cortical patch, rather than their forward fields, we achieve significant reductions in computational complexity.

  11. Magnetoencephalography recording and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Jayabal; Sinha, Sanjib; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy

    2014-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) non-invasively measures the magnetic field generated due to the excitatory postsynaptic electrical activity of the apical dendritic pyramidal cells. Such a tiny magnetic field is measured with the help of the biomagnetometer sensors coupled with the Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) inside the magnetically shielded room (MSR). The subjects are usually screened for the presence of ferromagnetic materials, and then the head position indicator coils, electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes (if measured simultaneously), and fiducials are digitized using a 3D digitizer, which aids in movement correction and also in transferring the MEG data from the head coordinates to the device and voxel coordinates, thereby enabling more accurate co-registration and localization. MEG data pre-processing involves filtering the data for environmental and subject interferences, artefact identification, and rejection. Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI) is processed for correction and identifying fiducials. After choosing and computing for the appropriate head models (spherical or realistic; boundary/finite element model), the interictal/ictal epileptiform discharges are selected and modeled by an appropriate source modeling technique (clinically and commonly used - single equivalent current dipole - ECD model). The equivalent current dipole (ECD) source localization of the modeled interictal epileptiform discharge (IED) is considered physiologically valid or acceptable based on waveform morphology, isofield pattern, and dipole parameters (localization, dipole moment, confidence volume, goodness of fit). Thus, MEG source localization can aid clinicians in sublobar localization, lateralization, and grid placement, by evoking the irritative/seizure onset zone. It also accurately localizes the eloquent cortex-like visual, language areas. MEG also aids in diagnosing and delineating multiple novel findings in other neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinsonism, Traumatic brain injury, autistic disorders, and so oon. PMID:24791077

  12. Libration driven multipolar instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Cébron, David; Herreman, Wietze

    2014-01-01

    We consider rotating flows in non-axisymmetric enclosures that are driven by libration, i.e. by a small periodic modulation of the rotation rate. Thanks to its simplicity, this model is relevant to various contexts, from industrial containers (with small oscillations of the rotation rate) to fluid layers of terrestial planets (with length-of-day variations). Assuming a multipolar $n$-fold boundary deformation, we first obtain the two-dimensional basic flow. We then perform a short-wavelength local stability analysis of the basic flow, showing that an instability may occur in three dimensions. We christen it the Libration Driven Multipolar Instability (LDMI). The growth rates of the LDMI are computed by a Floquet analysis in a systematic way, and compared to analytical expressions obtained by perturbation methods. We then focus on the simplest geometry allowing the LDMI, a librating deformed cylinder. To take into account viscous and confinement effects, we perform a global stability analysis, which shows that...

  13. Fully Complex Magnetoencephalography

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Jonathan Z.; Wang, Yadong

    2005-01-01

    Complex numbers appear naturally in biology whenever a system can be analyzed in the frequency domain, such as physiological data from magnetoencephalography (MEG). For example, the MEG steady state response to a modulated auditory stimulus generates a complex magnetic field for each MEG channel, equal to the Fourier transform at the stimulus modulation frequency. The complex nature of these data sets, often not taken advantage of, is fully exploited here with new methods. W...

  14. Magnetoencephalography in pediatric epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hunmin Kim; Chun Kee Chung; Hee Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) records the magnetic field generated by electrical activity of cortical neurons. The signal is not distorted or attenuated, and it is contactless recording that can be performed comfortably even for longer than an hour. It has excellent and decent temporal resolution, especially when it is combined with the patient’s own brain magnetic resonance imaging (magnetic source imaging). Data of MEG and electroencephalography are not mutually exclusive and it is recorde...

  15. A Study on Decoding Models for the Reconstruction of Hand Trajectories from the Human Magnetoencephalography

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Gi Yeom; Wonjun Hong; Da-Yoon Kang; Chun Kee Chung; June Sic Kim; Sung-Phil Kim

    2014-01-01

    Decoding neural signals into control outputs has been a key to the development of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). While many studies have identified neural correlates of kinematics or applied advanced machine learning algorithms to improve decoding performance, relatively less attention has been paid to optimal design of decoding models. For generating continuous movements from neural activity, design of decoding models should address how to incorporate movement dynamics into models and how...

  16. Searching for the best model: ambiguity of inverse solutions and application to fetal magnetoencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetal brain signals produce weak magnetic fields at the maternal abdominal surface. In the presence of much stronger interference these weak fetal fields are often nearly indistinguishable from noise. Our initial objective was to validate these weak fetal brain fields by demonstrating that they agree with the electromagnetic model of the fetal brain. The fetal brain model is often not known and we have attempted to fit the data to not only the brain source position, orientation and magnitude, but also to the brain model position. Simulation tests of this extended model search on fetal MEG recordings using dipole fit and beamformers revealed a region of ambiguity. The region of ambiguity consists of a family of models which are not distinguishable in the presence of noise, and which exhibit large and comparable SNR when beamformers are used. Unlike the uncertainty of a dipole fit with known model plus noise, this extended ambiguity region yields nearly identical forward solutions, and is only weakly dependent on noise. The ambiguity region is located in a plane defined by the source position, orientation, and the true model centre, and will have a diameter approximately 0.67 of the modelled fetal head diameter. Existence of the ambiguity region allows us to only state that the fetal brain fields do not contradict the electromagnetic model; we can associate them with a family of models belonging to the ambiguity region, but not with any specific model. In addition to prwith any specific model. In addition to providing a level of confidence in the fetal brain signals, the ambiguity region knowledge in combination with beamformers allows detection of undistorted temporal waveforms with improved signal-to-noise ratio, even though the source position cannot be uniquely determined

  17. Searching for the best model: ambiguity of inverse solutions and application to fetal magnetoencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrba, J [VSM MedTech Ltd, Coquitlam, BC, V3K 7B2 (Canada); Robinson, S E [VSM MedTech Ltd, Coquitlam, BC, V3K 7B2 (Canada); McCubbin, J [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Lowery, C L [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Eswaran, H [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Murphy, P [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Preissl, H [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2007-02-07

    Fetal brain signals produce weak magnetic fields at the maternal abdominal surface. In the presence of much stronger interference these weak fetal fields are often nearly indistinguishable from noise. Our initial objective was to validate these weak fetal brain fields by demonstrating that they agree with the electromagnetic model of the fetal brain. The fetal brain model is often not known and we have attempted to fit the data to not only the brain source position, orientation and magnitude, but also to the brain model position. Simulation tests of this extended model search on fetal MEG recordings using dipole fit and beamformers revealed a region of ambiguity. The region of ambiguity consists of a family of models which are not distinguishable in the presence of noise, and which exhibit large and comparable SNR when beamformers are used. Unlike the uncertainty of a dipole fit with known model plus noise, this extended ambiguity region yields nearly identical forward solutions, and is only weakly dependent on noise. The ambiguity region is located in a plane defined by the source position, orientation, and the true model centre, and will have a diameter approximately 0.67 of the modelled fetal head diameter. Existence of the ambiguity region allows us to only state that the fetal brain fields do not contradict the electromagnetic model; we can associate them with a family of models belonging to the ambiguity region, but not with any specific model. In addition to providing a level of confidence in the fetal brain signals, the ambiguity region knowledge in combination with beamformers allows detection of undistorted temporal waveforms with improved signal-to-noise ratio, even though the source position cannot be uniquely determined.

  18. Accuracy and tractability of a kriging model of intramolecular polarizable multipolar electrostatics and its application to histidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandathil, Shaun M; Fletcher, Timothy L; Yuan, Yongna; Knowles, Joshua; Popelier, Paul L A

    2013-08-01

    We propose a generic method to model polarization in the context of high-rank multipolar electrostatics. This method involves the machine learning technique kriging, here used to capture the response of an atomic multipole moment of a given atom to a change in the positions of the atoms surrounding this atom. The atoms are malleable boxes with sharp boundaries, they do not overlap and exhaust space. The method is applied to histidine where it is able to predict atomic multipole moments (up to hexadecapole) for unseen configurations, after training on 600 geometries distorted using normal modes of each of its 24 local energy minima at B3LYP/apc-1 level. The quality of the predictions is assessed by calculating the Coulomb energy between an atom for which the moments have been predicted and the surrounding atoms (having exact moments). Only interactions between atoms separated by three or more bonds ("1, 4 and higher" interactions) are included in this energy error. This energy is compared with that of a central atom with exact multipole moments interacting with the same environment. The resulting energy discrepancies are summed for 328 atom-atom interactions, for each of the 29 atoms of histidine being a central atom in turn. For 80% of the 539 test configurations (outside the training set), this summed energy deviates by less than 1 kcal mol(-1). PMID:23720381

  19. The scalar magnetic potential in magnetoencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassios, G [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)], E-mail: G.Dassios@damtp.cam.ac.uk

    2008-07-15

    Two results on Magnetoencephalography (MEG) are reported in this presentation. First, we present an integral formula connecting the scalar magnetic potential with the values of the electric potential on the boundary of a conductive region. This formula provides the magnetic potential analogue of the well known Geselowitz formula. Second, we construct the scalar magnetic potential for the realistic ellipsoidal model of the brain, as an eigenfunction expansion in terms of surface ellipsoidal harmonics.

  20. Synchronous dynamic brain networks revealed by magnetoencephalography

    OpenAIRE

    Langheim, Frederick J. P.; Leuthold, Arthur C.; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.

    2005-01-01

    We visualized synchronous dynamic brain networks by using prewhitened (stationary) magnetoencephalography signals. Data were acquired from 248 axial gradiometers while 10 subjects fixated on a spot of light for 45 s. After fitting an autoregressive integrative moving average model and taking the residuals, all pairwise, zero-lag, partial cross-correlations (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\use...

  1. A Textural–Contextual Model for Unsupervised Segmentation of Multipolarization Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari, Vahid; Doulgeris, Anthony Paul; Gabriele, Moser; Eltoft, Torbjørn; Sebastiano, B. Serpico; Anfinsen, Stian Normann

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel unsupervised, non-Gaussian, and contextual segmentation method that combines an advanced statistical distribution with spatial contextual informa-tion for multilook polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR)data. This extends on previous studies that have shown the added value of both non-Gaussian modeling and contextual smoothing individually or for intensity channels only. The method is based on a Markov random field (MRF) model that integrates a K-Wishart d...

  2. Detecting forest structure and biomass with C-band multipolarization radar - Physical model and field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Walter E.; Paris, Jack F.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of C-band radar (4.75 GHz) to discriminate features of forest structure, including biomass, is tested using a truck-mounted scatterometer for field tests on a 1.5-3.0 m pygmy forest of cypress (Cupressus pygmaea) and pine (Pinus contorta ssp, Bolanderi) near Mendocino, CA. In all, 31 structural variables of the forest are quantified at seven sites. Also measured was the backscatter from a life-sized physical model of the pygmy forest, composed of nine wooden trees with 'leafy branches' of sponge-wrapped dowels. This model enabled independent testing of the effects of stem, branch, and leafy branch biomass, branch angle, and moisture content on radar backscatter. Field results suggested that surface area of leaves played a greater role in leaf scattering properties than leaf biomass per se. Tree leaf area index was strongly correlated with vertically polarized power backscatter (r = 0.94; P less than 0.01). Field results suggested that the scattering role of leaf water is enhanced as leaf surface area per unit leaf mass increases; i.e., as the moist scattering surfaces become more dispersed. Fog condensate caused a measurable rise in forest backscatter, both from surface and internal rises in water content. Tree branch mass per unit area was highly correlated with cross-polarized backscatter in the field (r = 0.93; P less than 0.01), a result also seen in the physical model.

  3. Multipolar Planetary Nebulae: Not as Geometrically Diversified as Thought

    CERN Document Server

    Chong, Sze-Ning; Imai, Hiroshi; Tafoya, Daniel; Chibueze, James; 10.1088/0004-637X/760/2/115

    2012-01-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) have diverse morphological shapes, including point-symmetric and multipolar structures. Many PNe also have complicated internal structures such as torus, lobes, knots, and ansae. A complete accounting of all the morphological structures through physical models is difficult. A first step toward such an understanding is to derive the true three-dimensional structure of the nebulae. In this paper, we show that a multipolar nebula with three pairs of lobes can explain many of such features, if orientation and sensitivity effects are taken into account. Using only six parameters - the inclination and position angles of each pair - we are able to simulate the observed images of 20 PNe with complex structures. We suggest that the multipolar structure is an intrinsic structure of PNe and the statistics of multipolar PNe has been severely underestimated in the past.

  4. MULTIPOLAR PLANETARY NEBULAE: NOT AS GEOMETRICALLY DIVERSIFIED AS THOUGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, S.-N.; Imai, H.; Chibueze, J. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Kwok, Sun [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Tafoya, D., E-mail: chongsnco@gmail.com, E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk [Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) have diverse morphological shapes, including point-symmetric and multipolar structures. Many PNe also have complicated internal structures such as tori, lobes, knots, and ansae. A complete accounting of all the morphological structures through physical models is difficult. A first step toward such an understanding is to derive the true three-dimensional structure of the nebulae. In this paper, we show that a multipolar nebula with three pairs of lobes can explain many such features, if orientation and sensitivity effects are taken into account. Using only six parameters-the inclination and position angles of each pair-we are able to simulate the observed images of 20 PNe with complex structures. We suggest that multipolar structure is an intrinsic structure of PNe and the statistics of multipolar PNe have been severely underestimated in the past.

  5. Direct reconstruction algorithm of current dipoles for vector magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel algorithm to reconstruct parameters of a sufficient number of current dipoles that describe data (equivalent current dipoles, ECDs, hereafter) from radial/vector magnetoencephalography (MEG) with and without electroencephalography (EEG). We assume a three-compartment head model and arbitrary surfaces on which the MEG sensors and EEG electrodes are placed. Via the multipole expansion of the magnetic field, we obtain algebraic equations relating the dipole parameters to the vector MEG/EEG data. By solving them directly, without providing initial parameter guesses and computing forward solutions iteratively, the dipole positions and moments projected onto the xy-plane (equatorial plane) are reconstructed from a single time shot of the data. In addition, when the head layers and the sensor surfaces are spherically symmetric, we show that the required data reduce to radial MEG only. This clarifies the advantage of vector MEG/EEG measurements and algorithms for a generally-shaped head and sensor surfaces. In the numerical simulations, the centroids of the patch sources are well localized using vector/radial MEG measured on the upper hemisphere. By assuming the model order to be larger than the actual dipole number, the resultant spurious dipole is shown to have a much smaller strength magnetic moment (about 0.05 times smaller when the SNR = 16 dB), so that the number of ECDs is reasonably estimated. We consider that our direct method with greatlynsider that our direct method with greatly reduced computational cost can also be used to provide a good initial guess for conventional dipolar/multipolar fitting algorithms

  6. Direct reconstruction algorithm of current dipoles for vector magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nara, Takaaki [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Oohama, Junji [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Hashimoto, Masaru [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Takeda, Tsunehiro [Graduate School of Frontier Science, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Ando, Shigeru [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2007-07-07

    This paper presents a novel algorithm to reconstruct parameters of a sufficient number of current dipoles that describe data (equivalent current dipoles, ECDs, hereafter) from radial/vector magnetoencephalography (MEG) with and without electroencephalography (EEG). We assume a three-compartment head model and arbitrary surfaces on which the MEG sensors and EEG electrodes are placed. Via the multipole expansion of the magnetic field, we obtain algebraic equations relating the dipole parameters to the vector MEG/EEG data. By solving them directly, without providing initial parameter guesses and computing forward solutions iteratively, the dipole positions and moments projected onto the xy-plane (equatorial plane) are reconstructed from a single time shot of the data. In addition, when the head layers and the sensor surfaces are spherically symmetric, we show that the required data reduce to radial MEG only. This clarifies the advantage of vector MEG/EEG measurements and algorithms for a generally-shaped head and sensor surfaces. In the numerical simulations, the centroids of the patch sources are well localized using vector/radial MEG measured on the upper hemisphere. By assuming the model order to be larger than the actual dipole number, the resultant spurious dipole is shown to have a much smaller strength magnetic moment (about 0.05 times smaller when the SNR = 16 dB), so that the number of ECDs is reasonably estimated. We consider that our direct method with greatly reduced computational cost can also be used to provide a good initial guess for conventional dipolar/multipolar fitting algorithms.

  7. Direct reconstruction algorithm of current dipoles for vector magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Takaaki; Oohama, Junji; Hashimoto, Masaru; Takeda, Tsunehiro; Ando, Shigeru

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm to reconstruct parameters of a sufficient number of current dipoles that describe data (equivalent current dipoles, ECDs, hereafter) from radial/vector magnetoencephalography (MEG) with and without electroencephalography (EEG). We assume a three-compartment head model and arbitrary surfaces on which the MEG sensors and EEG electrodes are placed. Via the multipole expansion of the magnetic field, we obtain algebraic equations relating the dipole parameters to the vector MEG/EEG data. By solving them directly, without providing initial parameter guesses and computing forward solutions iteratively, the dipole positions and moments projected onto the xy-plane (equatorial plane) are reconstructed from a single time shot of the data. In addition, when the head layers and the sensor surfaces are spherically symmetric, we show that the required data reduce to radial MEG only. This clarifies the advantage of vector MEG/EEG measurements and algorithms for a generally-shaped head and sensor surfaces. In the numerical simulations, the centroids of the patch sources are well localized using vector/radial MEG measured on the upper hemisphere. By assuming the model order to be larger than the actual dipole number, the resultant spurious dipole is shown to have a much smaller strength magnetic moment (about 0.05 times smaller when the SNR = 16 dB), so that the number of ECDs is reasonably estimated. We consider that our direct method with greatly reduced computational cost can also be used to provide a good initial guess for conventional dipolar/multipolar fitting algorithms.

  8. Evaluation of the solid state dipole moment and pyroelectric coefficient of phosphangulene by multipolar modeling of X-ray structure factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, G.K.H.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2000-01-01

    The electron density distribution of the molecular pyroelectric material phosphangulene has been studied by multipolar modeling of X-ray diffraction data. The "in-crystal" molecular dipole moment has been evaluated to 4.7 D corresponding to a 42% dipole moment enhancement compared with the dipole moment measured in a chloroform solution. It is substantiated that the estimated standard deviation of the dipole moment is about 0.8 D. The standard uncertainty (s.u.) of the derived dipole moment has been derived by splitting the dataset into three independent datasets. A novel method for obtaining pyroelectric coefficients has been introduced by combining the derived dipole moment with temperature-dependent measurements of the unit cell volume. The derived pyroelectric coefficient of 3.8(7)x 10(-6) Cm-2K-1 is in very good agreement with the measured pyroelectric coefficient of p = 3 +/- 1 x 10(-6) Cm-2 K-1. This method for obtaining the pyroelectric coefficient uses information from the X-ray diffraction experiment alone and can be applied to much smaller crystals than traditional methods.

  9. Energetics and Dynamics of Bipolar and Multipolar CME Source Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, B. J.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    We present results of a numerical experiment which tests the Aly-Sturrock limit in a fully 3-dimensional, spherical geometry. We compare two common magnetic configurations corresponding to bipolar and multipolar "active region" arcades with identical photospheric normal field distributions and applied shearing flows. The bipolar response is a smooth expansion of the stressed fields, void of any explosive behavior, whereas the multipolar configuration results in the rapid expulsion of the low-lying sheared field via the magnetic breakout mechanism for CME initiation. The critical nature of the oppositely-directed overlying field and its topological consequences is discussed in the context of the breakout model.

  10. Second Language Research Using Magnetoencephalography: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gwen L.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2009-01-01

    In this review we show how magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a constructive tool for language research and review MEG findings in second language (L2) research. MEG is the magnetic analog of electroencephalography (EEG), and its primary advantage over other cross-sectional (e.g. magnetic resonance imaging, or positron emission tomography) functional…

  11. Multipolar surface plasmon peaks on gold nanotriangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félidj, N.; Grand, J.; Laurent, G.; Aubard, J.; Lévi, G.; Hohenau, A.; Galler, N.; Aussenegg, F. R.; Krenn, J. R.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we report on the observation of multipolar surface plasmon excitation in lithographically designed gold nanotriangles, investigated by means of far-field extinction microspectroscopy in the wavelength range of 400-1000 nm. Several bands are observed in the visible and near infrared regions when increasing the side length of the triangles. The assignment of these peaks to successive in-plane multipolar plasmon modes is supported by calculations using the discrete dipole approximation method. We show that the lowest three multipolar excitations are clearly resolved in the visible and near infrared range. These new spectral features could be very promising in nanooptics or for chemosensing and biosensing applications.

  12. Functional Neuroimaging of Language Using Magnetoencephalography

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Richard E.; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Papanicolaou, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a novel functional brain mapping technique capable of non-invasively measuring neurophysiological activity based on direct measures of the magnetic flux at the head surface associated with the synchronized electrical activity of neuronal populations. Among the most actively sought applications of MEG has been localization of language-specific cortex. This is in part due to its practical application for pre-surgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy or brain ...

  13. Multipolar consensus for phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnard, Cécile; Berry, Vincent; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2006-10-01

    Collections of phylogenetic trees are usually summarized using consensus methods. These methods build a single tree, supposed to be representative of the collection. However, in the case of heterogeneous collections of trees, the resulting consensus may be poorly resolved (strict consensus, majority-rule consensus, ...), or may perform arbitrary choices among mutually incompatible clades, or splits (greedy consensus). Here, we propose an alternative method, which we call the multipolar consensus (MPC). Its aim is to display all the splits having a support above a predefined threshold, in a minimum number of consensus trees, or poles. We show that the problem is equivalent to a graph-coloring problem, and propose an implementation of the method. Finally, we apply the MPC to real data sets. Our results indicate that, typically, all the splits down to a weight of 10% can be displayed in no more than 4 trees. In addition, in some cases, biologically relevant secondary signals, which would not have been present in any of the classical consensus trees, are indeed captured by our method, indicating that the MPC provides a convenient exploratory method for phylogenetic analysis. The method was implemented in a package freely available at http://www.lirmm.fr/~cbonnard/MPC.html PMID:17060203

  14. Methodes entropiques appliquees au probleme inverse en magnetoencephalographie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapalme, Ervig

    2005-07-01

    This thesis is devoted to biomagnetic source localization using magnetoencephalography. This problem is known to have an infinite number of solutions. So methods are required to take into account anatomical and functional information on the solution. The work presented in this thesis uses the maximum entropy on the mean method to constrain the solution. This method originates from statistical mechanics and information theory. This thesis is divided into two main parts containing three chapters each. The first part reviews the magnetoencephalographic inverse problem: the theory needed to understand its context and the hypotheses for simplifying the problem. In the last chapter of this first part, the maximum entropy on the mean method is presented: its origins are explained and also how it is applied to our problem. The second part is the original work of this thesis presenting three articles; one of them already published and two others submitted for publication. In the first article, a biomagnetic source model is developed and applied in a theoretical con text but still demonstrating the efficiency of the method. In the second article, we go one step further towards a realistic modelization of the cerebral activation. The main priors are estimated using the magnetoencephalographic data. This method proved to be very efficient in realistic simulations. In the third article, the previous method is extended to deal with time signals thus exploiting the excellent time resolution offered by magnetoencephalography. Compared with our previous work, the temporal method is applied to real magnetoencephalographic data coming from a somatotopy experience and results agree with previous physiological knowledge about this kind of cognitive process.

  15. Magnetoencephalography from signals to dynamic cortical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Aine, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    "Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides a time-accurate view into human brain function. The concerted action of neurons generates minute magnetic fields that can be detected---totally noninvasively---by sensitive multichannel magnetometers. The obtained millisecond accuracycomplements information obtained by other modern brain-imaging tools. Accurate timing is quintessential in normal brain function, often distorted in brain disorders. The noninvasiveness and time-sensitivityof MEG are great assets to developmental studies, as well. This multiauthored book covers an ambitiously wide range of MEG research from introductory to advanced level, from sensors to signals, and from focal sources to the dynamics of cortical networks. Written by active practioners of this multidisciplinary field, the book contains tutorials for newcomers and chapters of new challenging methods and emerging technologies to advanced MEG users. The reader will obtain a firm grasp of the possibilities of MEG in the study of audition, vision...

  16. SQUID-based multichannel system for Magnetoencephalography

    CERN Document Server

    Rombetto, S; Vettoliere, A; Trebeschi, A; Rossi, R; Russo, M

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a multichannel system based on superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) for magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements, developed and installed at Istituto di Cibernetica (ICIB) in Naples. This MEG system, consists of 163 full integrated SQUID magnetometers, 154 channels and 9 references, and has been designed to meet specifications concerning noise, dynamic range, slew rate and linearity through optimized design. The control electronics is located at room temperature and all the operations are performed inside a Magnetically Shielded Room (MSR). The system exhibits a magnetic white noise level of approximatively 5 fT/Hz1=2. This MEG system will be employed for both clinical and routine use. PACS numbers: 74.81.Fa, 85.25.Hv, 07.20.Mc, 85.25.Dq, 87.19.le, 87.85.Ng

  17. An Optical-Infrared Study of the Young Multipolar Planetary Nebula NGC 6644

    CERN Document Server

    Hsia, Chih Hao; Zhang, Yong; Koning, Nico; Volk, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution HST imaging of the compact planetary nebula NGC 6644 has revealed two pairs of bipolar lobes and a central ring lying close to the plane of the sky. From mid-infrared imaging obtained with the Gemini Telescope, we have found a dust torus which is oriented nearly perpendicular to one pair of the lobes. We suggest that NGC 6644 is a multipolar nebula and have constructed a 3-D model which allows the visualization of the object from different lines of sight. These results suggest that NGC 6644 may have similar intrinsic structures as other multipolar nebulae and the phenomenon of multipolar nebulosity may be more common than previously believed.

  18. AN OPTICAL-INFRARED STUDY OF THE YOUNG MULTIPOLAR PLANETARY NEBULA NGC 6644

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the compact planetary nebula NGC 6644 has revealed two pairs of bipolar lobes and a central ring lying close to the plane of the sky. From mid-infrared imaging obtained with the Gemini Telescope, we have found a dust torus which is oriented nearly perpendicular to one pair of the lobes. We suggest that NGC 6644 is a multipolar nebula and construct a three-dimensional model that allows the visualization of the object from different lines of sight. These results suggest that NGC 6644 may have similar intrinsic structures as other multipolar nebulae and the phenomenon of multipolar nebulosity may be more common than previously believed.

  19. Monte Carlo analysis of localization errors in magnetoencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvick, P.A.; Lewis, P.S.; Aine, C.; Flynn, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    In magnetoencephalography (MEG), the magnetic fields created by electrical activity in the brain are measured on the surface of the skull. To determine the location of the activity, the measured field is fit to an assumed source generator model, such as a current dipole, by minimizing chi-square. For current dipoles and other nonlinear source models, the fit is performed by an iterative least squares procedure such as the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Once the fit has been computed, analysis of the resulting value of chi-square can determine whether the assumed source model is adequate to account for the measurements. If the source model is adequate, then the effect of measurement error on the fitted model parameters must be analyzed. Although these kinds of simulation studies can provide a rough idea of the effect that measurement error can be expected to have on source localization, they cannot provide detailed enough information to determine the effects that the errors in a particular measurement situation will produce. In this work, we introduce and describe the use of Monte Carlo-based techniques to analyze model fitting errors for real data. Given the details of the measurement setup and a statistical description of the measurement errors, these techniques determine the effects the errors have on the fitted model parameters. The effects can then be summarized in various ways such as parameter variances/covariances or multidimensional confidence regions. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Functional neuroimaging of language using magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Richard E.; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Papanicolaou, Andrew C.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a novel functional brain mapping technique capable of non-invasively measuring neurophysiological activity based on direct measures of the magnetic flux at the head surface associated with the synchronized electrical activity of neuronal populations. Among the most actively sought applications of MEG has been localization of language-specific cortex. This is in part due to its practical application for pre-surgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy or brain tumors. Until recently, comprehensive language mapping during surgical planning has relied on the application of invasive diagnostic methods, namely the Wada procedure and direct electrocortical stimulation mapping, often considered as the “gold standard” techniques for identifying language-specific cortex. In this review, we evaluate the utility of MEG as a tool for functional mapping of language in both clinical and normal populations. In particular, we provide a general description of MEG, with emphasis on facets of the technique related to language mapping. Additionally, we discuss the application of appropriate MEG language-mapping protocols developed to reliably generate spatiotemporal profiles of language activity, and address the validity of the technique against the “gold standards” of the Wada and electrocortical mapping procedures.

  1. Magnetoencephalography in the diagnosis of concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roland R; Huang, Mingxiong

    2014-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a biomedical technique which measures the magnetic fields emitted by the brain, generated by neuronal activity. Commercial whole-head MEG units have been available for about 15 years, but currently there are only about 20 such units operating in the USA. Here, we review the basic concepts of MEG and list some of the usual clinical indications: noninvasive localization of epileptic spikes and presurgical mapping of eloquent cortex. We then discuss using MEG to diagnose mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI; concussions). Injured brain tissues in TBI patients generate abnormal low-frequency magnetic activity (delta-waves: 1-4 Hz) that can be measured and localized by MEG. These abnormal delta-waves originate from neurons that experience deafferentation from axonal injury to the associated white matter fiber tracts, also manifested on diffusion tensor imaging as reduced fractional anisotropy. Magnetoencephalographic evaluation of abnormal delta-waves (1-4 Hz) is probably the most sensitive objective test to diagnose concussions. An automated MEG low-frequency (slow wave) source imaging method, frequency-domain vector-based spatiotemporal analysis using a L1-minimum norm (VESTAL), achieved a positive finding rate of 87% for diagnosing concussions (blast-induced plus nonblast), 100% for moderate TBI, and no false-positive diagnoses in normal controls. There were also significant correlations between the number of cortical regions generating abnormal slow waves and the total postconcussive symptom scores in TBI patients. PMID:24923396

  2. Practicability of magnetoencephalography-guided neuronavigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsching, R; Bondar, I; Heinze, H J; Hinrichs, H; Hagner, T; Heinrich, J; Belau, A

    2002-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a noninvasive option for localizing electroneurophysiological activity on the human cortex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the practicability and reliability of MEG imaging integrated into a neuronavigation system to identify the sensorimotor cortex intraoperatively in patients with brain tumors in or near the central motor strip. It was performed prior to surgery in 30 patients with space-occupying lesions in or around the central region to localize the primary somatosensory cortex. These functional brain maps were superimposed on MR images obtained prior to surgery and transferred in the operating room for intraoperative functional neuronavigation. During surgery, the phase reversal technique identified a generator which coincided with the somatosensory cortex as displayed by the MEG-based functional neuronavigation system. Following surgery, the motor deficit improved in seven patients, was unchanged in five, and showed a slight transient deterioration in five. One patient suffered a deterioration of motor function with incomplete recovery. The MEG-based functional neuronavigation was found to be practicable and useful in finding a safe approach to tumors in or adjacent to the central region. The accuracy of MEG was concluded to be reliable as verified by the phase reversal technique. PMID:11954769

  3. SQUID sensor array configurations for magnetoencephalography applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrba, J.; Robinson, S.E. [CTF Systems Inc., A subsidiary of VSM MedTech Ltd, Port Coquitlam, BC (Canada)

    2002-09-01

    Electrophysiological activity in the human brain generates a small magnetic field from the spatial superposition of individual neuronal source currents. At a distance of about 15 mm from the scalp, the observed field is of the order of 10{sub -13} to 10{sub -12} T peak-to-peak. This measurement process is termed magnetoencephalography (MEG). In order to minimize instrumental noise, the MEG is usually detected using superconducting flux transformers, coupled to SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) sensors. Since MEG signals are also measured in the presence of significant environmental magnetic noise, flux transformers must be designed to strongly attenuate environmental noise, maintain low instrumental noise and maximize signals from the brain. Furthermore, the flux transformers must adequately sample spatial field variations if the brain activity is to be imaged. The flux transformer optimization for maximum brain signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requires analysis of the spatial and temporal properties of brain activity, the environmental noise and how these signals are coupled to the flux transformer. Flux transformers that maximize SNR can detect the smallest brain signals and have the best ability to spatially separate dipolar sources. An optimal flux transformer design is a synthetic higher-order gradiometer based on relatively short-baseline first-order radial gradiometer primary sensors. (author)

  4. SQUID sensor array configurations for magnetoencephalography applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrophysiological activity in the human brain generates a small magnetic field from the spatial superposition of individual neuronal source currents. At a distance of about 15 mm from the scalp, the observed field is of the order of 10-13 to 10-12 T peak-to-peak. This measurement process is termed magnetoencephalography (MEG). In order to minimize instrumental noise, the MEG is usually detected using superconducting flux transformers, coupled to SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) sensors. Since MEG signals are also measured in the presence of significant environmental magnetic noise, flux transformers must be designed to strongly attenuate environmental noise, maintain low instrumental noise and maximize signals from the brain. Furthermore, the flux transformers must adequately sample spatial field variations if the brain activity is to be imaged. The flux transformer optimization for maximum brain signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requires analysis of the spatial and temporal properties of brain activity, the environmental noise and how these signals are coupled to the flux transformer. Flux transformers that maximize SNR can detect the smallest brain signals and have the best ability to spatially separate dipolar sources. An optimal flux transformer design is a synthetic higher-order gradiometer based on relatively short-baseline first-order radial gradiometer primary sensors. (author)

  5. Nonshielded multipolar vortices at high Reynolds number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, L A

    2006-06-01

    Vortex multipoles--consisting of a core of vorticity closely surrounded by several smaller vorticity concentrations of opposite sign--are obtained from the evolution of vorticity in two-dimensional simulations. Using a meshless vortex method, we obtained triangular and square vortices, surrounded by three and four satellites, respectively. These structures have only been observed before to emerge from zero-circulation initial conditions. We also observed a pentagon vortex. Here, we obtain compound vortices of nonzero total circulation, and suggest a gamut of multipolar asymptotic solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations. PMID:16906900

  6. High-resolution EEG (HR-EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaret, M; Maillard, L; Jung, J

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution EEG (HR-EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) allow the recording of spontaneous or evoked electromagnetic brain activity with excellent temporal resolution. Data must be recorded with high temporal resolution (sampling rate) and high spatial resolution (number of channels). Data analyses are based on several steps with selection of electromagnetic signals, elaboration of a head model and use of algorithms in order to solve the inverse problem. Due to considerable technical advances in spatial resolution, these tools now represent real methods of ElectroMagnetic Source Imaging. HR-EEG and MEG constitute non-invasive and complementary examinations, characterized by distinct sensitivities according to the location and orientation of intracerebral generators. In the presurgical assessment of drug-resistant partial epilepsies, HR-EEG and MEG can characterize and localize interictal activities and thus the irritative zone. HR-EEG and MEG often yield significant additional data that are complementary to other presurgical investigations and particularly relevant in MRI-negative cases. Currently, the determination of the epileptogenic zone and functional brain mapping remain rather less well-validated indications. In France, in 2014, HR-EEG is now part of standard clinical investigation of epilepsy, while MEG remains a research technique. PMID:25648821

  7. Magnetoencephalography in stroke: a 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallien, P; Aghulon, C; Durufle, A; Petrilli, S; de Crouy, A C; Carsin, M; Toulouse, P

    2003-07-01

    Recovery after stroke is closely linked to cerebral plasticity. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a non-invasive technique, which allows location of cerebral cells activities. In the present work, a cohort of patients has been studied with MEG. Twelve patients with a recent ischemic or hemorragic stroke were included as soon as possible after onset of stroke. Neurologic assessment, including standard neurologic examination, functional independence measure (FIM) and Orgogozo's scale was performed for 1 year in addition to a study of the somatosensory evoked field (SEF) using a 37-channel Biomagnetometer system. No response could be recorded in five patients at the first SEF exploration. In three cases, no response was ever recorded during the study. All these patients had a bad recovery. The location of the SEF sources was always in the normal non-infarcted cortex of the postcentral gyrus. Sensory recovery seemed to be linked to the reorganization of the persistent functional cortex, which was a limiting factor for recovery. These observations confirm the experimental results obtained in animal models. After stroke it can be assumed that in the case of incomplete lesion, an intensive sensory peripheral stimulation could maximize the use of residual sensory function and then contribute to improve the sensory deficit. In case of total sensory loss other techniques have to be used, such as visual monitoring of hand activity in order to improve hand function. PMID:12823488

  8. Magnetoencephalography with a two-color pump probe atomic magnetometer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Cort N.

    2010-07-01

    The authors have detected magnetic fields from the human brain with a compact, fiber-coupled rubidium spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer. Optical pumping is performed on the D1 transition and Faraday rotation is measured on the D2 transition. The beams share an optical axis, with dichroic optics preparing beam polarizations appropriately. A sensitivity of <5 fT/{radical}Hz is achieved. Evoked responses resulting from median nerve and auditory stimulation were recorded with the atomic magnetometer. Recordings were validated by comparison with those taken by a commercial magnetoencephalography system. The design is amenable to arraying sensors around the head, providing a framework for noncryogenic, whole-head magnetoencephalography.

  9. Multipolar radiation of quantum emitters with nanowire optical antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Curto, Alberto G.; Taminiau, Tim H.; Volpe, Giorgio; Kreuzer, Mark P.; Quidant, Romain; Hulst, Niek F.

    2013-01-01

    Multipolar transitions other than electric dipoles are generally too weak to be observed at optical frequencies in single quantum emitters. For example, fluorescent molecules and quantum dots have dimensions much smaller than the wavelength of light and therefore emit predominantly as electric dipoles. Here we demonstrate controlled emission of a quantum dot into multipolar radiation through selective coupling to a linear nanowire antenna. The antenna resonance tailors the interaction of the ...

  10. THICK DISKS WITH NEWTONIAN MULTIPOLAR MOMENTS / DISCOS GRUESOS CON MOMENTOS MULTIPOLARES NEWTONIANOS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Framsol, López-Suspes; Guillermo A., González.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se presenta una nueva familia de discos gruesos newtonianos estables a partir del método de desplazamiento, corte, llenado y reflexión construidos en (González & Letelier, 2004; Vogt & Letelier, 2005). Soluciones de la ecuación de Laplace en coordenadas cilíndricas son consideradas, éstas representa [...] rán el campo gravitacional de objetos con momentos multipolares externos solamente. Se definen y calculan las cantidades físicas en el plano del disco, tales como, la frecuencia epicíclica, kapa, la frecuencia vertical, ny, y la velocidad circular, ípsilonc de las partículas. Además, se determina la densidad superficial de masa, sigma, la densidad del disco grueso, rho, y el criterio de estabilidad de los discos gruesos a través del momentum angular o el criterio de Rayleigh (Rayleigh, 1917; Landau, 1987). Finalmente, se representan las propiedades físicas para algunos parámetros considerando sólo hasta el término cuadrupolar en la expansión multipolar del potencial gravitacional. Abstract in english We present a new family of stable thick discs from known displace, cut, fill and reflect method (González & Letelier, 2004; Vogt & Letelier, 2005) is presented. Solutions of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates are considered, these one represent the gravitational field of objects with on [...] ly external multipole moments. The physical quantities in the plane of the disk, are defined and calculated such as, the epicyclic frequency, kappa, the vertical frequency, nu, and the circular velocity, upsilonc of particles. The surface density, sigma, density of thick disk, rho, and stability of thick disks through of specific angular momentum or Rayleigh criterion (Rayleigh, 1917), and (Landau, 1987) were calculated. Finally, the physical properties are shown for only some parameters considering only until quadrupolar term in the expasion gravitational potential multipolar

  11. Neural Signatures of Phonetic Learning in Adulthood: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yang; Kuhl, Patricia K.; Imada, Toshiaki; Iverson, Paul; Pruitt, John; Stevens, Erica B.; Kawakatsu, Masaki; Tohkura, Yoh Ichi; Nemoto, Iku

    2009-01-01

    The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine perceptual learning of American English /r/ and /l/ categories by Japanese adults who had limited English exposure. A training software program was developed based on the principles of infant phonetic learning, featuring systematic acoustic exaggeration, multi-talker variability, visible articulation, and adaptive listening. The program was designed to help Japanese listeners utilize an acoustic dimension relevant for phonemic cat...

  12. How to detect amygdala activity with magnetoencephalography using source imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderston, Nicholas L; Schultz, Douglas H; Baillet, Sylvain; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2013-01-01

    In trace fear conditioning a conditional stimulus (CS) predicts the occurrence of the unconditional stimulus (UCS), which is presented after a brief stimulus free period (trace interval)(1). Because the CS and UCS do not co-occur temporally, the subject must maintain a representation of that CS during the trace interval. In humans, this type of learning requires awareness of the stimulus contingencies in order to bridge the trace interval(2-4). However when a face is used as a CS, subjects can implicitly learn to fear the face even in the absence of explicit awareness*. This suggests that there may be additional neural mechanisms capable of maintaining certain types of "biologically-relevant" stimuli during a brief trace interval. Given that the amygdala is involved in trace conditioning, and is sensitive to faces, it is possible that this structure can maintain a representation of a face CS during a brief trace interval. It is challenging to understand how the brain can associate an unperceived face with an aversive outcome, even though the two stimuli are separated in time. Furthermore investigations of this phenomenon are made difficult by two specific challenges. First, it is difficult to manipulate the subject's awareness of the visual stimuli. One common way to manipulate visual awareness is to use backward masking. In backward masking, a target stimulus is briefly presented (invisible(6-8). Second, masking requires very rapid and precise timing making it difficult to investigate neural responses evoked by masked stimuli using many common approaches. Blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses resolve at a timescale too slow for this type of methodology, and real time recording techniques like electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) have difficulties recovering signal from deep sources. However, there have been recent advances in the methods used to localize the neural sources of the MEG signal(9-11). By collecting high-resolution MRI images of the subject's brain, it is possible to create a source model based on individual neural anatomy. Using this model to "image" the sources of the MEG signal, it is possible to recover signal from deep subcortical structures, like the amygdala and the hippocampus*. PMID:23770774

  13. Source cancellation profiles of electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, Andrei; Van Horn, John Darrell; Halgren, Eric

    2012-02-01

    Recorded electric potentials and magnetic fields due to cortical electrical activity have spatial spread even if their underlying brain sources are focal. Consequently, as a result of source cancellation, loss in signal amplitude and reduction in the effective signal-to-noise ratio can be expected when distributed sources are active simultaneously. Here we investigate the cancellation effects of EEG and MEG through the use of an anatomically correct forward model based on structural MRI acquired from 7 healthy adults. A boundary element model (BEM) with four compartments (brain, cerebrospinal fluid, skull and scalp) and highly accurate cortical meshes (~300,000 vertices) were generated. Distributed source activations were simulated using contiguous patches of active dipoles. To investigate cancellation effects in both EEG and MEG, quantitative indices were defined (source enhancement, cortical orientation disparity) and computed for varying values of the patch radius as well as for automatically parcellated gyri and sulci. Results were calculated for each cortical location, averaged over all subjects using a probabilistic atlas, and quantitatively compared between MEG and EEG. As expected, MEG sensors were found to be maximally sensitive to signals due to sources tangential to the scalp, and minimally sensitive to radial sources. Compared to EEG, however, MEG was found to be much more sensitive to signals generated antero-medially, notably in the anterior cingulate gyrus. Given that sources of activation cancel each other according to the orientation disparity of the cortex, this study provides useful methods and results for quantifying the effect of source orientation disparity upon source cancellation. PMID:21959078

  14. Multipolar radiation of quantum emitters with nanowire optical antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, Alberto G.; Taminiau, Tim H.; Volpe, Giorgio; Kreuzer, Mark P.; Quidant, Romain; van Hulst, Niek F.

    2013-04-01

    Multipolar transitions other than electric dipoles are generally too weak to be observed at optical frequencies in single quantum emitters. For example, fluorescent molecules and quantum dots have dimensions much smaller than the wavelength of light and therefore emit predominantly as electric dipoles. Here we demonstrate controlled emission of a quantum dot into multipolar radiation through selective coupling to a linear nanowire antenna. The antenna resonance tailors the interaction of the quantum dot with light, effectively creating a hybrid nanoscale source beyond the simple Hertz dipole. Our findings establish a basis for the controlled driving of fundamental modes in nanoantennas and metamaterials, for the understanding of the coupling of quantum emitters to nanophotonic devices such as waveguides and nanolasers, and for the development of innovative quantum nano-optics components with properties not found in nature.

  15. Synchronized brain activity and neurocognitive function in patients with low-grade glioma: A magnetoencephalography study

    OpenAIRE

    Bosma, Ingeborg; Douw, Linda; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Heimans, Jan J.; Dijk, Bob W.; Postma, Tjeerd J.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Klein, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms underlying neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) by relating functional connectivity revealed by magnetoencephalography to neurocognitive function. We administered a battery of standardized neurocognitive tests measuring six neurocognitive domains to a group of 17 LGG patients and 17 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and educational level. Magnetoencephalography recordings were conducted during an eyes-closed “resting state,?...

  16. The role of angular momentum in the construction of electromagnetic multipolar fields

    OpenAIRE

    Tischler, Nora; Zambrana-puyalto, Xavier; Molina-terriza, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Multipolar solutions of Maxwell's equations are used in many practical applications and are essential for the understanding of light-matter interactions at the fundamental level. Unlike the set of plane wave solutions of electromagnetic fields, the multipolar solutions do not share a standard derivation or notation. As a result, expressions originating from different derivations can be difficult to compare. Some of the derivations of the multipolar solutions do not explicitl...

  17. Multipolar excitations in small metallic spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dielectric function E(?,l) appropriate to a small metallic sphere is obtained within the semiclassical infinite barrier model, where l is the multipole order. An excitation diagram in the l,? plane based on the structure of this function is proposed. It represents the spherical analog of the excitation structure of an infinite medium in the k,? plane. 8 refs., 1 fig

  18. Investigating the neural correlates of the Stroop effect with magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galer, Sophie; Op De Beeck, Marc; Urbain, Charline; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Ligot, Noémie; Wens, Vincent; Marty, Brice; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Peigneux, Philippe; De Tiège, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Reporting the ink color of a written word when it is itself a color name incongruent with the ink color (e.g. "red" printed in blue) induces a robust interference known as the Stroop effect. Although this effect has been the subject of numerous functional neuroimaging studies, its neuronal substrate is still a matter of debate. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of interference-related neural events using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and voxel-based analyses (SPM8). Evoked magnetic fields (EMFs) were acquired in 12 right-handed healthy subjects performing a color-word Stroop task. Behavioral results disclosed a classic interference effect with longer mean reaction times for incongruent than congruent stimuli. At the group level, EMFs' differences between incongruent and congruent trials spanned from 380 to 700 ms post-stimulus onset. Underlying neural sources were identified in the left pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and in the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) confirming the role of these regions in conflict processing. PMID:24752907

  19. Real-time robust signal space separation for magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chenlei; Li, Xin; Taulu, Samu; Wang, Wei; Weber, Douglas J

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we develop a robust signal space separation (rSSS) algorithm for real-time magnetoencephalography (MEG) data processing. rSSS is based on the spatial signal space separation (SSS) method and it applies robust regression to automatically detect and remove bad MEG channels so that the results of SSS are not distorted. We extend the existing robust regression algorithm via three important new contributions: 1) a low-rank solver that efficiently performs matrix operations; 2) a subspace iteration scheme that selects bad MEG channels using low-order spherical harmonic functions; and 3) a parallel computing implementation that simultaneously runs multiple tasks to further speed up numerical computation. Our experimental results based on both simulation and measurement data demonstrate that rSSS offers superior accuracy over the traditional SSS algorithm, if the MEG data contain significant outliers. Taking advantage of the proposed fast algorithm, rSSS achieves more than 75 x runtime speedup compared to a direct solver of robust regression. Even though rSSS is currently implemented with MATLAB, it already provides sufficient throughput for real-time applications. PMID:20176529

  20. Complexity Measures in Magnetoencephalography: Measuring "Disorder" in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Matthew J.; Hall, Emma L.; Robson, Siân E.; Price, Darren; Palaniyappan, Lena; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Liddle, Peter F.; Robinson, Stephen E.; Morris, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper details a methodology which, when applied to magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, is capable of measuring the spatio-temporal dynamics of ‘disorder’ in the human brain. Our method, which is based upon signal entropy, shows that spatially separate brain regions (or networks) generate temporally independent entropy time-courses. These time-courses are modulated by cognitive tasks, with an increase in local neural processing characterised by localised and transient increases in entropy in the neural signal. We explore the relationship between entropy and the more established time-frequency decomposition methods, which elucidate the temporal evolution of neural oscillations. We observe a direct but complex relationship between entropy and oscillatory amplitude, which suggests that these metrics are complementary. Finally, we provide a demonstration of the clinical utility of our method, using it to shed light on aberrant neurophysiological processing in schizophrenia. We demonstrate significantly increased task induced entropy change in patients (compared to controls) in multiple brain regions, including a cingulo-insula network, bilateral insula cortices and a right fronto-parietal network. These findings demonstrate potential clinical utility for our method and support a recent hypothesis that schizophrenia can be characterised by abnormalities in the salience network (a well characterised distributed network comprising bilateral insula and cingulate cortices). PMID:25886553

  1. Design and performance of the LANL 158-channel magnetoencephalography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlachov, A. N. (Andrei N.); Kraus, Robert H., Jr.; Espy, M. A. (Michelle A.); Best, E. D. (Elaine D.); Briles, M. Carolyn; Raby, E. Y. (Eric Y.); Flynn, E. R.

    2002-01-01

    Design and performance for a recently completed whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system using a superconducting imaging-surface (SIS) surrounding an array of SQUID magnetometers is reported. The helmet-like SIS is hemispherical in shape with a brim. The SIS images nearby sources while shields sensors from ambient magnetic noise. The shielding factor depends on magnetometer position and orientation. Typical shielding values of 200 in central sulcus area have been observed. Nine reference channels form three vector magnetometers, which are placed outside SIS. Signal channels consist of 149 SQUID magnetometers with 0.84nT/{Phi}{sub 0} field sensitivity and less then 3 fT/{radical}Hz noise. Typical SQUID - room temperature separations are about 20mm in the cooled state. Twelve 16-channel flux-lock loop units are connected to two 96-channel control units allowing up to 192 total SQUID channels. The control unit includes signal conditioning circuits as well as system test and control circuits. After conditioning all signals are fed to 192-channel, 24-bit data acquisition system capable of sampling up to 48kSa/sec/channel. The SIS-MEG system enables high-quality human functional brain data to be recorded in a one-layer magnetically shielded room.

  2. Cortical locations of maximal spindle activity: magnetoencephalography (MEG) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Roth, Thomas; Moran, John E; Jefferson, Catherine; Bowyer, Susan M; Tepley, Norman; Drake, Christopher L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main cortical regions related to maximal spindle activity of sleep stage 2 in healthy individual subjects during a brief morning nap using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Eight volunteers (mean age: 26.1 +/- 8.7, six women) all right handed, free of any medical psychiatric or sleep disorders were studied. Whole-head 148-channel MEG and a conventional polysomnography montage (EEG; C3, C4, O1 and O2 scalp electrodes and EOG, EMG and ECG electrodes) were used for data collection. Sleep MEG/EEG spindles were visually identified during 15 min of stage 2 sleep for each participant. The distribution of brain activity corresponding to each spindle was calculated using a combination of independent component analysis and a current source density technique superimposed upon individual MRIs. The absolute maximum of spindle activation was localized to frontal, temporal and parietal lobes. However, the most common cortical regions for maximal source spindle activity were precentral and/or postcentral areas across all individuals. The present study suggests that maximal spindle activity localized to these two regions may represent a single event for two types of spindle frequency: slow (at 12 Hz) and fast (at 14 Hz) within global thalamocortical coherence. PMID:19645968

  3. Using variance information in magnetoencephalography measures of functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Emma L; Woolrich, Mark W; Thomaz, Carlos E; Morris, Peter G; Brookes, Matthew J

    2013-02-15

    The use of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to assess long range functional connectivity across large scale distributed brain networks is gaining popularity. Recent work has shown that electrodynamic networks can be assessed using both seed based correlation or independent component analysis (ICA) applied to MEG data and further that such metrics agree with fMRI studies. To date, techniques for MEG connectivity assessment have typically used a variance normalised approach, either through the use of Pearson correlation coefficients or via variance normalisation of envelope timecourses prior to ICA. Here, we show that the use of variance information (i.e. data that have not been variance normalised) in source space projected Hilbert envelope time series yields important spatial information, and is of significant functional relevance. Further, we show that employing this information in functional connectivity analyses improves the spatial delineation of network nodes using both seed based and ICA approaches. The use of variance is particularly important in MEG since the non-independence of source space voxels (brought about by the ill-posed MEG inverse problem) means that spurious signals can exist in areas of low signal variance. We therefore suggest that this approach be incorporated into future studies. PMID:23165323

  4. BRICS and the myth of the multipolar world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takis Fotopoulos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show that the BRICS countries not only don’t form part of a multi-polar world, but in reality are far from sovereign states in any sense of the word. In fact, if their real goal was indeed the creation of an alternative pole of sovereign nation-states, they should have planned at the outset to break their direct dependence on the globalized capitalist market economy, cutting their ties with global institutions controlled by the Transnational Elite (WTO, IMF and World Bank, and moving towards self-reliant economies, so that they could regain their sovereignty.

  5. Multipolar localized resonances for multi-band metamaterial perfect absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Govind; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2014-09-01

    A metamaterial structure, comprising of metallic circular micro-discs (gold or aluminum) separated from a metallic thin film by a dielectric zinc sulphide film, behaves as a multi-band perfect absorber at infra red wavelengths due to the excitation of multipole resonances. With micro-discs of 3.2 ?m diameter, the fabricated metamaterial absorber shows peak absorbance of over 90% in multiple selected bands spanning the 3-14 ?m wavelengths. Absorption bands corresponding to the different resonance modes have been measured and computational simulations show these resonances originate from the higher order multipolar resonances of the disk.

  6. Multipolar Electrode and Preamplifier Design for ENG-Signal Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulier, Fabien; Gouyet, Lionel; Cathébras, Guy; Bernard, Serge; Guiraud, David; Bertrand, Yves

    Cuff electrodes have several advantages for in situ recording ENG signal. They are easy to implant and not very invasive for the patient. Nevertheless, they are subject to background parasitic noise, especially the EMG generated by the muscles. We show that the use of cuff electrodes with large numbers of poles can increase their sensitivity and their selectivity with respect to an efficient noise rejection. We investigate several configurations and compare the performances of a tripolar cuff electrode versus a multipolar one in numerical simulation.

  7. A multipolar SR motor and its application in EV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to bring out the advanced features of EVs, a direct-drive (DD) with in-wheel (IW) layout has been considered, but it requires more motors than the conventional layout and the motors will be used in a hard environment. Because switched reluctance motors (SRMs) are simple and strong, we have developed a new outer-rotor-type multipolar SRM suitable for DD-IW EVs through simulations and experiments. We have implemented the developed SRMs into a prototype EV. This is the first-ever in-vehicle research to our knowledge; the developing process and the road test results will bring many useful guidelines for future developments

  8. Magnetoencephalography reveals early activation of V4 in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, D; Hubbard, E M; Coulson, S; Huang, M; Ramachandran, V S

    2010-10-15

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which letters and numbers (graphemes) consistently evoke particular colors (e.g. A may be experienced as red). The cross-activation theory proposes that synesthesia arises as a result of cross-activation between posterior temporal grapheme areas (PTGA) and color processing area V4, while the disinhibited feedback theory proposes that synesthesia arises from disinhibition of pre-existing feedback connections. Here we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to test whether V4 and PTGA activate nearly simultaneously, as predicted by the cross-activation theory, or whether V4 activation occurs only after the initial stages of grapheme processing, as predicted by the disinhibited feedback theory. Using our high-resolution MEG source imaging technique (VESTAL), PTGA and V4 regions of interest (ROIs) were separately defined, and activity in response to the presentation of achromatic graphemes was measured. Activation levels in PTGA did not significantly differ between synesthetes and controls (suggesting similar grapheme processing mechanisms), whereas activation in V4 was significantly greater in synesthetes. In synesthetes, PTGA activation exceeded baseline levels beginning 105-109ms, and V4 activation did so 5ms later, suggesting nearly simultaneous activation of these areas. Results are discussed in the context of an updated version of the cross-activation model, the cascaded cross-tuning model of grapheme-color synesthesia. PMID:20547226

  9. Estimation of Soil Moisture with L-band Multi-polarization Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Chen, K. S.; Kim, Chung-Li Y.; Van Zyl, J. J.; Njoku, E.; Sun, G.; O'Neill, P.; Jackson, T.; Entekhabi, D.

    2004-01-01

    Through analyses of the model simulated data-base, we developed a technique to estimate surface soil moisture under HYDROS radar sensor (L-band multi-polarizations and 40deg incidence) configuration. This technique includes two steps. First, it decomposes the total backscattering signals into two components - the surface scattering components (the bare surface backscattering signals attenuated by the overlaying vegetation layer) and the sum of the direct volume scattering components and surface-volume interaction components at different polarizations. From the model simulated data-base, our decomposition technique works quit well in estimation of the surface scattering components with RMSEs of 0.12,0.25, and 0.55 dB for VV, HH, and VH polarizations, respectively. Then, we use the decomposed surface backscattering signals to estimate the soil moisture and the combined surface roughness and vegetation attenuation correction factors with all three polarizations.

  10. The Role of Angular Momentum in the Construction of Electromagnetic Multipolar Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Nora; Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Multipolar solutions of Maxwell's equations are used in many practical applications and are essential for the understanding of light-matter interactions at the fundamental level. Unlike the set of plane wave solutions of electromagnetic fields, the multipolar solutions do not share a standard derivation or notation. As a result, expressions…

  11. Transition between viscous dipolar and inertial multipolar dynamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruba, Ludivine; Dormy, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the transition from steady dipolar to reversing multipolar dynamos. The Earth has been argued to lie close to this transition, which could offer a scenario for geomagnetic reversals. We show that the transition between dipolar and multipolar dynamos is characterized by a three terms balance (as opposed to the usually assumed two terms balance), which involves the nongradient parts of inertial, viscous and Coriolis forces. We introduce from this equilibrium the sole parameter RoE-1/3?ReE2/3, which accurately describes the transition for a wide database of 132 fully three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of spherical rotating dynamos (courtesy of U. Christensen). This resolves earlier contradictions in the literature on the relevant two terms balance at the transition. Considering only a two terms balance between the nongradient part of the Coriolis force and of inertial forces provides the classical Ro/?u. This transition can be equivalently described by Re ?u2, which corresponds to the two terms balance between the nongradient part of inertial forces and viscous forces.

  12. Anatomy of the Binary Black Hole Recoil: A Multipolar Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Buonanno, Alessandra; vanMeter, James R.; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.

    2007-01-01

    We present a multipolar analysis of the recoil velocity computed in recent numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescence, for both unequal masses and non-zero, non-precessing spins. We show that multipole moments up to and including 1 = 4 are sufficient to accurately reproduce the final recoil velocity (= 98%) and that only a few dominant modes contribute significantly to it (2 95%). We describe how the relative amplitude, and more importantly, the relative phase, of these few modes control the way in which the recoil builds up throughout the inspiral, merger, and ring-down phases. We also find that the numerical results can be reproduced, to a high level of accuracy, by an effective Newtonian formula for the multipole moments obtained by replacing in the Newtonian formula the radial separation with an effective radius computed from the numerical data. Beyond the merger, the numerical results are reproduced by a superposition of three Kerr quasi-normal modes. Analytic formulae, obtained by expressing the multipole moments in terms of the fundamental QNMs of a Kerr BH, are able to explain the onset and amount of '.anti-kick" for each of the simulations. Lastly, we apply this multipolar analysis to understand the remarkable difference between the amplitudes of planar and non-planar kicks for equal-mass spinning black holes.

  13. Anatomy of the binary black hole recoil: A multipolar analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a multipolar analysis of the gravitational recoil computed in recent numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescence, for both unequal masses and nonzero, nonprecessing spins. We show that multipole moments up to and including l=4 are sufficient to accurately reproduce the final recoil velocity (within ?2%) and that only a few dominant modes contribute significantly to it (within ?5%). We describe how the relative amplitudes, and more importantly, the relative phases, of these few modes control the way in which the recoil builds up throughout the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases. We also find that the numerical results can be reproduced by an 'effective Newtonian' formula for the multipole moments obtained by replacing the radial separation in the Newtonian formulas with an effective radius computed from the numerical data. Beyond the merger, the numerical results are reproduced by a superposition of three Kerr quasinormal modes. Analytic formulas, obtained by expressing the multipole moments in terms of the fundamental quasinormal modes of a Kerr black hole, are able to explain the onset and amount of 'antikick' for each of the simulations. Lastly, we apply this multipolar analysis to help explain the remarkable difference between the amplitudes of planar and nonplanar kicks for equal-mass spinning black holes

  14. Hepatic radiofrequency ablation using multiple probes: vivo and in vivo comparative studies of monopolar versus multipolar modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to compare the efficiency of multipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using three perfused-cooled electrodes with multiple overlapping- and simultaneous monopolar techniques for creating an ablation zone in ex vivo bovine livers and in in vivo porcine livers. In the ex vivo experiments, we used a 200 W generator (Valleylab, CC-3 model) and three perfused-cooled electrodes or internally cooled electrodes to create 30 coagulation zones by performing consecutive monopolar RFA (group A, n=10), simultaneous monopolar RFA (group B, n=10) or multipolar RFA (group C, n=10) in explanted bovine livers. In the consecutive mode, three ablation spheres were created by sequentially applying 150 watts radiofrequency (RF) energy to the internally cooled electrodes for 12 minutes each for a total of 36 minutes. In the simultaneous monopolar and multipolar modes, RF energy was concurrently applied to the three perfused-cooled electrodes for 20 minutes at 150 watt with instillation of 6% hypertonic saline at 2 mL/min. During RFA, we measured the temperatures of the treated area at its center. The changes in impedance, the current and liver temperature during RFA, as well as the dimensions of the thermal ablation zones, were compared among the three groups. In the in vivo experiments, three coagulations were created by performing multipolar RFA in a pig via laparotomy with using same parameter as the ex vivo study. In the ex vivo experiments, the impedance was gradually decreasments, the impedance was gradually decreased during the RFA in groups B and C, but in group A, the impedance was increased during RFA and this induced activation by the pulsed RF technique. In groups A, B and C, the mean final-temperature values were 80 ± 10 ?, 69 ± 18 ? and 79 ± 12 ?, respectively (? 3 (group A); 44.9 ± 12.7 cm3 (group B); and 78.9 ± 6.9 cm3 (group C) (? 3. For the multiple probe RFA, the multipolar mode with hypertonic saline instillation was more efficient in generating larger areas of thermal ablation than either the consecutive or simultaneous monopolar modes

  15. The Neural Dynamics of Fronto-Parietal Networks in Childhood Revealed using Magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astle, Duncan E; Luckhoo, Henry; Woolrich, Mark; Kuo, Bo-Cheng; Nobre, Anna C; Scerif, Gaia

    2014-11-19

    Our ability to hold information in mind is limited, requires a high degree of cognitive control, and is necessary for many subsequent cognitive processes. Children, in particular, are highly variable in how, trial-by-trial, they manage to recruit cognitive control in service of memory. Fronto-parietal networks, typically recruited under conditions where this cognitive control is needed, undergo protracted development. We explored, for the first time, whether dynamic changes in fronto-parietal activity could account for children's variability in tests of visual short-term memory (VSTM). We recorded oscillatory brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) as 9- to 12-year-old children and adults performed a VSTM task. We combined temporal independent component analysis (ICA) with general linear modeling to test whether the strength of fronto-parietal activity correlated with VSTM performance on a trial-by-trial basis. In children, but not adults, slow frequency theta (4-7 Hz) activity within a right lateralized fronto-parietal network in anticipation of the memoranda predicted the accuracy with which those memory items were subsequently retrieved. These findings suggest that inconsistent use of anticipatory control mechanism contributes significantly to trial-to-trial variability in VSTM maintenance performance. PMID:25410426

  16. Cytokinesis failure and successful multipolar mitoses drive aneuploidy in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telentschak, Sergej; Soliwoda, Mark; Nohroudi, Klaus; Addicks, Klaus; Klinz, Franz-Josef

    2015-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most frequent human brain tumor and is associated with a poor prognosis. Multipolar mitosis and spindles have occasionally been observed in cultured glioblastoma cells and in glioblastoma tissues, but their mode of origin and relevance have remained unclear. In the present study, we investigated a novel GB cell line (SGB4) exhibiting mitotic aberrations and established a functional link between cytokinesis failure, centrosome amplification, multipolar mitosis and aneuploidy in glioblastoma. Long-term live cell imaging showed that >3% of mitotic SGB4 cells underwent multipolar mitosis (tripolar > tetrapolar > pentapolar). A significant amount of daugther cells generated by multipolar mitosis were viable and completed several rounds of mitosis. Pedigree analysis of mitotic events revealed that in many cases a bipolar mitosis with failed cytokinesis occurred prior to a multipolar mitosis. Additionally, we observed that SGB4 cells were also able to undergo a bipolar mitosis after failed cytokinesis. Colchicine-induced mitotic arrest and metaphase spreads demonstrated that SGB4 cells had a modal chromosome number of 58 ranging from 23 to 170. Approximately 82% of SGB4 cells were hyperdiploid (47-57 chromosomes) or hypotriploid (58-68 chromosomes). In conclusion, SGB4 cells passed through multipolar cell divisions and generated viable progeny by reductive mitoses. Our results identified cytokinesis failure occurring before and after multipolar or bipolar mitoses as important mechanisms to generate chromosomal heterogeneity in glioblastoma cells. PMID:25625503

  17. Transition between viscous dipolar and inertial multipolar dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Oruba, Ludivine

    2014-01-01

    We show that the transition between steady dipolar and fluctuating multipolar dynamos is characterized by a three terms balance between the non-gradient parts of inertial, viscous and Coriolis forces. We derive from this equilibrium the sole parameter Ro E$^{-1/3} \\equiv$ Re E$^{2/3}$, which accurately describes the transition for a wide database of 132 fully three dimensional direct numerical simulations of spherical rotating dynamos (courtesy of U. Christensen). This transition can be equivalently described by Ro/l$^\\star_u$ (resp. Re l$^{\\star\\, 2}_u$), which correspond to the two terms balance between the non-gradient part of the Coriolis force and of inertial (resp. viscous) forces. An appropriate definition of the non-dimensional dissipation length scale l$^\\star_u$ (as introduced in Oruba and Dormy, 2014) provides a critical value of this parameter of order unity at the transition.

  18. Anatomy of the binary black hole recoil: A multipolar analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schnittman, Jeremy D; van Meter, James R; Baker, John G; Boggs, William D; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J; McWilliams, Sean T

    2007-01-01

    We present a multipolar analysis of the gravitational recoil computed in recent numerical simulations of binary black hole (BH) coalescence, for both unequal masses and non-zero, non-precessing spins. We show that multipole moments up to and including l=4 are sufficient to accurately reproduce the final recoil velocity (within ~2%) and that only a few dominant modes contribute significantly to it (within ~5%). We describe how the relative amplitudes, and more importantly, the relative phases, of these few modes control the way in which the recoil builds up throughout the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases. We also find that the numerical results can be reproduced by an ``effective Newtonian'' formula for the multipole moments obtained by replacing the radial separation in the Newtonian formulae with an effective radius computed from the numerical data. Beyond the merger, the numerical results are reproduced by a superposition of three Kerr quasi-normal modes (QNMs). Analytic formulae, obtained by expressin...

  19. Rf multipolar plasma for broad and reactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot cathode dc multipolar plasma sources are very efficient but have lifetime and contamination problems when they are operated with chemically active gases. As an alternative solution the rf excitation of a triode structure immersed in a multicusp magnetic field has been developed. The structure has an internal cathode, an anode around which are the magnet lines, and a third electrode which is either the target electrode in the case of 'plasma processing' or the beam forming electrode in the case of 'ion beam processing'. The source has been operated with oxygen and fluorocarbon gases without any lifetime problems. The discharge may be run down to 10-4 torr (within source chamber) and creates a plasma which is homogeneous to +- 1.5% over 175 mm diameter section and which delivers at the beam forming electrode a current density of about 1 mAcm-2 for 500 W rf power. (author)

  20. Multipolar Black Body Radiation Shifts for the Single Ion Clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Bindiya; Sahoo, B K

    2011-01-01

    Appraising the projected $10^{-18}$ fractional uncertainty in the optical frequency standards using singly ionized ions, we estimate the black-body radiation (BBR) shifts due to the magnetic dipole (M1) and electric quadrupole (E2) multipoles of the magnetic and electric fields, respectively. Multipolar scalar polarizabilities are determined for the singly ionized calcium (Ca$^+$) and strontium (Sr$^+$) ions using the relativistic coupled-cluster method; though the theory can be exercised for any single ion clock proposal. The expected energy shifts for the respective clock transitions are estimated to be $4.38(3) \\times 10^{-4}$ Hz for Ca$^+$ and $9.50(7) \\times 10^{-5}$ Hz for Sr$^+$. These shifts are large enough and may be prerequisite for the frequency standards to achieve the foreseen $10^{-18}$ precision goal.

  1. Simulated multipolarized MAPSAR images to distinguish agricultural crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Fernando Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have shown the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images for agricultural applications, particularly for monitoring regions with limitations in terms of acquiring cloud free optical images. Recently, Brazil and Germany began a feasibility study on the construction of an orbital L-band SAR sensor referred to as MAPSAR (Multi-Application Purpose SAR. This sensor provides L-band images in three spatial resolutions and polarimetric, interferometric and stereoscopic capabilities. Thus, studies are needed to evaluate the potential of future MAPSAR images. The objective of this study was to evaluate multipolarized MAPSAR images simulated by the airborne SAR-R99B sensor to distinguish coffee, cotton and pasture fields in Brazil. Discrimination among crops was evaluated through graphical and cluster analysis of mean backscatter values, considering single, dual and triple polarizations. Planting row direction of coffee influenced the backscatter and was divided into two classes: parallel and perpendicular to the sensor look direction. Single polarizations had poor ability to discriminate the crops. The overall accuracies were less than 59 %, but the understanding of the microwave interaction with the crops could be explored. Combinations of two polarizations could differentiate various fields of crops, highlighting the combination VV-HV that reached 78 % overall accuracy. The use of three polarizations resulted in 85.4 % overall accuracy, indicating that the classes pasture and parallel coffee were fully discriminated from the other classes. These results confirmed the potential of multipolarized MAPSAR images to distinguish the studied crops and showed considerable improvement in the accuracy of the results when the number of polarizations was increased.

  2. Simulated multipolarized MAPSAR images to distinguish agricultural crops

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wagner Fernando, Silva; Bernardo Friedrich Theodor, Rudorff; Antonio Roberto, Formaggio; Waldir Renato, Paradella; José Claudio, Mura.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Many researchers have shown the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images for agricultural applications, particularly for monitoring regions with limitations in terms of acquiring cloud free optical images. Recently, Brazil and Germany began a feasibility study on the construction of an orb [...] ital L-band SAR sensor referred to as MAPSAR (Multi-Application Purpose SAR). This sensor provides L-band images in three spatial resolutions and polarimetric, interferometric and stereoscopic capabilities. Thus, studies are needed to evaluate the potential of future MAPSAR images. The objective of this study was to evaluate multipolarized MAPSAR images simulated by the airborne SAR-R99B sensor to distinguish coffee, cotton and pasture fields in Brazil. Discrimination among crops was evaluated through graphical and cluster analysis of mean backscatter values, considering single, dual and triple polarizations. Planting row direction of coffee influenced the backscatter and was divided into two classes: parallel and perpendicular to the sensor look direction. Single polarizations had poor ability to discriminate the crops. The overall accuracies were less than 59 %, but the understanding of the microwave interaction with the crops could be explored. Combinations of two polarizations could differentiate various fields of crops, highlighting the combination VV-HV that reached 78 % overall accuracy. The use of three polarizations resulted in 85.4 % overall accuracy, indicating that the classes pasture and parallel coffee were fully discriminated from the other classes. These results confirmed the potential of multipolarized MAPSAR images to distinguish the studied crops and showed considerable improvement in the accuracy of the results when the number of polarizations was increased.

  3. High-resolution imaging and spectroscopy of multipolar plasmonic resonances in aluminum nanoantennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jérôme; Kociak, Mathieu; Mahfoud, Zackaria; Proust, Julien; Gérard, Davy; Plain, Jérôme

    2014-10-01

    We report on the high resolution imaging of multipolar plasmonic resonances in aluminum nanoantennas using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Plasmonic resonances ranging from near-infrared to ultraviolet (UV) are measured. The spatial distributions of the multipolar resonant modes are mapped and their energy dispersion is retrieved. The losses in the aluminum antennas are studied through the full width at half-maximum of the resonances, unveiling the weight of both interband and radiative damping mechanisms of the different multipolar resonances. In the blue-UV spectral range, high order resonant modes present a quality factor up to 8, two times higher than low order resonant modes at the same energy. This study demonstrates that near-infrared to ultraviolet tunable multipolar plasmonic resonances in aluminum nanoantennas with relatively high quality factors can be engineered. Aluminum nanoantennas are thus an appealing alternative to gold or silver ones in the visible and can be efficiently used for UV plasmonics. PMID:25207386

  4. Average multipolarity of continuum transitions in nuclei at high angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multipolarity of continuum transitions deexciting high-spin states has been deduced from measured conversion coefficients. The investigated 146Nd(20Ne, 4n or 5n) 162 161Yb reactions were selected by gating on discrete lines. The average multipolarity gradually changes from E2 at 0.5 MeV to E1 above 1.5 MeV. (Auth.)

  5. Inferring task-related networks using independent component analysis in magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhoo, H; Hale, J R; Stokes, M G; Nobre, A C; Morris, P G; Brookes, M J; Woolrich, M W

    2012-08-01

    A novel framework for analysing task-positive data in magnetoencephalography (MEG) is presented that can identify task-related networks. Techniques that combine beamforming, the Hilbert transform and temporal independent component analysis (ICA) have recently been applied to resting-state MEG data and have been shown to extract resting-state networks similar to those found in fMRI. Here we extend this approach in two ways. First, we systematically investigate optimisation of time-frequency windows for connectivity measurement. This is achieved by estimating the distribution of functional connectivity scores between nodes of known resting-state networks and contrasting it with a distribution of artefactual scores that are entirely due to spatial leakage caused by the inverse problem. We find that functional connectivity, both in the resting-state and during a cognitive task, is best estimated via correlations in the oscillatory envelope in the 8-20 Hz frequency range, temporally down-sampled with windows of 1-4s. Second, we combine ICA with the general linear model (GLM) to incorporate knowledge of task structure into our connectivity analysis. The combination of ICA with the GLM helps overcome problems of these techniques when used independently: namely, the interpretation and separation of interesting independent components from those that represent noise in ICA and the correction for multiple comparisons when applying the GLM. We demonstrate the approach on a 2-back working memory task and show that this novel analysis framework is able to elucidate the functional networks involved in the task beyond that which is achieved using the GLM alone. We find evidence of localised task-related activity in the area of the hippocampus, which is difficult to detect reliably using standard methods. Task-positive ICA, coupled with the GLM, has the potential to be a powerful tool in the analysis of MEG data. PMID:22569064

  6. Study of the multipolarity distribution in 12C and 16O nuclei up to 30MeV excitation energy by proton and alpha inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-lying states of 12C and 16O nuclei were investigated and the distribution of the different multipolarities extracted up to 30MeV excitation energy. The fine structure of the giant dipole resonance was studied and the dipole cross section compared to those expected from the model of Satchler. Other multipolarities (2+ 3- 4+ T=0) were also observed. The observed cross sections exhibit a significant fraction of the sum rule (EWSR) but never exceeds 50% (50% for 1- T=1, 20 to 40% for 2+ T=0, approximately 15% for 3- T=0 and + T=0). The distribution observed compares fairly well with the one expected from nuclear structure calculations except for 2+ T=0 in 16O where complete disagreement is observed between experiment and theory

  7. Word repetition priming induced oscillations in auditory cortex: a magnetoencephalography study

    OpenAIRE

    Tavabi, Kambiz; Embick, David; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography was used in a passive repetition priming paradigm. Words in two frequency bins (high/low) were presented to subjects auditorily. Subjects’ brain responses to these stimuli were analyzed using synthetic aperture magnetometry. The main finding is that single word repetition of low frequency word pairs significantly attenuated the post-second word event related desynchronization in the theta-alpha (5–15Hz) bands, 200–600ms post second word stimulus onset. Peak signif...

  8. Magnetoencephalography non-invasively reveals a unique neurophysiological profile of focal-onset epileptic spasms

    OpenAIRE

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Gupta, Ajay; Enatsu, Rei; Wang, Zhong I.; Alexopoulos, Andreas V.; Mosher, John C.; Dubarry, Anne-sophie; Hino-fukuyo, Naomi; Burgess, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is defined as a disorder of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to experience epileptic seizures and the neurobiological, cognitive, psychological, and social difficulties relating to the condition. An epileptic spasm (ES) is a type of seizure characterized by clusters of short contractions involving axial muscles and proximal segments. However, the precise mechanism of ESs remains unknown. Despite the potential of magnetoencephalography (MEG) as a tool for investig...

  9. Inferring task-related networks using independent component analysis in magnetoencephalography.

    OpenAIRE

    Luckhoo, H.; Hale, Jr; Stokes, Mg; Nobre, Ac; Morris, PG; Brookes, Mj; Woolrich, Mw

    2012-01-01

    A novel framework for analysing task-positive data in magnetoencephalography (MEG) is presented that can identify task-related networks. Techniques that combine beamforming, the Hilbert transform and temporal independent component analysis (ICA) have recently been applied to resting-state MEG data and have been shown to extract resting-state networks similar to those found in fMRI. Here we extend this approach in two ways. First, we systematically investigate optimisation of time-frequency wi...

  10. Cortical magnetoencephalography of deep brain stimulation for the treatment of postural tremor

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Allison T.; Bajwa, Jawad A.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on motor cortex circuitry in Essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients are not well understood, in part, because most imaging modalities have difficulty capturing and localizing motor cortex dynamics on the same temporal scale as motor symptom expression. Here, we report on the use of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to characterize sources of postural tremor activity within the brain of an ET/PD patient and the effects of bilateral ...

  11. FMRP regulates multipolar to bipolar transition affecting neuronal migration and cortical circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fata, Giorgio; Gärtner, Annette; Domínguez-Iturza, Nuria; Dresselaers, Tom; Dawitz, Julia; Poorthuis, Rogier B; Averna, Michele; Himmelreich, Uwe; Meredith, Rhiannon M; Achsel, Tilmann; Dotti, Carlos G; Bagni, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    Deficiencies in fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) are the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability, fragile X syndrome (FXS), with symptoms manifesting during infancy and early childhood. Using a mouse model for FXS, we found that Fmrp regulates the positioning of neurons in the cortical plate during embryonic development, affecting their multipolar-to-bipolar transition (MBT). We identified N-cadherin, which is crucial for MBT, as an Fmrp-regulated target in embryonic brain. Furthermore, spontaneous network activity and high-resolution brain imaging revealed defects in the establishment of neuronal networks at very early developmental stages, further confirmed by an unbalanced excitatory and inhibitory network. Finally, reintroduction of Fmrp or N-cadherin in the embryo normalized early postnatal neuron activity. Our findings highlight the critical role of Fmrp in the developing cerebral cortex and might explain some of the clinical features observed in patients with FXS, such as alterations in synaptic communication and neuronal network connectivity. PMID:25402856

  12. Magnetar Giant Flares in Multipolar Magnetic Fields --- II. Flux Rope Eruptions With Current Sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    We propose a physical mechanism to explain giant flares and radio afterglows in terms of a magnetospheric model containing both a helically twisted flux rope and a current sheet (CS). With the appearance of CS, we solve a mixed boundary value problem to get the magnetospheric field based on a domain decomposition method. We investigate properties of the equilibrium curve of the flux rope when the CS is present in background multipolar fields. In response to the variations at the magnetar surface, it quasi-statically evolves in stable equilibrium states. The loss of equilibrium occurs at a critical point and, beyond that point, it erupts catastrophically. New features show up when the CS is considered. Especially, we find two kinds of physical behaviors, i.e., catastrophic state transition and catastrophic escape. Magnetic energy would be released during state transitions. The released magnetic energy is sufficient to drive giant flares. The flux rope would go away from the magnetar quasi-statically, which is ...

  13. The role of angular momentum in the construction of electromagnetic multipolar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multipolar solutions of Maxwell’s equations are used in many practical applications and are essential for the understanding of light-matter interactions at the fundamental level. Unlike the set of plane wave solutions of electromagnetic fields, the multipolar solutions do not share a standard derivation or notation. As a result, expressions originating from different derivations can be difficult to compare. Some of the derivations of the multipolar solutions do not explicitly show their relation to the angular momentum operators, thus hiding important properties of these solutions. In this paper, the relation between two of the most common derivations of this set of solutions is explicitly shown and their relation to the angular momentum operators is exposed. (paper)

  14. Connexin 43 controls the multipolar phase of neuronal migration to the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuxin; Sun, Lin; Torii, Masaaki; Rakic, Pasko

    2012-05-22

    The prospective pyramidal neurons, migrating from the proliferative ventricular zone to the overlaying cortical plate, assume multipolar morphology while passing through the transient subventricular zone. Here, we show that this morphogenetic transformation, from the bipolar to the mutipolar and then back to bipolar again, is associated with expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) and, that knockdown of Cx43 retards, whereas its overexpression enhances, this morphogenetic process. In addition, we have observed that knockdown of Cx43 reduces expression of p27, whereas overexpression of p27 rescues the effect of Cx43 knockdown in the multipolar neurons. Furthermore, functional gap junction/hemichannel domain, and the C-terminal domain of Cx43, independently enhance the expression of p27 and promote the morphological transformation and migration of the multipolar neurons in the SVZ/IZ. Collectively, these results indicate that Cx43 regulates the passage of migrating neurons through their multipolar stage via p27 signaling and that interference with this process, by either genetic and/or environmental factors, may cause cortical malformations. PMID:22566616

  15. On the exterior magnetic field and silent sources in magnetoencephalography

    OpenAIRE

    George Dassios; Fotini Kariotou

    2004-01-01

    Two main results are included in this paper. The first one deals with the leading asymptotic term of the magnetic field outside any conductive medium. In accord with physical reality, it is proved mathematically that the leading approximation is a quadrupole term which means that the conductive brain tissue weakens the intensity of the magnetic field outside the head. The second one concerns the orientation of the silent sources when the geometry of the brain model is not a sphere but an elli...

  16. Spherical tensor multipolar electrostatics and smooth particle mesh Ewald summation: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, François; Popelier, Paul L A

    2014-07-01

    The point-charge approximation, typically used by classical molecular mechanics force-fields, can be overcome by a multipolar expansion. For decades multipole moments were only used in the context of the rigid body approximation but recently it has become possible to combine multipolar electrostatics with molecular flexibility. The program DL_MULTI, which is derived from DL_POLY_2, includes efficient multipolar Ewald functionality up to the hexadecapole moment but the code is restricted to rigid bodies. The incorporation of flexibility into DL_MULTI would cause too large an impact on its architecture whereas the package DL_POLY_4 offers a more attractive and sustainable route to handle multipolar electrostatics. This package inherently handles molecular flexibility, which warrants sufficiently transferable atoms or atoms that are "knowledgeable" about their chemical environment (as made possible by quantum chemical topology and machine learning). DL_MULTI uses the spherical multipole formalism, which is mathematically more involved than the Cartesian one but which is more compact. DL_POLY_4 uses the computationally efficient method of smooth particle mesh Ewald (SPME) summation, which has also been parallellized by others. Therefore, combining the strengths of DL_POLY_4 and DL_MULTI poses the challenge of merging SPME with multipolar electrostatics by spherical multipole. In an effort to recast as clearly as possible the principles behind DL_MULTI, its key equations have been reformulated by the more streamlined route involving the algebra of complex numbers, and some of these equations' peculiarities clarified. This article explores theoretically the repercussions of the merging of SPME with spherical multipole electrostatics (as implemented in DL_MULTI). Difficulties in design and implementation of possible future code are discussed. PMID:24958301

  17. On the exterior magnetic field and silent sources in magnetoencephalography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Kariotou

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Two main results are included in this paper. The first one deals with the leading asymptotic term of the magnetic field outside any conductive medium. In accord with physical reality, it is proved mathematically that the leading approximation is a quadrupole term which means that the conductive brain tissue weakens the intensity of the magnetic field outside the head. The second one concerns the orientation of the silent sources when the geometry of the brain model is not a sphere but an ellipsoid which provides the best possible mathematical approximation of the human brain. It is shown that what characterizes a dipole source as “silent” is not the collinearity of the dipole moment with its position vector, but the fact that the dipole moment lives in the Gaussian image space at the point where the position vector meets the surface of the ellipsoid. The appropriate representation for the spheroidal case is also included.

  18. Synchronized brain activity and neurocognitive function in patients with low-grade glioma: A magnetoencephalography study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Ingeborg; Douw, Linda; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Heimans, Jan J.; van Dijk, Bob W.; Postma, Tjeerd J.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Klein, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms underlying neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) by relating functional connectivity revealed by magnetoencephalography to neurocognitive function. We administered a battery of standardized neurocognitive tests measuring six neurocognitive domains to a group of 17 LGG patients and 17 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and educational level. Magnetoencephalography recordings were conducted during an eyes-closed “resting state,” and synchronization likelihood (a measure of statistical correlation between signals) was computed from the delta to gamma frequency bands to assess functional connectivity between different brain areas. We found that, compared with healthy controls, LGG patients performed more poorly in psychomotor function, attention, information processing, and working memory. LGG patients also had significantly higher long-distance synchronization scores in the delta, theta, and lower gamma frequency bands than did controls. In contrast, patients displayed a decline in synchronization likelihood in the lower alpha frequency band. Within the delta, theta, and lower and upper gamma bands, increasing short-and long-distance connectivity was associated with poorer neurocognitive functioning. In summary, LGG patients showed a complex overall pattern of differences in functional resting-state connectivity compared with healthy controls. The significant correlations between neurocognitive performance and functional connectivity in various frequencies and across multiple brain areas suggest that the observed neurocognitive deficits in these patients can possibly be attributed to differences in functional connectivity due to tumor and/or treatment. PMID:18650489

  19. Magnetoencephalography demonstrates multiple asynchronous generators during human sleep spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Nima; Cash, Sydney S; Rossetti, Andrea O; Chen, Chih Chuan; Halgren, Eric

    2010-07-01

    Sleep spindles are approximately 1 s bursts of 10-16 Hz activity that occur during stage 2 sleep. Spindles are highly synchronous across the cortex and thalamus in animals, and across the scalp in humans, implying correspondingly widespread and synchronized cortical generators. However, prior studies have noted occasional dissociations of the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) from the EEG during spindles, although detailed studies of this phenomenon have been lacking. We systematically compared high-density MEG and EEG recordings during naturally occurring spindles in healthy humans. As expected, EEG was highly coherent across the scalp, with consistent topography across spindles. In contrast, the simultaneously recorded MEG was not synchronous, but varied strongly in amplitude and phase across locations and spindles. Overall, average coherence between pairs of EEG sensors was approximately 0.7, whereas MEG coherence was approximately 0.3 during spindles. Whereas 2 principle components explained approximately 50% of EEG spindle variance, >15 were required for MEG. Each PCA component for MEG typically involved several widely distributed locations, which were relatively coherent with each other. These results show that, in contrast to current models based on animal experiments, multiple asynchronous neural generators are active during normal human sleep spindles and are visible to MEG. It is possible that these multiple sources may overlap sufficiently in different EEG sensors to appear synchronous. Alternatively, EEG recordings may reflect diffusely distributed synchronous generators that are less visible to MEG. An intriguing possibility is that MEG preferentially records from the focal core thalamocortical system during spindles, and EEG from the distributed matrix system. PMID:20427615

  20. Multipolar radiofrequency ablation using internally cooled electrodes in ex vivo bovine liver: Correlation between volume of coagulation and amount of applied energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between applied energy and volume of coagulation induced by multipolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation. Methods and materials: Multipolar RF ablations (n = 80) were performed in ex vivo bovine liver. Three bipolar applicators with two electrodes located on each applicator shaft were placed in a triangular array. The power-output (75–225 W) and the distance between the different applicators (2, 3, 4, 5 cm) were systematically varied. The volume of confluent white coagulation and the amount of applied energy were assessed. Based on our experimental data the relationship between the volume of coagulation and applied energy was assessed by nonlinear regression analysis. The variability explained by the model was determined by the parameter r2. Results: The volume of coagulation increases with higher amounts of applied energy. The maximum amount of energy was applied at a power-output of 75 W and an applicator distance of 5 cm. The corresponding maximum volume of coagulation was 324 cm3 and required an application of 453 kJ. The relationship between amount of applied energy (E) and volume (V) of coagulation can be described by the function, V = 4.39E0.7 (r2 = 0.88). By approximation the volume of coagulation can be calculated by the linear function V = 0.61E + 40.7 (r2 = 0.87). Conclusion: Ex vivo the relationship between volume of coagulation and amount of applied energy can be des and amount of applied energy can be described by mathematical modeling. The amount of applied energy correlates to the volume of coagulation and may be a useful parameter to monitor multipolar RF ablation.

  1. Spatiotemporal neural interactions underlying continuous drawing movements as revealed by magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Vassilios N; Leuthold, Arthur C; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2012-10-01

    Continuous and sequential movements are controlled by widely distributed brain regions. A series of studies have contributed to understanding the functional role of these regions in a variety of visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the neural interactions underpinning continuous movements. In the current study, we examine the spatiotemporal neural interactions underlying continuous drawing movements and the association of them with behavioral components. We conducted an experiment in which subjects copied a pentagon continuously for ~45 s using an XY joystick, while neuromagnetic fluxes were recorded from their head using a 248-sensor whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) device. Each sensor time series was rendered stationary and non-autocorrelated by applying an autoregressive integrated moving average model and taking the residuals. We used the directional variability of the movement as a behavioral measure of the controls generated. The main objective of this study was to assess the relation between neural interactions and the variability of movement direction. That is, we divided the continuous recordings into consecutive periods (i.e., time-bins) of 51 steps duration and computed the pairwise cross-correlations between the prewhitened time series in each time-bin. The circular standard deviation of the movement direction within each time-bin provides an estimate of the directional variability of the 51-ms trajectory segment. We looked at the association between neural interactions and variability of movement direction, separately for each pair of sensors, by running a cross-correlation analysis between the strength of the MEG pairwise cross-correlations and the circular standard deviations. We identified two types of neuronal networks: in one, the neural interactions are correlated with the directional variability of the movement at negative time-lags (feedforward), and in the other, the neural interactions are correlated with the directional variability of the movement at positive time-lags (feedback). Sensors associated mostly with feedforward processes are distributed in the left hemisphere and the right occipital-temporal junction, whereas sensors related to feedback processes are distributed in the right hemisphere and the left cerebellar hemisphere. These results are in line with findings from a series of previous studies showing that specific brain regions are involved in feedforward and feedback control processes to plan, perform, and correct movements. Additionally, we looked at whether changes in movement direction modulate the neural interactions. Interestingly, we found a preponderance of sensors associated with changes in movement direction over the right hemisphere-ipsilateral to the moving hand. These sensors exhibit stronger coupling with the rest of the sensors for trajectory segments with high rather than low directional movement variability. We interpret these results as evidence that ipsilateral cortical regions are recruited for continuous movements when the curvature of the trajectory increases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that shows how neural interactions are associated with a behavioral control parameter in continuous and sequential movements. PMID:22923206

  2. Wnt Signaling Regulates Multipolar-to-Bipolar Transition of Migrating Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitard, Michael; Bocchi, Riccardo; Egervari, Kristof; Petrenko, Volodymyr; Viale, Beatrice; Gremaud, Stéphane; Zgraggen, Eloisa; Salmon, Patrick; Kiss, Jozsef Z

    2015-03-01

    The precise timing of pyramidal cell migration from the ventricular germinal zone to the cortical plate is essential for establishing cortical layers, and migration errors can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders underlying psychiatric and neurological diseases. Here, we report that Wnt canonical as well as non-canonical signaling is active in pyramidal precursors during radial migration. We demonstrate using constitutive and conditional genetic strategies that transient downregulation of canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling during the multipolar stage plays a critical role in polarizing and orienting cells for radial migration. In addition, we show that reduced canonical Wnt signaling is triggered cell autonomously by time-dependent expression of Wnt5A and activation of non-canonical signaling. We identify ephrin-B1 as a canonical Wnt-signaling-regulated target in control of the multipolar-to-bipolar switch. These findings highlight the critical role of Wnt signaling activity in neuronal positioning during cortical development. PMID:25732825

  3. Wnt Signaling Regulates Multipolar-to-Bipolar Transition of Migrating Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Boitard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The precise timing of pyramidal cell migration from the ventricular germinal zone to the cortical plate is essential for establishing cortical layers, and migration errors can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders underlying psychiatric and neurological diseases. Here, we report that Wnt canonical as well as non-canonical signaling is active in pyramidal precursors during radial migration. We demonstrate using constitutive and conditional genetic strategies that transient downregulation of canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling during the multipolar stage plays a critical role in polarizing and orienting cells for radial migration. In addition, we show that reduced canonical Wnt signaling is triggered cell autonomously by time-dependent expression of Wnt5A and activation of non-canonical signaling. We identify ephrin-B1 as a canonical Wnt-signaling-regulated target in control of the multipolar-to-bipolar switch. These findings highlight the critical role of Wnt signaling activity in neuronal positioning during cortical development.

  4. The emerging multi-polar world and China's grand game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Rajan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-19

    This talk outlines a scenario describing an emerging multipolar world that is aligned with geographical regions. The stability and security of this multipolar world is examined with respect to demographics, trade (economics), resource constraints, and development. In particular I focus on Asia which has two large countries, China and India, competing for resources and markets and examine the emerging regional relations, opportunities and threats. These relationships must overcome many hurdles - the Subcontinent is in a weak position politically and strategically and faces many threats, and China's growing power could help stabilize it or create new threats. Since the fate of 1.5 billion (2.4 billion by 2050) people depends on how the Subcontinent evolves, this talk is meant to initiates a discussion of what China and India can do to help the region develop and stabilize.

  5. Calculation of multipolar exchange interactions in spin-orbital coupled systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shu-Ting; Nanguneri, Ravindra; Savrasov, Sergey

    2014-02-21

    A new method of computing multipolar exchange interaction in spin-orbit coupled systems is developed using multipolar tensor expansion of the density matrix in local density approximation+U electronic structure calculation. Within the mean field approximation, exchange constants can be mapped into a series of total energy calculations by the pair-flip approximation technique. The application to uranium dioxide shows an antiferromagnetic superexchange coupling in dipoles but a ferromagnetic one in quadrupoles which is very different from past studies. Further calculation of the spin-lattice interaction indicates it is of the same order with the superexchange and characterizes the overall behavior of the quadrupolar part as a competition between them. PMID:24579631

  6. Multipolar, magnetic and vibrational lattice dynamics in the low temperature phase of uranium dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Caciuffo, R.; Santini, P.; Carretta, S.; Amoretti, G.; Hiess, A.; Magnani, N.; Regnault, L. -p; Lander, G. H.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering experiments performed with triple-axis spectrometers to investigate the low-temperature collective dynamics in the ordered phase of uranium dioxide. The results are in excellent agreement with the predictions of mean-field RPA calculations emphasizing the importance of multipolar superexchange interactions. By comparing neutron scattering intensities in different polarization channels and at equivalent points in different...

  7. Connexin 43 controls the multipolar phase of neuronal migration to the cerebral cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiuxin; Sun, Lin; Torii, Masaaki; Rakic, Pasko

    2012-01-01

    The prospective pyramidal neurons, migrating from the proliferative ventricular zone to the overlaying cortical plate, assume multipolar morphology while passing through the transient subventricular zone. Here, we show that this morphogenetic transformation, from the bipolar to the mutipolar and then back to bipolar again, is associated with expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) and, that knockdown of Cx43 retards, whereas its overexpression enhances, this morphogenetic process. In addition, we ha...

  8. Angular distribution ratios. A method for determining gamma-ray multipolarities in projectile fragmentation reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Dombrádi, Z; Timar, J; Azaiez, F; Sorlin, O; Amorini, F; Belleguic, M; Baiborodin, D; Bauchet, A; Becker, F

    2003-01-01

    The angular distribution of a gamma ray emitted from an aligned state is inhomogeneous and its pattern is characteristic for the amount of angular momentum transferred by the gamma transition. Depending on the relative weight of the different components 15-35% alignment of different fragments have already been observed, suggesting a possibility for measuring inhomogeneous gamma-ray angular distribution, useful for multipolarity determination. (R.P.)

  9. Determination of the multipolarity of prompt electromagnetic transitions from angular distributions of conversion electrons. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formalism for the angular distribution of conversion electrons from aligned states is described for transitions with multipole order - and #betta# angular distribution function provides an excellent method for assigning multipolarities E1, M1, E2 and (M1 + E2) to prompt decay lines. The applicability of the method is investigated for different spins, electron energies and Z-values. The influence of attenuation factors in angular distribution measurement is discussed and the effect on the multipole assignment is examined. (orig.)

  10. An axosomatic and axodendritic multipolar neuron in the lizard cerebral cortex.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernabeu, A.; Martinez-guijarro, F. J.; La Iglesia, J. A.; Lopez-garcia, C.

    1994-01-01

    The morphology and synaptic organisation of a type of multipolar neuron of the lizard cerebral cortex were studied by Golgi impregnation, intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase, electron microscopy, and immunocytochemistry. It is a GABA-immunoreactive interneuron and most likely parvalbumin-immunoreactive. Its conspicuous axonal arbor is characterised by an initial segment arising from the soma or from a juxtasomatic dendritic segment. The initial axon segment ramifies and gives ri...

  11. Equations of motion in scalar-tensor theories of gravity: A covariant multipolar approach

    OpenAIRE

    Obukhov, Yuri N.; Puetzfeld, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the dynamics of extended test bodies for a large class of scalar-tensor theories of gravitation. A covariant multipolar Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon type of approach is used to derive the equations of motion in a systematic way for both Jordan and Einstein formulations of these theories. The results obtained provide the framework to experimentally test scalar-tensor theories by means of extended test bodies.

  12. Multi-user Linear Precoding for Multi-polarized Massive MIMO System under Imperfect CSIT

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jaehyun; Clerckx, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The space limitation and the channel acquisition prevent Massive MIMO from being easily deployed in a practical setup. Motivated by current deployments of LTE-Advanced, the use of multi-polarized antennas can be an efficient solution to address the space constraint. Furthermore, the dual-structured precoding, in which a preprocessing based on the spatial correlation and a subsequent linear precoding based on the short-term channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) ...

  13. Denoising and Frequency Analysis of Noninvasive Magnetoencephalography Sensor Signals for Functional Brain Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Ukil, A

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is an important noninvasive, nonhazardous technology for functional brain mapping, measuring the magnetic fields due to the intracellular neuronal current flow in the brain. However, most often, the inherent level of noise in the MEG sensor data collection process is large enough to obscure the signal(s) of interest. In this paper, a denoising technique based on the wavelet transform and the multiresolution signal decomposition technique along with thresholding is presented, substantiated by application results. Thereafter, different frequency analysis are performed on the denoised MEG signals to identify the major frequencies of the brain oscillations present in the denoised signals. Time-frequency plots (spectrograms) of the denoised signals are also provided.

  14. Analysis of magnetoencephalography recordings from Alzheimer's disease patients using embedding entropies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carlos; Poza, Jesus; Monge, Jesus; Fernandez, Alberto; Hornero, Roberto

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the magnetoencephalography (MEG) background activity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using three embedding entropies: approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn), and fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn). These three methods measure the time series regularity. Five minutes of recording were acquired with a 148-channel whole-head magnetometer from 36 AD patients and 24 elderly control subjects. Our results showed that MEG activity was more regular in AD patients than in controls. Additionally, FuzzyEn revealed statistically significant differences between the two groups (p SampEn did not. The better discriminating results of FuzzyEn in comparison with the other entropy algorithms suggest that it is more efficient for the characterization of MEG activity in AD. PMID:25570055

  15. Large-scale spontaneous fluctuations and correlations in brain electrical activity observed with magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongming; Fukunaga, Masaki; de Zwart, Jacco A; Duyn, Jeff H

    2010-05-15

    Knowledge about the intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain has been greatly expanded by the extensive use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, the neurophysiological correlates and origins of spontaneous fMRI signal changes remain poorly understood. In the present study, we characterized the power modulations of spontaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG) rhythms recorded from human subjects during wakeful rest (with eyes open and eyes closed) and light sleep. Through spectral, correlation and coherence analyses, we found that resting-state MEG rhythms demonstrated ultraslow (synchronized over a large spatial distance, especially between bilaterally homologous regions in opposite hemispheres. These observations are in line with the known spatio-temporal properties of spontaneous fMRI signals, and further suggest that the coherent power modulation of spontaneous rhythmic activity reflects the electrophysiological signature of the large-scale functional networks previously observed with fMRI in the resting brain. PMID:20123024

  16. Use of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study functional brain networks in neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, C J

    2010-02-15

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying clinical symptoms in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are incompletely understood. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a relatively new functional neuroimaging technique, which allows the simultaneous recording of the brain's magnetic activity from large arrays of sensors covering the whole head. MEG studies in PD and AD have identified characteristic patterns of abnormal oscillatory activity in different frequency bands. Furthermore, MEG studies aimed at the characterization of distributed functional networks have demonstrated distinct patterns of abnormal connectivity in demented and non-demented PD, as well as in AD. In PD abnormal oscillatory activity and disturbed connectivity may respond differently to dopaminergic treatment. Further studies in this field could benefit from new technological developments such as ultra low field MRI and from the application of a well-defined theoretical framework such as graph theory to the study of disturbed brain networks. PMID:19729174

  17. POWER-SHIFTS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY. TRANSITION TOWARDS A MULTIPOLAR WORLD ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IGNAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the new realities and trends related to the new polarity of the global economy, and thus the reconfiguration of global power centers, a process characterized by two simultaneous trends: the rise of new powers and the relative decline of traditional powers. At the beginning of 21st century, global power is suffering two major changes: on the one hand it manifests a transition from West to East, from Atlantic to the Asia-Pacific, and on the other hand, a diffusion from state to non-state actors. Current global economic power has a multipolar distribution, shared between the United States, European Union, Japan and BRICs, with no balance of power between these poles, opposed by the strong ambition of rising countries, China especially, China that rivals the traditional powers represented by the developed countries. The evolution of the main macroeconomic indicators given by the most important global organizations, shows a gradual transition towards a multipolar world. Therefore, the United States is and will remain for a long period of time the global economic leader. However, as China, India and Brazil are growing rapidly, and Russia is looking for lost status, the world is becoming multipolar.

  18. RP58 Regulates the Multipolar-Bipolar Transition of Newborn Neurons in the Developing Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Ohtaka-Maruyama

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that many brain diseases are associated with defects in neuronal migration, suggesting that this step of neurogenesis is critical for brain organization. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal migration remain largely unknown. Here, we identified the zinc-finger transcriptional repressor RP58 as a key regulator of neuronal migration via multipolar-to-bipolar transition. RP58?/? neurons exhibited severe defects in the formation of leading processes and never shifted to the locomotion mode. Cre-mediated deletion of RP58 using in utero electroporation in RP58flox/flox mice revealed that RP58 functions in cell-autonomous multipolar-to-bipolar transition, independent of cell-cycle exit. Finally, we found that RP58 represses Ngn2 transcription to regulate the Ngn2-Rnd2 pathway; Ngn2 knockdown rescued migration defects of the RP58?/? neurons. Our findings highlight the critical role of RP58 in multipolar-to-bipolar transition via suppression of the Ngn2-Rnd2 pathway in the developing cerebral cortex.

  19. The neurochemical basis of human cortical auditory processing: combining proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetoencephalography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tollkötter Melanie

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A combination of magnetoencephalography and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to correlate the electrophysiology of rapid auditory processing and the neurochemistry of the auditory cortex in 15 healthy adults. To assess rapid auditory processing in the left auditory cortex, the amplitude and decrement of the N1m peak, the major component of the late auditory evoked response, were measured during rapidly successive presentation of acoustic stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that: (i the amplitude of the N1m response and (ii its decrement during rapid stimulation are associated with the cortical neurochemistry as determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results Our results demonstrated a significant association between the concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, a marker of neuronal integrity, and the amplitudes of individual N1m responses. In addition, the concentrations of choline-containing compounds, representing the functional integrity of membranes, were significantly associated with N1m amplitudes. No significant association was found between the concentrations of the glutamate/glutamine pool and the amplitudes of the first N1m. No significant associations were seen between the decrement of the N1m (the relative amplitude of the second N1m peak and the concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, choline-containing compounds, or the glutamate/glutamine pool. However, there was a trend for higher glutamate/glutamine concentrations in individuals with higher relative N1m amplitude. Conclusion These results suggest that neuronal and membrane functions are important for rapid auditory processing. This investigation provides a first link between the electrophysiology, as recorded by magnetoencephalography, and the neurochemistry, as assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, of the auditory cortex.

  20. Does IQ affect the functional brain network involved in pseudoword reading in students with reading disability? A magnetoencephalography study

    OpenAIRE

    Simos, Panagiotis G.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Papanicolaou, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined whether individual differences in performance and verbal IQ affect the profiles of reading-related regional brain activation in 127 students experiencing reading difficulties and typical readers. Using magnetoencephalography in a pseudoword read-aloud task, we compared brain activation profiles of students experiencing word-level reading difficulties who did (n=29) or did not (n=36) meet the IQ-reading achievement discrepancy criterion. Typical readers assigned to a lower-I...

  1. Localization of Interictal Epileptiform Activity Using Magnetoencephalography with Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry in Patients with a Vagus Nerve Stimulator

    OpenAIRE

    Stapleton-kotloski, Jennifer R.; Kotloski, Robert J.; Boggs, Jane A.; Popli, Gautam; O’donovan, Cormac A.; Couture, Daniel E.; Cornell, Cassandra; Godwin, Dwayne W.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides useful and non-redundant information in the evaluation of patients with epilepsy, and in particular, during the pre-surgical evaluation of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a common treatment for pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. However, interpretation of MEG recordings from patients with a VNS is challenging due to the severe magnetic artifacts produced by the VNS. We used synthetic aperture magnetometry (g2) [SAM(g2)], an adaptiv...

  2. Auditory and Cognitive Deficits Associated with Acquired Amusia after Stroke: A Magnetoencephalography and Neuropsychological Follow-Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sa?rka?mo?, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Soinila, Seppo; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Laine, Matti; Hietanen, Marja; Pihko, Elina

    2010-01-01

    Acquired amusia is a common disorder after damage to the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. However, its neurocognitive mechanisms, especially the relative contribution of perceptual and cognitive factors, are still unclear. We studied cognitive and auditory processing in the amusic brain by performing neuropsychological testing as well as magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements of frequency and duration discrimination using magnetic mismatch negativity (MMNm) recordings. Fifty-three p...

  3. The value of magnetoencephalography for seizure-onset zone localization in magnetic resonance imaging-negative partial epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Julien; Bouet, Romain; Delpuech, Claude; Ryvlin, Philippe; Isnard, Jean; Guenot, Marc; Bertrand, Olivier; Hammers, Alexander; Mauguie?re, Franc?ois

    2013-01-01

    Surgical treatment of epilepsy is a challenge for patients with non-contributive brain magnetic resonance imaging. However, surgery is feasible if the seizure-onset zone is precisely delineated through intracranial electroencephalography recording. We recently described a method, volumetric imaging of epileptic spikes, to delineate the spiking volume of patients with focal epilepsy using magnetoencephalography. We postulated that the extent of the spiking volume delineated with volumetric ima...

  4. Saccadic Preparation in the Frontal Eye Field Is Modulated by Distinct Trial History Effects as Revealed by Magnetoencephalography

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Adrian K. C.; Ha?ma?la?inen, Matti S.; Dyckman, Kara A.; Barton, Jason J. S.; Manoach, Dara S.

    2010-01-01

    Optimizing outcomes involves rapidly and continuously adjusting behavior based on context. While most behavioral studies focus on immediate task conditions, responses to events are also influenced by recent history. We used magnetoencephalography and a saccadic paradigm to investigate the neural bases of 2 trial history effects that are well characterized in the behavioral eye movement literature: task-switching and the prior-antisaccade effect. We found that switched trials were associated w...

  5. Magnetoencefalografía: mapeo de la dinámica espaciotemporal de la actividad neuronal / Magnetoencephalography: mapping the spatiotemporal dynamics of neuronal activity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yang, Zhang; Wenbo, Zhang; Vicenta, Reynoso Alcántara; Juan, Silva-Pereyra.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La magnetoencefalografía es una técnica de neuroimagen no invasiva que mide, con gran exactitud temporal, los campos magnéticos en la superficie de la cabeza producidos por corrientes neuronales en regiones cerebrales. Esta técnica es sumamente útil en la investigación básica y clínica, porque ademá [...] s permite ubicar el origen de la actividad neural en el cerebro. En esta revisión se abordan aspectos básicos de la biofísica del método y se discuten los hallazgos sobre procesos como la percepción del habla, la atención auditiva y la integración de la información visual y auditiva, que son importantes en la investigación. Igualmente, se ilustran sus ventajas, sus limitaciones y las nuevas tendencias en la investigación con magnetoencefalografía. Abstract in english Magnetoencephalography is a noninvasive imaging technique that measures the magnetic fields on the surface of the head --produced by neuronal currents in brain regions -- and provides highly accurate temporal information. Magnetoencephalography is extremely useful in basic and clinical research as i [...] t can also locate the sources of neural activity in the brain. This review chiefly approaches biophysics-related aspects of the method; findings are also discussed on issues such as speech perception, auditory attention and integration of visual-auditory information, which are quintessential in this type of research. Lastly, this review discusses the benefits and limitations of magnetoencephalography and outlines new trends in research with this technique.

  6. Left atrial voltage remodeling after pulmonary venous isolation with multipolar radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Laurenzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI is the accepted primary endpoint for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of PVI by PVAC, a multipolar circular catheter utilizing bipolar/unipolar radiofrequency (RF energy. Methods: Twenty patients with paroxysmal AF underwent PVAC ablation. PVI was validated by voltage reduction and pacing tests. Before and after RF ablation, left atrium (LA and PV electroanatomic mapping (EAM were performed by EnSite NavX system. Voltage abatement was considered for potentials 24mm: 9/20 (45% vs 11/57 (19%, p

  7. The vapor-liquid interface potential of (multi)polar fluids and its influence on ion solvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Lorand; Beu, Titus; Manghi, Manoel; Palmeri, John

    2013-04-01

    The interface between the vapor and liquid phase of quadrupolar-dipolar fluids is the seat of an electric interfacial potential whose influence on ion solvation and distribution is not yet fully understood. To obtain further microscopic insight into water specificity we first present extensive classical molecular dynamics simulations of a series of model liquids with variable molecular quadrupole moments that interpolates between SPC/E water and a purely dipolar liquid. We then pinpoint the essential role played by the competing multipolar contributions to the vapor-liquid and the solute-liquid interface potentials in determining an important ion-specific direct electrostatic contribution to the ionic solvation free energy for SPC/E water—dominated by the quadrupolar and dipolar parts—beyond the dominant polarization one. Our results show that the influence of the vapor-liquid interfacial potential on ion solvation is strongly reduced due to the strong partial cancellation brought about by the competing solute-liquid interface potential.

  8. The value of magnetoencephalography for seizure-onset zone localization in magnetic resonance imaging-negative partial epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouet, Romain; Delpuech, Claude; Ryvlin, Philippe; Isnard, Jean; Guenot, Marc; Bertrand, Olivier; Hammers, Alexander; Mauguière, François

    2013-01-01

    Surgical treatment of epilepsy is a challenge for patients with non-contributive brain magnetic resonance imaging. However, surgery is feasible if the seizure-onset zone is precisely delineated through intracranial electroencephalography recording. We recently described a method, volumetric imaging of epileptic spikes, to delineate the spiking volume of patients with focal epilepsy using magnetoencephalography. We postulated that the extent of the spiking volume delineated with volumetric imaging of epileptic spikes could predict the localizability of the seizure-onset zone by intracranial electroencephalography investigation and outcome of surgical treatment. Twenty-one patients with non-contributive magnetic resonance imaging findings were included. All patients underwent intracerebral electroencephalography investigation through stereotactically implanted depth electrodes (stereo-electroencephalography) and magnetoencephalography with delineation of the spiking volume using volumetric imaging of epileptic spikes. We evaluated the spatial congruence between the spiking volume determined by magnetoencephalography and the localization of the seizure-onset zone determined by stereo-electroencephalography. We also evaluated the outcome of stereo-electroencephalography and surgical treatment according to the extent of the spiking volume (focal, lateralized but non-focal or non-lateralized). For all patients, we found a spatial overlap between the seizure-onset zone and the spiking volume. For patients with a focal spiking volume, the seizure-onset zone defined by stereo-electroencephalography was clearly localized in all cases and most patients (6/7, 86%) had a good surgical outcome. Conversely, stereo-electroencephalography failed to delineate a seizure-onset zone in 57% of patients with a lateralized spiking volume, and in the two patients with bilateral spiking volume. Four of the 12 patients with non-focal spiking volumes were operated upon, none became seizure-free. As a whole, patients having focal magnetoencephalography results with volumetric imaging of epileptic spikes are good surgical candidates and the implantation strategy should incorporate volumetric imaging of epileptic spikes results. On the contrary, patients with non-focal magnetoencephalography results are less likely to have a localized seizure-onset zone and stereo electroencephalography is not advised unless clear localizing information is provided by other presurgical investigation methods. PMID:24014520

  9. Magnetoencephalography based on high-Tc superconductivity: a closer look into the brain?

    CERN Document Server

    Öisjöen, F; Figueras, G A; Chukharkin, M L; Kalabukhov, A; Hedström, A; Elam, M; Winkler, D

    2011-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) enables the study of brain activity by recording the magnetic fields generated by neural currents and has become an important technique for neuroscientists in research and clinical settings. Unlike the liquid-helium cooled low-Tc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) that have been at the heart of modern MEG systems since their invention, high-Tc SQUIDs can operate with liquid nitrogen cooling. The relaxation of thermal insulation requirements allows for a reduction in the stand-off distance between the sensor and the room-temperature environment from a few centimeters to less than a millimeter, where MEG signal strength is significantly higher. Despite this advantage, high-Tc SQUIDs have only been used for proof-of-principle MEG recordings of well-understood evoked activity. Here we show high-Tc SQUID-based MEG may be capable of providing novel information about brain activity due to the close proximity of the sensor to the head. We have performed single- and two-...

  10. Cognitive impairments in schizophrenia as assessed through activation and connectivity measures of magnetoencephalography (MEG data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeightonBHinkley

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive dysfunction present in patients with schizophrenia is thought to be driven in part by disorganized connections between higher-order cortical fields. Although studies utilizing EEG, PET and fMRI have contributed significantly to our understanding of these mechanisms, magnetoencephalography (MEG possesses great potential to answer long-standing questions linking brain interactions to cognitive operations in the disorder. Many experimental paradigms employed in EEG and fMRI are readily extendible to MEG and have expanded our understanding of the neurophysiological architecture present in schizophrenia. Source reconstruction techniques, such as adaptive spatial filtering, take advantage of the spatial localization abilities of MEG, allowing us to evaluate which specific structures contribute to atypical cognition in schizophrenia. Finally, both bivariate and multivariate functional connectivity metrics of MEG data are useful for understanding how these interactions in the brain are impaired in schizophrenia, and how cognitive and clinical outcomes are affected as a result. We also present here data from our own laboratory that illustrates how some of these novel functional connectivity measures, specifically imaginary coherence (IC, are quite powerful in relating disconnectivity in the brain to characteristic behavioral findings in the disorder.

  11. Differential spectral power alteration following acupuncture at different designated places revealed by magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Youbo; Bai, Lijun; Dai, Ruwei; Xue, Ting; Zhong, Chongguang; Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Hu; Feng, Yuanyuan; Wei, Wenjuan; Tian, Jie

    2012-03-01

    As an ancient therapeutic technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine, acupuncture has been used increasingly in modern society to treat a range of clinical conditions as an alternative and complementary therapy. However, acupoint specificity, lying at the core of acupuncture, still faces many controversies. Considering previous neuroimaging studies on acupuncture have mainly employed functional magnetic resonance imaging, which only measures the secondary effect of neural activity on cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics, in the current study, we adopted an electrophysiological measurement technique named magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure the direct neural activity. 28 healthy college students were recruited in this study. We filtered MEG data into 5 consecutive frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma band) and grouped 140 sensors into 10 main brain regions (left/right frontal, central, temporal, parietal and occipital regions). Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) based spectral analysis approach was further performed to explore the differential band-limited power change patterns of acupuncture at Stomach Meridian 36 (ST36) using a nearby nonacupoint (NAP) as control condition. Significantly increased delta power and decreased alpha as well as beta power in bilateral frontal ROIs were observed following stimulation at ST36. Compared with ST36, decreased alpha power in left and right central, right parietal as well as right temporal ROIs were detected in NAP group. Our research results may provide additional evidence for acupoint specificity.

  12. Temporal dynamics of the knowledge-mediated visual disambiguation process in humans: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Tomokazu; Ogata, Katsuya; Kimura, Takahiro; Kume, Yuko; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2015-01-01

    Disambiguation of a noisy visual scene with prior knowledge is an indispensable task of the visual system. To adequately adapt to a dynamically changing visual environment full of noisy visual scenes, the implementation of knowledge-mediated disambiguation in the brain is imperative and essential for proceeding as fast as possible under the limited capacity of visual image processing. However, the temporal profile of the disambiguation process has not yet been fully elucidated in the brain. The present study attempted to determine how quickly knowledge-mediated disambiguation began to proceed along visual areas after the onset of a two-tone ambiguous image using magnetoencephalography with high temporal resolution. Using the predictive coding framework, we focused on activity reduction for the two-tone ambiguous image as an index of the implementation of disambiguation. Source analysis revealed that a significant activity reduction was observed in the lateral occipital area at approximately 120 ms after the onset of the ambiguous image, but not in preceding activity (about 115 ms) in the cuneus when participants perceptually disambiguated the ambiguous image with prior knowledge. These results suggested that knowledge-mediated disambiguation may be implemented as early as approximately 120 ms following an ambiguous visual scene, at least in the lateral occipital area, and provided an insight into the temporal profile of the disambiguation process of a noisy visual scene with prior knowledge. PMID:25363137

  13. Functional mapping of the sensorimotor cortex: combined use of magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, and motor evoked potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fujii, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukui, M. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Mizushima, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Matsumoto, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Hasuo, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Tobimatsu, S. [Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology, Neurological Inst., Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Combined use of magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI), and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) was carried out on one patient in an attempt to localise precisely a structural lesion to the central sulcus. A small cyst in the right frontoparietal region was thought to be the cause of generalised seizures in an otherwise asymptomatic woman. First the primary sensory cortex was identified with magnetic source imaging (MSI) of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields using MEG and MRI. Second, the motor area of the hand was identified using f-MRI during handsqueezing. Then transcranial magnetic stimulation localised the hand motor area on the scalp, which was mapped onto the MRI. There was a good agreement between MSI, f-MRI and MEP as to the location of the sensorimotor cortex and its relationship to the lesion. Multimodality mapping techniques may thus prove useful in the precise localisation of cortical lesions, and in the preoperative determination of the best treatment for peri-rolandic lesions. (orig.)

  14. Functional mapping of the sensorimotor cortex: combined use of magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, and motor evoked potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined use of magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI), and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) was carried out on one patient in an attempt to localise precisely a structural lesion to the central sulcus. A small cyst in the right frontoparietal region was thought to be the cause of generalised seizures in an otherwise asymptomatic woman. First the primary sensory cortex was identified with magnetic source imaging (MSI) of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields using MEG and MRI. Second, the motor area of the hand was identified using f-MRI during handsqueezing. Then transcranial magnetic stimulation localised the hand motor area on the scalp, which was mapped onto the MRI. There was a good agreement between MSI, f-MRI and MEP as to the location of the sensorimotor cortex and its relationship to the lesion. Multimodality mapping techniques may thus prove useful in the precise localisation of cortical lesions, and in the preoperative determination of the best treatment for peri-rolandic lesions. (orig.)

  15. The neural processing of musical instrument size information in the brain investigated by magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Andre; van Dinther, Ralph; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-04-01

    The specific cortical representation of size was investigated by recording auditory evoked fields (AEFs) elicited by changes of instrument size and pitch. In Experiment 1, a French horn and one scaled to double the size played a three note melody around F3 or its octave, F4. Many copies of these four melodies were played in random order and the AEF was measured continuously. A similar procedure was applied to saxophone sounds in a separate run. In Experiment 2, the size and type of instrument (French horn and saxophone) were varied without changing the octave. AEFs were recorded in five subjects using magnetoencephalography and evaluated by spatio-temporal source analysis with one equivalent dipole in each hemisphere. The morphology of the source waveforms revealed that each note within the melody elicits a well-defined P1-N1-P2 AEF-complex with adaptation for the 2nd and 3rd note. At the transition of size, pitch, or both, a larger AEF-complex was evoked. However, size changes elicited a stronger N1 than pitch changes. Furthermore, this size-related N1 enhancement was larger for French horn than saxophone. The results indicate that the N1 plays an important role in the specific representation of instrument size.

  16. Changes in language-specific brain activation after therapy for aphasia using magnetoencephalography: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breier, Joshua I; Maher, Lynn M; Schmadeke, Stephanie; Hasan, Khader M; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2007-06-01

    A patient with chronic aphasia underwent functional imaging during a language comprehension task using magnetoencephalography (MEG) before and after constraint induced language therapy (CILT). In the pre- and immediate post-treatment (TX) scans MEG activity sources were observed within right hemisphere only, and were located in areas homotopic to left hemisphere language areas. There was a significant increase in activation in these areas between the two sessions. This change was not observed in an age-matched patient with chronic aphasia who underwent sequential language testing and MEG scanning across a similar time period without being administered therapy. In the 3-month post-TX scan bilateral activation was observed, including significant activation within the left temporal lobe. The changes in the spatial parameters of the maps of receptive language function after therapy were accompanied by improvement in language function. Results provide support, in the same individual, for a role for both hemispheres in recovery of language function after therapy for chronic aphasia. PMID:17786776

  17. A precorrected-fFT method to accelerate the solution of the forward problem in magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissari, Satu; Rahola, Jussi

    2003-02-21

    Accurate localization of brain activity recorded by magnetoencephalography (MEG) requires that the forward problem, i.e. the magnetic field caused by a dipolar source current in a homogeneous volume conductor, be solved precisely. We have used the Galerkin method with piecewise linear basis functions in the boundary element method to improve the solution of the forward problem. In addition, we have replaced the direct method, i.e. the LU decomposition, by a modern iterative method to solve the dense linear system of equations arising from the boundary element discretization. In this paper we describe a precorrected-FFT method which we have combined with the iterative method to accelerate the solution of the forward problem and to avoid the explicit formation of the dense coefficient matrix. For example, with a triangular mesh of 18,000 triangles, the CPU time to solve the forward problem was decreased from 3.5 h to less than 5 min, and the computer memory requirements were decreased from 1.3 GB to 156 MB. The method makes it possible to solve quickly significantly larger problems with widely-used workstations. PMID:12630746

  18. A constrained ICA approach for real-time cardiac artifact rejection in magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Lukas; Dammers, Jürgen; Roberts, Timothy P L; Shah, N Jon

    2014-02-01

    Recently, magnetoencephalography (MEG)-based real-time brain computing interfaces (BCI) have been developed to enable novel and promising methods of neuroscience research and therapy. Artifact rejection prior to source localization largely enhances the localization accuracy. However, many BCI approaches neglect real-time artifact removal due to its time consuming processing. With cardiac artifact rejection for real-time analysis (CARTA), we introduce a novel algorithm capable of real-time cardiac artifact (CA) rejection. The method is based on constrained independent component analysis (ICA), where a priori information of the underlying source signal is used to optimize and accelerate signal decomposition. In CARTA, this is performed by estimating the subject's individual density distribution of the cardiac activity, which leads to a subject-specific signal decomposition algorithm. We show that the new method is capable of effectively reducing CAs within one iteration and a time delay of 1 ms. In contrast, Infomax and Extended Infomax ICA converged not until seven iterations, while FastICA needs at least ten iterations. CARTA was tested and applied to data from three different but most common MEG systems (4-D-Neuroimaging, VSM MedTech Inc., and Elekta Neuromag). Therefore, the new method contributes to reliable signal analysis utilizing BCI approaches. PMID:24001953

  19. NMR relaxation rate and dynamical structure factors in nematic and multipolar liquids of frustrated spin chains under magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Masahiro; Momoi, Tsutomu; Furusaki, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that spin nematic (quadrupolar) or higher multipolar correlation functions exhibit a quasi long-range order in the wide region of the field-induced Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid (TLL) phase in spin-1/2 zigzag chains. In this paper, we point out that the temperature dependence of the NMR relaxation rate 1/T_1 in these multipolar TLLs is qualitatively different from that in more conventional TLLs of one-dimensional quantum magnets (e.g., the spin-1/2 He...

  20. Multipolar hepatic radiofrequency ablation using up to six applicators: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruners, P.; Schmitz-Rode, T. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Medizintechnik; Guenther, R.W.; Mahnken, A. [Universitaetsklinikum RWTH Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the clinical feasibility and safety of hepatic radiofrequency (RF) ablation using a multipolar RF system permitting the simultaneous use of up to six electrodes. Materials and methods: ten patients (3 female, 7 male, mean age 61) suffering from 29 hepatic metastases (range: 1-5) of different tumors were treated with a modified multipolar RF system (CelonLab Power, Celon Medical Instruments, Teltow, Germany) operating four to six needle-shaped internally cooled RF applicators. The procedure duration, applied energy and generator output were recorded during the intervention. The treatment result and procedure-related complications were analyzed. The achieved coagulation volume was calculated on the basis of contrast-enhanced CT scans 24 hours after RF ablation. Results: complete tumor ablation was achieved in all cases as determined by the post-interventional lack of contrast enhancement in the target region using four applicators in five patients, five applicators in one patient and six applicators in four patients. A mean energy deposition of 353.9 {+-} 176.2 kJ resulted in a mean coagulation volume of 115.9 {+-} 79.5 cm{sup 3}. The mean procedure duration was 74.9 {+-} 21.2 minutes. Four patients showed an intraabdominal hemorrhage which necessitated further interventional treatment (embolization; percutaneous histoacryl injection) in two patients. (orig.)

  1. Multipolar electromagnetic fields around neutron stars: exact vacuum solutions and related properties

    CERN Document Server

    Petri, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic field topology in the surrounding of neutron stars is one of the key questions in pulsar magnetospheric physics. A very extensive literature exists about the assumption of a dipolar magnetic field but very little progress has been made in attempts to include multipolar components in a self-consistent way. In this paper, we study the effect of multipolar electromagnetic fields anchored in the star. We give exact analytical solutions in closed form for any order $l$ and apply them to the retarded point quadrupole ($l=2$), hexapole ($l=3$) and octopole ($l=4$), a generalization of the retarded point dipole ($l=1$). We also compare the Poynting flux from each multipole and show that the spin down luminosity depends on the ratio $R/r_{\\rm L}$, $R$ being the neutron star radius and $r_{\\rm L}$ the light-cylinder radius. Therefore the braking index also depends on $R/r_{\\rm L}$. As such multipole fields possess very different topology, most importantly smaller length scales compared to the dipolar field...

  2. Anisotropic multipolar exchange interactions in systems with strong spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shu-Ting; Nanguneri, Ravindra; Savrasov, Sergey

    2014-07-01

    We introduce a theoretical framework for computations of anisotropic multipolar exchange interactions found in many spin-orbit coupled magnetic systems and propose a method to extract these coupling constants using a density functional total energy calculation. This method is developed using a multipolar expansion of local density matrices for correlated orbitals that are responsible for magnetic degrees of freedom. Within the mean-field approximation, we show that each coupling constant can be recovered from a series of total energy calculations via what we call the "pair-flip" technique. This technique flips the relative phase of a pair of multipoles and computes the corresponding total energy cost associated with the given exchange constant. To test it, we apply our method to uranium dioxide, which is a system known to have pseudospin J =1 superexchange induced dipolar, and superexchange plus spin-lattice induced quadrupolar orderings. Our calculation reveals that the superexchange and spin-lattice contributions to the quadrupolar exchange interactions are about the same order with ferro- and antiferromagnetic contributions, respectively. This highlights a competition rather than a cooperation between them. Our method could be a promising tool to explore magnetic properties of rare-earth compounds and hidden-order materials.

  3. An analysis of the electromagnetic field in multi-polar linear induction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a new method for determination of the electromagnetic field vectors in a multi-polar linear induction system (LIS) is described. The analysis of the electromagnetic field has been done by four dimensional electromagnetic potentials in conjunction with theory of the magnetic loops . The electromagnetic field vectors are determined in the Minkovski's space as elements of the Maxwell's tensor. The results obtained are compared with those got from the analysis made by the finite elements method (FEM).With the method represented in this paper one can determine the electromagnetic field vectors in the multi-polar linear induction system using four-dimensional potential. A priority of this method is the obtaining of analytical results for the electromagnetic field vectors. These results are also valid for linear media. The dependencies are valid also at high speeds of movement. The results of the investigated linear induction system are comparable to those got by the finite elements method. The investigations may be continued in the determination of other characteristics such as drag force, levitation force, etc. The method proposed in this paper for an analysis of linear induction system can be used for optimization calculations. (Author)

  4. Oscillatory neuronal dynamics associated with manual acupuncture: a magnetoencephalography study using beamforming analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AzizAsghar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoencephalography (MEG enables non-invasive recording of neuronal activity, with reconstruction methods providing estimates of underlying brain source locations and oscillatory dynamics from externally recorded neuromagnetic fields. The aim of our study was to use MEG to determine the effect of manual acupuncture on neuronal oscillatory dynamics. A major problem in MEG investigations of manual acupuncture is the absence of onset times for each needle manipulation. Given that beamforming (spatial filtering analysis is not dependent upon stimulus-driven responses being phase-locked to stimulus onset, we postulated that beamforming could reveal source locations and induced changes in neuronal activity during manual acupuncture. In a beamformer analysis, a two-minute period of manual acupuncture needle manipulation delivered to the ipsilateral right LI-4 (Hegu acupoint was contrasted with a two-minute baseline period. We considered oscillatory power changes in the theta (4-8Hz, alpha (8-13Hz, beta (13-30Hz and gamma (30-100Hz frequency bands. We found significant decreases in beta band power in the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex and superior frontal gyrus. In the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere, we found significant power decreases in beta and gamma frequency bands in only the superior frontal gyrus. No significant power modulations were found in theta and alpha bands. Our results indicate that beamforming is a useful analytical tool to reconstruct underlying neuronal activity associated with manual acupuncture. Our main finding was of beta power decreases in primary somatosensory cortex and superior frontal gyrus, which opens up a line of future investigation regarding whether this contributes towards an underlying mechanism of acupuncture.

  5. Producing speech with a newly learned morphosyntax and vocabulary: an magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultén, Annika; Karvonen, Leena; Laine, Matti; Salmelin, Riitta

    2014-08-01

    Ten participants learned a miniature language (Anigram), which they later employed to verbally describe a pictured event. Using magnetoencephalography, the cortical dynamics of sentence production in Anigram was compared with that in the native tongue from the preparation phase up to the production of the final word. At the preparation phase, a cartoon image with two animals prompted the participants to plan either the corresponding simple sentence (e.g., "the bear hits the lion") or a grammar-free list of the two nouns ("the bear, the lion"). For the newly learned language, this stage induced stronger left angular and adjacent inferior parietal activations than for the native language, likely reflecting a higher load on lexical retrieval and STM storage. The preparation phase was followed by a cloze task where the participants were prompted to produce the last word of the sentence or word sequence. Production of the sentence-final word required retrieval of rule-based inflectional morphology and was accompanied by increased activation of the left middle superior temporal cortex that did not differ between the two languages. Activation of the right temporal cortex during the cloze task suggested that this area plays a role in integrating word meanings into the sentence frame. The present results indicate that, after just a few days of exposure, the newly learned language harnesses the neural resources for multiword production much the same way as the native tongue and that the left and right temporal cortices seem to have functionally different roles in this processing. PMID:24392893

  6. [Magnetoencephalography: a method for the study of brain function in neurosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a non-invasive method for the study of electro-magnetic brain activity. Using multi-channel recordings the topography of the magnetic field can be recorded above the scalp with a temporal resolution of less than one millisecond. The method is suitable for the description and localization of cortical brain functions. The magnetic field strength that can be measured at up to 300 sensors is in the range of a few femto Tesla (10(-15) T) to somepico Tesla (10(-12) T). In order to measure these low magnetic fields highly sensitive SQUID-detectors are used on the one hand. On the other hand appropriate shielding equipment is employed to reduce effects of noise. Besides brain responses evoked by internal and external events (event-related magnetic fields), state-dependant oscillatory brain activity MEG can be recorded (spontaneous activity). Slow cortical oscillations in the range of 1 to 4 Hz are generated by damage of brain tissue and in the surrounding of brain tumors. In neurosurgery these activities can be used to monitor therapeutic success. Furthermore, oscillatory activities provide information about cortical regions involved in motor control. The measurement of motor related activities allows for the identification of recovery processes and reorganization after brain injury. Event-related magnetic brain responses are used in pre-surgical diagnosis and planning of treatment in epilepsy. In addition, they can be utilized to assess alterations in the functional organization of the cortex following injuries, tumor growth and neurosurgical interventions. PMID:18254551

  7. The Neural Mechanisms of Re-Experiencing Mental Fatigue Sensation: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akira; Karasuyama, Takuma; Kikuchi, Taiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present study, we investigated the neural activity caused by re-experiencing the fatigue sensation that had been experienced during a fatigue-inducing session. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in fatigue and non-fatigue experiments in a crossover fashion. In the fatigue experiment, they performed a 2-back test session for 40 min to induce fatigue sensation, a rest session for 15 min to recover from fatigue, and a magnetoencephalography (MEG) session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body with fatigue that they had experienced in the 2-back test session. In the non-fatigue experiment, the participants performed a free session for 15 min, a rest session for 15 min, and an MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body without fatigue that they had experienced in the free session. Spatial filtering analyses of oscillatory brain activity showed that the delta band power in the left Brodmann’s area (BA) 39, alpha band power in the right pulvinar nucleus and the left BA 40, and beta band power in the left BA 40 were lower when they re-experienced the fatigue sensation than when they re-experienced the fatigue-free sensation, indicating that these brain regions are related to re-experiencing the fatigue sensation. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms underlying fatigue sensation. PMID:25826300

  8. Plasma diffusion through a two-dimensional magnetic field. Application to multipolar discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a collisional plasma diffusion theory through a two dimensional magnetic field is presented. This study allows to define two types of diffusion domains: the weak field domain, where diffusion is practically isotropic, and strong field domain where diffusion is only parallel to field lines. The inversion and ion confinement by ambipolar electric field, perpendicular to line fields, is also understood. This theory is applied to a multipolar discharge. A sheath thickness can be defined, which is the width of the region in which the plasma diffusion is limited by the magnetic field. Little dependence with magnetic field is found. All these results have been observed experimentally. The diffusion equation numerical solution allows to find the density and potential profiles. The comparison of the density in the middle of the plasma with and without multicusp field is done

  9. Dual-symmetric Lagrangians in quantum electrodynamics: I. Conservation laws and multi-polar coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using a complex field with a symmetric combination of electric and magnetic fields, a first-order covariant Lagrangian for Maxwell's equations is obtained, similar to the Lagrangian for the Dirac equation. This leads to a dual-symmetric quantum electrodynamic theory with an infinite set of local conservation laws. The dual symmetry is shown to correspond to a helical phase, conjugate to the conserved helicity. There is also a scaling symmetry, conjugate to the conserved entanglement. The results include a novel form of the photonic wavefunction, with a well-defined helicity number operator conjugate to the chiral phase, related to the fundamental dual symmetry. Interactions with charged particles can also be included. Transformations from minimal coupling to multi-polar or more general forms of coupling are particularly straightforward using this technique. The dual-symmetric version of quantum electrodynamics derived here has potential applications to nonlinear quantum optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics

  10. Role of pairing degrees of freedom and higher multipolarity deformations in spontaneous fission process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous fission (Tsf) and alpha-decay half-lives (T?) of the heaviest nuclei with atomic number 100 ? Z ? 114 are calculated on the basis of the deformed Woods-Saxon potential. The calculations of (Tsf) are performed by the WKB approximation, in the multi-dimensional dynamical-programing method (MDP). We have examined three different effects: the effect of higher even-multipolarity shape parameters (?6 and ?8), the role of reflection-asymmetry (?3 and ?5) and the influence of pairing degrees of freedom (?p and ?n). Alpha-decay half-lives (T?) have been calculated by the Viola-Seaborg (V-S) formula with the parameters modified to the latest experimental data

  11. Substitution effect on the multipolar transitions in Pr(FexRu1-x)4P12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substitution effect has been studied for the transition metal site on both of the metal-insulator transition in PrRu4P12 and the anomalous nonmagnetic transition (probably of multipolar origin) in PrFe4P12 by mutual alloying. It has been found that both of the transitions are significantly suppressed by the substitution. This observation supports the scenario that the expected Fermi-surface-nesting instability is an essential ingredient for both of the orderings. In the nonordered state, logarithmic temperature dependence in the electrical resistivity indicative of Kondo-like scatterings has been found only around the high Fe concentration, suggesting important roles of the Fe 3d electrons for the strongly correlated behavior

  12. An automated algorithm for determining conduction velocity, wavefront direction and origin of focal cardiac arrhythmias using a multipolar catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, Caroline H; Cantwell, Chris D; Qureshi, Norman A; Ali, Rheeda L; Chang, Eugene T Y; Phang Boon Lim; Sherwin, Spencer J; Peters, Nicholas S; Siggers, Jennifer H; Fu Siong Ng

    2014-08-01

    Determining locations of focal arrhythmia sources and quantifying myocardial conduction velocity (CV) are two major challenges in clinical catheter ablation cases. CV, wave-front direction and focal source location can be estimated from multipolar catheter data, but currently available methods are time-consuming, limited to specific electrode configurations, and can be inaccurate. We developed automated algorithms to rapidly identify CV from multipolar catheter data with any arrangement of electrodes, whilst providing estimates of wavefront direction and focal source position, which can guide the catheter towards a focal arrhythmic source. We validated our methods using simulations on realistic human left atrial geometry. We subsequently applied them to clinically-acquired intracardiac electrogram data, where CV and wavefront direction were accurately determined in all cases, whilst focal source locations were correctly identified in 2/3 cases. Our novel automated algorithms can potentially be used to guide ablation of focal arrhythmias in real-time in cardiac catheter laboratories. PMID:25570274

  13. Multipolar radiofrequency ablation using 4–6 applicators simultaneously: A study in the ex vivo bovine liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the volume and shape of coagulation zones after multipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with simultaneous use of 4–6 applicators in the ex vivo bovine liver were investigated. The RF-applicators were positioned in 13 different configurations to simulate ablation of large solitary tumors and simultaneous ablation of multiple lesions with 120 kJ of applied energy/session. In total, 110 coagulation zones were induced. Standardized measurements of the volume and shape of the coagulation zones were carried out on magnetic resonance images and statistically analyzed. The coagulation zones induced with solitary applicators and with 2 applicators were imperceptibly small and incomplete, respectively. At 20 mm applicator distance, the total ablated volume was significantly larger if all applicators were arranged in a single group compared to placement in 2 distant applicator groups, each consisting of 3 applicators (p = .001). The mean total coagulated volume ranged from immeasurably small (if 6 solitary applicators were applied simultaneously) to 74.7 cc (if 6 applicators at 30 mm distance between neighboring applicators were combined to a single group). Applicator distance, number and positioning array impacted time and shape. The coagulation zones surrounding groups with 4–6 applicators were regularly shaped, homogeneous and completely fused, and the axial diameters were almost constant. In conclusion, multipolar RFA with 4–6 applicators is feasible. The multipolar simultaneous mode should be applied for large and solitary lesions only, small and multiple tumors should be ablated consecutively in standard multipolar mode with up to 3 applicators

  14. ADAM17 is critical for multipolar exit and radial migration of neuronal intermediate progenitor cells in mice cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingyu; Zhang, Zhengyu; Li, Zengmin; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Bin; Pan, Le; Ma, Zhixing; Zheng, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    The radial migration of neuronal progenitor cells is critical for the development of cerebral cortex layers. They go through a critical step transforming from multipolar to bipolar before outward migration. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) is a transmembrane protease which can process many substrates involved in cell-cell interaction, including Notch, ligands of EGFR, and some cell adhesion molecules. In this study, we used in utero electroporation to knock down or overexpress ADAM17 at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) in neuronal progenitor cells to examine the role of ADAM17 in cortical embryonic neurogenesis. Our results showed that the radial migration of ADAM17-knocked down cells were normal till E16.5 and reached the intermediate zone (IZ). Then most transfected cells stopped migration and stayed at the IZ to inner cortical plate (CP) layer at E18.5, and there was higher percentage of multipolar cells at IZ layer in the ADAM17-knocked down group compared to the cells in control group. Marker staining revealed that those ADAM17-knocked down cells differentiated normally from neural stem cells (NSCs) to neuronal intermediate progenitor cells (nIPCs) but did not differentiate into mature neurons. The migration and multipolar exit defects caused by ADAM17 knockdown could be partially rescued by over-expressing an shRNA resistant ADAM17, while overexpressing ADAM17 alone did not affect the radial migration. Taken together, our results showed for the first time that, ADAM17 is critical in regulating the multipolar-stage exit and radial migration of the nIPCs during telencephalon cortex development in mice. PMID:23755270

  15. ADAM17 Is Critical for Multipolar Exit and Radial Migration of Neuronal Intermediate Progenitor Cells in Mice Cerebral Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qingyu; Zhang, Zhengyu; Li, Zengmin; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Bin; Pan, Le; Ma, Zhixing; Zheng, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    The radial migration of neuronal progenitor cells is critical for the development of cerebral cortex layers. They go through a critical step transforming from multipolar to bipolar before outward migration. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) is a transmembrane protease which can process many substrates involved in cell-cell interaction, including Notch, ligands of EGFR, and some cell adhesion molecules. In this study, we used in utero electroporation to knock down or overexpress AD...

  16. Dynamic FoxG1 expression coordinates the integration of multipolar pyramidal neuron precursors into the cortical plate

    OpenAIRE

    Miyoshi, Goichi; Fishell, Gord

    2012-01-01

    Pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex are born in the ventricular zone and migrate radially through the intermediate zone to enter into the cortical plate. In the intermediate zone, these migrating precursors are able to move tangentially and initiate the extension of their axons by transiently adopting a characteristic multipolar morphology. We observe that expression of the forkhead transcription factor FoxG1 is dynamically regulated during this transitional period. By utilizing conditiona...

  17. An iterative algorithm for sparse and constrained recovery with applications to divergence-free current reconstructions in magneto-encephalography

    CERN Document Server

    Loris, Ignace

    2012-01-01

    We propose an iterative algorithm for the minimization of a $\\ell_1$-norm penalized least squares functional, under additional linear constraints. The algorithm is fully explicit: it uses only matrix multiplications with the three matrices present in the problem (in the linear constraint, in the data misfit part and in penalty term of the functional). None of the three matrices must be invertible. Convergence is proven in a finite-dimensional setting. We apply the algorithm to a synthetic problem in magneto-encephalography where it is used for the reconstruction of divergence-free current densities subject to a sparsity promoting penalty on the wavelet coefficients of the current densities. We discuss the effects of imposing zero divergence and of imposing joint sparsity (of the vector components of the current density) on the current density reconstruction.

  18. SQUID-based systems for co-registration of ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance images and magnetoencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ultra-low magnetic fields (ULF) of ?100 ?T, using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detection, has enabled a new class of magnetoencephalography (MEG) instrumentation capable of recording both anatomical (via the ULF MRI) and functional (biomagnetic) information about the brain. The combined ULF MRI/MEG instrument allows both structural and functional information to be co-registered to a single coordinate system and acquired in a single device. In this paper we discuss the considerations and challenges required to develop a combined ULF MRI/MEG device, including pulse sequence development, magnetic field generation, SQUID operation in an environment of pulsed pre-polarization, and optimization of pick-up coil geometries for MRI in different noise environments. We also discuss the design of a “hybrid” ULF MRI/MEG system under development in our laboratory that uses SQUID pick-up coils separately optimized for MEG and ULF MRI.

  19. The Slope Imaging Multi-Polarization Photon-Counting Lidar: Development and Performance Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar is an airborne instrument developed to demonstrate laser altimetry measurement methods that will enable more efficient observations of topography and surface properties from space. The instrument was developed through the NASA Earth Science Technology Office Instrument Incubator Program with a focus on cryosphere remote sensing. The SIMPL transmitter is an 11 KHz, 1064 nm, plane-polarized micropulse laser transmitter that is frequency doubled to 532 nm and split into four push-broom beams. The receiver employs single-photon, polarimetric ranging at 532 and 1064 nm using Single Photon Counting Modules in order to achieve simultaneous sampling of surface elevation, slope, roughness and depolarizing scattering properties, the latter used to differentiate surface types. Data acquired over ice-covered Lake Erie in February, 2009 are documenting SIMPL s measurement performance and capabilities, demonstrating differentiation of open water and several ice cover types. ICESat-2 will employ several of the technologies advanced by SIMPL, including micropulse, single photon ranging in a multi-beam, push-broom configuration operating at 532 nm.

  20. Neutron star deformation due to arbitrary-order multipolar magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mastrano, Alpha; Melatos, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Certain multi-wavelength observations of neutron stars, such as intermittent radio emissions from rotation-powered pulsars beyond the pair-cascade death line, the pulse profile of the magnetar SGR 1900+14 after its 1998 August 27 giant flare, and X-ray spectral features of PSR J0821-4300 and SGR 0418+5729, suggest that the magnetic fields of non-accreting neutron stars are not purely dipolar and may contain higher-order multipoles. Here, we calculate the ellipticity of a non-barotropic neutron star with (i) a quadrupole poloidal-toroidal field, and (ii) a purely poloidal field containing arbitrary multipoles, deriving the relation between the ellipticity and the multipole amplitudes. We present, as a worked example, a purely poloidal field comprising dipole, quadrupole, and octupole components. We show the correlation between field energy and ellipticity for each multipole, that the l=4 multipole has the lowest energy, and that l=5 has the lowest ellipticity. We show how a mixed multipolar field creates an ob...

  1. Effective plasma confinement by applying multipolar magnetic fields in an internal linear inductively coupled plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel internal-type linear inductive antenna referred to as 'double comb-type antenna' was used for a large-area plasma source with the substrate area of 880 mmx660 mm and the effect of plasma confinement by applying multi-polar magnetic field was investigated. High-density plasmas on the order of 3.18x1011 cm-3, which is 50% higher than that obtained for the source without the magnetic field, could be obtained at the pressure of 15 mTorr Ar and at the inductive power of 5000 W with good plasma stability. The plasma uniformity less than 3% could also be obtained within the substrate area. When SiO2 film was etched using the double comb-type antenna, the average etch rate of about 2100 A/min could be obtained with the etch uniformity of 5.4% on the substrate area using 15 mTorr SF6, 5000 W of rf power, and -34 V of dc bias voltage

  2. The Evolutionary Dynamics of Biofuel Value Chains : From Unipolar and Government-Driven to Multipolar Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I propose to push the frontier of global value chain (GVC) governance analysis through the concept of ‘polarity’. Much of the existing GVC literature has focused on ‘unipolar’ value chains, where one group of ‘lead firms’ inhabiting a specific function in a chain plays a dominant role in governing it. Some scholars have explored the dynamics of governance in GVCs characterized as ‘bipolar’, where two sets of actors in different functional positions both drive the chain. I expand this direction further to suggest conceptualizing governance within a continuum between unipolarity and multipolarity. Empirically, I do so by examining the evolutionary dynamics of governance in biofuel value chains, with specific focus on the key regulatory and institutional features that facilitated their emergence and expansion. First, I examine the formation, evolution, and governance of three national/regional value chains (in Brazil, the US, and the EU); then, I provide evidence to support a trend towards the increasing but still partial formation of a global biofuel value chain and examine its governance traits.

  3. CT-guided Bipolar and Multipolar Radiofrequency Ablation (RF Ablation) of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Specific Technical Aspects and Clinical Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of CT-guided bipolar and multipolar radiofrequency ablation (RF ablation) of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to analyze specific technical aspects between both technologies. Methods. We included 22 consecutive patients (3 women; age 74.2 ± 8.6 years) after 28 CT-guided bipolar or multipolar RF ablations of 28 RCCs (diameter 2.5 ± 0.8 cm). Procedures were performed with a commercially available RF system (Celon AG Olympus, Berlin, Germany). Technical aspects of RF ablation procedures (ablation mode [bipolar or multipolar], number of applicators and ablation cycles, overall ablation time and deployed energy, and technical success rate) were analyzed. Clinical results (local recurrence-free survival and local tumor control rate, renal function [glomerular filtration rate (GFR)]) and complication rates were evaluated. Results. Bipolar RF ablation was performed in 12 procedures and multipolar RF ablation in 16 procedures (2 applicators in 14 procedures and 3 applicators in 2 procedures). One ablation cycle was performed in 15 procedures and two ablation cycles in 13 procedures. Overall ablation time and deployed energy were 35.0 ± 13.6 min and 43.7 ± 17.9 kJ. Technical success rate was 100 %. Major and minor complication rates were 4 and 14 %. At an imaging follow-up of 15.2 ± 8.8 months, local recurrence-free survival was 14.4 ± 8.8 months and local tumor control rate was 93 %. GFR did not deterioratete was 93 %. GFR did not deteriorate after RF ablation (50.8 ± 16.6 ml/min/1.73 m2 before RF ablation vs. 47.2 ± 11.9 ml/min/1.73 m2 after RF ablation; not significant). Conclusions. CT-guided bipolar and multipolar RF ablation of RCC has a high rate of clinical success and low complication rates. At short-term follow-up, clinical efficacy is high without deterioration of the renal function.

  4. CT-guided Bipolar and Multipolar Radiofrequency Ablation (RF Ablation) of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Specific Technical Aspects and Clinical Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, C. M., E-mail: christof.sommer@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Lemm, G.; Hohenstein, E. [Minimally Invasive Therapies and Nuclear Medicine, SLK Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH, Clinic for Radiology (Germany); Bellemann, N.; Stampfl, U. [University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Goezen, A. S.; Rassweiler, J. [Clinic for Urology, SLK Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH (Germany); Kauczor, H. U.; Radeleff, B. A. [University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Pereira, P. L. [Minimally Invasive Therapies and Nuclear Medicine, SLK Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH, Clinic for Radiology (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of CT-guided bipolar and multipolar radiofrequency ablation (RF ablation) of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to analyze specific technical aspects between both technologies. Methods. We included 22 consecutive patients (3 women; age 74.2 {+-} 8.6 years) after 28 CT-guided bipolar or multipolar RF ablations of 28 RCCs (diameter 2.5 {+-} 0.8 cm). Procedures were performed with a commercially available RF system (Celon AG Olympus, Berlin, Germany). Technical aspects of RF ablation procedures (ablation mode [bipolar or multipolar], number of applicators and ablation cycles, overall ablation time and deployed energy, and technical success rate) were analyzed. Clinical results (local recurrence-free survival and local tumor control rate, renal function [glomerular filtration rate (GFR)]) and complication rates were evaluated. Results. Bipolar RF ablation was performed in 12 procedures and multipolar RF ablation in 16 procedures (2 applicators in 14 procedures and 3 applicators in 2 procedures). One ablation cycle was performed in 15 procedures and two ablation cycles in 13 procedures. Overall ablation time and deployed energy were 35.0 {+-} 13.6 min and 43.7 {+-} 17.9 kJ. Technical success rate was 100 %. Major and minor complication rates were 4 and 14 %. At an imaging follow-up of 15.2 {+-} 8.8 months, local recurrence-free survival was 14.4 {+-} 8.8 months and local tumor control rate was 93 %. GFR did not deteriorate after RF ablation (50.8 {+-} 16.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} before RF ablation vs. 47.2 {+-} 11.9 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} after RF ablation; not significant). Conclusions. CT-guided bipolar and multipolar RF ablation of RCC has a high rate of clinical success and low complication rates. At short-term follow-up, clinical efficacy is high without deterioration of the renal function.

  5. Evaluation of focused multipolar stimulation for cochlear implants in acutely deafened cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Shefin S.; Wise, Andrew K.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Shepherd, Robert K.; Fallon, James B.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. The conductive nature of the fluids and tissues of the cochlea can lead to broad activation of spiral ganglion neurons using contemporary cochlear implant stimulation configurations such as monopolar (MP) stimulation. The relatively poor spatial selectivity is thought to limit implant performance, particularly in noisy environments. Several current focusing techniques have been proposed to reduce the spread of activation with the aim towards achieving improved clinical performance. Approach. The present research evaluated the efficacy of focused multipolar (FMP) stimulation, a relatively new focusing technique in the cochlea, and compared its efficacy to both MP stimulation and tripolar (TP) stimulation. The spread of neural activity across the inferior colliculus (IC), measured by recording the spatial tuning curve, was used as a measure of spatial selectivity. Adult cats (n = 6) were acutely deafened and implanted with an intracochlear electrode array before multi-unit responses were recorded across the cochleotopic gradient of the contralateral IC. Recordings were made in response to acoustic and electrical stimulation using the MP, TP and FMP configurations. Main results. FMP and TP stimulation resulted in greater spatial selectivity than MP stimulation. However, thresholds were significantly higher (p < 0.001) for FMP and TP stimulation compared to MP stimulation. There were no differences found in spatial selectivity and threshold between FMP and TP stimulation. Significance. The greater spatial selectivity of FMP and TP stimulation would be expected to result in improved clinical performance. However, further research will be required to demonstrate the efficacy of these modes of stimulation after longer durations of deafness.

  6. Analysis of the electromagnetic excitation of the discharge in an ECR multipolar plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excitation of the electron gas by 2.45 GHz microwave input power is studied using simulation and analysis techniques for a multipolar permanent magnet ECR plasma source. This source produces a low-pressure, high-density and low-temperature plasma that is useful for many plasma processing applications. The efficiency, uniformity and temperature of the plasma are all influenced by the transfer of input microwave energy to the discharge and have all been studied experimentally in previous work. In this paper, an analysis of this excitation is done which uses numerical simulation techniques to understand the absorption of microwave power by the discharge as a function of permanent magnet configuration (8 pole/8 magnet, 4 pole/8 magnet and all like poles pointing inward), electromagnetic excitation mode (TE211 and TE311), and orientation of the static magnetic field relative to the excitation mode. The plasma source studied has a microwave cavity diameter of 7 inches and a discharge diameter of 12.5 cm. The excitation of the plasma has been studied by examining self-consistently (1) the electromagnetic fields inside the resonator cavity with a discharge present and (2) the energy absorption by the electrons due to the microwave electric field. The electromagnetic fields are studied using a time-domain finite-difference solution of the Maxwell equations in a cylindrical cavity with a magnetized plasma present. The absorption of microwave energy by nt. The absorption of microwave energy by the electrons is investigated using plasma theory that incorporates collisionless heating

  7. Invariant Form of Hyperfine Interaction with Multipolar Moments - Observation of Octupolar Moments in NpO$_{2}$ and CeB$_{6}$ by NMR -

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, O; Shiba, H; Sakai, Osamu; Shiina, Ryousuke; Shiba, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    The invariant form of the hyperfine interaction between multipolar moments and the nuclear spin is derived, and applied to discuss possibilities to identify the antiferro-octupolar (AFO) moments by NMR experiments. The ordered phase of NpO$_{2}$ and the phase IV of Ce$_{1-x}$La$_{x}$B$_{6}$ are studied in detail. Recent $^{17}$O NMR for polycrystalline samples of NpO$_{2}$ are discussed theoretically from our formulation. The observed feature of the splitting of $^{17}$O NMR spectrum into a sharp line and a broad line, their intensity ratio, and the magnetic field dependence of the shift and of the width can be consistently explained on the basis of the triple $\\bq$ AFO ordering model proposed by Paix\\~{a}o {\\it et. al.} Thus, the present theory shows that the $^{17}$O NMR spectrum gives a strong support to the model. The 4 O sites in the fcc NpO$_2$ become inequivalent due to the secondary triple $\\bq$ ordering of AF-quadrupoles: one cubic and three non-cubic sites. It turns out that the hyperfine field due ...

  8. The Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar: an Advanced Technology Airborne Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, P.; Harding, D. J.; Huss, T.; Valett, S.; Yu, A. W.; Zheng, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL) is an airborne laser altimeter developed through the NASA Earth Science Technology Office Instrument Incubator Program with a focus on cryopshere remote sensing. The SIMPL instrument incorporates a variety of advanced technologies in order to demonstrate measurement approaches of potential benefit for improved airborne laser swath mapping and spaceflight laser altimeter missions. SIMPL incorporates beam splitting, single-photon ranging and polarimetry technologies at green and near-infrared wavelengths in order to achieve simultaneous sampling of surface elevation, slope, roughness and scattering properties, the latter used to differentiate surface types. The transmitter is a 1 nsec pulse width, 11 kHz, 1064 nm microchip laser, frequency doubled to 532 nm and split into four plane-polarized beams using birefringent calcite crystal in order to maintain co-alignment of the two colors. The 16 channel receiver splits the received energy for each beam into the two colors and each color is split into energy parallel and perpendicular to the transmit polarization plane thereby proving a measure of backscatter depolarization. The depolarization ratio is sensitive to the proportions of specular reflection and surface and volume scattering, and is a function of wavelength. The ratio can differentiate, for example, water, young translucent ice, older granular ice and snow. The solar background count rate is controlled by spatial filtering using a pinhole array and by spectral filtering using temperature-controlled narrow bandwidth filters. The receiver is fiber coupled to 16 Single Photon Counting Modules (SPCMs). To avoid range biases due to the long dead time of these detectors the probability of detection per laser fire on each channel is controlled to be below 30%, using mechanical irises and flight altitude. Event timers with 0.1 nsec resolution in combination the narrow transmit pulse yields single photon ranging precision of 8 cm. The high speed, high throughput data system is capable of recording 22 million time-tagged photon detection events per second. At typical aircraft flight speeds, each of the 16 channels acquires a single photon range every 5 to 15 cm along the four profiles providing a highly sampled measure of surface roughness. The nominal flight altitude is 5 km yielding 10 m spacing between the four beam profiles, providing a measure of surface slope at 10 m length scales. The altitude is currently constrained by the low signal level of the NIR cross-polarized channels. SIMPL’s measurement capabilities provide information about surface elevation, roughness, slope and type of value in characterizing ice sheet surfaces and sea ice, including their melt state. Capabilities will be illustrated using data acquired over Lake Erie ice cover in February, 2009.

  9. Does IQ affect the functional brain network involved in pseudoword reading in students with reading disability? A magnetoencephalography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis G Simos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined whether individual differences in performance and verbal IQ affect the profiles of reading-related regional brain activation in 127 students experiencing reading difficulties and typical readers. Using magnetoencephalography in a pseudoword read-aloud task, we compared brain activation profiles of students experiencing word-level reading difficulties who did (n=29 or did not (n=36 meet the IQ-reading achievement discrepancy criterion. Typical readers assigned to a lower-IQ (n=18 or a higher IQ (n=44 subgroup served as controls. Minimum norm estimates of regional cortical activity revealed that the degree of hypoactivation in the left superior temporal and supramarginal gyri in both RD subgroups was not affected by IQ. Moreover, IQ did not moderate the positive association between degree of activation in the left fusiform gyrus and phonological decoding ability. We did find, however, that the hypoactivation of the left pars opercularis in RD was restricted to lower-IQ participants. In accordance with previous morphometric and fMRI studies, degree of activity in inferior frontal and inferior parietal regions correlated with IQ across reading ability subgroups. Results are consistent with current views questioning the relevance of IQ measures and IQ-discrepancy criteria in the diagnosis of dyslexia.

  10. SQUID-based systems for co-registration of ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance images and magnetoencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlashov, A.N., E-mail: matlach@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-D454, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Burmistrov, E.; Magnelind, P.E.; Schultz, L.; Urbaitis, A.V.; Volegov, P.L.; Yoder, J.; Espy, M.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-D454, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    The ability to perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ultra-low magnetic fields (ULF) of {approx}100 {mu}T, using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detection, has enabled a new class of magnetoencephalography (MEG) instrumentation capable of recording both anatomical (via the ULF MRI) and functional (biomagnetic) information about the brain. The combined ULF MRI/MEG instrument allows both structural and functional information to be co-registered to a single coordinate system and acquired in a single device. In this paper we discuss the considerations and challenges required to develop a combined ULF MRI/MEG device, including pulse sequence development, magnetic field generation, SQUID operation in an environment of pulsed pre-polarization, and optimization of pick-up coil geometries for MRI in different noise environments. We also discuss the design of a 'hybrid' ULF MRI/MEG system under development in our laboratory that uses SQUID pick-up coils separately optimized for MEG and ULF MRI.

  11. Localization of Interictal Epileptiform Activity Using Magnetoencephalography with Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry in Patients with a Vagus Nerve Stimulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton-Kotloski, Jennifer R.; Kotloski, Robert J.; Boggs, Jane A.; Popli, Gautam; O’Donovan, Cormac A.; Couture, Daniel E.; Cornell, Cassandra; Godwin, Dwayne W.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides useful and non-redundant information in the evaluation of patients with epilepsy, and in particular, during the pre-surgical evaluation of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a common treatment for pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. However, interpretation of MEG recordings from patients with a VNS is challenging due to the severe magnetic artifacts produced by the VNS. We used synthetic aperture magnetometry (g2) [SAM(g2)], an adaptive beamformer that maps the excessive kurtosis, to map interictal spikes to the coregistered MRI image, despite the presence of contaminating VNS artifact. We present a series of eight patients with a VNS who underwent MEG recording. Localization of interictal epileptiform activity by SAM(g2) is compared to invasive electrophysiologic monitoring and other localizing approaches. While the raw MEG recordings were uninterpretable, analysis of the recordings with SAM(g2) identified foci of peak kurtosis and source signal activity that was unaffected by the VNS artifact. SAM(g2) analysis of MEG recordings in patients with a VNS produces interpretable results and expands the use of MEG for the pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy. PMID:25505894

  12. Assessment of language dominance by event-related oscillatory changes in an auditory language task: magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo-Young; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Lee, Sang Kun; Kim, Won Sup

    2010-08-01

    The authors investigated the oscillatory changes induced by auditory language task to assess hemispheric dominance of language. Magnetoencephalography studies were conducted during word listening in 6 normal right-handed volunteers and 13 epilepsy patients who underwent Wada test. We carried out a time-frequency analysis of event-related desynchronization (ERD)/event-related synchronization (ERS) and intertrial coherence. We localized ERD/ERS on each subject's magnetic resonance images using beamformer. We compared ERD/ERS values between the left and right side of regions of interest in inferior frontal and superior temporal areas. We assessed the target frequency range that correlated best with the Wada test results. In all normal subjects, gamma ERD was lateralized to the left side in both the inferior frontal and superior temporal areas. In epilepsy patients, the concordance rate of gamma ERD and the Wada test results was 76.9% for the inferior frontal area and 69.2% for the superior temporal area. Gamma ERD can be considered as an indicator of language function, although it was not sufficient to replace the Wada test in the evaluation of epilepsy patients. The gamma ERD value of the inferior frontal area was more reliable for the assessment of language dominance compared with that obtained in the superior temporal area. PMID:20634707

  13. Excitatory cortical neurons with multipolar shape establish neuronal polarity by forming a tangentially oriented axon in the intermediate zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Yamauchi, Kenta

    2013-01-01

    The formation of axon-dendrite polarity is crucial for neuron to make the proper information flow within the brain. Although the processes of neuronal polarity formation have been extensively studied using neurons in dissociated culture, the corresponding developmental processes in vivo are still unclear. Here, we illuminate the initial steps of morphological polarization of excitatory cortical neurons in situ, by sparsely labeling their neuroepithelial progenitors using in utero electroporation and then examining their neuronal progeny in brain sections and in slice cultures. Morphological analysis showed that an axon-like long tangential process formed in progeny cells in the intermediate zone (IZ). Time-lapse imaging analysis using slice culture revealed that progeny cells with multipolar shape, after alternately extending and retracting their short processes for several hours, suddenly elongated a long process tangentially. These cells then transformed into a bipolar shape, extending a pia-directed leading process, and migrated radially leaving the tangential process behind, which gave rise to an "L-shaped" axon. Our findings suggest that neuronal polarity in these cells is established de novo from a nonpolarized stage in vivo and indicate that excitatory cortical neurons with multipolar shape in the IZ initiate axon outgrowth before radial migration into the cortical plate. PMID:22267309

  14. Si(3P) + OH(X2?) Interaction: Long-Range Multipolar Potentials of the Eighteen Spin-Orbit States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussery-Honvault, Béatrice; Dayou, Fabrice

    2009-09-01

    Eighteen spin-orbit states are generated from the open-shell open-shell Si(3P) + OH(X2?) interacting system. We present here the behavior of the associated long-range intermolecular potentials, following a multipolar expansion of the Coulombic interaction treated up to second order of the perturbation theory, giving rise to a series of terms varying in R-n. In the present work, we have considered the electrostatic dipole-quadrupole (n = 4) and quadrupole-quadrupole (n = 5) interactions, as well as the dipole-induced dipole-induced dispersion (n = 6) and dipole-dipole-induced induction (n = 6) contributions. The diatomic OH is kept fixed at its ground state-averaged distance, (r)v=0 = 1.865 bohr, so that the long-range potentials are two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) that depend on the intermolecular distance R and on the bending angle ? = ?SiGH, where G represents the mass center of OH. From the calculated properties of the monomers, such as the dipole and quadrupole moments and static and dynamic polarizabilities, we have determined and tabulated the long-range coefficients of the multipolar expansion of the potentials for each matrix elements. The isolated monomer spin-orbit splittings have been included in the final matrix, whose diagonalization gives rise to 18 adiabatic potentials. Then, the adiabatic states have been compared to potential energies given by supermolecular ab initio calculations resulting in a general good overall agreement.

  15. Comparative analysis of transverse intrafascicular multichannel, longitudinal intrafascicular and multipolar cuff electrodes for the selective stimulation of nerve fascicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Jordi; Boretius, Tim; Andreu, David; Azevedo-Coste, Christine; Stieglitz, Thomas; Navarro, Xavier

    2011-06-01

    The selection of a suitable nerve electrode for neuroprosthetic applications implies a trade-off between invasiveness and selectivity, wherein the ultimate goal is achieving the highest selectivity for a high number of nerve fascicles by the least invasiveness and potential damage to the nerve. The transverse intrafascicular multichannel electrode (TIME) is intended to be transversally inserted into the peripheral nerve and to be useful to selectively activate subsets of axons in different fascicles within the same nerve. We present a comparative study of TIME, LIFE and multipolar cuff electrodes for the selective stimulation of small nerves. The electrodes were implanted on the rat sciatic nerve, and the activation of gastrocnemius, plantar and tibialis anterior muscles was recorded by EMG signals. Thus, the study allowed us to ascertain the selectivity of stimulation at the interfascicular and also at the intrafascicular level. The results of this study indicate that (1) intrafascicular electrodes (LIFE and TIME) provide excitation circumscribed to the implanted fascicle, whereas extraneural electrodes (cuffs) predominantly excite nerve fascicles located superficially; (2) the minimum threshold for muscle activation with TIME and LIFE was significantly lower than with cuff electrodes; (3) TIME allowed us to selectively activate the three tested muscles when stimulating through different active sites of one device, both at inter- and intrafascicular levels, whereas selective activation using multipolar cuff (with a longitudinal tripolar stimulation configuration) was only possible for two muscles, at the interfascicular level, and LIFE did not activate selectively more than one muscle in the implanted nerve fascicle.

  16. Calculation of vapor-liquid equilibrium and PVTx properties of geological fluid system with SAFT-LJ EOS including multi-polar contribution. Part III. Extension to water-light hydrocarbons systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Lai, Shaocong; Dubessy, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The SAFT-LJ EOS improved by Sun and Dubessy (2010, 2012) is extended to water-light hydrocarbon systems. Light hydrocarbons (including CH4, C2H6, C3H8 and nC4H10) are modeled as chain molecules without multi-polar moments. The contributions of the shape of molecules and main intermolecular interactions existing in water-light hydrocarbon systems (including repulsive and attractive forces between Lennard-Jones segments, the hydrogen-bonding force and the multi-polar interaction between water molecules) to the residual Helmholtz energy were accounted for by this EOS. The adjustable parameters for the interactions of H2O-CH4, H2O-C2H6, H2O-C3H8, and H2O-nC4H10 pairs were evaluated from mutual solubility data of binary water-hydrocarbon systems at vapor-liquid equilibria. Comparison with the experimental data shows this SAFT-LJ EOS can represent well vapor-liquid (and liquid-liquid) equilibria of binary water-light hydrocarbon systems over a wide P-T range. The accuracy of this EOS for mutual solubilities of methane, ethane, propane and water is within the experimental uncertainty generally. Moreover, the model is able to accurately predict the vapor-liquid equilibria and PVTx properties of multi-component systems composed of water, light hydrocarbon as well as CO2. As we know, this EOS is the first one allowing quantitative calculation of the mutual solubilities of water and light hydrocarbons over a wide P-T range among SAFT-type EOSs. This work indicates that the molecular-based EOS combined with conventional mixing rule can well describe the thermodynamic behavior of highly non-ideal systems such as water-light hydrocarbons mixtures except in the critical region for which long range density fluctuations cannot be taken into account by this analytical model.

  17. Injection and Confinement of Plasma in a Stellarator with a Multipolar (? =2) Helical Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give the results of external injection of plasma into a closed magnetic trap and on the investigation of the effect of helical fields on the maintenance of the plasma. The ''L-I'' apparatus consists of a toroidal magnetic trap of stellarator type with a continuous ''double-thread'' multipolar (? = 2) helical field. The large diameter of the torus is 120 cm and the diameter of the vacuum chamber section 10 cm. The maximum value of the longitudinal field H is 104 Oe. The magnetic field of the stellarator is variable in time, to enable a study of adiabatic heating of the plasma in a trap of this type. The L-I stellarator and low-energy electron beams were used to investigate the structure of the magnetic surfaces. The method made it possible to determine the existence and form of closed magnetic surfaces over a wide range of the ratio of the helical and longitudinal fields. Resonance perturbations of the magnetic surfaces were detected that led to splitting of the latter and the formation of rosettes. Magnetic measurements confirmed the theoretical postulates regarding the magnetic surfaces and the effect of perturbations in resonance and non-resonance cases. Filling of the trap with plasma was effected by injecting plasma jets from spark guns into the transverse magnetic field. The total number of charged particles generated at each injection was ?5 x 1014. Injection could be made both .while the field was growing, with subsequent adiabatic compression of the plasma, and while the field was quasi-constant. Filling of the trap took place over a time of the order of tens of us. The inital density of the plasma was ?1011 cm-3, and the electron temperature ?15 eV. The density of the plasma was measured by the resonance ultra-high-frequency method and its distribution over the section was determined by twin Langmuir probes. The experiments showed the effective influence of a helical field on plasma. In the absence of a helical field, the density distribution was non-symmetrical relative to the centre of the chamber and the plasma drifted towards the external wall of the torus; its lifetime was the order of 100 to 200 ?s. When a helical field was applied then density distribution was symmetrical about the axis of the chamber and was determined by the form of the magnetic surfaces; the constant of density fall-off time was ?1 to 2 ms. The measured lifetime of the plasma when the apparatus is working as a stellarator cannot be explained by conventional diffusion. The spectrum of oscillations in the plasma electric fields was studied, and we discuss the various mechanisms capable of explaining the anomalously high plasma diffusion rates that we observed. (author)

  18. Crisis del lóbulo temporal registrada mediante magnetoencefalografía: caso clínico Temporal lobe seizure recorded by magnetoencephalography: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Amo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La localización del inicio de las crisis es un factor importante para la evaluación prequirúrgica de la epilepsia. En este trabajo se describe la localización del inicio de una crisis registrada mediante magnetoencefalografía (MEG en un niño de 12 años que presenta crisis parciales complejas farmacorresistentes. La RM muestra una lesión de 20mm de diámetro en el hipocampo izquierdo. EEG de superficie con ondas theta temporales izquierdas. Registro MEG interictal con punta-onda aislada posterior e inferior a la lesión de la RM. Registro MEG ictal con punta-onda (2 Hz. La localización de los dipolos indica el inicio de la crisis en la circunvolución temporal inferior en la misma localización que la actividad interictal MEG. Esta actividad ictal se propaga bilateralmente a áreas frontales. El registro corticográfico intraquirúrgico confirma los resultados de la localización interictal mediante MEG.Ictal onset localization is a important factor in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. This paper describes the localization of a seizure onset recorded by magnetoencephalography (MEG from a 12-year-old male patient who suffered from complex partial drug-resistant seizures. MRI revealed a 20mm diameter lesion located in left hippocampus. Scalp EEG showed left temporal theta waves. Interictal MEG registrations detected isolated spike-wave activity posterior and inferior to the MRI lesion. Ictal MEG showed continuous spike-wave activity (2 Hz. Dipole localization sited seizure onset in the inferior left temporal gyrus, the same localization of the interictal MEG activity. This ictal activity spreads bilaterally to frontal areas. Intrasurgical electrocorticography recording confirmed interictal MEG results.

  19. Auditory and cognitive deficits associated with acquired amusia after stroke: a magnetoencephalography and neuropsychological follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Soinila, Seppo; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Laine, Matti; Hietanen, Marja; Pihko, Elina

    2010-01-01

    Acquired amusia is a common disorder after damage to the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. However, its neurocognitive mechanisms, especially the relative contribution of perceptual and cognitive factors, are still unclear. We studied cognitive and auditory processing in the amusic brain by performing neuropsychological testing as well as magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements of frequency and duration discrimination using magnetic mismatch negativity (MMNm) recordings. Fifty-three patients with a left (n?=?24) or right (n?=?29) hemisphere MCA stroke (MRI verified) were investigated 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after the stroke. Amusia was evaluated using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). We found that amusia caused by right hemisphere damage (RHD), especially to temporal and frontal areas, was more severe than amusia caused by left hemisphere damage (LHD). Furthermore, the severity of amusia was found to correlate with weaker frequency MMNm responses only in amusic RHD patients. Additionally, within the RHD subgroup, the amusic patients who had damage to the auditory cortex (AC) showed worse recovery on the MBEA as well as weaker MMNm responses throughout the 6-month follow-up than the non-amusic patients or the amusic patients without AC damage. Furthermore, the amusic patients both with and without AC damage performed worse than the non-amusic patients on tests of working memory, attention, and cognitive flexibility. These findings suggest domain-general cognitive deficits to be the primary mechanism underlying amusia without AC damage whereas amusia with AC damage is associated with both auditory and cognitive deficits. PMID:21152040

  20. Application of high-quality SiO2 grown by multipolar ECR source to Si/SiGe MISFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, K. T.; Li, W. Q.; Li, S. H.; Pang, S. W.; Bhattacharya, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    A 5 nm-thick SiO2 gate was grown on an Si(p+)/Si(0.8)Ge(0.2) modulation-doped heterostructure at 26 C with an oxygen plasma generated by a multipolar electron cyclotron resonance source. The ultrathin oxide has breakdown field above 12 MV/cm and fixed charge density about 3 x 10 exp 10/sq cm. Leakage current as low as 1/micro-A was obtained with the gate biased at 4 V. The MISFET with 0.25 x 25 sq m gate shows maximum drain current of 41.6 mA/mm and peak transconductance of 21 mS/mm.

  1. Properties of highly electronegative plasmas produced in a multipolar magnetic-confined device with a transversal magnetic filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draghici, Mihai; Stamate, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    Highly electronegative plasmas were produced in Ar/SF6 gas mixtures in a dc discharge with multipolar magnetic confinement and transversal magnetic filter. Langmuir probe and mass spectrometry were used for plasma diagnostics. Plasma potential drift, the influence of small or large area biased electrodes on plasma parameters, the formation of the negative ion sheath and etching rates by positive and negative ions have been investigated for different experimental conditions. When the electron temperature was reduced below 1 eV the density ratio of negative ion to electron exceeded 100 even for very low amounts of SF6 gas. The plasma potential drift could be controlled by proper wall conditioning. A large electrode biased positively had no effect on plasma potential for density ratios of negative ions to electrons larger than 50. For similar electronegativities or higher a negative ion sheath could be formed by applying a positive bias of a few hundred volts.

  2. Imaging of biogenic and anthropogenic ocean surface films by the multifrequency/multipolarization SIR-C/X-SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Martin; Alpers, Werner; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Masuko, Harunobu; Kobayashi, Tatsuharu

    1998-08-01

    Results from the analyses of several spaceborne imaging radar-C/X-band synthetic aperture radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) images are presented, which were acquired during the two SIR-C/X-SAR missions in April and October 1994 by the L-, C-, and X-band multipolarization SAR aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The images showing natural (biogenic) surface slicks as well as man-made (anthropogenic) mineral oil spills were analyzed with the aim to study whether or not active radar techniques can be applied to discriminating between these two kinds of surface films. Controlled slick experiments were carried out during both shuttle missions in the German Bight of the North Sea as well as in the northern part of the Sea of Japan and the Kuroshio Stream region, where surface films of different viscoelastic properties were deployed within the swath of the shuttle radars. The results show that the damping behavior of the same substance is strongly dependent on wind speed. At high wind speed (8-12 m/s) the ratio of the radar backscatter from a slick-free and a slick-covered water surface (damping ratio) is smaller than at low to moderate wind speeds (4-7 m/s). At 12 m/s, only slight differences in the damping behavior of different substances were measured by SIR-C/X-SAR. Furthermore, several SAR scenes from various parts of the world's oceans showing radar signatures of biogenic as well as anthropogenic surface films at low to moderate wind speeds are analyzed. The damping behavior of these different kinds of oceanic surface films varies particularly at Lband where the biogenic surface films exhibit larger damping characteristics. Results of polarimetric studies from multipolarization SAR images showing various surface films are presented. It can be delineated from these results that Bragg scattering as well as specular reflection contribute to the backscattered radar signal at low incidence angles (up to 30°). It is concluded that at low to moderate wind speeds, multifrequency radar techniques seem to be capable of discriminating between the different surface films, whereas at high wind conditions a discrimination seems to be difficult.

  3. A novel strategy for targeted killing of tumor cells: Induction of multipolar acentrosomal mitotic spindles with a quinazolinone derivative mdivi-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingnan; Li, Jianfeng; Santana-Santos, Lucas; Shuda, Masahiro; Sobol, Robert W; Van Houten, Bennett; Qian, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Traditional antimitotic drugs for cancer chemotherapy often have undesired toxicities to healthy tissues, limiting their clinical application. Developing novel agents that specifically target tumor cell mitosis is needed to minimize the toxicity and improve the efficacy of this class of anticancer drugs. We discovered that mdivi-1 (mitochondrial division inhibitor-1), which was originally reported as an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, specifically disrupts M phase cell cycle progression only in human tumor cells, but not in non-transformed fibroblasts or epithelial cells. The antimitotic effect of mdivi-1 is Drp1 independent, as mdivi-1 induces M phase abnormalities in both Drp1 wild-type and Drp1 knockout SV40-immortalized/transformed MEF cells. We also identified that the tumor transformation process required for the antimitotic effect of mdivi-1 is downstream of SV40 large T and small t antigens, but not hTERT-mediated immortalization. Mdivi-1 induces multipolar mitotic spindles in tumor cells regardless of their centrosome numbers. Acentrosomal spindle poles, which do not contain the bona-fide centrosome components ?-tubulin and centrin-2, were found to contribute to the spindle multipolarity induced by mdivi-1. Gene expression profiling revealed that the genes involved in oocyte meiosis and assembly of acentrosomal microtubules are highly expressed in tumor cells. We further identified that tumor cells have enhanced activity in the nucleation and assembly of acentrosomal kinetochore-attaching microtubules. Mdivi-1 inhibited the integration of acentrosomal microtubule-organizing centers into centrosomal asters, resulting in the development of acentrosomal mitotic spindles preferentially in tumor cells. The formation of multipolar acentrosomal spindles leads to gross genome instability and Bax/Bak-dependent apoptosis. Taken together, our studies indicate that inducing multipolar spindles composing of acentrosomal poles in mitosis could achieve tumor-specific antimitotic effect, and mdivi-1 thus represents a novel class of compounds as acentrosomal spindle inducers (ASI). PMID:25458053

  4. Occurrence of multipolar mitoses and association with Aurora-A/-B kinases and p53 mutations in aneuploid esophageal carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münch Claudia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aurora kinases and loss of p53 function are implicated in the carcinogenesis of aneuploid esophageal cancers. Their association with occurrence of multipolar mitoses in the two main histotypes of aneuploid esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC and Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BAC remains unclear. Here, we investigated the occurrence of multipolar mitoses, Aurora-A/-B gene copy numbers and expression/activation as well as p53 alterations in aneuploid ESCC and BAC cancer cell lines. Results A control esophageal epithelial cell line (EPC-hTERT had normal Aurora-A and -B gene copy numbers and expression, was p53 wild type and displayed bipolar mitoses. In contrast, both ESCC (OE21, Kyse-410 and BAC (OE33, OE19 cell lines were aneuploid and displayed elevated gene copy numbers of Aurora-A (chromosome 20 polysomy: OE21, OE33, OE19; gene amplification: Kyse-410 and Aurora-B (chromosome 17 polysomy: OE21, Kyse-410. Aurora-B gene copy numbers were not elevated in OE19 and OE33 cells despite chromosome 17 polysomy. Aurora-A expression and activity (Aurora-A/phosphoT288 was not directly linked to gene copy numbers and was highest in Kyse-410 and OE33 cells. Aurora-B expression and activity (Aurora-B/phosphoT232 was higher in OE21 and Kyse-410 than in OE33 and OE19 cells. The mitotic index was highest in OE21, followed by OE33 > OE19 > Kyse-410 and EPC-hTERT cells. Multipolar mitoses occurred with high frequency in OE33 (13.8 ± 4.2%, followed by OE21 (7.7 ± 5.0% and Kyse-410 (6.3 ± 2.0% cells. Single multipolar mitoses occurred in OE19 (1.0 ± 1.0% cells. Distinct p53 mutations and p53 protein expression patterns were found in all esophageal cancer cell lines, but complete functional p53 inactivation occurred in OE21 and OE33 only. Conclusions High Aurora-A expression alone is not associated with overt multipolar mitoses in aneuploid ESCC and BAC cancer cells, as specifically shown here for OE21 and OE33 cells, respectively. Additional p53 loss of function mutations are necessary for this to occur, at least for invasive esophageal cancer cells. Further assessment of Aurora kinases and p53 interactions in cells or tissue specimens derived from non-invasive dysplasia (ESCC or intestinal metaplasia (BAC are necessary to disclose a potential causative role of Aurora kinases and p53 for development of aneuploid, invasive esophageal cancers.

  5. The Swath Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL): A Pathfinder for the LIDAR Surface Topography (LIST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, P.; Harding, D.; Abshire, J.; Seas, A.; Sun, X.; Shuman, C.; Scambos, T.

    2007-12-01

    The Swath Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL) is an airborne prototype in development to demonstrate laser altimetry measurement methods and components that enable efficient, high-resolution, swath mapping of topography and surface properties from space. This demonstration is advancing technologies that are applicable to the global elevation mapping objectives (5 m spatial resolution, 10 cm vertical precision) of the LIDAR Surface Topography (LIST) mission recommended by the National Research Council in the Earth Science Decadal Survey report to NASA and NOAA. The main focus of this instrument development, sponsored by the NASA Earth Science and Technology Office Instrument Incubator Program, is to demonstrate an approach for detailed monitoring of ice sheet, sea ice and glacier change from a spacecraft in low Earth orbit. Although it currently emphasizes polar-region cryosphere objectives, the SIMPL approach is also applicable in other applications including measuring changes in land topography, forest height and structure, and inland water and snow cover height and extent. SIMPL employs a short-pulse (1 nsec) fiber laser transmitters operating at 1064 nm and 532 nm, a beam splitter to divide the energy into four parallel beams displaced cross-track, single photon counting modules (SPCM) detectors, and high precision timing electronics to achieve laser transmit pulse provides the depolarization ratio of the surface returns at 532 and 1064 nm, in order to differentiate surface types based on their scattering properties. Results of laboratory testing of a single beam breadboard and the design and implementation of the four-beam flight instrument will be described.

  6. A Rússia na ordem mundial: com o Ocidente, com o Oriente ou um pólo autônomo em um mundo multipolar?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexander, Zhebit.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo persegue o objetivo de definir o lugar e o papel da Rússia nas relações internacionais contemporâneas nos últimos anos. Ao se debruçar sobre o dilema tradicional da política externa russa - Ocidentalismo versus Orientalismo - o autor analisa o cenário de multipolaridade defendido pela nova [...] concepção da política externa russa e o relaciona com a fase do pragmatismo e do multilateralismo que caracteriza a atuação internacional da Rússia de Putin, fazendo considerações, decorrentes do impacto dos ataques terroristas aos Estados Unidos em 11 de setembro de 2001 sobre a política externa russa. A atitude pragmática e a natureza multivetorial da política externa russa contribuem, segundo o autor, para o fortalecimento das posições internacionais da Rússia em comparação com a perda ou a natureza incerta das alianças e dos relacionamentos do período da transição pós-soviética. Abstract in english The article pursues the purpose to place Russia and its politics within the context of today's international relations. While discussing the traditional dilemma of the Russian foreign politics - Occidentalism versus Orientalism - the author analyses the scenario of multipolarity, backed up by the ne [...] w Russian foreign policy concept. Hence it is related to the pragmatism and the multilateralism of the international posture of Putin's Russia, the author makes several considerations, which follow from the impact of the September 11th, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States of America with regard to Russia's foreign policy. The pragmatic attitude and the multi-axis nature of the Russian foreign policy nowadays contribute, according to the author, to strengthen Russia's international background in comparison with the loss or the uncertain nature of alliances and relationships of the post-Soviet transition period.

  7. A Rússia na ordem mundial: com o Ocidente, com o Oriente ou um pólo autônomo em um mundo multipolar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zhebit

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo persegue o objetivo de definir o lugar e o papel da Rússia nas relações internacionais contemporâneas nos últimos anos. Ao se debruçar sobre o dilema tradicional da política externa russa - Ocidentalismo versus Orientalismo - o autor analisa o cenário de multipolaridade defendido pela nova concepção da política externa russa e o relaciona com a fase do pragmatismo e do multilateralismo que caracteriza a atuação internacional da Rússia de Putin, fazendo considerações, decorrentes do impacto dos ataques terroristas aos Estados Unidos em 11 de setembro de 2001 sobre a política externa russa. A atitude pragmática e a natureza multivetorial da política externa russa contribuem, segundo o autor, para o fortalecimento das posições internacionais da Rússia em comparação com a perda ou a natureza incerta das alianças e dos relacionamentos do período da transição pós-soviética.The article pursues the purpose to place Russia and its politics within the context of today's international relations. While discussing the traditional dilemma of the Russian foreign politics - Occidentalism versus Orientalism - the author analyses the scenario of multipolarity, backed up by the new Russian foreign policy concept. Hence it is related to the pragmatism and the multilateralism of the international posture of Putin's Russia, the author makes several considerations, which follow from the impact of the September 11th, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States of America with regard to Russia's foreign policy. The pragmatic attitude and the multi-axis nature of the Russian foreign policy nowadays contribute, according to the author, to strengthen Russia's international background in comparison with the loss or the uncertain nature of alliances and relationships of the post-Soviet transition period.

  8. Unusual pressure dependence of the multipolar interactions in CexLa1-xB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed the mean field calculation of the magnetization under pressure for the four sublattice model to understand the unusual pressure effect of CeB6. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental results and the canted ferromagnetic ground state is predicted to appear at higher pressure. We studied the electrical resistivity of Ce0.75La0.25B6 under pressure. We found that the phase III is rapidly suppressed by pressure and TIV-I increases with pressure. At P=0.6GPa, the direct phase transition from IV to II is found, which will be the clue to understanding the phase IV

  9. Radio phase characteristics of terrain from multipolarized synthetic aperture radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebker, H. A.; Held, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances in digital data acquisition and signal processing technology permit simultaneous measurement of the complex (amplitude and phase) radar backscatter from several polarization-diverse antennas. While absolute phase mesurements remain to be analyzed in detail. The differential phase of signals polarized parallel and perpendicular to the plane of incidence provide information on the scattering mechanisms that dominate the interaction of the radio waves with the terrain. Analysis of phase backscatter maps from a typical urban area yields a bimodal distribution with the two peaks separated by approximately 180 degrees, highly indicative of a dominant simple geometric one bounce-two bounce mechanism. Some maps of agricultural areas exhibit a similar distribution, however, other agricultural areas yield a distribution that, while still bimodal, consists of two peaks separated by about 110 deg. Still other agricultural areas exhibit a more complex distribution. All of the observed phase shifts appear to be independent of incidence angle from at least 20 deg to 55 deg, therefore the 110 degree shifts are inconsistent with both the geometric model used for the urban area and with common dielectric slab models.

  10. Experimental investigation of microwave interaction with magnetoplasma in miniature multipolar configuration using impedance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Indranuj, E-mail: indranuj@aees.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Toyoda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    A miniature microwave plasma source employing both radial and axial magnetic fields for plasma confinement has been developed for micro-propulsion applications. Plasma is initiated by launching microwaves via a short monopole antenna to circumvent geometrical cutoff limitations. The amplitude and phase of the forward and reflected microwave power is measured to obtain the complex reflection coefficient from which the equivalent impedance of the plasma source is determined. Effect of critical plasma density condition is reflected in the measurements and provides insight into the working of the miniature plasma source. A basic impedance calculation model is developed to help in understanding the experimental observations. From experiment and theory, it is seen that the equivalent impedance magnitude is controlled by the coaxial discharge boundary conditions, and the phase is influenced primarily by the plasma immersed antenna impedance.

  11. Experimental investigation of microwave interaction with magnetoplasma in miniature multipolar configuration using impedance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A miniature microwave plasma source employing both radial and axial magnetic fields for plasma confinement has been developed for micro-propulsion applications. Plasma is initiated by launching microwaves via a short monopole antenna to circumvent geometrical cutoff limitations. The amplitude and phase of the forward and reflected microwave power is measured to obtain the complex reflection coefficient from which the equivalent impedance of the plasma source is determined. Effect of critical plasma density condition is reflected in the measurements and provides insight into the working of the miniature plasma source. A basic impedance calculation model is developed to help in understanding the experimental observations. From experiment and theory, it is seen that the equivalent impedance magnitude is controlled by the coaxial discharge boundary conditions, and the phase is influenced primarily by the plasma immersed antenna impedance

  12. Magnetar Giant Flares in Multipolar Magnetic Fields --- I. Fully and Partially Open Eruptions of Flux Ropes

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    We propose a catastrophic eruption model for magnetar's enormous energy release during giant flares, in which a toroidal and helically twisted flux rope is embedded within a force-free magnetosphere. The flux rope stays in stable equilibrium states initially and evolves quasi-statically. Upon the loss of equilibrium point is reached, the flux rope cannot sustain the stable equilibrium states and erupts catastrophically. During the process, the magnetic energy stored in the magnetosphere is rapidly released as the result of destabilization of global magnetic topology. The magnetospheric energy that could be accumulated is of vital importance for the outbursts of magnetars. We carefully establish the fully open fields and partially open fields for various boundary conditions at the magnetar surface and study the relevant energy thresholds. By investigating the magnetic energy accumulated at the critical catastrophic point, we find that it is possible to drive fully open eruptions for dipole dominated background...

  13. Establishment of M1 multipolarity of a 6.5 (micro)2n resonance in 172Yb at E(gamma) = 3.3 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, A; Voinov, A; Algin, E; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; Guttormsen, M; Nelson, R O; Rekstad, J; Siem, S

    2004-02-04

    Two-step-cascade spectra in {sup 172}Yb have been measured after thermal neutron capture. they are compared to calculations based on experimental values of the level density and radiative strength function (RSF) obtained from the {sup 173}Yb(3{sup 3}He,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 172}Yb reaction. The multipolarity of a 6.5(15) {mu}{sub N}{sup 2} resonance at E{sub {gamma}} = 3.3(1) MeV in the RSF is determined to be M1 by this comparison.

  14. ZnO thin films with c-axis orientation prepared on the room temperature substrate by the ECR multipolar plasma sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films with c-axis orientation have been prepared on the room temperature substrates by a reactive sputtering deposition utilizing electron-cyclotron-resonance multipolar (ECRM) plasma apparatus built with Nd-Fe-B magnets and 2.45 GHz, TE10 mode microwave. The plasma distributions in the axial direction were found to be sensitive to the magnetic field configurations in the plasma cavity. The XRD, TEM, SEM analyses indicated that the deposited ZnO films were of nanometre size, smoothness and dense with high c-axis orientation

  15. The Fate of Sub-micron Circumplanetary Dust Grains II: Multipolar Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We study the radial and vertical stability of dust grains launched with all charge-to-mass ratios at arbitrary distances from rotating planets with complex magnetic fields. We show that the aligned dipole magnetic field model analyzed by Jontof-Hutter and Hamilton (2012) is an excellent approximation in most cases, but that fundamentally new physics arises with the inclusion of non-axisymmetric magnetic field terms. In particular, large numbers of distant negatively-charged dust grains, stable in a magnetic dipole, can be driven to escape by a more complex field. We trace the origin of the instability to overlapping Lorentz resonances which are extremely powerful when the gravitational and electromagnetic forces on a dust grain are comparable. These resonances enable a dust grain to tap the spin energy of the planet to power its escape. We also explore the relatively minor influence of different launch speeds and the far more important effects of variable grain charge. Only the latter are capable of significa...

  16. Dynamic causal modelling of distributed electromagnetic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Daunizeau, J.; Kiebel, S. J.; Friston, K. J.

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we describe a variant of dynamic causal modelling for evoked responses as measured with electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography (EEG and MEG). We depart from equivalent current dipole formulations of DCM, and extend it to provide spatiotemporal source estimates that are spatially distributed. The spatial model is based upon neural-field equations that model neuronal activity on the cortical manifold. We approximate this description of electrocortical activity with a set...

  17. Brain activity is related to individual differences in the number of items stored in auditory short-term memory for pitch: evidence from magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimault, Stephan; Nolden, Sophie; Lefebvre, Christine; Vachon, François; Hyde, Krista; Peretz, Isabelle; Zatorre, Robert; Robitaille, Nicolas; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine brain activity related to the maintenance of non-verbal pitch information in auditory short-term memory (ASTM). We focused on brain activity that increased with the number of items effectively held in memory by the participants during the retention interval of an auditory memory task. We used very simple acoustic materials (i.e., pure tones that varied in pitch) that minimized activation from non-ASTM related systems. MEG revealed neural activity in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices that increased with a greater number of items effectively held in memory by the participants during the maintenance of pitch representations in ASTM. The present results reinforce the functional role of frontal and temporal cortices in the retention of pitch information in ASTM. This is the first MEG study to provide both fine spatial localization and temporal resolution on the neural mechanisms of non-verbal ASTM for pitch in relation to individual differences in the capacity of ASTM. This research contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms mediating the representation and maintenance of basic non-verbal auditory features in the human brain. PMID:24642285

  18. A theoretical analysis of HLA-DRbeta1*0301-CLIP complex using the first three multipolar moments of the electrostatic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbín, Alejandro; Cárdenas, Constanza; Villaveces, José Luis; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2006-09-01

    Interactions between the HLA-DRbeta1*0301 molecule and several occupying peptides obtained from computational substitutions made to the CLIP peptide are studied. The exploration was carried out using a vector composed of the first three terms of the multipolar expansion of the electrostatic field, namely, charge (q), dipole (d) and quadrupole (C). Comparisons between pocket-peptide interactions established that the binding pockets for this HLA molecule are ordered in terms of their importance for binding peptides, as follows: P1 > P4 > P6 > P7 > P9. A set of electrostatically distinct amino acids that determine interaction stability and specificity were identified for each pocket. The beta74R residue was especially identified as being the key amino acid mediating the occupying peptide binding for pocket 4; this residue has been recently associated with Graves' disease. PMID:16872734

  19. Parametrized post-Newtonian theory of reference frames, multipolar expansions and equations of motion in the N-body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-Newtonian relativistic theory of astronomical reference frames based on Einstein's general theory of relativity was adopted by General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union in 2000. This theory is extended in the present paper by taking into account all relativistic effects caused by the presumable existence of a scalar field and parametrized by two parameters, ? and ?, of the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. We use a general class of the scalar-tensor (Brans-Dicke type) theories of gravitation to work out PPN concepts of global and local reference frames for an astronomical N-body system. The global reference frame is a standard PPN coordinate system. A local reference frame is constructed in the vicinity of a weakly self-gravitating body (a sub-system of the bodies) that is a member of the astronomical N-body system. Such local inertial frame is required for unambiguous derivation of the equations of motion of the body in the field of other members of the N-body system and for construction of adequate algorithms for data analysis of various gravitational experiments conducted in ground-based laboratories and/or on board of spacecrafts in the solar system.We assume that the bodies comprising the N-body system have weak gravitational field and move slowly. At the same time we do not impose any specific limitations on the distribution of density, velocity and the equation of state of the body's matter. Scalar-tensor equations of the gravitr. Scalar-tensor equations of the gravitational field are solved by making use of the post-Newtonian approximations so that the metric tensor and the scalar field are obtained as functions of the global and local coordinates. A correspondence between the local and global coordinate frames is found by making use of asymptotic expansion matching technique. This technique allows us to find a class of the post-Newtonian coordinate transformations between the frames as well as equations of translational motion of the origin of the local frame along with the law of relativistic precession of its spatial axes. These transformations depend on the PPN parameters ? and ?, generalize general relativistic transformations of the IAU 2000 resolutions, and should be used in the data processing of the solar system gravitational experiments aimed to detect the presence of the scalar field. These PPN transformations are also applicable in the precise time-keeping metrology, celestial mechanics, astrometry, geodesy and navigation.We consider a multipolar post-Newtonian expansion of the gravitational and scalar fields and construct a set of internal and external gravitational multipoles depending on the parameters ? and ?. These PPN multipoles generalize the Thorne-Blanchet-Damour multipoles defined in harmonic coordinates of general theory of relativity. The PPN multipoles of the scalar-tensor theory of gravity are split in three classes-active, conformal, and scalar multipoles. Only two of them are algebraically independent and we chose to work with the conformal and active multipoles. We derive the laws of conservations of the multipole moments and show that they must be formulated in terms of the conformal multipoles. We focus then on the law of conservation of body's linear momentum which is defined as a time derivative of the conformal dipole moment of the body in the local coordinates. We prove that the local force violating the law of conservation of the body's linear momentum depends exclusively on the active multipole moments of the body along with a few other terms which depend on the internal structure of the body and are responsible for the violation of the strong principle of equivalence (the Nordtvedt effect).The PPN translational equations of motion of extended bodies in the global coordinate frame and with all gravitational multipoles taken into account are derived from the law of conservation of the body's linear momentum supplemented by the law of motion of the origin of the local frame derived from the matching procedure. We use these equations to analyz

  20. Binary black hole coalescence in the extreme-mass-ratio limit: Testing and improving the effective-one-body multipolar waveform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the properties of the effective-one-body (EOB) multipolar gravitational waveform emitted by nonspinning black-hole binaries of masses ? and M in the extreme-mass-ratio limit ?/M=?-4 rad and maintain then a remarkably accurate phase coherence during the long inspiral (?33 orbits), accumulating only about -2x10-3 rad until the last stable orbit, i.e. ??/??-5.95x10-6. We obtain such accuracy without calibrating the analytically resummed EOB waveform to numerical data, which indicates the aptitude of the EOB waveform for studies concerning the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. We then improve the behavior of the EOB waveform around merger by introducing and tuning next-to-quasicircular corrections in both the gravitational wave amplitude and phase. For each multipole we tune only fr each multipole we tune only four next-to-quasicircular parameters by requiring compatibility between EOB and Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli waveforms at the light ring. The resulting phase difference around the merger time is as small as ±0.015 rad, with a fractional amplitude agreement of 2.5%. This suggest that next-to-quasicircular corrections to the phase can be a useful ingredient in comparisons between EOB and numerical-relativity waveforms.

  1. Modeling Choices in Nuclear Warfighting: Two Classroom Simulations on Escalation and Retaliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Two classroom simulations--"Superpower Confrontation" and "Multipolar Asian Simulation"--are used to teach and test various aspects of the Borden versus Brodie debate on the Schelling versus Lanchester approach to nuclear conflict modeling and resolution. The author applies a Schelling test to segregate high from low empathic students, and assigns…

  2. Using Structural Equation Modeling to Assess Functional Connectivity in the Brain: Power and Sample Size Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Sideridis, Georgios; Simos, Panagiotis; Papanicolaou, Andrew; Fletcher, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The present study assessed the impact of sample size on the power and fit of structural equation modeling applied to functional brain connectivity hypotheses. The data consisted of time-constrained minimum norm estimates of regional brain activity during performance of a reading task obtained with magnetoencephalography. Power analysis was first conducted for an autoregressive model with 5 latent variables (brain regions), each defined by 3 indicators (successive activity time bins). A series...

  3. Inspiral-merger-ringdown multipolar waveforms of nonspinning black-hole binaries using the effective-one-body formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Yi; Buonanno, Alessandra; Boyle, Michael; Buchman, Luisa T.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Scheel, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    We calibrate an effective-one-body (EOB) model to numerical-relativity simulations of mass ratios 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, by maximizing phase and amplitude agreement of the leading (2,2) mode and of the subleading modes (2,1), (3,3), (4,4) and (5,5). Aligning the calibrated EOB waveforms and the numerical waveforms at low frequency, the phase difference of the (2,2) mode between model and numerical simulation remains below 0.1 rad throughout the evolution for all mass ratios cons...

  4. Inspiral-merger-ringdown multipolar waveforms of nonspinning black-hole binaries using the effective-one-body formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Yi; Boyle, Michael; Buchman, Luisa T; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    We calibrate an effective-one-body (EOB) model to numerical-relativity simulations of mass ratios 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, by maximizing phase and amplitude agreement of the leading (2,2) mode and of the subleading modes (2,1), (3,3), (4,4) and (5,5). Aligning the calibrated EOB waveforms and the numerical waveforms at low frequency, the phase difference of the (2,2) mode between model and numerical simulation remains below 0.1 rad throughout the evolution for all mass ratios considered. The fractional amplitude difference at peak amplitude of the (2,2) mode is 2% and grows to 12% during the ringdown. Using the Advanced LIGO noise curve we study the effectualness and measurement accuracy of the EOB model, and stress the relevance of modeling the higher-order modes for parameter estimation. We find that the effectualness, measured by the mismatch, between the EOB and numerical-relativity polarizations which include only the (2,2) mode is smaller than 0.2% for binaries with total mass 20-200 Msun and mass ratios 1, 2...

  5. Inspiral-merger-ringdown multipolar waveforms of nonspinning black-hole binaries using the effective-one-body formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calibrate an effective-one-body (EOB) model to numerical-relativity simulations of mass ratios 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, by maximizing phase and amplitude agreement of the leading (2, 2) mode and of the subleading modes (2, 1), (3, 3), (4, 4) and (5, 5). Aligning the calibrated EOB waveforms and the numerical waveforms at low frequency, the phase difference of the (2, 2) mode between model and numerical simulation remains below ?0.1 rad throughout the evolution for all mass ratios considered. The fractional amplitude difference at peak amplitude of the (2, 2) mode is 2% and grows to 12% during the ringdown. Using the Advanced LIGO noise curve we study the effectualness and measurement accuracy of the EOB model, and stress the relevance of modeling the higher-order modes for parameter estimation. We find that the effectualness, measured by the mismatch between the EOB and numerical-relativity polarizations which include only the (2, 2) mode, is smaller than 0.2% for binaries with total mass 20-200M· and mass ratios 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. When numerical-relativity polarizations contain the strongest seven modes, and stellar-mass black holes with masses less than 50M· are considered, the mismatch for mass ratio 6 (1) can be as high as 7% (0.2%) when only the EOB (2, 2) mode is included, and an upper bound of the mismatch is 0.5% (0.07%) when all the four subleading EOB modes calibrated in this paper are taken into account. For binaries with intermediateccount. For binaries with intermediate-mass black holes with masses greater than 50M· the mismatches are larger. We also determine for which signal-to-noise ratios the EOB model developed here can be used to measure binary parameters with systematic biases smaller than statistical errors due to detector noise.

  6. An experimental evaluation of a 12.5-cm diameter multipolar microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Peng Un

    Using the 17.78 cm dia. resonant cavity, a new baseplate has been built to accommodate a 12.5 cm dia. plasma discharge at the bottom of the cavity. This plasma discharge, called MPDR TM-13, was comprehensively investigated by several experimental techniques versus a number of selected input variables. The experimental techniques include the micro-coax electric field probes, a gridded energy analyzer, single and double Langmuir probes. The input variables consisted of the variations of reactor design (side feed, end feed, and four different strong magnet configurations), input microwave power, chamber pressure, and the microwave tuning positions. Experiments were carried out mostly in argon gas. This plasma source behavior and performance were evaluated by the measurements of the magnitude and spatial variation of the electric field in the applicator, and the measurements of the plasma density, electron temperature, plasma potential and the ion energy in the downstream discharge region. Microwave coupling efficiency and ion production cost are two main measures of the source performance. Experimental results demonstrate that both the side feed excited with TE211 mode and end feed excited with TM011 mode operating with the 8P/8M magnet configuration provide the best overall performance. Both show similar, excellent coupling efficiencies (~98%) and ion production costs. High plasma density (>1011/cm3), low ion impinging energy (12 to 25 eV) on a substrate were readily achieved in both reactors. However, it is easier to maintain a discharge at very low pressure regimes (<1 mTorr) with the side feed applicator while the end feed applicator produces a more uniform plasma. Based on the electric field measurements, a microwave equivalent circuit for the end feed applicator was developed. The high density behavior of the MPDR TM-3 was also experimentally investigated by examining discharge hysteresis phenomena versus the tuning, pressure, and input power. Control strategies using plasma internal variables for reproducible plasma process was demonstrated in an argon soft sputter oxide application. Finally, a comparison of the experimental performance for four different ECR reactors with the performance predicted by global discharge models indicates that these global models are useful in understanding the plasma source behavior and in plasma reactor design.

  7. Imagens multipolarizadas do sensor Palsar/Alos na discriminação das fases fenológicas da cana?de?açúcar Multipolarized Palsar/Alos images to discriminate sugarcane phenological phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cristina Araujo Picoli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial das imagens multipolarizadas do sensor?radar Palsar/Alos em diferenciar as fases fenológicas da cana?de?açúcar. Valores digitais de quatro imagens do sensor, dos meses de fevereiro, maio, agosto e outubro de 2008, com polarizações HH (emissão e recebimento de onda na polarização horizontal e HV (emissão de onda na polarização horizontal e recebimento na vertical, foram convertidos para coeficientes de retroespalhamento (?°, para a análise de dados de cana?de?açúcar, cultivadas em talhões na região nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. Foram selecionadas três variedades, em diferentes estágios fenológicos: RB85?5156, seis talhões; RB86?7515, dez talhões; e RB92?5345, dez talhões. As diferenças entre as fases fenológicas foram avaliadas para cada uma das variedades e, também, entre as variedades. A utilização simultânea ou não dos dados do sensor Palsar/Alos, obtidos em duas polarizações, foi capaz de discriminar as diferentes fases de crescimento da cana?de?açúcar, com exceção da fase de crescimento dos colmos e a fase de maturação, em que não foi observada diferença significativa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of multipolarized Palsar/Alos satellite images to discriminate phenological phases of sugarcane. Digital values from four digital images of February, May, August, and October 2008, with HH (sending and receiving wave in horizontal polarization and HV polarizations (sending wave in horizontal polarization and receiving in vertical polarization, were converted to backscattering coefficients (?° for data analysis of sugarcane cultivated in the northeastern of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Three varieties were selected at different phenological stages: RB85?5156, six stands; RB86?7515, ten stands; and RB92?5345, ten stands. The differences between the phenological phases were analyzed for each variety, and also between varieties. The single or dual?poralized Palsar/Alos data, obtained in two polarizations, were able of discriminating the different phases of sugarcane growth, except for the grand growth period and maturity phase, in which no significant difference was observed.

  8. Imagens multipolarizadas do sensor Palsar/Alos na discriminação das fases fenológicas da cana?de?açúcar / Multipolarized Palsar/Alos images to discriminate sugarcane phenological phases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michelle Cristina Araujo, Picoli; Rubens Augusto, Lamparelli; Edson Eyji, Sano; Jansle Vieira, Rocha.

    1307-13-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial das imagens multipolarizadas do sensor?radar Palsar/Alos em diferenciar as fases fenológicas da cana?de?açúcar. Valores digitais de quatro imagens do sensor, dos meses de fevereiro, maio, agosto e outubro de 2008, com polarizações HH (emissão e receb [...] imento de onda na polarização horizontal) e HV (emissão de onda na polarização horizontal e recebimento na vertical), foram convertidos para coeficientes de retroespalhamento (?°), para a análise de dados de cana?de?açúcar, cultivadas em talhões na região nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. Foram selecionadas três variedades, em diferentes estágios fenológicos: RB85?5156, seis talhões; RB86?7515, dez talhões; e RB92?5345, dez talhões. As diferenças entre as fases fenológicas foram avaliadas para cada uma das variedades e, também, entre as variedades. A utilização simultânea ou não dos dados do sensor Palsar/Alos, obtidos em duas polarizações, foi capaz de discriminar as diferentes fases de crescimento da cana?de?açúcar, com exceção da fase de crescimento dos colmos e a fase de maturação, em que não foi observada diferença significativa. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of multipolarized Palsar/Alos satellite images to discriminate phenological phases of sugarcane. Digital values from four digital images of February, May, August, and October 2008, with HH (sending and receiving wave in horizontal polarization [...] ) and HV polarizations (sending wave in horizontal polarization and receiving in vertical polarization), were converted to backscattering coefficients (?°) for data analysis of sugarcane cultivated in the northeastern of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Three varieties were selected at different phenological stages: RB85?5156, six stands; RB86?7515, ten stands; and RB92?5345, ten stands. The differences between the phenological phases were analyzed for each variety, and also between varieties. The single or dual?poralized Palsar/Alos data, obtained in two polarizations, were able of discriminating the different phases of sugarcane growth, except for the grand growth period and maturity phase, in which no significant difference was observed.

  9. Phase Transition in Size- and Charge-Asymmetric Model Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Khomkin, A. L.; Mulenko, I. A.

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical model of vapor-liquid phase transition in a system of charged hard cores of different diameters is suggested (with the parameters of the transition obtained in a number of studies using the Monte Carlo method). The model is based on the assumption that, in the neighborhood of the critical point, the system of charged cores is a mixture of multipolarly interacting neutral complexes.

  10. Clinical applications of magnetoencephalography in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Amit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoencehalography (MEG is being used with increased frequency in the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy. One of the major advantages of this technique over the EEG is the lack of distortion of MEG signals by the skull and intervening soft tissue. In addition, the MEG preferentially records activity from tangential sources thus recording activity predominantly from sulci, which is not contaminated by activity from apical gyral (radial sources. While the MEG is probably more sensitive than the EEG in detecting inter-ictal spikes, especially in the some locations such as the superficial frontal cortex and the lateral temporal neocortex, both techniques are usually complementary to each other. The diagnostic accuracy of MEG source localization is usually better as compared to scalp EEG localization. Functional localization of eloquent cortex is another major application of the MEG. The combination of high spatial and temporal resolution of this technique makes it an extremely helpful tool for accurate localization of visual, somatosensory and auditory cortices as well as complex cognitive functions like language. Potential future applications include lateralization of memory function.

  11. Scaling laws, force balances and dynamo generation mechanisms in numerical dynamo models: influence of boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaraj, G.; Stanley, S.; Qu, A. C.

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the influence of different thermal and velocity boundary conditions on numerical geodynamo models. We concentrate on the implications for magnetic field morphology, heat transport scaling laws, force balances and generation mechanisms. The field morphology most strongly depends on the local Rossby number, but there is some variation in the dipolarity of the field with boundary condition. Scaling laws also depend on the boundary conditions, but a diffusivity-free scaling is a good first order approximation for all our dipolar models. Our multipolar models, however, obey different scaling laws from dipolar models implying a different force balance in these models. We find that our dipolar models have a stronger degree of Lorentz-Coriolis balance compared to our multipolar models which have a stronger degree of Lorentz-inertial balance.The models with a stronger Lorentz-Coriolis dominance can be generated by either ??, ?2? or ?2 mechanisms whereas the models with a stronger Lorentz-inertial balance are all ?2 dynamos. These results imply that some caution is necessary when extrapolating results from dynamo models to Earth-like parameters since the choice of boundary conditions can have important effects.

  12. Some New Applications of Weyl's Multipolarization Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Towber, J

    2001-01-01

    In Weyl's "The Classical Groups", he introduces some some remarkable differential operators, which he calls "quasi-compositions" of the polarization operators Dij. In the present paper, an equivalent combinatorial formulation is obtained for these operators, and is then used to obtain explicit formulas for the differentials in certain complexes (constucted by Zelevinsky, and further studied by Verma, Akin et al.) which furnish higher syzygies for the Pluecker equations, and also for the defining relations for Weyl modules.

  13. Modelling Sporangiospore-yeast transformation of Dimorphomyces strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoifo, C O

    1996-01-01

    Two types of buffered media, strictly defined-Ammonium sulphate-basal salts and complex Peptone-basal salts, were used for the cultivation of Dimorphomyces pleomorphis, one of two dimorphic fungi isolated from fermenting juice of soursop fruit, Annona muricata L. The growth count was taken every twenty-four hours. Transient morphologies were observed to change from sporangiospores through enlarged globose cells, to granular particles and eventually, polar budding yeast cells in the strictly defined medium at 15 degrees, 20 degrees, or 37 degrees C, but the complex medium casually terminally induced polar budding yeast cells and multipolar budding yeast like cells in between the growth phases, at 15 degrees and 20 degrees C, while mainly multipolar budding yeastlike morphology was observed at elevated temperature. There was obvious influence of nutritional factor or morphological expression (p < 0.01). After analysis of variance, the growth data could not fit into predictive quadratic polynomial model because the organism's response curves were incongruent with basic assumptions of the model. Furthermore, a stepwise regression analysis gave very low coefficients of determination, r2, for the interactive combinations. They were therefore, considered unfit for the data. Construction of the pII-profiles led to inference being drawn from the chemiosmotic theory, polyelectrolyte theory to account for the behaviour in the buffered multiionic media. It was also thought that inherent cellular mitotic division and glycolytic activity led to a prelogarithmic growth response. PMID:9676041

  14. Computer Simulations of ER Fluids in did Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K. W.

    Theoretical investigations on electrorheological (ER) fluids are usually concentrated on monodisperse systems. Real ER fluids must be polydisperse in nature, i.e., the suspended particles can have various sizes and/or different dielectric constants. An initial approach for these studies would be the point-dipole (PD) approximation, which is known to err considerably when the particles approach and finally touch due to multipolar interactions. A dipole-induced-dipole (DID) model is shown to be both more accurate than the PD model and easy to use. The DID model is applied to simulate the athermal aggregation of particles in ER fluids and the aggregation time is found to deviate significantly as compared to the PD model. Moreover, the inclusion of DID force further complicates the results because the symmetry between positive and negative contrasts will be broken by the presence of dipole-induced interactions.

  15. Probabilistic forward model for electroencephalography source analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plis, Sergey M [MS-D454, Applied Modern Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); George, John S [MS-D454, Applied Modern Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Jun, Sung C [MS-D454, Applied Modern Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ranken, Doug M [MS-D454, Applied Modern Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Volegov, Petr L [MS-D454, Applied Modern Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Schmidt, David M [MS-D454, Applied Modern Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2007-09-07

    Source localization by electroencephalography (EEG) requires an accurate model of head geometry and tissue conductivity. The estimation of source time courses from EEG or from EEG in conjunction with magnetoencephalography (MEG) requires a forward model consistent with true activity for the best outcome. Although MRI provides an excellent description of soft tissue anatomy, a high resolution model of the skull (the dominant resistive component of the head) requires CT, which is not justified for routine physiological studies. Although a number of techniques have been employed to estimate tissue conductivity, no present techniques provide the noninvasive 3D tomographic mapping of conductivity that would be desirable. We introduce a formalism for probabilistic forward modeling that allows the propagation of uncertainties in model parameters into possible errors in source localization. We consider uncertainties in the conductivity profile of the skull, but the approach is general and can be extended to other kinds of uncertainties in the forward model. We and others have previously suggested the possibility of extracting conductivity of the skull from measured electroencephalography data by simultaneously optimizing over dipole parameters and the conductivity values required by the forward model. Using Cramer-Rao bounds, we demonstrate that this approach does not improve localization results nor does it produce reliable conductivity estimates. We conclude that the conductivity of the skull has to be either accurately measured by an independent technique, or that the uncertainties in the conductivity values should be reflected in uncertainty in the source location estimates.

  16. Probabilistic forward model for electroencephalography source analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Source localization by electroencephalography (EEG) requires an accurate model of head geometry and tissue conductivity. The estimation of source time courses from EEG or from EEG in conjunction with magnetoencephalography (MEG) requires a forward model consistent with true activity for the best outcome. Although MRI provides an excellent description of soft tissue anatomy, a high resolution model of the skull (the dominant resistive component of the head) requires CT, which is not justified for routine physiological studies. Although a number of techniques have been employed to estimate tissue conductivity, no present techniques provide the noninvasive 3D tomographic mapping of conductivity that would be desirable. We introduce a formalism for probabilistic forward modeling that allows the propagation of uncertainties in model parameters into possible errors in source localization. We consider uncertainties in the conductivity profile of the skull, but the approach is general and can be extended to other kinds of uncertainties in the forward model. We and others have previously suggested the possibility of extracting conductivity of the skull from measured electroencephalography data by simultaneously optimizing over dipole parameters and the conductivity values required by the forward model. Using Cramer-Rao bounds, we demonstrate that this approach does not improve localization results nor does it produce reliable conductivity estimates. We conclude that the conducity estimates. We conclude that the conductivity of the skull has to be either accurately measured by an independent technique, or that the uncertainties in the conductivity values should be reflected in uncertainty in the source location estimates

  17. Modeling versus accuracy in EEG and MEG data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, J.C.; Huang, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Leahy, R.M. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Spencer, M.E. [Signal Processing Solutions, Redondo Beach, CA (United States)

    1997-07-30

    The widespread availability of high-resolution anatomical information has placed a greater emphasis on accurate electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography (collectively, E/MEG) modeling. A more accurate representation of the cortex, inner skull surface, outer skull surface, and scalp should lead to a more accurate forward model and hence improve inverse modeling efforts. The authors examine a few topics in this paper that highlight some of the problems of forward modeling, then discuss the impacts these results have on the inverse problem. The authors begin by assuming a perfect head model, that of the sphere, then show the lower bounds on localization accuracy of dipoles within this perfect forward model. For more realistic anatomy, the boundary element method (BEM) is a common numerical technique for solving the boundary integral equations. For a three-layer BEM, the computational requirements can be too intensive for many inverse techniques, so they examine a few simplifications. They quantify errors in generating this forward model by defining a regularized percentage error metric. The authors then apply this metric to a single layer boundary element solution, a multiple sphere approach, and the common single sphere model. They conclude with an MEG localization demonstration on a novel experimental human phantom, using both BEM and multiple spheres.

  18. Magnetoencephalography evidence for different brain subregions serving two musical cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Rie; Yokosawa, Koichi; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2012-12-01

    Individuals who have been exposed to two different musical cultures (bimusicals) can be differentiated from those exposed to only one musical culture (monomusicals). Just as bilingual speakers handle the distinct language-syntactic rules of each of two languages, bimusical listeners handle two distinct musical-syntactic rules (e.g., tonal schemas) in each musical culture. This study sought to determine specific brain activities that contribute to differentiating two culture-specific tonal structures. We recorded magnetoencephalogram (MEG) responses of bimusical Japanese nonmusicians and amateur musicians as they monitored unfamiliar Western melodies and unfamiliar, but traditional, Japanese melodies, both of which contained tonal deviants (out-of-key tones). Previous studies with Western monomusicals have shown that tonal deviants elicit an early right anterior negativity (mERAN) originating in the inferior frontal cortex. In the present study, tonal deviants in both Western and Japanese melodies elicited mERANs with characteristics fitted by dipoles around the inferior frontal gyrus in the right hemisphere and the premotor cortex in the left hemisphere. Comparisons of the nature of mERAN activity to Western and Japanese melodies showed differences in the dipoles' locations but not in their peak latency or dipole strength. These results suggest that the differentiation between a tonal structure of one culture and that of another culture correlates with localization differences in brain subregions around the inferior frontal cortex and the premotor cortex. PMID:23063935

  19. Magnetoencephalography of frontotemporal dementia: spatiotemporally localized changes during semantic decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Laura E.; Nestor, Peter J.; Hodges, John R.; Rowe, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder with dysfunction and atrophy of the frontal lobes leading to changes in personality, behaviour, empathy, social conduct and insight, with relative preservation of language and memory. As novel treatments begin to emerge, biomarkers of frontotemporal dementia will become increasingly important, including functionally relevant neuroimaging indices of the neurophysiological basis of cognition. We used magnetoencephalogra...

  20. Noise cancellation in magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography with isolated reference sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus Jr., Robert H.; Espy, Michelle A.; Matlachov, Andrei; Volegov, Petr

    2010-06-01

    An apparatus measures electromagnetic signals from a weak signal source. A plurality of primary sensors is placed in functional proximity to the weak signal source with an electromagnetic field isolation surface arranged adjacent the primary sensors and between the weak signal source and sources of ambient noise. A plurality of reference sensors is placed adjacent the electromagnetic field isolation surface and arranged between the electromagnetic isolation surface and sources of ambient noise.

  1. Electro-magneto-encephalography for the three-shell model: numerical implementation via splines for distributed current in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic inverse problems for the functional imaging techniques of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) consist in estimating the neuronal current in the brain from the measurement of the electric potential on the scalp and of the magnetic field outside the head. Here we present a rigorous derivation of the relevant formulae for a three-shell spherical model in the case of independent as well as simultaneous MEG and EEG measurements. Furthermore, we introduce an explicit and stable technique for the numerical implementation of these formulae via splines. Numerical examples are presented using the locations and the normal unit vectors of the real 102 magnetometers and 70 electrodes of the Elekta Neuromag (R) system. These results may have useful implications for the interpretation of the reconstructions obtained via the existing approaches. (paper)

  2. An empirical model and an inversion technique for radar scattering from bare soil surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yisok; Sarabandi, Kamal; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.

    1992-01-01

    Polarimetric radar measurements were conducted for bare soil surfaces under a variety of roughness and moisture conditions at L-, C-, and X-band frequencies at incidence angles ranging from 10 to 70 deg. Using a laser profiler and dielectric probes, a complete and accurate set of ground truth data were collected for each surface condition, from which accurate measurements were made of the rms height, correlation length, and dielectric constant. Based on knowledge of the scattering behavior in limiting cases and the experimental observations, an empirical model was developed which was found to yield very good agreement with the backscattering measurements of this study, as well as with measurements reported in other investigations. An inversion technique for predicting the rms height of the surface and its moisture content from multipolarized radar observations is developed on the basis of the model.

  3. Evaluation of multiple-sphere head models for MEG source localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalancette, M; Cheyne, D [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave., Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8 (Canada); Quraan, M, E-mail: marc.lalancette@sickkids.ca, E-mail: douglas.cheyne@utoronto.ca [Krembil Neuroscience Centre, Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8 (Canada)

    2011-09-07

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) source analysis has largely relied on spherical conductor models of the head to simplify forward calculations of the brain's magnetic field. Multiple- (or overlapping, local) sphere models, where an optimal sphere is selected for each sensor, are considered an improvement over single-sphere models and are computationally simpler than realistic models. However, there is limited information available regarding the different methods used to generate these models and their relative accuracy. We describe a variety of single- and multiple-sphere fitting approaches, including a novel method that attempts to minimize the field error. An accurate boundary element method simulation was used to evaluate the relative field measurement error (12% on average) and dipole fit localization bias (3.5 mm) of each model over the entire brain. All spherical models can contribute in the order of 1 cm to the localization bias in regions of the head that depart significantly from a sphere (inferior frontal and temporal). These spherical approximation errors can give rise to larger localization differences when all modeling effects are taken into account and with more complex source configurations or other inverse techniques, as shown with a beamformer example. Results differed noticeably depending on the source location, making it difficult to recommend a fitting method that performs best in general. Given these limitations, it may be advisable to expand the use of realistic head models.

  4. Aminoacid zwitterions in solution: Geometric, energetic, and vibrational analysis using density functional theory-continuum model calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortonda, Francisco R.; Pascual-Ahuir, Juan-Luis; Silla, Estanislao; Tuñón, Iñaki; Ramírez, Francisco J.

    1998-07-01

    Glycine and alanine aminoacids chemistry in solution is explored using a hybrid three parameters density functional (B3PW91) together with a continuum model. Geometries, energies, and vibrational spectra of glycine and alanine zwitterions are studied at the B3PW91/6-31+G** level and the results compared with those obtained at the HF and MP2/6-31+G** levels. Solvents effects are incorporated by means of an ellipsoidal cavity model with a multipolar expansion (up to sixth order) of the solute's electrostatic potential. Our results confirm the validity of the B3PW91 functional for studying aminoacid chemistry in solution. Taking into account the more favorable scaling behavior of density functional techniques with respect to correlated ab initio methods these studies could be extended to larger systems.

  5. Refined modeling of superconducting double helical coils using finite element analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double helical coils are becoming more and more attractive for accelerator magnets and other applications. Conceptually, a sinusoidal modulation of the longitudinal position of the turns allows virtually any multipolar field to be produced and maximizes the effectiveness of the supplied ampere turns. Being intrinsically three-dimensional, the modeling of such structures is very complicated, and several approaches, with different degrees of complexity, can be used. In this paper we present various possibilities for solving the magnetostatic problem of a double helical coil, through both finite element analyses and direct integration of the Biot–Savart law, showing the limits and advantages of each solution and the corresponding information which can be derived. (paper)

  6. Probing Electronic Correlations in Actinide Materials Using Multipolar Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.A.; Gupta, S. Sen; Seidler, G.T.; Moore, K.T.; Haverkort, M.W.; Sawatzky, G.A.; Conradson, S.D.; Clark, D.L.; Kozimor, S.A.; Boland, K.S. (UWASH); (MXPL-SS); (LLNL); (UBC); (LANL)

    2010-07-28

    We report nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering from the semicore 5d levels of several actinide compounds. Dipole-forbidden, high-multipole features form a rich bound-state spectrum dependent on valence electron configuration and spin-orbit and Coulomb interactions. Cross-material comparisons, together with the anomalously high Coulomb screening required for agreement between atomic-multiplet theory and experiment, demonstrate sensitivity to the neighboring electronic environment, such as is needed to address longstanding questions of electronic localization and bonding in 5f compounds.

  7. Multipolar second-harmonic generation from films of chalcogenide glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slablab, A.; Koskinen, K.; Czaplicki, R.; Karunakaran, N. T.; Sebastian, I.; Chandran, C. Pradeep; Kailasnath, M.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Kauranen, M.

    2014-05-01

    Chalcogenide glasses are amorphous semiconductors with a number of interesting properties required for photonic devices. Particularly, their optical properties can be tuned through the change of the glass composition. We investigate second-order nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glass (Ge27Se64Sb9) thin films fabricated by thermal evaporation. The strong second-harmonic generation observed for the samples investigated is analyzed as a function of incident polarization. Furthermore, the role of multipole effects in second-harmonic generation is also studied by using two beams at the fundamental frequency. Our results suggest that the higher-multipole effects are present and contribute significantly to the second-harmonic response of chalcogenide the samples.

  8. Menzel 3: a Multipolar Nebula in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Martín A.; Chu, You-Hua; Miranda, Luis F.

    2004-10-01

    The nebula Menzel 3 (Mz 3) has arguably the most complex bipolar morphology, consisting of three nested pairs of bipolar lobes and an equatorial ellipse. Its three pairs of bipolar lobes share the same axis of symmetry but have very different opening angles and morphologies: the innermost pair of bipolar lobes shows closed-lobe morphology, whereas the other two have open lobes with cylindrical and conical shapes, respectively. We have carried out high-dispersion spectroscopic observations of Mz 3 and detected distinct kinematic properties among the different morphological components. The expansion characteristics of the two outer pairs of lobes suggest that they originated in an explosive event, whereas the innermost pair of lobes resulted from the interaction of a fast wind with the surrounding material. The equatorial ellipse is associated with a fast equatorial outflow, which is unique among bipolar nebulae. The dynamical ages of the different structures in Mz 3 suggest episodic bipolar ejections, and the distinct morphologies and kinematics among these different structures reveal fundamental changes in the system between these episodic ejections.

  9. The filamentary multi-polar planetary nebula NGC 5189

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Sabin; R., Vázquez; J. A., López; Ma. T., García-Díaz; G., Ramos-Larios.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos un conjunto de imágenes ópticas e infrarrojas combinadas con espectros de rendija larga de mediana y alta dispersión de la Nebulosa Planetaria (NP) del sur NGC 5189. La compleja morfología de esta NP es desconcertante y no había sido estudiada en detalle hasta ahora. Nuestra investigació [...] n revela la presencia de un toroide denso y frío, en el infrarrojo, el cual probablemente generó uno de los dos flujos bipolares vistos en el óptico y podría, mediante un proceso de interacción, ser también responsable de la apariencia retorcida del toroide óptico. Los espectros de alta resolución del MES-AAT muestran claramente la presencia de nudos y estructuras filamentosas, así como tres burbujas en expansión. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que NGC 5189 es una NP cuadrupolar con varios conjuntos de condensaciones simétricas en la cual la interacción de flujos determinó su compleja morfología. Abstract in english We present a set of optical and infrared images combined with long-slit, medium and high dispersion spectra of the southern planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5189. The complex morphology of this PN is puzzling and has not been studied in detailed so far. Our investigation reveals the presence of a new dense [...] and cold infrared torus (alongside the optical one) which probably generated one of the two optically seen bipolar outflows and which might be responsible for the twisted appearance of the optical torus via an interaction process. The high-resolution MES-AAT spectra clearly show the presence of filamentary and knotty structures as well as three expanding bubbles. Our findings therefore suggest that NGC 5189 is a quadrupolar nebula with multiple sets of symmetrical condensations in which the interaction of outflows has determined its complex morphology.

  10. China's Soft Diplomacy in an Emerging Multi-polar World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Keynote presentation for the conference"The Growing Prominence of China on the World Stage: Exploring the Political, Economic, and Cultural Relations of China and Global Stakeholders" International Conference, Berlin, September 15th - 18th, 2011 - Held Parallel to the "Berlin - Asia Pacific Weeks Conference 2011

  11. A pair spectrometer for measuring multipolarities of energetic nuclear transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Gulyás, J; Krasznahorkay, A J; Csatlós, M; Csige, L; Gácsi, Z; Hunyadi, M; Krasznahorkay, A; Vitéz, A; Tornyi, T G

    2015-01-01

    A multi-detector array has been designed and constructed for the simultaneous measurement of energy- and angular correlations of electron-positron pairs. Experimental results are obtained over a wide angular range for high-energy transitions in 16O, 12C and 8Be. A comparison with GEANT simulations demonstrates that angular correlations between 50 and 180 degrees of the electron-positron pairs in the energy range between 6 and 18 MeV can be determined with sufficient resolution and efficiency.

  12. THE FILAMENTARY MULTI-POLAR PLANETARY NEBULA NGC5189

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sabin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a set of optical and infrared images combined with long-slit, medium and high dispersion spectra of the southern planetary nebula (PN NGC5189. The complex morphology of this PN is puzzling and has not been studied in detailed so far. Our investigation reveals the presence of a new dense and cold infrared torus (alongside the optical one which probably generated one of the two optically seen bipolar outflows and which might be responsible for the twisted appearance of the optical torus via an interaction process. The high-resolution MES-AAT spectra clearly show the presence of filamentary and knotty structures as well as three expanding bubbles. Our findings therefore suggest that NGC5189 is a quadrupolar nebula with multiple sets of symmetrical condensations in which the interaction of outflows has determined its complex morphology.

  13. The filamentary Multi-Polar Planetary Nebula NGC 5189

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, L; López, J A; García-Díaz, Ma T; Ramos-Larios, G

    2012-01-01

    We present a set of optical and infrared images combined with long-slit, medium and high dispersion spectra of the southern planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5189. The complex morphology of this PN is puzzling and has not been studied in detail so far. Our investigation reveals the presence of a new dense and cold infrared torus (alongside the optical one) which probably generated one of the two optically seen bipolar outflows and which might be responsible for the twisted appearance of the optical torus via an interaction process. The high-resolution MES-AAT spectra clearly show the presence of filamentary and knotty structures as well as three expanding bubbles. Our findings therefore suggest that NGC 5189 is a quadrupolar nebula with multiple sets of symmetrical condensations in which the interaction of outflows has determined the complex morphology.

  14. Mercado Simbólico: um modelo de comunicação para políticas públicas / The symbolic market: a communication model for public policies / Mercado Simbólico: un modelo de comunicación para políticas públicas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Inesita Soares de, Araújo.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho tem como objetivo propor um modelo para análise e planejamento estratégico da comunicação nas políticas públicas, considerando que os modelos correntes não dão conta adequadamente da prática comunicativa nos processos de intervenção social, frustrando os altos investimentos e expectativas [...] que despertam. O "Modelo do Mercado Simbólico", em rede, descentrado e multipolar, é composto por uma formulação teórica, uma representação gráfica dos principais componentes e suas relações e de uma matriz de análise e planejamento estratégico das relações comunicativas. A representação gráfica contempla: a rede de sentidos sociais, os interlocutores e seus contextos e "lugar de interlocução". A matriz inclui fontes, campos, instâncias, comunidades discursivas e uma tipologia de fatores de mediação. Abstract in spanish El trabajo tiene como objetivo proponer un modelo para análisis y planificación estratégica de la comunicación en las políticas públicas, considerando que los modelos corrientes no sustentan adecuadamente la práctica comunicativa en los procesos de intervención social, frustrando las altas inversion [...] es y expectativas que despiertan. El "Modelo del Mercado Simbólico", en red, descentrado y multipolar, es compuesto por una formulación teórica, una representación gráfica de los principales componentes y sus relaciones y de una matriz de análisis y planificación estratégica de las relaciones comunicativas. La representación gráfica contempla: la red de sentidos sociales, los interlocutores y sus contextos y "lugar de interlocución". La matriz incluye fuentes, campos, instancias, comunidades discursivas y una tipología de factores de mediación. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to put forth a model for the analysis and strategic planning of the communication of public policies, given that the current models fail to adequately fulfill communication requirements in the processes of social intervention, frustrating the high investments and expecta [...] tions that they give rise to. The "Symbolic Market Model", in network form, both decentralized and multipolar, is comprised of (i) a theoretical formulation, (ii) a graphical representation of the main components and the relations between them and (iii) an analysis and strategic planning matrix of communicative relations. The graphic representation takes into account: the network of social senses, the interlocutors and their contexts, and the "place of dialogue". The matrix includes sources, fields, instances, discursive communities and a typology of mediation factors.

  15. A variational Bayes spatiotemporal model for electromagnetic brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathoo, F S; Babul, A; Moiseev, A; Virji-Babul, N; Beg, M F

    2014-03-01

    In this article, we present a new variational Bayes approach for solving the neuroelectromagnetic inverse problem arising in studies involving electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). This high-dimensional spatiotemporal estimation problem involves the recovery of time-varying neural activity at a large number of locations within the brain, from electromagnetic signals recorded at a relatively small number of external locations on or near the scalp. Framing this problem within the context of spatial variable selection for an underdetermined functional linear model, we propose a spatial mixture formulation where the profile of electrical activity within the brain is represented through location-specific spike-and-slab priors based on a spatial logistic specification. The prior specification accommodates spatial clustering in brain activation, while also allowing for the inclusion of auxiliary information derived from alternative imaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We develop a variational Bayes approach for computing estimates of neural source activity, and incorporate a nonparametric bootstrap for interval estimation. The proposed methodology is compared with several alternative approaches through simulation studies, and is applied to the analysis of a multimodal neuroimaging study examining the neural response to face perception using EEG, MEG, and fMRI. PMID:24354514

  16. Mathematical framework for large-scale brain network modeling in The Virtual Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Leon, Paula; Knock, Stuart A; Spiegler, Andreas; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2015-05-01

    In this article, we describe the mathematical framework of the computational model at the core of the tool The Virtual Brain (TVB), designed to simulate collective whole brain dynamics by virtualizing brain structure and function, allowing simultaneous outputs of a number of experimental modalities such as electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG, MEG) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). The implementation allows for a systematic exploration and manipulation of every underlying component of a large-scale brain network model (BNM), such as the neural mass model governing the local dynamics or the structural connectivity constraining the space time structure of the network couplings. Here, a consistent notation for the generalized BNM is given, so that in this form the equations represent a direct link between the mathematical description of BNMs and the components of the numerical implementation in TVB. Finally, we made a summary of the forward models implemented for mapping simulated neural activity (EEG, MEG, sterotactic electroencephalogram (sEEG), fMRI), identifying their advantages and limitations. PMID:25592995

  17. Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Spädtke, P

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of technical machines became a standard technique since computer became powerful enough to handle the amount of data relevant to the specific system. Simulation of an existing physical device requires the knowledge of all relevant quantities. Electric fields given by the surrounding boundary as well as magnetic fields caused by coils or permanent magnets have to be known. Internal sources for both fields are sometimes taken into account, such as space charge forces or the internal magnetic field of a moving bunch of charged particles. Used solver routines are briefly described and some bench-marking is shown to estimate necessary computing times for different problems. Different types of charged particle sources will be shown together with a suitable model to describe the physical model. Electron guns are covered as well as different ion sources (volume ion sources, laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron resonance ion sources, and H$^-$-sources) together with some remarks on beam transport.

  18. Evaluation of different measures of functional connectivity using a neural mass model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Olivier; Cosmelli, Diego; Friston, Karl J

    2004-02-01

    We use a neural mass model to address some important issues in characterising functional integration among remote cortical areas using magnetoencephalography or electroencephalography (MEG or EEG). In a previous paper [Neuroimage (in press)], we showed how the coupling among cortical areas can modulate the MEG or EEG spectrum and synchronise oscillatory dynamics. In this work, we exploit the model further by evaluating different measures of statistical dependencies (i.e., functional connectivity) among MEG or EEG signals that are mediated by neuronal coupling. We have examined linear and nonlinear methods, including phase synchronisation. Our results show that each method can detect coupling but with different sensitivity profiles that depended on (i) the frequency specificity of the interaction (broad vs. narrow band) and (ii) the nature of the coupling (linear vs. nonlinear). Our analyses suggest that methods based on the concept of generalised synchronisation are the most sensitive when interactions encompass different frequencies (broadband analyses). In the context of narrow-band analyses, mutual information was found to be the most sensitive way to disclose frequency-specific couplings. Measures based on generalised synchronisation and phase synchronisation are the most sensitive to nonlinear coupling. These different sensitivity profiles mean that the choice of coupling measures can have dramatic effects on the cortical networks identified. We illustrate this using a single-subject MEG study of binocular rivalry and highlight the greater recovery of statistical dependencies among cortical areas in the beta band when mutual information is used. PMID:14980568

  19. Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This last volume in the series of textbooks on environmental isotopes in the hydrological cycle provides an overview of the basic principles of existing conceptual formulations of modelling approaches. While some of the concepts provided in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 are of general validity for quantitative interpretation of isotope data; the modelling methodologies commonly employed for incorporating isotope data into evaluations specifically related to groundwater systems are given in this volume together with some illustrative examples. Development of conceptual models for quantitative interpretations of isotope data in hydrogeology and the assessment of their limitations and field verification has been given priority in the research and development efforts of the IAEA during the last decade. Several Co-ordinated Research Projects on this specific topic were implemented and results published by the IAEA. Based on these efforts and contributions made by a number of scientists involved in this specific field, the IAEA has published two Technical Documents entitled ''Mathematical models and their applications to isotope studies in groundwater studies -- IAEA TECDOC-777, 1994'' and ''Manual on Mathematical models in isotope hydrogeology -- IAEA TECDOC-910, 1996''. Results of a recently completed Co-ordinated Research Project by the IAEA entitled ''Use of isotopes for analysis of flow and transport dynamics in groundwater systems'' will also soon be published by the IAEA. will also soon be published by the IAEA. This is the reason why the IAEA was involved in the co-ordination required for preparation of this volume; the material presented is a condensed overview prepared by some of the scientists that were involved in the above cited IAEA activities. This volume VI providing such an overview was included into the series to make this series self-sufficient in its coverage of the field of Isotope Hydrology. A special chapter on the methodologies and concepts related to geochemical modelling in groundwater systems would have been most desirable to include. The reader is referred to IAEA-TECDOC-910 and other relevant publications for guidance in this specific field

  20. A Skew-t space-varying regression model for the spectral analysis of resting state brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salimah; Sun, Wenqi; Nathoo, Farouk S; Babul, Arif; Moiseev, Alexader; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Virji-Babul, Naznin

    2013-08-01

    It is known that in many neurological disorders such as Down syndrome, main brain rhythms shift their frequencies slightly, and characterizing the spatial distribution of these shifts is of interest. This article reports on the development of a Skew-t mixed model for the spatial analysis of resting state brain activity in healthy controls and individuals with Down syndrome. Time series of oscillatory brain activity are recorded using magnetoencephalography, and spectral summaries are examined at multiple sensor locations across the scalp. We focus on the mean frequency of the power spectral density, and use space-varying regression to examine associations with age, gender and Down syndrome across several scalp regions. Spatial smoothing priors are incorporated based on a multivariate Markov random field, and the markedly non-Gaussian nature of the spectral response variable is accommodated by the use of a Skew-t distribution. A range of models representing different assumptions on the association structure and response distribution are examined, and we conduct model selection using the deviance information criterion. (1) Our analysis suggests region-specific differences between healthy controls and individuals with Down syndrome, particularly in the left and right temporal regions, and produces smoothed maps indicating the scalp topography of the estimated differences. PMID:22614763

  1. A simple model of the chaotic eccentricity of Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Boué, Gwenaël; Farago, François

    2012-01-01

    Mercury's eccentricity is chaotic and can increase so much that collisions with Venus or the Sun become possible (Laskar, 1989, 1990, 1994, 2008, Batygin & Laughlin, 2008, Laskar & Gastineau, 2009). This chaotic behavior results from an intricate network of secular resonances, but in this paper, we show that a simple integrable model with only one degree of freedom is actually able to reproduce the large variations in Mercury's eccentricity, with the correct amplitude and timescale. We show that this behavior occurs in the vicinity of the separatrices of the resonance g1-g5 between the precession frequencies of Mercury and Jupiter. However, the main contribution does not come from the direct interaction between these two planets. It is due to the excitation of Venus' orbit at Jupiter's precession frequency g5. We use a multipolar model that is not expanded with respect to Mercury's eccentricity, but because of the proximity of Mercury and Venus, the Hamiltonian is expanded up to order 20 and more in t...

  2. Current focussing in cochlear implants: An analysis of neural recruitment in a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkman, Randy K; Briaire, Jeroen J; Frijns, Johan H M

    2015-04-01

    Several multipolar current focussing strategies are examined in a computational model of the implanted human cochlea. The model includes a realistic spatial distribution of cell bodies of the auditory neurons throughout Rosenthal's canal. Simulations are performed of monopolar, (partial) tripolar and phased array stimulation. Excitation patterns, estimated thresholds, electrical dynamic range, excitation density and neural recruitment curves are determined and compared. The main findings are: (I) Current focussing requires electrical field interaction to induce spatially restricted excitation patterns. For perimodiolar electrodes the distance to the neurons is too small to have sufficient electrical field interaction, which results in neural excitation near non-centre contacts. (II) Current focussing only produces spatially restricted excitation patterns when there is little or no excitation occurring in the peripheral processes, either because of geometrical factors or due to neural degeneration. (III) The model predicts that neural recruitment with electrical stimulation is a three-dimensional process; regions of excitation not only expand in apical and basal directions, but also by penetrating deeper into the spiral ganglion. (IV) At equal loudness certain differences between the spatial excitation patterns of various multipoles cannot be simulated in a model containing linearly aligned neurons of identical morphology. Introducing a form of variability in the neurons, such as the spatial distribution of cell bodies in the spiral ganglion used in this study, is therefore essential in the modelling of spread of excitation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25528491

  3. A Model for the Escape of Solar-Flare Accelerated Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Masson, Sophie; DeVore, C Rick

    2013-01-01

    Impulsive solar energetic particles (SEP) bursts are frequently observed in association with so-called eruptive flares consisting of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and a flare. These highly prompt SEPs are believed to be accelerated by the flare rather than by a CME shock, but in the standard flare model the accelerated particles should remain trapped in the corona or in the ejected plas- moid. In this case, however, the particles would reach the Earth only after a delay of many hours to a few days. We present a new model that can account for the prompt injection of energetic particles onto open interplanetary magnetic flux tubes. The basic idea underlying the model is that magnetic reconnection between the ejection and external open field allows for the release of the ener- getic particles. We demonstrate the model using 2.5D MHD simulations of a CME/flare event. The model system consists of a multipolar field with a coro- nal null point and with photospheric shear imposed at a polarity inversion line, as in ...

  4. The structure of 193Au within the Interacting Boson Fermion Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ?? angular correlation experiment investigating the nucleus 193Au is presented. In this work the level scheme of 193Au is extended by new level information on spins, multipolarities and newly observed states. The new results are compared with theoretical predictions from a general Interacting Boson Fermion Model (IBFM) calculation for the positive-parity states. The experimental data is in good agreement with an IBFM calculation using all proton orbitals between the shell closures at Z=50 and Z=126. As a dominant contribution of the d3/2 orbital to the wave function of the lowest excited states is observed, a truncated model of the IBFM using a Bose–Fermi symmetry is applied to the describe 193Au. Using the parameters of a fit performed for 193Au, the level scheme of 192Pt, the supersymmetric partner of 193Au, is predicted but shows a too small boson seniority splitting. We obtained a common fit by including states observed in 192Pt. With the new parameters a supersymmetric description of both nuclei is established

  5. Dynamics of nuclear fluid. IV. Some spin and isospin properties in the hydrodynamical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the hydrodynamical model, the nuclear spin and isospin symmetry energies and the speeds of spin sound and isospin sound are pertinent to the determination of the static and dynamic properties of finite nuclei. We examine these quantities with a generalized Skyrme interaction. From the explicit expressions we obtain for these quantities, we find an interesting algebraic relation connecting the symmetry energies and likewise the sound speeds. Relevant collective vibrational energies of various types and different multipolarities are evaluated with the known sets of Skyrme interactions, in order to provide information for future amendments or selections among the sets of interactions and for the confrontation of the hydrodynamical model with experiment. We further investigate the dispersion of sound waves due to the range of the nuclear interaction. In particular, the ''plasma oscillation'' arising from the long-range Coulomb interaction is found to lead to a simple modification of the energies of the isoscalar and isovector collective vibrational states. When applied to the nuclear giant dipole and monopole resonances, the inclusion of the plasma oscillation gives an improved agreement between the hydrodynamical and the experimental giant dipole state energies and modifies the nuclear incompressibility extracted from measured giant monopole energies by as much as 15%

  6. The structure of {sup 193}Au within the Interacting Boson Fermion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, T., E-mail: tim.thomas@ikp.uni-koeln.de [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Straße 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); WNSL, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States); Bernards, C. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Straße 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); WNSL, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States); Régis, J.-M.; Albers, M.; Fransen, C.; Jolie, J.; Heinze, S.; Radeck, D.; Warr, N.; Zell, K.-O. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Straße 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    A ?? angular correlation experiment investigating the nucleus {sup 193}Au is presented. In this work the level scheme of {sup 193}Au is extended by new level information on spins, multipolarities and newly observed states. The new results are compared with theoretical predictions from a general Interacting Boson Fermion Model (IBFM) calculation for the positive-parity states. The experimental data is in good agreement with an IBFM calculation using all proton orbitals between the shell closures at Z=50 and Z=126. As a dominant contribution of the d{sub 3/2} orbital to the wave function of the lowest excited states is observed, a truncated model of the IBFM using a Bose–Fermi symmetry is applied to the describe {sup 193}Au. Using the parameters of a fit performed for {sup 193}Au, the level scheme of {sup 192}Pt, the supersymmetric partner of {sup 193}Au, is predicted but shows a too small boson seniority splitting. We obtained a common fit by including states observed in {sup 192}Pt. With the new parameters a supersymmetric description of both nuclei is established.

  7. Direction of magnetoencephalography sources associated with feedback and feedforward contributions in a visual object recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlfors, Seppo P; Jones, Stephanie R; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Belliveau, John W; Bar, Moshe

    2015-01-12

    Identifying inter-area communication in terms of the hierarchical organization of functional brain areas is of considerable interest in human neuroimaging. Previous studies have suggested that the direction of magneto- and electroencephalography (MEG, EEG) source currents depend on the layer-specific input patterns into a cortical area. We examined the direction in MEG source currents in a visual object recognition experiment in which there were specific expectations of activation in the fusiform region being driven by either feedforward or feedback inputs. The source for the early non-specific visual evoked response, presumably corresponding to feedforward driven activity, pointed outward, i.e., away from the white matter. In contrast, the source for the later, object-recognition related signals, expected to be driven by feedback inputs, pointed inward, toward the white matter. Associating specific features of the MEG/EEG source waveforms to feedforward and feedback inputs could provide unique information about the activation patterns within hierarchically organized cortical areas. PMID:25445356

  8. Visual stress–induced migraine aura compared to spontaneous aura studied by magnetoencephalography

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, K. Michael A.; Bowyer, Susan M.; Aurora, Sheena K.; Moran, John E.; Tepley, Norman

    2001-01-01

    DC MEG shifts, similar and complex in waveform, were observed in visually induced migraine with aura patients similar to spontaneous aura but not controls. Multiple cortical areas were activated in visually induced and spontaneous aura patients. In normal subjects activation was only observed in the primary visual cortex. Results support a spreading depression–like neuroelectric event as the basis of migraine aura that can arise spontaneously or be vis...

  9. Alpha-band hypersynchronization in progressive mild cognitive impairment: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María Eugenía; Bruña, Ricardo; Aurtenetxe, Sara; Pineda-Pardo, José Ángel; Marcos, Alberto; Arrazola, Juan; Reinoso, Ana Isabel; Montejo, Pedro; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando

    2014-10-29

    People with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) show a high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD; Petersen et al., 2001). Nonetheless, there is a lack of studies about how functional connectivity patterns may distinguish between progressive (pMCI) and stable (sMCI) MCI patients. To examine whether there were differences in functional connectivity between groups, MEG eyes-closed recordings from 30 sMCI and 19 pMCI subjects were compared. The average conversion time of pMCI was 1 year, so they were considered as fast converters. To this end, functional connectivity in different frequency bands was assessed with phase locking value in source space. Then the significant differences between both groups were correlated with neuropsychological scores and entorhinal, parahippocampal, and hippocampal volumes. Both groups did not differ in age, gender, or educational level. pMCI patients obtained lower scores in episodic and semantic memory and also in executive functioning. At the structural level, there were no differences in hippocampal volume, although some were found in left entorhinal volume between both groups. Additionally, pMCI patients exhibit a higher synchronization in the alpha band between the right anterior cingulate and temporo-occipital regions than sMCI subjects. This hypersynchronization was inversely correlated with cognitive performance, both hippocampal volumes, and left entorhinal volume. The increase in phase synchronization between the right anterior cingulate and temporo-occipital areas may be predictive of conversion from MCI to AD. PMID:25355209

  10. Development of Theory of Mind Stimuli in Magnetoencephalography for Nursing Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwon Park

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the development of animation stimuli for theory of mind (ToM in magnetoencepalography (MEG. We will discuss apparatus for presenting animation stimuli and a technical problem like an eye movement signal generated from following triangles in the animations, and its rejection using independent component analysis (ICA. With the ToM animations and the apparatus, we conducted MEG measurements for 8 normal controls and 6 schizophrenic patients. We present a preliminary assessment result for the developed animation stimuli as a tool for ToM test, which has been obtained by scoring in the followingup interview after the MEG measurement.

  11. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity: a magnetoencephalography study

    OpenAIRE

    Bosma, I.; Stam, C.; Douw, L.; Bartolomei, F.; Heimans, J.; Dijk, B.; Postma, T.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain activity compared to healthy controls and that particularly global slowing correlates with neurocognitive dysfunction. Patient and methods Resting state MEG recordings were obtai...

  12. Internal conversion coefficients in the Hartree-Fock atomic model. Calculations and experiments for 199Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internal conversion coefficients were calculated for the transitions in 199Hg using both Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Fock-Slater atomic models. The relative conversion line intensities were measured with the magnetic spectrometers in Prague and Heidelberg. The multipolarities were determined to be: M1 + (0.20 +- 0.03)% E2, pure E2 and M1 + (13.4 +- 0.4)% E2 for the 50, 158 and 208 keV transitions, respectively. Allowing for the nuclear structure effect in M1 component we obtained: M1 + (0.15 +- 0.03)% E2, lambda = 2.4 +- 1.0 for the 50 keV and M1 + (10.9 +- 0.7)% E2, lambda = 3.8 +- 0.5 for the 208 keV transitions. Very good agreement was found between theory and experiment for the atomic subshells, K, Lsub(1-3), Msub(1-5), N, and O + P. (orig.)

  13. Prediction of vapor-liquid equilibrium and PVTx properties of geological fluid system with SAFT-LJ EOS including multi-polar contribution. Part II: Application to H2O-NaCl and CO2-H2O-NaCl System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Dubessy, Jean

    2012-07-01

    The SAFT-LJ equation of state improved by Sun and Dubessy (2010) can represent the vapor-liquid equilibrium and PVTx properties of the CO2-H2O system over a wide P-T range because it accounts for the energetic contribution of the main types of molecular interactions in terms of reliable molecular based models. Assuming that NaCl fully dissociates into individual ions (spherical Na+ and Cl-) in water and adopting the restricted primitive model of mean spherical approximation to account for the energetic contribution due to long-range electrostatic forces between ions, this study extends the improved SAFT-LJ EOS to the H2O-NaCl and the CO2-H2O-NaCl systems at temperatures below 573 K. The EOS parameters for the interactions between ion and ion and between ion and water were determined from the mean ionic activity coefficient data and the density data of the H2O-NaCl system. The parameters for the interactions between ion and CO2 were evaluated from CO2 solubility data of the CO2-H2O-NaCl system. Comparison with the experimental data shows that this model can predict the mean ionic activity coefficient, osmotic coefficient, saturation pressure, and density of aqueous NaCl solution and can predict the vapor-liquid equilibrium and PVTx properties of the CO2-H2O-NaCl system over the range from 273 to 573 K, from 0 to 1000 bar, and from 0 to 6 mol/kg NaCl with high accuracy.

  14. Joint EEG/fMRI state space model for the detection of directed interactions in human brains--a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Michael; Musso, Mariachristina; Linke, Yannick; Tüscher, Oliver; Timmer, Jens; Weiller, Cornelius; Schelter, Björn

    2011-11-01

    An often addressed challenge in neuroscience research is the assignment of different tasks to specific brain regions. In many cases several brain regions are activated during a single task. Therefore, one is also interested in the temporal evolution of brain activity to infer causal relations between activated brain regions. These causal relations may be described by a directed, task specific network which consists of activated brain regions as vertices and directed edges. The edges describe the causal relations. Inference of the task specific brain network from measurements like electroencephalography (EEG) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is challenging, due to the low spatial resolution of the former and the low temporal resolution of the latter. Here, we present a simulation study investigating a possible combined analysis of simultaneously measured EEG and fMRI data to address the challenge specified above. A nonlinear state space model is used to distinguish between the underlying brain states and the (simulated) EEG/fMRI measurements. We make use of a modified unscented Kalman filter and a corresponding unscented smoother for the estimation of the underlying neural activity. Model parameters are estimated using an expectation-maximization algorithm, which exploits the partial linearity of our model. Inference of the brain network structure is then achieved using directed partial correlation, a measure for Granger causality. The results indicate that the convolution effect of the fMRI forward model imposes a big challenge for the parameter estimation and reduces the influence of the fMRI in combined EEG-fMRI models. It remains to be investigated whether other models or similar combinations of other modalities such as, e.g., EEG and magnetoencephalography can increase the profit of the promising idea of combining various modalities. PMID:22027197

  15. The role of extracellular conductivity profiles in compartmental models for neurons: particulars for layer 5 pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Riera, Jorge; Enjieu-Kadji, Herve; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-07-01

    With the rapid increase in the number of technologies aimed at observing electric activity inside the brain, scientists have felt the urge to create proper links between intracellular- and extracellular-based experimental approaches. Biophysical models at both physical scales have been formalized under assumptions that impede the creation of such links. In this work, we address this issue by proposing a multicompartment model that allows the introduction of complex extracellular and intracellular resistivity profiles. This model accounts for the geometrical and electrotonic properties of any type of neuron through the combination of four devices: the integrator, the propagator, the 3D connector, and the collector. In particular, we applied this framework to model the tufted pyramidal cells of layer 5 (PCL5) in the neocortex. Our model was able to reproduce the decay and delay curves of backpropagating action potentials (APs) in this type of cell with better agreement with experimental data. We used the voltage drops of the extracellular resistances at each compartment to approximate the local field potentials generated by a PCL5 located in close proximity to linear microelectrode arrays. Based on the voltage drops produced by backpropagating APs, we were able to estimate the current multipolar moments generated by a PCL5. By adding external current sources in parallel to the extracellular resistances, we were able to create a sensitivity profile of PCL5 to electric current injections from nearby microelectrodes. In our model for PCL5, the kinetics and spatial profile of each ionic current were determined based on a literature survey, and the geometrical properties of these cells were evaluated experimentally. We concluded that the inclusion of the extracellular space in the compartmental models of neurons as an extra electrotonic medium is crucial for the accurate simulation of both the propagation of the electric potentials along the neuronal dendrites and the neuronal reactivity to an electrical stimulation using external microelectrodes. PMID:23607554

  16. CAM3 bias over the Arctic region during northern winter studied with a linear stationary model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotjahn, Richard; Pan, Lin-Lin; Tribbia, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    This study builds upon two prior papers, which examine Arctic region bias of CAM3 (NCAR Community Atmosphere Model version 3) simulations during winter. CAM3 output is compared with ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) 40 year reanalysis (ERA-40) data. Our prior papers considered the temperature and the vorticity equation terms and demonstrated that diabatic, transient, and linear terms dominate nonlinear bias terms over most areas of interest. Accordingly, this paper uses a linearized form of the model's dynamical core equations to study aspects of the forcing that lead to the CAM3 biases. We treat the model's long term winter bias as a solution to a linear stationary wave model (LSWM). Key features of the bias in the vorticity, temperature, and ln of surface pressure (=q) fields are shown at medium resolution. The important features found at medium resolution are captured at the much lower LSWM resolution. The Arctic q bias has two key features: excess q over the Barents Sea and a missing Beaufort High (negative maximum q bias) to the north of Alaska and eastern Siberia. The forcing fields are calculated by the LSWM. Horizontal advection tends to create multi-polar combinations of negative and positive extrema in the forcing. The positive and negative areas of forcing approximately match corresponding areas in the bias. There is a broad relation between cold bias with elevated q bias, as expected from classical theory. Forcing in related quantities: near surface vorticity and surface pressure combine to produce the sea level pressure bias.

  17. CAM3 bias over the Arctic region during northern winter studied with a linear stationary model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotjahn, Richard [University of California, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, Davis, CA (United States); Pan, Lin-Lin; Tribbia, Joseph [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2011-08-15

    This study builds upon two prior papers, which examine Arctic region bias of CAM3 (NCAR Community Atmosphere Model version 3) simulations during winter. CAM3 output is compared with ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) 40 year reanalysis (ERA-40) data. Our prior papers considered the temperature and the vorticity equation terms and demonstrated that diabatic, transient, and linear terms dominate nonlinear bias terms over most areas of interest. Accordingly, this paper uses a linearized form of the model's dynamical core equations to study aspects of the forcing that lead to the CAM3 biases. We treat the model's long term winter bias as a solution to a linear stationary wave model (LSWM). Key features of the bias in the vorticity, temperature, and ln of surface pressure (=q) fields are shown at medium resolution. The important features found at medium resolution are captured at the much lower LSWM resolution. The Arctic q bias has two key features: excess q over the Barents Sea and a missing Beaufort High (negative maximum q bias) to the north of Alaska and eastern Siberia. The forcing fields are calculated by the LSWM. Horizontal advection tends to create multi-polar combinations of negative and positive extrema in the forcing. The positive and negative areas of forcing approximately match corresponding areas in the bias. There is a broad relation between cold bias with elevated q bias, as expected from classical theory. Forcing in related quantities: near surface vorticity and surface pressure combine to produce the sea level pressure bias. (orig.)

  18. A modelling study to inform specification and optimal electrode placement for imaging of neuronal depolarization during visual evoked responses by electrical and magnetic detection impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has the potential to achieve non-invasive functional imaging of fast neuronal activity in the human brain due to opening of ion channels during neuronal depolarization. Local changes of resistance in the cerebral cortex are about 1%, but the size and location of changes recorded on the scalp are unknown. The purpose of this work was to develop an anatomically realistic finite element model of the adult human head and use it to predict the amplitude and topography of changes on the scalp, and so inform specification for an in vivo measuring system. A detailed anatomically realistic finite element (FE) model of the head was produced from high resolution MRI. Simulations were performed for impedance changes in the visual cortex during evoked activity with recording of scalp potentials by electrodes or magnetic flux density by magnetoencephalography (MEG) in response to current injected with electrodes. The predicted changes were validated by recordings in saline filled tanks and with boundary voltages measured on the human scalp. Peak changes were 1.03 ± 0.75 µV (0.0039 ± 0.0034%) and 27 ± 13 fT (0.2 ± 0.5%) respectively, which yielded an estimated peak signal-to-noise ratio of about 4 for in vivo averaging over 10 min and 1 mA current injection. The largest scalp changes were over the occipital cortex. This modelling suggests, for the first time, that reproducible changes could be recorded on the scalp in vivo in single channels, although a higher SNR would be desirable for accurate image production. The findings suggest that an in vivo study is warranted in order to determine signal size but methods to improve SNR, such as prolonged averaging or other signal processing may be needed for accurate image production

  19. Use of the isolated problem approach for multi-compartment BEM models of electro-magnetic source imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isolated problem approach (IPA) is a method used in the boundary element method (BEM) to overcome numerical inaccuracies caused by the high-conductivity difference in the skull and the brain tissues in the head. Haemaelaeinen and Sarvas (1989 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36 165-71) described how the source terms can be updated to overcome these inaccuracies for a three-layer head model. Meijs et al (1989 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36 1038-49) derived the integral equations for the general case where there are an arbitrary number of layers inside the skull. However, the IPA is used in the literature only for three-layer head models. Studies that use complex boundary element head models that investigate the inhomogeneities in the brain or model the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) do not make use of the IPA. In this study, the generalized formulation of the IPA for multi-layer models is presented in terms of integral equations. The discretized version of these equations are presented in two different forms. In a previous study (Akalin-Acar and Gencer 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 5011-28), we derived formulations to calculate the electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography transfer matrices assuming a single layer in the skull. In this study, the transfer matrix formulations are updated to incorporate the generalized IPA. The effects of the IPA are investigated on the accuracy of spherical and realistic models when the CSF layer and a tumour tissue are included in the model. Itumour tissue are included in the model. It is observed that, in the spherical model, for a radial dipole 1 mm close to the brain surface, the relative difference measure (RDM*) drops from 1.88 to 0.03 when IPA is used. For the realistic model, the inclusion of the CSF layer does not change the field pattern significantly. However, the inclusion of an inhomogeneity changes the field pattern by 25% for a dipole oriented towards the inhomogeneity. The effect of the IPA is also investigated when there is an inhomogeneity in the brain. In addition to a considerable change in the scale of the potentials, the field pattern also changes by 15%. The computation times are presented for the multi-layer realistic head model

  20. Sequence of multipolar transitions: A scenario for URu2Si2

    CERN Document Server

    Fazekas, P; Radnoczi, K; Fazekas, Patrik; Kiss, Annamaria; Radnoczi, Katalin

    2005-01-01

    d- and f-shells support a large number of local degrees of freedom: dipoles, quadrupoles, octupoles, hexadecapoles, etc. Usually, the ordering of any multipole component leaves the system sufficiently symmetrical to allow a second symmetry breaking transition. To classify the possibilities, one has to construct the symmetry group of the first ordered phase, and then re-classify the order parameters in the new symmetry. While this is straightforward for dipole or quadrupole order, it is less familiar for octupole order. We give a group theoretical analysis, and some illustrative mean field calculations, for the case when a second ordering transition follows T(xyz) octupolar ordering in a tetragonal system. If quadrupoles appear in the second phase transition, they must be accompanied by a time-reversal-odd multipole as an induced order parameter. For O(xy), O(xz), or O(yz) quadrupoles, this would be one of the components of J, which should be easy either to check or to rule out. However, a pre-existing octupol...

  1. Reshaping Europe In A Multipolar World: Can The EU Rise To The Challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Carroll

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation and the emergence of economic players such as Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC have led to predictions that US hegemony will quickly decline as a new world order emerges. With the European Union (EU also facing a downgrading of its own status – as economic, political and cultural power shifts from west to east – now is the time to ensure the Union has a strategy in place to remain an influential global actor despite its lack of natural resources and member state sovereign debt arising from the 2008/9 economic crisis. Only concerted efforts at institutional future-proofing (or widening and deepening plus by the EU and a global vision for the supranational body will ensure its survival and prosperity.

  2. Multipolar universal relations between f-mode frequency and tidal deformability of compact stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, T K; Leung, P T; Lin, L -M

    2014-01-01

    Though individual stellar parameters of compact stars usually demonstrate obvious dependence on the equation of state (EOS), EOS-insensitive universal formulas relating these parameters remarkably exist. In the present paper, we explore the inter-relationship between two such formulas, namely the f-I relation connecting the $f$-mode quadrupole oscillation frequency $\\omega_2$ and the moment of inertia $I$, and the I-Love-Q relations relating $I$, the quadrupole tidal deformability $\\lambda_2$, and the quadrupole moment $Q$, which have been proposed by Lau et al. [Astrophys. J. {\\bf 714}, 1234 (2010)], and Yagi and Yunes [Science, {\\bf 341}, 365 (2013)], respectively. A relativistic universal relation between $\\omega_l$ and $\\lambda_l$ with the same angular momentum $l=2,3,\\ldots$, the so called "diagonal f-Love relation" that holds for realistic compact stars and stiff polytropic stars, is unveiled here. An in-depth investigation in the Newtonian limit is further carried out to pinpoint its underlying physica...

  3. Relevance of Triple Coupling of Multipolar Order Parameters in URu_2Si_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, M.; Cox, D. L.

    2000-03-01

    We investigate stability of the tiny staggered magnetic dipole moment observed in URu_2Si_2, provided that an antiferroquadrupolar ordering takes place as a primary effect. A ferromagnetic octupolar ordering plays an important role in stabilizing the moment, and the stability conditions are very sensitive to the crystalline-electronic-field (CEF) energy levels of U and the RKKY couplings between the U sites. Our mean-field solution shows that the tiny dipolar ordering is hardly realized for the three lowest-lying CEF singlets proposed by Santini and Amoretti. Alternatively, we stress relevance of the non-Kramers doublets to obtain the tiny moment at low temperatures. We suggest that by combining short range quadrupolar order with the two-channel Kondo effect we can explain the magnetic susceptibility above the quadrupolar ordering temperature.

  4. Treatment of atrial fibrillation with radiofrequency ablation and simultaneous multipolar mapping of the pulmonary veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Neto Almino C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility and safety of simultaneous catheterization and mapping of the 4 pulmonary veins for ablation of atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Ten patients, 8 with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and 2 with persistent atrial fibrillation, refractory to at least 2 antiarrhythmic drugs and without structural cardiopathy, were consecutively studied. Through the transseptal insertion of 2 long sheaths, 4 pulmonary veins were simultaneously catheterized with octapolar microcatheters. After identification of arrhythmogenic foci radiofrequency was applied under angiographic or ultrasonographic control. RESULTS: During 17 procedures, 40 pulmonary veins were mapped, 16 of which had local ectopic activity, related or not with the triggering of atrial fibrillation paroxysms. At the end of each procedure, suppression of arrhythmias was obtained in 8 patients, and elimination of pulmonary vein potentials was accomplished in 4. During the clinical follow-up of 9.6±3 months, 7 patients remained in sinus rhythm, 5 of whom were using antiarrhythmic drugs that had previously been ineffective. None of the patients had pulmonary hypertension or evidence of stenosis in the pulmonary veins. CONCLUSION: Selective and simultaneous catheterization of the 4 pulmonary veins with microcatheters for simultaneous recording of their electrical activity is a feasible and safe procedure that may help ablation of atrial fibrillation.

  5. Multi-polarization C-band SAR for soil moisture estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. J.; Brisco, B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery have shown qualitative relationships between radar backscatter and soil moisture. However, to be able to use these data in operational programs it will be necessary to establish quantitatively how the radar return is related to soil moisture and the effects of surface roughness, soil type, and vegetation cover and growth stage, as a function of frequency and polarization. To this end, a multi-year experiment began in 1990 as a cooperative venture amongst the Canada Center (Agriculture Canada), and the Universities of Guelph, Sherbrooke, Laval, and Waterloo. During 1990, SAR imagery was acquired during two periods (May and Jun.) to correspond to times of minimal and substantial vegetation cover. SAR data were acquired on three days in May and on four days in Jul. to cover different soil moisture conditions. This unique comprehensive data set is used to investigate the relationships between soil moisture and radar backscatter. The experiment and data collected are described, and a preliminary qualitative interpretation of the relationship between soil moisture and image tone is provided.

  6. Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Bray, C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jørgensen, L V; Kerrigan, S J; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2010-01-01

    Antihydrogen production in a neutral atom trap formed by an octupole-based magnetic field minimum is demonstrated using field-ionization of weakly bound anti-atoms. Using our unique annihilation imaging detector, we correlate antihydrogen detection by imaging and by field-ionization for the first time. We further establish how field-ionization causes radial redistribution of the antiprotons during antihydrogen formation and use this effect for the first simultaneous measurements of strongly and weakly bound antihydrogen atoms. Distinguishing between these provides critical information needed in the process of optimizing for trappable antihydrogen. These observations are of crucial importance to the ultimate goal of performing CPT tests involving antihydrogen, which likely depends upon trapping the anti-atom.

  7. The effect of antiferromagnetic interchain coupling on multipolar phases in quasi-1D quantum helimagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupled s = 1/2 frustrated Heisenberg chains with ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor and antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions in high magnetic field are studied by density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and hard-core boson (HCB) approaches at T = 0. First, we propose an appropriate one-dimensional array for the construction of a 3D system to be studied with the DMRG method and demonstrate the performance by comparing the ground-state energy to the exact solution. Next, the binding energy of multimagnon bound state is calculated as a function of interchain coupling. We find that the multimagnon bound state is easily destroyed by weak interchain coupling. In the 2-magnon phase the DMRG results are supported by the HCB approach.

  8. Multipolar universal relations between f -mode frequency and tidal deformability of compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. K.; Sham, Y.-H.; Leung, P. T.; Lin, L.-M.

    2014-12-01

    Though individual stellar parameters of compact stars usually demonstrate obvious dependence on the equation of state (EOS), EOS-insensitive universal formulas relating these parameters remarkably exist. In the present paper, we explore the interrelationship between two such formulas, namely the f -I relation connecting the f -mode quadrupole oscillation frequency ?2 and the moment of inertia I , and the I -Love-Q relations relating I , the quadrupole tidal deformability ?2, and the quadrupole moment Q , which have been proposed by Lau, Leung, and Lin [Astrophys. J. 714, 1234 (2010)] and Yagi and Yunes [Science 341, 365 (2013)], respectively. A relativistic universal relation between ?l and ?l with the same angular momentum l =2 ,3 ,… , the so-called "diagonal f -Love relation" that holds for realistic compact stars and stiff polytropic stars, is unveiled here. An in-depth investigation in the Newtonian limit is further carried out to pinpoint its underlying physical mechanism and hence leads to a unified f -I -Love relation. We reach the conclusion that these EOS-insensitive formulas stem from a common physical origin—compact stars can be considered as quasiincompressible when they react to slow time variations introduced by f -mode oscillations, tidal forces and rotations.

  9. Multipolar representation of Maxwell and Schroedinger equations: Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms: Examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of quantum engineering put forward new theoretical problems. Behaviour of a single mesoscopic cell (device) we may usually describe by equations of quantum mechanics. However, if experimentators gather hundreds of thousands of similar cells there arises some artificial medium that one already needs to describe by means of new electromagnetic equations. The same problem arises when we try to describe e.g. a sublattice structure of such complex substances like perovskites. It is demonstrated that the inherent primacy of vector potential in quantum systems leads to a generalization of the equations of electromagnetism by introducing in them toroid polarizations. To derive the equations of motion the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formalisms are used. Some examples where electromagnetic properties of molecules are described by the toroid moment are pointed out. (author). 26 refs, 7 figs

  10. Multipolarity or cosmopolitanism? : A critique of Mouffe from a hegemony-theoretical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Dreyer

    In a series of publications Chantal Mouffe (2004, 2005a, 2005b, 2008, 2009, 2013) has criticized cosmopolitanism for its lack of conceptualization of power, conflict and struggle, in short of politics. Even though this critique is largely well placed, the conclusions drawn from the analysis by Mouffe are flawed. As she puts it, if a cosmopolitan democracy “was ever realized, it could only signify the world hegemony of a dominant power that would have been able to impose its conception of the world on the entire planet and which, identifying its interests with those of humanity, would treat any disagreement as an illegitimate challenge to its ‘rational’ leadership”. Mouffe, On the Political pp. 106–7. I argue that Mouffe paradoxically seems to be using a traditional 'realist' conceptualization of hegemony, signifying simply domination. Against this I argue that a post-structuralist understanding of hegemony – as developed by herself and Laclau in Hegemony and Socialist Strategy, (Laclau and Mouffe,1985), precisely allows us to see the distance between universal values, such as freedom and equality for all, and their actual interpretation and use. The fact that the West are using democracy and human rights as legitimating devises for non-democratic goals, should not make us abandon the realization of these values on the global scale as the political goal.

  11. Multipolar permanent-magnet synchronous generators intended for wind power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Kovalev, K. L.; Tulinova, Ye. Ye.; Ivanov, N. S.

    2012-12-01

    The analytical method of calculating two-dimensional magnetic fields in the active section of permanent-magnet synchronous electrical rotating machines, as applied to their use in the wind energy industry, has been developed. The analytical relationships for calculating distribution of two-dimensional magnetic fields and determining output parameters with due regard for geometry of the active section, the number of pairs of poles, and magnetic characteristics of materials have been obtained. The criteria dependences needed for calculating the electromotive force and main inductive reactance of permanent-magnet synchronous electric machines, with consideration for the geometry of a machine and electrophysical properties of materials being used, have been derived. The procedure of evaluating parameters of permanent-magnet synchronous generators for large-size wind power plants is presented.

  12. Multipolarity of the 228.5-keV transition in 80Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have unambiguously characterized the deexcitation of the 228.5-keV T1/2=4.7-s isomer in 80Y as an M3 transition. This result determines, in conjunction with other experimental data, the spin and parity of the 228.5-keV isomer and the 80Y ground state as 1- and 4-, respectively. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  13. Use of the isolated problem approach for multi-compartment BEM models of electro-magnetic source imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gencer, Nevzat G; Akalin-Acar, Zeynep [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Brain Research Laboratory, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-07-07

    The isolated problem approach (IPA) is a method used in the boundary element method (BEM) to overcome numerical inaccuracies caused by the high-conductivity difference in the skull and the brain tissues in the head. Haemaelaeinen and Sarvas (1989 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36 165-71) described how the source terms can be updated to overcome these inaccuracies for a three-layer head model. Meijs et al (1989 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36 1038-49) derived the integral equations for the general case where there are an arbitrary number of layers inside the skull. However, the IPA is used in the literature only for three-layer head models. Studies that use complex boundary element head models that investigate the inhomogeneities in the brain or model the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) do not make use of the IPA. In this study, the generalized formulation of the IPA for multi-layer models is presented in terms of integral equations. The discretized version of these equations are presented in two different forms. In a previous study (Akalin-Acar and Gencer 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 5011-28), we derived formulations to calculate the electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography transfer matrices assuming a single layer in the skull. In this study, the transfer matrix formulations are updated to incorporate the generalized IPA. The effects of the IPA are investigated on the accuracy of spherical and realistic models when the CSF layer and a tumour tissue are included in the model. It is observed that, in the spherical model, for a radial dipole 1 mm close to the brain surface, the relative difference measure (RDM*) drops from 1.88 to 0.03 when IPA is used. For the realistic model, the inclusion of the CSF layer does not change the field pattern significantly. However, the inclusion of an inhomogeneity changes the field pattern by 25% for a dipole oriented towards the inhomogeneity. The effect of the IPA is also investigated when there is an inhomogeneity in the brain. In addition to a considerable change in the scale of the potentials, the field pattern also changes by 15%. The computation times are presented for the multi-layer realistic head model.

  14. Damping of the giant resonances in a fluid-dynamical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relevance to the damping of the giant resonances, of the anharmonic coupling between the normal modes, is investigated in a fluid dynamical mode. It is found that this mechanism leads to a weak damping which, however, increases very drastically with the wavevector, implying a very short life time for high multipolarity modes. (Author)

  15. The impact of the new Earth gravity models on the measurement of the Lense-Thirring effect with a new satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, L

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the opportunities offered by the new Earth gravity models from the dedicated CHAMP and, especially, GRACE missions to the project of measuring the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect with a new Earth's artificial satellite. It turns out that it would be possible to abandon the stringent, and expensive, requirements on the orbital geometry of the originally prosed LARES mission (same semimajor axis a=12270 km of the existing LAGEOS and inclination i=70 deg) by inserting the new spacecraft in a relatively low, and cheaper, orbit (a=7500-8000 km, i\\sim 70 deg) and suitably combining its node Omega with those of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II in order to cancel out the first even zonal harmonic coefficients of the multipolar expansion of the terrestrial gravitational potential J_2, J_4 along with their temporal variations. The total systematic error due to the mismodelling in the remaining even zonal harmonics would amount to \\sim 1% and would be insensitive to departures of the inclinat...

  16. Human in vitro reporter model of neuronal development and early differentiation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdahn Ulrich

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During developmental and adult neurogenesis, doublecortin is an early neuronal marker expressed when neural stem cells assume a neuronal cell fate. To understand mechanisms involved in early processes of neuronal fate decision, we investigated cell lines for their capacity to induce expression of doublecortin upon neuronal differentiation and develop in vitro reporter models using doublecortin promoter sequences. Results Among various cell lines investigated, the human teratocarcinoma cell line NTERA-2 was found to fulfill our criteria. Following induction of differentiation using retinoic acid treatment, we observed a 16-fold increase in doublecortin mRNA expression, as well as strong induction of doublecortin polypeptide expression. The acquisition of a neuronal precursor phenotype was also substantiated by the establishment of a multipolar neuronal morphology and expression of additional neuronal markers, such as Map2, ?III-tubulin and neuron-specific enolase. Moreover, stable transfection in NTERA-2 cells of reporter constructs encoding fluorescent or luminescent genes under the control of the doublecortin promoter allowed us to directly detect induction of neuronal differentiation in cell culture, such as following retinoic acid treatment or mouse Ngn2 transient overexpression. Conclusion Induction of doublecortin expression in differentiating NTERA-2 cells suggests that these cells accurately recapitulate some of the very early events of neuronal determination. Hence, the use of reporter genes under the control of the doublecortin promoter in NTERA-2 cells will help us to investigate factors involved early in the course of neuronal differentiation processes. Moreover the ease to detect the induction of a neuronal program in this model will permit to perform high throughput screening for compounds acting on the early neuronal differentiation mechanisms.

  17. How neurons migrate: a dynamic in-silico model of neuronal migration in the developing cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoblov Nikita

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal migration, the process by which neurons migrate from their place of origin to their final position in the brain, is a central process for normal brain development and function. Advances in experimental techniques have revealed much about many of the molecular components involved in this process. Notwithstanding these advances, how the molecular machinery works together to govern the migration process has yet to be fully understood. Here we present a computational model of neuronal migration, in which four key molecular entities, Lis1, DCX, Reelin and GABA, form a molecular program that mediates the migration process. Results The model simulated the dynamic migration process, consistent with in-vivo observations of morphological, cellular and population-level phenomena. Specifically, the model reproduced migration phases, cellular dynamics and population distributions that concur with experimental observations in normal neuronal development. We tested the model under reduced activity of Lis1 and DCX and found an aberrant development similar to observations in Lis1 and DCX silencing expression experiments. Analysis of the model gave rise to unforeseen insights that could guide future experimental study. Specifically: (1 the model revealed the possibility that under conditions of Lis1 reduced expression, neurons experience an oscillatory neuron-glial association prior to the multipolar stage; and (2 we hypothesized that observed morphology variations in rats and mice may be explained by a single difference in the way that Lis1 and DCX stimulate bipolar motility. From this we make the following predictions: (1 under reduced Lis1 and enhanced DCX expression, we predict a reduced bipolar migration in rats, and (2 under enhanced DCX expression in mice we predict a normal or a higher bipolar migration. Conclusions We present here a system-wide computational model of neuronal migration that integrates theory and data within a precise, testable framework. Our model accounts for a range of observable behaviors and affords a computational framework to study aspects of neuronal migration as a complex process that is driven by a relatively simple molecular program. Analysis of the model generated new hypotheses and yet unobserved phenomena that may guide future experimental studies. This paper thus reports a first step toward a comprehensive in-silico model of neuronal migration.

  18. Neural responses to auditory stimulus deviance under threat of electric shock revealed by spatially-filtered magnetoencephalography

    OpenAIRE

    Cornwell, Brian R.; Baas, Johanna M. P.; Johnson, Linda; Holroyd, Tom; Carver, Frederick W.; Lissek, Shmuel; Grillon, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Stimulus novelty or deviance may be especially salient in anxiety-related states due to sensitization to environmental change, a key symptom of anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We aimed to identify human brain regions that show potentiated responses to stimulus deviance during anticipatory anxiety. Twenty participants (14 men) were presented a passive oddball auditory task in which they were exposed to uniform auditory stimulation of tones with occasional deviat...

  19. Chaoticity and Dissipation of Nuclear Collective Motion in a Classical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.; Rapisarda, A.; Schuck, P.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the behavior of a gas of classical particles moving in a two-dimensional "nuclear" billiard whose multipole-deformed walls undergo periodic shape oscillations. We demonstrate that a single particle Hamiltonian containing coupling terms between the particles' motion and the collective coordinate induces a chaotic dynamics for any multipolarity, independently on the geometry of the billiard. The absence of coupling terms allows us to recover qualitatively the "wall ...

  20. Models and role models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of action and was also utilized for the formulation of oral care products. In addition, we made use of intra-oral (in situ) models to study other features of the oral environment that drive the de/remineralization balance in individual patients. This model addressed basic questions, such as how enamel and dentine are affected by challenges in the oral cavity, as well as practical issues related to fluoride toothpaste efficacy. The observation that perhaps fluoride is not sufficiently potent to reduce dental caries in the present-day society triggered us to expand our knowledge in the bacterial aetiology of dental caries. For this we developed the Amsterdam Active Attachment biofilm model. Different from studies on planktonic ('single') bacteria, this biofilm model captures bacteria in a habitat similar to dental plaque. With data from the combination of these models, it should be possible to study separate processes which together may lead to dental caries. Also products and novel agents could be evaluated that interfere with either of the processes. Having these separate models in place, a suggestion is made to design computer models to encompass the available information. Models but also role models are of the utmost importance in bringing and guiding research and researchers. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25871413

  1. Dual-frequency and Multi-polarization Shuttle Imaging Radar for Volcano Detection in Kunlun Mountain of Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huadong, G.; Jingjuan, L.; Changlin, W.; Caho, W.; Farr, T. G.; Evans, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods and mechanisms of detecting volcanoes using L.C bands and HH, HV, VV polarization imaging radar, and gives the spatial distributions of volcanoes elevated more than 5300m above the sea level, eruptive phases and analytical results of rock components.

  2. The African Union (AU), new partnership for African Aevelopment (NEPAD) and regional integration in Africa in a multipolar word

    OpenAIRE

    Asogwa, Felix Chinwe

    2014-01-01

    It is trite to argue that regional integration or cooperation in Africa is deeply rooted in the historical evolution of the continent’s socio-political forces. No doubt, the trans-Atlantic slave trade created a huge social, political, economic, and cultural distortion in Africa. It was a period when millions of productive Africans were forcefully uprooted from the continent and taken to Europe and the Americas. However, the end of the slave trade opened a new vista in the efforts of peop...

  3. Intense ultra-broadband down-conversion in co-doped oxide glass by multipolar interaction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zijun; Yang, Luyun; Dai, Nengli; Chu, Yingbo; Chen, Qiaoqiao; Li, Jinyan

    2013-05-20

    We report that Eu(2+) can be an efficient sensitizer for Yb(3+) and a broadband absorber for blue solar spectra in the host of oxide glass. The greenish 4f ? 5d transition of Eu(2+) and the characteristic near-infrared emission of Yb(3+) were observed, with the blue-light of xenon lamp excitation. The 5d energy can be adjusted by the host and the energy transfer efficiency can be enhanced. The quantum efficiency is up to 163.8%. Given the broad excitation band, high absorption coefficient and excellent mechanical, thermal and chemical stability, this system can be useful as down-conversion layer for solar cells. PMID:23736483

  4. Model’s comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Three popular disease spread simulation models were used to simulate the spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Denmark. The models’ predictions in term of disease spread, consequence, and the ranking of the applied control strategies were compared. The original Davis Animal Disease Spread (DADS version 0.05) was adapted to DTU-DADS, and this model as well as InterSpread Plus (ISP version 2.001.11) and the North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM version 3.0.81) were all used to simulate hypothetical spread of FMD in Denmark. Data on Danish herds were used including herd type, movements, and location in the period 1st October 2006 to 30th September 2007. The three models to the highest possible extend set up to simulate the same epidemics in 3 different control scenarios: 1) A basic scenario representing EU and Danish control strategies, 2) pre-emptive depopulation of susceptible herds in a 500 meters radius around the detected herds, and 3) suppressive vaccination of susceptible herds in a 1,000 meters radius around the detected herds. Depopulation and vaccination started either 14 days following the detection of the first infected herd or following detection of 50 infected herds. Five thousand index herds were selected randomly in which there were 1,000 cattle herds located in high density cattle area and 1,000 in low density cattle area, 1,000 swine herds located in high density swine area and 1,000 in low density swine area, and 1,000 sheep herds. Generally, NAADSM predicted the largest, longest duration and costliest epidemics. DTU-DADS predicted larger, longer duration and costlier epidemics than ISP, except when epidemics started in cattle herds located in high density cattle area. ISP predicted suppressive vaccination to be less costly than depopulation, while the least costly control strategy predicted by DTU-DADS differed depending on the species and density area of the index herd. It was not possible to run the depopulation scenarios in the NAADSM due to limitations in the model. Running several models in parallel gives better insight in disease spread, limits typing and coding errors and improves understanding of modeled processes. The chosen control strategy might depend on the chosen model.

  5. Design of mini-orange spectrometers and their application to nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and properties of a mini-orange spectrometer for internal conversion experiments are described. The application of such a system to the study of the decay of Coulomb excited /sup 191,193/Ir nuclei is presented. Some E2/M1 mixing ratios of the transitions with mixed multipolarities are deduced. The experimental energy levels and reduced matrix elements of the excited /sup 191,193/Ir are compared with two model calculations, namely the particle-plus-triaxial rotor model and the interacting boson fermion model. A mini-orange spectrometer was also used to study the multipolarities of the decay of high spin continuum states in 130Ce

  6. Modelling the models

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    By analysing the production of mesons in the forward region of LHC proton-proton collisions, the LHCf collaboration has provided key information needed to calibrate extremely high-energy cosmic ray models.   Average transverse momentum (pT) as a function of rapidity loss ?y. Black dots represent LHCf data and the red diamonds represent SPS experiment UA7 results. The predictions of hadronic interaction models are shown by open boxes (sibyll 2.1), open circles (qgsjet II-03) and open triangles (epos 1.99). Among these models, epos 1.99 shows the best overall agreement with the LHCf data. LHCf is dedicated to the measurement of neutral particles emitted at extremely small angles in the very forward region of LHC collisions. Two imaging calorimeters – Arm1 and Arm2 – take data 140 m either side of the ATLAS interaction point. “The physics goal of this type of analysis is to provide data for calibrating the hadron interaction models – the well-known &...

  7. Polarimetric SAR Data for Urban Land Cover Classification Using Finite Mixture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdianpari, Masoud; Akbari, Vahid; Mohammadimanesh, Fariba; Alioghli Fazel, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Image classification techniques play an important role in automatic analysis of remote sensing data. This paper demonstrates the potential of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) for urban land cover mapping using an unsupervised classification approach. Analysis of PolSAR images often shows that non-Gaussian models give better representation of the scattering vector statistics. Hence, processing algorithms based on non-Gaussian statistics should improve performance, compared to complex Gaussian distributions. Several distributions could be used to model SAR image texture with different spatial correlation properties and various degrees of inhomogeneity [1-3]. Statistical properties are widely used for image segmentation and land cover classification of PolSAR data. The pixel-based approaches cluster individual pixels through analysis of their statistical properties. Those methods work well on the relatively coarse spatial resolution images. But classification results based on pixelwise analysis demonstrate the pepper-salt effect of speckle in medium and high resolution applications such as urban area monitoring [4]. Therefore, the expected improvement of the classification results is hindered by the increase of textural differences within a class. In such situation, enhancement could be made through exploring the contextual correlation among pixels by Markov random field (MRF) models [4, 5]. The potential of MRF models to retrieve spatial contextual information is desired to improve the accuracy and reliability of image classification. Unsupervised contextual polarimetric SAR image segmentation is addressed by combining statistical modeling and spatial context within an MRF framework. We employ the stochastic expectation maximization (SEM) algorithm [6] to jointly perform clustering of the data and parameter estimation of the statistical distribution conditioned to each image cluster and the MRF model. This classification method is applied on medium resolution L-band ALOS data from Tehran, Iran. Clustering results are presented and discussed in the full paper, also comparing the classification approach with other commonly used algorithms. References: [1] J.-S. Lee, M. Grunes, and R. Kwok, "Classification of multi-look polarimetric SAR imagery based on the complex Wishart distribution," Int. J Remote Sens., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2299-2311, Jul. 1994. [2] C. C. Freitas, A. C. Frery, and A. H. Correia, "The polarimetric G0 distribution for SAR data analysis," Environmetrics, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 13-31, Feb. 2005. [3] A. P. Doulgeris, S. N. Anfinsen, and T. Eltoft, "Automated non-Gaussian clustering of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar images," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 3665-3676, Oct. 2011. [4]. V. Akbari, A. P. Doulgeris, G. Moser, S. N. Anfinsen, T. Eltoft, and S. Serpico, "A textural-contextual model for unsupervised segmentation of multi-polarization synthetic aperture radar images," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, in press. [5] S. Li, "Markov Random Field Modeling in Image Analysis," 3rd ed. London, U.K., Springer-Verlag, 2009.

  8. Modeling Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela B. Shiflet

    In this module, we develop models of the effects of malaria on various populations of humans and mosquitoes. After considering differential equations to model a system, we create a model using the systems modeling tool STELLA. Projects involve various refinements of the model.

  9. Modelling Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the practicalities of building, testing, deploying and maintaining models. It gives specific advice for each phase of the modelling cycle. To do this, a modelling framework is introduced which covers: problem and model definition; model conceptualization; model data requirements; model construction; model solution; model verification; model validation and finally model deployment and maintenance. Within the adopted methodology, each step is discussedthrough the consideration of key issues and questions relevant to the modelling activity. Practical advice, based on many years of experience is providing in directing the reader in their activities.Traps and pitfalls are discussed and strategies also given to improve model development towards “fit-for-purpose” models. The emphasis in this chapter is the adoption and exercise of a modelling methodology that has proven very successful in many model building activities. It is vital that good methodologies are adopted for both thoroughness andefficiency purposes. Asking good questions for each modelling stage can aid in getting to effective and efficient solutions in modelling practice. Modelling is very much a ‘goal oriented’ activity, under constraints of system insight, time, cost and human resources. The George Box dictum that “all models are wrong, some are useful” should be coupled with the parsimony principle to ensure optimal outcomes.

  10. Model uncertainty and model inaccuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of model uncertainty versus model inaccuracy is examined in the light of the concept of the 'probability of correctness of a model under a given context' introduced by Apostolakis. To avoid possible difficulties linked with this concept, a distinction is introduced between 'predictive' models and 'constitutive' models, the former being generic in the sense that they can host the latter as submodels. A metric or distance between linear models as well as an objective of the model are introduced, from which we can give an operational definition of 'model uncertainty' (with respect to distribution of parameters of the associated constitutive models) and of 'model accuracy' with respect to a reference model. Finally the choice of a predictive model is linked to a loss function and a cost of using or defining a model

  11. Model uncertainty and model inaccuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devooght, J

    1998-02-01

    The problem of model uncertainty versus model inaccuracy is examined in the light of the concept of the 'probability of correctness of a model under a given context' introduced by Apostolakis. To avoid possible difficulties linked with this concept, a distinction is introduced between 'predictive' models and 'constitutive' models, the former being generic in the sense that they can host the latter as submodels. A metric or distance between linear models as well as an objective of the model are introduced, from which we can give an operational definition of 'model uncertainty' (with respect to distribution of parameters of the associated constitutive models) and of 'model accuracy' with respect to a reference model. Finally the choice of a predictive model is linked to a loss function and a cost of using or defining a model.

  12. Fair Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betty Blecha

    The Fair model web site includes a freely available United States macroeconomic econometric model and a multicounty econometric model. The models run on the Windows OS. Instructors can use the models to teach forecasting, run policy experiments, and evaluate historical episodes of macroeconomic behavior. The web site includes extensive documentation for both models. The simulation is for upper-division economics courses in macroeconomics or econometrics. The principle developer is Ray Fair at Yale University.

  13. Player Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Spronck, Pieter; Loiacono, Daniele; Andre?, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Player modeling is the study of computational models of players in games. This includes the detection, modeling, prediction and expression of human player characteristics which are manifested through cognitive, affective and behavioral patterns. This chapter introduces a holistic view of player modeling and provides a high level taxonomy and discussion of the key components of a player's model. The discussion focuses on a taxonomy of approaches for constructing a player model, the availabl...

  14. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, CC

    2013-01-01

    Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko

  15. Coulomb dissociation of 8B and the low-energy cross section of the 7Be(p,gamma)8B solar fusion reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Schuemann, F.; Hammache, F.; Typel, S.; Uhlig, F.; Suemmerer, K.; Boettcher, I.; Cortina, D.; Foerster, A.; Gai, M.; Geissel, H.; Greife, U.; Iwasa, N.; Koczon, P.; Kohlmeyer, B.; Kulessa, R.

    2003-01-01

    An exclusive measurement of the Coulomb breakup of 8B into 7Be+p at 254 A MeV allowed to study the angular correlations of the breakup particles. These correlations demonstrate clearly that E1 multipolarity dominates and that E2 multipolarity can be neglected. By using a simple single-particle model for 8B and treating the breakup in first-order perturbation theory, we extract a zero-energy S factor of S-(17)(0) = 18.6 +- 1.2 +- 1.0 eV b.

  16. Coulomb dissociation of 8B and the low-energy cross section of the 7Be(p,gamma)8B solar fusion reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Schuemann, F; Cortina-Gil, D; Förster, A; Gai, M; Geissel, H; Greife, U; Hammache, F; Iwasa, N; Koczón, P; Kohlmeyer, B; Kulessa, R; Kumagai, H; Kurz, N; Menzel, M; Motobayashi, T; Oeschler, H; Ozawa, A; Ploskon, M; Prokopowicz, W; Schwab, E; Senger, P; Strieder, F; Sturm, C; Sun, Z Y; Surówka, G; Sümmerer, K; Typel, S; Uhlig, F; Wagner, A; Walús, W; Sun, Zhi-Yu

    2003-01-01

    An exclusive measurement of the Coulomb breakup of 8B into 7Be+p at 254 A MeV allowed to study the angular correlations of the breakup particles. These correlations demonstrate clearly that E1 multipolarity dominates and that E2 multipolarity can be neglected. By using a simple single-particle model for 8B and treating the breakup in first-order perturbation theory, we extract a zero-energy S factor of S-(17)(0) = 18.6 +- 0.5 +- 1.0 eV b.

  17. Coulomb dissociation of 8B and the low-energy cross section of the 7Be(p,gamma)8B solar fusion reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schümann, F; Hammache, F; Typel, S; Uhlig, F; Sümmerer, K; Böttcher, I; Cortina, D; Förster, A; Gai, M; Geissel, H; Greife, U; Iwasa, N; Koczo?, P; Kohlmeyer, B; Kulessa, R; Kumagai, H; Kurz, N; Menzel, M; Motobayashi, T; Oeschler, H; Ozawa, A; P?osko?, M; Prokopowicz, W; Schwab, E; Senger, P; Strieder, F; Sturm, C; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Surówka, G; Wagner, A; Walu?, W

    2003-06-13

    An exclusive measurement of the Coulomb breakup of 8B into 7Be+p at 254A MeV allowed the study of the angular correlations of the breakup particles. These correlations demonstrate clearly that E1 multipolarity dominates and that E2 multipolarity can be neglected. By using a simple single-particle model for 8B and treating the breakup in first-order perturbation theory, we extract a zero-energy S factor of S17(0)=18.6+/-1.2+/-1.0 eV b, where the first error is experimental and the second one reflects the theoretical uncertainty in the extrapolation. PMID:12857251

  18. Hydrological models are mediating models

    OpenAIRE

    Babel, L. V.; Karssenberg, D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing role of models in hydrological research and decision-making processes, only few accounts of the nature and function of models exist in hydrology. Earlier considerations have traditionally been conducted while making a clear distinction between physically-based and conceptual models. A new philosophical account, primarily based on the fields of physics and economics, transcends classes of models and scientific disciplines by considering models as "mediators" betwe...

  19. Crowd modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Mikkel; Xiao, Wence; Christensen, Troels; Albrechtsen, Dan Elmkvist; Thrane, Malik; Høiland-jørgensen, Toke

    2011-01-01

    We look at social force models as a way to model the behaviour of human crowds, in order to eval- uate how well these types of models simulate crowd behaviour, and what the models’ strengths and weaknesses are. In order to do this evaluation, we implement a computer simulation of an exemplary social force model. In order to create this simulation, we pick an exemplary model that is well described in the article that presents it, and analyse it in detail, filling in details from other art...

  20. Supermatrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radom matrix models based on an integral over supermatrices are proposed as a natural extension of bosonic matrix models. The subtle nature of superspace integration allows these models to have very different properties from the analogous bosonic models. Two choices of integration slice are investigated. One leads to a perturbative structure which is reminiscent of, and perhaps identical to, the usual Hermitian matrix models. Another leads to an eigenvalue reduction which can be described by a two component plasma in one dimension. A stationary point of the model is described

  1. Supermatrix Models

    CERN Document Server

    Yost, S A

    1992-01-01

    Random matrix models based on an integral over supermatrices are proposed as a natural extension of bosonic matrix models. The subtle nature of superspace integration allows these models to have very different properties from the analogous bosonic models. Two choices of integration slice are investigated. One leads to a perturbative structure which is reminiscent of, and perhaps identical to, the usual Hermitian matrix models. Another leads to an eigenvalue reduction which can be described by a two component plasma in one dimension. A stationary point of the model is described.

  2. Geochemical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contributions to the workshop 'Geochemical modeling' from 19 to 20 September 1990 at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre. The report contains the programme and a selection of the lectures held at the workshop 'Geochemical modeling'. (BBR)

  3. Landscape Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Marchetti

    In this assignment students model different scenarios of landscape evolution using an on-line landscape evolution model. The assignment takes them through several situations involving changes in commonly modeled landscape variables like overland flow, faulting and uplift, erosivity, and drainage incision. At the end I have students devise a situation (of variables) that tests a hypothesis or the sensitivity of the model to changes in a variable. Designed for a geomorphology course Uses online and/or real-time data

  4. SIR Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony Weisstein (Truman State University; Biology)

    2007-06-20

    This worksheet implements an SIR (Susceptible/ Infected/ Resistant) model of epidemiology for vector-borne diseases. Up to three microbial strains with different virulence and transmission parameters can be modeled and the results graphed. Originally designed to explore coevolution of myxoma and rabbits, the model is easily generalized to other systems.

  5. Hydrological models are mediating models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, L. V.; Karssenberg, D.

    2013-08-01

    Despite the increasing role of models in hydrological research and decision-making processes, only few accounts of the nature and function of models exist in hydrology. Earlier considerations have traditionally been conducted while making a clear distinction between physically-based and conceptual models. A new philosophical account, primarily based on the fields of physics and economics, transcends classes of models and scientific disciplines by considering models as "mediators" between theory and observations. The core of this approach lies in identifying models as (1) being only partially dependent on theory and observations, (2) integrating non-deductive elements in their construction, and (3) carrying the role of instruments of scientific enquiry about both theory and the world. The applicability of this approach to hydrology is evaluated in the present article. Three widely used hydrological models, each showing a different degree of apparent physicality, are confronted to the main characteristics of the "mediating models" concept. We argue that irrespective of their kind, hydrological models depend on both theory and observations, rather than merely on one of these two domains. Their construction is additionally involving a large number of miscellaneous, external ingredients, such as past experiences, model objectives, knowledge and preferences of the modeller, as well as hardware and software resources. We show that hydrological models convey the role of instruments in scientific practice by mediating between theory and the world. It results from these considerations that the traditional distinction between physically-based and conceptual models is necessarily too simplistic and refers at best to the stage at which theory and observations are steering model construction. The large variety of ingredients involved in model construction would deserve closer attention, for being rarely explicitly presented in peer-reviewed literature. We believe that devoting more importance to identifying and communicating on the many factors involved in model development might increase transparency of model building.

  6. Hydrological models are mediating models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Babel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing role of models in hydrological research and decision-making processes, only few accounts of the nature and function of models exist in hydrology. Earlier considerations have traditionally been conducted while making a clear distinction between physically-based and conceptual models. A new philosophical account, primarily based on the fields of physics and economics, transcends classes of models and scientific disciplines by considering models as "mediators" between theory and observations. The core of this approach lies in identifying models as (1 being only partially dependent on theory and observations, (2 integrating non-deductive elements in their construction, and (3 carrying the role of instruments of scientific enquiry about both theory and the world. The applicability of this approach to hydrology is evaluated in the present article. Three widely used hydrological models, each showing a different degree of apparent physicality, are confronted to the main characteristics of the "mediating models" concept. We argue that irrespective of their kind, hydrological models depend on both theory and observations, rather than merely on one of these two domains. Their construction is additionally involving a large number of miscellaneous, external ingredients, such as past experiences, model objectives, knowledge and preferences of the modeller, as well as hardware and software resources. We show that hydrological models convey the role of instruments in scientific practice by mediating between theory and the world. It results from these considerations that the traditional distinction between physically-based and conceptual models is necessarily too simplistic and refers at best to the stage at which theory and observations are steering model construction. The large variety of ingredients involved in model construction would deserve closer attention, for being rarely explicitly presented in peer-reviewed literature. We believe that devoting more importance to identifying and communicating on the many factors involved in model development might increase transparency of model building.

  7. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Piccolo, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic procedure is introduced for the analysis and solution of property models. Models that capture and represent the temperature dependent behaviour of physical properties are introduced, as well as equation of state models (EOS) such as the SRK EOS. Modelling of liquid phase activity coefficients are also covered, illustrating several models such as the Wilson equation and NRTL equation, along with their solution strategies. A section shows how to use experimental data to regress the property model parameters using a least squares approach. A full model analysis is applied in each example that discusses the degrees of freedom, dependent and independent variables and solution strategy. Vapour-liquid and solid-liquid equilibrium is covered, and applications to droplet evaporation and kinetic models are given.

  8. ICRF modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture provides a survey of the methods used to model fast magnetosonic wave coupling, propagation, and absorption in tokamaks. The validity and limitations of three distinct types of modelling codes, which will be contrasted, include discrete models which utilize ray tracing techniques, approximate continuous field models based on a parabolic approximation of the wave equation, and full field models derived using finite difference techniques. Inclusion of mode conversion effects in these models and modification of the minority distribution function will also be discussed. The lecture will conclude with a presentation of time-dependent global transport simulations of ICRF-heated tokamak discharges obtained in conjunction with the ICRF modelling codes. 52 refs., 15 figs

  9. Nested Models and Model Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Kriwoluzky, Alexander; Stoltenberg, Christian A.

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty about the appropriate choice among nested models is a central concern for optimal policy when policy prescriptions from those models differ. The standard procedure is to specify a prior over the parameter space ignoring the special status of some sub-models, e.g. those resulting from zero restrictions. This is especially problematic if a model's generalization could be either true progress or the latest fad found to fit the data. We propose a procedure that ensures that the spe...

  10. Inter-trial effect in luminance processing revealed by magnetoencephalography / Efecto inter-ensayo en el procesamiento de iluminación revelado por magnetoencefalografía

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aki, Kondo; Katsumi, Watanabe.

    2013-12-15

    Full Text Available En este estudio, se examinó si el procesamiento de iluminación en el sistema visual humano exhibie algún efecto de historia (es decir, modulación inter-ensayo) en experimentos psicofísicos y de magnetoencefalografía (MEG). Un disco se presentó contra un fondo negro en varios niveles de iluminación e [...] n un orden aleatorio. Durante el registro de MEG, los participantes fueron instruidos para clasificar el brillo del disco (estimación de magnitud) y reportarlo durante el intervalo inter-ensayo. Los resultados de MEG mostraron que la activación neuromagnetica alrededor 200-220 ms después de la aparición de estímulo en las regiones occipito-temporal izquierda en un ensayo dade fue más débil cuando la iluminación de disco en el ensayo inmediatamente antes fue mayor. También se observó un efecto inverso inter-ensayo en el experimento psicofísico. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la actividad neuromagnética refleja la modulación inter-ensayo de procesamiento de iluminación que se correlaciona con la percepción subjetiva de brillo. Abstract in english In this study, we examined whether luminance processing in the human visual system would exhibit any history effect (i.e., inter-trial modulation) in psychophysical and magnetoencephalographic experiments. A disk was presented against a black background at various luminance levels in a randomized or [...] der. During the MEG recording, participants were instructed to rate the brightness of the disk (magnitude estimation) and to report it aloud during inter-stimulus interval. The MEG results showed that the neuromagnetic activation around 200-220 ms after the stimulus onset in the left occipito-temporal regions at a given trial was weaker when the disk luminance in the immediately prior trial was higher. An inverse inter-trial effect was also observed in the psychophysical experiment. These findings suggest that the neuromagnetic activity reflects the inter-trial modulation of luminance processing that correlates with the subjective perception of brightness.

  11. Model choice versus model criticism

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Christian P.; Mengersen, Kerrie; Chen, Carla

    2009-01-01

    The new perspectives on ABC and Bayesian model criticisms presented in Ratmann et al.(2009) are challenging standard approaches to Bayesian model choice. We discuss here some issues arising from the authors' approach, including prior influence, model assessment and criticism, and the meaning of error in ABC.

  12. Ventilation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis and model report (AMR) for the Ventilation Model is to analyze the effects of pre-closure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts and provide heat removal data to support EBS design. It will also provide input data (initial conditions, and time varying boundary conditions) for the EBS post-closure performance assessment and the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Process Model. The objective of the analysis is to develop, describe, and apply calculation methods and models that can be used to predict thermal conditions within emplacement drifts under forced ventilation during the pre-closure period. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Provide a general description of effects and heat transfer process of emplacement drift ventilation. (2) Develop a modeling approach to simulate the impacts of pre-closure ventilation on the thermal conditions in emplacement drifts. (3) Identify and document inputs to be used for modeling emplacement ventilation. (4) Perform calculations of temperatures and heat removal in the emplacement drift. (5) Address general considerations of the effect of water/moisture removal by ventilation on the repository thermal conditions. The numerical modeling in this document will be limited to heat-only modeling and calculations. Only a preliminary assessment of the heat/moisture ventilation effects and modeling method will be performed in this revision. Modeling of moisture effects on heat removal and emplacement drift temperature may be performed in the future

  13. Experimental and database-transferred electron-density analysis and evaluation of electrostatic forces in coumarin-102 dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibila Mayaya Bisseyou, Yvon; Bouhmaida, Nouhza; Guillot, Benoit; Lecomte, Claude; Lugan, Noel; Ghermani, Noureddine; Jelsch, Christian

    2012-12-01

    The electron-density distribution of a new crystal form of coumarin-102, a laser dye, has been investigated using the Hansen-Coppens multipolar atom model. The charge density was refined versus high-resolution X-ray diffraction data collected at 100?K and was also constructed by transferring the charge density from the Experimental Library of Multipolar Atom Model (ELMAM2). The topology of the refined charge density has been analysed within the Bader `Atoms In Molecules' theory framework. Deformation electron-density peak heights and topological features indicate that the chromen-2-one ring system has a delocalized ?-electron cloud in resonance with the N (amino) atom. The molecular electrostatic potential was estimated from both experimental and transferred multipolar models; it reveals an asymmetric character of the charge distribution across the molecule. This polarization effect is due to a substantial charge delocalization within the molecule. The molecular dipole moments derived from the experimental and transferred multipolar models are also compared with the liquid and gas-phase dipole moments. The substantial molecular dipole moment enhancements observed in the crystal environment originate from the crystal field and from intermolecular charge transfer induced and controlled by C-H···O and C-H···N intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The atomic forces were integrated over the atomic basins and compared for the two electron-density models. PMID:23165601

  14. Turbulence modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an introduction course in modelling turbulent thermohydraulics, aimed at computational fluid dynamics users. No specific knowledge other than the Navier Stokes equations is required beforehand. Chapter I (which those who are not beginners can skip) provides basic ideas on turbulence physics and is taken up in a textbook prepared by the teaching team of the ENPC (Benque, Viollet). Chapter II describes turbulent viscosity type modelling and the 2k-? two equations model. It provides details of the channel flow case and the boundary conditions. Chapter III describes the 'standard' (Rij-?) Reynolds tensions transport model and introduces more recent models called 'feasible'. A second paper deals with heat transfer and the effects of gravity, and returns to the Reynolds stress transport model. (author)

  15. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can be characterized by their occurrence times and the participating books and borrowers. When we characterize events as information objects we focus on concepts like information structures. When viewed as change agents events are phenomena that trigger change. For example, when borrow event occurs books are moved temporarily from bookcases to borrowers. When we characterize events as change agents we focus on concepts like transactions, entity processes, and workflow processes.

  16. Spherical models

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, Magnus J

    2014-01-01

    Well-illustrated, practical approach to creating star-faced spherical forms that can serve as basic structures for geodesic domes. Complete instructions for making models from circular bands of paper with just a ruler and compass. Discusses tessellation, or tiling, and how to make spherical models of the semiregular solids and concludes with a discussion of the relationship of polyhedra to geodesic domes and directions for building models of domes. "". . . very pleasant reading."" - Science. 1979 edition.

  17. Mental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Moreira

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The mental models subject is presented particularly in the light of Johnson-Laird’s theory. Views from different authors are also presented but the emphasis lies in Johson-Laird’s approach, proposing mental models as a third path in the images x propositions debate. In this perspective, the nature, content, and typology of mental models are discussed, as well as the issue of conciousness and computability. In addition, the methodology of research studies are provided. Essentially, the aim of the paper is to provide an introduction to the mental models topic, having science education research in mind.

  18. Role of short range correlations on nuclear matrix elements of neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employing four different parametrization of the pairing plus multipolar type of effective two-body interaction and three different parametrizations of Jastrow-type of short range correlations, the uncertainties in the nuclear transition matrix elements due to the exchange of light as well as heavy Majorana neutrino for the 0+?0+ transition of neutrinoless positron ?? decay are estimated in the PHFB model.

  19. Damping rates of surface plasmons for particles of size from nano- to micrometers; reduction of the nonradiative decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damping rates of multipolar, localized surface plasmons (SPs) of gold and silver nanospheres of radii up to 1000 nm were found with the tools of classical electrodynamics. The significant increase in damping rates followed by noteworthy decrease for larger particles takes place along with substantial red-shift of plasmon resonance frequencies as a function of particle size. We also introduced interface damping into our modeling, which substantially modifies the plasmon damping rates of smaller particles. We demonstrate unexpected reduction of the multipolar SP damping rates in certain size ranges. This effect can be explained by the suppression of the nonradiative decay channel as a result of the lost competition with the radiative channel. We show that experimental dipole damping rates [H. Baida, et al., Nano Lett. 9(10) (2009) 3463, and C. Sönnichsen, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002) 077402], and the resulting resonance quality factors can be described in a consistent and straightforward way within our modeling extended to particle sizes still unavailable experimentally. -- Highlights: ? We model plasmon damping rates up to the uncommonly large particles of 1000 nm. ? We demonstrate reduction of multipolar SP damping rates below its low size limit. ? We show that the radiative decay competes with the nonradiative processes. ? We model the quality Q-factor of SP multipolar resonances as a function of size. ? We confront our size characteristics with the experimental results of other authors.

  20. Study of the M7 magnetic multipoles in 51V and 59Co, and M9 in 93Nb and 209Bi by elastic scattering of high transfer electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetization distribution of the odd-even nuclei 51V, and 93Nb has been investigated by elastic electron scattering at backward angle of 155 deg. The highest multipolarity has been mapped out accurately up 2,86fm-1, in the absence of background. Results are interpreted in the framework of the shell model

  1. Attention-driven auditory cortex short-term plasticity helps segregate relevant sounds from noise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahveninen, Jyrki; Ha?ma?la?inen, Matti; Ja?a?skela?inen, Iiro P.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Huang, Samantha; Lin, Fa-hsuan; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko; Vasios, Christos E.; Belliveau, John W.

    2011-01-01

    How can we concentrate on relevant sounds in noisy environments? A “gain model” suggests that auditory attention simply amplifies relevant and suppresses irrelevant afferent inputs. However, it is unclear whether this suffices when attended and ignored features overlap to stimulate the same neuronal receptive fields. A “tuning model” suggests that, in addition to gain, attention modulates feature selectivity of auditory neurons. We recorded magnetoencephalography, EEG, and functional ...

  2. Clinical Application of Spatiotemporal Distributed Source Analysis in Presurgical Evaluation of Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Naoaki Tanaka

    2014-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG), which acquires neuromagnetic fields in the brain, is a useful diagnostic tool in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. Previous studies have shown that MEG affects the planning intracranial electroencephalography placement and correlates with surgical outcomes by using a single dipole model. Spatiotemporal source analysis using distributed source models is an advanced method for analyzing MEG, and has been recently introduced for analyzing epileptic spikes. It has ...

  3. Entrepreneurship Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger Lakes Regional Education Center for Economic Development, Mount Morris, NY.

    This guide describes seven model programs that were developed by the Finger Lakes Regional Center for Economic Development (New York) to meet the training needs of female and minority entrepreneurs to help their businesses survive and grow and to assist disabled and dislocated workers and youth in beginning small businesses. The first three models

  4. Chameleonic ?-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (1+1)-dimensional, non-linear and (2,2)-supersymmetric ?-models are constructed in which the target space changes topology at distinguished regions of the parameter space. In particular, a ?-model formulation is provided for the recently discovered topological transitions among many of the Calabi-Yau manifolds. (orig.)

  5. Zitterbewegung modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hestenes, D. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Guidelines for constructing point particle models of the electron with [ital zitterbewegung] and other features of the Dirac theory are discussed. Such models may at least be useful approximations to the Dirac theory, but the more exciting possibility is that this approach may lead to a more fundamental reality. 6 refs.

  6. Zitterbewegung modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidelines for constructing point particle models of the electron with zitterbewegung and other features of the Dirac theory are discussed. Such models may at least be useful approximations to the Dirac theory, but the more exciting possibility is that this approach may lead to a more fundamental reality. 6 refs

  7. Daisyworld Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Lovelock

    The simulation exercise uses a STELLA-based model called Daisyworld to explore concepts associated with Earth's energy balance and climate change. Students examine the evolution of a simplified model of an imaginary planet with only two species of life on its surface -- white and black daisies -- with different albedos. The daisies can alter the temperature of the surface where they are growing.

  8. Modeling Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Phil Seok; Oh, Sung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Modeling in science has been studied by education researchers for decades and is now being applied broadly in school. It is among the scientific practices featured in the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS") (Achieve Inc. 2013). This article describes modeling activities in an extracurricular science club in a high…

  9. Scale Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald Observatory

    2011-01-01

    In this activity, learners explore the relative sizes and distances of objects in the solar system. Without being informed of the expected product, learners will make a Play-doh model of the Earth-Moon system, scaled to size and distance. The facilitator reveals the true identity of the system at the conclusion of the activity. During the construction phase, learners try to guess what members of the solar system their model represents. Each group receives different amounts of Play-doh, with each group assigned a color (red, blue, yellow, white). At the end, groups set up their models and inspect the models of other groups. They report patterns of scale that they notice; as the amount of Play-doh increases, for example, so do the size and distance of the model. This resource guide includes background information about the Earth to Moon ratio and solar eclipses.

  10. Protein structure modeling with MODELLER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Benjamin; Sali, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Genome sequencing projects have resulted in a rapid increase in the number of known protein sequences. In contrast, only about one-hundredth of these sequences have been characterized at atomic resolution using experimental structure determination methods. Computational protein structure modeling techniques have the potential to bridge this sequence-structure gap. In this chapter, we present an example that illustrates the use of MODELLER to construct a comparative model for a protein with unknown structure. Automation of a similar protocol has resulted in models of useful accuracy for domains in more than half of all known protein sequences. PMID:24573470

  11. OSPREY Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2013-01-01

    The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of off-gas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data is obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data and parameters were input into the adsorption model to develop models specific for krypton adsorption. The same can be done for iodine, xenon, and tritium. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Customers will be given access to OSPREY to used and evaluate the model.

  12. Complete identification by the particle-rotor model of /sup 153/Gd states up to 1 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements performed at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble regarding gamma rays and conversion electrons following thermal-neutron capture in /sup 152/Gd together with measurements of 2 keV neutron capture in the same nucleus at the High Flux Reactor in Brookhaven have resulted in a 100-level /sup 153/Gd scheme. For some 200 transitions in /sup 153/Gd conversion coefficients have been calculated. This enabled the determination of transition multipolarities and spin and/or parity restrictions for many levels

  13. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  14. Quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper invites experimenters to consider the wide variety of tests suggested by the new aspects of quark models since the discovery of charm and beauty, and nonrelativistic models. Colors and flavours are counted and combined into hadrons. The current quark zoo is summarized. Models and theoretical background are studied under: qualitative QCD: strings and bags, potential models, relativistic effects, electromagnetic transitions, gluon emissions, and single quark transition descriptions. Hadrons containing quarks known before 1974 (i.e. that can be made of ''light'' quarks u, d, and s) are treated in Section III, while those containing charmed quarks and beauty (b) quarks are discussed in Section IV. Unfolding the properties of the sixth quark from information on its hadrons is seen as a future application of the methods used in this study

  15. Programming models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, David J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Pherson, Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thorp, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barrett, Richard [SNL; Clay, Robert [SNL; De Supinski, Bronis [LLNL; Dube, Evi [LLNL; Heroux, Mike [SNL; Janssen, Curtis [SNL; Langer, Steve [LLNL; Laros, Jim [SNL

    2011-01-14

    A programming model is a set of software technologies that support the expression of algorithms and provide applications with an abstract representation of the capabilities of the underlying hardware architecture. The primary goals are productivity, portability and performance.

  16. Modeling Arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Insepov, Zeke; Veitzer, Seth; Mahalingam, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    Although vacuum arcs were first identified over 110 years ago, they are not yet well understood. We have since developed a model of breakdown and gradient limits that tries to explain, in a self-consistent way: arc triggering, plasma initiation, plasma evolution, surface damage and gra- dient limits. We use simple PIC codes for modeling plasmas, molecular dynamics for modeling surface breakdown, and surface damage, and mesoscale surface thermodynamics and finite element electrostatic codes for to evaluate surface properties. Since any given experiment seems to have more variables than data points, we have tried to consider a wide variety of arcing (rf structures, e beam welding, laser ablation, etc.) to help constrain the problem, and concentrate on common mechanisms. While the mechanisms can be comparatively simple, modeling can be challenging.

  17. Coupling of numerical methods for the forward problem in Magneto- and Electro-Encephalography

    OpenAIRE

    Olivi, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Electro- and Magneto-Encephalography are precious tools for studying brain activity, notably due to their time resolution and their non invasive nature. Acquisitions are done on the exterior of the head (scalp electrodes for EEG, and magnetometers for MEG); in order to recover the sources responsible of the measured signal, an inverse problem must be solved, for which accurate solutions of the forward problem must be available. This requires a good modeling of the head tissues, and an appropr...

  18. Environmental modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Holzbecher, Ekkehard

    2012-01-01

    The book has two aims: to introduce basic concepts of environmental modelling and to facilitate the application of the concepts using modern numerical tools such as MATLAB. It is targeted at all natural scientists dealing with the environment: process and chemical engineers, physicists, chemists, biologists, biochemists, hydrogeologists, geochemists and ecologists. MATLAB was chosen as the major computer tool for modeling, firstly because it is unique in it's capabilities, and secondly because it is available in most academic institutions, in all universities and in the research departments of

  19. Quasimolecular modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Greenspan, Donald

    1991-01-01

    In this book the author has tried to apply "a little imagination and thinking" to modelling dynamical phenomena from a classical atomic and molecular point of view. Nonlinearity is emphasized, as are phenomena which are elusive from the continuum mechanics point of view. FORTRAN programs are provided in the Appendices.

  20. Groundwater Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this activity, students build a model to demonstrate how aquifers are formed and ground water becomes polluted. For younger students, the teacher can perform this activity as a demonstration, or older students can perform it themselves. A materials list, instructions, and extension activities are provided.

  1. Why Model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OlafWolkenhauer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing technologies are bringing about a renaissance of mining approaches. A comprehensive picture of the genetic landscape of an individual patient will be useful, for example, to identify groups of patients that do or do not respond to certain therapies. The high expectations may however not be satisfied if the number of patient groups with similar characteristics is going to be very large. I therefore doubt that mining sequence data will give us an understanding of why and when therapies work. For understanding the mechanisms underlying diseases, an alternative approach is to model small networks in quantitative mechanistic detail, to elucidate the role of gene and proteins in dynamically changing the functioning of cells. Here an obvious critique is that these models consider too few components, compared to what might be relevant for any particular cell function. I show here that mining approaches and dynamical systems theory are two ends of a spectrum of methodologies to choose from. Drawing upon personal experience in numerous interdisciplinary collaborations, I provide guidance on how to model by discussing the question "Why model?"

  2. Why model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies are bringing about a renaissance of mining approaches. A comprehensive picture of the genetic landscape of an individual patient will be useful, for example, to identify groups of patients that do or do not respond to certain therapies. The high expectations may however not be satisfied if the number of patient groups with similar characteristics is going to be very large. I therefore doubt that mining sequence data will give us an understanding of why and when therapies work. For understanding the mechanisms underlying diseases, an alternative approach is to model small networks in quantitative mechanistic detail, to elucidate the role of gene and proteins in dynamically changing the functioning of cells. Here an obvious critique is that these models consider too few components, compared to what might be relevant for any particular cell function. I show here that mining approaches and dynamical systems theory are two ends of a spectrum of methodologies to choose from. Drawing upon personal experience in numerous interdisciplinary collaborations, I provide guidance on how to model by discussing the question "Why model?" PMID:24478728

  3. Marshmallow Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    2010-01-01

    No glue is needed for learners of any age to become marshmallow architects or engineers. Using marshmallows and water (and maybe edible decorations like peanut butter, pretzels, gumdrops, etc.), learners wet a few marshamallows at a time and stick them together bit by bit to construct whatever models they want.

  4. Modeling Business

    OpenAIRE

    Vitolins, Valdis; Kalnins, Audris

    2003-01-01

    Business concepts are studied using a metamodel-based approach, using UML 2.0. The Notation Independent Business concepts metamodel is introduced. The approach offers a mapping between different business modeling notations which could be used for bridging BM tools and boosting the MDA approach.

  5. Model thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvage, Jane

    Nancy Roper, Win Logan and Alison Tierney published their ground-breaking model of nursing in 1980, sparking the evolution of nursing theory from staid, biomedical thinking to an individualised, independent approach. Jane Salvage looks back at the lasting impact their research had on her and the profession as whole. PMID:16425763

  6. Biotran model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BIOTRAN model was developed at Los Alamos to help predict short- and long-term consequences to man from releases of radionuclides into the environment. It is a dynamic model that simulates on a daily and yearly basis the flux of biomass, water, and radionuclides through terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Biomass, water, and radionuclides are driven within the ecosystems by climate variables stochastically generated by BIOTRAN each simulation day. The climate variables influence soil hydraulics, plant growth, evapotranspiration, and particle suspension and deposition. BIOTRAN has 22 different plant growth strategies for simulating various grasses, shrubs, trees, and crops. Ruminants and humans are also dynamically simulated by using the simulated crops and forage as intake for user-specified diets. BIOTRAN has been used at Los Alamos for long-term prediction of health effects to populations following potential accidental releases of uranium and plutonium. Newly developed subroutines are described: a human dynamic physiological and metabolic model; a soil hydrology and irrigation model; limnetic nutrient and radionuclide cycling in fresh-water lakes. 7 references

  7. Criticality Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality computational method will be used for evaluating the criticality potential of configurations of fissionable materials (in-package and external to the waste package) within the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada for all waste packages/waste forms. The criticality computational method is also applicable to preclosure configurations. The criticality computational method is a component of the methodology presented in ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). How the criticality computational method fits in the overall disposal criticality analysis methodology is illustrated in Figure 1 (YMP 2003, Figure 3). This calculation will not provide direct input to the total system performance assessment for license application. It is to be used as necessary to determine the criticality potential of configuration classes as determined by the configuration probability analysis of the configuration generator model (BSC 2003a)

  8. Molecular Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important
    tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and
    the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to tailored to
    decrease harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques
    employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modelling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported from
    the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  9. Modeling Overstock

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Rui; Gouveia, Borges; Pinho, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Two main problems have been emerging in supply chain management: the increasing pressure to reduce working capital and the growing variety of products. Most of the popular indicators have been developed based on a controlled environment. A new indicator is now proposed, based on the uncertainty of the demand, the flexibility of the supply chains, the evolution of the products lifecycle and the fulfillment of a required service level. The model to support the indicator will be developed wit...

  10. Nuclear Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction).Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the wn series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  11. Model Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    In this quick activity about pollutants and groundwater (page 2 of PDF), learners build a model well with a toilet paper tube. Learners use food coloring to simulate pollutants and observe how they can be carried by groundwater and eventually enter water sources such as wells, rivers, and streams. This activity is associated with nanotechnology and relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Water Clean-up.

  12. Modelling tsunamis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We doubt the relevance of soliton theory to the modelling of tsunamis, and present a case in support of an alternative view. Although the shallow-water equations do provide, we believe, an appropriate basis for this phenomenon, an asymptotic analysis of the solution for realistic variable depths, and for suitable background flows, is essential for a complete understanding of this phenomenon. In particular we explain how a number of tsunami waves can arrive at a shoreline. (letter to the editor)

  13. Gas Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Exploratorium

    2013-01-30

    This highly visual model demonstrates the atomic theory of matter which states that a gas is made up of tiny particles of atoms that are in constant motion, smashing into each other. Balls, representing molecules, move within a cage container to simulate this phenomenon. A hair dryer provides the heat to simulate the heating and cooling of gas: the faster the balls are moving, the hotter the gas. Learners observe how the balls move at a slower rate at lower "temperatures."

  14. Modelling biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a sample of 71 countries and nonparametric quantile and partial regressions to model a number of threatened species (reptiles, mammals, fish, birds, trees, plants) in relation to various economic and environmental variables (GDPc, CO¬2 emissions, agricultural production, energy intensity, protected areas, population and income inequality). From the analysis and due to high asymmetric distribution of the dependent variables it seems that a linear regression is not adequate and...

  15. Supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture was given at the KEK Summer School on August 3-6, 1993 by Professor N. Sakai. All the available experimental data at low energy can be adequately described by the standard model with SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) gauge group. The three different gauge coupling constants originate from the three different interactions, namely, strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions. The three interactions described by the three different gauge groups can be truly unified into a single gauge group if a simple gauge group to describe all three interactions is chosen. Even if the grand unified theory is not accepted, the existence of gravitational interaction is sure. There are only two options to explain the gauge hierarchy, that is, technicolor model and supersymmetry. As the introduction to supersymmetry, Spinors and Grassmann number, Supertransformation, unitary representation, chiral scalar superfield and supersymmetric Lagrangian field theory are explained. Regarding the supersymmetric SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) model, Yukawa coupling and particle content are described. It should be noted that the Higgsino (chiral fermions associated with Higgs scalar) in general introduces anomaly in gauge currents. The simplest way out of such anomaly problem is to introduce Higgsino doublet in pair. (K.I.)

  16. Ozone modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NOx concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NOx coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NOx ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented

  17. Animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ellen A

    2010-01-01

    As clinical studies reveal that chemotherapeutic agents may impair several different cognitive domains in humans, the development of preclinical animal models is critical to assess the degree of chemotherapy-induced learning and memory deficits and to understand the underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, the effects of various cancer chemotherapeutic agents in rodents on sensory processing, conditioned taste aversion, conditioned emotional response, passive avoidance, spatial learning, cued memory, discrimination learning, delayed-matching-to-sample, novel-object recognition, electrophysiological recordings and autoshaping is reviewed. It appears at first glance that the effects of the cancer chemotherapy agents in these many different models are inconsistent. However, a literature is emerging that reveals subtle or unique changes in sensory processing, acquisition, consolidation and retrieval that are dose- and time-dependent. As more studies examine cancer chemotherapeutic agents alone and in combination during repeated treatment regimens, the animal models will become more predictive tools for the assessment of these impairments and the underlying neural mechanisms. The eventual goal is to collect enough data to enable physicians to make informed choices about therapeutic regimens for their patients and discover new avenues of alternative or complementary therapies that reduce or eliminate chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits. PMID:20738016

  18. Model checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, David L.

    1995-01-01

    Automatic formal verification methods for finite-state systems, also known as model-checking, successfully reduce labor costs since they are mostly automatic. Model checkers explicitly or implicitly enumerate the reachable state space of a system, whose behavior is described implicitly, perhaps by a program or a collection of finite automata. Simple properties, such as mutual exclusion or absence of deadlock, can be checked by inspecting individual states. More complex properties, such as lack of starvation, require search for cycles in the state graph with particular properties. Specifications to be checked may consist of built-in properties, such as deadlock or 'unspecified receptions' of messages, another program or implicit description, to be compared with a simulation, bisimulation, or language inclusion relation, or an assertion in one of several temporal logics. Finite-state verification tools are beginning to have a significant impact in commercial designs. There are many success stories of verification tools finding bugs in protocols or hardware controllers. In some cases, these tools have been incorporated into design methodology. Research in finite-state verification has been advancing rapidly, and is showing no signs of slowing down. Recent results include probabilistic algorithms for verification, exploitation of symmetry and independent events, and the use symbolic representations for Boolean functions and systems of linear inequalities. One of the most exciting areas for further research is the combination of model-checking with theorem-proving methods.

  19. Model Awal Dan Model Klasik Struktur Informasi

    OpenAIRE

    Widayati, Dwi

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes early models of information structure and classical models of information structure. Early models of information structure consist of (1) subject- predicate structure, (2) the early psychological model, (3) the communicative model, and (4) linguistics, psychology, and information structure. Classical models is begun from the Prague school, Halliday and the American structuralists, Chafe on givenness, and Chomsky on focus and presupposition. The most characteristic feat...

  20. Functional connectivity in slow-wave sleep: identification of synchronous cortical activity during wakefulness and sleep using time series analysis of electroencephalographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langheim, Frederick J P; Murphy, Michael; Riedner, Brady A; Tononi, Giulio

    2011-12-01

    Sleep is a behavioral state ideal for studying functional connectivity because it minimizes many sources of between-subject variability that confound waking analyses. This is particularly important for potential connectivity studies in mental illness where cognitive ability, internal milieu and active psychotic symptoms can vary widely across subjects. We, therefore, sought to adapt techniques applied to magnetoencephalography for use in high-density electroencephalography (EEG), the gold-standard in brain-recording methods during sleep. Autoregressive integrative moving average modeling was used to reduce spurious correlations between recording sites (electrodes) in order to identify functional networks. We hypothesized that identified network characteristics would be similar to those found with magnetoencephalography, and would demonstrate sleep stage-related differences in a control population. We analysed 60-s segments of low-artifact data from seven healthy human subjects during wakefulness and sleep. EEG analysis of eyes-closed wakefulness revealed widespread nearest-neighbor positive synchronous interactions, similar to magnetoencephalography, though less consistent across subjects. Rapid eye movement sleep demonstrated positive synchronous interactions akin to wakefulness but weaker. Slow-wave sleep (SWS), instead, showed strong positive interactions in a large left fronto-temporal-parietal cluster markedly more consistent across subjects. Comparison of connectivity from early SWS to SWS from a later sleep cycle indicated sleep-related reduction in connectivity in this region. The consistency of functional connectivity during SWS within and across subjects suggests this may be a promising technique for comparing functional connectivity between mental illness and health. PMID:21281369

  1. Towards a Multi Business Model Innovation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; JØrgensen, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of business model (BM) innovations related to a multi business model framework. The paper tries to answer the research questions: • What are the requirements for a multi business model innovation model (BMIM)? • How should a multi business model innovation model look like? Different generations of BMIMs are initially studied in the context of laying the baseline for how next generation multi BM Innovation model (BMIM) should look like. All generations of models are analyzed with the purpose of comparing the characteristics and challenges of previous generations of BMIMs. On behalf of these results and case analyses, the paper concludes by proposing a framework for a multi BMIM.

  2. Model Selection Principles in Misspecified Models

    CERN Document Server

    Lv, Jinchi

    2010-01-01

    Model selection is of fundamental importance to high dimensional modeling featured in many contemporary applications. Classical principles of model selection include the Kullback-Leibler divergence principle and the Bayesian principle, which lead to the Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion when models are correctly specified. Yet model misspecification is unavoidable when we have no knowledge of the true model or when we have the correct family of distributions but miss some true predictor. In this paper, we propose a family of semi-Bayesian principles for model selection in misspecified models, which combine the strengths of the two well-known principles. We derive asymptotic expansions of the semi-Bayesian principles in misspecified generalized linear models, which give the new semi-Bayesian information criteria (SIC). A specific form of SIC admits a natural decomposition into the negative maximum quasi-log-likelihood, a penalty on model dimensionality, and a penalty on model miss...

  3. CISNET lung models: Comparison of model assumptions and model structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Pamela M.; Hazelton, William; Kimmel, Marek; Clarke, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Sophisticated modeling techniques can be powerful tools to help us understand the effects of cancer control interventions on population trends in cancer incidence and mortality. Readers of journal articles are however rarely supplied with modeling details. Six modeling groups collaborated as part of the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET) to investigate the contribution of US tobacco control efforts towards reducing lung cancer deaths over the period 1975 to 2000. The models included in this monograph were developed independently and use distinct, complementary approaches towards modeling the natural history of lung cancer. The models used the same data for inputs and agreed on the design of the analysis and the outcome measures. This article highlights aspects of the models that are most relevant to similarities of or differences between the results. Structured comparisons can increase the transparency of these complex models. PMID:22882887

  4. Modelling Sonoluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Chodos, A; Chodos, Alan; Groff, Sarah

    1999-01-01

    In single-bubble sonoluminescence, a bubble trapped by a sound wave in a flask of liquid is forced to expand and contract; exactly once per cycle, the bubble emits a very sharp ($< 50 ps$) pulse of visible light. This is a robust phenomenon observable to the naked eye, yet the mechanism whereby the light is produced is not well understood. One model that has been proposed is that the light is "vacuum radiation" generated by the coupling of the electromagnetic fields to the surface of the bubble. In this paper, we simulate vacuum radiation by solving Maxwell's equations with an additional term that couples the field to the bubble's motion. We show that, in the static case originally considered by Casimir, we reproduce Casimir's result. In a simple purely time-dependent example, we find that an instability occurs and the pulse of radiation grows exponentially. In the more realistic case of spherically-symmetric bubble motion, we again find exponential growth in the context of a small-radius approximation.

  5. Modeling sonoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In single-bubble sonoluminescence, a bubble trapped by a sound wave in a flask of liquid is forced to expand and contract; exactly once per cycle, the bubble emits a very sharp (<50 ps) pulse of visible light. This is a robust phenomenon observable to the naked eye, yet the mechanism whereby the light is produced is not well understood. One model that has been proposed is that the light is open-quotes vacuum radiationclose quotes generated by the coupling of the electromagnetic fields to the surface of the bubble. In this paper, we simulate vacuum radiation by solving Maxwell's equations with an additional term that couples the field to the bubble's motion. We show that, in the static case originally considered by Casimir [Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Nel. 51, 783 (1948)], we reproduce Casimir's result. In a simple purely time-dependent example, we find that an instability occurs and the pulse of radiation grows exponentially. In the more realistic case of spherically symmetric bubble motion, we again find exponential growth in the context of a small-radius approximation. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  6. The IMACLIM model; Le modele IMACLIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document provides annexes to the IMACLIM model which propose an actualized description of IMACLIM, model allowing the design of an evaluation tool of the greenhouse gases reduction policies. The model is described in a version coupled with the POLES, technical and economical model of the energy industry. Notations, equations, sources, processing and specifications are proposed and detailed. (A.L.B.)

  7. I&C Modeling in SPAR Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. Schroeder

    2012-06-01

    The Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models for the U.S. commercial nuclear power plants currently have very limited instrumentation and control (I&C) modeling [1]. Most of the I&C components in the operating plant SPAR models are related to the reactor protection system. This was identified as a finding during the industry peer review of SPAR models. While the Emergency Safeguard Features (ESF) actuation and control system was incorporated into the Peach Bottom Unit 2 SPAR model in a recent effort [2], various approaches to expend resources for detailed I&C modeling in other SPAR models are investigated.

  8. Concept Modeling vs. Data modeling in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This chapter shows the usefulness of terminological concept modeling as a first step in data modeling. First, we introduce terminological concept modeling with terminological ontologies, i.e. concept systems enriched with characteristics modeled as feature specifications. This enables a formal account of the inheritance of characteristics and allows us to introduce a number of principles and constraints which render concept modeling more coherent than earlier approaches. Second, we explain how terminological ontologies can be used as the basis for developing conceptual and logical data models. We also show how to map from the various elements in the terminological ontology to elements in the data models, and explain the differences between the models. Finally the usefulness of terminological ontologies as a prerequisite for IT development and data modeling is illustrated with examples from the Danish public sector (a user interface for drug prescription and a data model for food control).

  9. CISNET lung models: Comparison of model assumptions and model structures

    OpenAIRE

    Mcmahon, Pamela M.; Hazelton, William; Kimmel, Marek; Clarke, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Sophisticated modeling techniques can be powerful tools to help us understand the effects of cancer control interventions on population trends in cancer incidence and mortality. Readers of journal articles are however rarely supplied with modeling details.

  10. Example of a stable wormhole in general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Bronnikov, K. A.; Lipatova, L. N.; Novikov, I. D.; Shatskiy, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    We study a static, spherically symmetric wormhole model whose metric coincides with that of the so-called Ellis wormhole but the material source of gravity consists of a perfect fluid with negative density and a source-free radial electric or magnetic field. For a certain class of fluid equations of state, it has been shown that this wormhole model is linearly stable under both spherically symmetric perturbations and axial perturbations of arbitrary multipolarity. A similar ...

  11. Nucleon polarization and the nuclear charge operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of nucleon polarization on the nuclear charge operator have been evaluated in a constituent quark model. At momentum transfer q approx. equal to 4 fm-1 monopole, dipole and quadrupole excitations are of equal importance. In a harmonic oscillator model for 3He all multipolarities give negative contributions, leading to an overall contribution comparable to the relativistic pair effect. The influence of realistic wave functions, coupling constants and off-shell form factors is discussed. (orig.)

  12. The effect of thermal boundary conditions on dynamos driven by internal heating

    OpenAIRE

    Hori, K.; Wicht, J.; Christensen, U. R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The early dynamos of Mars and Earth probably operated without an inner core being present. They were thus exclusively driven by secular cooling and radiogenic heating which can both be modeled by homogeneously distributed heat sources. Some previous dynamo simulations that explored this driving mode found dipole dominated magnetic fields, while other reported multipolar configurations. Since these models differed both in the employed outer thermal boundary conditions and i...

  13. Armas estratégicas e poder no sistema internacional: o advento das armas de energia direta e seu impacto potencial sobre a guerra e a distribuição multipolar de capacidades / Strategic weapons and power in international system: the arise of direct energy weapons and their potential impact over the war and multipolar distribution of capabilities

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabrício Schiavo, Ávila; José Miguel, Martins; Marco, Cepik.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O pós-Guerra Fria (1991-2006) apresenta uma mudança significativa no cenário estratégico: a maior acessibilidade da tecnologia militar e o surgimento de novas armas capazes de modificar o poder coercitivo dos países - como as armas de energia direta - acabam pondo em xeque a ideia de que a primazia [...] nuclear é condição suficiente para garantir a unipolaridade. Focando-se no atual recrudescimento das tensões entre EUA e Rússia - especialmente com a proposta norte-americana de implementação do Escudo Antimíssil no Leste Europeu - e analisando as relações de poder entre os três países, procuramos revelar que tipo de competição ocorrerá no sistema internacional nas próximas décadas. O presente artigo analisa as reais possibilidades de que a primazia nuclear norte-americana se torne efetiva, uma vez que, para tanto, é necessário o desarmamento estratégico das demais potências. Como uma guerra nuclear entre os três países possui um custo político muito elevado, as disputas tendem a ser decididas na esfera das operações. Para ilustrar esta última afirmação, usamos um cenário contrafactual de guerra nuclear limitada entre Estados Unidos, Rússia e China, por meio do qual tentamos evidenciar as precondições táticas e operacionais para uma eventual vitória da coalizão sino-russa. Abstract in english The evolution of the Post-Cold War (1991-2006) international system shows a significant amount of change regarding the strategic capabilities of United States, Russia, and China. The rise of a new class of strategic weapons called directed energy weapons (lasers and high power microwaves), as well a [...] s the great costs associated with the quest for nuclear primacy, demand closer examination of the current assumption about the links between nuclear primacy and unipolar distribution of power in the International System. Starting with the current tensions between US and Russia, we try to reveal in this article what kind of competition might be observed in the international system over the next decade. The present work analyzes the real possibilities of the USA achieving an effective nuclear primacy condition, which requires the complete disarmament of all other powers. Since a nuclear war between the three countries has a very high political cost, disputes tend to be settled on the operational sphere. In order to demonstrate this final point, we made comparative use of two nuclear war scenarios. The article concludes by establishing the tactical and operational conditions that Russia and China seems to counting with in order to defeat United States if a shooting war comes.

  14. Armas estratégicas e poder no sistema internacional: o advento das armas de energia direta e seu impacto potencial sobre a guerra e a distribuição multipolar de capacidades Strategic weapons and power in international system: the arise of direct energy weapons and their potential impact over the war and multipolar distribution of capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Schiavo Ávila

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O pós-Guerra Fria (1991-2006 apresenta uma mudança significativa no cenário estratégico: a maior acessibilidade da tecnologia militar e o surgimento de novas armas capazes de modificar o poder coercitivo dos países - como as armas de energia direta - acabam pondo em xeque a ideia de que a primazia nuclear é condição suficiente para garantir a unipolaridade. Focando-se no atual recrudescimento das tensões entre EUA e Rússia - especialmente com a proposta norte-americana de implementação do Escudo Antimíssil no Leste Europeu - e analisando as relações de poder entre os três países, procuramos revelar que tipo de competição ocorrerá no sistema internacional nas próximas décadas. O presente artigo analisa as reais possibilidades de que a primazia nuclear norte-americana se torne efetiva, uma vez que, para tanto, é necessário o desarmamento estratégico das demais potências. Como uma guerra nuclear entre os três países possui um custo político muito elevado, as disputas tendem a ser decididas na esfera das operações. Para ilustrar esta última afirmação, usamos um cenário contrafactual de guerra nuclear limitada entre Estados Unidos, Rússia e China, por meio do qual tentamos evidenciar as precondições táticas e operacionais para uma eventual vitória da coalizão sino-russa.The evolution of the Post-Cold War (1991-2006 international system shows a significant amount of change regarding the strategic capabilities of United States, Russia, and China. The rise of a new class of strategic weapons called directed energy weapons (lasers and high power microwaves, as well as the great costs associated with the quest for nuclear primacy, demand closer examination of the current assumption about the links between nuclear primacy and unipolar distribution of power in the International System. Starting with the current tensions between US and Russia, we try to reveal in this article what kind of competition might be observed in the international system over the next decade. The present work analyzes the real possibilities of the USA achieving an effective nuclear primacy condition, which requires the complete disarmament of all other powers. Since a nuclear war between the three countries has a very high political cost, disputes tend to be settled on the operational sphere. In order to demonstrate this final point, we made comparative use of two nuclear war scenarios. The article concludes by establishing the tactical and operational conditions that Russia and China seems to counting with in order to defeat United States if a shooting war comes.

  15. Bayesian model comparison of solar radiation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauret, Philippe; Riviere, Carine [Lab. de Physique du Batiment et des Systemes, Saint-Denis (France)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a new statistical method: the Bayesian Model Comparison (BMC) method for selecting an adequate hourly diffuse fraction correlation. Six models are investigated and compared according to the BMC method. The selection of the best model is based on a Bayesian criterion called the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC). In this article, we demonstrate the usefulness of the DIC criterion in the model selection process and we issue a caution regarding the selection of a model with standard statistical methods. The aim of this paper is also to introduce the DIC to the solar radiation modeling community. (orig.)

  16. Cognitive models embedded in system simulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If we are to discuss and consider cognitive models, we must first come to grips with two questions: (1) What is cognition; (2) What is a model. Presumably, the answers to these questions can provide a basis for defining a cognitive model. Accordingly, this paper first places these two questions into perspective. Then, cognitive models are set within the context of computer simulation models and a number of computer simulations of cognitive processes are described. Finally, pervasive issues are discussed vis-a-vis cognitive modeling in the computer simulation context

  17. Models for preequilibrium decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a qualitative discussion of the most substantial features of preequilibrium decay, four models related to this mechanism have been presented: the exciton model, the Harp-Miller-Berne (H.M.B.) model, the hybrid model, the geometry-dependent model (G.D.H.). This includes: formulation of the model, comparisons with experimental data, associated computer codes, and, finally, intercomparisons of models. (author)

  18. Orthogonal Meta-Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina Gorlach; Frank Leymann

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces meta-modeling hierarchies additional to the conventional meta-modeling hierarchy in a model-driven architecture. Additional hierarchies are introduced orthogonal to the conventional meta-modeling hierarchy for an appropriate correlation of information on combined hierarchies. In particular, orthogonal meta-modeling enables the grouping of models on the same conventional meta-modeling layer based on additional semantic dependencies. For the enhancement of conventional m...

  19. QSMSR QUALITATIVE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Abdullah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software architecture design and requirement engineering are core and independent areas of engineering. A lot of research, education and practice are carried on Requirement elicitation and doing refine it, but it is a major issue of engineering. QSMSR model act as a bridge between requirement and design there is a huge gap between these two areas of software architecture and requirement engineering. The QSMSR model divide into two sub model qualitative model and Principal model in this research we focus on Qualitative model which further divide into two sub models fabricated model and classified model. Classified model make the sub groups of the role and match it with components. The Fabricated model link QSMSR Principal Model to an architecture design. At the end it provides the QSMSR Architecture model of the system as output.

  20. Model Checking of Boolean Process Models

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Christoph; Wehler, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    In the field of Business Process Management formal models for the control flow of business processes have been designed since more than 15 years. Which methods are best suited to verify the bulk of these models? The first step is to select a formal language which fixes the semantics of the models. We adopt the language of Boolean systems as reference language for Boolean process models. Boolean systems form a simple subclass of coloured Petri nets. Their characteristics are ...

  1. Nonlinear empirical modeling using local PLS models

    OpenAIRE

    Aarhus, Lars Thore

    1994-01-01

    This thesis proposes some new iterative local modeling algorithms for the multivariate approximation problem (mapping from R P to R). Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS)is used as the local linear modeling technique. The local models are interpolated by means of normalized Gaussian weight functions, providing a smooth total nonlinear model. The algorithms are tested on both artificial and real world set of data, yielding good predictions compared to other linear and nonlinear techniques.

  2. BIM Modeling For Contractors - Improving Model Takeoffs

    OpenAIRE

    André Monteiro; João Pedro Poças Martins

    2012-01-01

    As industry stakeholders investigate on the best uses for Building Information Modeling (BIM), its shortcomings begin to be realized, the need for modeling parameterization becomes more evident and methods to better approach these issues developed. Automatic quantity takeoff is one of the most important BIM-based features. Research conducted by the authors shows that in order to be successfully used, quantity takeoff requires specific model definition. Adapting a model for qua...

  3. Automated data model evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modeling process is essential phase within information systems development and implementation. This paper presents methods and techniques for analysis and evaluation of data model correctness. Recent methodologies and development results regarding automation of the process of model correctness analysis and relations with ontology tools has been presented. Key words: Database modeling, Data model correctness, Evaluation

  4. Semantic Business Process Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Markovic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a process-oriented business modeling framework based on semantic technologies. The framework consists of modeling languages, methods, and tools that allow for semantic modeling of business motivation, business policies and rules, and business processes. Quality of the proposed modeling framework is evaluated based on the modeling content of SAP Solution Composer and several real-world business scenarios.

  5. China model: Energy modeling the modern dynasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.

    1996-05-01

    In this paper a node-based microeconomic analysis is used to model the Chinese energy system. This model is run across multiple periods employing Lagrangian Relaxation techniques to achieve general equilibrium. Later, carbon dioxide emissions are added and the model is run to answer the question, {open_quotes}How can greenhouse gas emissions be reduced{close_quotes}?

  6. Coalgebraic models for combinatorial model categories

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, Michael; Riehl, Emily

    2014-01-01

    We show that the category of algebraically cofibrant objects in a combinatorial and simplicial model category A has a model structure that is left-induced from that on A. In particular it follows that any presentable model category is Quillen equivalent (via a single Quillen equivalence) to one in which all objects are cofibrant.

  7. Solicited abstract: Global hydrological modeling and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chong-Yu

    2010-05-01

    The origins of rainfall-runoff modeling in the broad sense can be found in the middle of the 19th century arising in response to three types of engineering problems: (1) urban sewer design, (2) land reclamation drainage systems design, and (3) reservoir spillway design. Since then numerous empirical, conceptual and physically-based models are developed including event based models using unit hydrograph concept, Nash's linear reservoir models, HBV model, TOPMODEL, SHE model, etc. From the late 1980s, the evolution of global and continental-scale hydrology has placed new demands on hydrologic modellers. The macro-scale hydrological (global and regional scale) models were developed on the basis of the following motivations (Arenll, 1999). First, for a variety of operational and planning purposes, water resource managers responsible for large regions need to estimate the spatial variability of resources over large areas, at a spatial resolution finer than can be provided by observed data alone. Second, hydrologists and water managers are interested in the effects of land-use and climate variability and change over a large geographic domain. Third, there is an increasing need of using hydrologic models as a base to estimate point and non-point sources of pollution loading to streams. Fourth, hydrologists and atmospheric modellers have perceived weaknesses in the representation of hydrological processes in regional and global climate models, and developed global hydrological models to overcome the weaknesses of global climate models. Considerable progress in the development and application of global hydrological models has been achieved to date, however, large uncertainties still exist considering the model structure including large scale flow routing, parameterization, input data, etc. This presentation will focus on the global hydrological models, and the discussion includes (1) types of global hydrological models, (2) procedure of global hydrological model development, (3) state-of-the-art of existing global hydrological models, and (4) challenges. Acknowledgment: Thanks to Lebing Gong, Elin Widén-Nilsson, and Sven Halldin of Uppsala University for the team work in global hydrological models.

  8. Weather Forecast Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather Forecast Models from the NOAA, provides links to sites posting output from many of their numerical models. These models attempt to simulate the state of the atmosphere at various times in the future.

  9. Editor's Roundtable: Model behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inez Liftig

    2010-11-01

    Models are manageable representations of objects, concepts, and phenomena, and are everywhere in science. Models are "thinking tools" for scientists and have always played a key role in the development of scientific knowledge. Models of the solar system,

  10. Mathematics and Statistics Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developed by Bob MacKay, Clark College. What are Mathematical and Statistical Models These types of models are obviously related, but there are also real differences between them. Mathematical Models: grow out of ...

  11. Dynamic vector hysteresis modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of considering dynamic effects in three vector hysteresis models is investigated. The friction model of oriented Preisach operators which rotate due to the torque exerted by the external field, the coercive spheres model, the 3D analogue of the classical Preisach model, and a further collective model based on micromagnetic analogy are considered. Furthermore, the 'external' dynamic generalization of the static hysteresis models is introduced for the vector case

  12. Modeling of geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    During the last decade the use of numerical modeling for geothermal resource evaluation has grown significantly, and new modeling approaches have been developed. In this paper we present a summary of the present status in numerical modeling of geothermal systems, emphasizing recent developments. Different modeling approaches are described and their applicability discussed. The various modeling tasks, including natural-state, exploitation, injection, multi-component and subsidence modeling, are illustrated with geothermal field examples. 99 refs., 14 figs.

  13. Predictive Models for Music

    OpenAIRE

    Paiement, Jean-franc?ois; Grandvalet, Yves; Bengio, Samy

    2008-01-01

    Modeling long-term dependencies in time series has proved very difficult to achieve with traditional machine learning methods. This problem occurs when considering music data. In this paper, we introduce generative models for melodies. We decompose melodic modeling into two subtasks. We first propose a rhythm model based on the distributions of distances between subsequences. Then, we define a generative model for melodies given chords and rhythms based on modeling sequences of Narmour featur...

  14. Practical Marginalized Multilevel Models

    OpenAIRE

    Griswold, Michael E.; Swihart, Bruce J.; Caffo, Brian S.; Zeger, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    Clustered data analysis is characterized by the need to describe both systematic variation in a mean model and cluster-dependent random variation in an association model. Marginalized multilevel models embrace the robustness and interpretations of a marginal mean model, while retaining the likelihood inference capabilities and flexible dependence structures of a conditional association model. Although there has been increasing recognition of the attractiveness of marginalized multilevel model...

  15. Survival modelling with frailty

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In the survival analysis literature, the standard model for data analysis is the semi-parametric Proportional Hazard (PH) model of Cox (1972). MacKenzie (1996) introduced the Generalised Time Dependent Logistic (GTDL) family of non-PH parametric survival models, which compete with Cox’s PH model. This thesis develops the GTDL model side-by-side with the PH Weibull model. In many datasets, some attributes that might be deemed relevant may not be available. The effect of ...

  16. Assessing Financial Model Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Barrieu, Pauline; Scandolo, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Model risk has a huge impact on any risk measurement procedure and its quantification is therefore a crucial step. In this paper, we introduce three quantitative measures of model risk when choosing a particular reference model within a given class: the absolute measure of model risk, the relative measure of model risk and the local measure of model risk. Each of the measures has a specific purpose and so allows for flexibility. We illustrate the various notions by studying ...

  17. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M and O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the repository design. These downstream models include the hydrologic flow models and the radionuclide transport models. All the models and the repository design, in turn, will be incorporated into the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of the potential radioactive waste repository block and vicinity to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a host for the repository. The interrelationship of the three components of the ISM and their interface with downstream uses are illustrated in Figure 2

  18. Multilevel modeling using R

    CERN Document Server

    Finch, W Holmes; Kelley, Ken

    2014-01-01

    A powerful tool for analyzing nested designs in a variety of fields, multilevel/hierarchical modeling allows researchers to account for data collected at multiple levels. Multilevel Modeling Using R provides you with a helpful guide to conducting multilevel data modeling using the R software environment.After reviewing standard linear models, the authors present the basics of multilevel models and explain how to fit these models using R. They then show how to employ multilevel modeling with longitudinal data and demonstrate the valuable graphical options in R. The book also describes models fo

  19. Simplicity, Complexity and Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Christie, Mike; Dawid, Philip; Senn, Stephen S

    2011-01-01

    Several points of disagreement exist between different modelling traditions as to whether complex models are always better than simpler models, as to how to combine results from different models and how to propagate model uncertainty into forecasts. This book represents the result of collaboration between scientists from many disciplines to show how these conflicts can be resolved. Key Features: Introduces important concepts in modelling, outlining different traditions in the use of simple and complex modelling in statistics. Provides numerous case studies on complex modelling, such as clima

  20. Modelling Food Webs

    CERN Document Server

    Drossel, B

    2002-01-01

    We review theoretical approaches to the understanding of food webs. After an overview of the available food web data, we discuss three different classes of models. The first class comprise static models, which assign links between species according to some simple rule. The second class are dynamical models, which include the population dynamics of several interacting species. We focus on the question of the stability of such webs. The third class are species assembly models and evolutionary models, which build webs starting from a few species by adding new species through a process of "invasion" (assembly models) or "speciation" (evolutionary models). Evolutionary models are found to be capable of building large stable webs.

  1. Comparative Protein Structure Modeling Using MODELLER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Benjamin; Sali, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Functional characterization of a protein sequence is one of the most frequent problems in biology. This task is usually facilitated by accurate three-dimensional (3-D) structure of the studied protein. In the absence of an experimentally determined structure, comparative or homology modeling can sometimes provide a useful 3-D model for a protein that is related to at least one known protein structure. Comparative modeling predicts the 3-D structure of a given protein sequence (target) based primarily on its alignment to one or more proteins of known structure (templates). The prediction process consists of fold assignment, target-template alignment, model building, and model evaluation. This unit describes how to calculate comparative models using the program MODELLER and discusses all four steps of comparative modeling, frequently observed errors, and some applications. Modeling lactate dehydrogenase from Trichomonas vaginalis (TvLDH) is described as an example. The download and installation of the MODELLER software is also described. Curr. Protoc. Bioinform. 47:5.6.1-5.6.32. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25199792

  2. Tailoring the interactions between self-propelled bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Caussin, Jean-baptiste; Bartolo, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We classify the interactions between self-propelled particles moving at a constant speed from symmetry considerations. We establish a systematic expansion for the two-body forces in the spirit of a multipolar expansion. This formulation makes it possible to rationalize most of the models introduced so far within a common framework. We distinguish between three classes of physical interactions: (i) potential forces, (ii) inelastic collisions and (iii) non-reciprocal interacti...

  3. On electromagnetic transitions between highly excited states of deformed odd-A nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strength function method developed earlier is generalized to calculation of transition probabilities between states of deformed nuclei lying at excitations of an order of the nucleon binding energy and lower. The structure of these states is described within the quasiparticle-phonon model. The used phonon operator contains the components of different multipolarities of electric and magnetic types for the projection ? of its momentum onto the nucleus symmetry axis. The results of methodical calculations are discussed. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Transition probabilities between the first excited state and the ground state in the N = 81 nuclei 139Ce, 141Nd, 143Sm and 145Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The half-life of the 108 keV level in 143Sm (T1sub(/)2 = 800 +- 50 ps) has been measured by delayed e--? coincidences and the multipolarity of the deexciting transition has been determined (E2/M1 139Ce, 141Nd and 145Gd from the literature. These systematics are interpreted in terms of intermediate-coupling model calculations. (orig.)

  5. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate records on momentum reconstruction procedure for a nonfocusing spectrometer with wide-aperture analyzing magnet and nonuniform field, analysis of data from 4? experiments on relativistic nuclei beams at Dubna synchrophasotron based on automodelity, production of the cumulative particles in the FRITIOF model, decay of 152Tb and transitions in 152Gd with E0 multipolarities and first experiment on relativistic deuteron extraction from the Nuclotron with a bent crystal

  6. ROCK PROPERTIES MODEL ANALYSIS MODEL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton Lum

    2002-02-04

    The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) is to document Rock Properties Model (RPM) 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties models are intended principally for use as input to numerical physical-process modeling, such as of ground-water flow and/or radionuclide transport. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. This work was conducted in accordance with the following planning documents: WA-0344, ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1998'' (SNL 1997, WA-0358), ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1999'' (SNL 1999), and the technical development plan, Rock Properties Model Version 3.1, (CRWMS M&O 1999c). The Interim Change Notice (ICNs), ICN 02 and ICN 03, of this AMR were prepared as part of activities being conducted under the Technical Work Plan, TWP-NBS-GS-000003, ''Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model, Process Model Report, Revision 01'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The purpose of ICN 03 is to record changes in data input status due to data qualification and verification activities. These work plans describe the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and implementing procedures for model construction. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The work scope for this activity consists of the following: (1) Conversion of the input data (laboratory measured porosity data, x-ray diffraction mineralogy, petrophysical calculations of bound water, and petrophysical calculations of porosity) for each borehole into stratigraphic coordinates; (2) Re-sampling and merging of data sets; (3) Development of geostatistical simulations of porosity; (4) Generation of derivative property models via linear coregionalization with porosity; (5) Post-processing of the simulated models to impart desired secondary geologic attributes and to create summary and uncertainty models; and (6) Conversion of the models into real-world coordinates. The conversion to real world coordinates is performed as part of the integration of the RPM into the Integrated Site Model (ISM) 3.1; this activity is not part of the current analysis. The ISM provides a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site and consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) RPM, which is the subject of this AMR; and (3) Mineralogic Model. The interrelationship of the three components of the ISM and their interface with downstream uses are illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 2 shows the geographic boundaries of the RPM and other component models of the ISM.

  7. MARS software model for modeling modular manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Gerard T.; Fryer, J. A.; Schenker, Paul S.

    2001-10-01

    In this paper we describe the application of the MARS model, for modelling and reasoning about modular robot systems, to modular manipulators. The MARS model provides a mechanism for describing robotic components and a method for reasoning about the interaction of these components in modular manipulator configurations. It specifically aims to articulate functionality that is a property of the whole manipulator, but which is not represented in any one component. This functionality arises, in particular, through the capacity for modules to inherit functionality from each other. The paper also uses the case of modular manipulators to illustrate a number of features of the MARS model, including the use of abstract and concrete module classes, and to identify some current limitations of the model. The latter provide the basis for ongoing development of the model.

  8. Integrated Site Model Process Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Site Model (ISM) provides a framework for discussing the geologic features and properties of Yucca Mountain, which is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for the disposal of nuclear waste. The ISM is important to the evaluation of the site because it provides 3-D portrayals of site geologic, rock property, and mineralogic characteristics and their spatial variabilities. The ISM is not a single discrete model; rather, it is a set of static representations that provide three-dimensional (3-D), computer representations of site geology, selected hydrologic and rock properties, and mineralogic-characteristics data. These representations are manifested in three separate model components of the ISM: the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), the Rock Properties Model (RPM), and the Mineralogic Model (MM). The GFM provides a representation of the 3-D stratigraphy and geologic structure. Based on the framework provided by the GFM, the RPM and MM provide spatial simulations of the rock and hydrologic properties, and mineralogy, respectively. Functional summaries of the component models and their respective output are provided in Section 1.4. Each of the component models of the ISM considers different specific aspects of the site geologic setting. Each model was developed using unique methodologies and inputs, and the determination of the modeled units for each of the components is dependent on the requirements of that component. Therefore, while the ISM represents the integration of the rock properties and mineralogy into a geologic framework, the discussion of ISM construction and results is most appropriately presented in terms of the three separate components. This Process Model Report (PMR) summarizes the individual component models of the ISM (the GFM, RPM, and MM) and describes how the three components are constructed and combined to form the ISM

  9. A future of the model organism model

    OpenAIRE

    Rine, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    Changes in technology are fundamentally reframing our concept of what constitutes a model organism. Nevertheless, research advances in the more traditional model organisms have enabled fresh and exciting opportunities for young scientists to establish new careers and offer the hope of comprehensive understanding of fundamental processes in life. New advances in translational research can be expected to heighten the importance of basic research in model organisms and expand opportunities. Howe...

  10. [Microcirculation stream modeling: hydromechanic and acoustic models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, A A; Skedina, M A; Pichulin, V S

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to attempt mathematical modeling of ultrasonic scanning tissue section in order to discern signals from erythrocytes and leucocytes that is displayed as Doppler images. Hydromechanic and acoustic microcirculation models have been constructed for a 20 MHz ultrasonic sensor. Results of the modeling showed that ultrasonic blood cells differentiation will require complex analysis of amplitude and frequency parameters of echoed signal. PMID:20169740

  11. Model Selection for Gaussian Mixture Models

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Tao; Peng, Heng; Zhang, Kun

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an important issue in finite mixture modelling, the selection of the number of mixing components. We propose a new penalized likelihood method for model selection of finite multivariate Gaussian mixture models. The proposed method is shown to be statistically consistent in determining of the number of components. A modified EM algorithm is developed to simultaneously select the number of components and to estimate the mixing weights, i.e. the mix...

  12. Models of mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Klarbring, Anders

    2006-01-01

    A new universal approach to modelling in mechanicsA larger scope than existing texts on continuum mechanicsGives a step-by-step approach to modellingGives a platform for deriving new models of applied useNovel treatments of classical models off, e.g., pipe flow and beams

  13. Multivariate GARCH models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    2008-01-01

    This article contains a review of multivariate GARCH models. Most common GARCH models are presented and their properties considered. This also includes nonparametric and semiparametric models. Existing specification and misspecification tests are discussed. Finally, there is an empirical example in which several multivariate GARCH models are fitted to the same data set and the results compared.

  14. Fire Model Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMET

    2008-02-05

    The Fire Model Matrix is an on-line resource that presents four fire community models in a matrix that facilitates the exploration of the characteristics of each model. As part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course, this matrix is meant to sensitize forecasters to the use of weather data in these fire models to forecast potential fire activity.

  15. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including description of biological phosphorus removal, physicalchemical processes, hydraulics and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2D/3D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise. Efficient and good modeling practice therefore requires the use of a proper set of guidelines, thus grounding the modeling studies on a general and systematic framework. Last but not least, general limitations of WWTP models – more specifically activated sludge models – are introduced since these define a boundary of validity for WWTP model applications.

  16. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including description of biological phosphorus removal, physical–chemical processes, hydraulics, and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2-D/3-D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise. Efficient and good modeling practice therefore requires the use of a proper set of guidelines, thus grounding the modeling studies on a general and systematic framework. Last but not least, general limitations of WWTP models – more specifically, activated sludge models – are introduced since these define a boundary of validity for WWTP model applications.

  17. The Rater Bundle Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark; Hoskens, Machteld

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Rater Bundle Model, an item response model for repeated ratings of student work. Applies the model to real and simulated data to illustrate the approach, which was motivated by the observation that when repeated ratings occur, the assumption of conditional independence is violated, and current item response models can then…

  18. Objective Bayes model selection in probit models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Novelo, Luis; Moreno, Elías; Casella, George

    2012-02-20

    We describe a new variable selection procedure for categorical responses where the candidate models are all probit regression models. The procedure uses objective intrinsic priors for the model parameters, which do not depend on tuning parameters, and ranks the models for the different subsets of covariates according to their model posterior probabilities. When the number of covariates is moderate or large, the number of potential models can be very large, and for those cases, we derive a new stochastic search algorithm that explores the potential sets of models driven by their model posterior probabilities. The algorithm allows the user to control the dimension of the candidate models and thus can handle situations when the number of covariates exceed the number of observations. We assess, through simulations, the performance of the procedure and apply the variable selector to a gene expression data set, where the response is whether a patient exhibits pneumonia. Software needed to run the procedures is available in the R package varselectIP. PMID:22162041

  19. Modelling Holocene climate trends: A model intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Gerrit

    2013-04-01

    For the paleomodel intercomparison, we compared the results from scenarios with identical forcing for the mid-to-late Holocene period: varying Earth's orbital parameters, fixed level of greenhouse gas concentrations, fixed land-sea mask and orography. 18 paleoclimate modelling groups are involved in this initiative, working on transient Holocene simulations. One major issue of both the modelling and reconstruction side were the quantification of uncertainties, and the evaluation of trend and variability patterns beyond a single proxy and beyond a single model simulation. The goal is to obtain robust results of trend patterns, seasonality changes, as well as transitions on a regional scale. The major objective is to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of temperature and precipitation changes during Holocene as derived from integrations with a set comprehensive global climate models (GCMs), Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs), as well as conceptual-statistical models. In the conceptual-statistical model by Laepple and Lohmann (2009) a rigorous simple concept is proposed: The temperature response on astronomical timescales has the same function as the response to seasonal insolation variations. The general pattern of surface temperatures in the models shows a high latitude cooling and a low latitude warming. Our analysis shows common patterns of temperature changes, especially for the respective summer seasons. This is a common feature for all model considered. Due to strong differences in atmospheric dynamics and sea ice, we find significant differences in the winter patterns. The precipitation trends show a clear difference between GCMs and EMICs mainly because the treatment of the hydological cycle in the tropics. Most models show a southward movement of the ITCZ. Using statistical analysis of the model variability modes and their amplitude during the Holocene, we reveal a strong heterogeneity in temperature and precipitation pattern and no common response in trend and variability, although a tendency towards NAO- and SOI- (El Nino-like) is detected. Our approach is to obtain, through ensemble runs for climate model output, a range of solutions that can be then compared and evaluated for their consistency with the range of uncertainty given by the palaeoclimate proxies. This approach allows a much more congruent way of comparison between proxy data and model result because both investigations will provide a range of possible climate change where the errors in the estimates are accounted for. We compare the ocean temperature evolution of the Holocene as simulated by climate models and reconstructed from marine temperature proxies. Independently of the choice of the climate model, we observe significant mismatches between modelled and reconstructed amplitudes in the trends for the last 6000 years.

  20. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity of design. Three distinctions are drawn through which to develop this discussion of models in an architectural context. An examination of these distinctions serves to nuance particular characteristics and roles of models, the modelling activity itself and those engaged in it.

  1. Conceptual Model for Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Fedaghi, Sabah Al; Fadel, Zahraa

    2009-01-01

    A variety of idealized models of communication systems exist, and all may have something in common. Starting with Shannons communication model and ending with the OSI model, this paper presents progressively more advanced forms of modeling of communication systems by tying communication models together based on the notion of flow. The basic communication process is divided into different spheres (sources, channels, and destinations), each with its own five interior stages, receiving, processing, creating, releasing, and transferring of information. The flow of information is ontologically distinguished from the flow of physical signals, accordingly, Shannons model, network based OSI models, and TCP IP are redesigned.

  2. Validation of HEDR models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project has developed a set of computer models for estimating the possible radiation doses that individuals may have received from past Hanford Site operations. This document describes the validation of these models. In the HEDR Project, the model validation exercise consisted of comparing computational model estimates with limited historical field measurements and experimental measurements that are independent of those used to develop the models. The results of any one test do not mean that a model is valid. Rather, the collection of tests together provide a level of confidence that the HEDR models are valid

  3. Modeling Epidemic Network Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a failure propagation model for transport networks when multiple failures occur resulting in an epidemic. We model the Susceptible Infected Disabled (SID) epidemic model and validate it by comparing it to analytical solutions. Furthermore, we evaluate the SID model’s behavior and impact on the network performance, as well as the severity of the infection spreading. The simulations are carried out in OPNET Modeler. The model provides an important input to epidemic connection recovery mechanisms, and can due to its flexibility and versatility be used to evaluate multiple epidemic scenarios in various network types.

  4. Meta-model Pruning

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Sagar; Moha, Naouel; Baudry, Benoit; Je?ze?quel, Jean-marc

    2009-01-01

    Large and complex meta-models such as those of Uml and its profiles are growing due to modelling and inter-operability needs of numerous stakeholders. The complexity of such meta-models has led to coining of the term meta-muddle. Individual users often exercise only a small view of a meta-muddle for tasks ranging from model creation to construction of model transformations. What is the effective meta-model that represents this view? We present a flexible meta-model pruning algorithm and tool ...

  5. Calibrated Properties Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00. These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions

  6. Calibrated Properties Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00 (CRWMS M and O 1999c). These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions

  7. Protein Models Comparator

    CERN Document Server

    Widera, Pawe?

    2011-01-01

    The process of comparison of computer generated protein structural models is an important element of protein structure prediction. It has many uses including model quality evaluation, selection of the final models from a large set of candidates or optimisation of parameters of energy functions used in template free modelling and refinement. Although many protein comparison methods are available online on numerous web servers, their ability to handle a large scale model comparison is often very limited. Most of the servers offer only a single pairwise structural comparison, and they usually do not provide a model-specific comparison with a fixed alignment between the models. To bridge the gap between the protein and model structure comparison we have developed the Protein Models Comparator (pm-cmp). To be able to deliver the scalability on demand and handle large comparison experiments the pm-cmp was implemented "in the cloud". Protein Models Comparator is a scalable web application for a fast distributed comp...

  8. Lumped Thermal Household Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss two different approaches to model the flexible power consumption of heat pump heated households: individual household modeling and lumped modeling. We illustrate that a benefit of individual modeling is that we can overview and optimize the complete flexibility of a heat pump portfolio. Following, we illustrate two disadvantages of individual models, namely that it requires much computational effort to optimize over a large portfolio, and second that it is difficult to accurately model the houses in certain time periods due to local disturbances. Finally, we propose a lumped model approach as an alternative to the individual models. In the lumped model, the portfolio is seen as baseline consumption superimposed with an ideal storage of limited power and energy capacity. The benefit of such a lumped model is that the computational effort of flexibility optimization is significantly reduced. Further, the individual disturbances will smooth out as the number of houses in the portfolio increases.

  9. Geoadditive survival models

    OpenAIRE

    Hennerfeind, Andrea; Brezger, Andreas; Fahrmeir, Ludwig

    2003-01-01

    Survival data oftern contain small area geographical or spatial information, such as the residence of individuals. In many cases the impact of such spatial effects on hazard rates is of considerable substantive interest. Therefore, extensions of known survival or hazard rate models to spatial models have been suggested recently. Mostly, a spatial component is added to the usual linear predictor of the Cox model. We propose flexible continuous time geoadditive models, extending the Cox model w...

  10. Measuring model risk

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbertsen, Philipp; Stahl, Gerhard; Luedtke, Corinna

    2008-01-01

    Model risk as part of the operational risk is a serious problem for financial institutions. As the pricing of derivatives as well as the computation of the market or credit risk of an institution depend on statistical models the application of a wrong model can lead to a serious over- or underestimation of the institution's risk. Because the underlying data generating process is unknown in practice evaluating the model risk is a challenge. So far, definitions of model risk are either applicat...

  11. QSMSR QUALITATIVE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir Abdullah; Shahbaz Nazeer

    2012-01-01

    Software architecture design and requirement engineering are core and independent areas of engineering. A lot of research, education and practice are carried on Requirement elicitation and doing refine it, but it is a major issue of engineering. QSMSR model act as a bridge between requirement and design there is a huge gap between these two areas of software architecture and requirement engineering. The QSMSR model divide into two sub model qualitative model and Principal model in this resear...

  12. Modelling: Nature and Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Engineering of products and processes is increasingly “model-centric”. Models in their multitudinous forms are ubiquitous, being heavily used for a range of decision making activities across all life cycle phases. This chapter gives an overview of what is a model, the principal activities in the formation of a model for a specific purpose and the wide range of problem types that characterise the application areas of those models. In particular, a strong systems and life cycle perspective is presented which emphasises the development and application of models within each of the life cycle phases. The modelling goal is emphasised and discussed in terms of a triplet of: the model, amodel application and the type of system under study. The much wider length and time scale phenomena now being addressed through modelling is discussed. This change has broadened modelling practice from a dominance on the mesoscale phenomena towards higher and lower scales. This breadth in scale-spread of the partial models being developed presents significant challenges around multiscale modelling and the integration frameworks for such complex system modelling. A number of these frameworks are given in the chapter and are discussed. Throughout the chapter a number of taxonomies around model types and formshelp summarise the current modelling situation within much of product and process applications.

  13. Bubble models, data acquisition and model applicability.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jebavá, Marcela; Kloužek, Jaroslav; N?mec, Lubomír

    Vsetín : GLASS SERVICE ,INC, 2005, s. 182-191. ISBN 80-239-4687-0. [International Seminar on Mathematical Model ing and Advanced Numerical Methods in Furnace Design and Operation /8./. Velké Karlovice (CZ), 19.05.2005-20.05.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : bubble model s Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  14. Modeling survival data extending the cox model

    CERN Document Server

    Therneau, Terry M

    2000-01-01

    Extending the Cox Model is aimed at researchers, practitioners, and graduate students who have some exposure to traditional methods of survival analysis The emphasis is on semiparametric methods based on the proportional hazards model The inclusion of examples with SAS and S-PLUS code will make the book accessible to most working statisticians

  15. Model Checking of Boolean Process Models

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    In the field of Business Process Management formal models for the control flow of business processes have been designed since more than 15 years. Which methods are best suited to verify the bulk of these models? The first step is to select a formal language which fixes the semantics of the models. We adopt the language of Boolean systems as reference language for Boolean process models. Boolean systems form a simple subclass of coloured Petri nets. Their characteristics are low tokens to model explicitly states with a subsequent skipping of activations and arbitrary logical rules of type AND, XOR, OR etc. to model the split and join of the control flow. We apply model checking as a verification method for the safeness and liveness of Boolean systems. Model checking of Boolean systems uses the elementary theory of propositional logic, no modal operators are needed. Our verification builds on a finite complete prefix of a certain T-system attached to the Boolean system. It splits the processes of the Boolean sy...

  16. Damping rates of surface plasmons for particles of size from nano- to micrometers; reduction of the nonradiative decay

    CERN Document Server

    Kolwas, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    Damping rates of multipolar, localized surface plasmons (SP) of gold and silver nanospheres of radii up to $1000nm$ were found with the tools of classical electrodynamics. The significant increase in damping rates followed by noteworthy decrease for larger particles takes place along with substantial red-shift of plasmon resonance frequencies as a function of particle size. We also introduced interface damping into our modeling, which substantially modifies the plasmon damping rates of smaller particles. We demonstrate unexpected reduction of the multipolar SP damping rates in certain size ranges. This effect can be explained by the suppression of the nonradiative decay channel as a result of the lost competition with the radiative channel. We show that experimental dipole damping rates [H. Baida, et al., Nano Lett. 9(10) (2009) 3463, and C. S\\"onnichsen, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002) 077402], and the resulting resonance quality factors can be described in a consistent and straightforward way within our ...

  17. Approximate Waveforms for Extreme-Mass-Ratio Inspirals: The Chimera Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Sopuerta, Carlos F

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new kludge scheme to model the dynamics of generic extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs; stellar compact objects spiraling into a spinning supermassive black hole) and their gravitational-wave emission. The Chimera scheme is a hybrid method that combines tools from different approximation techniques in General Relativity: (i) A multipolar, post-Minkowskian expansion for the far-zone metric perturbation (the gravitational waveforms) and for the local prescription of the self-force; (ii) a post-Newtonian expansion for the computation of the multipole moments in terms of the trajectories; and (iii) a BH perturbation theory expansion when treating the trajectories as a sequence of self-adjusting Kerr geodesics. The EMRI trajectory is made out of Kerr geodesic fragments joined via the method of osculating elements as dictated by the multipolar post-Minkowskian radiation-reaction prescription. We implemented the proper coordinate mapping between Boyer-Lindquist coordinates, associated with the Kerr geo...

  18. Model Validation Status Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and engineered barriers, plus the TSPA model itself Description of the model areas is provided in Section 3, and the documents reviewed are described in Section 4. The responsible manager for the Model Validation Status Review was the Chief Science Officer (CSO) for Bechtel-SAIC Co. (BSC). The team lead was assigned by the CSO. A total of 32 technical specialists were engaged to evaluate model validation status in the 21 model areas. The technical specialists were generally independent of the work reviewed, meeting technical qualifications as discussed in Section 5.

  19. Model Validation Status Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M and O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and engineered barriers, plus the TSPA model itself Description of the model areas is provided in Section 3, and the documents reviewed are described in Section 4. The responsible manager for the Model Validation Status Review was the Chief Science Officer (CSO) for Bechtel-SAIC Co. (BSC). The team lead was assigned by the CSO. A total of 32 technical specialists were engaged to evaluate model validation status in the 21 model areas. The technical specialists were generally independent of the work reviewed, meeting technical qualifications as discussed in Section 5

  20. Models for Dynamic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter covers aspects of the dynamic modelling and simulation of several complex operations that include a controlled blending tank, a direct methanol fuel cell that incorporates a multiscale model, a fluidised bed reactor, a standard chemical reactor and finally a polymerisation reactor. These models help illustrate aspects of model formulation, the generation of the underlying assumptions about the systems, the degrees of freedom analysis and finally the solution and simulation of the models subject to changes in a variety of inputs. It is shown how an integrated system such as ICAS-MoT can be applied to formulate, analyse and solve these dynamic problems and how in the case of the fuel cell problem the model consists of coupledmeso and micro scale models. It is shown how data flows are handled between the models and how the solution is obtained within the modelling environment.

  1. Operational risk modeling analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Panjer, Harry H

    2006-01-01

    Discover how to optimize business strategies from both qualitative and quantitative points of viewOperational Risk: Modeling Analytics is organized around the principle that the analysis of operational risk consists, in part, of the collection of data and the building of mathematical models to describe risk. This book is designed to provide risk analysts with a framework of the mathematical models and methods used in the measurement and modeling of operational risk in both the banking and insurance sectors.Beginning with a foundation for operational risk modeling and a focus on the modeling process, the book flows logically to discussion of probabilistic tools for operational risk modeling and statistical methods for calibrating models of operational risk. Exercises are included in chapters involving numerical computations for students'' practice and reinforcement of concepts.Written by Harry Panjer, one of the foremost authorities in the world on risk modeling and its effects in business management, this is ...

  2. Calibrated Properties Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Office of Repository Development (ORD). The UZ contains the unsaturated rock layers overlying the repository and host unit, which constitute a natural barrier to flow, and the unsaturated rock layers below the repository which constitute a natural barrier to flow and transport. This work followed, and was planned in, ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.10.8 [under Work Package (WP) AUZM06, Climate Infiltration and Flow], and Section I-1-1 [in Attachment I, Model Validation Plans]). In Section 4.2, four acceptance criteria (ACs) are identified for acceptance of this Model Report; only one of these (Section 4.2.1.3.6.3, AC 3) was identified in the TWP (BSC 2002 [160819], Table 3-1). These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, and drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-process models from the UZ Flow, Transport and Coupled Processes Department in the Natural Systems Subproject of the Performance Assessment (PA) Project. The Calibrated Properties Model output will also be used by the Engineered Barrier System Department in the Engineering Systems Subproject. The Calibrated Properties Model provides input through the UZ Model Model provides input through the UZ Model and other process models of natural and engineered systems to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models, in accord with the PA Strategy and Scope in the PA Project of the Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC). The UZ process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions. UZ flow is a TSPA model component

  3. Five models of capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides analyzing capitalist societies historically and thinking of them in terms of phases or stages, we may compare different models or varieties of capitalism. In this paper I survey the literature on this subject, and distinguish the classification that has a production or business approach from those that use a mainly political criterion. I identify five forms of capitalism: among the rich countries, the liberal democratic or Anglo-Saxon model, the social or European model, and the endogenous social integration or Japanese model; among developing countries, I distinguish the Asian developmental model from the liberal-dependent model that characterizes most other developing countries, including Brazil.

  4. Marine Wave Model Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMET

    2006-05-16

    The Marine Wave Model Matrix provides information on the formulation of wave models developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and other modeling centers, including how these models forecast the generation, propagation, and dissipation of ocean waves using NWP model forecasts for winds and near-surface temperature and stability. Additionally, information is provided on data assimilation, post-processing of data, and verfication of wave models currently in operation. Within the post-processing pages are links to forecast output both in graphical and raw form, including links for data downloads. Links to COMET training on wave processes are also provided.

  5. Modeling worldwide highway networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Letter addresses the problem of modeling the highway systems of different countries by using complex networks formalism. More specifically, we compare two traditional geographical models with a modified geometrical network model where paths, rather than edges, are incorporated at each step between the origin and the destination vertices. Optimal configurations of parameters are obtained for each model and used for the comparison. The highway networks of Australia, Brazil, India, and Romania are considered and shown to be properly modeled by the modified geographical model.

  6. The Dgp Model Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kah Fee; Ng, Shao Chin Cindy

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we study the model proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (the DGP model), which produces solutions with cosmic acceleration even in the absence of a cosmological constant. The model is fitted to the recent SNLS data using the minimum ?2 test, and an analytical method is used to marginalize over the nuisance parameters h and M. The result suggests that the DPG model does not fit the SNLS data much better than the ?CDM model, and further observations are needed to better distinguish the two models.

  7. Energy-consumption modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  8. Modeling Worldwide Highway Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Boas, Paulino Ribeiro Villas; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2009-01-01

    This letter addresses the problem of modeling the highway systems of different countries by using complex networks formalism. More specifically, we compare two traditional geographical models with a modified geometrical network model where paths, rather than edges, are incorporated at each step between the origin and destination nodes. Optimal configurations of parameters are obtained for each model and used in the comparison. The highway networks of Brazil, the US and England are considered and shown to be properly modeled by the modified geographical model. The Brazilian highway network yielded small deviations that are potentially accountable by specific developing and sociogeographic features of that country.

  9. Spectral Modeling with APEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Smith, Randall K.

    2005-01-01

    The Astrophysical Plasma Emission Code (APEC) collaboration now provides public models for X-ray spectra of collisional equilibrium plasmas. These models facilitate the diagnosis of temperature density elemental abundance charge state and optical depth. We report benchmarking studies of the APEC models from the Emission Line Project a project to test these models using high quality stellar coronal spectra. We discuss the implications of the benchmarked atomic data for non-equilibrium collisional models as well. Finally we discuss the extension of APED to other applications such as opacity models for AGN.

  10. Antibody modeling assessment II. Structures and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplyakov, Alexey; Luo, Jinquan; Obmolova, Galina; Malia, Thomas J; Sweet, Raymond; Stanfield, Robyn L; Kodangattil, Sreekumar; Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L

    2014-08-01

    To assess the state-of-the-art in antibody structure modeling, a blinded study was conducted. Eleven unpublished Fab crystal structures were used as a benchmark to compare Fv models generated by seven structure prediction methodologies. In the first round, each participant submitted three non-ranked complete Fv models for each target. In the second round, CDR-H3 modeling was performed in the context of the correct environment provided by the crystal structures with CDR-H3 removed. In this report we describe the reference structures and present our assessment of the models. Some of the essential sources of errors in the predictions were traced to the selection of the structure template, both in terms of the CDR canonical structures and VL/VH packing. On top of this, the errors present in the Protein Data Bank structures were sometimes propagated in the current models, which emphasized the need for the curated structural database devoid of errors. Modeling non-canonical structures, including CDR-H3, remains the biggest challenge for antibody structure prediction. PMID:24633955

  11. Financial modeling using Gaussian process models.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petelin, D.; Šindelá?, Jan; P?ikryl, Jan; Kocijan, J.

    Piscataway : IEEE, 2011, s. 672-677. ISBN 978-1-4577-1424-5. [6th International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications. Prague (CZ), 15.09.2011-17.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA TA ?R TA01030603; GA ?R GA102/08/0567; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB091015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : gaussian process models * autoregression * financial * efficient markets Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/sindelar-financial modeling using gaussian process models.pdf

  12. Empirical Model Building Data, Models, and Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, James R

    2011-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "This...novel and highly stimulating book, which emphasizes solving real problems...should be widely read. It will have a positive and lasting effect on the teaching of modeling and statistics in general." - Short Book Reviews This new edition features developments and real-world examples that showcase essential empirical modeling techniques Successful empirical model building is founded on the relationship between data and approximate representations of the real systems that generated that data. As a result, it is essential for researchers who construct these m

  13. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  14. Forest growth models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses projection models fitted to three data set structures formed from a real growth series. The series is offered. Results of comparisons of model forms fitted with the tree data structures are described

  15. Modelling of Corrosion Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2003-01-01

    Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed.

  16. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  17. Modelling of Corrosion Cracks

    OpenAIRE

    Thoft-christensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed.

  18. The cloudy bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments are reviewed in the bag model, in which the constraints of chiral symmetry are explicitly included. The model has significant implications for nuclear, medium energy and high energy physics. (author)

  19. Melanoma Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following risk prediction models are intended primarily for research use and have been peer-reviewed, meaning the methodology and results of these models have been evaluated by qualified scientists and clinicians and published in scientific and medical journals.

  20. Protein solubility modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agena, S M; Pusey, M L; Bogle, I D

    1999-07-20

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. PMID:10397850

  1. Supersymmetry and model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An introductory review of supersymmetry and supersymmetric model building is presented. The topics discussed include, a brief introduction to the formalism of supersymmetry, the gauge hierarchy problem, the minimal supersymmetric standard model and supersymmetric grand unified theories

  2. PARTICIPANT MODELING IN STUTTERING

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, S. C.

    1988-01-01

    Participant modeling was tried in twenty five stutterers; auditory feedback of modelled speech and guided exposure were also done along with. The patients were able to have a fluent stuttering free speech in most situations.

  3. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Background Information > Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Using computers to ... Content Area Predicting the potential spread of an infectious disease requires much more than simply connecting cities ...

  4. Bounding species distribution models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. STOHLGREN, Catherine S. JARNEVICH, Wayne E. ESAIAS,Jeffrey T. MORISETTE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART and maximum entropy (Maxent models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5: 642–647, 2011].

  5. The ATLAS Analysis Model

    CERN Document Server

    Amir Farbin

    The ATLAS Analysis Model is a continually developing vision of how to reconcile physics analysis requirements with the ATLAS offline software and computing model constraints. In the past year this vision has influenced the evolution of the ATLAS Event Data Model, the Athena software framework, and physics analysis tools. These developments, along with the October Analysis Model Workshop and the planning for CSC analyses have led to a rapid refinement of the ATLAS Analysis Model in the past few months. This article introduces some of the relevant issues and presents the current vision of the future ATLAS Analysis Model. Event Data Model The ATLAS Event Data Model (EDM) consists of several levels of details, each targeted for a specific set of tasks. For example the Event Summary Data (ESD) stores calorimeter cells and tracking system hits thereby permitting many calibration and alignment tasks, but will be only accessible at particular computing sites with potentially large latency. In contrast, the Analysis...

  6. TMDL RUSLE MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a simplified spreadsheet modeling approach for characterizing and prioritizing sources of sediment loadings from watersheds in the United States. A simplified modeling approach was developed to evaluate sediment loadings from watersheds and selected land segments. ...

  7. Introduction to Modeling (SAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students are introduced to "key characteristics of 2D and 3D models as they are created and used in the Molecular Workbench Software. It ranges from 2D modeling of a superball to roving through 3-D molecules." The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In the activity, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment full of demonstrations, illustrations, and models they can manipulate. The content of the module is divided into seven pages: Designing a computer model, Running and visualizing the model, Extended visualization, Annotation and sharing, Using the model to do experiments, Modeling an atom, and 3D static models. In addition to the activity, visitors will find an overview of the activity and details of the central concepts.

  8. Monte Carlo Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Joiner

    Monte Carlo modeling refers to the solution of mathematical problems with the use of random numbers. This can include both function integration and the modeling of stochastic phenomena using random processes.

  9. Osteoporotic fracture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, A Hamish; Murray, Iain R

    2015-02-01

    Animal models are widely used to investigate the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and for the clinical testing of anti-resorptive drugs. However, osteoporotic fracture models designed to investigate novel ways to treat fractures of osteoporotic bone must fulfil requirements distinct from those of pharmacological testing. Bone strength and toughness, implant fixation and osteointegration and fracture repair are of particular interest. Osteoporotic models should reflect the underlying clinical scenario be that primary type 1 (post-menopausal) osteoporosis, primary type 2 (senile) osteoporosis or secondary osteoporosis. In each scenario, small and large animal models have been developed. While rodent models facilitate the study of fractures in strains specifically established to facilitate understanding of the pathologic basis of disease, concerns remain about the relevance of small animal fracture models to the human situation. There is currently no all-encompassing model, and the choice of species and model must be individualized to the scientific question being addressed. PMID:25388154

  10. Ginocchio model with isospin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the sp(8) subgroup of the isospin-invariant Ginocchio model. The allowed quantum numbers are determined in terms of Young's diagrams. Using this results, we discuss the excitation energy of a model hamiltonian. (orig.)

  11. Exponential Random Energy Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, Nabin Kumar

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the Random Energy Model(REM) under exponential type environment is considered which includes double exponential and Gaussian cases. Limiting Free Energy is evaluated in these models. Limiting Gibbs' distribution is evaluated in the double exponential case.

  12. On Model Typing

    OpenAIRE

    Steel, Jim; Je?ze?quel, Jean-marc

    2007-01-01

    Where object-oriented languages deal with objects as described by classes, model-driven development uses models, as graphs of interconnected objects, described by metamodels. A number of new languages have been and continue to be developed for this modelbased paradigm, both for model transformation and for general programming using models. Many of these use single-object approaches to typing, derived from solutions found in object-oriented systems, while others use metamodels asmodel types, b...

  13. Nonuniform Markov models

    OpenAIRE

    Ristad, Eric Sven; Thomas, Robert G.

    1996-01-01

    A statistical language model assigns probability to strings of arbitrary length. Unfortunately, it is not possible to gather reliable statistics on strings of arbitrary length from a finite corpus. Therefore, a statistical language model must decide that each symbol in a string depends on at most a small, finite number of other symbols in the string. In this report we propose a new way to model conditional independence in Markov models. The central feature of our nonuniform ...

  14. Parameterization of connectionist models.

    OpenAIRE

    Bogacz, R.; Cohen, Jd

    2004-01-01

    We present a method for estimating parameters of connectionist models that allows the model's output to fit as closely as possible to empirical data. The method minimizes a cost function that measures the difference between statistics computed from the model's output and statistics computed from the subjects' performance. An optimization algorithm finds the values of the parameters that minimize the value of this cost function. The cost function also indicates whether the model's statistics a...

  15. Generic Market Models

    OpenAIRE

    Pietersz, R.; Regenmortel, M.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there are two market models for valuation and risk management of interest rate derivatives, the LIBOR and swap market models. In this paper, we introduce arbitrage-free constant maturity swap (CMS) market models and generic market models featuring forward rates that span periods other than the classical LIBOR and swap periods. We develop generic expressions for the drift terms occurring in the stochastic differential equation driving the forward rates under a single pricing meas...

  16. Accretion Disk Models

    OpenAIRE

    Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    1999-01-01

    Models of black hole accretion disks are reviewed, with an emphasis on the theory of hard X-ray production. The following models are considered: i) standard, ii) super-critical, iii) two-temperature, and iv) disk+corona. New developments have recently been made in hydrodynamical models of accretion and in phenomenological radiative models fitting the observed X-ray spectra. Attempts to unify the two approaches are only partly successful.

  17. Future of groundwater modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D.; Panday, Sorab

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing need to better manage water resources, the future of groundwater modeling is bright and exciting. However, while the past can be described and the present is known, the future of groundwater modeling, just like a groundwater model result, is highly uncertain and any prediction is probably not going to be entirely representative. Thus we acknowledge this as we present our vision of where groundwater modeling may be headed.

  18. Bicycles, motorcycles, and models

    OpenAIRE

    Limebeer, D. J. N.; Sharp, R. S.

    2006-01-01

    Single-track vehicles are multibody systems which include bicycles, motorcycles and motor scooters. The Whipple's model of bicycle consists of two frames, the rear frame and the front frame, which are hinged together along an inclined steering-head assembly. The nonslipping road wheels as with this model are modeled by holonomic constraints in the normal direction and by nonholonomic constraints in the longitudinal and lateral directions. The bicycle model has three degrees of freedom such as...

  19. Curricula Modeling and Checking

    OpenAIRE

    Baldoni, Matteo; Baroglio, Cristina; Marengo, Elisa

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present a constrained-based representation for specifying the goals of “course design”, that we call curricula model, and introduce a graphical language, grounded into Linear Time Logic, to design curricula models which include knowledge of proficiency levels. Based on this representation, we show how model checking techniques can be used to verify that the user’s learning goal is supplied by a curriculum, that a curriculum is compliant to a curricula model, and that co...

  20. Modeling Design Process

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Hideaki; Veerkamp, Paul; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses building a computable design process model, which is a prerequisite for realizing intelligent computer-aided design systems. First, we introduce general design theory, from which a descriptive model of design processes is derived. In this model, the concept of metamodels plays a crucial role in describing the evolutionary nature of design. Second, we show a cognitive design process model obtained by observing design processes using a protocol analysis method. We then di...

  1. Mathematical circulatory system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, William D. (Inventor); Stevens, Scott A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method of modeling a circulatory system including a regulatory mechanism parameter. In one embodiment, a regulatory mechanism parameter in a lumped parameter model is represented as a logistic function. In another embodiment, the circulatory system model includes a compliant vessel, the model having a parameter representing a change in pressure due to contraction of smooth muscles of a wall of the vessel.

  2. Toric models of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Buczy?ska, Weronika

    2010-01-01

    We define toric projective model of a trivalent graph as a generalization of a binary symmetric model of a trivalent phylogenetic tree. Generators of the projective coordinate ring of the models of graphs with one cycle are explicitly described. The models of graphs with the same topological invariants are deformation equivalent and share the same Hilbert function. We also provide an algorithm to compute the Hilbert function.

  3. Model averaging in economics

    OpenAIRE

    Moral-benito, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Fragility of regression analysis to arbitrary assumptions and decisions about choice of control variables is an important concern for applied econometricians (e.g. Leamer (1983)). Sensitivity analysis in the form of model averaging represents an (agnostic) approach that formally addresses this problem of model uncertainty. This paper presents an overview of model averaging methods with emphasis on recent developments in the combination of model averaging with IV and panel data settings.

  4. Monoidal model categories

    OpenAIRE

    Hovey, Mark

    1998-01-01

    A monoidal model category is a model category with a compatible closed monoidal structure. Such things abound in nature; simplicial sets and chain complexes of abelian groups are examples. Given a monoidal model category, one can consider monoids and modules over a given monoid. We would like to be able to study the homotopy theory of these monoids and modules. This question was first addressed by Stefan Schwede and Brooke Shipley in "Algebras and modules in monoidal model c...

  5. A Quasar Wind Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ruff, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    A quasar wind model is proposed to describe the spatial and velocity structure of the broad line region. This model requires detailed photoionization and magnetohydrodynamic simulation, as the broad line region it too small for direct spatial resolution. The emission lines are Doppler broadened, since the gas is moving at high velocity. The high velocity is attained by the gas from a combination of radiative and magnetic driving forces. Once this model is complete, the model...

  6. Modeling of ultrasound transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Bæk, David

    2011-01-01

    This Ph.D. dissertation addresses ultrasound transducer modeling for medical ultrasound imaging and combines the modeling with the ultrasound simulation program Field II. The project firstly presents two new models for spatial impulse responses (SIR)s to a rectangular elevation focused transducer (REFT) and to a convex rectangular elevation focused transducer (CREFT). These models are solvable on an analog time scale and give exact smooth solutions to the Rayleigh integral. ...

  7. Hierarchical Bass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2014-03-01

    We propose a new model about diffusion of a product which includes a memory of how many adopters or advertisements a non-adopter met, where (non-)adopters mean people (not) possessing the product. This effect is lacking in the Bass model. As an application, we utilize the model to fit the iPod sales data, and so the better agreement is obtained than the Bass model.

  8. Hierarchical Bass model

    OpenAIRE

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new model about diffusion of a product which includes a memory of how many adopters or advertisements a non-adopter met, where (non-)adopters mean people (not) possessing the product. This effect is lacking in the Bass model. As an application, we utilize the model to fit the iPod sales data, and so the better agreement is obtained than the Bass model.

  9. Modelling agricultural production

    OpenAIRE

    Wit, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    In modelling in general and biological modelling in particular two approaches may be distinguished: a descriptive and an explanatory approach. In descriptive models the system and its behaviour are described at the same level at which the observations about it are made. A good example are the chilling unit models that were discussed in this symposium and are used to calculate at what time the temperature demand is met to break the dormancy of buds. Another example is the statistical analysis...

  10. Raman generator modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes seed production in a Raman generator has been modeled for a pump of long duration and with many longitudinal modes. The model uses three-dimensional wave optics and includes pump depletion. The modeling is similar to that of others in its use of stochastic c-number equations. The model simulates the spontaneous Stokes source with effective Stokes fields supplied in a prescribed manner. The analysis to support this simulation and examples of computer results is presented

  11. Chemisorption on a model transition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption both of a single atom and a monolayer of atoms on the (001) surface of the model transition metal is investigated using the Green's function formalism and the phase shift technique. The electronic structure of the surface is obtained by the Kalkstein-Soven method. For comparison, both the single- and two-peaked models of the surface density of states (DOS) are used. The adatom charge, heat of adsorption, and the change in the DOS due to chemisorption are calculated within the Newns-Anderson model and are compared with the available experimental results as well as with those of the previous chemisorption calculations. It is shown that the two-peaked substrate DOS model can qualitatively account for the strong coverage dependence of the photoemission spectra observed in the system such as H/W(100). The present theory is also extended to the chemisorption system with general coverages. (author)

  12. Solid Waste Projection Model: Model user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) specifically to address solid waste management issues at the Hanford Central Waste Complex (HCWC). This document, one of six documents supporting the SWPM system, contains a description of the system and instructions for preparing to use SWPM and operating Version 1 of the model. 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Models of Business Internationalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Vabinskait?

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the theoretical models of business internationalisation: the “Uppsala” Internationalisation Model, modified “Uppsala” model, the Eclectic Paradigm and analysis of transactional costs, Industrial Network approach, the Advantage Package and the Advantage Cycle.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Superstatistical turbulence models

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Recently there has been some progress in modeling the statistical properties of turbulent flows using simple superstatistical models. Here we briefly review the concept of superstatistics in turbulence. In particular, we discuss a superstatistical extension of the Sawford model and compare with experimental data.

  15. Independent Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. N.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that a major difficulty in learning how to do mathematical modeling is in the first independent run through the modeling cycle. Reviews a case study (N=12) on mathematical modeling and presents the conclusions in three sections: (1) the choice of task; (2) the presentation of the task; and (3) tutor intervention and support. (ASK)

  16. Retention or Attrition Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Irwin; Olkin, Ingram

    1989-01-01

    A model for student retention and attrition is presented. Focus is on alternative models for the "dampening" in attrition rates as educational programs progress. Maximum likelihood estimates for the underlying parameters in each model and a Bayesian analysis are provided. (TJH)

  17. Fuzzy Bag Models

    CERN Document Server

    Forkel, H

    1999-01-01

    We show how hadronic bag models can be generalized to implement effects of a smooth and extended boundary. Our approach is based on fuzzy set theory and can be straightforwardly applied to any type of bag model. We illustrate the underlying ideas by calculating static nucleon properties in a fuzzy chiral bag model.

  18. Fuzzy Bag Models

    OpenAIRE

    Forkel, Hilmar

    1998-01-01

    We show how hadronic bag models can be generalized to implement effects of a smooth and extended boundary. Our approach is based on fuzzy set theory and can be straightforwardly applied to any type of bag model. We illustrate the underlying ideas by calculating static nucleon properties in a fuzzy chiral bag model.

  19. The Model Neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners create a model of a neuron by using colored clay or play dough. Learners use diagrams to build the model and then label the parts on a piece of paper. This resource guide includes extension ideas like using fruit or candy instead of clay. See the "Modeling the Nervous System" page for a recipe for play dough.

  20. Boundary representation modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Stroud, I

    2006-01-01

    Boundary representation is the principle solid modelling method used in modern CAD/CAM systems. This book includes: data structures algorithms and other related techniques, including non-manifold modelling, product modelling, graphics, disc files and data exchange, and some application related topics.