Sample records for ma oceanic crust

  1. Aleutian basin oceanic crust (United States)

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.


    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ?225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ?225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  2. Aleutian basin oceanic crust (United States)

    Christeson, G. L.; Barth, G. A.


    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ? 225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ? 225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0-3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1-5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0-7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1-8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8-3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  3. Recycled oceanic crust in the source of 90-40 Ma basalts in North and Northeast China: Evidence, provenance and significance (United States)

    Xu, Yi-Gang


    Major, trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data of basalts emplaced during 90-40 Ma in the North and Northeast China are compiled in this review, with aims of constraining their petrogenesis, and by inference the evolution of the North China Craton during the late Cretaceous and early Cenozoic. Three major components are identified in magma source, including depleted component I and II, and an enriched component. The depleted component I, which is characterized by relatively low 87Sr/86Sr (1.1) and HIMU-like trace element characteristics, is most likely derived from gabbroic cumulate of the oceanic crust. The depleted component II, which distinguishes itself by its high ?Nd (?8) and moderate 87Sr/86Sr (?0.7038), is probably derived from a sub-lithospheric ambient mantle. The enriched component has low ?Nd (2-3), high 87Sr/86Sr (>0.7065), low 206Pb/204Pb (17), excess Sr, Rb, Ba and a deficiency of Zr and Hf relative to the REE. This component is likely from the basaltic portion of the oceanic crust, which is variably altered by seawater and contains minor sediments. Comparison with experimental melts and trace element modeling suggest that these recycled oceanic components may be in form of garnet pyroxenite/eclogite. These components are young (recycled oceanic crust. Due to different melting temperature of the upper and lower ocean crust and progressive thinning of the lithosphere, the more fertile basaltic crustal component is preferentially sampled during the early stage of volcanism, whereas the more depleted gabbroic lower crust and lithospheric mantle components are preferentially sampled during a late stage. This model is consistent with a protracted destruction process of the lithosphere beneath eastern China. The presence of significant recycled oceanic crust components in the 90-40 Ma basalts highlights the influence of Pacific subduction on the deep processes in the North China Craton, which can be traced back at least to the late Cretaceous. This, along with the conjugation of crustal deformation pattern in this region with the movement of the Pacific plate, makes the Pacific subduction as a potential trigger of the destruction of the North China Craton. Geophysical investigations and morphological analyses indicate that decratonization is largely confined to east of the NSGL, whereas to west of NSGL, in particular the Ordos basin, characteristics typical of a craton are observed (Menzies et al., 2007; Zhu et al., 2011). This spatial pattern of craton destruction, together with NE-NNE-oriented extensional basins, main structural alignments and metamorphic core complexes (Zheng et al., 1978; Ye et al., 1987; Ren et al., 2002; Liu et al., 2006; Zhu G et al., 2012), is consistent with the subduction direction of the Pacific plate. Two main episodes of late Mesozoic magmatism have been identified in the Jurassic and the early Cretaceous. These correspond to the subduction of the Pacific plate underneath the Eurasian content and to subsequent extensions, respectively (Wu et al., 2005, 2006). Global tomography studies indicate that the subducted Pacific oceanic slab has become stagnant within the mantle transition zone and extended subhorizontally westward beneath the East Asian continent (Fukao et al., 1992; Huang and Zhao, 2006; Chen and Ai, 2009; Van der Hilst and Li, 2010). The western end of this stagnant slab does not go beyond the NNE-trending NSGL (Huang and Zh

  4. Field and geochemical characterisitics of the Mesoarchean (~3075 ma) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt, southern West Greenland: Evidence for seafloor hydrothermal alteration in a supra-subduction oceanic crust.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A.; Appel, P.W.U.


    The Mesoarchean (ca. 3075 Ma) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt in southern West Greenland includes variably deformed and metamorphosed pillow basalts, ultramafic flows (picrites), serpentinized ultramafic rocks, gabbros, sulphide-rich siliceous layers, and minor siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. Primary magmatic features such as concentric cooling-cracks and drainage cavities in pillows, volcanic breccia, ocelli interpreted as liquid immiscibility textures in pillows and gabbros, magmatic layering in gabbros, and clinopyroxene cumulates in ultramafic flows are well preserved in low-strain domains. The belt underwent at least two stages of calc-silicate metasomatic alteration and polyphase deformation between 2963 and 3075 Ma. The stage I metasomatic assemblage is composed predominantly of epidote (now mostly diopside) + quartz + plagioclase ± hornblende ± scapolite, and occurs mainly in pillow cores, pillow interstitials, and along pillow basalt-gabbro contacts. The origin of this metasomatic assemblage is attributed to seafloor hydrothermal alteration. On the basis of the common presence of epidote inclusions in diopside and the local occurrence of epidote-rich aggregates, the stage I metasomatic assemblage is interpreted as relict epidosite. The stage II metasomatic assemblage occurs as concordant discontinuous layered calc-silicate bodies to discordant calc-silicate veins commonly associated with shear zones. The stage II metasomatic assemblage consists mainly of diopside + garnet + amphibole + plagioclase + quartz ± vesuvianite ± scapolite ± epidote ± titanite ± calcite ± scheelite. Given that the second stage of metasomatism is closely associated with shear zones and replaced rocks with an early metamorphic fabric, its origin is attributed to regional dynamothermal metamorphism. The least altered pillow basalts, picrites, gabbros, and diorites are characterized by LREE-enriched, near-flat HREE, and HFSE (especially Nb)-depleted trace element patterns, indicating a subduction zone geochemical signature. Ultramafic pillows and cumulates display large positive initial eNd values of + 1.3 to + 5.0, consistent with a strongly depleted mantle source. Given the geological similarities between the Ivisaartoq greenstone belt and Phanerozoic forearc ophiolites, we suggest that the Ivisaartoq greenstone belt represents Mesoarchean supra-subduction zone oceanic crust.

  5. Magnetization of the oceanic crust: TRM or CRM? (United States)

    Raymond, C. A.; Labrecque, J. L.


    A model was proposed in which chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) acquired within the first 20 Ma of crustal evolution may account for 80% of the bulk natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of older basalts. The CRM of the crust is acquired as the original thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) is lost through low temperature alteration. The CRM intensity and direction are controlled by the post-emplacement polarity history. This model explains several independent observations concerning the magnetization of the oceanic crust. The model accounts for amplitude and skewness discrepancies observed in both the intermediate wavelength satellite field and the short wavelength sea surface magnetic anomaly pattern. It also explains the decay of magnetization away from the spreading axis, and the enhanced magnetization of the Cretaceous Quiet Zones while predicting other systematic variations with age in the bulk magnetization of the oceanic crust. The model also explains discrepancies in the anomaly skewness parameter observed for anomalies of Cretaceous age. Further studies indicate varying rates of TRM decay in very young crust which depicts the advance of low temperature alteration through the magnetized layer.

  6. Microbial Life of North Pacific Oceanic Crust (United States)

    Schumann, G.; Koos, R.; Manz, W.; Reitner, J.


    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Drilling into 45-Ma oceanic basaltic crust in a deepwater environment during ODP Leg 200 provided a promising opportunity to explore the abundance, diversity and activity of micro-organisms. The combined use of culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analyses and enrichment culture techniques is an advantageous approach in investigating subsurface microbial ecosystems. Enrichment culture methods allow the evaluation of potential activities and functions. Microbiological investigations revealed few aerobic cultivable, in part hitherto unknown, micro-organisms in deep submarine sediments and basaltic lava flows. 16S rDNA sequencing of isolates from sediment revealed the next relatives to be members of the genera Halomonas, Pseudomonas, and Lactobacillus. Within the Pseudomonadaceae the closest relative is Acinetobacter sp., which was isolated from a deep subsurface environment. The next phylogenetical relatives within the Halomonadaceae are bacteria typically isolated from Soda lakes, which are considered as model of early life conditions. Interestingly, not only sediment bacteria could be obtained in pure culture. Aerobic strains could also be successfully isolated from the massive tholeiitic basalt layer at a depth of 76.16 mbsf (46 m below the sediment/basement contact). These particular isolates are gram-positive with low G+C content of DNA, phylogenetically affiliated to the phylum Firmicutes. The closest neighbors are e.g. a marine Bacillus isolated from the Gulf of Mexico and a low G+C gram-positive bacterium, which belongs to the microbial flora in the deepest sea mud of the Mariana Trench, isolated from a depth of 10,897 m. Based on the similarity values, the isolates represent hitherto undescribed species of the deep biosphere. Molecular microbial diversity is currently determined by cloning und comparative 16S rRNA gene analyses. The first results will also be presented. In summary, the low number of isolates, cultivated under aerobic conditions, is in good agreement with the common opinion that most of the bacteria within the deep biosphere are anaerobic. Thus, studies of microbial community structure in solid geological materials are feasible and constitute further evidence that continuing microbiological activity in the challenging exploration of the deep sub-seafloor biosphere environment is absolutely promising.

  7. Stable Chlorine Isotopes in Ocean Crust Processes (United States)

    Bach, W.; Layne, G.; Kent, A.


    The study of natural variations of Cl isotopic composition in ocean crustal rocks has large potential to further our understanding of geochemical cycling of volatiles and elements soluble in saline aqueous solutions. Studies of oceanic basalt suites to date confirm that Cl abundances are highly sensitive to the addition of saline components - either from addition of subduction-related volatile fluxes in back-arc basins and volcanic arcs or via interaction between magmas and Cl-rich seawater-derived components during melting, magma storage and transport. Recent data suggest that ? 37Cl is much more variable in the marine environment than originally thought, with strongly negative ? 37Cl values (down to -7.5 ‰ ) in marine pore waters and positive values (up to +7 ‰ ) in hydrothermal fluids from oceanic spreading centers. Moreover, mantle-derived magmatic rocks reveal large variations in ? 37Cl (-3 to +11 ‰ ), reflecting mantle heterogeneity as well as assimilation of exogenic Cl by crystallizing magmas. The large isotopic variation in low-Cl basalts has been explained by isotopic heterogeneities of the mantle, with very light ? 37Cl values in rocks from the southwest Chile Ridge that have island arc geochemical affinities and heavy ? 37Cl values in Reykjanes Ridge samples (Stewart, 2000, PhD Thesis, Duke University). The inference is that a slab-flux carries a negative ? 37Cl signature while recycled ocean crust in mantle plumes carries a strongly positive ? 37Cl signature, although this is not well constrained at present. Preferential release of isotopically light Cl from the dewatering sediments is suggested by pore water data from the Barbados and Nankai accretionary prisms with ? 37Cl values down to -7.5 ‰ (Ransom et al. 1995, Geology, 23, 715). Volcanic fumaroles also appear to have negative ? 37Cl values. If this is the case then residual Cl in the subducting slab should become isotopically heavier as 35Cl is preferentially released in the shallow subduction zone. The depleted MORB mantle is believed to have a ? 37Cl between 4 and 7 ‰ , similar to C1-chondrite (Magenheim et al., 1995, EPSL, 131, 427). MORB with high Cl and Cl/K tend to have ? 37Cl close to 0 ‰ , which has been explained by contamination of basaltic magmas with seawater-derived Cl. However, the most evolved ferrobasalts and andesites from oceanic spreading ridges have negative ? 37Cl values, down to -1.7 ‰ (Magenheim, unpublished data). Together with data for oceanic gabbros, the ? 37Cl-[Cl] data for these highly evolved rocks form a trend that could be explained by an AFC-like process, although the fact that the trend extends to negative ? 37Cl values cannot be reconciled with batch mixing of magma and salt or brine. Rather, it indicates that 35Cl is preferentially incorporated into the magma and may be related to diffusive exchange between Cl in brine pools above the melt lens of an axial magma system. A more comprehensive global dataset as well as spot analyses of Cl isotope ratios by IMP-SIMS (e.g., of melt inclusions) and the combination of ? 37Cl with other stable isotope systems (B, Li, O, H) are required before these tentative models for global chlorine cycling and crustal assimilation at spreading ridges can be rigorously evaluated.

  8. Extremely thin oceanic crust in the Proto-Indian Ocean: Evidence from the Masirah Ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman (United States)

    Peters, Tjerk; Mercolli, Ivan


    The Masirah Ophiolite is a good example of thin oceanic crust. Below pillow lavas and a sheeted dike complex with a relatively normal thickness of 1-1.5 km, the gabbroic lower crust barely exceeds 500 m in thickness. In spite of this reduced thickness, the oceanic crust preserves all members of a model ophiolite in a coherent lithostratigraphic sequence. The crust was formed during the uppermost Jurassic (circa 150 Ma) when the Indian-Madagascar plate separated from the African-Arabian plate and is therefore related to the opening of the coeval Somali basin. Geological relationships indicate that this portion of oceanic crust was formed at a ridge-transform intersect. The peculiarly reduced thickness of the gabbro layer is interpreted as the result of a weak magma supply at the edge of a ridge segment, rather than the consequence of a tectonic thinning. The cooling effect due to the vicinity of two large continental lithospheric blocks (Indian-Madagascar and African-Arabian plates) during this initial stage of the oceanization might have been an additional factor contributing to the reduction of the crustal thickness.

  9. Estimation of seismic velocities of upper oceanic crust from ocean bottom reflection loss data. (United States)

    Dong, Hefeng; Chapman, N Ross; Hannay, David E; Dosso, Stan E


    This paper describes a Bayesian inversion of acoustic reflection loss versus angle measurements to estimate the compressional and shear wave velocities in young uppermost oceanic crust, Layer 2A. The data were obtained in an experiment on the thinly sedimented western flank of the Endeavor segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, using a towed horizontal hydrophone array and small explosive charges as sound sources. Measurements were made at three sites at increasing distance from the ridge spreading center to determine the effect of age of the crust on seismic velocities. The inversion used reflection loss data in a 1/3-octave band centered at 16 Hz. The compressional and shear wave velocities of the basalt were highly sensitive parameters in the inversion. The compressional wave velocity increased from 2547 + or - 30 to 2710 + or - 18 m/s over an age span of 1.4 million years (Ma) from the spreading center, an increase of 4.5 + or - 1.0%/Ma. The basalt shear wave velocity increased by nearly a factor of 2, from approximately 725 to 1320 m/s over the same age span. These results show a decreasing trend of Poisson's ratio with age, from a value of 0.46 at the youngest site closest to the ridge axis. PMID:20369999

  10. Another one bites the rust: Microbes weathering subsurface oceanic crust (United States)

    Orcutt, B.


    The marine deep biosphere consists of deeply buried sediment and igneous oceanic crust; yet, the existence, extent, and activity of life hosted in igneous oceanic crust is considerably less understood than in the sedimentaty realm. The role of microbial metabolic reactions in altering basaltic crust is not yet clear. This presentation will summarize what is currently known or speculated about rates of microbial activity in crust, focusing on the cycling of iron and oxygen, based on data from a few basalt-dominated sites that have been examined recently, including the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the Dorado Outcrop. Microbial community diversity, activity and genomic data will seek to address the question: how do you think microbes get along without iron when it's gone?

  11. Chemical Composition of Ferromanganese Crusts in the World Ocean: A Review and Comprehensive Database. U.S. Geological Survey.

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The USGS Ferromanganese Crust data set was compiled by F.T. Manheim and C.M. Lane-Bostwick of the U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA. The data set consists of...

  12. Changes in erosion and ocean circulation recorded in the Hf isotopic compositions of North Atlantic and Indian Ocean ferromanganese crusts (United States)

    Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Lee, Der-Chuen; Christensen, John N.; Burton, Kevin W.; Halliday, Alex N.; Hein, James R.; Günther, Detlef


    High-resolution Hf isotopic records are presented for hydrogenetic Fe–Mn crusts from the North Atlantic and Indian Oceans. BM1969 from the western North Atlantic has previously been shown to record systematically decreasing Nd isotopic compositions from about 60 to ?4 Ma, at which time both show a rapid decrease to unradiogenic Nd composition, thought to be related to the increasing influence of NADW or glaciation in the northern hemisphere. During the Oligocene, North Atlantic Hf became progressively less radiogenic until in the mid-Miocene (?15 Ma) it reached +1. It then shifted gradually back to an ?Hf value of +3 at 4 Ma, since when it has decreased rapidly to about ?1 at the present day. The observed shifts in the Hf isotopic composition were probably caused by variation in intensity of erosion as glaciation progressed in the northern hemisphere. Ferromanganese crusts SS663 and 109D are from about 5500 m depth in the Indian Ocean and are now separated by ?2300 km across the Mid-Indian Ridge. They display similar trends in Hf isotopic composition from 20 to 5 Ma, with the more northern crust having a composition that is consistently more radiogenic (by ?2 ?Hf units). Paradoxically, during the last 20 Ma the Hf isotopic compositions of the two crusts have converged despite increased separation and subsidence relative to the ridge. A correlatable negative excursion at ?5 Ma in the two records may reflect a short-term increase in erosion caused by the activation of the Himalayan main central thrust. Changes to unradiogenic Hf in the central Indian Ocean after 5 Ma may alternatively have been caused by the expanding influence of NADW into the Mid-Indian Basin via circum-Antarctic deep water or a reduction of Pacific flow through the Indonesian gateway. In either case, these results illustrate the utility of the Hf isotope system as a tracer of paleoceanographic changes, capable of responding to subtle changes in erosional regime not readily resolved using other isotope systems.

  13. Variation of young oceanic crust and upper mantle structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic refraction and single-channel reflection data taken along 0.5-, 2.5-, and 4.5-m.y.-age isochrons near the East Pacific Rise during Project ROSE are used to determine if a systematic change in the P velocity-depth function with age can be resolved. Inversion of these data suggests that any change in crustal P velocity structure related to age is smaller than variability in the seismic velocity-depth function along an isochron. The emergence of a 'normal' crust-mantle transition by 4.5-m.y.-age is seen in these data. Crust and crust-mantle transition zone heterogeneity along these isochrons may be related to the along strike variability in processes at the ridge crest. The velocity-depth functions for the threee split profile refractions lines are compared with velocity-depth functions for the Samail ophiolite, which is thought to represent oceanic crust of similar age. The velocity-depth functions for the ROSE data are bounded by different velocity-depth models for the Samail ophiolite; this suggests that those models are not in disagreement but represent the lateral heterogeneity that can be expected in young oceanic crust

  14. Boron contents and isotopic compositions of the hydrothermally altered oceanic crust from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus (United States)

    Matsukura, S.; Yamaoka, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawahata, H.


    The boron contents and isotopic compositions were determined for the hydrothermally altered oceanic crust through the Troodos ophiolite. The samples were represented by the International Crustal Research Drilling Group (ICRDG) drill-Holes CY1 (479m), CY2A (689m), CY4 (2263m), and selected outcrops along the Akaki river. Hole CY1 was composed upper and lower pillow lava, CY4 constituted sheeted dike complex and gabbro section, and the samples along Akaki river formed from pillow lava to sheeted dike complex. Hole CY2A was composed pillow lava and sheeted dike, drilled near Agrokipia ‘B’ deposit a stockwork type which completely enclosed within the lower pillow lava. The goal of this study is to understand the Boron geochemistry during hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic crust including hydrothermal ore deposit as Agrokipia ‘B’. The average boron contents of each sequence from Troodos ophiolite were pillow lava (63.2ppm), sheeted dike complex (4.5ppm), gabbro section (1.6ppm). But then, those of Oman ophiolite were 7.9ppm, 5.3ppm, 1.7ppm (Yamaoka et al., 2010 submitted). Thus, both of these ophiolites, the vertical profile of boron content decreased with depth, also the boron contents were much richer than fresh-MORB (0.5ppm) (Spivack and Edmond, 1987; Chaussidon and Jambon, 1994). This indicates boron rich of the altered oceanic crust were derived from seawater. And sheeted dike complex and gabbro section were similar value relatively, but pillow lava differed widely. These results may represent the difference of length being submarine, because these ophiolites were generated in deep water of the Tethys sea about 90Ma (Late Cretaceous) (Tilton et al., 1981; Mukasa and Ludden, 1987), and Oman ophiolite was obducted about 70Ma (Lanphere, 1981) but Troodos ophiolite uplifted about 10Ma (Middle Miocene) (Robertson and Woodcock, 1979).

  15. Geophysical and geochemical nature of relaminated arc-derived lower crust underneath oceanic domain in southern Mongolia (United States)

    Guy, Alexandra; Schulmann, Karel; Janoušek, Vojt?ch; Å típská, Pavla; Armstrong, Robin; Belousova, Elena; Dolgopolova, Alla; Seltmann, Reimar; Lexa, Ondrej; Jiang, Yingde; Hanžl, Pavel


    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in southern Mongolia consists of E-W trending Neoproterozoic cratons and Silurian-Devonian oceanic tectonic zones. Previous study revealed that the Early Paleozoic accretionary wedge and the oceanic tectonic zone are underlain by a layer giving a homogeneous gravity signal. Forward gravity modelling suggests that this layer is not formed of high-density material typical of lower oceanic crust but is composed of low- to intermediate-density rocks resembling continental crust. The nature of this lower crust is constrained by the whole-rock geochemistry and zircon Hf isotopic signature of abundant Late Carboniferous high-K calc-alkaline and Early Permian A-type granitoids intruding the two Early Paleozoic domains. It is possible to explain the genesis of these granitoids by anatexis of juvenile, metaigneous (tonalitic-gabbroic) rocks of Late Cambrian age, the source of which is presumed to lie in the "Khantaishir" arc (520-495 Ma) further north. In order to test this hypothesis, the likely modal composition and density of Khantaishir arc-like protoliths are thermodynamically modelled at granulite- and higher amphibolite-facies conditions. It is shown that the current average density of the lower crust inferred by gravity modelling (2730 ± 20 kg/m3) matches best metamorphosed leucotonalite to diorite. Based on these results, it is now proposed that Mongolian CAOB has an architecture in which the accretionary wedge and oceanic upper crust is underlain by allochthonous lower crust that originated in a Cambrian arc. A tectonic model explaining relamination of allochthonous felsic to intermediate lower crust beneath mafic upper crust is proposed.

  16. Primary carbonatite melt from deeply subducted oceanic crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, M.J.; Bulanova, G.P.; Armstrong, L.S.; Keshav, S.; Blundy, J.D.; Gudfinnesson, G.; Lord, O.T.; Lennie, A.R.; Clark, S.M.; Smith, C.B.; Gobbo, L.


    Partial melting in the Earth's mantle plays an important part in generating the geochemical and isotopic diversity observed in volcanic rocks at the surface. Identifying the composition of these primary melts in the mantle is crucial for establishing links between mantle geochemical 'reservoirs' and fundamental geodynamic processes. Mineral inclusions in natural diamonds have provided a unique window into such deep mantle processes. Here they provide exper8imental and geochemical evidence that silicate mineral inclusions in diamonds from Juina, Brazil, crystallized from primary and evolved carbonatite melts in the mantle transition zone and deep upper mantle. The incompatible trace element abundances calculated for a melt coexisting with a calcium-titanium-silicate perovskite inclusion indicate deep melting of carbonated oceanic crust, probably at transition-zone depths. Further to perovskite, calcic-majorite garnet inclusions record crystallization in the deep upper mantle from an evolved melt that closely resembles estimates of primitive carbonatite on the basis of volcanic rocks. Small-degree melts of subducted crust can be viewed as agents of chemical mass-transfer in the upper mantle and transition zone, leaving a chemical imprint of ocean crust that can possibly endure for billions of years.

  17. Origin of dipping structures in fast-spreading oceanic lower crust offshore Alaska imaged by multichannel seismic data (United States)

    Bécel, Anne; Shillington, Donna J.; Nedimovi?, Mladen R.; Webb, Spahr C.; Kuehn, Harold


    Multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection profiles across the Pacific Plate south of the Alaska Peninsula reveal the internal structure of mature oceanic crust (48-56 Ma) formed at fast to intermediate spreading rates during and after a major plate re-organization. Oceanic crust formed at fast spreading rates (half spreading rate ? 74 mm /yr) has smoother basement topography, thinner sediment cover with less faulting, and an igneous section that is at least 1 km thicker than crust formed at intermediate spreading rates (half spreading rate ? 28- 34 mm /yr). MCS data across fast-spreading oceanic crust formed during plate re-organization contain abundant bright reflections, mostly confined to the lower crust above a highly reflective Moho transition zone, which has a reflection coefficient (RC) of ?0.1. The lower crustal events dip predominantly toward the paleo-ridge axis at ?10-30°. Reflections are also imaged in the uppermost mantle, which primarily dip away from the ridge at ?10-25°, the opposite direction to those observed in the lower crust. Dipping events in both the lower crust and upper mantle are absent on profiles acquired across the oceanic crust formed at intermediate spreading rates emplaced after plate re-organization, where a Moho reflection is weak or absent. Our preferred interpretation is that the imaged lower crustal dipping reflections within the fast spread crust arise from shear zones that form near the spreading center in the region characterized by interstitial melt. The abundance and reflection amplitude strength of these events (RC ? 0.15) can be explained by a combination of solidified melt that was segregated within the shear structures, mylonitization of the shear zones, and crystal alignment, all of which can result in anisotropy and constructive signal interference. Formation of shear zones with this geometry requires differential motion between the crust and upper mantle, where the upper mantle moves away from the ridge faster than the crust. Active asthenospheric upwelling is one possible explanation for these conditions. The other possible interpretation is that lower crustal reflections are caused by magmatic (mafic/ultramafic) layering associated with accretion from a central mid-crustal magma chamber. Considering that the lower crustal dipping events have only been imaged in regions that have experienced plate re-organizations associated with ridge jumps or rift propagation, we speculate that locally enhanced mantle flow associated with these settings may lead to differential motion between the crust and the uppermost mantle, and therefore to shearing in the ductile lower crust or, alternatively, that plate reorganization could produce magmatic pulses which may lead to mafic/ultramafic banding.

  18. Exploring the oceanic crust deep biosphere through subsurface borehole observatories (United States)

    Orcutt, Beth


    During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expeditions 327 and 336, several new subsurface borehole observatories were installed in oceanic crust, with a primary motivation to access the deep biosphere in these poorly understood environments. These new observatories have enabled unprecedented opportunities to collect high-quality samples for microbiological analysis, including metagenomic and single cell genomic investigations of the unique microbial communities living "on the rocks." This presentation will provide an overview of recent discoveries, focusing on the observatories on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank and highlighting adaptations to life in the subsurface gleaned from genomic approaches. The presentation will also highlight opportunities for continued observatory-based research within the International Ocean Discovery Program.

  19. Ultramafic rock/seawater interaction in the oceanic crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deposit consisting almost exclusively of the Mg-silicate sepiolite has been sampled from the Owen transform zone in the western Indian Ocean. This deposit is associated with basaltic, gabbroic and ultramafic rocks. On the basis of major, trace and rare earth elemental composition, strontium and oxygen isotopic ratios, as well as of theoretical considerations, the sepiolite deposit appears to have formed neither from seawater nor from solutions resulting from the interaction of seawater with the basaltic crust. Interaction of ultramafic rocks with seawater circulating in the crust, particularly in transform zones, may produce solutions which at low temperature (0C) become enriched in Mg and/or Si, and can give rise to precipitation of sepiolite on or below the sea floor. The ratio of Mg to Si in the solutions is probably a factor in determining whether sepiolite or another Mg-silicate (i.e., one of the serpentine polymorphs) is deposited. (orig.)

  20. Periodic deformation of oceanic crust in the central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Rao, D.G.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, M.M.M.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.


    New seismic reflection profiles of ~~ 5370 km, running through the Ocean Drilling Program Leg 116 sites and Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 215 and 218, were obtained to investigate the spatial extent, timing, and nature of the Tertiary deformation...

  1. Cretaceous evolution of the Indian Plate and consequences for the formation, deformation and obduction of adjacent oceanic crust (United States)

    Gaina, C.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Spakman, W.


    As part of the gradual Gondwana dispersion that started in the Jurassic, the Indian tectonic block was rifted away from the Antarctica-Australian margins, probably in the Early-Mid Cretaceous and started its long journey to the north until it collided with Eurasia in the Tertiary. In this contribution first we will revise geophysical and geological evidences for the formation of oceanic crust between India and Antarctica, India and Madagascar, and India and Somali/Arabian margins. This information and possible oceanic basin age interpretation are placed into regional kinematic models. Three important compressional events NW and W of the Indian plate are the result of the opening of the Enderby Basin from 132 to 124 Ma, the first phase of seafloor spreading in the Mascarene basin approximately from 84 to 80 Ma, and the incipient opening of the Arabian Sea and the Seychelles microplate formation around 65 to 60 Ma. Based on retrodeformation of the Afghan-Pakistan part of the India-Asia collision zone and the eastern Oman margin, the ages of regional ophiolite emplacement and crystallization of its oceanic crust, as well as the plate tectonic setting of these ophiolites inferred from its geochemistry, we evaluate possible scenarios for the formation of intra-oceanic subduction zones and their evolution until ophiolite emplacement time. Our kinematic scenarios are constructed for several regional models and are discussed in the light of global tomographic models that may image some of the subducted Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere.

  2. Energetics of hydrothermal convection in heterogeneous ocean crust (United States)

    Ruepke, Lars; Hasenclever, Joerg; Andersen, Christine


    Recent advances in hydrothermal flow modeling have revealed the key thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic controls on hydrothermal convection and vent temperatures at oceanic spreading centers. The observed upper limit to black smoker vent temperatures of approx. 400°C can be explained by the thermodynamic properties of water (Jupp and Schultz, 2000). Likewise, 3D models of hydrothermal flow at fast-spreading ridges show cylindrical upwellings with closely interwoven recharge flow (Coumou et al., 2008, Hasenclever et al., 2014). While these studies provide a robust theoretical basis for hydrothermal flow observations at fast-spreading ridges, the situation at slow-spreading ridges is different. The slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge produces highly heterogeneous crust along its tectonic and magmatic segments with significant permeability contrasts across structural and lithological interfaces. The sub-seafloor permeability structure has a strong control on vent field location such that off-axis hydrothermal systems are apparently consistently located at outcropping fault zones. We have recently shown that preferential flow along high-permeability conduits inevitably leads to the entrainment of cold ambient seawater (Andersen et al., 2014), which causes a temperature drop that is difficult to reconcile with fault-related high-temperature venting. A fundamental question is therefore how hydrothermal fluids can maintain their high temperature while flowing kilometers from a driving heat source through highly heterogeneous crust to a vent site at the seafloor? We address this question by exploring the energetics of hydrothermal convection in heterogeneous ocean crust using 2D and 3D flow simulations. In our analysis we focus on the energy balance of rising hydrothermal plumes and on mixing processes at permeability boundaries, with the aim to establish a more robust theoretical framework for hydrothermal flow through highly heterogeneous seafloor.

  3. Boron isotope exchange between seawater and the oceanic crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissolved boron in seawater from the Atlantic and Pacific is isotopically homogeneous at 39.5 per mil(11B/10B ratios are expressed as per mil deviations from NBS SRM 951). Unaltered mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) from the crest of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 210 and 130N have B contents of 0.39 +- 0.03 and 0.46 +-0.03 ppm (about one order of magnitude lower than previous estimates) and delta11B of -3.6 +- 0.4 and -2.2 +- 0.6 per mil respectively. Large scale B exchange between seawater and the oceanic crust has been demonstrated at both high and low temperature. Hydrothermal solutions from nine separate vent fields at 210 and 130N (EPR) have variable B enrichments, relative to seawater (416 ?moles/kg), of between 8 and 32% and have 11B values between 30.0 +- 0.4 and 36.8 +- 0.4 per mil. Boron has been extracted from the basalts with no resolvable isotopic fractionation. High temperature water/rock ratios, based on the B concentrations, are between 0.28 and 3.0. The hydrothermal flux of B into the oceans is between 0.4 and 0.8 x 109 moles/yr, assuming that only pristine basalts are present in the reaction zone. Basalts altered at low temperature and serpentinites are variably enriched in B. The B content of altered whole rocks correlates strongly with 18O, and increases with degree of alteration. Altered basalts (n = 7) containing between 8.9 and 69 ppm B have 11B between 0.1 and 9.2 +- 0.4 per mil. Model calculations give water/rock ratios greater than 100 for rocks recovered from DSDP Hole 418A. Serpentinized peridotites (n = 4) with between 50 and 81 ppm B have 11B between 8.3 +- 0.4 and 12.6 +- 0.4 per mil. The flux of B into the crust during low temperature alteration is about 13 x 109 moles/yr. The maximum diffusive flux of B into the crust from sediment pore waters is 0.8 x 109 moles/yr with a 11B less than 43 per mil. (author)

  4. Crust-ocean interactions during midocean ridge eruptions (United States)

    Baker, E. T.


    Eruptions are the "quantum event" of crustal accretion, occurring daily to monthly (depending on spreading rate) along the global midocean ridge system. The number of eruptions detected and responded to remain very few, however, so our knowledge of the magnitude and rate of crust-ocean interaction at the instant of an eruption is almost entirely circumstantial. The discovery of uniquely different plumes over a 2008 eruption on the NE Lau spreading center greatly broadened the known range of eruption-initiated transfer of heat, chemicals, and perhaps biota from the crust to the ocean. Serendipitous observations and rapid response cruises have now documented that the "event (mega-) plumes" accompanying eruptions range over a factor of 100 in volume (1-150 km3), yet maintain a distinctive and consistent chemical signature (much lower 3He/heat and Mn/heat and higher H2/heat than typical black smokers). Confirmed event plumes have formed at spreading rates from 55-~90 mm/yr, with some incompletely sampled but "event-like" plumes observed at even slower rates (11-30 mm/yr; Gakkel and Carlsberg Ridges). Presently, only four event plumes can be associated with specific eruptions. Large event plumes in the NE Pacific were found over thick (up to ~75 m), voluminous, and slowly extruded pillow mounds. The 2008 eruption on the fast-spreading NE Lau spreading center demonstrated that thin (a few meters), small, and rapidly emplaced sheet flows can generate smaller event plumes. Available evidence suggests that massive fluid discharge occurs virtually simultaneously with an eruption. At Gorda Ridge in 1996, eruption-indicative seismicity began on the same day and location an event plume was found. At Axial Volcano in 1998, moorings 2 km apart both recorded the appearance of a >100-m-thick plume within minutes of the start of a 72-min-long sheet flow eruption. These observations support inferences from plume modeling and chemistry that event plume generation time is hours, not days. Candidates for the source of event plume fluids include the release of high-temperature, pre-formed hydrothermal fluid from the crust or magma chamber; the heating of crustal fluid by a cooling dike; or the conversion of seawater to hydrothermal fluid by cooling lava. The requirements of very high crustal permeabilities and/or a large volume of stored fluids hinder the first two hypotheses. The slow rate of lava cooling relative to event plume formation hinders the third hypothesis. Whatever the process, the uniform and unique chemistry of event plumes requires a consistent formation process during all types and sizes of eruptions. High concentrations of H2 and abundant basalt shards in the 2008 event plumes necessitate interaction between source fluids and molten lava. The 2008 observations also preclude source fluid salinities <~15 psu, much higher than the values as low as ~2 psu measured in post-eruption vent fluids at some sites. Source fluids with salinities fresher than ~15 psu would have produced unreasonably high or negative temperature anomaly values in the event plumes. The immediate generation of copious hydrothermal fluids now seems a common consequence of any midocean ridge eruption at any depth. The difficulty of formulating a convincing theory to explain this conclusion implies that we remain ignorant about some of the most fundamental processes that occur during events of ocean crust accretion.

  5. First findings of Paleo- and Mesoarchean zircons in the rocks from the Central Arctic province of oceanic rises as an evidence of the ancient continental crust (United States)

    Sergeev, S. A.; Presnyakov, S. L.; Antonov, A. V.; Belyatsky, B. V.; Rodionov, N. V.; Shevchenko, S. S.


    This report presents the results of local U-Pb zircon dating (SIMS SHRIMP II) for a sample of migmatite gneiss dredged on the western slope of Alpha Ridge in the Arctic Ocean in the course of the "Arktika-2012" Russian polar expedition. The distribution of U-Pb ages of the examined zircon points to the Early Precambrian origin of this gneiss, for the bulk of the zircon was crystallized at least 3450 Ma ago from a magmatic melt under acidic volcanism at the primary crust formation. Zircon of the second generation was crystallized 3300 Ma ago under the remelting of acid volcanics and appearance of migmatite gneisses under the amphibolite facies of metamorphism. Most likely, a partial recrystallization of zircon and formation of microfolded structures and foliation took place 3000 Ma ago at the stage of rocks deformation. The latest zircon was formed 1900 Ma ago from the crust fluid or melt under the low-gradient metamorphism. In view of the possibility of the appearance of the treated clastogenic gneiss fragment under current oceanic erosion, the obtained results allow one to affirm that the occurrence of a fragment of the most ancient sialic continental crust formed at least 3450 Ma ago is possible at the submarine rises of the Arctic Ocean (Alpha Ridge and the Mendeleev Rise).

  6. Growth response of a deep-water ferromanganese crust to evolution of the Neogene Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V; Hein, J


    )Be dated interval (upper 32 mm) yields an uniform growth rate of 2.8 plus or minus 0.1 mm/Ma which gives an extrapolated age of approx. 26 Ma for the base of the crust at 72 mm and is comparable to the maximum age derived from the Co-model based...

  7. Evidence for unusually thin oceanic crust and strong mantle beneath the Amazon Fan


    Rodger, M; Watts, Ab; Greenroyd, CJ; Peirce, C.; Hobbs, RW


    We used seismic and gravity data to determine the structure of the crust and mantle beneath the Amazon Fan. Seismic data suggest that the crust is of oceanic-type and is unusually thin (< ?4 km) compared to elsewhere in the Atlantic. We attribute the thin crust to ultraslow seaffoor spreading following the breakup of South America and Africa during the Early Cretaceous. Gravity data suggest that the fan was emplaced on lithosphere that increased its elastic thickness, Te, and hence strength, ...

  8. Yttrium and rare earth element contents in seamount cobalt crusts in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balaram, V.; Banakar, V.K.; Subramanyam, K.S.V.; Roy, P.; Satyanarayan, M.; RamMohan, M.; Sawant, S.S.


    Cobalt-rich Fe-Mn crusts occur on almost all seamounts and plateaus of the world oceans. Fe-Mn crusts are formed through layer-by-layer accretion of colloidal precipitates from cold ambient seawater onto exposed seamount rock substrates. This study...

  9. Inconsistent correlation of seismic layer 2a and lava layer thickness in oceanic crust. (United States)

    Christeson, Gail L; McIntosh, Kirk D; Karson, Jeffrey A


    At mid-ocean ridges with fast to intermediate spreading rates, the upper section of oceanic crust is composed of lavas overlying a sheeted dyke complex. These units are formed by dykes intruding into rocks overlying a magma chamber, with lavas erupting at the ocean floor. Seismic reflection data acquired over young oceanic crust commonly image a reflector known as 'layer 2A', which is typically interpreted as defining the geologic boundary between lavas and dykes. An alternative hypothesis is that the reflector is associated with an alteration boundary within the lava unit. Many studies have used mapped variability in layer 2A thickness to make inferences regarding the geology of the oceanic crust, including volcanic construction, dyke intrusion and faulting. However, there has been no link between the geologic and seismological structure of oceanic crust except at a few deep drill holes. Here we show that, although the layer 2A reflector is imaged near the top of the sheeted dyke complex at fast-spreading crust located adjacent to the Hess Deep rift, it is imaged significantly above the sheeted dykes section at intermediate-spreading crust located near the Blanco transform fault. Although the lavas and underlying transition zone thicknesses differ by about a factor of two, the shallow seismic structure is remarkably similar at the two locations. This implies that seismic layer 2A cannot be used reliably to map the boundary between lavas and dykes in young oceanic crust. Instead we argue that the seismic layer 2A reflector corresponds to an alteration boundary that can be located either within the lava section or near the top of the sheeted dyke complex of oceanic crust. PMID:17251977

  10. Continental Growth and Recycling in Convergent Orogens with Large Turbidite Fans on Oceanic Crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben D. Goscombe


    Full Text Available Convergent plate margins where large turbidite fans with slivers of oceanic basement are accreted to continents represent important sites of continental crustal growth and recycling. Crust accreted in these settings is dominated by an upper layer of recycled crustal and arc detritus (turbidites underlain by a layer of tectonically imbricated upper oceanic crust and/or thinned continental crust. When oceanic crust is converted to lower continental crust it represents a juvenile addition to the continental growth budget. This two-tiered accreted crust is often the same thickness as average continental crustal and is isostatically balanced near sea level. The Paleozoic Lachlan Orogen of eastern Australia is the archetypical example of a tubidite-dominated accretionary orogeny. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Damaran Orogen of SW Africa is similar to the Lachlan Orogen except that it was incorporated into Gondwana via a continent-continent collision. The Mesozoic Rangitatan Orogen of New Zealand illustrates the transition of convergent margin from a Lachlan-type to more typical accretionary wedge type orogen. The spatial and temporal variations in deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism across these orogens illustrate how large volumes of turbidite and their relict oceanic basement eventually become stable continental crust. The timing of deformation and metamorphism recorded in these rocks reflects the crustal thickening phase, whereas post-tectonic magmatism constrains the timing of chemical maturation and cratonization. Cratonization of continental crust is fostered because turbidites represent fertile sources for felsic magmatism. Recognition of similar orogens in the Proterozoic and Archean is important for the evaluation of crustal growth models, particularly for those based on detrital zircon age patterns, because crustal growth by accretion of upper oceanic crust or mafic underplating does not readily result in the addition of voluminous zircon-bearing magmas at the time of accretion. This crust only produces significant zircon when and if it partially melts, which may occur long after accretion.

  11. IODP Expedition 345: Structural characteristics of fast spread lower ocean crust, implications for growth and cooling of ocean crust (United States)

    John, B. E.; Ceuleneer, G.; Cheadle, M. J.; Harigane, Y.


    IODP Expedition 345 to the Hess Deep Rift sampled ~1 Ma, fast-spread East Pacific Rise gabbroic crust exposed as a dismembered, lower crustal section. Sixteen holes were drilled at Site U1415, centered on a sub-horizontal, 200-m wide E-W-trending bench between 4675 and 4850 mbsl. The bench was formed as a rotational slide within a 1km high slump along the southern wall of the intra-rift ridge. Primitive olivine gabbro and troctolite (Mg# 76-89) were sampled in four discrete, 30 to ? 65 m sized blocks formed by the mass wasting that dominates the southwestern slope of the ridge. Igneous fabric orientations (both layering and foliation) in the blocks vary from sub-vertical to gently dipping, suggesting some of the blocks have rotated at least 90°. Magmatic fabrics including spectacular modal and/or grain size layering are prevalent in >50% of the recovered core. Magmatic foliation in all blocks is defined by plagioclase crystal shape, but may also be defined by olivine and, to a lesser extent, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene when the crystals have suitable habits. In all cases, this foliation is controlled by both the preferred orientation and shape anisotropy of the crystals. Fabric intensity varies from moderate to strong in the block with simple modal layering, weak to absent in the two blocks of troctolite, and largely absent in the block with heterogeneous textures and/or diffuse banding. Intrinsic to the layering and banding is the common development of dendritic and/or skeletal olivine textures (grain size up to 3 cm). The preservation of these delicate olivine grains showing only limited subgrain formation, and no kinking precludes significant low melt fraction (core. Significant lower temperature (core) of the rocks, but reflect late stages of cracking, fluid circulation, and fluid-rock interaction. Vein density is low except in the zones of extensive cataclasis. The alteration veins form networks with no preferred orientation consistent with hydraulic fracturing.

  12. Recycled crust in the Galápagos Plume source at 70 Ma: Implications for plume evolution (United States)

    Trela, Jarek; Vidito, Christopher; Gazel, Esteban; Herzberg, Claude; Class, Cornelia; Whalen, William; Jicha, Brian; Bizimis, Michael; Alvarado, Guillermo E.


    Galápagos plume-related lavas in the accreted terranes of the Caribbean and along the west coast of Costa Rica and Panama provide evidence on the evolution of the Galápagos mantle plume, specifically its mantle temperature, size and composition of heterogeneities, and dynamics. Here we provide new 40Ar/39Ar ages, major and trace element data, Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions, and high-precision olivine analyses for samples from the Quepos terrane (Costa Rica) to closely examine the transitional phase of the Galápagos Plume from Large Igneous Province (LIP) to ocean island basalt (OIB) forming stages. The new ages indicate that the record of Quepos volcanism began at 70 Ma and persisted for 10 Ma. Petrological evidence suggests that the maximum mantle potential temperature (Tp) of the plume changed from ?1650° to ?1550 °C between 90-70 Ma. This change correlates with a dominant pyroxenite component in the Galapagos source as indicated by high Ni and Fe/Mn and low Ca olivines relative to those that crystallized in normal peridotite derived melts. The decrease in Tp also correlates with an increase in high-field strength element enrichments, e.g., Nb/Nb*, of the erupted lavas. Radiogenic isotope ratios (Nd-Pb) suggest that the Quepos terrane samples have intermediate (Central Domain) radiogenic signatures. The Galápagos plume at 70 Ma represents elevated pyroxenite melt productivity relative to peridotite in a cooling lithologically heterogeneous mantle.

  13. Renormalisation of Global Mantle Dynamic Topography Predictions using Residual Topography Measurements for "Normal" Ocean Crust (United States)

    Cowie, Fergus; Kusznir, Nick; Cowie, Leanne


    The best constraint on model predictions of present day mantle dynamic topography are measurements of residual topography. Residual topography is calculated by removing the isostatic effects of bathymetry, sediments, ice, crustal thickness variation and lithosphere thermal anomalies from the observed topography. Comparison of global model predictions of mantle dynamic topography with global compilations of residual topography, while showing a broadly similar pattern at long wavelengths, differ substantially in amplitude. A strong contribution to the present day surface topographic signal arises from crustal thickness variation. As a consequence it is difficult to accurately determine residual topography for continental crust and for oceanic regions with substantially thicker than average oceanic crust (e.g. oceanic crust adjacent to volcanic rifted margins, oceanic plume tracks, volcanic plateaux, micro-continents). Residual topography is best measured on ocean crust of "normal" oceanic thickness. We use global mapping of crustal thickness using gravity inversion to identify crust with thicknesses greater than that of "normal" oceanic crust in order than we can eliminate the less accurate measurements of residual topography for these thicker crustal regions. Comparison of model predicted mantle dynamic topography with residual topography measurements for the remaining regions of thinner "normal" oceanic crust shows an improved correlation but with a dynamic topography showing a positive bias with respect to residual topography and a greater amplitude. We use residual topography measurements for "normal" oceanic crust to downward shift (by approximately 600 m) and rescale (by 0.6) predicted global mantle dynamic topography. We present maps of the renormalised model predictions of global mantle topography from Steinberger (2007) and Flament et al. (2013). One consequence of renormalization is to reduce the amplitude of predicted mantle dynamic topographic uplift in the Pacific. The gravity inversion methodology includes a correction for the elevated geothermal gradient of oceanic and rifted continental margin lithosphere and sediment thickness. Caveats on this methodology are (i) that the gravity inversion methodology used to determine crustal thickness for screening out thick crust is itself dependent on mantle dynamic topography (but fortunately only weakly so) and (ii) that the renormalization procedure is biased towards oceanic regions.

  14. First Investigation of the Microbiology of the Deepest Layer of Ocean Crust


    Mason, Olivia U.; Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Rosner, Martin; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Maruyama, Akihiko; Fisk, Martin R.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.


    The gabbroic layer comprises the majority of ocean crust. Opportunities to sample this expansive crustal environment are rare because of the technological demands of deep ocean drilling; thus, gabbroic microbial communities have not yet been studied. During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expeditions 304 and 305, igneous rock samples were collected from 0.45-1391.01 meters below seafloor at Hole 1309D, located on the Atlantis Massif (30 °N, 42 °W). Microbial diversity in the rocks was a...

  15. Contraction or expansion of the Moon's crust during magma ocean freezing? (United States)

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T; Bercovici, David


    The lack of contraction features on the Moon has been used to argue that the Moon underwent limited secular cooling, and thus had a relatively cool initial state. A cool early state in turn limits the depth of the lunar magma ocean. Recent GRAIL gravity measurements, however, suggest that dikes were emplaced in the lower crust, requiring global lunar expansion. Starting from the magma ocean state, we show that solidification of the lunar magma ocean would most likely result in expansion of the young lunar crust, and that viscous relaxation of the crust would prevent early tectonic features of contraction or expansion from being recorded permanently. The most likely process for creating the expansion recorded by the dikes is melting during cumulate overturn of the newly solidified lunar mantle. PMID:25114310

  16. Brittle versus ductile deformation as the main control of the deep fluid circulation in oceanic crust (United States)

    Violay, M.; Gibert, B.; Mainprice, D.; Burg, J.-P.


    The brittle to ductile transition may strongly influence hydraulic properties of rocks at the depth and temperature ranges that hydrothermal fluids circulate. To examine this transition in the context of the oceanic crust, we conducted a series of deformation experiments on a natural basalt sample at in situ oceanic crust conditions. Dilatancy was measured during deformation. The method consisted in monitoring the volume of pore fluid that flows into or out of the sample at constant pore pressure. Mechanical and microstructural observations at experimental constant strain rate of 10-5 s-1 indicated that the basalt was brittle and dilatant up to 800°C. At higher temperature, the deformation mode became macroscopically ductile and samples compacted. These observations have important implications on heat transfer and fluid migration in oceanic crust.

  17. The Davis Strait crust—a transform margin between two oceanic basins (United States)

    Suckro, Sonja K.; Gohl, Karsten; Funck, Thomas; Heyde, Ingo; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Gerlings, Joanna; Damm, Volkmar


    The Davis Strait is located between Canada and Greenland and connects the Labrador Sea and the Baffin Bay basins. Both basins formed in Cretaceous to Eocene time and were connected by a transform fault system in the Davis Strait. Whether the crust in the central Davis Strait is oceanic or continental has been disputed. This information is needed to understand the evolution of this transform margin during the separation of the North American plate and Greenland. We here present a 315-km-long east-west-oriented profile that crosses the Davis Strait and two major transform fault systems-the Ungava Fault Complex and the Hudson Fracture Zone. By forward modelling of data from 12 ocean bottom seismographs, we develop a P-wave velocity model. We compare this model with a density model from ship-borne gravity data. Seismic reflection and magnetic anomaly data support and complement the interpretation. Most of the crust is covered by basalt flows that indicate extensive volcanism in the Davis Strait. While the upper crust is uniform, the middle and lower crust are characterized by higher P-wave velocities and densities at the location of the Ungava Fault Complex. Here, P-wave velocities of the middle crust are 6.6 km s-1 and of the lower crust are 7.1 km s-1 compared to 6.3 and 6.8 km s-1 outside this area; densities are 2850 and 3050 kg m-3 compared to 2800 and 2900 kg m-3. We here interpret a 45-km-long section as stretched and intruded crust or as new igneous crust that correlates with oceanic crust in the southern Davis Strait. A high-velocity lower crust (6.9-7.3 km s-1) indicates a high content of mafic material. This mantle-derived material gradually intruded the lower crust of the adjacent continental crust and can be related to the Iceland mantle plume. With plate kinematic modelling, we can demonstrate the importance of two transform fault systems in the Davis Strait: the Ungava Fault Complex with transpression and the Hudson Fracture Zone with pure strike-slip motion. We show that with recent poles of rotation, most of the relative motion between the North American plate and Greenland took place along the Hudson Fracture Zone.

  18. Microbial community on oceanic ferro-manganese crusts from Takuyo-Daigo Seamount and Ryusei Seamount (United States)

    Nitahara, S.; Kato, S.; Yamagishi, A.


    Background and Purpose Iron and manganese oxide deposits are often found on deep seafloor. Rocks covered with these oxides are called ferro-manganese crusts (Mn crusts), and are ubiquitously distributed on deep seafloor (Rona 2003). Because Mn crusts contain rare metals such as Co, Pt and rare earth element, it can be resources in the future. Mn crusts and microbes on Mn crusts may contribute to material, especially carbon and nitrogen circulation between hydrosphere and lithosphere. Mechanism of Mn crust formation is not completely understood. Wang et al. propose a model that microorganisms associate with initial Mn mineral deposition (Wang et al., 2011). There is a possibility that microbes may contribute to formation of Mn crust relying on their ability to oxidize Fe and Mn. However, there is limited information about diversity, spatial distribution and abundance of microbes on Mn crust surface. Our purpose is to clarify microbial community composition, spatial distribution, diversity and abundance of microbes on Mn crusts collected from Takuyo-Daigo seamount and Ryusei seamount. Method We collected Mn crusts, sediments and ambient seawater from Takuyo-Daigo seamount at the depth of 1200 m, 1419 m, 2209 m and 2991 m during NT09-02 cruise in Feb 2009 and Ryusei seamount at the depth of 1194 m, 2079 m during KY11-02 in Feb 2011 with remotely operated vehicle Hyper-Dolphin (JAMSTEC). Genomic DNA was extracted from each sample using Fast DNA kit for soil (Qbiogene). Partial 16S rRNA gene and amoA gene were amplified by PCR with prokaryote-universal primer set (Uni516F-Uni1407R) and bacterial and archaeal amoA specific primer sets. PCR products were cloned. The nucleotide sequences of randomly selected clones were determined. We performed phylogenetic and statistical analysis to determine microbial community compositions, and estimated diversity indices. We also estimated the copy numbers of 16S rRNA and amoA genes of Bacteria and Archaea by quantitative PCR. Results and Discussion We estimated the numbers of bacterial and archaeal cell on Mn crusts from Takuyo-Daigo seamount by QPCR. Bacterial cell number on Mn crust was estimated to be approximately 10^7 cells/g. Those of archaea were estimated to be between 10^6 and 10^7 cells/g. Archaea dominated in three of four Mn crust samples (50~83 % of total cell numbers). Microbial community of Mn crusts was different from those of sediment and seawater. This suggests that unique microbial community present on Mn crusts. Many phylotypes related to uncultured group were detected. Phylotypes closely related to Marine Group I (MGI) were detected from six Mn crust samples, collected from Takuyo-Daigo and Ryusei seamounts. MGI includes Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea (AOA) and is ubiquitously distributed in ocean (Karner et al., 2001). Phylotypes closely related to Nitrosospira, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), were detected from four Mn crusts collected from Takuyo-Daigo seamount. Presence of these ammonia oxidizers was supported by detection of bacterial and archaeal amoA genes. The copy numbers of bacterial and archaeal amoA genes were estimated to be approximately 10^5 -10^6 copy/g by QPCR. These facts suggest that ammonia oxidizers are present abundantly on Mn crusts. MGI and Nitrosospira include autotrophic ammonia oxidizers. These groups may play a role as primary producers in Mn crust ecosystems.

  19. Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust

    CERN Document Server

    Crowley, John W; Huybers, Peter; Langmuir, Charles H; Park, Sung-Hyun


    Glacial cycles redistribute water between the oceans and continents causing pressure changes in the upper mantle, with potential consequences for melting of Earth's interior. A numerical model of mid-ocean ridge dynamics that explicitly includes melt transport is used to calculate the melting effects that would be caused by Plio-Pleistocene sea-level variations. Model results interpreted in the context of an analytical approximation predict sea-level induced variations in crustal thickness on the order of hundreds of meters. The specifics of the response depend on rates of sea-level change, mid-ocean ridge spreading rates, and mantle permeability. Spectral analysis of the bathymetry of the Australian-Antarctic ridge shows significant spectral energy near 23, 41, and 100 ky periods, consistent with model results and with the spectral content of Pleistocene sea-level variability. These results support the hypothesis that sea-floor topography records the magmatic response to changes in sea level, reinforcing the...

  20. the Deep Biosphere Archaeal Microbial Community in Igneous Ocean Crust (United States)

    Edwards, K. J.


    Ridge flank hydrothermal systems represent vast environments that may be habitable by subseafloor microbial life. Oceanic ridge flanks, areas far from the magmatic and tectonic influence of seafloor spreading, comprise one of the largest and least explored microbial habitats on the planet. These potential ecosystems may play a significant role in biogeochemical processes and elemental fluxes that are known to be regulated by these systems. I will discuss the nature of ridge flank hydrothermal environments, and present a framework for delineating a continuum of conditions and processes that are likely to be important for defining subseafloor microbial "provinces." The basis for this framework is three governing conditions that help to determine the nature of subseafloor biomes: crustal age, extent of fluid flow, and thermal state. A brief overview of subseafloor conditions, within the context of these three characteristics for select sites will be described. Technical challenges remain and likely will limit progress in studies of microbial ridge flank hydrothermal ecosystems, which is why it is vital to select and design future studies so as to leverage as much general understanding as possible from work focused at a small number of sites. A characterization framework that perhaps includes alternative or additional physical or chemical characteristics is essential for achieving the greatest benefit from multidisciplinary microbial investigations of oceanic ridge flank hydrothermal systems.

  1. Detecting the Deep-Biosphere in-Situ within Igneous Ocean Crust (United States)

    Edwards, K. J.


    The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in-situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 105 cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities.

  2. Conference on the magnetization of the oceanic crust steers future research (United States)

    Johnson, H. Paul; Kent, Dennis V.; Tivey, Maurice A.; Gee, Jeffrey S.; Largon, Roger L.; Embley, Robert W.

    Because marine magnetic anomalies arise from the combination of seafloor spreading and geomagnetic polarity reversals, they delineate a history of global plate motions and geomagnetic field behavior. Thirty years ago, interpretation of sea surface magnetometer profiles led to the plate tectonics revolution. Recent developments in high resolution magnetic studies are similarly changing our view of the structure and evolution of oceanic crust and beginning to answer basic questions concerning geomagnetic field behavior.In response to these developments, the Conference on the Magnetization of Oceanic Crust was held September 21-24,1996, on Orcas Island in Washington State. Forty-seven scientists representing 20 institutions in seven countries attended the conference, which was funded by the National Science Foundation, the Ridge Interdisciplinary Global Experiment (RIDGE), and the United States Science Advisory Committee (USSAC).

  3. Role of hydrology in the formation of Co-rich Mn crusts from the equatorial N Pacific, equatorial S Indian Ocean and the NE Atlantic Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Glasby, G.P.; Mountain, B.; Vineesh, T.C.; Banakar, V.K.; Rajani, R.; Ren, X.


    crusts Co-rich Mn crusts are hydrogenous manganese crusts having Co contents in excess of 1% in some cases. The crusts are typically 5–100 mm thick and occur on exposed surfaces on older seamounts (100–60 Ma) at water depths of 3000–1100 m, particularly.... M. and Lundeen, S. R. (1990) The LLNL thermochemi- cal database. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report UCRL-21658, 150p. Dutta, R. K., Sideras-Haddad, E. and Connell, S. H. (2001) Distri- bution of various components in a hydrogenous...

  4. IODP Expedition 345: Primitive Layered Gabbros From Fast-Spreading Lower Oceanic Crust (United States)

    Ildefonse, Benoit; Gillis, Kathryn M.; Snow, Jonathan E.; Klaus, Adam


    Three-quarters of the ocean crust formed at fast-spreading ridges is composed of plutonic rocks whose mineral assemblages, textures and compositions record the history of melt transport and crystallization between the mantle and the seafloor. However, owing to the nearly continuous overlying extrusive upper crust, sampling in situ the lower crust is challenging. Hence, models for understanding the formation of the lower crust are based essentially on geophysical studies and ophiolites. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 345 recovered the first significant sections of primitive, modally layered gabbroic rocks from the lowermost plutonic crust formed at a fast-spreading ridge, and exposed at the Hess Deep Rift (Gillis et al., Nature, 2014, doi:10.1038/nature12778). Drilling Site U1415 is located along the southern slope of the intrarift ridge. The primary science results were obtained from coring of two ~110 m deep reentry holes and one 35-m-deep single-bit hole, all co-located within an ~100-m-wide area. Olivine gabbro and troctolite are the dominant plutonic rock types recovered, with minor gabbro, clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing gabbroic rocks, and gabbronorite. All rock types are primitive to moderately evolved, with Mg# 89-76, and exhibit cumulate textures similar to ones found in layered mafic intrusions and some ophiolites. Spectacular modal and grain size layering, prevalent in >50% of the recovered core, confirm a long held paradigm that such rocks are a key constituent of the lowermost ocean crust formed at fast-spreading ridges. Magmatic foliation is largely defined by the shape-preferred orientation of plagioclase. It is moderate to strong in intervals with simple modal layering but weak to absent in troctolitic intervals and typically absent in intervals with heterogeneous textures and/or diffuse banding. Geochemical analysis of these primitive lower plutonics, in combination with previous geochemical data for shallow-level plutonics, sheeted dikes and lavas, provides the best constrained estimate to date of the bulk composition of crust formed at a fast-spreading ridge. Simple crystallization models using this bulk crustal composition as the parental melt accurately predict the composition of both the lavas and plutonics. However, the recovered plutonic rocks show unanticipated early crystallization of orthopyroxene, challenging current models of melt extraction from the mantle and mid-ocean ridge basalt differentiation. The core recovered at Site U1415 originated at a stratigraphic level at least 2 km beneath the sheeted dike-plutonic transition, representing intervals of the lower half to one third of the EPR plutonic crust. A more precise depth cannot be assigned as the results of Expedition 345 (e.g., magnetic inclinations) and site survey indicate that the sampled units are tilted, mass-wasted blocks. However, sampling four large blocks of relatively fresh rocks proved facilitated observations of the wide variety and complexity of rock types and textures present in fast spread primitive lowermost crust.

  5. Pliocene granodioritic knoll with continental crust affinities discovered in the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc: Syntectonic granitic crust formation during back-arc rifting (United States)

    Tani, Kenichiro; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Chang, Qing; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Shukuno, Hiroshi; Hirahara, Yuka; Ishizuka, Osamu; Arima, Makoto; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki


    A widely held hypothesis is that modern continental crust of an intermediate (i.e. andesitic) bulk composition forms at intra-oceanic arcs through subduction zone magmatism. However, there is a critical paradox in this hypothesis: to date, the dominant granitic rocks discovered in these arcs are tonalite, rocks that are significantly depleted in incompatible (i.e. magma-preferred) elements and do not geochemically and petrographically represent those of the continents. Here we describe the discovery of a submarine knoll, the Daisan-West Sumisu Knoll, situated in the rear-arc region of the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc. Remotely-operated vehicle surveys reveal that this knoll is made up entirely of a 2.6 million year old porphyritic to equigranular granodiorite intrusion with a geochemical signature typical of continental crust. We present a model of granodiorite magma formation that involves partial remelting of enriched mafic rear-arc crust during the initial phase of back-arc rifting, which is supported by the preservation of relic cores inherited from initial rear-arc source rocks within magmatic zircon crystals. The strong extensional tectonic regime at the time of intrusion may have allowed the granodioritic magma to be emplaced at an extremely shallow level, with later erosion of sediment and volcanic covers exposing the internal plutonic body. These findings suggest that rear-arc regions could be the potential sites of continental crust formation in intra-oceanic convergent margins.

  6. Nickel isotopic compositions of ferromanganese crusts and the constancy of deep ocean inputs and continental weathering effects over the Cenozoic (United States)

    Gall, L.; Williams, H. M.; Siebert, C.; Halliday, A. N.; Herrington, R. J.; Hein, J. R.


    The global variability in nickel (Ni) isotope compositions in ferromanganese crusts is investigated by analysing surface samples of 24 crusts from various ocean basins by MC-ICPMS, using a double-spike for mass bias correction. Ferromanganese crusts have ?Ni60 isotopic compositions that are significantly heavier than any other samples thus far reported (-0.1‰ to 0.3‰), with surface scrapings ranging between 0.9‰ and 2.5‰ (relative to NIST SRM986). There is no well resolved difference between ocean basins, although the data indicate somewhat lighter values in the Atlantic than in the Pacific, nor is there any evidence that the variations are related to biological fractionation, presence of different water masses, or bottom water redox conditions. Preliminary data for laterite samples demonstrate that weathering is accompanied by isotopic fractionation of Ni, which should lead to rivers and seawater being isotopically heavy. This is consistent with the slightly heavier than average isotopic compositions recorded in crusts that are sampled close to continental regions. Furthermore, the isotopic compositions of crusts growing close to a hydrothermal source are clustered around ?1.5‰, suggesting that hydrothermal fluids entering the ocean may have a Ni isotopic composition similar to this value. Based on these data, the heavy Ni isotopic compositions of ferromanganese crusts are likely due to input of isotopically heavy Ni to the ocean from continental weathering and possibly also from hydrothermal fluids. A depth profile through one crust, CD29-2, from the north central Pacific Ocean displays large variations in Ni isotope composition (1.1-2.3‰) through the last 76 Myr. Although there may have been some redistribution of Ni associated with phosphatisation, there is no systematic difference in Ni isotopic composition between deeper, older parts and shallower, younger parts of the crust, which may suggest that oceanic sources and sinks of Ni have largely remained in steady state over the Cenozoic. Additionally, the isotope profile is in agreement with a profile of Mn concentration through the same crust. This implies a link between the Ni isotopic composition recorded in ferromanganese crusts and the release of Ni into the ocean through hydrothermal activity. This supports the conclusions drawn from surface data, that Ni isotope ratios in ferromanganese crusts are largely controlled by the isotopic compositions of the Ni oceanic input sources.

  7. IODP Exp 345: Primitive Layered Gabbros From Fast-Spreading Lower Oceanic Crust (United States)

    Gillis, K. M.; Snow, J. E.; Klaus, A.


    Plutonic rocks from the lower ocean crust formed at fast-spreading ridges provide a record of the history of melt transport and crystallization between the mantle and the seafloor. Despite the significance of these rocks, sampling them in situ has proven extremely challenging. This means our models for understanding the formation of the lower crust are based largely on geophysical studies and ophiolites that did not form at typical mid-ocean ridges. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 345 recovered the first significant recovery of primitive modally layered gabbroic rocks from the lowermost plutonic crust from a fast-spreading ridge exposed at the Hess Deep Rift. Drilling was focused at Site U1415, located along the southern slope of the intrarift ridge. The primary science results were obtained from coring of two ~110 m deep reentry holes and one 35-m-deep single-bit hole, all co-located within an ~100-m-wide area. Olivine gabbro and troctolite are the dominant plutonic rock types recovered, with minor gabbro, clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing gabbroic lithologies, and gabbronorite. All rock types are primitive (Mg# 76-89) and exhibit cumulate textures similar to ones found in layered mafic intrusions and some ophiolite complexes. Spectacular modal and grain size layering, prevalent in >50% of the recovered core, confirm a long held paradigm that such rocks are a key constituent of the lowermost ocean crust formed at fast-spreading ridges. Magmatic foliation is largely defined by the shape-preferred orientation of plagioclase. It is moderate to strong in intervals with simple modal layering but weak to absent in troctolitic intervals and typically absent in intervals with heterogeneous textures and/or diffuse banding. Geochemical analysis of these primitive lower plutonics, in combination with previous geochemical data for shallow-level plutonics, sheeted dikes and lavas, provides the first robust estimate of the bulk composition of crust formed at a fast-spreading ridge. Simple crystallization models using this bulk crustal composition as the parental melt accurately predict the composition of both the lavas and plutonics. However, the recovered plutonic rocks show unanticipated early crystallization of orthopyroxene, challenging current models of melt extraction from the mantle and mid-ocean ridge basalt differentiation. The core recovered at Site U1415 originated at a stratigraphic level at least 2 km beneath the sheeted dike-plutonic transition, representing intervals of the lower half to one third of the EPR plutonic crust. A more precise depth cannot be assigned as the results of Expedition 345 (e.g., magnetic inclinations) and site survey data (Ferrini et al., 2013) indicate that the southern slope of the intrarift ridge formed by mass wasting. However, sampling four large blocks of relatively fresh rocks proved advantageous, as it facilitated observations of the wide variety and complexity of rock types and textures present in fast spread primitive lowermost crust. [Ferrini et al., Mar. Geol., 339, 13-21, 2013

  8. Vertical tectonics at a continental crust-oceanic plateau plate boundary zone: Fission track thermochronology of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia (United States)

    Villagómez, Diego; Spikings, Richard; Mora, AndréS.; GuzmáN, Georgina; Ojeda, GermáN.; CortéS, Elizabeth; van der Lelij, Roelant


    The topographically prominent Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta forms part of a faulted block of continental crust located along the northern boundary of the South American Plate, hosts the highest elevation in the world (˜5.75 km) whose local base is at sea level, and juxtaposes oceanic plateau rocks of the Caribbean Plate. Quantification of the amount and timing of exhumation constrains interpretations of the history of the plate boundary, and the driving forces of rock uplift along the active margin. The Sierra Nevada Province of the southernmost Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta exhumed at elevated rates (?0.2 Km/My) during 65-58 Ma in response to the collision of the Caribbean Plateau with northwestern South America. A second pulse of exhumation (?0.32 Km/My) during 50-40 Ma was driven by underthrusting of the Caribbean Plate beneath northern South America. Subsequent exhumation at 40-25 Ma (?0.15 Km/My) is recorded proximal to the Santa Marta-Bucaramanga Fault. More northerly regions of the Sierra Nevada Province exhumed rapidly during 26-29 Ma (˜0.7 Km/My). Further northward, the Santa Marta Province exhumed at elevated rates during 30-25 Ma and 25-16 Ma. The highest exhumation rates within the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta progressed toward the northwest via the propagation of NW verging thrusts. Exhumation is not recorded after ˜16 Ma, which is unexpected given the high elevation and high erosive power of the climate, implying that rock and surface uplift that gave rise to the current topography was very recent (i.e., ?1 Ma?), and there has been insufficient time to expose the fossil apatite partial annealing zone.

  9. High-Albedo Salt Crusts on the Tropical Ocean of Snowball Earth: Measurements and Modeling (United States)

    Carns, R.; Light, B.; Warren, S. G.


    During a Snowball Earth event, almost all of the ocean surface first freezes as sea ice. As in modern sea ice, trapped inclusions of liquid brine permeate the ice cover. As the ice grows and cools, salt crystals precipitate within the inclusions. At -23C, the most abundant salt in seawater, sodium chloride, begins to precipitate as the dihydrate mineral hydrohalite (NaCl·2H2O). Crystals of hydrohalite within the sea ice scatter light. Measurements of cold, natural sea ice show a broadband albedo increase of 10-20% when salt precipitates. Such snow-free natural sea ice with a surface temperature below -23C is rare on modern Earth, but would have been common in tropical regions of a Snowball Earth where evaporation exceeded precipitation. The persistent cold and lack of summer melt on the Snowball ocean surface, combined with net evaporation, is hypothesized to yield lag deposits of hydrohalite crystals on the ice surface. To investigate this process, we prepared laboratory-grown sea ice in a 1000 liter tank in a walk-in freezer laboratory. The ice was cooled below -23 C and the surface sprayed with a 23% NaCl solution to create a layer of hydrohalite-enriched ice, a proxy for lag deposits that would have formed over long periods of surface sublimation. We have developed a novel technique for measuring the spectral albedo of ice surfaces in the laboratory; this technique was used to monitor the evolution of the surface albedo of our salt crust as the ice matrix sublimated away leaving a layer of fine-grained hydrohalite crystals. Measurements of this hydrohalite surface crust show a very high albedo, comparable to fresh snow at visible wavelengths and significantly larger than fresh snow at near infrared wavelengths. Broadband albedos are 0.55 for bare artificial sea ice at -30C, 0.75 for ice containing 25% hydrohalite by volume, 0.84 after five days of desiccation and 0.93 after 47 days of desiccation. Using our laboratory measurements, along with estimates of grain size and crust optical depth, as inputs to Mie scattering and radiative transfer models allowed us to infer the imaginary refractive index of hydrohalite. The model can calculate albedo for pure hydrohalite crusts of varying thickness and for mixtures of ice and hydrohalite. A parameterization is presented for albedo as a function of the thickness of the hydrohalite crust.

  10. Geodynamic models of continental subduction and obduction of overriding plate forearc oceanic lithosphere on top of continental crust (United States)

    Edwards, Sarah J.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Duarte, Joao C.


    Continental subduction takes place in the final stage of subduction when all oceanic lithosphere is consumed and continental passive margin is pulled into the mantle. When the overriding plate is oceanic, dense forearc oceanic lithosphere might be obducted onto light continental crust forming an ophiolite (Tethyan-style ophiolite obduction). Four-dimensional dynamic analog subduction models have been constructed to evaluate the mechanical feasibility of continental subduction and forearc oceanic lithosphere obduction on top of continental crust. The roles of continental crust thickness, passive margin length, subducting lithosphere thickness, and overriding plate thickness were investigated to determine the maximum continental subduction depth, maximum forearc obduction distance, and forearc deformation during continental subduction. Our buoyancy-driven experiments indicate that deep continental subduction occurs in most circumstances (down to ~560 km) and that obduction of dense oceanic forearc lithosphere on top of light continental crust is mechanically feasible. Maximum obduction distances are relatively small (~26-37 km) but are sufficient to explain obduction of short ophiolite sheets, such as observed in New Caledonia. When including the thin (5-10 km thick) accretionary wedge of off-scraped deep sea sediments, oceanic crust, and mantle, then maximum obduction distances are much larger, ~60-160 km, sufficient to account for the obducted Northland Allochthon in New Zealand. Results indicate that increasing continental crust thickness decreases continental subduction depth, whereas increasing passive margin length and subducting lithosphere thickness increases continental subduction depth. Notably, during continental subduction, backarc extension continues, while forearc deformation (shortening) increases moderately compared to the preceding phase of normal (oceanic) subduction.

  11. Intraterrestrial life in igneous ocean crust: advances, technologies, and the future (Invited) (United States)

    Edwards, K. J.; Wheat, C. G.


    The “next frontier” of scientific investigation in the deep sub-seafloor microbial biosphere lies in a realm that has been a completely unexplored until just the past decade: the igneous oceanic crust. Problems that have hampered exploration of the “hard rock” marine deep biosphere have revolved around sample access (hard rock drilling is technologically complex), contamination (a major hurdle), momentum (why take on this challenge when the relatively “easier” marine muds also have been a frontier) and suspicion that microbes in more readily accessed using (simpler) non-drilling technologies - like vents - are truly are endemic of subsurface clades/activities. Since the late 1990’s, however, technologies and resultant studies on microbes in the igneous ocean crust deep biosphere have risen sharply, and offer a new and distinct view on this biome. Moreover, microbiologists are now taking leading roles in technological developments that are critically required to address this biosphere - interfacing and collaborating closely with engineers, genomic biologists, geologists, seismologists, and geochemists to accomplish logistically complex and long-term studies that bring observatory research to this deep realm. The future of this field for the least decade is rich - opportunities abound for microbiologists to play new roles in how we study microbiology in the deep subsurface in an oceanographic and Earth system science perspective.

  12. Seismic evidence for overpressured subducted oceanic crust and megathrust fault sealing. (United States)

    Audet, Pascal; Bostock, Michael G; Christensen, Nikolas I; Peacock, Simon M


    Water and hydrous minerals play a key part in geodynamic processes at subduction zones by weakening the plate boundary, aiding slip and permitting subduction-and indeed plate tectonics-to occur. The seismological signature of water within the forearc mantle wedge is evident in anomalies with low seismic shear velocity marking serpentinization. However, seismological observations bearing on the presence of water within the subducting plate itself are less well documented. Here we use converted teleseismic waves to obtain observations of anomalously high Poisson's ratios within the subducted oceanic crust from the Cascadia continental margin to its intersection with forearc mantle. On the basis of pressure, temperature and compositional considerations, the elevated Poisson's ratios indicate that water is pervasively present in fluid form at pore pressures near lithostatic values. Combined with observations of a strong negative velocity contrast at the top of the oceanic crust, our results imply that the megathrust is a low-permeability boundary. The transition from a low- to high-permeability plate interface downdip into the mantle wedge is explained by hydrofracturing of the seal by volume changes across the interface caused by the onset of crustal eclogitization and mantle serpentinization. These results may have important implications for our understanding of seismogenesis, subduction zone structure and the mechanism of episodic tremor and slip. PMID:19122639

  13. Positive geothermal anomalies in oceanic crust of Cretaceous age offshore Kamchatka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Delisle


    Full Text Available Heat flow measurements were carried out in 2009 offshore Kamchatka during the German-Russian joint-expedition KALMAR. An area with elevated heat flow in oceanic crust of Cretaceous age – detected ~30 yr ago in the course of several Russian heat flow surveys – was revisited. One previous interpretation postulated anomalous lithospheric conditions or a connection between a postulated mantle plume at great depth (>200 km as the source for the observed high heat flow. However, the positive heat flow anomaly – as our bathymetric data show – is closely associated with the fragmentation of the western flank of the Meiji Seamount into a horst and graben structure initiated during descent of the oceanic crust into the subduction zone offshore Kamchatka. This paper offers an alternative interpretation, which connects high heat flow primarily with natural convection of fluids in the fragmented rock mass and, as a potential additional factor, high rates of erosion, for which evidence is available from our collected bathymetric image. Given high erosion rates, warm rock material at depth rises to nearer the sea floor, where it cools and causes temporary elevated heat flow.

  14. Microbial phylogeny of igneous minerals and glasses in deep ocean crust (United States)

    Smith, A. R.; Popa, R.; Fisk, M. R.; Nielsen, M. E.; Wheat, C. G.; Jannasch, H. W.; Fisher, A. T.; Becker, K.; Sievert, S. M.; Flores, G. E.


    Ocean crust basalts exposed to oxidant-laden seawater are ideal habitats for iron-oxidizing microbes. Evidence of iron oxidizers in the form of iron mats, twisted stalks, or DNA is commonly found on basalts at or very near the seafloor, and several strains have been cultured. However, microbial abundances and diversities associated with the various igneous minerals and glasses that make up basalt (a mineralogically heterogeneous rock) have not previously been investigated. Therefore, we initiated a four year subseafloor incubation of twelve different igneous minerals and glasses in IODP borehole site 1301A on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Mineral sands were placed inside flow cell chambers that were attached to an osmotic pump and suspended in the borehole at 278 meters below the seafloor. We found that Fe(II)-rich minerals, such as olivine, host a greater abundance of total microbial cells and organotrophs than other igneous minerals and glasses in the subsurface ocean crust. Isolates also grew on olivine in culture. Here we highlight the community diversity and abundance of microbes associated with the incubated minerals and glasses to reveal the intimate link between a mineral's composition and its microbial community.

  15. Investigation of the Oceanic Crust and Mantle in the Eastern Mid Atlantic Next to a Major Transform Fault (Gloria Fault) By Receiver Function Analysis (United States)

    Hannemann, K.; Krueger, F.; Dahm, T.


    Within the project Deep OCean Test ARray (DOCTAR), we want to test how much we can enhance the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of teleseismic and regional events recorded at the ocean bottom by using broad band array methods. Furthermore, we want to learn more about the structure of the oceanic crust and mantle 100 km North of the Gloria Fault (major transform fault at the plate boundary between Eurasian and African plate in the Atlantic ocean). For the latter, we employ receiver functions and apparent P-wave incidence angles. We deployed 12 ocean bottom stations (OBS) as a mid aperture array (75 km) in the deep Eastern Mid Atlantic (4-6 km) in 2011. Each free fall station consists of a broad band seismometer and a hydrophone. After 10 month of recording, the stations were recovered. We use P phase and Rayleigh phase polarization to estimate the orientation of the stations. Different data quality and site effects at the stations need a careful review of the processing parameters (filter, deconvolution length) used for the calculation of the receiver functions. We defined different criteria as relative spike position within the deconvolution time window, and energy ratios of several time windows of the deconvolved traces to assess an evaluation of the receiver function quality in dependence on the used processing parameters. Additionally, we had a look at the relationship between the apparent incidence angle and the S-velocity and find that it differs for the ocean bottom in comparison to the free surface. Surprisingly, the densities of the oceanic crust and the water column, as well as the P-velocity of the water column have also an influence on the apparent incidence angle. We measured incidence angles for several events and find that the angles show a dependence on the dominant frequency of the event. By comparison with synthetic receiver functions, we find that water multiples have a small or no influence at all on the real data receiver functions. We identify the MOHO conversion which indicates a crustal thickness of about 6 to 9 km which could be expected for 70 Ma old oceanic crust. Furthermore, there exist several features which are related to mantle structures. Finally, we use the Zhu and Kanamori (2000) algorithm, the apparent incidence angle, and the comparison with synthetic receiver functions to come up with a preliminary 1D velocity model.

  16. Himalayan sedimentary pulses recorded by silicate detritus within a ferromanganese crust from the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Galy, A.; Sukumaran, N.P.; Parthiban, G.; Volvaiker, A.Y.


    , therefore, an obvious source of the silicate-detri- tus in SS663-Crust. However, the very small ac- Table1 MajorcomponentcompositionoftheSS663-Crust Interval Meanage a Residue Quartz/feldspar Al Mn Co Fe Mn/Fe Residue (mm) (Ma) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Pro...¢leA Pro¢leB 00^04 0.7 6.7 4.6 0.86 20.6 0.32 17.3 1.2 8 < : 04^08 2.1 7.9 4.8 1.36 19.2 0.31 18.5 1.0 7.0 08^12 3.6 6.1 4.6 1.21 19.4 0.34 17.9 1.1 12^16 5.0 6.3 1.5 1.29 19.4 0.33 16.4 1.2 8 < : 16^20 6.4 6.9 1.3 1.21 20.2 0.35 16.6 1.2 7.5 20^25 8.0 8...

  17. Deep Continental Lithosphere Keels as Impediments to Asthenosphere Flow and Cause of Ocean Crust Depth Anomalies (United States)

    Ryan, W. B.; Muhlenkamp, B. M.; Haxby, W. F.; Carbotte, S. M.; Buck, W. R.


    The Australian-Antarctic Discordance (AAD) lies directly in the wake of a deep keel of 2.5 billion year old Australian lithosphere that severed from and moved northward in the hot spot reference frame from a near-stationary Antarctica. Adopting the model of a plume-fed sub-ocean asthenosphere (Morgan, 1971,1972; Phipps Morgan,et al, 1995), this keel, like others of similar ancient age beneath South Africa and Laurentia could have served as a dam to isolate different pools of asthenosphere and thus allow each pool to evolve independently from their supplying plumes. A NSF-funded Antarctic database effort has allowed us to digitize a large set of seismic reflection profiles, map sediment thickness and remove the subsidence caused by sediment load. This effort confirms not only that the ocean crust between the keels of Australia and Antarctica was always manufactured at an anomalously deep spreading center, but the depth anomaly was greatest right after continental separation, and the crust beneath the faster moving Australian plate is deeper for all ages than counterparts on the Antarctic Plate. The same depth asymmetry and a similar geoid anomaly are observed in the South Atlantic where South America is traveling faster than Africa relative to the mantle. Upon separation of the continents, asthenosphere from both sides of the keel flows into the wake of the moving continent to replenish the void created by the initial dam. The Pacific asthenosphere, with its distinct geochemical composition, is currently observed to be propagating into the AAD. Since asthenosphere is consumed as it is frozen onto the diverging oceanic lithosphere, a dammed region with a limited asthenosphere supply might act as a brake, or governor, for seafloor spreading. We point out that spreading started very slowly upon the breakup of Australia and Antarctica, the aborted spreading center in the Labrador Sea occurs in a narrow ocean between very ancient cratons, and the boundary between the geochemical distinct Indian and Atlantic mid-ocean ridges occur where deep continental keels were severed.

  18. The tectonic history of southern Baffin Bay and Davis Strait - seismic refraction experiments and the evolution of oceanic crust (United States)

    Suckro, S. K.; Gohl, K.; Funck, T.; Heyde, I.; Schreckenberger, B.; Ehrhardt, A.; Gerlings, J.; Damm, V.; Jokat, W.


    Located between the Canadian Baffin Island and Greenland, Baffin Bay represents the northern extension of the rift system in Labrador Sea. Davis Strait is a bathymetric high, that connects Baffin Bay with the Labrador Sea and acts as a gateway for the water exchange between the two basins. The strait is dominated by the Ungava Fault Complex, a major transform fault, characterized by a series of positive gravity anomalies. It is generally agreed, that the extensional motion of the rift system in Labrador Sea was connected with the opening of Baffin Bay by the Ungava Fault Complex. Unlike in Labrador Sea, no magnetic spreading anomalies have clearly been identified in Baffin Bay, hence the nature of the crust remains a subject of discussion. In order to determine the character of the crust in southern Baffin Bay, a 710-km-long seismic refraction experiment was set up in two research cruises (MSM09/3 of RV Maria S. Merian in 2008 and ARK25/3 of RV Polarstern in 2010). P-wave velocity and density modeling display the following crustal units from southeast to northwest: transitional crust near Baffin Island, more than 300 km of oceanic crust with an extinct spreading center, 100 km of transitional crust of a volcanic type margin on the Greenland side of the profile, and Greenland continental crust. The nature of the crust in Davis Strait is also disputed. Both, blocks of continental crust or a thick pile of oceanic crust have been proposed. To identify the character of the crust, a 226-km-long seismic refraction line was set up across the strait (MSM09/3 expedition). The P-wave velocity and density models image continental blocks with deep reaching faults. The lower crust displays abnormally high P-wave velocities, which we attribute to intense intrusions of mafic material, most likely related to the arrival of the Iceland mantle plume beneath Greenland in the Paleocene. To set the crustal units along the two profiles into context with the tectonic history of the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay region, we visualized the opening of these basins in GPlates with published poles of rotation. It became clear, that the existing tectonic map of this region needs modifications, which we present here. Furthermore, the reconstruction images the compression of previously rifted crust in Davis Strait which adds up to an overlap of 70 km.

  19. Formation of Oceanic Crust Geostructurs and Relation Between Submarine landslides and Tsunamis (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Albert V.


    Numerous geological and geophysical data proved the presence of oceanic crust relicts of Tethys in the territory of Lesser Caucasus. To discover the deep structure, composition and evolution of the modern Earth crust, the elastic and density properties of basites, ultrabasites and serpentinites of lesser Caucasus at high pressures and temperatures were investigated. On the basis of this data, and numerous geological-geophysical factual data concerning Mid ridges, Transform faults, Subdaction zones, Island arcs and Marginal seas are presented as a possible mechanism of their formations and relation between submarine landslides and tsunamis. The numerous volcanic and seismic centers, serpentinized protrusions and also hydrothermal sources are dated in the rang of Mid ridges and Transform faults. The formation of serpentinized ultrabasites 3-rd layer affects an infiltration of oceanic waters on ultrabasites of the upper mantle. At the same time, on an axial part of the ridge, the horizontally cramping forces, on the 5-6?? depth, are established, which step-by-step pass on expanding in the top of the ridge. Analyzing the data about composition and properties of oceanic crust, we suspect that during the formation of Mid ridges, the main role belongs to serpentinized rocks of the 3-rd oceanic layer. Owing to high plasticity and low density, the serpentinized masses, by tectonic faults, in the central zone of Mid ridges, from both parties, float up and by means of protrusions implanted in the oceanic crust, then the serpentinized masses are grasp by basalts lavas. Accumulation in the axial zone of Mid ridges large masses of basalts and serpentinits, under influence of gravitation forces make slides to downwards on the serpentinized layer to the foot of ridge and low-powered sedimentary layers between these masses are saved. In the proposed model we attempted to interpret the above mentioned phenomena in the following sense. 1. Because of serpentinization of ultrabasits, the horizontal stress growth is more than 40- 50%. Spreading of oceanic floor can be partially conditioned by these forces. At impossibility to distensible in the lateral direction, the serpentinized masses increase vertically, both in the axial part of the ridge and in transform faults. Serpentinized blocks of the 3-rd layer from the axial part of ridge, are involved in basalt lava and under gravitation forces slide downwards. The data of drilling has shown the availability of serpentinized blocks in the second volcanogenic layer. 2 .On formation transform faults a definite role is played the processes of basalt masse slides, which naturally takes place permanently, owing to which one between blocks the faults are reshaped. In the transform faults the serpentinized protrusions and hydrotherms are also dated. 3. The chemical composition of basalts of Island arcs and Mid ridges basically coincide, which give us the basis to suppose that they are source commune. We suppose that in definite depth of subdaction zone there exist connection with astenosphere. In the upper mantle molten substrate is enriched by rare elements and erupted in the rift zones of Mid ridges. 4. Marginal seas extension speed is 5-7cm/year. Esteeming the proposed model, it is possible to mark that spreading of Marginal seas takes place owing to eruption of magmatic masses as directly from in the region of Island arcs, as well as from astenosphere in the Mid oceanic ridges. 5. The studies of catastrophic tsunami origin in 2004 has resulted in judgment, that the formation of 9-m surges took place because the sliding process in the bottom of ocean and even catastrophic earthquake at the bottom can't provoke a tsunami with such force. According a to the proposed model, in Mid ridges, and in other parts of ocean, as well sliding process took place, which could provoke a high-power tsunami. The volume of sliding structures, between transform faults can reach several million of km3. The sliding masses at the bottom of the ocean should invoke a movement of oceanic water and provoke the sur

  20. Chemistry and possible resource potential of cobalt rich ferromanganese crust from Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parthiban, G.; Banakar, V.K.


    Samples of ferromanganese encrustations (fe-Mn crusts) dredged from the upper flank of the Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount, above the Carbonate Compensation Depth (CCD) in the Northern Central Indian Ocean (NCIO) were analysed for Al, Fe, Mn, Ca, Ba, Cu...

  1. Reactive overprint of the Central Indian Ridge mantle and formation of hybrid troctolites: reassessing the significance of bulk oceanic crust (United States)

    Sanfilippo, A.; Morishita, T.; Kumagai, H.; Nakamura, K.; Okino, K.; Tamura, A.; Arai, S.


    The idea that hybridized mantle rocks can contribute to the oceanic crust composition has recently emerged thanks to studies on primitive (olivine-rich) troctolites [e.g. 1]. These rocks are considered to be formed by melt-rock interaction, but the exact reaction process by which they originate is still debated and their role on the bulk oceanic crust composition has been never defined. Olivine-rich troctolites have been mostly found at slow spreading ridges [2] or at their fossil analogues [3]. Similar rocks have been recently collected in the 25ºS area of the intermediate spreading Central Indian Ridge (CIR), and rarely characterize the crust mantle boundary at fast spreading ridges [4]. We show that textural and chemical inheritances of the pre-existing mantle are preserved in the CIR troctolites. In particular, the local occurrence of granular, mantle-derived orthopyroxenes and the composition of the associated clinopyroxene indicate that these crustal rocks formed through a direct (one-stage) conversion of a mantle peridotite. We use chemical evidence to infer the same origin of the olivine-rich troctolites worldwide, concluding that the reactive overprint of the oceanic mantle is a process diffused over the entire spreading rate spectrum. Bulk oceanic crust estimates of the Hess Deep (Pacific) and Atlantis Massif (Atlantic) crustal sections are used to quantify and compare the effect of these rocks on the bulk crust composition at fast and slow spreading ridges. Our inferences suggest that the significance of the bulk oceanic crust should be reassessed. When hybrid troctolites are included at crustal levels, the oceanic crust cannot be considered equal to the composition of the melt extracted from the mantle, but it results more primitive and importantly thicker. References: [1] Suhr G., Hellebrand E., Johnson K., Brunelli D., 2008, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 9, doi:10.1029/2008GC002012; [2] Drouin M., Godard M., Ildefonse B., Bruguier O., Garrido C.J. , 2009, Chem. Geol. 264, 71-88; [3] Renna M. R., Tribuzio R., 2011, J. Petrol. 52, 1763-1790; [4] Dick H.J.B. and Natland J.H., 1996, Proceedings Ocean Drill. Prog., 147, 103-134.

  2. Seismic evidence for the presence of Jurassic oceanic crust in the central Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian margin) (United States)

    Sallarès, Valentí; Gailler, Audrey; Gutscher, Marc-André; Graindorge, David; Bartolomé, Rafael; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Díaz, Jordi; Dañobeitia, Juan José; Zitellini, Nevio


    We investigate the crustal structure of the SW Iberian margin along a 340 km-long refraction and wide-angle reflection seismic profile crossing from the central Gulf of Cadiz to the Variscan continental margin in the Algarve, Southern Portugal. The seismic velocity and crustal geometry model obtained by joint refraction and reflection travel-time inversion reveal three distinct crustal domains: the 28-30 km-thick Variscan crust in the north, a 60 km-wide transition zone offshore, where the crust abruptly thins ~ 20 km, and finally a ~ 7 km-thick and ~ 150 km-wide crustal section that appears to be oceanic in nature. The oceanic crust is overlain by a 1-3 km-thick section of Mesozoic to Eocene sediments, with an additional 3-4 km of low-velocity, unconsolidated sediments on top belonging to the Miocene age, Gulf of Cadiz imbricated wedge. The sharp transition between continental and oceanic crust is best explained by an initial rifting setting as a transform margin during the Early Jurassic that followed the continental break-up in the Central Atlantic. The narrow oceanic basin would have formed during an oblique rifting and seafloor spreading episode between Iberia and Africa that started shortly thereafter (Bajocian) and lasted up to the initiation of oceanic spreading in the North Atlantic at the Tithonian (late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous). The velocity model displays four wide, prominent, south-dipping low-velocity anomalies, which seem to be related with the presence of crustal-scale faults previously identified in the area, some of which could well be extensional faults generated during this rifting episode. We propose that this oceanic plate segment is the last remnant of an oceanic corridor that once connected the Alpine-Tethys with the Atlantic ocean, so it is, in turn, one of the oldest oceanic crustal fragments currently preserved on Earth. The presence of oceanic crust in the central Gulf of Cadiz is consistent with geodynamic models suggesting the existence of a narrow, westward retreating oceanic slab beneath the Gibraltar arc-Alboran basin system.

  3. Geological storage of CO2 within the oceanic crust by gravitational trapping (United States)

    Marieni, Chiara; Henstock, Timothy J.; Teagle, Damon A. H.


    rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) principally due to the burning of fossil fuels is a key driver of anthropogenic climate change. Mitigation strategies include improved efficiency, using renewable energy, and capture and long-term sequestration of CO2. Most sequestration research considers CO2 injection into deep saline aquifers or depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs. Unconventional suggestions include CO2 storage in the porous volcanic lavas of uppermost oceanic crust. Here we test the feasibility of injecting CO2 into deep-sea basalts and identify sites where CO2 should be both physically and gravitationally trapped. We use global databases to estimate pressure and temperature, hence density of CO2 and seawater at the sediment-basement interface. At previously suggested sites on the Juan de Fuca Plate and in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, CO2 is gravitationally unstable. However, we identify five sediment-covered regions where CO2 is denser than seawater, each sufficient for several centuries of anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  4. Transient Hydrothermal Alteration in Fault Zones Cutting the Lower Oceanic Crust, Hess Deep Rift (United States)

    McCaig, Andrew; Titarenko, Sofya; Cliff, Robert; Ivan, Savov; Adrian, Boyce


    IODP Expedition 345 drilled the first holes in the lower plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge, recovering primitive layered gabbros [1]. Alteration occurred as: 1) a largely static pseudomorphic alteration, predominantly in the greenschist and sub-greenschist facies with mainly talc and serpentine replacing olivine, and prehnite replacing plagioclase. Talc sometimes overprints serpentine mesh texture. 2) an overprinting metasomatic alteration, spatially related to cataclastic fault zones and macroscopic veins, dominated by prehnite and chlorite. Secondary clinopyroxene and epidote locally overprint the prehnite-chlorite assemblage, but the last events are veins of prehnite and zeolite. Metamorphosed dykes show chilled margins within the cataclasites, and are themselves affected by cataclastic deformation. Faults, dykes and overprinting alteration are all inferred to be related to the westward propagation of Cocos-Nazca spreading forming Hess Deep. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of small whole rock samples of cataclasites and dyke rocks are in the range 0.7037 - 0.7048, indicating alteration by seawater at moderate integrated fluxes. The highest values were in cataclasites overprinted by prehnite. Sampling of individual minerals has been undertaken using a microscope mounted drill, and shows that alteration is mainly affecting secondary minerals, with late prehnite veins ranging up to Sr isotope ratios of 0.7054. ?18O values range from +1 to + 6 per mil. Combined with metamorphic data this indicates alteration at temperatures between 200 and 400 °C. Secondary clinopyroxene and talc replacing serpentine are interpreted to indicate transient prograde hydrothermal events. Preliminary modelling using Comsol Multiphysics suggests that the temperatures of the overprinting alteration, as well as transient prograde events, could be achieved in a permeable fault slot cutting through crust 0.5 to 1 m.y. old. The prehnite-chlorite assemblage is predicted to be important in off-axis alteration, common in any location where faults intersect the Moho, including transform faults, near axis normal faults at slow spreading ridges, and perhaps bending faults at subduction zones. [1] Gillis, K.M., Snow J. E. and Shipboard Science Party (2014) Primitive layered gabbros from fast-spreading lower oceanic crust. Nature, 505, 204-207.

  5. Do Two Deep Drill Holes Into the Upper Ocean Crust Quantify the Hydrothermal Contribution to Global Geochemical Cycles? (United States)

    Teagle, D. A. H.; Alt, J.; Coggon, R. M.; Harris, M.; Smith-Duque, C. E.; Rehkamper, M.


    Vigorous circulation of seawater at the ocean ridges is required to cool and crystallize magma to form new ocean crust. Axial and ridge flank hydrothermal fluid circulation is accompanied by seawater-basalt exchanges over a spectrum of temperatures that buffer the chemistry of seawater, provide unique microbial niches, alter the chemistry and mineralogy of the ocean crust, and through subduction return surface-derived geochemical tracers to the interior of our planet. In many models of axial and ridge flank hydrothermal circulation, most fluid-rock interaction occurs in the upper oceanic crust. Hence inventories of seawater exchange should be captured by relatively shallow (textbook Penrose-type layering, albeit with different thicknesses of lavas and dikes. However, what was not anticipated was the contrasting distribution and nature of elemental and isotopic hydrothermal exchanges. Differences reflect the influence of local crustal structure, such as lava morphology and flow thicknesses, and thermal gradients on hydrothermal processes. These contrasts highlight the importance of further deep drilling to at least the upper gabbros in a range of spreading rates and ages to robustly extrapolate the results from what will always be a limited number of bore holes to quantify global hydrothermal exchanges.

  6. High Temperature Logging and Monitoring Instruments to Explore and Drill Deep into Hot Oceanic Crust. (United States)

    Denchik, N.; Pezard, P. A.; Ragnar, A.; Jean-Luc, D.; Jan, H.


    Drilling an entire section of the oceanic crust and through the Moho has been a goal of the scientific community for more than half of a century. On the basis of ODP and IODP experience and data, this will require instruments and strategies working at temperature far above 200°C (reached, for example, at the bottom of DSDP/ODP Hole 504B), and possibly beyond 300°C. Concerning logging and monitoring instruments, progress were made over the past ten years in the context of the HiTI ("High Temperature Instruments") project funded by the european community for deep drilling in hot Icelandic geothermal holes where supercritical conditions and a highly corrosive environment are expected at depth (with temperatures above 374 °C and pressures exceeding 22 MPa). For example, a slickline tool (memory tool) tolerating up to 400°C and wireline tools up to 300°C were developed and tested in Icelandic high-temperature geothermal fields. The temperature limitation of logging tools was defined to comply with the present limitation in wireline cables (320°C). As part of this new set of downhole tools, temperature, pressure, fluid flow and casing collar location might be measured up to 400°C from a single multisensor tool. Natural gamma radiation spectrum, borehole wall ultrasonic images signal, and fiber optic cables (using distributed temperature sensing methods) were also developed for wireline deployment up to 300°C and tested in the field. A wireline, dual laterolog electrical resistivity tool was also developed but could not be field tested as part of HiTI. This new set of tools constitutes a basis for the deep exploration of the oceanic crust in the future. In addition, new strategies including the real-time integration of drilling parameters with modeling of the thermo-mechanical status of the borehole could be developed, using time-lapse logging of temperature (for heat flow determination) and borehole wall images (for hole stability and in-situ stress determination) as boundary conditions for the models. In all, and with limited integration of existing tools, to deployment of high-temperature downhole tools could contribute largely to the success of the long awaited Mohole project.

  7. Constraints on the accretion of the gabbroic lower oceanic crust from plagioclase lattice preferred orientation in the Samail ophiolite (United States)

    VanTongeren, J. A.; Hirth, G.; Kelemen, P. B.


    Oceanic crust represents more than 60% of the earth's surface and despite a large body of knowledge regarding the formation and chemistry of the extrusive upper oceanic crust, there still remains significant debate over how the intrusive gabbroic lower oceanic crust is accreted at the ridge axis. The two proposed end-member models, the Gabbro Glacier and the Sheeted Sills, predict radically different strain accumulation in the lower crust during accretion. In order to determine which of these two hypotheses is most applicable to a well-studied lower crustal section, we present data on plagioclase lattice preferred orientations (LPO) in the Wadi Khafifah section of the Samail ophiolite. We observe no systematic change in the strength of the plagioclase LPO with height above the crust-mantle transition, no dominant orientation of the plagioclase a-axis lineation, and no systematic change in the obliquity of the plagioclase LPO with respect to the modal layering and macroscopic foliation evident in outcrop. These observations are most consistent with the Sheeted Sills hypothesis, in which gabbros are crystallized in situ and fabrics are dominated by compaction and localized extension rather than by systematically increasing shear strain with increasing depth in a Gabbro Glacier. Our data support the hypothesis of MacLeod and Yaouancq (2000) that the rotation of the outcrop-scale layering from sub-horizontal in the layered gabbros to sub-vertical near the sheeted dikes is due to rapid vertical melt migration through upper gabbros close to the axial magma chamber. Additionally, our results support the hypothesis that the majority of extensional strain in fast spreading ridges is accommodated in partially molten regions at the ridge axis, whereas in slow and ultra-slow ridges large shear strains are accommodated by plastic deformation.

  8. Generation of mantle heterogeneity by oceanic crust recycling: how well can we match geochemical and geophysical observations? (Invited) (United States)

    van Keken, P. E.; Brandenburg, J. P.; Hauri, E. H.; Ballentine, C. J.


    The heterogeneity of the Earth's mantle is expressed in complementary geochemical and geophysical signatures, where the geochemistry provides a time-integrated signal and the geophysics tends to see a recent snapshot of the Earth's interior. While the geophysical evidence tends to support a form of whole mantle convection that is moderated by rheological and phase changes below the transition zone, the geochemical observations have been generally used to support the presence of long-lived and isolated reservoirs. Recent dynamical modeling (Brandenburg et al., EPSL, 2008) employed high resolution finite modeling of mantle convection using an energetically consistent simulation of tectonic plates. A suite of models was developed with a dynamic vigor similar to that of the present day earth. The recycling of oceanic crust combined with a two-stage formation of the continental crust leads to a satisfactory match to the observed spread between HIMU-DMM-EM1 in multiple isotope systems without invoking recycling of continental crust. Due to the rheological contrast between upper and lower mantle there is a natural occurrence of a well-mixed upper mantle overlaying a chemically more heterogeneous lower mantle. The pooling of dense oceanic crust provides the formation of dense piles at the base of the mantle. Together with the occurrence of slabs that thicken and/or stagnate at the 670 discontinuity we find reasonable correspondance with the present day tomographic signatures. At present the models fail to explain noble gas systematics, even when taking the suggested high compatibility of helium into account.

  9. Oceanic crust within the paleozoic Granjeno Schist, northeastern Mexico. Remnants of the Rheic and paleo-Pacific Ocean. (United States)

    Torres Sanchez, Sonia Alejandra; Augustsson, Carita; Rafael Barboza Gudiño, Jose; Jenchen, Uwe; Torres Sanchez, Dario; Aleman Gallardo, Eduardo; Abratis, Michael


    Late Paleozoic metamorphic rocks in Mexico are related to the Laurentia-Gondwana collision in Carboniferous time, during Pangaea amalgamation. Vestiges of the Mexican Paleozoic continental configuration are present in the Granjeno Schist, the metamorphic basement of the Sierra Madre Oriental. Field work and petrographic analysis reveal that the Granjeno Schist comprises metamorphic rocks with both sedimentary (psammite, pelite, turbidite, conglomerate, black shale) and igneous (tuff, lava flows, pillow lava and ultramafic bodies) protoliths. The chlorite geothermometer and the presence of phengite in the metasedimentary units as well as 40Ar/39Ar ages on metavolcanic and metaultramafic rocks indicate that the Granjeno Schist was metamorphosed under sub-greenschist to greenschist facies with temperatures ranging from 250-345°C with 2.5 kbar during Carboniferous time (330±30 Ma). The presence of metabasalt, metacumulate, serpentinite and talc bodies suggests an oceanic tectonic setting for the evolution of the Granjeno Schist. Serpetinite rocks have mesh, granular and ribbon textures which indicate recrystallization and metasomatic events. The serpentinite rocks are enriched in the very large incompatible elements Cs, U, and Zr and depleted in Ba, Sr, Pb, Zr and Ce. Normalized REE patterns (LaN/YbN = 0.51 - 19.95 and LaN/SmN = 0.72 - 9.08) of the serpentinite and talc/soapstone are characteristic of peridotite from both suprasubduction and mid-ocean ridge zones. Serpentinite from the Granjeno Schist have spinel content which can reveal different stages of evolution in host serpentinite. The composition of chromite indicates that they belong to podiform chromite that may have crystallized from mid-ocean ridge magma. Al-chromite in the serpentinite is characterized by #Cr 0.48 to 0.55, which indicates a depleted mantle source affected by 17 to 18% of partial melting. The ferritchromite has #Cr values of 0.93 to 1.00 which indicates a metamorphic origin. Our study suggests at least two serpentinization stages. The first serpentinization stage is related to an ocean-floor environment. At this stage, mesh-textured serpentinite formed under static conditions under subgreenschist to greenschist conditions. The second serpentinization stage occurred under greenschist to low amphibole conditions. During this stage Cr-spinel progressively was replaced by ferritchromite with magnetite rims due to regional metamorphism. Tectonic contact of the serpentinite with metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks indicates lithospheric mantle slivers juxtaposed during the metamorphism of the Granjeno Schist during Pennsylvanian time. This metamorphic event occurred in an active continental margin. It represents the last events of the southern closure of the Rheic Ocean and Permo-Carboniferous convergence of Pacific plates on the western margin of Pangea.

  10. Structure and density of perovskite from subducted oceanic crust in the lower mantle. (United States)

    Boffa Ballaran, T.; Frost, D. J.; Pozzobon, R.


    We have synthesised large single-crystals of Fe/Al-rich magnesium silicate perovskite from a MORB tholeitic bulk composition at 25 GPa and 1800°C. Microprobe analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy are consistent with the formula Mg0.59Fe2+0.08Fe3+0.34Al0.34Si0.65O3. The data are consistent with a coupled substitution mechanism with Al substituting Si at the octahedral site and ferric Fe substituting Mg at the A site. A small amount of Fe2+ is also present at the A site. Single-crystal structural refinements confirm that the introduction of Fe/Al into the magnesium perovskite structure gives rise to an increase of the orthorhombic distortion due to an increase of the octahedral tilting. Moreover, the presence of a significant amount of Al into the B site gives rise to an increase of the octahedral distortion. The compressibility of a single-crystal from this sample was studied at ambient temperature by means of X- ray diffraction using both ethanol/methanol and He as pressure transmitting media. Results show a decrease in bulk modulus but a significantly increase of K' with respect to pure MgSiO3 and peridotitic perovskite. The change in compressibility is mainly due to softening of the c axis. The increase of K' may explain why larger bulk moduli values have been obtained from in-situ DAC studies of Fe/Al-bearing perovskite for which K' has been always fixed to the value of 4. Complete sets of intensity data have been collected at several pressures in order to constrain the effect of Fe/Al substitution on the increase in distortion of the perovskite structure with pressure. Results have implications for density and anisotropy of subducted oceanic crust.

  11. Fe-XANES analyses of Reykjanes Ridge basalts: Implications for oceanic crust's role in the solid Earth oxygen cycle (United States)

    Shorttle, Oliver; Moussallam, Yves; Hartley, Margaret E.; Maclennan, John; Edmonds, Marie; Murton, Bramley J.


    The cycling of material from Earth's surface environment into its interior can couple mantle oxidation state to the evolution of the oceans and atmosphere. A major uncertainty in this exchange is whether altered oceanic crust entering subduction zones can carry the oxidised signal it inherits during alteration at the ridge into the deep mantle for long-term storage. Recycled oceanic crust may be entrained into mantle upwellings and melt under ocean islands, creating the potential for basalt chemistry to constrain solid Earth-hydrosphere redox coupling. Numerous independent observations suggest that Iceland contains a significant recycled oceanic crustal component, making it an ideal locality to investigate links between redox proxies and geochemical indices of enrichment. We have interrogated the elemental, isotope and redox geochemistry of basalts from the Reykjanes Ridge, which forms a 700 km transect of the Iceland plume. Over this distance, geophysical and geochemical tracers of plume influence vary dramatically, with the basalts recording both long- and short-wavelength heterogeneity in the Iceland plume. We present new high-precision Fe-XANES measurements of Fe3+ / ? Fe on a suite of 64 basalt glasses from the Reykjanes Ridge. These basalts exhibit positive correlations between Fe3+ / ? Fe and trace element and isotopic signals of enrichment, and become progressively oxidised towards Iceland: fractionation-corrected Fe3+ / ? Fe increases by ?0.015 and ?QFM by ?0.2 log units. We rule out a role for sulfur degassing in creating this trend, and by considering various redox melting processes and metasomatic source enrichment mechanisms, conclude that an intrinsically oxidised component within the Icelandic mantle is required. Given the previous evidence for entrained oceanic crustal material within the Iceland plume, we consider this the most plausible carrier of the oxidised signal. To determine the ferric iron content of the recycled component ([Fe2O3]source) we project observed liquid compositions to an estimate of Fe2O3 in the pure enriched endmember melt, and then apply simple fractional melting models, considering lherzolitic and pyroxenitic source mineralogies, to estimate [Fe2O3](source) content. Propagating uncertainty through these steps, we obtain a range of [Fe2O3](source) for the enriched melts (0.9-1.4 wt%) that is significantly greater than the ferric iron content of typical upper mantle lherzolites. This range of ferric iron contents is consistent with a hybridised lherzolite-basalt (pyroxenite) mantle component. The oxidised signal in enriched Icelandic basalts is therefore potential evidence for seafloor-hydrosphere interaction having oxidised ancient mid-ocean ridge crust, generating a return flux of oxygen into the deep mantle.

  12. Molybdenum evidence for expansive sulfidic water masses in ~ 750 Ma oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    The Ediacaran appearance of large animals, including motile bilaterians, is commonly hypothesized to reflect a physiologically enabling increase in atmospheric and oceanic oxygen abundances (pO2). To date, direct evidence for low oxygen in pre-Ediacaran oceans has focused on chemical signatures in the rock record that reflect conditions in local basins, but this approach is both biased to constrain only shallower basins and statistically limited when we seek to follow the evolution of mean ocean chemical state through time. Because the abundance and isotopic composition of molybdenum (Mo) in organic-rich euxinic sediments can vary in response to changes in global redox conditions, Mo geochemistry provides independent constraints on the global evolution of well-oxygenated environments. Here, we establish a theoretical framework to access global marine Mo cycle in the past from the abundance and isotope composition of ancient seawater. Further, we investigate the ~ 750 Ma Walcott Member of the Chuar Group, Grand Canyon, which accumulated in a rift basin with open connection to the ocean. Iron speciation data from upper Walcott shales indicate that local bottom waters were anoxic and sulfidic, consistent with their high organic content (up to 20 wt.%). Similar facies in Phanerozoic successions contain high concentrations of redox-sensitive metals, but in the Walcott Member, abundances of Mo and U, as well as Mo/TOC (~ 0.5 ppm/wt.%) are low. ?98Mo values also fall well below modern equivalents (0.99 ± 0.13‰ versus ~ 2.35‰ today). These signatures are consistent with model predictions where sulfidic waters cover ~ 1–4% of the global continental shelf area, corresponding to a ~ 400–800 fold increase compared to the modern ocean. Therefore, our results suggest globally expansive sulfidic water masses in mid-Neoproterozoic oceans, bridging a nearly 700 million-year gap in previous Mo data. We propose that anoxic and sulfidic (euxinic) conditions governed Mo cycling in the oceans even as ferruginous subsurface waters re-appeared 800–750 Ma, and we interpret this anoxic ocean state to reflect a markedly lower atmospheric and oceanic O2 level, consistent with the hypothesis that pO2 acted as an evolutionary barrier to the emergence of large motile bilaterian animals prior to the Ediacaran Period.

  13. Age, spreading rates, and spreading asymmetry of the world's ocean crust

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The authors present four companion digital models of the age, age uncertainty, spreading rates and spreading asymmetries of the world's ocean basins as geographic...

  14. New ichthyoliths from ferromanganese crusts and nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, S.M.


    Ferromanganese encrusted hardgrounds, their intraclasts and the nuclei of manganese nodules collected from the Central Indian Ocean basin have yielded plentiful numbers of ichthyoliths. Forty well-knon ichthyoliths, one new type and 35 new subtypes...

  15. New constraints on the sources and behavior of neodymium and hafnium in seawater from Pacific Ocean ferromanganese crusts (United States)

    van de Flierdt, T.; Frank, M.; Lee, D.-C.; Halliday, A.N.; Reynolds, B.C.; Hein, J.R.


    The behavior of dissolved Hf in the marine environment is not well understood due to the lack of direct seawater measurements of Hf isotopes and the limited number of Hf isotope time-series obtained from ferromanganese crusts. In order to place better constraints on input sources and develop further applications, a combined Nd-Hf isotope time-series study of five Pacific ferromanganese crusts was carried out. The samples cover the past 38 Myr and their locations range from sites at the margin of the ocean to remote areas, sites from previously unstudied North and South Pacific areas, and water depths corresponding to deep and bottom waters. For most of the samples a broad coupling of Nd and Hf isotopes is observed. In the Equatorial Pacific ENd and EHf both decrease with water depth. Similarly, ENd and EHf both increase from the South to the North Pacific. These data indicate that the Hf isotopic composition is, in general terms, a suitable tracer for ocean circulation, since inflow and progressive admixture of bottom water is clearly identifiable. The time-series data indicate that inputs and outputs have been balanced throughout much of the late Cenozoic. A simple box model can constrain the relative importance of potential input sources to the North Pacific. Assuming steady state, the model implies significant contributions of radiogenic Nd and Hf from young circum-Pacific arcs and a subordinate role of dust inputs from the Asian continent for the dissolved Nd and Hf budget of the North Pacific. Some changes in ocean circulation that are clearly recognizable in Nd isotopes do not appear to be reflected by Hf isotopic compositions. At two locations within the Pacific Ocean a decoupling of Nd and Hf isotopes is found, indicating limited potential for Hf isotopes as a stand-alone oceanographic tracer and providing evidence of additional local processes that govern the Hf isotopic composition of deep water masses. In the case of the Southwest Pacific there is evidence that decoupling may have been the result of changes in weathering style related to the buildup of Antarctic glaciation. Copyright ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Hess Deep Interactive Lab: Exploring the Structure and Formation of the Oceanic Crust through Hands-On Models and Online Tools (United States)

    Kurtz, N.; Marks, N.; Cooper, S. K.


    Scientific ocean drilling through the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) has contributed extensively to our knowledge of Earth systems science. However, many of its methods and discoveries can seem abstract and complicated for students. Collaborations between scientists and educators/artists to create accurate yet engaging demonstrations and activities have been crucial to increasing understanding and stimulating interest in fascinating geological topics. One such collaboration, which came out of Expedition 345 to the Hess Deep Rift, resulted in an interactive lab to explore sampling rocks from the usually inacessible lower oceanic crust, offering an insight into the geological processes that form the structure of the Earth's crust. This Hess Deep Interactive Lab aims to explain several significant discoveries made by oceanic drilling utilizing images of actual thin sections and core samples recovered from IODP expeditions. . Participants can interact with a physical model to learn about the coring and drilling processes, and gain an understanding of seafloor structures. The collaboration of this lab developed as a need to explain fundamental notions of the ocean crust formed at fast-spreading ridges. A complementary interactive online lab can be accessed at for students to engage further with these concepts. This project explores the relationship between physical and on-line models to further understanding, including what we can learn from the pros and cons of each.

  17. Detachment and steep normal faulting in Atlantic oceanic crust west of Africa (United States)

    Reston, T.J.; Ruoff, O.; McBride, J.H.; Ranero, C.R.; White, Robert S.


    Improved images of the internal structure of Early Cretaceous North Atlantic crust reveal both probable detachment faults and more steeply dipping normal faults. The detachment faults occur as subhorizontal structures passing ???1.5 km beneath fault blocks without offset; several steeper block-bounding faults appear to detach onto these structures. However, the detachments are bounded to the west (ridgeward) by presumably younger, more steeply west-dipping normal faults. In one possible interpretation, the detachment and the steep faults belong to the same "rolling-hinge" extension system. An intriguing alternative is that a phase of detachment faulting, perhaps related to increased magmatic activity, was succeeded by localized amagmatic extension along steeper and more deeply penetrating faults.

  18. Compositional variation and genesis of ferromanganese crusts of the Afanasiy-Nikitin Seamount, Equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajani, R.P.; Banakar, V.K; Parthiban, G.; Mudholkar, A.V.; Chodankar, A.R.


    associations with major mineral phases indicates inter-oceanic heterogeneity and region-specific conditions responsible for their enrichment. The decrease in Ce-anomaly (from approx. 8 to approx. 1:5) with increasing water depth (from approx. 1:7 km to approx...

  19. Osmium isotope stratigraphy of a marine ferromanganese crust (United States)

    Klemm, V.; Levasseur, S.; Frank, M.; Hein, J.R.; Halliday, A.N.


    Ferromanganese crusts provide records of long term change in ocean circulation and continental weathering. However, calibrating their age prior to 10 Ma has been entirely based on empirical growth rate models using Co concentrations, which have inherently large uncertainties and fail to detect hiatuses and erosional events. We present a new method for dating these crusts by measuring their osmium (Os) isotope record and matching it to the well-known marine Os isotope evolution of the past 80 Ma. The well-characterised crust CD29-2 from the central Pacific, was believed to define a record of paleooceanographic change from 50 Ma. Previous growth rate estimates based on the Co method are consistent with the new Os isotope stratigraphy but the dating was grossly inaccurate due to long hiatuses that are now detectable. The new chronology shows that it in fact started growing prior to 70 Ma in the late Cretaceous and stopped growing or was eroded between 13.5 and 47 Ma. With this new technique it is now possible to exploit the full potential of the oceanographic and climatic records stored in Fe-Mn crusts. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Does seismic activity control carbon exchanges between transform-faults in old ocean crust and the deep sea? A hypothesis examined by the EU COST network FLOWS (United States)

    Lever, M. A.


    The European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)-Action FLOWS ( was initiated on the 25th of October 2013. It is a consortium formed by members of currently 14 COST countries and external partners striving to better understand the interplay between earthquakes and fluid flow at transform-faults in old oceanic crust. The recent occurrence of large earthquakes and discovery of deep fluid seepage calls for a revision of the postulated hydrogeological inactivity and low seismic activity of old oceanic transform-type plate boundaries, and indicates that earthquakes and fluid flow are intrinsically associated. This Action merges the expertise of a large number of research groups and supports the development of multidisciplinary knowledge on how seep fluid (bio)chemistry relates to seismicity. It aims to identify (bio)geochemical proxies for the detection of precursory seismic signals and to develop innovative physico-chemical sensors for deep-ocean seismogenic faults. National efforts are coordinated through Working Groups (WGs) focused on 1) geophysical and (bio)geochemical data acquisition; 2) modelling of structure and seismicity of faults; 3) engineering of deep-ocean physico-chemical seismic sensors; and 4) integration and dissemination. This poster will illustrate the overarching goals of the FLOWS Group, with special focus to research goals concerning the role of seismic activity in controlling the release of carbon from the old ocean crust into the deep ocean.

  1. Uranium isotopic compositions of the crust and ocean: Age corrections, U budget and global extent of modern anoxia (United States)

    Tissot, François L. H.; Dauphas, Nicolas


    The 238U/235U isotopic composition of uranium in seawater can provide important insights into the modern U budget of the oceans. Using the double spike technique and a new data reduction method, we analyzed an array of seawater samples and 41 geostandards covering a broad range of geological settings relevant to low and high temperature geochemistry. Analyses of 18 seawater samples from geographically diverse sites from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, Mediterranean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Persian Gulf, and English Channel, together with literature data (n = 17), yield a ?238U value for modern seawater of -0.392 ± 0.005‰ relative to CRM-112a. Measurements of the uranium isotopic compositions of river water, lake water, evaporites, modern coral, shales, and various igneous rocks (n = 64), together with compilations of literature data (n = 380), allow us to estimate the uranium isotopic compositions of the various reservoirs involved in the modern oceanic uranium budget, as well as the fractionation factors associated with U incorporation into those reservoirs. Because the incorporation of U into anoxic/euxinic sediments is accompanied by large isotopic fractionation (?Anoxic/Euxinic-SW = +0.6‰), the size of the anoxic/euxinic sink strongly influences the ?238U value of seawater. Keeping all other fluxes constant, the flux of uranium in the anoxic/euxinic sink is constrained to be 7.0 ± 3.1 Mmol/yr (or 14 ± 3% of the total flux out of the ocean). This translates into an areal extent of anoxia into the modern ocean of 0.21 ± 0.09% of the total seafloor. This agrees with independent estimates and rules out a recent uranium budget estimate by Henderson and Anderson (2003). Using the mass fractions and isotopic compositions of various rock types in Earth's crust, we further calculate an average ?238U isotopic composition for the continental crust of -0.29 ± 0.03‰ corresponding to a 238U/235U isotopic ratio of 137.797 ± 0.005. We discuss the implications of the variability of the 238U/235U ratio on Pb-Pb and U-Pb ages and provide analytical formulas to calculate age corrections as a function of the age and isotopic composition of the sample. The crustal ratio may be used in calculation of Pb-Pb and U-Pb ages of continental crust rocks and minerals when the U isotopic composition is unknown. In cosmochemistry, the search for 247Cm (t1/2 = 15.6 Myr), an extinct short-lived radionuclide that decays into 235U, is important for understanding how r-process nuclides were synthesized in stars and learning about the astrophysical context of solar system formation (Chen and Wasserburg, 1981; Wasserburg et al., 1996; Nittler and Dauphas, 2006; Brennecka et al., 2010b; Tissot et al., 2015). In both terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples, variations in the 238U/235U ratio affect Pb-Pb ages (and depending on the analytical protocols, U-Pb ages). Therefore, samples dated by these techniques need to have their U isotopic compositions measured (Stirling et al., 2005, 2006; Weyer et al., 2008; Amelin et al., 2010; Brennecka et al., 2010b; Brennecka and Wadhwa, 2012; Connelly et al., 2012; Goldmann et al., 2015) or uncertainties on the U isotopic composition should be propagated into age calculations. In low temperature aqueous geochemistry, U isotopic fractionation between U4+ and U6+ (driven in part by nuclear field shift effects; Bigeleisen, 1996; Schauble, 2007; Abe et al., 2008), makes U isotopes potential tracers of paleoredox conditions (Montoya-Pino et al., 2010; Brennecka et al., 2011a; Kendall et al., 2013, 2015; Asael et al., 2013; Andersen et al., 2014; Dahl et al., 2014; Goto et al., 2014; Noordmann et al., 2015). The present paper aims at constraining some aspects of the global budget of uranium in the modern oceans using 238U/235U isotope variations, which involves characterizing the U isotopic composition of seawater and several reservoirs involved in the uranium oceanic budget. Uranium can exist in two oxidation states in terrestrial surface en

  2. Can Fractional Crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean Produce the Lunar Crust? (United States)

    Rapp, Jennifer F.; Draper, David S.


    New techniques enable the study of Apollo samples and lunar meteorites in unprecedented detail, and recent orbital spectral data reveal more about the lunar farside than ever before, raising new questions about the supposed simplicity of lunar geology. Nevertheless, crystallization of a global-scale magma ocean remains the best model to account for known lunar lithologies. Crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO) is modeled to proceed by two end-member processes - fractional crystallization from (mostly) the bottom up, or initial equilibrium crystallization as the magma is vigorously convecting and crystals remain entrained, followed by crystal settling and a final period of fractional crystallization [1]. Physical models of magma viscosity and convection at this scale suggest that both processes are possible. We have been carrying out high-fidelity experimental simulations of LMO crystallization using two bulk compositions that can be regarded as end-members in the likely relevant range: Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) [2] and Lunar Primitive Upper Mantle (LPUM) [3]. TWM is enriched in refractory elements by 1.5 times relative to Earth, whereas LPUM is similar to the terrestrial primitive upper mantle, with adjustments made for the depletion of volatile alkalis observed on the Moon. Here we extend our earlier equilibrium-crystallization experiments [4] with runs simulating full fractional crystallization

  3. Updated maps of Moho topography and the earth crust thickness in the Deep Arctic Ocean based on results of potential field zoning and 3-D gravity modeling (United States)

    Glebovsky, Yury; Astafurova, Ekaterina; Chernykh, Andrey; Egorova, Alena; Kaminsky, Valeriy; Korneva, Mariya; Redko, Anton


    Both initial (Glebovsky et al., 2013) and updated maps and digital models (DM) of Moho topography and earth crust thickness in the deep Arctic Ocean were compiled using the same procedure. It included several steps: analysis of potential fields information compiled under CAMPGM and ArcGP projects and updating by new Russian data; separation of the study area into individual geostructures; calculation of gravitational effects from two main boundaries lying above Moho, presented by IBCAO grid, and by grid of basement relief (Kaminsky et al., 2012); subtraction of these effects from observed gravity anomalies, and converting of residual anomalies to depths to Moho using Parker's (1974) algorithm. Averaged depth to Moho required by Parker's algorithm to estimate its relative variations was determined from available deep refraction seismic data. It varies for different regional geological structures (basins, ridges and rises) which boundaries were contoured based on results of potential fields zoning. Modeling process for each structure was iterative and calibrated by seismic data. Results that best fit with seismic sections were merged to compile the grid of depths to Moho. This grid was specified by estimation of gravitational effects related both with increasing of density of sediments with depth and with uplift of asthenosphere beneath the Gakkel Ridge (GR). Grids of total and consolidated crust thickness were computed by sequential subtracting the IBCAO and sediment thickness grids from the final grid of depths to Moho. Updated versions of maps and DM of Moho topography and earth crust thickness are specified by recent Russian multi-channel and DSS seismic data collected in 2011-2012. It is confirmed the significant differences in crustal structure between the Eurasian (EB) and Amerasian Basins (AB). The thickness of the consolidated crust in the EB shows a fairly clear bilateral symmetry with respect to the GR. In the Nansen and Amundsen basins it varies from 3 to 8 km. The GR is underlain by the thinnest crust (2 km or less km). The crustal thickness of the Lomonosov Ridge varies along its strike within 16-26 km which may indicate its block structure. Within the AB there are a number of large highs and deep basins. The Mendeleev and Alpha ridges are underlain by crust that varies from 24 to 30 km and reaches maximum values of 30-32 km, respectively. The thickest crust that reaches 32-34 km is observed at the Northwind Ridge and Chukchi Plateau. Thickness of crust in deep basins of the AB varies widely. In the Canada and Makarov basins, it ranges from 10 to 16 km, and in the Podvodnikov Basin, from 16 to 20 km.

  4. Towards Solving the Conundrum of Fast-Spread Ocean Crust Formation: Insights from Textural Analysis of Gabbroic Rocks from Pito Deep and Hess Deep, East Pacific Rise (United States)

    Brown, T. C.; Cheadle, M. J.; John, B. E.; Coogan, L. A.; Gee, J. S.; Karson, J. A.; Meyer, R.; Ceuleneer, G.; Swapp, S.


    Few examples of in situ fast-spread lower ocean crust exist for sampling. Here we present detailed textural analyses of two sample sets that formed at the East Pacific Rise, collected from tectonic windows at Pito (PD) and Hess (HD) deeps. PD samples (collected by ROV) span the upper ~900 m of lower crust. HD samples (collected by seafloor drilling during IODP Exp. 345) come from >1500 m below the sheeted dike gabbro transition (mbsd). PD gabbroic rock textures are consistent with a gabbro glacier flow model generating the uppermost plutonic crust. Shallow samples (41-72 mbsd) likely formed at the distal edge of the magma lens, analogous to similar rocks from Oman. These gabbros are relatively evolved (cpx Mg#75-77, An53-61 and 1-4% Fe-Ti oxides), and have elongate plagioclase grains (aspect ratios up to 1:2:10) exhibiting a strong shape preferred orientation (SPO) with orientations (CPOs) which are also vertical. Significantly, the proportion of grains showing dislocation creep textures increases with depth, and plagioclase grain size distributions show a smaller range of sizes at depth; observations that perhaps reflect the effect of increasing strain with depth. IODP Hole U1415I at HD recovered gabbros and troctolitic gabbros from the mid lower crust that show distinctive cm-dm scale modal layering. Strong plagioclase SPOs parallel layering and magmatic CPOs vary dramatically in strength over just 4.5 m of core. Plagioclase grains are relatively equant (aspect ratios < 1:2:4), wrap around large cpx oikocrysts, and exhibit fewer dislocation creep textures than the PD gabbros. These observations perhaps suggest primary crystal accumulation rather than bulk strain/flow. The similar mineralogy and textures of these samples to those from the Rum layered intrusion suggest HD U1415I gabbros may have formed by mid-crust sill injection.

  5. Early (pre–8 Ma) fault activity and temporal strain accumulation in the central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Bull, J.M.; Scrutton, R.A.


    The diffuse deformation zone in the central Indian Ocean is the classical example of distributed deformation of the oceanic lithosphere, where shortening between the Indian and Capricorn plates is manifest as reverse faulting (5-10-km-spaced faults...

  6. 75 FR 34929 - Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA (United States)


    ...1625-AA00 Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic and comment at the Web site http://www.regulations...docket titled: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean...infrastructure of the Neptune Deep Water Port. Extensive...

  7. Oceanic crust in the mid-mantle beneath west-central Pacific subduction zones: evidence from S to P converted waveforms (United States)

    Yang, Zhongtao; He, Xiaobo


    The fate of subducted slabs is enigmatic, yet intriguing. We analyse seismic arrivals at ˜20-50 s after the direct P wave in an array in northeast China (NECESSArray) recordings of four deep earthquakes occurring beneath the west-central Pacific subduction zones (from the eastern Indonesia to Tonga region). We employ the array analysing techniques of fourth root vespagram and beam-forming analysis to constrain the slowness and backazimuth of later arrivals. Our analyses reveal that these arrivals have a slightly lower slowness value than the direct P wave and the backazimuth deviates slightly from the great circle direction. Along with calculation of 1-D synthetic seismograms, we conclude that the later arrival is corresponding to an energy of S-to-P converted at a scatterer below the sources. Total five scatterers are detected at depths varying from ˜700 to 1110 km in the study region. The past subducted oceanic crust most likely accounts for the seismic scatterers trapped in the mid-mantle beneath the west-central subduction zones. Our observation in turn reflects that oceanic crust at least partly separated from subducted oceanic lithosphere and may be trapped substantially in the mid-mantle surrounding subduction zones, in particular in the western Pacific subduction zones.

  8. Incorporation of transition and platinum group elements (PGE) in Co-rich Mn crusts at Afanasiy-Nikitin Seamount (AFS) in the equatorial S Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Glasby, G.P.


    hydrogenous ferromanganese crusts. Acknowledgment The author thanks Dr M.P. Torokhov for interesting discussions. References Astakhova, N. V., Vvdenskaya, I. A., Karabtsov, A. A. and Mol- chanova, G. B. (2008) Modes of occurrence of noble and non- ferrous... of the Afanasiy-Nikitin Seamount, Equatorial Indian Ocean. J. Earth Syst. Sci., 114, 51–61. Stüben, D., Glasby, G. P., Eckhardt, J.-D., Berner, Z., Mountain, B. W. and Usui, A. (1999) Enrichments of platinum-group ele- ments in hydrogenous, diagenetic...

  9. Araxa Group in the type-area: A fragment of Neoproterozoic oceanic crust in the Brasilia Fold Belt; Grupo Araxa em sua area tipo: um fragmento de crosta oceanica Neoproterozoica na faixa de dobramentos Brasilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seer, Hildor Jose [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Araxa, (CEFET), MG (Brazil); Brod, Jose Affonso; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende; Dardenne, Marcel Auguste [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias


    This study reviews the geological characteristics and puts forward a new evolution model for the Araxa Group in its type-area, the southern segment of the Neo proterozoic Brasilia Belt, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Araxa Group is confined within a thrust sheet belonging to a syn formal regional fold, the Araxa Syn form, overlying two other thrust sheets made of the Ibia and Canastra Groups. The Araxa Group is described as a tectono stratigraphic terrane in the sense of Howell (1993). It comprises an igneous mafic sequence, with fine and coarse grained amphibolites, associated with pelitic meta sedimentary rocks, and subordinate psanmites. All rocks were metamorphosed to amphibolite facies at ca. 630 Ma ago and were intruded by collisional granites. The amphibolites represent original basaltic and gabbroic rocks, with minor ultramafic (serpentinite/ amphibole-talc schist). The basalts are similar to high Fe O tholeiites, with REE signatures that resemble E-MORB and {epsilon}{sub Nd(T)} =+ 1.1. The meta sedimentary rocks are interpreted as the result of a marine deep-water sedimentation. They have Sm-Nd model ages of 1,9 Ga, and {epsilon}{sub Nd(T)} = -10.21. The amphibolites and metasediments could represent a fragment of back-arc oceanic crust. The data presented here differ significantly from the original definition of Barbosa et al. (1970) who describe the Araxa Group as a pelitic/psanmitic sequence and the collisional granites as a basement complex. (author)

  10. Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts from Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount, equatorial Indian Ocean: Sources and fractionation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Hein, J.R.; Rajani, R.P.; Chodankar, A.R.


    embedded in neomorphic car- bonate cement (Banakar et al 1997). The Fe?Mn crusts from this seamount show Co and Ce enrich- ments up to 0.9% and 0.4%, respectively (Rajani et al 2005). Because Fe?Mn crust composition changes in response to long... in the Pd-depleted chondrite-normalized patterns. This interpretation raises a fundamental issue: Why does the otherwise PGE?Au coherence show a different preference of Pd for the car- rier mineral phases in the marine environment? One common thread...


    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)



    Full Text Available El Batolito de Sabanalarga es a un cuerpo alargado de 410 Km2 que se extiende entre las Cordilleras Central y Occidental de Colombia, intruye en el borde occidental la Formación Barroso y las Diabasas de San José de Urama y en el borde oriental las rocas metamórficas del Complejo Cajamarca. El Batol [...] ito de Sabanalarga está formado por al menos dos pulsos magmáticos: uno inicial representado por gabros y dioritas de afinidad subalcalina toleítica y un segundo pulso constituido por cuarzodioritas y tonalitas de afinidad subalcalina de la serie calcoalcalina baja en K. El magmatismo se generó en un ambiente localizado por encima de la zona de subducción, en un arco volcánico plutónico localizado en el borde de sutura entre la corteza continental y la corteza oceánica, afectando ambas cortezas. Hace parte del arco las rocas volcánicas de la Formación Barroso. La edad del Batolito y del arco en general, en concordancia con los datos radiométricos, las relaciones intrusivas y el registro fósil, ocurrió dentro del rango comprendido entre el Cenomaniano-Aptiano superior, localizándose el plutonismo en el rango de edad entre 83 M.a y 102 M.a. Magmatismo como el de la Diorita de Altavista, el Gabro de San Diego y el Batolito Antioqueño, es contemporáneo con el arco que generó el Batolito de Sabanalarga, pudiendo ser parte del mismo evento magmático. Abstract in english The Sabanalarga Batholith is a long shape body reaching 410 Km2, located between the Central and Western cordilleras of Colombia. It intrudes rocks of the Barroso Formation and San Jose de Urama diabases along its western margin and rocks belonging to the Cajamarca complex towards the eastern side o [...] f the pluton. The Sabanalarga batholith is formed by at least two magmatic pulses. The first pulse is represented by gabbros and diorites with tholeiitic sub-alkaline affinity. The second pulse corresponds to cuarzodiorites and tonalites with sub-alkaline to calco-alkalyne low-K affinity. Magmatism is interpreted as being of supra-subduction environment, where the plutonic-volcanic arc is located right into the suture zone bonding and affecting both, continental and oceanic crust. The batholith is part of the volcanic arc of the Barroso Formation. The age of the batholith and related arc, according to available radiometric data, intrusive character and fossil record, occurred between the Cenomanian-Upper Aptian range, constraining the plutonism in the age range between 83 Ma and 102 Ma. The magmatic arc represented by the Sabanalarga batholith is contemporary with the Altavista diorite, San Diego Gabbro and Antioquian batholith and eventually belong to the same magmatic event.

  12. Tectonic model for the evolution of oceanic crust in the northeastern Indian Ocean from the Late Cretaceous to the Early Tertiary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Rao, D.G.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Pilipenko, A.I.; Shcherbakov, V.S.; Murthy, I.V.R.


    Bathymetry and magnetic studies (part of the Trans Indian Ocean Geotraverse investigations) in the northeastern Indian Ocean revealed seafloor topographic features, magnetic Lineations (19 through 32B) and abandonaed spreading centers. The seafloor...

  13. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics : a review of crust-mantle interaction processes illustrated by European examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf


    The continental crust on Earth cannot be extracted directly from the mantle, and the primary crust extracted directly from an early magma ocean is not preserved on Earth. We review geophysical and geochemical aspects of global crust–mantle material exchange processes and examine the processes which, on one side, form and transform the continental crust and, on the other side, chemically modify the mantle residue from which the continental crust has been extracted. Major mechanisms that provide crust–mantle material exchange are oceanic and continental subduction, lithosphere delamination, and mafic magmatism. While both subduction and delamination recycle crustal material into the mantle, mafic magmatism transports mantle material upward and participates in growth of new oceanic and continental crusts and significant structural and chemical modification of the latter. We discuss the role of basalt/gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, together with basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal (lithosphere) recycling. The processes of crust–mantle interaction have created very dissimilar crustal styles in Europe, as seen by its seismic structure, crustal thickness, and average seismic velocities in the basement. Our special focus is on processes responsible for the formation of the thin crust of central and western Europe, which was largely formed during the Variscan (430–280 Ma) orogeny but has the present structure of an “extended” crust, similar to that of the Basin and Range province in western USA. Major geophysical characteristics of the Variscan lithosphere are discussed within the frame of possible sequences of crust–mantle material exchange mechanisms during and after main orogenic events in the European Variscides.

  14. The Lunar Highland Crust: Complex or Simple Petrogenesis? (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Koeberl, C.


    Following the general acceptance of the magma ocean hypothesis, models for the evolution of the highland crust of the Moon have become increasingly complicated, just as religious and philosophical systems have always diverged from the teachings of their founder. Three components make up the highland crust: the ferroan anorthosite, which crystallizes early from the magma ocean, depletes the deep interior in Eu, and adds a large Eu enrichment to the crust. KREEP, choked with incompatible trace elements from the residual 2% melt resulting from the crystallization of the magma ocean is pervasively mixed into the crust by cratering. KREEP adds a deep Eu depletion, with high abundances of the other REE parallel to those of the ferroan anorthosites. The third well-recognized component is the Mg Suite, commonly about 100-200 Ma younger, with intermediate REE patterns parallel to the ferroan anorthosites and KREEP (Fig. 1). If the highland crust were formed from many igneous events, in which the Mg suite comes from several separate plutons, crystallization and separation of mineral phases would surely result in REE patterns with diverse slopes, as is observed on Earth. This does not seem to have occurred. For example, the deep-seated troctolite 76535 has a well-established age of 4236 +- 15 Ma (Premo and Tatsumoto, 1992), much younger than the 4440 +- 20 Ma crystallization age of the lunar crust (Carlson and Lugmair, 1988), and the 4400-Ma closure ages for the source regions of the lunar mare basalts. If 76535 formed as a separate intrusion by partial melting during "serial magmatism" 200 Ma after the ferroan anorthosites crystallized, why is its REE pattern parallel to those of all the other highland rocks (Fig. 1)? Two explanations seem viable. The first possibility is that a diverse crust may have been homogenized by cratering. Alternatively, only one major igneous event produced the lunar highland crust. All subsequent complexity in ages and production of "igneous" rocks is due to mixing and melting during massive impact events. Formation of the Mg Suite, "pseudo-igneous" rocks (e.g., 14310), and perhaps "pseudo-pristine" rocks may be expected. However, these events did not change the slope of the REE patterns. For example, the patterns of the impact-melts (Fig. 1) are strictly parallel to those of the other highland rocks. On Earth, the Sudbury impact event produced 10,000 km^3 of melt from the continental crust (Grieve et al., 1992). Lunar basin-forming events were orders of magnitude larger, so that much remelting of the lunar highland crust must have occurred. This later remelting may have produced the observed petrographic and textural complexities, but did not change the REE patterns. Carlson, R. W. and Lugmair, G. W. (1988) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 90, 119. Grieve, R.A.F., Stoffler, D. and Deutsch, A. (1992) J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22753. Koeberl, C., Kurat, G. and Brandstatter, F. (1991) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 3073. Premo, W. R. and Tatsumoto, M. (1992) Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. 22, 381 Taylor, S.R. (1982) Planetary Science: A Lunar Perspective; LPI Houston, Table 5.3. Figure 1, which in the hard copy appears here, shows that lunar highland crustal rocks of diverse ages, petrography, and depths show parallel REE patterns (except for enrichment and depletion of Eu; data from Taylor (1982) and Koeberl et al. (1991)) implying a common petrogenesis or very efficient mixing.

  15. Alteration of ocean crust provides a strong temperature dependent feedback on the geological carbon cycle and is a primary driver of the Sr-isotopic composition of seawater (United States)

    Coogan, Laurence A.; Dosso, Stan E.


    On geological timescales there is a temperature dependent feedback that means that increased degassing of CO2 into the atmosphere leads to increased CO2 drawdown into rocks stabilizing Earth's climate. It is widely considered that this thermostat largely comes from continental chemical weathering. An alternative, or additional, feedback comes from dissolution of seafloor basalt in low-temperature (tens of °C), off-axis, hydrothermal systems. Carbonate minerals precipitated in these systems provide strong evidence that increased bottom water temperature (traced by their O-isotopic compositions) leads to increased basalt dissolution (traced by their Sr-isotopic compositions). Inversion of a simple probabilistic model of fluid-rock interaction allows us to determine the apparent activation energy of rock dissolution in these systems. The high value we find (92 ± 7 kJmol-1) indicates a strong temperature dependence of rock dissolution. Because deep-ocean temperature is sensitive to global climate, and the fluid temperature in the upper oceanic crust is strongly influenced by bottom water temperature, increased global temperature must lead to increased basalt dissolution. In turn, through the generation of alkalinity by rock dissolution, this leads to a negative feedback on planetary warming; i.e. off-axis, hydrothermal systems play an important role in the planetary thermostat. Changes in the extent of rock dissolution, due to changes in bottom water temperature, also lead to changes in the flux of unradiogenic Sr into the ocean. The decreased flux of unradiogenic Sr into the ocean due to the cooling of ocean bottom water over the last 35 Myr is sufficient to explain most of the increase in seawater 87Sr/86Sr over this time.

  16. Seismic evidence for the presence of Jurassic oceanic crust in the central Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian margin)


    Sallarès, Valentí; Gailler, Audrey; Gutscher, Marc-André; Graindorge, David; Bartolomé, Rafael; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Díaz, Jordi; Dañobeitia, Juan José; Zitellini, N.


    We investigate the crustal structure of the SW Iberian margin along a 340 km-long refraction and wide-angle reflection seismic profile crossing from the central Gulf of Cadiz to the Variscan continental margin in the Algarve, Southern Portugal. The seismic velocity and crustal geometry model obtained by joint refraction and reflection travel-time inversion reveal three distinct crustal domains: the 28-30 km-thick Variscan crust in the north, a 60 km-wide transition zone offshore, where the cr...

  17. Oceanic Crust Components in Intra-Continental Basalts: From the Core-Mantle Boundary or the Mantle Transition Zone? (United States)

    Xu, Y.


    Recent studies have revealed the ubiquitous oceanic crustal components in Cenozoic intra-continental basalts in eastern China (Zhang et al., 2009; Xu et al., 2012a, b). The main arguments in support of this include: (a) strong similarity of trace element patterns and Fe/Mn ratios of these continental basalts with respect to oceanic island basalts; (b) coupled high Fe2O3and water contents and low87Sr/86Sr ratio; (c) high d18O less than mantle values recorded in olivine and clinopyroxene phenocrysts; (d) pyroxenite-dominated source as constrained by comparison of olivine-hosted melt inclusions with experimental results. Whether these recycled oceanic components from the core-mantle boundary (CMB) or from the mantle transition zone is a matter of debate. In the case of eastern Asian continent, we favor for a provenance from the mantle transition zone given the following considerations: (a) Geophysical studies show a stagnantPacific slab within the mantle transition zone underneath the studied region. Such a sandwich structure prevailed at least since late Cretaceous thus ruling out the possibility that oceanic crustal components from the CMB; (b) Pb isotopes do not show the high time-integrated 238U/204Pb mantle component expectedfor a HIMU basalt, suggesting a young age of recycled components. (c) The same Indian MORB-like isotopiccomposition is found in the eastern China Cenozoic basalts and in the extinct Izanaghi-Pacific plate ofNWPacific. This suggests that the recycled oceanic components may have been derived from the seismically detected stagnantPacific slab within the mantle transition zone. We thus speculate that not all recycled oceanic components are carried to the surface by mantle plumes, but can be transported to the shallow level by other processes from the mantle transition zone.

  18. Palaeoceanographic conditions during the formation of ferromanganese crust from the Afanasiy Nikitin seamount, north central Indian Ocean: geochemical evidence

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Pattan, J.N.; Mudholkar, A.V.


    -475. Rudenko, M.V., 1994. Morphostructure of the Afanasiy-Niki- tin seamount. Oceanology, 33: 525-530. Schlager, W. and James, N.P., 1978. Low magnesium calcite limestones forming at the deep seafloor, tongue of the ocean, Bahamas. Sedimentology, 25: 675...

  19. A documentation on burrows in hard substrates of ferromanganese crusts and associated soft sediments from the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.


    megafauna on the floor of the CIB, much away from the actively spreading ridges. Future deep- ocean mining for the extraction of sea-floor ferroman- ganese deposits should take enough care to protect and preserve such extensive deep-sea benthic life. 1...

  20. Crusted scabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Kaliaperumal


    Full Text Available Crusted scabies is a rare manifestation of scabies characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of mites in the skin. In immunocompromised patients, this infestation is characterized by crusted lesions. The occurrence of the disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and the widespread use of immunosuppressive agents has led to a renewed interest in the disease. Early recognition and treatment is necessary to avoid an outbreak of scabies. This review highlights the pathogenesis, predisposing factors, clinical features and treatment of crusted scabies.

  1. Crusted scabies


    Karthikeyan Kaliaperumal


    Crusted scabies is a rare manifestation of scabies characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of mites in the skin. In immunocompromised patients, this infestation is characterized by crusted lesions. The occurrence of the disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and the widespread use of immunosuppressive agents has led to a renewed interest in the disease. Early recognition and treatment is necessary to avoid an outbreak of scabies. This review highlights the pathogenesis,...

  2. A 4D Framework for Ocean Basin Paleodepths and Eustatic Sea Level Change (United States)

    Muller, R.; Sdrolias, M.; Gaina, C.


    A digital framework for paleobathymetry of the ocean basins requires the complete reconstruction of ocean floor through time, including the main ocean basins, back-arc basins, and now subducted ocean crust. We reconstruct paleo-oceans by creating "synthetic plates", the locations and geometry of which is established on the basis of preserved ocean crust (magnetic lineations and fracture zones), geological data, and the rules of plate tectonics. We reconstruct the spreading histories of the Pacific, Phoenix, Izanagi, Farallon and Kula plates, the plates involved in the Indian, Atlantic, Caribbean, Arctic, Tethys and Arctic oceanic domains and all plates involved in preserved backarc basins. Based mainly on the GML-standards compliant GPlates software and the Generic Mapping Tools, we have created a set of global oceanic paleo-isochrons and paleoceanic age and depth grids. We show that the late-Cretaceous sea level highstand and the subsequent long-term drop in sea level was primarily caused by the changing age-area distribution of Pacific ocean floor through time. The emplacement of oceanic plateaus has resulted in a 40 m sealevel rise between 125 and 110 Ma, and a further 60 m rise after 110 Ma, whereas the oceanic age and latitude dependence of marine sediments has resulted in a 40m sealevel rise since about 120Ma, offsetting the gradual post-80Ma drop in sealevel due to the ageing and deepening mainly of the Pacific ocean basin, with the net effect being an about 200m drop after 80 Ma. Between 140 Ma and the present, oceanic crustal production dropped by over 40% in the Pacific, but stayed roughly constant in the remaining ocean basins. Our results suggest that the overall magnitude of 1st order sealevel change implied by Haq's sea level curve is correct.

  3. Motion between the Indian, Capricorn and Somalian plates since 20 Ma: implications for the timing and magnitude of distributed lithospheric deformation in the equatorial Indian ocean (United States)

    DeMets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Royer, Jean-Yves


    Approximately 2200 magnetic anomaly crossings and 800 fracture zone crossings flanking the Carlsberg ridge and Central Indian ridge are used to estimate the rotations of the Indian and Capricorn plates relative to the Somalian Plate for 20 distinct points in time since 20 Ma. The data are further used to place limits on the locations of the northern edge of the rigid Capricorn Plate and of the southern edge of the rigid Indian Plate along the Central Indian ridge. Data south of and including fracture zone N (the fracture zone immediately south of the Vema fracture zone), which intersects the Central Indian ridge near 10°S, are well fit assuming rigid Capricorn and Somalian plates, while data north of fracture zone N are not, in agreement with prior results. Data north of fracture zone H, which intersects the Central Indian ridge near 3.2°S, are well fit assuming rigid Indian and Somalian plates, while data south of and including fracture zone H are not, resulting in a smaller rigid Indian Plate and a wider diffuse oceanic plate boundary than found before. The data are consistent with Capricorn-Somalia motion about a fixed pole since ~8 Ma, but require rotation about a pole 15° farther away from the Central Indian ridge from 20 to ~8 Ma. The post-8-Ma pole also indicates Capricorn-Somalia displacement directions that are 7° clockwise of those indicated by the pre-8-Ma stage pole. In contrast, India-Somalia anomaly and fracture crossings are well fit by a single fixed pole of rotation for the past 20 Ma. India-Somalia motion has changed little during the past 20 Myr. Nonetheless, astronomically calibrated ages for reversals younger than 12.9 Ma allow resolution of the following small but significant changes in spreading rate: India-Somalia spreading slowed from 31 to 28 mm yr-1 near 7.9 Ma and later sped up to 31 mm yr-1 near 3.6 Ma; Capricorn-Somalia spreading slowed from 40 to 36 mm yr-1 near 11.0 Ma, later sped up to 38 mm yr-1 near 5.1 Ma and further sped up to 40 mm yr-1 near 2.6 Ma. The motion between the Indian and Capricorn plates is estimated by differencing India-Somalia and Capricorn-Somalia rotations, which differ significantly for all 20 pairs of reconstructions. India has rotated relative to the Capricorn Plate since at least ~20 Ma. If about a pole located near 4°S, 75°E, the rate of rotation was slow, 0.11°+/- 0.01° Myr-1 (95 per cent confidence limits), from 20 to 8 Ma, but increased to 0.28°+/- 0.01° Myr-1 (95 per cent confidence limits) at ~8 Ma. The onset of more rapid rotation coincides, within uncertainty, with the inferred onset at 7-8 Ma of widespread thrust faulting in the Central Indian basin, and with the hypothesized attainment of maximum elevation and initiation of collapse of the Tibetan plateau at ~8 Ma. The plate kinematic data are consistent with steady India-Capricorn motion since 8 Ma and provide no evidence for previously hypothesized episodic motions during that interval. The convergence since 8 Ma between the Indian and Capricorn plates significantly exceeds (by 13 to 20 km) the convergence estimated from three north-south marine seismic profiles in the Central Indian basin. Where and how the additional convergence was accommodated is unclear.

  4. Tectonic implications of post-30 Ma Pacific and North American relative plate motions (United States)

    Bohannon, R.G.; Parsons, T.


    The Pacific plate moved northwest relative to North America since 42 Ma. The rapid half rate of Pacific-Farallon spreading allowed the ridge to approach the continent at about 29 Ma. Extinct spreading ridges that occur offshore along 65% of the margin document that fragments of the subducted Farallon slab became captured by the Pacific plate and assumed its motion proper to the actual subduction of the spreading ridge. This plate-capture process can be used to explain much of the post-29 Ma Cordilleran North America extension, strike slip, and the inland jump of oceanic spreading in the Gulf of California. Much of the post-29 Ma continental tectonism is the result of the strong traction imposed on the deep part of the continental crust by the gently inclined slab of subducted oceanic lithosphere as it moved to the northwest relative to the overlying continent. -from Authors

  5. Ocean crust deformation at the North America-South America plate boundary: Results of the 2007 ANTIPLAC marine survey (United States)

    Patriat, M.; Benard, F.; Deville, E.; Le Drezen, E.; Loubrieu, B.; Maltese, L.; Roest, W.; Thereau, E.; Umber, M.; Vially, R.


    East of the Lesser Antilles active margin, the area of the Barracuda and Tiburon ridges is resulting from of a multidirectional and polyphase tectonic history at the diffuse plate boundary between the North and South American plates. These WNW-ESE trending ridges control the sediment distribution and they are bounded by sedimentary trenches, both ridges and trenches trending parallel to the Mid-Atlantic oceanic fracture zones. A marine survey (called ANTIPLAC) conducted in the beginning of the year (January 2007) has provide new evidences (multibeam and seismic acquisition) of the deformation processes which occurred at this plate boundary. On the seismic lines, a major angular unconformity can be recognized in the whole area of the survey. Interpreting the acquired seismic grid, the lower part of the stratigraphic series can be easily tied to the DSDP/ODP holes of legs 78A, 110, 156, 171A, especially with wells 543 and 672. Thus a Maastrichtian-Pliocene age can be attributed to the geological formations located below the regional unconformity. The very recent geological formations located above the unconformity (attributed to the Late Pliocene-Pleistocene) tend to fill the main depressions of the area and show very heterogeneous thickness. These recent deposits can be more than 3 s(TWT) thick in the Barracuda trough (north of Barracuda ridge). Globally they show clear onlapping characters above the older levels, but in some places these levels show spectacularly evidences of syntectonic deposition. This is notably the case of a narrow WNW-ESE trending fold and fault system trending along the axis of the Barracuda trough. South of Barracuda ridge the recent deposits show also locally spectacular fan geometries characterizing deposition during significant tilting. Also, between Barracuda and Tiburon ridges several fracture zones show evidences of very recent (and probably active) reactivation. This recent deformation is also characterized by recent basin inversion structures. Finally and more generally, the data acquired during the ANTIPLAC survey demonstrate that high deformation occurred at the boundary between the North and South American plates during much more recent times than previously thought, and that notably spectacular compressional structures resulting from the convergence between the two american plates developed recently during Late Pliocene-Quaternary times. The subduction of this structural pattern and its partial incorporation within the Barbados tectonic wedge has widely influenced the deformation processes within the accretionary prism and has also induced segmentation within the overriding Caribbean plate.

  6. Cenozoic marine geochemistry of thallium deduced from isotopic studies of ferromanganese crusts and pelagic sediments (United States)

    Rehkamper, M.; Frank, M.; Hein, J.R.; Halliday, A.


    Cenozoic records of Tl isotope compositions recorded by ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts have been obtained. Such records are of interest because recent growth surfaces of Fe-Mn crusts display a nearly constant Tl isotope fractionation relative to seawater. The time-series data are complemented by results for bulk samples and leachates of various marine sediments. Oxic pelagic sediments and anoxic marine deposits can be distinguished by their Tl isotope compositions. Both pelagic clays and biogenic oozes are typically characterized by ??205Tl greater than +2.5, whereas anoxic sediments have ??205Tl of less than -1.5 (??205Tl is the deviation of the 205Tl/203Tl isotope ratio of a sample from NIST SRM 997 Tl in parts per 104). Leaching experiments indicate that the high ??205Tl values of oxic sediments probably reflect authigenic Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides. Time-resolved Tl isotope compositions were obtained from six Fe-Mn crusts from the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans and a number of observations indicate that these records were not biased by diagenetic alteration. Over the last 25 Myr, the data do not show isotopic variations that significantly exceed the range of Tl isotope compositions observed for surface layers of Fe-Mn crusts distributed globally (??205 Tl=+12.8??1.2). This indicates that variations in deep-ocean temperature were not recorded by Tl isotopes. The results most likely reflect a constant Tl isotope composition for seawater. The growth layers of three Fe-Mn crusts that are older than 25 Ma show a systematic increase of ??205Tl with decreasing age, from about +6 at 60-50 Ma to about +12 at 25 Ma. These trends are thought to be due to variations in the Tl isotope composition of seawater, which requires that the oceans of the early Cenozoic either had smaller output fluxes or received larger input fluxes of Tl with low ??205Tl. Larger inputs of isotopically light Tl may have been supplied by benthic fluxes from reducing sediments, rivers, and/or volcanic emanations. Alternatively, the Tl isotope trends may reflect the increasing importance of Tl fluxes to altered ocean crust through time. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Gop Basin - A Possible Imprint of Early Oceanic Spreading Between Greater Seychelles and India (United States)

    Bhattacharya, G. C.; Yatheesh, V.; Dyment, J.


    The Arabian and its conjugate Eastern Somali basins were formed by the seafloor spreading at the Carlsberg Ridge since Early Tertiary (anomaly 28n; ~62.5 Ma). The reconstruction model at anomaly 28n suggested existence of a wide swath of deep offshore region (Gop and Laxmi basins) between the Laxmi Ridge and the India-Pakistan continental shelf. In the present study we focus on the Gop Basin, where the important constraints about the early geodynamic evolution of the Arabian Sea appear to exist. The nature of the crust underlying this basin remains a matter of debate, with views varying from volcanics-intruded thinned continental crust to oceanic crust formed by a now extinct spreading centre. Our interpretation of an updated compilation of marine geophysical data supports the oceanic nature of the crust underlying the Gop Basin, where the Palitana Ridge represents the extinct spreading centre related to an episode of early oceanic spreading between Greater Seychelles (Seychelles-Laxmi Ridge block) and India. Our magnetic modelling shows that the well correlatable, prominent but short sequence of magnetic anomalies in the Gop Basin does not allow a unique identification; it can be reasonably explained either as A31r - A25r (~69 - 56 Ma) or as A29r - A25r (~65 - 56 Ma) sequence. Both the models suggest that spreading in the Gop Basin was significantly affected by the nearby onset of the Reunion hotspot at ~65 Ma, which formed the Deccan Traps on the adjacent western Indian mainland.

  8. Chapter 50 Geology and tectonic development of the Amerasia and Canada Basins, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Grantz, Arthur; Hart, Patrick E.; Childers, Vicki A


    Amerasia Basin is the product of two phases of counterclockwise rotational opening about a pole in the lower Mackenzie Valley of NW Canada. Phase 1 opening brought ocean–continent transition crust (serpentinized peridotite?) to near the seafloor of the proto-Amerasia Basin, created detachment on the Eskimo Lakes Fault Zone of the Canadian Arctic margin and thinned the continental crust between the fault zone and the proto-Amerasia Basin to the west, beginning about 195 Ma and ending prior to perhaps about 160 Ma. The symmetry of the proto-Amerasia Basin was disrupted by clockwise rotation of the Chukchi Microcontinent into the basin from an original position along the Eurasia margin about a pole near 72°N, 165 W about 145.5–140 Ma. Phase 2 opening enlarged the proto-Amerasia Basin by intrusion of mid-ocean ridge basalt along its axis between about 131 and 127.5 Ma. Following intrusion of the Phase 2 crust an oceanic volcanic plateau, the Alpha–Mendeleev Ridge LIP (large igneous province), was extruded over the northern Amerasia Basin from about 127 to 89–75 Ma. Emplacement of the LIP halved the area of the Amerasia Basin, and the area lying south of the LIP became the Canada Basin.

  9. Chapter 50: Geology and tectonic development of the Amerasia and Canada Basins, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.; Childers, V.A.


    Amerasia Basin is the product of two phases of counterclockwise rotational opening about a pole in the lower Mackenzie Valley of NW Canada. Phase 1 opening brought ocean-continent transition crust (serpentinized peridotite?) to near the seafloor of the proto-Amerasia Basin, created detachment on the Eskimo Lakes Fault Zone of the Canadian Arctic margin and thinned the continental crust between the fault zone and the proto-Amerasia Basin to the west, beginning about 195 Ma and ending prior to perhaps about 160 Ma. The symmetry of the proto-Amerasia Basin was disrupted by clockwise rotation of the Chukchi Microcontinent into the basin from an original position along the Eurasia margin about a pole near 72??N, 165 Wabout 145.5-140 Ma. Phase 2 opening enlarged the proto-Amerasia Basin by intrusion of mid-ocean ridge basalt along its axis between about 131 and 127.5 Ma. Following intrusion of the Phase 2 crust an oceanic volcanic plateau, the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge LIP (large igneous province), was extruded over the northern Amerasia Basin from about 127 to 89-75 Ma. Emplacement of the LIP halved the area of the Amerasia Basin, and the area lying south of the LIP became the Canada Basin. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  10. Underplating generated A- and I-type granitoids of the East Junggar from the lower and the upper oceanic crust with mixing of mafic magma: Insights from integrated zircon U-Pb ages, petrography, geochemistry and Nd-Sr-Hf isotopes (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Xiu-Jin; Liu, Li-Juan


    Whole rock major and trace element, Nd-Sr and zircon Hf isotopic compositions and secondary-ion mass spectrometry zircon U-Pb ages of eleven granitoid intrusions and dioritic rocks from the East Junggar (NW China) were analyzed in this study. The East Junggar granitoids were emplaced during terminal Early to Late Carboniferous (325-301 Ma) following volcanic eruption of the Batamayi Formation. Zircons from the East Junggar granitoids yielded 210 concordant 206Pb/238U ages which are all younger than 334 Ma and exhibit ?Hf(t) values distinctly higher than Devonian arc volcanic-rocks. Seismic P-wave velocities of deep crust of the East Junggar proper resemble those of oceanic crust (OC). These characteristics suggest absence of volcanic rock and volcano-sedimentary rock of Devonian and Early Carboniferous from the source region. The East Junggar granitoids show ?Nd(t) and initial 87Sr/86Sr values substantially overlapping those of the Armantai ophiolite in the area. The Early Paleozoic OC with seamount-like composition as the Zhaheba-Armantai ophiolites remained in the lower crust and formed main source rock of the East Junggar granitoids. Based on petrography and geochemistry, the East Junggar granitoids are classified into peralkaline A-type in the northern subarea, I-type (I1 and I2 subgroups) mainly in the north and A-type in the south of the southern subarea. The perthitic or argillated core and oligoclasic rim with an argillated boundary of feldspar phenocrysts and inclusion of perthites or its overgrowth by matrix plagioclase, in the monzogranites (northern subarea), suggest mixing of peralkaline granitic magma with mafic magma. In the north of the southern subarea, the presence of magmatic microdioritic enclaves (MMEs) in the I1 subgroup granitoids, transfer of plagioclase phenocrysts and hornblendes between host granodiorite and the MME across the boundary and a prominent resorption surface in the plagioclase phenocrysts indicate mixing of crustal magma (I2 subgroup granitoids) with mafic magma. Magma mixing shifted (87Sr/86Sr)i of the I1 subgroup granitoids towards the mantle array. Two generations of hornblende with zonal distribution and similar mineral and geochemical compositions of quartz monzodiorite and hosted MME with unfractionated rare earth elements (REE) suggest extended magma mixing with onset probably at or near source region. These observations imply concurrency of mantle input and the crustal melting and, hence, a causal relationship between underplating/intraplating and the lower OC/upper OC melting. The I-type granitoids experienced plagioclase and hornblende fractionations, whereas fractionated phases of the two groups of A-type granites were alkali feldspar and albite-oligoclase with significant involvement of F--rich fluid. Granodioritic parent magmas of the I2 subgroup granitoids stemmed from the hydrous upper OC. Parent magmas of the two A-type groups possess syenogranitic or quartz syenitic compositions. The peralkaline A-type granites stemmed from the lower OC, whereas the A-type granites from dehydrated upper OC left behind after extensive partial melting and extraction of I-type granitoids. Based on comparison in the ternary system Mg2SiO4-CaAl2SiO6-SiO2, most of the Batamayi volcanic rocks with affinity to ocean-island basalts were derived from asthenospheric upwelling. The gabbro-dioritic rocks with higher light to heavy REE ratios stemmed from metasomatized lithospheric mantle. Both of the above mafic rocks contain subducted slab component.

  11. A case for Australia-Antarctica separation in the Neocomian (ca. 125 Ma) (United States)

    Stagg, H. M. J.; Willcox, J. B.


    The age of separation of Australia and Antarctica (that is, the onset of seafloor spreading) has usually been determined by the identification of seafloor-spreading magnetic anomalies adjacent to the margin, or by extrapolation of the spreading rate/time span between the oldest identified anomaly and the continent-ocean boundary (COB) as interpreted from magnetic and single-channel seismic data. The most recent estimate of the age of breakup using these methods is 95 ± 5 Ma, in the Cenomanian. However, identification of the oldest magnetic anomalies, formed during the early phase of slow drift between Australia and Antarctica, is tenuous, particularly between southwest Australia and the central Great Australian Bight (GAB). An alternative approach for establishing the age of breakup is to determine the relationship of the continental margin sequences and the oceanic crust, using seismic data. Application of this technique to the western Great Australian Bight demonstrates that it is likely that the oldest interpreted oceanic crust is overlain by several hundred metres of sediment that is no younger than Valanginian (ca. 125 Ma); that is, separation of Australia and Antarctica must have occurred prior to this time, perhaps contemporaneously with the separation of Australia and "Greater India" off Western Australia. The similarity of structural and magnetic anomaly trends between the southern and western margins of Australia further suggests that breakup and spreading on those two margins are closely linked. However, there may be further complicating factors in the Australian-Antarctic extension and breakup history. High-quality migrated seismic data from the central Great Australian Bight, across what has been previously interpreted as oceanic crust, show the presence of listric faulting and apparent syn-rift sedimentation within "basement". The gross structure is similar in appearance to published models of a metamorphic core complex. Other possibilities are that the observed structuring is the product of the re-rifting of oceanic crust of undetermined (pre-Valanginian) age, or that the zone oceanwards of the "COB" consists of highly thinned lower plate, probably injected by ribbons of oceanic basalt towards its southern edge. If such structures can also be identified in the western GAB, then it is clear that the age of the emplacement of the first oceanic crust between Australia and Antarctica is still undetermined.

  12. Shear velocities in the oceanic crust at the East Pacific Rise 9° 18' N to 10° 30' N from compliance measurements (United States)

    Nooner, S. L.; Webb, S. C.; Crawford, W. C.


    Compliance was measured at 21 sites along the East Pacific Rise (EPR) from 9° 18' N to 10° 30' N during the MADCAP (Melt And Diking from Compliance And Pressure) experiment on the R/V Atlantis from February 13 to March 19, 2007. Measurements at 10° 30' N across the ridge segment 22 km north of the Clipperton transform fault show a stiff lower crust, which suggests that there is little crustal melt. This is consistent with previous descriptions of this segment as "magmatically starved" based on its morphology. Most of the compliance measurements were made on the EPR segment south of the Clipperton transform fault. At the northern end of this ridge segment, a compliance transect at 10° 2' N spans the ridge axis and continues to a seamount 16 km east. These measurements indicate that shear velocities are low beneath the ridge axis but increase rapidly off axis to the east, suggesting no magmatic connection between the ridge axis and the Watchstander seamount chain. Shear velocities beneath the nearest (and most recently active) seamount are similar to other off axis sites, suggesting that there is little or no crustal melt there. A 26 km long compliance transect across the ridge axis near 9° 20' N suggests that the region of low crustal shear velocities is constrained to within 3-4 km of the ridge axis. The compliance measurements preclude the existence of a melt body 18-20 km east of the ridge axis as had been inferred from an apparent mid-crustal reflector observed in a recent OBS experiment. The compliance over that site show low shear velocities only in the uppermost crust associated with a thick layer 2A. A final compliance transect stretches northward along the ridge axis and across the Clipperton ridge-transform intersection (RTI). Measurements made north of where the ridge crosses the inferred location of the RTI show lower crustal shear velocities than normal for off-axis crust, but this observation is consistent with previous refraction work that suggested extensive alteration of the mid-crust and a thick layer 2A north of the transform. Within 9 km south of the RTI, lower crustal shear velocities on axis decrease to values comparable to other sites on-axis along this ridge segment suggesting the robust magma supply extends to within 9 km of the RTI.

  13. Modeling crust-mantle evolution using radiogenic Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope systematics (United States)

    Kumari, Seema; Paul, Debajyoti


    The present-day elemental and isotopic composition of Earth's terrestrial reservoirs can be used as geochemical constraints to study evolution of the crust-mantle system. A flexible open system evolutionary model of the Earth, comprising continental crust (CC), upper depleted mantle (UM) -source of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), and lower mantle (LM) reservoir with a D" layer -source of ocean island basalts (OIB), and incorporating key radioactive isotope systematics (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and U-Th-Pb), is solved numerically at 1 Ma time step for 4.55 Ga, the age of the Earth. The best possible solution is the one that produces the present-day concentrations as well as isotopic ratios in terrestrial reservoirs, compiled from published data. Different crustal growth scenarios (exponential, episodic, early and late growth), proposed in earlier studies, and its effect on the evolution of isotope systematics of terrestrial reservoirs is studied. Model simulations strongly favor a layered mantle structure satisfying majority of the isotopic constraints. In the successful model, which is similar to that proposed by Kellogg et al. (1999), the present-day UM comprises of 60% of mantle mass and extends to a depth 1600 km, whereas the LM becomes non-primitive and more enriched than the bulk silicate Earth, mainly due to addition of recycled crustal material. Modeling suggest that isotopic evolution of reservoirs is affected by the mode of crustal growth. Only two scenarios satisfied majority of the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic constraints but failed to reproduce the present-day Pb-isotope systematics; exponential growth of crust (mean age, tc=2.3 Ga) and delayed and episodic growth (no growth for initial 900 Ma, tc=2.05 Ga) proposed by Patchett and Arndt (1986). However, assuming a slightly young Earth (4.45 Ga) better satisfies the Pb-isotope systematics. Although, the delayed crustal growth model satisfied Sr-Nd isotopic constraints, presence of early Hadean crust (4.03 and 4.4 Ga detrital zircon in Acasta gneiss and Yilgarn block, respectively), argues against it. One notable feature of successful models is an early depletion of incompatible elements (as well as Th/U ratio in the UM) by the initial 500 Ma, as a result of early formation of continental crust. Our results strongly favor exponential crustal growth and layered mantle structure. Patchett, P.J., Arndt, N.T. (1986), Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 78, 329-338. Kellogg, L.H., Hager, B.H., van der Hilst, R.D (1999), Science, 283, 1881-1884.

  14. Ocean (United States)

    Ms. Ryan


    Become an expert on the Ocean habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. You can find out about Deep Ocean or Open Ocean! Ocean Life is a great website that tells about different parts of the ocean and about animals that live there. Ugie! You can start your mission to find out about Killer Whales by going to Orca or Killer Whales. Jakhia! You can start your mission to find ...

  15. Global variations in gravity-derived oceanic crustal thickness: Implications on oceanic crustal accretion and hotspot-lithosphere interactions (United States)

    Lin, J.; Zhu, J.


    We present a new global model of oceanic crustal thickness based on inversion of global oceanic gravity anomaly with constrains from seismic crustal thickness profiles. We first removed from the observed marine free-air gravity anomaly all gravitational effects that can be estimated and removed using independent constraints, including the effects of seafloor topography, marine sediment thickness, and the age-dependent thermal structure of the oceanic lithosphere. We then calculated models of gravity-derived crustal thickness through inversion of the residual mantle Bouguer anomaly using best-fitting gravity-modeling parameters obtained from comparison with seismically determined crustal thickness profiles. Modeling results show that about 5% of the global crustal volume (or 9% of the global oceanic surface area) is associated with model crustal thickness 8.6 km and is interpreted to have been affected by excess magmatism. The percentage of oceanic crustal volume that is associated with thick crustal thickness (>8.6 km) varies greatly among tectonic plates: Pacific (33%), Africa (50%), Antarctic (33%), Australia (30%), South America (34%), Nazca (23%), North America (47%), India (74%), Eurasia (68%), Cocos (20%), Philippine (26%), Scotia (41%), Caribbean (89%), Arabian (82%), and Juan de Fuca (21%). We also found that distribution of thickened oceanic crust (>8.6 km) seems to depend on spreading rate and lithospheric age: (1) On ocean basins younger than 5 Ma, regions of thickened crust are predominantly associated with slow and ultraslow spreading ridges. The relatively strong lithospheric plate at slow and ultraslow ridges might facilitate the loading of large magmatic emplacements on the plate. (2) In contrast, crustal thickness near fast and intermediately fast spreading ridges typically does not exceed 7-8 km. The relatively weak lithosphere at fast and intermediately fast ridges might make it harder for excess magmatism to accrete. We further speculate that the relatively wide partial melting zones in the upper mantle beneath the fast and intermediately fast ridges might act as "buffer" zones, thus diluting the melt anomalies from the underlying hotspots or regions of mantle heterogeneities. (3) As the crustal age increases and the lithospheric plate thickens, regions of thickened crust start to develop on ocean basins that were originally created at fast and intermediately fast ridges. The integrated crustal volume for fast and intermediately fast ocean crust appears to reach peak values for certain geological periods, such as 40-50 Ma and 70-80 Ma. The newly constructed global models of gravity-derived crustal thickness, combining with geochemical and other constraints, can be used to investigate the processes of oceanic crustal accretion and hotspot-lithosphere interactions.

  16. Phase separation in the crust of accreting neutron stars. (United States)

    Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K; Brown, E F


    Nucleosynthesis, on the surface of accreting neutron stars, produces a range of chemical elements. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of crystallization to see how this complex composition forms new neutron star crust. We find chemical separation, with the liquid ocean phase greatly enriched in low atomic number elements compared to the solid crust. This phase separation should change many crust properties such as the thermal conductivity and shear modulus. PMID:17677319

  17. Investigating the link between an iron-60 anomaly in the deep ocean's crust and the origin of the Local Bubble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulreich, Michael; Breitschwerdt, Dieter [Zentrum fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, TU Berlin, Berlin (Germany)


    Supernova explosions responsible for the creation of the Local Bubble (LB) and its associated HI cavity should have caused geological isotope anomalies via deposition of debris on Earth. The discovery of a highly significant increase of {sup 60}Fe (a radionuclide that is exclusively produced in explosive nucleosynthesis) in layers of a deep sea ferromanganese crust corresponding to a time of 2.2 Myr before present, appears very promising in this context. We report on our progress in relating these measurements to the formation of the LB by means of 3D hydrodynamical adaptive mesh refinement simulations of the turbulent interstellar medium in the solar neighborhood. Our calculations are based on a sophisticated selection procedure for the LB's progenitor stars and take advantage of passive scalars for following the chemical mixing process.

  18. High-resolution geology, petrology and age of a tectonically accreted section of Paleoarchean oceanic crust, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa (United States)

    Grosch, Eugene; Vidal, Olivier; McLoughlin, Nicola; Whitehouse, Martin


    The ca. 3.53 to 3.29 Ga Onverwacht Group of the Barberton greenstone belt (BGB), South Africa records a rare sequence of exceptionally well-preserved volcanic, intrusive and volcani-clastic Paleaoarchean rocks. Numerous conflicting models exist for the geologic evolution and stratigraphy of this early Archean greenstone belt, ranging from plume-type dynamics to modern-style plate tectonics. Although much work has focussed on the komatiites of the ca. 3.48 Ga Komati Formation since their discovery in 1969, far less petrological attention has been given to the younger oceanic rock sequences of the Kromberg type-section in the mid-Onverwacht Group. In this study, we present new field observations from a detailed re-mapping of the Kromberg type-section, and combine this with high-resolution lithological observations from continuous drill core of the Barberton Scientific Drilling Project [1]. The new mapping and field observations are compared to a recent preliminary study of the Kromberg type-section [2]. A U-Pb detrital provenance study was conducted on a reworked, volcani-clastic unit in the upper Kromberg type-section for the first time. This included U-Pb age determination of 110 detrital zircons by secondary ion microprobe analyses (SIMS), providing constraints on maximum depositional age, provenance of the ocean-floor detritus, and timing for the onset of Kromberg ocean basin formation. These new zircon age data are compared to a previous U-Pb detrital zircon study conducted on the structurally underlying sediments of the ca. 3.43 Ga Noisy formation [3]. A multi-pronged petrological approach has been applied to various rock units across the Kromberg, including thermodynamic modelling techniques applied to metabasalts and metapyroxenites for PT-estimates, bulk- and in-situ isotope geochemistry providing constraints on protolith geochemistry and metamorphic history. Consequently, it is shown that this previously poorly studied Kromberg oceanic rock sequence of the mid-Onverwacht, is a key area in resolving stratigraphy models and understanding the geologic evolution of the BGB. The combined field and petrological data provide new insight into mid-Paleoarchean ocean basin formation and subsequent tectonic destruction. [1]. Grosch et al., (2009b). EOS 90, 350-351. [2] Furnes et al., (2011) Precam. Research 186, 28-50. [3] Grosch et al. (2011) Precam. Research 191, 85-99.

  19. Variability of low temperature hydrothermal alteration in upper ocean crust: Juan de Fuca Ridge and North Pond, Mid-Atlantic Ridge (United States)

    Rutter, J.; Harris, M.; Coggon, R. M.; Alt, J.; Teagle, D. A. H.


    Over 2/3 of the global hydrothermal heat flux occurs at low temperatures (green, grey halos) of basement is constant with crustal age and depth along a 0.97-3.6 m.yr transect of ODP basement holes. However, vesicle fills record an increasingly complex history of successive alteration with age. In contrast, North Pond, a ~8 m.yr-old sediment-filled basin at 22N on the slow spreading Mid Atlantic Ridge, hosts rapid, relatively cool SE to NW basinal fluid flow. Average alteration extent (~10%) and oxidation ratio (33%) of Hole 395A basalts are similar to JdF. However, 395A cores are dominated by orange alteration halos, lack celadonite, but have abundant zeolite. Vesicle fill combinations are highly variable, but the most common fill progression is from oxidising to less oxidising secondary assemblages. The comparable extent of alteration between these two sites and the absence of an age relationship on the JdF suggests that the alteration extent of the upper crust is uniform and mostly established by 1 Myr. However, the variable alteration character reflects the influence of regional hydrology on hydrothermal alteration.

  20. Phase separation in the crust of accreting neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, C J; Brown, E F


    Nucleosynthesis, on the surface of accreting neutron stars, produces a range of chemical elements. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of crystallization to see how this complex composition forms new neutron star crust. We find chemical separation, with the liquid ocean phase greatly enriched in low atomic number elements compared to the solid crust. This phase separation should change many crust properties such as the thermal conductivity and shear modulus. The concentration of carbon, if present, is enriched in the ocean. This may allow unstable thermonuclear burning of the carbon and help explain the ignition of the very energetic explosions known as superbursts.

  1. The role of recycled oceanic crust in magmatism and metallogeny: Os-Sr-Nd isotopes, U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of picritic dykes in the Panzhihua giant Fe-Ti oxide deposit, central Emeishan large igneous province, SW China (United States)

    Hou, Tong; Zhang, Zhaochong; Encarnacion, John; Santosh, M.; Sun, Yali


    The picritic dykes occurring within fine-grained gabbro in the marginal zone and in the surrounding Proterozoic wall-rock marbles of the Panzhihua Fe-Ti oxide deposit closely correspond in bulk composition with the nearby Panzhihua intrusion. These dykes offer important constraints on the nature of the mantle source of the Panzhihua ore-bearing intrusion and its possible link to the Emeishan plume. U-Pb zircon dating of the picritic dyke yields a crystallization age of 261.4 ± 4.6 Ma, coeval with the timing of the main Panzhihua gabbroic intrusion and Late Permian Emeishan flood basalts. The Panzhihua picritic dykes contain 37.63-43.41 wt% SiO2, 1.15-1.56 wt% TiO2, 11.43-13.25 wt% TFe2O3, and 20.96-28.87 wt% MgO. Primitive-mantle-normalized patterns of the rocks are comparable to those of ocean island basalt. The rocks define a relatively small range of Os isotopic compositions and a low Os signature of -0.13 to +2.76 for ?Os (261 Ma). In combination with their Sr-Nd-Os isotopic compositions, we interpret that these rocks were derived from the Emeishan plume sources as well as the interactions of plume melts with the overlying lithosphere which had been extensively affected by eclogite-derived melts from the deep-subducted oceanic slab. Partial melting induced by an upwelling mantle plume that involved an eclogite or pyroxenite component in the lithospheric mantle could have produced the parental Fe-rich magma. Our study suggests that plume-lithosphere interaction might have played a key role in generating many world-class Fe-Ti oxide deposits clustered in the Panxi area.

  2. Crust rheology, slab detachment and topography (United States)

    Duretz, T.; Gerya, T. V.


    The collision between continents following the closure of an ocean can lead to the subduction of continental crust. The introduction of buoyant crust within subduction zones triggers the development of extensional stresses in slabs which eventually result in their detachment. The dynamic consequences of slab detachment affects the development of topography, the exhumation of high-pressure rocks and the geodynamic evolution of collision zones. We employ two-dimensional thermo-mechanical modelling in order to study the importance of crustal rheology on the evolution of spontaneous subduction-collision systems and the occurrence of slab detachment. The modelling results indicate that varying the rheological structure of the crust can results in a broad range of collisional evolutions involving slab detachment, delamination (associated to slab rollback), or the combination of both mechanisms. By enhancing mechanical coupling at the Moho, a strong crust leads to the deep subduction of the crust (180 km). These collisions are subjected to slab detachment and subsequent coherent exhumation of the crust accommodated by eduction (inversion of subduction sense) and thrusting. In these conditions, slab detachment promotes the development of a high (> 4.5 km) and narrow (located in the vicinity of the suture. A contrasting style of collision is obtained by employing a weak crustal rheology. The weak mechanical coupling at the Moho promotes the widespread delamination of the lithosphere, preventing slab detachment to occur. Further shortening leads to buckling and thickening of the crust resulting in the development of topographic bulging on the lower plate. Collisions involving rheologically layered crust are characterised by a decoupling level at mid-crustal depths. These initial condition favours the delamination of the upper crust as well as the deep subduction of the lower crust. These collisions are thus successively affected by delamination and slab detachment and both processes contribute to the exhumation of the subducted crust. A wide (> 200 km) topographic plateau develops as the results of the buoyant extrusion of the upper crust onto the foreland, this mechanism is further amplified by slab detachment. Our results suggest that the occurrence of both delamination (Apennines) and slab detachment (Himalayas) in orogens may highlight significant differences in their initial rheological structure.

  3. A unified history of the ocean around southern Africa (United States)

    Reeves, Colin; Master, Sharad


    The movement with respect to Africa of the hotspot marked by present-day Bouvet island is extrapolated backward in time to a position in the Lower Limpopo Valley at the time of the Karoo-Ferrar basalt event (183 Ma). In a tight reconstruction of the Precambrian fragments of Gondwana at this time, the triangular gap that remains between South Africa's Precambrian, that of Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, and the eastward-extrapolated front of the Cape Fold Belt we fill with the Precambrian fragments of South Patagonia and the Falkland Islands. We postulate that the 183 Ma mantle upwelling produced a triple junction-type fracture marked by the alignments of the Lebombo, the SE margin of the Zimbabwe craton and the giant Botswana dyke swarm (178 Ma) that was rather quickly followed by the expulsion of the South Patagonia terranes from the Gondwana assembly along the alignment of the Falklands-Agulhas Fault Zone (FAFZ) as a transform margin. The space created was filled with igneous material akin to the present day Afar triangle. The magma supply generated not only oceanic crust but also overlying igneous deposits, much probably erupted subaerially. These developed progressively into the Falklands Plateau, the Mozambique Plains, the Mozambique Rise and the Explora Wedge of Antarctica. Not until the early Cretaceous did the growth of normal ocean crust start to exceed the ability of the declining mantle plume to cover the new ocean crust in a confined space with subaerial deposits that substantially thickened otherwise ‘oceanic' crust. When Antarctica and Africa began to separate before about 167 Ma, the future Mozambique Rise moved with Antarctica until, at about 125 Ma, a modest ridge reorganization east of Africa left Madagascar and the Mozambique Rise as part of the Africa Plate. An increasing westerly component to the movement of Antarctica against Africa preceded the initial opening of the South Atlantic and the fusing of the South Patagonia terranes with the bulk of South America. The triple junction jumped from off Cape St Lucia to immediately south of the Mozambique Rise as part of this 125 Ma reorganization and normal ocean crust grew from each of the three ridges emanating from it. The Agulhas Bank represents a reactivation of the mantle plume at about 100 Ma and the Maurice Ewing Bank and other submarine features east of the Falklands Plateau later and smaller ones. The model conforms with limited magnetic anomaly evidence in the oceans and the direction of preserved transforms before Anomaly 34 time (84 Ma). After Anomaly 34, events around the triple junction are well-defined by both magnetic anomalies and preserved transforms. The model may be demonstrated by a geometrically correct animation and offers simple solutions to a number of geological enigmas concerning (a) the Falkland Islands, (b) supposedly ‘continental' plateaus off South Africa, (c) the sudden ending of the Karoo igneous episode well before substantive Gondwana disruption and (d) the exotic nature of the Precambrian rocks of South Patagonia in the context of South American geology. The central role of the Bouvet mantle plume suggests that it has produced a volume of magma comparable with - and a longevity 50 myrs in excess of - that demonstrated by the Kerguelen plume.

  4. Ocean Drilling Program (United States)

    Ocean Drilling Program

    This site describes the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The ODP conducts basic research into the history of the ocean basins and the overall nature of the crust beneath the ocean floor using the scientific drill ship JOIDES Resolution. There are also links to photographs, core data, and educational material on the site.

  5. Geomorphic evolution of the Piton des Neiges volcano (Réunion Island, Indian Ocean): Competition between volcanic construction and erosion since 1.4 Ma (United States)

    Salvany, Tiffany; Lahitte, Pierre; Nativel, Pierre; Gillot, Pierre-Yves


    Réunion Island (Indian Ocean) is a volcanic complex whose eruptive history was dominated by the activity of two main edifices: Piton des Neiges (PN) and Piton de la Fournaise (PF) volcanoes. The tropical climate induces erosion processes that permanently compete with volcanic constructional processes. Exposed to the trade winds and associated heavy rainfalls, the northeastern part of the island exhibits the most complex morphological evolution. Geomorphological analysis, performed on a 50 m DEM and associated to new K-Ar ages has clarified the overall history of PN volcano. Each massif is assigned to one of the main building stages of the edifice. In addition, the arrangement of these different massifs reveals that the eruptive phases have led to successive relief inversions and successive excavations of large central depressions in the proximal area. As a result, the younger massifs are always located in more proximal parts of the volcano, the youngest being close to the edifice center. In distal areas, early lava flows were channeled into valleys incised along the massif boundaries, leading to a more complex geochronological organization. Quantitative study of the dissection of PN volcano allows us to propose a minimum eroded volume of 101 ± 44 and 105 ± 41 km 3 for the Mafate and Cilaos "Cirques" (depressions), respectively, during the last 180 kyr and a minimum average long-term erosion rate of 1.2 ± 0.4 km 3/ka. This leads us to estimate the removed volume during the whole history of PN volcano (> 1000 km 3) as equivalent to the volume of the deposits identified on the submarine flanks of Piton des Neiges volcano. Therefore, as regressive erosion appears to be the prevailing geomorphic process during the whole PN history, it questions the presence of major flank collapses younger than 1.4 Ma on this volcano. Erosion processes have largely been neglected in recent models, but our study emphasizes them as a key component of landscape development and a major process in the morphological evolution of Réunion Island that has to be fully integrated in future studies.

  6. Late Triassic Batang Group arc volcanic rocks in the northeastern margin of Qiangtang terrane, northern Tibet: partial melting of juvenile crust and implications for Paleo-Tethys ocean subduction (United States)

    Zhao, Shao-Qing; Tan, Jun; Wei, Jun-Hao; Tian, Ning; Zhang, Dao-Han; Liang, Sheng-Nan; Chen, Jia-Jie


    The Batang Group (BTG) volcanic rocks in the Zhiduo area, with NW-trending outcrops along the northeastern margin of the Qiangtang terrane (northern Tibet), are mainly composed of volcaniclastic rocks, dacite and rhyolite. Major and trace element, Sr and Nd isotope, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotope data are presented for the BTG dacites. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry zircon U-Pb dating constrains the timing of volcanic eruption as Late Triassic (221 ± 1 Ma). Major and trace element geochemistry shows that the BTG volcanic rocks are classified as calc-alkaline series. All samples are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements with negative-slightly positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.47-1.15), and depleted in high field strength elements and heavy rare earth elements. In addition, these rocks possess less radiogenic Sr [(87Sr/86Sr) i = 0.7047-0.7078], much radiogenic Nd (?Nd( t) = -4.2 to -1.3) and Hf (?Hf( t) = 4.0-6.6) isotopes, suggesting that they probably originated from partial melting of a crustal source containing a mantle-derived juvenile component. The inferred magma was assimilated by crustal materials during ascending and experienced significant fractional crystallization. By combining previously published and the new data, we propose that the BTG volcanic rocks were genetically related to southwestward subduction of the Ganzi-Litang ocean (a branch of Paleo-Tethys) in the northeastern margin of the Qiangtang terrane. Given the coeval arc-affinity magmatic rocks in the region, we envisage that the Ganzi-Litang ocean may extend from the Zhongdian arc through the Yidun terrane to the Zhiduo area, probably even further northwest to the Tuotuohe area.

  7. Stability of the oceanic tectosphere—A model for early Proterozoic intercratonic orogeny (United States)

    Hynes, A.


    Resistance of modern oceanic tectosphere to the initiation of subduction can be evaluated by considering its flexural rigidity, shear resistance in the subduction zone, and the negative buoyancy force, after McKenzie [13]. These depend on the effective elastic thickness, the depth to which shear stresses are appreciable, and the tectospheric thickness respectively. Evaluation of these thicknesses and their variation with age allows development of a model in which oceanic tectosphere becomes progressively less stable with increasing age and spontaneously subducts at an age of 200 Ma. The same model applied to early Proterozoic oceanic tectosphere, distinguished only by having sub-tectosphere temperatures 100°C higher than in the modern, rquires that Proterozoic ocean tectosphere subduct spontaneously at ages of about 75 Ma. The subduction of universally young oceanic tectosphere inhibits the production of juvenile magmas, due to the release of volatiles from the descending slab at low pressures, near the trench. The model therefore accounts for the scarcity of subduction-related magmas in many early Proterozoic orogens. It also predicts that ocean basins opening in the early Proterozoic should have generally limited width, that blueschist metamorphism should be rare and that early Proterozoic oceanic crust should rarely be preserved at the earth's surface. With progressive cooling of the mantle the Proterozoic tectonic scheme may have changed gradually into the modern one by early Phanerozoic time, although parts of the pan-African system may exhibit the characteristics of still unstable oceanic tectosphere.

  8. Melting of continental crust during subduction initiation: A case study from the Chaidanuo peraluminous granite in the North Qilian suture zone (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiao; Song, Shuguang; Niu, Yaoling; Wei, Chunjing


    The Chaidanuo granite batholith is a ˜500 km2 homogeneous, high-level intrusion in the North Qilian oceanic suture zone. Three types of enclaves have been recognized, including (1) supracrustal xenoliths, (2) biotite gneiss that represents restite of the upper crustal melting, and (3) coeval mantle-derived mafic magmatic enclave (MME). The batholith consists dominantly of peraluminous biotite monzogranite with SiO2 69-73 wt.% and A/CNK 1.05-1.28 and shows geochemical affinity with the upper-continental crust, e.g., enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILEs; K, Rb, U, Th, Pb), depletion of high field strength elements (HFSEs; Nb, Ta, Ti), P, Eu, and Sr, and enriched Sr ([87Sr/86Sr]i, 0.731 to 0.744)-Nd (?Nd (t), -6.0 to -7.1) isotopes. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that this batholith formed at 516-505 Ma, coeval with the MMEs (510 Ma), which represent the early stage of seafloor subduction in the North Qilian suture zone. The Hf isotopic composition of the MME (?Hf (t) = -6.0 to +2.1) is more depleted than that of the host granite (?Hf (t) = -14.8 to -4.7), suggesting mixing of mantle- and crust-derived melts. The inherited zircon cores in the host granite yield an age peak at ˜750 Ma with a few detritals of 591-1683 Ma. Zircons from a biotite gneiss enclave yield a protolith age of 744 Ma and a metamorphic/melting event at 503 Ma. Sr-Nd isotopic modeling reveals that the batholith was generated by melting of Neoproterozoic granitic rocks with the addition of 10-18% mantle-derived magma. Therefore, peraluminous granite can be produced by melting of crustal materials heated by mantle-derived magmas during the early stage of subduction initiation at the site of a prior passive continental margin.

  9. Emergence of modern continental crust about 3 billion years ago (United States)

    Dhuime, Bruno; Wuestefeld, Andreas; Hawkesworth, Chris J.


    The continental crust is the principal record of conditions on the Earth during the past 4.4 billion years. However, how the continental crust formed and evolved through time remains highly controversial. In particular, the composition and thickness of juvenile continental crust are unknown. Here we show that Rb/Sr ratios can be used as a proxy for both the silica content and the thickness of the continental crust. We calculate Rb/Sr ratios of the juvenile crust for over 13,000 samples, with Nd model ages ranging from the Hadean to Phanerozoic. The ratios were calculated based on the evolution of Sr isotopes in the period between the TDM Nd model age and the crystallization of the samples analysed. We find that the juvenile crust had a low silica content and was largely mafic in composition during the first 1.5 billion years of Earth’s evolution, consistent with magmatism on a pre-plate tectonics planet. About 3 billion years ago, the Rb/Sr ratios of the juvenile continental crust increased, indicating that the newly formed crust became more silica-rich and probably thicker. This transition is in turn linked to the onset of plate tectonics and an increase of continental detritus into the oceans.

  10. H11346_INTERP.SHP: Interpretation of Bottom Features from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11346 of Edgartown Harbor, MA (Geographic, WGS84)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  11. H11076_INTERP.SHP: Interpretations of Bottom Features from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11076 of Quicks Hole, MA (Geographic)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  12. H11077_INTERP.SHP: Interpretation of Bottom Features from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11077 of Woods Hole, MA (Geographic)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  13. H11079_SURFGEOL.SHP: Interpretations of the Surficial Geology from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11079 of Great Round Shoal Channel, MA (Geographic)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  14. Microbial alteration of 0-30-Ma seafloor and sub-seafloor basaltic glasses from the Australian Antarctic Discordance (United States)

    Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R. B.; Christie, D. M.


    Scanning electron microscopic observations of alteration rims in basaltic glasses dredged from 0-2.5-Ma seafloor and drilled from 18-28-Ma ocean crust (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 187) in the Australian Antarctic Discordance (AAD) document the presence of endolithic microbes in altered basalt glass. In very young AAD lavas, ˜10-?m-thick alteration rims are developed along intersecting fractures and cracks, and the altered glass contains numerous spherical, rod- and star-shaped, partially fossilised microbial cells, similar to those from the Arctic ridges [1,2]. In 2.5-Ma basalt glasses, altered rims are up to 250 ?m thick, and zeolite (phillipsite) is present within many fractures. Spherical cells occur in porous outer zones of alteration rims and on zeolite crystal surfaces within fractures, indicating that microbial activity persists in the region for at least 2.5 Ma. Mn-rich microbial cell-encrustations associated with zeolite suggest that Mn is used in an energy yielding metabolic process. Combined with recent results from the Arctic ridges the results from this study demonstrate that endolithic microbial growth is a persistent feature of mid-ocean spreading ridges. In glasses from ODP cores, ˜1-mm-thick alteration rims are developed along the widest fractures lined with Mn(Fe)-oxyhydroxides and/or clay and filled by zeolite and calcite. Most common, however, are <10-200-?m-thick rims developed along zeolite-filled, more narrow fractures and cracks. Zeolite-filled fractures with only minor to no alteration indicate several episodes of fracturing followed by relatively fast sealing. There is no age progression in alteration thickness along fractures or other characteristics, suggesting that alteration is essentially completed between 2.5 and 18 Ma. A comparison of alteration in the 2.5-Ma glass with that in the ODP samples indicates that a significant proportion of the glass alteration in the drilled samples developed prior to burial, although one type of diffuse, highly irregular front that is only observed in the ODP samples most likely developed after burial. These diffuse alteration fronts are caused by dissolution and alteration of the glass into minute globules, 0.05-0.2 ?m in diameter, with no associated microbial morphologies. Fossilised, Mn-rich cells do occur within zeolite-filled fractures, possibly indicating that microbial activity continued in the fractures for as long as circulation continued. The apparent non-biological origin of diffuse, irregular alteration fronts in buried AAD glasses indicates that these textural features are not reliable as diagnostic criteria for the existence of a deep biosphere in the volcanic ocean crust.

  15. Temperature distribution in the crust and mantle (United States)

    Jeanloz, R.; Morris, S.


    In an attempt to understand the temperature distribution in the earth, experimental constraints on the geotherm in the crust and mantle are considered. The basic form of the geotherm is interpreted on the basis of two dominant mechanisms by which heat is transported in the earth: (1) conduction through the rock, and (2) advection by thermal flow. Data reveal that: (1) the temperature distributions through continental lithosphere and through oceanic lithosphere more than 60 million years old are practically indistinguishable, (2) crustal uplift is instrumental in modifying continental geotherms, and (3) the average temperature through the Archean crust and mantle was similar to that at present. It is noted that current limitations in understanding the constitution of the lower mantle can lead to significant uncertainties in the thermal response time of the planetary interior.

  16. Primary estimation of forming date for carbonate weathering crust in Guizhou province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of directed dating of carbonate weathering crust in Guizhou Province hasn't been resolved. On the base of our previous study, we tested in detail the ages of antigenic quartz grains by fission track dating method and give a limitation of the forming date to carbonate weathering crust. The results show that the age of Xinpu profile is younger than 8.5 Ma, and the age of Guanba profile is younger than 7.3 Ma, and the age of Daxing profile is younger than 4.6 Ma. (authors)

  17. Paleoceanography/climate and taphonomy at intermediate water depth in the Subtropical Western North Pacific Ocean over the last 1 Ma from IODP Exp 350 Sites U1436C and U1437B, Izu arc area. (United States)

    Vautravers, Maryline


    IODP Expedition 350 Site U1436C lies in the western part of the Izu fore arc basin, ~60 km east of the arc front volcano Aogashima, at 1776 m water depth. This site is a technical hole (only a 150 m long record) for a potential future deep drilling by Chikyu. Site U1437 is located in the Izu rear arc, ~90 km west of the arc front volcanoes Myojinsho and Myojin Knoll, at 2117 m water depth. At this site in order to study the evolution of the IZU rear arc crust we recovered a 1800 meter long sequence of mud and volcaniclastic sediments. These sites provide a rich and well-preserved record of volcanic eruptions within the area of the Izu Bonin-Arc. However, the material recovered, mostly mud with ash containing generally abundant planktonic foraminifera, can support additional paleoceanographic goals in an area affected by the Kuroshio Current. Also, the hydrographic divide created by the Izu rise provides a rare opportunity to gain some insight into the operation of the global intermediate circulation. The Antarctic Intermediate Water Mass is more influential at the depth of U1437B in the West and the North Pacific Intermediate Water at Site U1436C to the East. We analyzed 460 samples recovered at Sites U1436C and U1437B for a quantitative planktonic foraminifer study, and also for carbonate preservation indices, including: shell weight, percent planktonic foraminifera fragments planktonic foraminifer concentrations, various faunal proxies, and benthic/planktonic ratio. We measured the stable isotopes for a similar number of samples using the thermocline dwelling Neogloboquadrina dutertrei. The dataset presented here covers the last 1 Ma at Site U1437B and 0.9 Ma at Site U1436C. The age models for the two sites are largely established through stable isotope stratigraphy (this study). On their respective age models we evidence based on polar/subpolar versus subtropical faunal assemblages changes qualitative surface water temperature variations recording the changing influences in the Kuroshio/Oyashio currents at orbital time scales over the last 1 Ma. However, the 2 main findings are i.) that of the intense and pervasive carbonate dissolution at such an intermediate water depth, especially during interglacials, and in particular at site U1436C, and ii.) the good and improving carbonate preservation at Site U1437B during glacials, particularly in the upper part of the record.

  18. Steady State Growth of Continental Crust? (United States)

    Bowring, S. A.; Bauer, A.; Dudas, F. O.; Schoene, B.; McLean, N. M.


    More than twenty years since the publication of Armstrong's seminal paper, debate still rages about most aspects of the Earth's first billion years. Although orders of magnitude more data have been generated since then, the arguments remain the same. The debate is largely centered on the isotopic systematics of minerals and whole rocks, the major and trace element geochemistry of continental crust, and various geodynamic models for differentiation of the planet. Most agree that earth, like all the terrestrial planets, differentiated into a crust, mantle and core very early in its history. After that, models of crustal evolution diverge significantly, including the suggestions that modern style plate tectonics did not originate until ca. 2.7 Ga or younger and that plumes have played a major role in the generation of continental crust. Many believe that the preserved rock record and the detrital zircon record are consistent with episodic crustal growth, which in turn has led to geodynamic models of episodic mantle convection driving major crust forming events. High-precision and high-throughput geochronology have led to claims of episodicity even more pronounced than that presented in Gastil's 1960 paper. We believe that Earth history has been dominated by plate tectonics and that continental crust is formed largely by amalgamation of island arcs, seamounts, micro continents, and oceanic plateaus. While there are geochemical differences in the average composition of Archean igneous rocks when compared to younger rocks, the processes responsible for their formation may not have changed a great deal. In this view, the so-called crustal growth curves originated by Hurley are in fact crude approximations of crustal preservation. The most highly cited rationales for the view that little silicic crust formed during Earth's first billion years are the lack of known exposed crust older than 3.5 Ga and the paucity of detrital zircons older than 4.0 Ga in sedimentary rocks of any age. If one accepts that the probability of preserving old crust decreases with increasing age, the few exposures of rocks older than 3.5 Ga should not be surprising. The thickness and compositional differences between Archean and younger lithospheric mantle are not fully understood nor is the role of thicker buoyant mantle in preserving continental crust; these lead to the question of whether the preserved rock record is representative of what formed. It is notable that the oldest known rocks, the ca. 4.0 Ga Acasta Gneisses, are tonalities-granodiorites-granites with evidence for the involvement of even older crust and that the oldest detrital zircons from Australia (ca. 4.0-4.4 Ga) are thought to have been derived from granitoid sources. The global Hf and Nd isotope databases are compatible with both depleted and enriched sources being present from at least 4.0 Ga to the present and that the lack of evolution of the MORB source or depleted mantle is due to recycling of continental crust throughout earth history. Using examples from the Slave Province and southern Africa, we argue that Armstrong's concept of steady state crustal growth and recycling via plate tectonics still best explains the modern geological and geochemical data.

  19. Geochemistry of oceanic anoxic events


    Jenkyns, HC


    Oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) record profound changes in the climatic and paleoceanographic state of the planet and represent major disturbances in the global carbon cycle. OAEs that manifestly caused major chemical change in the Mesozoic Ocean include those of the early Toarcian (Posidonienschiefer event, T-OAE, ?183 Ma), early Aptian (Selli event, OAE 1a, ?120 Ma), early Albian (Paquier event, OAE 1b, ?111 Ma), and Cenomanian-Turonian (Bonarelli event, C/T OAE, OAE 2, ?93 Ma). Currently avai...

  20. Hydroacoustic Monitoring of Oceanic Spreading Centers: Past, Present, and Future


    Dziak, Robert P; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Deborah K. Smith


    Mid-ocean ridge volcanism and extensional faulting are the fundamental processes that lead to the creation and rifting of oceanic crust, yet these events go largely undetected in the deep ocean. Currently, the only means available to observe seafloor-spreading events in real time is via the remote detection of the seismicity generated during faulting or intrusion of magma into brittle oceanic crust. Hydrophones moored in the ocean provide an effective means for detecting these small-magnitude...

  1. A model of oceanic development by ridge jumping: Opening of the Scotia Sea (United States)

    Maldonado, Andrés; Bohoyo, Fernando; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Hernández-Molina, Fº. Javier; Lobo, Francisco J.; Lodolo, Emanuele; Martos, Yasmina M.; Pérez, Lara F.; Schreider, Anatoly A.; Somoza, Luis


    Ona Basin is a small intra-oceanic basin located in the southwestern corner of the Scotia Sea. This region is crucial for an understanding of the early phases of opening of Drake Passage, since it may contain the oldest oceanic crust of the entire western Scotia Sea, where conflicting age differences from Eocene to Oligocene have been proposed to date. The precise timing of the gateway opening between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, moreover, has significant paleoceanographic and global implications. Two sub-basins are identified in this region, the eastern and western Ona basins, separated by the submarine relief of the Ona High. A dense geophysical data set collected during the last two decades is analyzed here. The data include multichannel seismic reflection profiles, and magnetic and gravimetric data. The oceanic basement is highly deformed by normal, reverse and transcurrent faults, as well as affected by deep intrusions from the mantle. The initial extension and continental thinning, with subsequent oceanic spreading, were followed by compression and thrusting. Several elongated troughs, bounded by faults, depict a thick sequence of depositional units in the basin. Eight seismic units are identified in a deep trough of the eastern Ona Basin. The deposits reach a thickness of 5 km, a consistent value not previously reported from the Scotia Sea. A body of chaotic seismic facies is also observed above the thinned continental crust of the Ona High. Magnetic seafloor anomalies older than C10 (~ 28.5 Ma) may be present in the region. The anomalies could include up to chron C12r (~ 32 Ma), although their identification is difficult, since the amplitude is subdued and the original oceanic crust was highly deformed by later faulting and thrusting. The magnetic anomaly distribution is not congruent with seafloor spreading from a single ridge. The basin plain is tilted and subducted southwestward below the South Shetland Islands Block, particularly in the western part, where an accretionary prism is identified. Such tectonics, locally affecting up to the most recent deposits, imply that a portion of the primitive oceanic crust is absent. Based on the stratigraphy of the deposits and the magnetic anomalies, an age of 44 Ma is postulated for the initiation of oceanic spreading in the eastern Ona basin, while spreading in the western Ona Basin would have occurred during the early Oligocene. The tectonics, depositional units and the age of the oceanic crust provide additional evidence regarding the Eocene opening of Drake Passage. The initial tectonic fragmentation of the South America-Antarctic Bridge, followed by oceanic spreading, was characterized by jumping of the spreading centers. An Eocene spreading center in the eastern Ona Basin was the precursor of the Scotia Sea. A model comprising four tectonic evolutionary phases is proposed: Phase I, Pacific subduction - Paleocene to middle Eocene; Phase II, eastern Ona back-arc spreading - middle to late Eocene; Phase III, ridge jumping and western Ona back-arc spreading - early Oligocene; and Phase IV, ridge jumping and West Scotia Ridge spreading - early Oligocene to late Miocene. The development of shallow gateways allowed for an initial connection between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and, hence, initiated the thermal isolation of Antarctica during the middle and late Eocene. Deep gateways that enhanced the full isolation of Antarctica developed in Drake Passage from the Eocene/Oligocene transition onward. A significant correlation is observed between the tectonics, stratigraphic units and major climate events, thereby indicating the influence of the local tectonic and paleoceanographic events of the Southern Ocean on global evolution.

  2. Did phosphorus derived from the weathering of large igneous provinces fertilize the Neoproterozoic ocean? (United States)

    Horton, Forrest


    Primary productivity and organic carbon burial rates in the Precambrian were highly sensitive to fluxes of phosphorus (P) from the weathering of continental crust. Large igneous provinces (LIPs)—containing substantial P and highly susceptible to chemical weathering—occurred regularly during the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent, and flood basalts probably covered 3.7-7.4 × 106 km2 at a time when a low-latitude continental configuration expedited weathering. Assuming chemical weathering liberated much of the P contained in the flood basalts, an estimated 1-4 × 1017 mol of biologically available P entered the ocean from LIPs between 900 and 500 Ma. Especially, voluminous LIP magmatism began at ˜850 Ma and culminated with the Franklin Province at 720 Ma, after which an estimated bioavailable P flux from flood basalts of 1-5 × 109 mol/yr may have been sustained for millions of years, elevating primary production and organic carbon burial rates. P enrichment of LIP magmas prior to eruption could have contributed to efficient reactive P delivery to the ocean: liquid-crystal fractionation beneath thick cratonic lithosphere and the incorporation of metasomatic P potentially enriched Neoproterozoic LIP magmas more than anytime previously. Thus, a unique convergence of tectonic conditions—supercontinent breakup, voluminous mafic volcanism containing abundant P, and a low-latitude continental configuration—may have facilitated an unprecedented flux of bioavailable P to the ocean that was capable of triggering oxidation of the ocean-atmosphere system and enabling accelerated biologic diversification.

  3. Paleo-elevation and subsidence of ˜145Ma Shatsky Rise inferred from CO2 and H2O in fresh volcanic glass (United States)

    Shimizu, Kenji; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Sano, Takashi; Matsubara, Noritaka; Sager, William


    Shatsky Rise, a large Mesozoic oceanic plateau in the northwest Pacific, consists of three massifs (Tamu, Ori, and Shirshov) that formed near a mid-ocean-ridge triple junction. Published depth estimates imply that Shatsky Rise has not subsided normally, like typical oceanic lithosphere. We estimated paleo-eruption depths of Shatsky Rise massifs on the basis of dissolved CO2 and H2O in volcanic glass and descriptions of cores recovered from five sites of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 324. Initial maximum elevations of Shatsky Rise are estimated to be 2500-3500 m above the surrounding seafloor and the ensuing subsidence of Shatsky Rise is estimated to be 2600-3400 m. We did not observe the anomalously low subsidence that has been reported for both Shatsky Rise and the Ontong Java Plateau. Although we could not resolve whether Shatsky Rise originated from a hot mantle plume or non-plume fusible mantle, uplift and subsidence histories of Shatsky Rise for the both cases are constrained based on the subsidence trend from the center of Tamu Massif (˜2600 m) toward the flank of Ori Massif (˜3400 m). In the case of a hot mantle plume origin, Shatsky Rise may have formed on young (˜5 Ma) pre-existing oceanic crust with a total crustal thickness of ˜20 km. For this scenario, the center of Shatsky Rise is subsequently uplifted by later (prolonged) crustal growth, forming the observed ˜30 km thickness crust. For a non-plume origin, Shatsky Rise may have formed at the spreading ridge center as initially thick crust (˜30 km thickness), with later reduced subsidence caused by the emplacement of a buoyant mass-perhaps a refractory mantle residuum-beneath the center of Shatsky Rise.

  4. Age and isotope evidence for the evolution of continental crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irreversible chemical differentiation of the mantle's essentially infinite reservoir for at least the past 3800 Ma has produced new continental, sialic crust during several relatively short (ca. 100-300 Ma) episodes which were widely separated in time and may have been of global extent. During each episode (termed 'accretion-differentiation superevent'), juvenile sial underwent profound igneous, metamorphic and geochemical differentiation, resulting in thick (ca. 25-40 km), stable, compositionally gradational, largely indestructible, continental crust exhibiting close grouping of isotopic ages of rock formation, as well as mantle-type initial Sr and Pb isotopic ratios for all major constituents. Isotopic evidence suggests that within most accretion-differentiation superevents - and especially during the earlier ones - continental growth predominated over reworking of older sialic crust. Reworking of older sialic crust can occur in several types of geological environment and appears to have become more prevalent with the passage of geological time. It is usually clearly distinguishable from continental growth, by application of appropriate age and isotope data. (author)

  5. High-precision TIMS U-Pb dating and SHRIMP trace element analyses of zircons from plutonic crust from ODP Hole 735B, Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge (United States)

    Rioux, M. E.; Cheadle, M. J.; John, B. E.; Bowring, S. A.; Wooden, J. L.; Baines, G.


    Ocean Drilling Program Hole 735B at Atlantis Bank on the Southwest Indian Ridge is the deepest drill hole (1508m) into plutonic oceanic crust. The recovered core provides the opportunity to study both the processes and timescales of lower crustal accretion at a slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge. Major element chemistry suggests that the crust is made up of three 200-1000m thick igneous series (Natland and Dick, 2002). Previous SHRIMP U/Pb dating of zircons from oxide gabbro and felsic/dioritic dikes/veins from the length of the core found no resolvable age differences, suggesting rapid crustal growth; SHRIMP Th-corrected weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates ranged from 11.86 ± 0.20 to 12.13 ± 0.21 Ma (Baines et al., 2009). Here we report combined SHRIMP chemical analyses and high precision TIMS U-Pb geochronology on zircons from a suite of fifteen samples from depths of 26-1430 mbsf. The samples are from each of the three main intrusive series and range from oxide gabbro to diorite and granodiorite dikes/veins. Single grain TIMS 206Pb/238U date uncertainties for most analyses range from ~0.01-0.2 Ma and weighted mean 206Pb/238U date uncertainties range from ~0.004-0.07 Ma, providing precise constraints on the timing and duration of magmatism. Zircon chemistry is variable between samples (John et al., this meeting). Ti and Hf from spot analyses within individual samples range from tight clusters of data to linear trends of decreasing Ti with increasing Hf. Apparent Ti-in-zircon temperature variations within samples range from ~60-230°C, and variations within single grains are as large as 160°C. For zircons with significant chemical zoning, the cores are typically higher in Ti and lower in Hf than the rims. Th-corrected single grain 206Pb/238U dates from individual samples typically overlap within uncertainty, consistent with crystallization of a single batch of magma with no evidence for assimilation of older crust or protracted crystallization, as has been seen in high precision dates from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and East Pacific Rise (Lissenberg et al., 2009; Rioux et al., 2012). However, two diorite dikes each contain populations of younger zircons with dates of ~11.9 Ma and a single older zircon with a date of ~12.4 Ma, suggesting that these magmas entrained zircons from older but so far unrecognized wall rocks. Resolvable age differences between the most precisely dated rocks suggest that the upper-two magmatic series (0-540 mbsf) under went final crystallization before the lowest series (540-1508 mbsf). Two precisely dated samples from the top two magmatic series have weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates of 12.00 ± 0.02 Ma and 11.96 ± 0.02 Ma. Six precisely dated samples from a range of depths in the deepest magmatic series all have younger weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates of 11.94 ± 0.02 to 11.91 ± 0.01 Ma. The current data do not show resolvable correlations between Th-corrected 206Pb/238U dates and zircon chemistry within individual samples.

  6. Physics of Neutron Star Crusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamel Nicolas


    Full Text Available The physics of neutron star crusts is vast, involving many different research fields, from nuclear and condensed matter physics to general relativity. This review summarizes the progress, which has been achieved over the last few years, in modeling neutron star crusts, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The confrontation of these theoretical models with observations is also briefly discussed.

  7. ConcepTest: Oceans by South America #6 (United States)

    Examine the image of part of the South American continent and neighboring oceans. (Image courtesy the National Geophysical Data Center.) Which sites are most likely to be located on oceanic crust? a. A, B, C, & ...

  8. 238U-234U-230Th chronometry of Fe-Mn crusts: Growth processes and recovery of thorium isotopic ratios of seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of (234U)excess/(238U) and (230Th)/(232Th) activity ratios in oceanic Fe-Mn deposits provides a method for assessing the closed-system behaviour of 238U-234U-230Th, as well as variations in the initial uranium and thorium isotopic ratios of the precipitated metal oxides. This approach is illustrated using a Fe-Mn crust from Lotab seamount (Marshall Islands, west equatorial Pacific). Here we report uranium and thorium isotopic compositions in five subsamples from the surface of one large 5 cm diameter botyroid of this crust, and from two depth profiles of the outermost rim of the same botyroid. The decrease of (234U)excess/(238U) and (230Th/232Th) activity ratio with depth in the two profiles gives mean growth rates, for the last 150 ka, of 7.8 ± 2 mm/Ma and 6.6 ± 1 mm/Ma, respectively. All data points (surface and core samples) but one, define a linear correlation in the Ln (230Th/232Th) - Ln [(234U)excess(238U)] diagram. This correlation indicates that for all points the U-Th system remained closed after the Fe-Mn layer precipitated, and that the different samples possessed the same initial Uranium and thorium isotope ratios. Furthermore, these results show that the preserved surface of this Fe-Mn crust may not be the present-day growth surface, and that the thorium and uranium isotopic ratios of seawater in west equatorial Pacific have not changed during the past 150 ka. The initial thorium activity ratio is estimated from the correlation obtained between Ln(230Th/232Th) and Ln [(234U)excess/(238U)

  9. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of subaerial lava flows of Barren Island volcano and the deep crust beneath the Andaman Island Arc, Burma Microplate (United States)

    Ray, Jyotiranjan S.; Pande, Kanchan; Bhutani, Rajneesh


    Little was known about the nature and origin of the deep crust beneath the Andaman Island Arc in spite of the fact that it formed part of the highly active Indonesian volcanic arc system, one of the important continental crust forming regions in Southeast Asia. This arc, formed as a result of subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Burma Microplate (a sliver of the Eurasian Plate), contains only one active subaerial magmatic center, Barren Island volcano, whose evolutional timeline had remained uncertain. In this work, we present results of the first successful attempt to date crustal xenoliths and their host lava flows from the island, by incremental heating 40Ar/39Ar method, in an attempt to understand the evolutionary histories of the volcano and its basement. Based on concordant plateau and isochron ages, we establish that the oldest subaerial lava flows of the volcano are 1.58 ± 0.04 (2?) Ma, and some of the plagioclase xenocrysts have been derived from crustal rocks of 106 ± 3 (2?) Ma. Mineralogy (anorthite + Cr-rich diopside + minor olivine) and isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr 7.0) of xenoliths not only indicate their derivation from a lower (oceanic) crustal olivine gabbro but also suggest a genetic relationship between the arc crust and the ophiolitic basement of the Andaman accretionary prism. We speculate that the basements of the forearc and volcanic arc of the Andaman subduction zone belong to a single continuous unit that was once attached to the western margin of the Eurasian Plate.

  10. Yo-yo-ing of the Subtropical Convergence in Sympathy with the Vostok Climatic Record, 0-0.38 Ma: ODP Site 1119, Southwest Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Carter, R. M.; Gammon, P.; Millwood, L.


    ODP site 1119 is located at water depth 395 m near the subtropical convergence, and just downslope from the shelf edge of eastern South Island, New Zealand. The site contains an expanded stratigraphic record of Southern Ocean Quaternary oceanographic change, the younger part of which correlates closely with the climatic history contained within the Vostok ice core. Four palaeoceanographic proxy measures vary in consonance with the main lithological glacial-interglacial cyclicity at the site. Interglacial intervals are characterised by high d13C and colour reflectance (a proxy for carbonate content), and low gamma-ray (a proxy for clay content) and d18O; conversely, glacial intervals exhibit low d13C and reflectance, and high gamma ray and d18O. Early interglacial intervals are represented by silty clays which enclose intervals of 10-65 cm thick, sharp-based, Chondrites-burrowed, shelly, graded, very fine sands. The sands are rich in foraminifers, including species of warm water affinities, and were deposited distant from the shoreline under the influence of longitudinal flow in relatively deep water, as the palaeo-STC passed shorewards across the upper slope. The enclosing glacial units, which comprise mostly micaceous silty clay, though with some thin (3-25 cm thick) sands present also at peak cold periods, contain the cold-water scallop Zygochlamys delicatula. The 1119 core records the seaward movement of the STC during glacial periods, accompanied by the incursion then of warmer subtropical water (STW) above the site, and landward movement during interglacials, resulting in a dominant influence then of colder subantarctic surface water (SAW). Intervals of thin, sharp-based, graded sands-muds occur within cold periods MIS 2-3, 6.2 and 7.4, and indicate the onset at times of peak cold of intermittent bottom currents which correspond to strengthened and expanded frontal flows along the STC, which at this time lay east of site 1119 in relatively close proximity to seaward-encroaching subantarctic waters within the Bounty gyre.

  11. Models of a partially hydrated Titan interior with clathrate crust (United States)

    Lunine, J. I.; Castillo-Rogez, J.


    We present an updated model of the interior evolution of Titan over time, assuming the silicate core was hydrated early in Titan's history and is dehydrating over time. The original model presented in Castillo-Rogez and Lunine (2010) was motivated by a Cassini-derived moment of inertia (Iess et al., 2010) for Titan too large to be accommodated by classical fully differentiated models in which an anhydrous silicate core was overlain by a water ice (with possible perched ocean) mantle. Our model consisted of a silicate core still in the process of dehydrating today, a situation made possible by the leaching of radiogenic potassium from the silicates into the liquid water ocean. The crust of Titan was assumed to be pure water ice I. The model was consistent with the moment of inertia of Titan, but neglected the presence of large amounts of methane in the upper crust invoked to explain methane's persistence at present and through geologic time (Tobie et al. 2006). We have updated our model with such a feature. We have also improved our modeling with a better physical model for the dehydration of antigorite and other hydrated minerals. In particular our modeling now simulates heat advection resulting from water circulation (e.g., Seipold and Schilling 2003), rather than the purely conductive heat transfer regime assumed in the first version of our model. The modeling proceeds as in Castillo-Rogez and Lunine (2010), with the thermal conductivity of the methane clathrate crust rather than that of ice I. The former is several times lower than that of the latter, and the two have rather different temperature dependences (English and Tse, 2009). The crust turns out to have essentially no bearing on the temperature of the silicate core and hence the timing of dehydration, but it profoundly affects the thickness of the high-pressure ice layer beneath the ocean. Indeed, with the insulating methane clathrate crust, there must be a liquid water ocean beneath the methane clathrate crust and in contact with the silicates beneath for most of Titan's history. Although a high-pressure ice layer is likely in place today, it is thin enough that plumes of hot water from the dehydrating core probably breach the high pressure ice layer maintaining contact between the ocean and the silicate core. Part of this work has been performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  12. Evolution of the earth's crust: Evidence from comparative planetology (United States)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.


    Geochemical data and orbital photography from Apollo, Mariner, and Venera missions were combined with terrestrial geologic evidence to study the problem of why the earth has two contrasting types of crust (oceanic and continental). The following outline of terrestrial crustal evolution is proposed. A global crust of intermediate to acidic composition, high in aluminum, was formed by igneous processes early in the earth's history; portions survive in some shield areas as granitic and anorthositic gneisses. This crust was fractured by major impacts and tectonic processes, followed by basaltic eruptions analogous to the lunar maria and the smooth plains of the north hemisphere of Mars. Seafloor spreading and subduction ensued, during which portions of the early continental crust and sediments derived therefrom were thrust under the remaining continental crust. The process is exemplified today in regions such as the Andes/Peru-Chile trench system. Underplating may have been roughly concentric, and the higher radioactive element content of the underplated sialic material could thus eventually cause concentric zones of regional metamorphism and magmatism.

  13. Color characterization of Arctic Biological Soil Crusts (United States)

    Mele, Giacono; Gargiulo, Laura; Ventura, Stefano


    Global climate change makes large areas lacking the vegetation coverage continuously available to primary colonization by biological soil crusts (BSCs). This happens in many different environments, included high mountains and Polar Regions where new areas can become available due to glaciers retreat. Presence of BSCs leads to the stabilization of the substrate and to a possible development of protosoil, with an increase of fertility and resilience against erosion. Polar BSCs can exhibit many different proportions of cyanobacteria, algae, microfungi, lichens, and bryophytes which induce a large variability of the crust morphology and specific ecosystem functions. An effective and easy way for identifying the BSCs in the field would be very useful to rapidly recognize their development stage and help in understanding the overall impact of climate change in the delicate polar environments. Color analysis has long been applied as an easily measurable physical attribute of soil closely correlated with pedogenic processes and some soil functions. In this preliminary work we used RGB and CIE-L*a*b* color models in order to physically characterize fourteen different BSCs identified in Spitsbergen island of Svalbard archipelago in Arctic Ocean at 79° north latitude. We found that the "redness parameter "a*" of CIE-L*a*b* model was well correlated to the succession process of some BSCs at given geomorphology condition. Most of color parameters showed, moreover, a great potential to be correlated to photosynthetic activity and other ecosystem functions of BSCs.

  14. Cretaceous volcanic rocks in south Qiangtang Terrane: Products of northward subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang Ocean? (United States)

    Li, Yalin; He, Juan; Wang, Chengshan; Han, Zhongpeng; Ma, Pengfei; Xu, Ming; Du, Kaiyuan


    The subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang Ocean is a long-standing problem in the study of the geological evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. Based on recent data acquired from the Abushan volcanic rocks in the Qiangtang Terrane, we will discuss the relationship between the Cretaceous volcanism and the evolution of the Bangong-Nujiang Ocean. The Abushan volcanic rocks are mainly composed of trachy-andesites, dacites, and rhyolites. Zircon U-Pb dating constrains the time of emplacement as the Middle Cretaceous (102.6 ± 1.6-96.1 ± 2.4 Ma). Major element geochemistry shows that the volcanic rocks belong to the high-K calc-alkaline and calc-alkaline series. All of the volcanic rocks are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE) and some large ion lithophile elements (LILE, Rb, Th, and U) and are depleted in heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and some high field strength elements (HFSE, Nb, Ta, and Ti). The geochemical characteristics of the Abushan volcanic rocks are correlated with those of the volcanic arc rocks in the subduction zone. The petrogenesis of the Abushan volcanic rocks suggests that they were derived from the partial melting of the relict subducted oceanic crust combined with the input of oceanic sediments. Oceanic crust will melt upon reaching its hydrous solidus in the amphibolite facies after plate collision; this induces the formation of the Abushan volcanic rocks. Our data, compared with the previous studies on volcanism in the Lhasa Terrane, leads us to propose that the Bangong-Nujiang Ocean crust was subducted beneath the Qiangtang Terrane and underwent bidirectional subduction during the Cretaceous.

  15. Crustal thickening prior to 220 Ma in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt: Insights from the Late Triassic granitoids in the Xiao-Nuomuhong pluton (United States)

    Xia, Rui; Wang, Changming; Deng, Jun; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Li, Wenliang; Qing, Min


    The East Kunlun Orogenic Belt (EKOB) played an important role in plate tectonics, magma generation, and crustal evolution. Late Triassic granodiorites and their mafic micro-granular enclaves (MMEs) from Xiao-Nuomuhong in the EKOB were studied for geochemistry and geochronology to constrain their petrogenesis. Zircon LA-ICP-MS dating indicates that the Xiao-Nuomuhong granodiorites are coeval with their MMEs (?222 Ma). The granodiorites are high-K calc-alkaline rocks that are enriched in Rb, Th, U and LREE, and depleted in Cr, Ni and HFSE, with high Sr/Y ratios (82.2-85.3) and geochemically resemble the lower crust-derived adakites. The MMEs are also high-K calc-alkaline rocks, with high Al2O3 (16.8-18.8 wt.%), low Mg# (30-40), Nb, Zr and Hf, with weak negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu# = 0.8-0.9). We suggest the MMEs are mafic magmatic globules that were injected into the felsic host magma. The adakitic rocks from the Xiao-Nuomuhong pluton were generated by partial melting of thickened crust, while the primitive compositions of the MMEs were most likely from the lithospheric mantle beneath the EKOB. The Late Triassic Xiao-Nuomuhong pluton is important evidence that crustal thickening in the EKOB occurred prior to 220 Ma. The pluton is interpreted as the result of mixing between thickened lower crust-derived melts and lithospheric mantle-derived mafic melts and the protracted magmatic response to the break-off of the Paleo-Tethys oceanic slab at ?232 Ma.

  16. Early oceanic opening off Western India-Pakistan margin: The Gop Basin revisited (United States)

    Yatheesh, V.; Bhattacharya, G. C.; Dyment, J.


    The Deccan Traps, one of the best known examples of rapid flood basalt, are considered as marking of the inception of a mantle plume on the Indian continental lithosphere. Their emplacement may be associated with the continental break-up of India and the Seychelles block and later formation of a new spreading centre, the Carlsberg Ridge, while spreading progressively ceased in the Mascarene Basin. Whether rifting, continental break-up, and seafloor spreading predated or were the consequence of the Deccan Traps emplacement is still a matter of debate. This issue is further complicated by the presence of a continental sliver, the Laxmi Ridge, and large basins lying landward of the Laxmi Ridge, such as the Laxmi and Gop basins, where nature of the crust is still ambiguous. The present study attempts to decipher the tectonic setting and the imprints of plume-ridge interaction in the Gop Basin, where the crust has been interpreted as either volcanic-intruded thinned continental crust or oceanic crust formed by a now-extinct spreading centre. Based on interpretation of an updated compilation of marine geophysical data, the present study supports the oceanic nature of the crust underlying the Gop Basin and proposes the Palitana Ridge as the extinct spreading centre in this region. The prominent but short sequence of fairly linear magnetic anomalies in the Gop Basin does not allow a unique identification; it can be reasonably explained either as A31r-A25r (˜ 69.3-56.4 Ma) or as A29r-A25r (˜ 64.8-56.4 Ma) sequence. The variations of the spreading rates assumed by both these models suggest that spreading in the Gop Basin significantly slowed around 65 Ma, contemporaneous with the magmatic outburst of the Reunion plume on the adjacent western Indian mainland. Subsequently, the Gop Basin spreading centre was waning whereas a new spreading centre was developing further south, close to the (relatively) southward migrating plume. In this last stage, the Gop Basin spreading centre was associated with an abundant magmatism, probably supplied from the plume region.

  17. Seismic reflection images of a near-axis melt sill within the lower crust at the Juan de Fuca ridge. (United States)

    Canales, J Pablo; Nedimovi?, Mladen R; Kent, Graham M; Carbotte, Suzanne M; Detrick, Robert S


    The oceanic crust extends over two-thirds of the Earth's solid surface, and is generated along mid-ocean ridges from melts derived from the upwelling mantle. The upper and middle crust are constructed by dyking and sea-floor eruptions originating from magma accumulated in mid-crustal lenses at the spreading axis, but the style of accretion of the lower oceanic crust is actively debated. Models based on geological and petrological data from ophiolites propose that the lower oceanic crust is accreted from melt sills intruded at multiple levels between the Moho transition zone (MTZ) and the mid-crustal lens, consistent with geophysical studies that suggest the presence of melt within the lower crust. However, seismic images of molten sills within the lower crust have been elusive. Until now, only seismic reflections from mid-crustal melt lenses and sills within the MTZ have been described, suggesting that melt is efficiently transported through the lower crust. Here we report deep crustal seismic reflections off the southern Juan de Fuca ridge that we interpret as originating from a molten sill at present accreting the lower oceanic crust. The sill sits 5-6 km beneath the sea floor and 850-900 m above the MTZ, and is located 1.4-3.2 km off the spreading axis. Our results provide evidence for the existence of low-permeability barriers to melt migration within the lower section of modern oceanic crust forming at intermediate-to-fast spreading rates, as inferred from ophiolite studies. PMID:19571883

  18. Thickness of Mercury's crust from MESSENGER gravity and altimetry data (United States)

    Padovan, S.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Margot, J. L.; Tosi, N.; Solomon, S. C.


    The major igneous events that form and shape the crust of a rocky body, such as magma ocean solidification and volcanism, affect the interior thermo-chemical evolution through control on the bulk volatile content, partitioning of heat-producing elements, and heat loss. Therefore, characterizing the crust of a body provides information on that object's origin, differentiation, and subsequent geologic evolution. For Mercury, the crust may hold clues in particular to the still poorly understood processes of formation of this planet. Analysis of geoid-to-topography ratios (GTRs) has been previously applied to infer the thickness of the crust of the Moon, Mars, and Venus. We perform a similar analysis for Mercury with the gravity and altimetry data acquired by the MESSENGER spacecraft. We consider only the northern hemisphere, where the gravity field and topography are well constrained. We assume that Airy isostasy is the principal mechanism of support of variations in topography, and we therefore exclude from the analysis regions that might not be compatible with this assumption, such as large expanses of smooth plains and large impact basins. For a conservative range of densities of the crust, we infer a crustal thickness of 35±18 km (one standard deviation). This new mean value is substantially less than earlier estimates that were based on viscous relaxation of topography, on the relation between the low-degree gravity field and equatorial ellipticity, and on the depth of the brittle-ductile transition as constrained by models of thrust faulting and thermal evolution. This relatively thin crust allows for the possibility of excavation of mantle material during the formation of large impact basins (such as Caloris). Such material might be observed with instruments on MESSENGER and the BepiColombo spacecraft now in development.

  19. Crust and Mantle Structure Beneath the Samoan Islands (United States)

    Browning, J. M.; Courtier, A. M.; Jackson, M. G.; Lekic, V.; Hart, S. R.; Collins, J. A.


    We used teleseismic receiver functions to map the seismic structure under the Samoan Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean. We acquired seismograms for the permanent seismic station, AFI, and for five temporary stations located across the island chain from the Samoan Lithospheric Integrated Seismic Experiment (SLISE). We used multiple-taper correlation and Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms to calculate receiver functions for events with epicentral distance of 30° to 95° and examined the results in a frequency range of 1.0 - 5.0 Hz for crustal structure and 0.1 - 2.0 Hz for mantle structure. We identify complex crustal layering, including the interface between volcanic rocks and the ocean crust and a substantial underplated layer beneath the normal ocean crust. We find that the crust thins with decreasing age across the Samoan Islands and correlates with previous observations from gravity data (Workman, 2005). We additionally identify a velocity increase in the range of 50-100 km depth, potentially the Hales discontinuity. Deeper in the mantle, we observe transition zone thickness of 245-250 km across the island chain, which is within the margin of error for globally observed transition zone thickness. When migrated with IASP, transition zone discontinuity depths do appear deeper beneath the youngest island, indicating slower velocities and/or deeper discontinuity depths relative to the older islands in the system. We will provide improved constraints on transition zone discontinuity depths from ScS reverberations for all stations, and will place the crust and mantle results into a multi-disciplinary context, with comparisons to geochemical and surface observations. Workman, R., 2005. Geochemical characterization of endmember mantle components, Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

  20. Eocene deep crust at Ama Drime, Tibet : Early evolution of the Himalayan orogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellett, Dawn; Cottle, John


    Granulitized eclogite-facies rocks exposed in the Ama Drime Massif, south Tibet, were dated by Lu-Hf garnet geochronology. Garnet from the three samples analyzed yielded Lu-Hf ages of 37.5 ± 0.8 Ma, 36.0 ± 1.9 Ma, and 33.9 ± 0.8 Ma. Eclogitic garnet growth is estimated at ca. 38 Ma, the oldest age for burial of the lower Indian crust beneath Tibet reported from the central-eastern Himalaya. Granulite-facies overprinting followed at ca. 15–13 Ma, as indicated by U-Pb zircon ages. Unlike ultrahigh-pressure eclogites of the northwest Himalaya, the Ama Drime eclogites are not characteristic of rapid burial and exhumation of a cold subducted slab. The rocks instead resulted from crustal thickening during the early stages of continental collision, and resided in the lower-middle crust for >20 m.y. before they were exhumed and reheated. These new data provide solid evidence for the Indian crust having already reached at least ?60 km thickness by the late Eocene.

  1. Continental crust formation seen through the SR and Nd isotope systematics of S-type granites in the Hercynian belt of western France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic composition of Sr, Nd and Pd in leucogranites which are intercorrelated (Bernard-Griffiths et al., 1985) may be explained by the mixing of ancient basement 1800 Ma) with juvenile crust (late Precambrian or early Palaeozoic). This hypothesis does not involve the existence of Mid-Proterozoic crust, as apparently indicated by the TDM model ages of the leucogranites (ranging between 1600 and 1100 Ma). The Nd isotopes reveal the crustal reworking while Sr isotopes mainly record juvenile crust formation. This paradox is explained by the geochemical heterogeneity of the sources involved. (orig.)

  2. Nd isotopic evidence from Wopmay Orogen for 2.0-2.4 Ga crust in western North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nd isotopic data from the 1.9 Ga Wopmay Orogen, N.W.T., Canada, strongly suggest the involvement of crust in the range of 2.0-2.4 Ga. Remnants of three compositionally diverse magmatic arcs (1940-1902 Ma, 1890-1880 Ma, and 1875-1840 Ma) are preserved in Wopmay Orogen. Each of the three arcs originated west of the limit of exposed Archean crust. Nineteen samples of plutonic and volcanic rocks from the three arcs yield a narrow range of initial ?Nd from -1.8 to +0.3. There is no apparent correlation between ?Nd and geographic distribution, nor with whole-rock chemistry (SiO2 = 54-75%). Two basalt samples from west of the Archean have initial ?Nd's between +2 and +3. Two 1.87 Ga granites which intrude through Archean crust have much lower initial ?Nd's of -5.9 and -8.6. The data from the three magmatic arcs are best interpreted in terms of a source region which had a very limited range of ?Nd at 1.9 Ga which we interpret as 2.0-2.4 Ga crust, presumably Hottah Terrane basement; Wopmay Fault Zone is therefore the surface manifestation of a suture between 2.0-2.4 Ga Hottah Terrane and the Archean Slave Craton. There is a growing body of data which suggests that much of western North America may be underlain by 2.0-2.4 Ga crust. Geochronologic and isotopic data from other Precambrian cratons also suggest that 2.0-2.4 Ga crust may be much more widespread than previously thought. Models of crustal growth which interpret 1.9-1.7 Ga crust as mixtures of Archean crust and Proterozoic depleted mantle may be overestimating the amount of juvenile material added to the crust in this time period. (orig.)

  3. Galenicals in the treatment of crusted scabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugathan P


    Full Text Available Crusted scabies is rare. It is a therapeutic challenge, as the common drugs used against scabies are unsatisfactory. The successful use of galenicals in a 10-year-old girl with crusted scabies is reported.



    Sugathan P.; Martin Abhay


    Crusted scabies is rare. It is a therapeutic challenge, as the common drugs used against scabies are unsatisfactory. The successful use of galenicals in a 10-year-old girl with crusted scabies is reported.

  5. CHIC - Coupling Habitability, Interior and Crust (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Labbe, Francois; Boiveau, Thomas; Rivoldini, Attilio; Van Hoolst, Tim


    We present a new code developed for simulating convection in terrestrial planets and icy moons. The code CHIC is written in Fortran and employs the finite volume method and finite difference method for solving energy, mass and momentum equations in either silicate or icy mantles. The code uses either Cartesian (2D and 3D box) or spherical coordinates (2D cylinder or annulus). It furthermore contains a 1D parametrised model to obtain temperature profiles in specific regions, for example in the iron core or in the silicate mantle (solving only the energy equation). The 2D/3D convection model uses the same input parameters as the 1D model, which allows for comparison of the different models and adaptation of the 1D model, if needed. The code has already been benchmarked for the following aspects: - viscosity-dependent rheology (Blankenbach et al., 1989) - pseudo-plastic deformation (Tosi et al., in preparation phase) - subduction mechanism and plastic deformation (Quinquis et al., in preparation phase) New features that are currently developed and benchmarked include: - compressibility (following King et al., 2009 and Leng and Zhong, 2008) - different melt modules (Plesa et al., in preparation phase) - freezing of an inner core (comparison with GAIA code, Huettig and Stemmer, 2008) - build-up of oceanic and continental crust (Noack et al., in preparation phase) The code represents a useful tool to couple the interior with the surface of a planet (e.g. via build-up and erosion of crust) and it's atmosphere (via outgassing on the one hand and subduction of hydrated crust and carbonates back into the mantle). It will be applied to investigate several factors that might influence the habitability of a terrestrial planet, and will also be used to simulate icy bodies with high-pressure ice phases. References: Blankenbach et al. (1989). A benchmark comparison for mantle convection codes. GJI 98, 23-38. Huettig and Stemmer (2008). Finite volume discretization for dynamic viscosities on Voronoi grids. PEPI 171(1-4), 137-146. King et al. (2009). A Community Benchmark for 2D Cartesian Compressible Convection in the Earth's Mantle. GJI 179, 1-11. Leng and Zhong (2008). Viscous heating, adiabatic heating and energetic consistency in compressible mantle convection. GJI 173, 693-702.

  6. Mesozoic-Cenozoic reworking of the deep crust beneath the Bering Sea plate: Data from lower to middle crust xenoliths (United States)

    Akinin, V. V.; Miller, E. L.; Mukasa, S.; Andronikov, A.


    Petrographic and geochemical investigation of lower to middle crustal xenoliths within Late Neogene alkaline basalts of the Bering Sea province (Enmelen volcanoes, Chukotka; Imuruk volcanic field, Alaska; Kookooligit volcanic field, Saint Lawrence island) were carried out to determine the composition, conditions of equilibration and age of the deep crust beneath the Bering Shelf. Mineral thermobarometry shows that xenoliths were derived from the middle to lower crust (~ characterized by pressures of 3 to 10 kb and elevated temperatures of 700 to 1050 C). Three groups of xenoliths can be distinguished: 1) charnockites and quartz- two pyroxene granulites enriched in REE and having Sr and Nd isotopic ratios close to BSE; 2) gabbroic restites and pyroxene-plagioclase cumulates which have relatively depleted and flat REE patterns, and positive Eu anomalies; 3) kelephytic (garnet) gabbro enriched in HREE and depleted in LREE. Radiogenic isotope in pyroxene and plagioclase separates from studied xenoliths have ratios fall into the major mantle array attributed to OIB-like mantle source (87Sr/86Sr =0.7040-0.70463; 143Nd/144Nd= 0.51252-0.51289; 206Pb/204Pb= 18.32-18.69). Isotopic data rule out a close genetic link between the host lava and xenoliths but shows possible relations of some xenoliths with Cretaceous calc-alkaline magmatic rocks associated with the Pacific Margin related Okhotsk-Chukotsk volcanic belt. Nunivak and Navarin xenoliths from the southern edge of the Bering shelf are different in their geochemistry and isotopic ratios (MORB-like signatures) from the rest of studied xenoliths and this might suggests diverse composition of the lower crust beneath the area. Zircons in charnockite and granulite xenoliths were dated by the U-Pb method using the SHRIMP RG and range from 60 to 107 Ma. The zonation patterns of the zircons, their geochemistry, U-Pb ages and how these characteristics vary with rock types and mineral association were used to reconstruct a general model for the petrologic evolution of the deep crust with added constraints provided by geophysical and geologic data. It can be concluded that the lower crust beneath the Bering Sea province has been modified significantly during Cretaceous (107 - 80 Ma) magmatic underplating and was later subjected to a thermal/metamorphic event at 75 - 60 Ma. These two events coincide with two major pulses of calc-alkaline magmatism represented by plutons and volcanic rocks at the surface. These two events occurred together with, and post-dated inferred extensional collapse of previously thickened crust beneath the Bering Shelf . Similar data from xenoliths across a broad area of the U.S., Russia and the Bering Shelf support the regional nature of these conclusions concerning the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the deep crust. Geotherms and metamorphic gradients derived from xenoliths study are too hot to be explained by relatively cold terrains involved in collision-type deformation and require the imput of heat into the crust by mantle derived magmas.

  7. Recording changes in ENADW composition over the last 340 ka using high-precision lead isotopes in a Fe-Mn crust (United States)

    Claude-Ivanaj, Christelle; Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Vlastélic, Ivan; Koschinsky, Andrea


    We report high-precision Pb triple spike data and U-Th isotopic ages on a high-resolution depth profile from a Fe-Mn crust (121DK, northeastern Atlantic 24°N, 21°W, 2000 m). Our results bring important information particularly on the origin of the Pb isotopic composition of the northeastern Atlantic deep water and more generally on the use of Pb isotopes as a paleo-proxy to reconstruct weathering inputs to the north Atlantic Ocean. Growth rates determined using ( 230Th) ex and ( 230Th/ 232Th) ex (2.9±0.2 and 3±0.3 mm/Ma respectively) are found to be more reliable than ( 234U ex), sensitive to sea water contamination, and are similar to the 10Be results (3±0.3 mm/Ma). Very small variations in 206Pb/ 204Pb (18.942-18.964), 208Pb/ 204Pb (39.057-39.083) and 207Pb/ 204Pb (15.696-15.701) are resolved, defining linear trends in Pb isotope diagrams. High-precision Pb triple spike analysis of samples from crust BM1969.05, northwestern Atlantic (39°N, 61°W, 1829 m), are found to entirely reproduce the multi-collector plasma source mass spectrometry data recently published. This interlaboratory cross-calibration establishes that the west north Atlantic deep water (WNADW) does not represent a suitable Pb contributor to the northeastern Atlantic and rather suggests that the Pb isotopic composition of WNADW is significantly altered before or during transport toward the northeastern Atlantic basin. The Pb isotopic compositions of both suspended loads from the Amazon mouth and offshore sediment cores are consistent on average with crust 121DK. We therefore propose that the change in Pb isotopic composition of WNADW may be caused by input of suspended particle loads from the Amazon and possibly Orinoco rivers or by interaction with sediments deposited by those rivers. We speculate further that the short-term compositional variations observed in this study may be caused by fluctuations in the relative contributions of Amazon tributaries to the bulk composition supplied to the ocean because these tributaries sample terrains of drastically different ages (Phanerozoic Andes and Precambrian Amazonian shield).

  8. Identification of hyper-extended crust east of Davie Ridge in the Mozambique Channel (United States)

    Klimke, Jennifer; Franke, Dieter


    Davie Ridge is a ~1200 km wide, N-S trending bathymetrical high in the Mozambique Channel. Today, it is widely accepted that Davie Ridge is located along a fossil transform fault that was active during the Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous (~165-120 Ma). This transform fault results from the breakup of Gondwana, when Madagascar (together with India and Antarctica) drifted from its northerly position in the Gondwana Supercontinent (adjacent to the coasts of Tanzania, Somalia and Kenya) to its present position (e.g. Coffin and Rabinowitz, 1987; Rabinowitz et al., 1983; Segoufin and Patriat, 1980). The southward motion of Madagascar relative to Africa is constrained by the interpretation of magnetic anomalies in the Western Somali Basin, located north of Madagascar (e.g. Rabinowitz et al., 1983). According to Bird (2001), sheared margins share typical characteristics and a common evolution: 1. The transition from continental to oceanic crust is relatively abrupt (~ 50-80 km). 2. Along the continental side of the margin, complex rift basins form that display a wide range of faults. 3. Prominent marginal ridges form along the sheared margin that probably originate from the propagation of the oceanic spreading center along the plate boundary (Bird, 2001). In February and March 2014, a dense geophysical dataset (multichannel seismic, magnetics, gravimetry and bathymetry) with a total of 4300 profile km along the sheared margin was acquired with the R/V Sonne by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). A special objective of the project, amongst others, is the characterization and interpretation of the continent-ocean transition seaward of Davie Ridge in the Mozambique Channel. Seismic profiles located east of Davie Ridge in the Western Somali Basin reveal a wide sequence of half-grabens bounded by listric normal faults. We tentatively suggest that this crust is of continental origin and results from rifting between Africa and Madagascar during the breakup of Gondwana. This implies that the continent-ocean transition is located at least ~ 150 km east of Davie Ridge. References Bird, D., 2001. Shear margins: Continent-ocean transform and fracture zone boundaries. The Leading Edge, 150-159. Coffin, M. F., und Rabinowitz, P. D., 1987. Reconstruction of Madagascar and Africa: Evidence from the Davie Fracture Zone and Western Somali Basin. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol. 92, no. B9, 9385-9406. Rabinowitz, P.D., Coffin, M.F. and Falvey, D.A., 1983. The separation of Madagascar and Africa. Science 220, 67-69. Segoufin, J., und Patriat, P., 1980. Existence d'anomalies mesozoiques dans le bassin de Somalie. Implications pour les relations Afrique-Antarctique-Madagascar: C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, v. 291, p. 85-88.

  9. Continental crust subducted deeply into lithospheric mantle: the driving force of Early Carboniferous magmatism in the Variscan collisional orogen (Bohemian Massif) (United States)

    Janoušek, Vojt?ch; Schulmann, Karel; Lexa, Ondrej; Holub, František; Fran?k, Jan; Vrána, Stanislav


    The vigorous Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous plutonic activity in the core of the Bohemian Massif was marked by a transition from normal-K calc-alkaline, arc-related (~375-355 Ma), through high-K calc-alkaline (~346 Ma) to (ultra-)potassic (343-335 Ma) suites, the latter associated with mainly felsic HP granulites enclosing Grt/Spl mantle peridotite bodies. The changing chemistry, especially an increase in K2O/Na2O and 87Sr/86Sri with decrease in 143Nd/144Ndi in the basic end-members, cannot be reconciled by contamination during ascent. Instead it has to reflect the character of the mantle sources, changing over time. The tectonic model invokes an oceanic subduction passing to subduction of the attenuated Saxothuringian crust under the rifted Gondwana margin (Teplá-Barrandian and Moldanubian domains). The deep burial of this mostly refractory felsic metaigneous material is evidenced by the presence of coesite/diamond (Massonne 2001; Kotková et al. 2011) in the detached UHP slices exhumed through the subduction channel and thrusted over the Saxothuringian basement, and by the abundance of felsic HP granulites (> 2.3 GPa), some bearing evidence for small-scale HP melt separation, in the orogen's core (Vrána et al. 2013). The subduction channel was most likely formed by 'dirty' serpentinites contaminated by the melts/fluids derived from the underlying continental-crust slab (Zheng 2012). Upon the passage through the orogenic mantle, the continental crust-slab derived material not only contaminated the adjacent mantle forming small bodies/veins of pyroxenites (Becker 1996), glimmerites (Becker et al. 1999) or even phlogopite- and apatite-bearing peridotites (Naemura et al. 2009) but the felsic HP-HT granulites also sampled the individual peridotite types at various levels. Eventually the subducted felsic material would form an (U)HP continental wedge under the forearc/arc region, to be later redistributed under the Moldanubian crust by channel flow and crustal relamination mechanisms. The presence of refractory light material rich in radioactive elements under the denser upper plate would eventually result in gravity-driven overturns in the thickened crust. The contaminated lithospheric mantle domains yielded, soon thereafter, ultrapotassic magmas whose major- and compatible-trace element signatures point to equilibration with the mantle peridotite, while their LILE contents and radiogenic isotope signatures are reminiscent of the subducted continental crust. This research was financially supported by the GA?R Project P210-11-2358 (to VJ) and Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic program LK11202 (to KS). Becker, H. 1996. Journal of Petrology 37, 785-810. Kotková, J. et al. 2011. Geology 39, 667-670. Massonne, H.-J. 2001. European Journal of Mineralogy 13, 565-570. Naemura, K. et al. 2009. Journal of Petrolology 50, 1795-1827. Schulmann, K., et al., 2014. Geology, in print. Vrána, S. 2013. Journal of Geosciences 58, 347-378. Zheng, Y. F. 2012. Chemical Geology 328, 5-48.

  10. Seawater osmium isotope evidence for a middle Miocene flood basalt event in ferromanganese crust records (United States)

    Klemm, V.; Frank, M.; Levasseur, S.; Halliday, A.N.; Hein, J.R.


    Three ferromanganese crusts from the northeast, northwest and central Atlantic were re-dated using osmium (Os) isotope stratigraphy and yield ages from middle Miocene to the present. The three Os isotope records do not show evidence for growth hiatuses. The reconstructed Os isotope-based growth rates for the sections older than 10??Ma are higher than those determined previously by the combined beryllium isotope (10Be/9Be) and cobalt (Co) constant-flux methods, which results in a decrease in the maximum age of each crust. This re-dating does not lead to significant changes to the interpretation of previously determined radiogenic isotope neodymium, lead (Nd, Pb) time series because the variability of these isotopes was very small in the records of the three crusts prior to 10??Ma. The Os isotope record of the central Atlantic crust shows a pronounced minimum during the middle Miocene between 15 and 12??Ma, similar to a minimum previously observed in two ferromanganese crusts from the central Pacific. For the other two Atlantic crusts, the Os isotope records and their calibration to the global seawater curve for the middle Miocene are either more uncertain or too short and thus do not allow for a reliable identification of an isotopic minimum. Similar to pronounced minima reported previously for the Cretaceous/Tertiary and Eocene/Oligocene boundaries, possible interpretations for the newly identified middle Miocene Os isotope minimum include changes in weathering intensity and/or a meteorite impact coinciding with the formation of the No??rdlinger Ries Crater. It is suggested that the eruption and weathering of the Columbia River flood basalts provided a significant amount of the unradiogenic Os required to produce the middle Miocene minimum. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Physics of the earth crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals in 12 chapters, amongst other things, with the subjects: Structure of the crust and the upper earth mantle, geology and geophysics of sea beds, satellite and aero-methods of geophysics, state of the art of geothermal research, geophysical potential fields and their anomalies, applied seismology, electrical methods of geophysics, geophysics in engineering and rock engineering, borehole geophysics, petrophysics, and geochemistry. (RW)

  12. A global-scale plate reorganization event at 105-100 Ma (United States)

    Matthews, Kara J.; Seton, Maria; Müller, R. Dietmar


    A major plate reorganization is postulated to have occurred at approximately 100 Ma. However, this reorganization has received limited attention, despite being associated with the most prominent suite of fracture zone bends on the planet and many other geological events. We investigate tectonic events from the period ˜110 to 90 Ma and show that the reorganization occurred between 105 and 100 Ma, was global in scale, and affected all major plates. Seafloor evidence for plate motion changes is abundant during this period, with either fracture zone bends or terminations preserved in all ocean basins. Long-lived eastern Gondwanaland subduction ended along a 7000 km long section of the margin, while elsewhere around the proto-Pacific rim subduction continued and there is evidence that compressional stresses increased in the overriding plates. Thrusting in western North America, transpression and basin inversion in eastern Asia, and development of the present-day Andean-style margin along western South America occurred contemporaneous with the development of an extensional regime in eastern Gondwanaland. Basin instability in Africa and western Europe further demonstrates that lithospheric stress regime changes were widespread at this time. Considering the timing of the reorganization and the nature of associated plate boundary changes, we suggest that eastern Gondwanaland subduction cessation is the most likely driving mechanism for the reorganization. Subduction is the dominant driver of plate motion and therefore this event had the potential to strongly modify the balance of driving forces acting on the plates in the southwestern proto-Pacific and neighboring plates, whereby producing widespread changes in plate motion and continental lithospheric stress patterns. We propose that major changes in ridge-trench interaction triggered the cessation of subduction. The progressive subduction of two closely spaced perpendicular mid ocean ridges at the eastern Gondwanaland subduction zone, to the east of Australia and New Zealand, respectively, resulted in very young crust entering the trench and we suggest that by 105-100 Ma there was insufficient negative buoyancy to drive subduction. Finally, we propose that the plume push force of the Bouvet plume, that erupted near the African-Antarctic-South American triple junction, contributed to plate motion changes in the southern Atlantic region.

  13. Metamorphism in the Martian crust (United States)

    McSween, Harry Y.; Labotka, Theodore C.; Viviano-Beck, Christina E.


    Compositions of basaltic and ultramafic rocks analyzed by Mars rovers and occurring as Martian meteorites allow predictions of metamorphic mineral assemblages that would form under various thermophysical conditions. Key minerals identified by remote sensing roughly constrain temperatures and pressures in the Martian crust. We use a traditional metamorphic approach (phase diagrams) to assess low-grade/hydrothermal equilibrium assemblages. Basaltic rocks should produce chlorite + actinolite + albite + silica, accompanied by laumontite, pumpellyite, prehnite, or serpentine/talc. Only prehnite-bearing assemblages have been spectrally identified on Mars, although laumontite and pumpellyite have spectra similar to other uncharacterized zeolites and phyllosilicates. Ultramafic rocks are predicted to produce serpentine, talc, and magnesite, all of which have been detected spectrally on Mars. Mineral assemblages in both basaltic and ultramafic rocks constrain fluid compositions to be H2O-rich and CO2-poor. We confirm the hypothesis that low-grade/hydrothermal metamorphism affected the Noachian crust on Mars, which has been excavated in large craters. We estimate the geothermal gradient (>20 °C km-1) required to produce the observed assemblages. This gradient is higher than that estimated from radiogenic heat-producing elements in the crust, suggesting extra heating by regional hydrothermal activity.

  14. An analysis of young ocean depth, gravity and global residual topography (United States)

    Crosby, A. G.; McKenzie, D.


    The variation of ocean depth with age in the absence of crustal thickening and dynamic support places valuable constraints on the thermal and rheological properties of the lithosphere and asthenosphere. We have attempted to estimate this variation using a global data set of shiptracks, with particular emphasis on young ocean floor. In this respect, this paper extends a previous study published in this journal by the same authors, which concentrated on the older parts of the ocean basins. We find that, prior to 80 Ma, subsidence patterns are reasonably consistent, with gradients of 325 +/- 20 m Ma -1/2 and zero-age depths of 2600 +/- 200 m. There is a strong inverse correlation between zero-age depth and the gradient of depth with the square root of age which is unrelated to local variations in dynamic support. Global depth-age trends to 160 Ma are not significantly different to those for the individual ocean basins. Within corridors of similar basement age, gravity-topography correlations are consistently 30 +/- 5 mGal km-1. Simple isostatic theory and numerical modelling of mantle plumes suggests that, if the minimum depth of convection is defined by the base of the mechanical boundary layer, the admittance should be a function of plate age. The observation that it is not implies that the active convective upwelling beneath young lithosphere ceases at the same depth as it does beneath old oceanic plates. This result is consistent with geochemical modelling of melts near mid-ocean ridges. We have examined the relationship between residual topography and gravity worldwide, and have found that good spatial correlations are restricted to the Atlantic, North Pacific and youngest Indian ocean basins. By contrast, residual topography and gravity are poorly or negatively correlated in the South and young North Pacific Ocean and in the older Indian Ocean. Away from regions of thick crust and flexure, histograms of residual topography and gravity have symmetric distributions about zero. We then use this residual topography to estimate the volume and buoyancy flux of seven major plume swells. In Hawaii, the clear correlation between melt and swell volumes in discrete age corridors is evidence that the horizontal velocity of the hot plume material far downstream from the plume is similar to the plate spreading velocity and that the plume pulses over time. Finally, comparison with seismic tomographic models suggests that the long-wavelength (>2000 km) residual topographic and gravity anomalies have an origin deeper than 250 km. This result is consistent with observations that the admittance is approximately constant at wavelengths longer than 800 km.

  15. Protracted construction of gabbroic crust at a slow spreading ridge: Constraints from 206Pb/238U zircon ages from Atlantis Massif and IODP Hole U1309D (30°N, MAR) (United States)

    Grimes, Craig B.; John, Barbara E.; Cheadle, Michael J.; Wooden, Joseph L.


    Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon ages of 24 samples from oceanic crust recovered in Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1309D and from the surface of Atlantis Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) (30°N) document a protracted history of accretion in the footwall to an oceanic detachment fault. Ages for 18 samples of evolved Fe-Ti oxide gabbro and felsic dikes collected 40–1415 m below seafloor in U1309D yield a weighted mean of 1.20 ± 0.03 Ma (mean square of weighted deviates = 7.1). However, the ages range from 1.08 ± 0.07 Ma and 1.28 ± 0.05 Ma indicating crustal construction occurred over a minimum of 100–200 ka. The zircon ages, along with petrologic observations, indicate at least 2 major periods of intrusive activity with age peaks separated by 70 ka. The oldest ages are observed below 600 mbsf, an observation inconsistent with models requiring constant depth melt intrusion beneath a detachment fault. The data are most consistent with a “multiple sill” model whereby sills intrude at random depths below the ridge axis over a length scale greater than 1.4 km. Zircon ages from broadly spaced samples collected along the southern ridge of Atlantis Massif yield a detachment fault slip rate of 28.7 ± 6.7 mm/a and imply significant asymmetric plate spreading (up to 100% on the North American plate) for at least 200 ka during core complex formation.

  16. Archean Arctic continental crust fingerprints revealing by zircons from Alpha Ridge bottom rocks (United States)

    Sergeev, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Morozov, Andrey; Shevchenko, Sergey; Presnyakov, Sergey; Antonov, Anton; Belyatsky, Boris


    Whereas thick Cenozoic sedimentary cover overlapping bedrock of the Arctic Ocean, some tectonic windows were sampled by scientific submarine manipulator, as well as by grabbing, dredging and drilling during «Arctic-2012» Russian High-Arctic expedition (21 thousands samples in total, from 400-km profile along Alpha-Mendeleev Ridges). Among others, on the western slope of Alpha Ridge one 10x10 cm fragment without any tracks of glacial transportation of fine-layered migmatitic-gneiss with prominent quartz veinlets was studied. Its mineral (47.5 vol.% plagioclase + 29.6% quartz + 16.6% biotite + 6.1% orthoclase) and chemical composition (SiO2:68.2, Al2O3:14.9, Fe2O3:4.44, TiO2:0.54, MgO:2.03, CaO:3.13, Na2O:3.23, K2O:2.16%) corresponds to trachydacite vulcanite, deformed and metamorphozed under amphibolite facies. Most zircon grains (>80%) from this sample has an concordant U-Pb age 3450 Ma with Th/U 0.8-1.4 and U content of 100-400 ppm, epsilon Hf from -4 up to 0, and ca 20% - ca 3.3 Ga with Th/U 0.7-1.4 and 90-190 ppm U, epsilon Hf -6.5 to -4.5, while only 2% of the grains show Proterozoic age of ca 1.9 Ga (Th/U: 0.02-0.07, U~500 ppm, epsilon Hf about 0). No younger zircons were revealed at all. We suppose that magmatic zircon crystallized as early as 3450 Ma ago during acid volcanism, the second phase zircon crystallization from partial melt (or by volcanics remelting) under amphibolite facies metamorphism was at 3.3 Ga ago with formation of migmatitie gneisses. Last zircon formation from crustal fluids under low-grade metamorphic conditions was 1.9 Ga ago. There are two principal possibilities for the provenance of this metavolcanic rock. The first one - this is ice-rafted debris deposited by melted glacial iceberg. However, presently there are no temporal and compositional analogues of such rocks in basement geology of peri-oceanic regions, including Archean Itsaq Gneiss Complex, Lewisian Complex and Baltic Shield but these regions are far from the places of nowadays iceberg formation. Moreover, no Grenvillian-age zircons were revealed in studied sample. The nearest areas of Paleo- and Mesoarchean rocks appearance are deeply inland territories like Acasta Gneiss Complex, Uivak Gneisses, the Superior Province, Anabar and Aldan Shields, Northern China craton (Anshan complex), thus, a only possibility to bring some fragments of basement rocks from these areas to oceanic coast is transcontinental river transportation. The second possibility - this gneissic clast has a local provenance and has undergone a submarine weathering, shallow marine avalanche, proximal transportation by alongside ocean flows, tidal waves abrasion, and as so, reflects local bedrock geology, i.e. adjacent Alpha Ridge rock composition. Additional confirmation of this can be seen in a wide distribution of Qu-sandstones with Paleo-Mezoarchean zircons, and finds of similar allochtonous zircons in dolerites along Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge profile. The studied fragment is a unique evidence for the possible existence of Paleoarchean continental crust within the submarine Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge in Arctic Ocean.

  17. The evolution of climatically driven weathering inputs into the western Arctic Ocean since the late Miocene: Radiogenic isotope evidence (United States)

    Dausmann, Veit; Frank, Martin; Siebert, Christopher; Christl, Marcus; Hein, James R.


    We present the first continuous records of dissolved radiogenic neodymium, hafnium, and lead isotope compositions of deep waters in the western Arctic Ocean, spanning the time from the late Miocene to the present. The data were obtained from three hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts recovered from seamounts along the northernmost edge of the Northwind Ridge in the Canada Basin from water depths of 2200, 2400, and 3600 m. Dating the crusts using cosmogenic 10Be documents undisturbed present-day growth surfaces and yields growth rates between 27 and 2.2 mm/Myr. The Nd (Hf) isotope time series of the three crusts show similar evolutions from ?Nd (?Hf) of -8.5 (+4) in the oldest parts to -11.5 (-4) at the surfaces and a pronounced trend to less radiogenic values starting at ?4 Ma. This coincided with a trend of the Pb isotope evolution towards more radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb. It is inferred that climatically controlled changes in weathering regime and sediment transport along the North American continent were responsible for the major change of the radiogenic isotope composition of the Arctic Deep Water (ADW) in the Canada Basin. Based on these records we conclude that weathering inputs from the North American continent linked to enhanced glacial conditions started to increase and to influence the radiogenic isotope composition of ADW ?4 million years ago and were further intensified at ?1 Ma. These new time series differ markedly from the radiogenic isotope evolution of Arctic Intermediate Water recorded on the Lomonosov Ridge and suggest that much larger isotopic differences between the water masses of the Arctic Ocean than today prevailed in the past.

  18. Petrological, geochemical and geochronological evidence for a Neoproterozoic ocean basin recorded in the Marlborough terrane of the northern New England Fold Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrological, geochemical and radiogenic isotopic data on ophiolitic-type rocks from the Marlborough terrane, the largest (?700 km2) ultramafic-mafic rock association in eastern Australia, argue strongly for a sea-floor spreading centre origin. Chromium spinel from partially serpentinised mantle harzburgite record average Cr/(Cr + Al) = 0.4 with associated mafic rocks displaying depleted MORB-like trace-element characteristics. A Sm/Nd isochron defined by whole-rock mafic samples yields a crystallisation age of 562 ± 22 Ma (2?). These rocks are thus amongst the oldest rocks so far identified in the New England Fold Belt and suggest the presence of a late Neoproterozoic ocean basin to the east of the Tasman Line. The next oldest ultramafic rock association dated from the New England Fold Belt is ca 530 Ma and is interpreted as backarc in origin. These data suggest that the New England Fold Belt may have developed on oceanic crust, following an oceanward migration of the subduction zone at ca 540 Ma as recorded by deformation and metamorphism in the Anakie Inlier. Fragments of late Neoproterozoic oceanic lithosphere were accreted during progressive cratonisation of the east Australian margin. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  19. Composition of the Primary Crust of Mars: Observations of Deeply Excavated Crater Central Peaks (United States)

    Skok, J. R.; Mustard, J. F.; Tornabene, L. L.; Murchie, S. L.


    It is predicted that the primary crust of Mars crystallized from a magma ocean and would be well preserved at depth on a single plate planet but poorly exposed as impacts, volcanism and alteration has reworked the upper crust. In a few select locations, extensive excavation by impact or erosion has exposed unaltered mafic minerals of the Martian crust. The majority of these exposures occur within the uplifted central peaks and peak rings of Southern Highland craters. We examine the mafic compositions of these deeply excavated crustal rocks in an attempt to constrain the composition of the Martian crust and test models of planetary formation. The search for deeply excavated bedrock from HiRISE images is ongoing and has so far resulted in nearly 200 potential locations. Over half of these currently have CRISM spectroscopic observations with ~50 locations having good exposures of crustal rocks showing little to no alteration. It is this combination of deeply excavated minerals that has potential to tap the preserved primary crust of Mars. We focus our analysis on olivine and pyroxene as crustal formation models predict that these two minerals would dominate the modal mineralogy of the crystallizing crust with a garnet layer potentially stable at depth. The high-resolution visible and near-infrared spectroscopic data provided by the CRISM instrument is ideally suited for examining these compositional characteristics. Initial in-depth analysis of the central peak of Alga Crater shows excellent exposures of lithologies characterized by both olivine and pyroxene. The olivine-bearing unit here has a fayalitic composition and a dunite lithology. This ancient Fe-rich olivine is in stark contrast to the Mg-enriched olivine of the primitive mantle of Earth. The primary pyroxene-bearing unit was determined to be a low-calcium, high-Fe enstatite orthopyroxenite, consistent with the mineralogy of the ancient Mars meteorite ALH84001. These observations suggest that the crust crystallized into compositionally homogeneous units in close proximity to allow single impact to sample multiple lithologies. The units are consistent with the late-stage crystallization of a hot magma ocean enriched in Fe. Here we expand the results to all suitable Southern Highland exposures to check regional compositional consistency and examine global trends. Initial results support similar compositions in excavated crust throughout the southern highlands, though the presence of both olivine and pyroxene lithologies are rarely well exposed in the same central peak. Additional analysis will continue to test the emerging hypothesis that the upper primary crust is the direct result of the late stage crystallization of a magma ocean, with no density driven overturn, that results in compositionally segregated fayalite and enstatite rich crust.

  20. Petrogenesis of Cretaceous adakite-like intrusions of the Gangdese Plutonic Belt, southern Tibet: Implications for mid-ocean ridge subduction and crustal growth (United States)

    Zheng, Yuan-chuan; Hou, Zeng-qian; Gong, Ying-li; Liang, Wei; Sun, Qing-Zhong; Zhang, Song; Fu, Qiang; Huang, Ke-Xian; Li, Qiu-Yun; Li, Wei


    We have conducted a whole-rock geochemical, U-Pb zircon geochronological, and in situ zircon Hf-O isotopic compositional study of rocks in southern Tibet from the Langxian igneous suite (including a lamprophyre dyke, mafic enclaves, a granodiorite, and a two-mica granite) and the Nuri igneous suite (a quartz-diorite). U-Pb zircon dating indicates that the timing of crystallization of the mafic enclaves and host granodiorite of the Langxian suite are ca. 105 Ma and 102 Ma, respectively, that the Langxian lamprophyre dyke and the two-mica granite were emplaced at ca. 96 Ma and 80-76 Ma, respectively, and that the Nuri quartz-diorite was emplaced at ca. 95 Ma. With the exception of the lamprophyre dyke and mafic enclaves in the Langxian area, felsic rocks from the Langxian and Nuri igneous suites all show signs of a geochemical affinity with adakite-like rocks. The high Mg-numbers, high abundance of compatible elements, high ?Nd(t) (2.7 and 2.8) and ?18O (8.9 and 9.2‰) values, elevated zircon ?Hf(t) (11.0-17.0) values, and low 87Sr/86Sr(i) ratios (0.7040), collectively indicate that the Nuri adakite-like quartz-diorite was derived from partial melting of the low temperature altered Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust, and that these dioritic magmas subsequently interacted with peridotite as they rose upwards through the overlying mantle wedge. The observation of identical differentiation trends, similar whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions, and consistently low (Dy/Yb)N ratios among the Langxian igneous suite rocks, indicates that the adakite-like granodiorite was produced by low-pressure fractional crystallization of precursor magmas now represented by the (relict) mafic enclaves. However, relatively high Al2O3 contents, low MgO, Cr and Ni contents, and low (La/Yb)N and (Dy/Yb)N values indicate that the two-mica granite was derived from partial melting of the southern Tibetan mafic lower crust in the absence of garnet, while isotopic data suggest that at least 70% of the magma source region was juvenile materials. Combined with the presence of HT (high temperature) charnockitic magmatism, HT granulite facies metamorphism, and large volumes of Late Cretaceous batholiths, the oceanic-slab-derived Nuri adakitic rocks indicate a substantial high heat flux in the Gangdese batholith belt during the Late Cretaceous, which may have been related to subduction of a Neo-Tethyan mid-ocean ridge system. According to this model, hot asthenosphere would rise up through the corresponding slab window, and come into direct contact with both the oceanic slab and the base of the overlying plate. This would cause melting of both the oceanic slab and the overlying plate by the addition of heat that was ultimately linked with peak magmatism and the significant growth and chemical differentiation of juvenile crust in southern Tibet during the Late Cretaceous (105-76 Ma). In addition, the petrogenesis of the Langxian adakite-like two-mica granite indicates that the southern Tibetan crust was still of normal thickness prior to the emplacement of these intrusions at ca. 76 Ma. This probably means that large parts of southern Tibet were not very highly elevated prior to the Indian-Asian collision.

  1. Physical processes in the growth of the continental crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major mechanisms of crustal addition are volcanism and plutonism at plate boundaries and within plate interiors. One approach to deciding if island arc magmatism dominated ancient crustal growth is to assess the rate at which the process has operated in the recent past. The localized addition rates were found to be comparable to present day global rates. One physical observable that was used to constrain models of crustal growth is sea level. A simple physical model was developed to explore the consequences of constant freeboard (the height of the continents above sea level). Global geoid and sea floor topography data were used to identify and study oceanic plateaus and swells that have either continental crustal roots or anomalously thick ocean crusts

  2. H11076_GEO_1MMBES.TIF: Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the 1-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11076 in Quicks Hole, Elizabeth Islands, MA (Geographic)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  3. H11076_GEO_1MSSS.TIF: Composite Grayscale Image of the Sidescan Sonar Data From National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11076 of the Sea Floor in Quicks Hole, MA (Geographic)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  4. Segmentation of mid-ocean ridges (United States)

    Schouten, Hans; Klitgord, Kim D.; Whitehead, J.A.


    Studies of mid-ocean ridges in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans show that the volcanism that forms the oceanic crust along the spreading-plate boundaries is concentrated at regular intervals related to spreading rate. This observation and a new calculation for a Rayleigh-Taylor type of gravitational instability of a partially molten mantle region growing under spreading centres yield reasonable estimates of upper mantle viscosities. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. Pulsar glitches: the crust is not enough. (United States)

    Andersson, N; Glampedakis, K; Ho, W C G; Espinoza, C M


    Pulsar glitches are traditionally viewed as a manifestation of vortex dynamics associated with a neutron superfluid reservoir confined to the inner crust of the star. In this Letter we show that the nondissipative entrainment coupling between the neutron superfluid and the nuclear lattice leads to a less mobile crust superfluid, effectively reducing the moment of inertia associated with the angular momentum reservoir. Combining the latest observational data for prolific glitching pulsars with theoretical results for the crust entrainment, we find that the required superfluid reservoir exceeds that available in the crust. This challenges our understanding of the glitch phenomenon, and we discuss possible resolutions to the problem. PMID:23368300

  6. A Large Buried Felsic Component in the Ancient Martian Crust? (United States)

    Baratoux, D.; Monnereau, M.; Samuel, H.; Michaut, C.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Garcia, R.


    A new range of crustal density values for Mars was calculated from the major element chemistry of Martian meteorites?(3100 - 3700 kg/m3), igneous rocks at Gusev crater (3100 - 3600 kg/m3) and from the surface concentration of Fe, Al, Ca, Si, and K measured by the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) (3250 - 3450 kg/m3) (Baratoux et al., 2014). Whereas a dense basaltic crust would be compatible with the moment of inertia factor of Mars, its thickness would exceed 100 km. Such a thick crust is not compatible with the geoid-to-topography ratios in the highlands, and would be unstable and prone to basal flow and/or crustal delamination. An alternative possibility is the existence of a buried light felsic or anorthositic component. A low-density crustal component in the highlands would be consistent with an isostatic compensation associated with a difference in elevation between the two hemispheres of Mars. This alternative is reinforced in the context of the findings of felsic or anorthositic material from visible/NIR spectroscopy (Carter and Poulet, 2013, Wray et al. 2013), and the identification of feldspar-rich rocks at Gale crater (Sautter et al., 2014), whereas felsic lithologies were already identified by Pathfinder. The recently identified outcrops could be either remnants of an ancient anorthositic crust or the result of local igneous differentiation of plutonic bodies. The latter interpretation is currently preferred as early Mars conditions should not be compatible with the formation of a plagioclase floatation crust (Elkins-Tanton et al., 2005). However, in light of the geophysical and petrological constraints discussed above, and given the absence of abundant light material at the surface, we advocate for the existence of a buried anorthositic crustal component that has been largely buried by volcanic material of basaltic composition in the late Noachian or Hesperian eras. Implications regarding the magma ocean scenario for Mars will be discussed.

  7. Dry and strong quartz during deformation of the lower crust in the presence of melt


    Menegon, Luca; Nasipuri, Pritam; Stunitz, Holger; Behrens, Harald; Ravna, Erling J Krogh


    Granulite facies migmatitic gneisses from the Seiland Igneous Province (northern Norway) were deformed during deep crustal shearing in the presence of melt, which formed by dehydration melting of biotite. Partial melting and deformation occurred during the intrusion of large gabbroic plutons at the base of the lower crust at 570 to 520 Ma in an intracontinental rift setting. The migmatitic gneisses consist of high-aspect-ratio leucosome-rich domains and a leucosome-poor, restitic domain of qu...

  8. Modelling the volatile and organic content of Enceladus' ocean (United States)

    Sotin, Christophe; Lunine, Jonathan


    A variety of Cassini data on Enceladus suggest that the jets of material spraying out of the south polar region of this Saturnian moon are connected to a regional or global ocean below an icy crust -- an ocean in contact with a rocky core [1, 2, 3]. In this study we construct models of the mineralogical and elemental composition of Enceladus' rocky core so as to predict the abundance of species that may provide more detail on the extent of hydrothermal evolution of the ocean and its interaction with the rocky core. Using equations of state of the relevant material, the models are made consistent with the values of the gravity coefficients [1]. We investigate the amount of organic molecules (amino acids and fatty acids) as well as the amount of 40Ar that could be present in Enceladus' deep ocean and, therefore, in the icy grains expelled into space. Some models show that the conditions in Enceladus rocky core can be very similar to those existing in the Earth's oceanic crust, suggesting that all of Enceladus rocky core would have been leached over the age of the solar system. The amount of 40Ar dissolved in the ocean provides constraints on the amount of K in the building blocks of Enceladus, the amount of leaching of the silicate fraction, and the extent of the ocean. Based on chondritic abundances for K, we have calculated that the total potential of 40Ar is about 5.6x1012 kg. We also investigate the amount of organic material that would have been concentrated in the ocean. The Murchison meteorite contains about 60 ppm of amino acids, mainly glycine [4]. Assuming that all the rocky core has been leached by water, the modelled concentration of amino acids exceeds 150 ppm. Carboxylic acids were detected in the Asuka carbonaceous chondrites in Antarctica with values, for example, of 90 nmol/g of benzoic acid. Assuming this value, about 35 ppm of benzoic acid would be present in Enceladus' ocean. The concentrations are larger if the ocean is not global, but rather limited to the South Pole [1], and assuming that all the leached material is concentrated in the regional ocean (and not partially trapped elsewhere in ice). A future mission to Enceladus could eventually measure these quantities in order to assess the extent of evolution of Enceladus, and the potential presence of the building blocks of life in its ocean. This work has been performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. [1] Iess L. et al. (2014) Science, 344, 78. [2] Porco C. et al. (2014) The Astronomical Journal, 148:45. [3] Hedman M. M. et al. (2013) Nature, 500, 182-184. [4] Sephton M.A. (2002) Nat. Prod. Rep., 19, 292-311.

  9. Metallogenesis along the Indian Ocean Ridge System

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Ray, Dwijesh


    this study, Mn, Fe, Al, and CH 4 concentrations were searched in different segments of the central, southeastern and southweste rn parts of the IORS centered on the RTJ (~ 25?32 minuteS, ~ 70?02 minuteE), for the pur - pose of locating hydrothermally... nganese crusts from other oceanic - spreading centers. Compared to hydrogenous ferroman - ganese crusts and nodules, the hydrothermal crusts exhibit very low Mn/Fe ratios, lower transitional metal contents, low summationREE contents and negative Ce...

  10. Origin of Permian andesites from Xi Ujimqin, the Hinggan Mountains: Contributions of lower crust North China Carton (United States)

    Gao, X.


    Andesite magmas at convergent margins are enriched in silica compared to magmas erupting at mid-ocean ridges and intra-plate volcanoes. Determining the cause (s) of silica enrichment is fundamental for models of continental crust formation, arc growth rates and across-arc mass balances (Plank and Langmuir, 1993; Rudnick, 1995; White et al., 2006).The Xi-Ujimqin is located the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt , the CAOB is composed of mainly subduction-accretion complexes, intruded by vast plutons of mainly magmatic arc origin and covered in places by their volcanic derivatives (Sengor et al. 1993; Sengor and Natalin 1996). As the most important site for Phanerozoic crustal growth in the world, the subduction-accretion complexes added ~ 5.3 million km2of material to Asia, half of which may be of juvenile origin (Sengor et al. 1993).The andesitic lavas of Daotenuoer Fms. at Xi-Ujimqin have different trace and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic characteristic from them, these rocks span a SiO2 range of 56.83 ~ 59.17% and MgO of range of 1.21~2.91%, characterized by obviously LREE/HREE fractionation (Ce/YbCN = 11.6 ~ 16.8), strong LILE enrichment and variable Nb-Ta and Sr depletion. They have more radiogenic Sr and less radiogenic Nd and Pb isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7063 ~ 0.7066, eNd(t) = -10.5 ~ -6.3,TDM = 1.22 ~ 1.51Ga, 206Pb / 204Pb(i) = 17.29 ~ 17.33, D7/4 = 3.7 ~ 6.9, D 8/4 = 94 ~ 104) than the contemporaneous intermediate-felsic volcanic lavas. Zircon U-Pb dating results give an emplacement age of ~253 Ma for the these rocks by LA-ICP-MS, corresponding to the Late Permian. The features of major, trace and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope of These rocks imply its sources are of attributes of lower crust North China Carton (NCC) during Paleozoic subduction and collision related to the closure of the Chinese segment of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between the NCC and south Mongolia Block (Sengor et al., 1993).

  11. Imaging active granitic magma ascent structures in the Andean crust (United States)

    del Potro, R.; Diez, M.; Camacho, A. G.; Gottsmann, J.; Sunagua, M.


    Transport of large volumes of silicic magma drives the evolution of the Earth's continental crust and the dynamics of the largest magnitude volcanic eruptions on the planet. In partially molten source regions within the continental crust, melt segregates, accumulates and ascents to shallower crustal levels where magma is emplaced as plutons. The structural connection between a distributed configuration of melt-filled pores in the source and these plutons is still a highly debated open problem. Here we provide geophysical evidence for magma ascent structures, in the Andean continental crust, from the source at the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB), to shallower crustal levels beneath the largest Neogene (12 Ma to present) ignimbrite province, the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC). Through gravity inversion analysis, we image 15 km-wide, low-density, vertically-elongated 3D structures that root up from the continental partially molten body. In our analysis we cannot discriminate between large plutons and smaller partially molten strucutres, although ongoing ground deformation and thermal anomalies suggests the presence of a melt phase within some of the imaged structures. Regardeless of their current state, we show that these structures present massive roots connected to the source. Our observatiosn thus suggest that, at least in the initial stages, silicic magma ascent from the source occurs en-mass or through pervasive flow.D view, looking south-southwest, of gravity inversion modelling results showing the magma body (APMB) and, rooting up from it, a series of ridges that become elongated necks at higher crustal levels. A second anomalous body with similar geometries is observed to the west beneath the volcanic arc.

  12. Continental accretion: From oceanic plateaus to allochthonous terranes (United States)

    Ben-Avraham, Z.; Nur, A.; Jones, D.; Cox, A.


    Some of the regions of the anomalously high sea-floor topography in today's oceans may be modern allochthonous terranes moving with their oceanic plates. Fated to collide with and be accreted to adjacent continents, they may create complex volcanism, cut off and trap oceanic crust, and cause orogenic deformation. The accretion of plateaus during subduction of oceanic plates may be responsible for mountain building comparable to that produced by the collision of continents. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  13. Kitoy sillimanite deposit (Eastern Siberia): an example of Neoarchaean-Paleoproterozoic paleoweathering crust (United States)

    Salnikova, Ekaterina; Yakovleva, Sonya; Levitsky, Ivan; Kotov, Alexander; Levitsky, Valery; Reznitsky, Leonid; Anisimova, Irina


    We present the first reliable geochronological data on the age of the Kitoy sillimanite deposit (south-western Siberian craton) composed by andalusite-sillimanite, garnet-sillimanite and essentially sillimanite rocks intercalated with quartzite. These rocks experienced metamorphic reworking under amphibolite facies condition. Geochemical data indicates that hydrolysate clay rocks with kaolin, kaolinite and metalaterite or pyrophyllite have been a protholites of the high-alumina Kitoy rocks. Thus the Kitoy deposit high-alumina schist corresponds to mature paleoweathering crust (laterite and bauxite) with negligible amount of clastic material. U-Pb zircon geochronological investigations were undertaken for leucocratic biotite gneisses directly subjacent productive high-alumina suite as well as for migmatitic orthotektite vein cutting the andalusite-sillimanite rocks. Both samples contain typical magmatic zircon which was dated at 2578+/-16 Ma in the biotite gneisses and at 2483+/-4 Ma in the veined orthotektite. Pb-Pb age of sillimanite from high-alumina rocks is at 2536+/-27 Ma (Levchenkov et al., 2009) that is in good correspondence with our data. Results of our study allow to bracket the formation of the Kitoy deposit in the age interval 2536-2483 Ma and consider the high-alumina rocks of this deposit as example of the ancient paleoweathering crust recognized in the Eastern Siberia.

  14. Relative contributions of crust and mantle to generation of Campanian high-K calc-alkaline I-type granitoids in a subduction setting, with special reference to the Har?it Pluton, Eastern Turkey (United States)

    Karsli, Orhan; Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Uysal, Ibrahim; Aydin, Faruk; Chen, Bin; Kandemir, Raif; Wijbrans, Jan


    We present elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for the magmatic suite (~79 Ma) of the Har?it pluton, from the Eastern Pontides (NE Turkey), with the aim of determining its magma source and geodynamic evolution. The pluton comprises granite, granodiorite, tonalite and minor diorite (SiO2 = 59.43-76.95 wt%), with only minor gabbroic diorite mafic microgranular enclaves in composition (SiO2 = 54.95-56.32 wt%), and exhibits low Mg# (enclaves are isotopically indistinguishable. Sr-Nd isotopic data for all of the samples display I Sr = 0.70676-0.70708, ? Nd(79 Ma) = -4.4 to -3.3, with T DM = 1.09-1.36 Ga. The lead isotopic ratios are (206Pb/204Pb) = 18.79-18.87, (207Pb/204Pb) = 15.59-15.61 and (208Pb/204Pb) = 38.71-38.83. These geochemical data rule out pure crustal-derived magma genesis in a post-collision extensional stage and suggest mixed-origin magma generation in a subduction setting. The melting that generated these high-K granitoidic rocks may have resulted from the upper Cretaceous subduction of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan oceanic slab beneath the Eurasian block in the region. The back-arc extensional events would have caused melting of the enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle and formed mafic magma. The underplating of the lower crust by mafic magmas would have played a significant role in the generation of high-K magma. Thus, a thermal anomaly induced by underplated basic magma into a hot crust would have caused partial melting in the lower part of the crust. In this scenario, the lithospheric mantle-derived basaltic melt first mixed with granitic magma of crustal origin at depth. Then, the melts, which subsequently underwent a fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation processes, could ascend to shallower crustal levels to generate a variety of rock types ranging from diorite to granite. Sr-Nd isotope modeling shows that the generation of these magmas involved ~65-75% of the lower crustal-derived melt and ~25-35% of subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Further, geochemical data and the Ar-Ar plateau age on hornblende, combined with regional studies, imply that the Har?it pluton formed in a subduction setting and that the back-arc extensional period started by least ~79 Ma in the Eastern Pontides.

  15. The magma ocean as an impediment to lunar plate tectonics (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.


    The primary impediment to plate tectonics on the moon was probably the great thickness of its crust and particularly its high crust/lithosphere thickness ratio. This in turn can be attributed to the preponderance of low-density feldspar over all other Al-compatible phases in the lunar interior. During the magma ocean epoch, the moon's crust/lithosphere thickness ratio was at the maximum theoretical value, approximately 1, and it remained high for a long time afterwards. A few large regions of thin crust were produced by basin-scale cratering approximately contemporaneous with the demise of the magma ocean. However, these regions probably also tend to have uncommonly thin lithosphere, since they were directly heated and indirectly enriched in K, Th, and U by the same cratering process. Thus, plate tectonics on the moon in the form of systematic lithosphere subduction was impeded by the magma ocean.

  16. Biogenic crust dynamics on sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Kinast, Shai; Yizhaq, Hezi; Ashkenazy, Yosef


    Sand dunes are often covered by vegetation and biogenic crusts. Despite their significant role in dune stabilization, biogenic crusts have rarely been considered in studies of dune dynamics. Using a simple model, we study the existence and stability ranges of different dune-cover states along gradients of rainfall and wind power. Two ranges of alternative stable states are identified: fixed crusted dunes and fixed vegetated dunes at low wind power, and fixed vegetated dunes and active dunes at high wind power. These results suggest a cross-over between two different forms of desertification.

  17. Receiver function analysis of the crust and upper mantle in Fennoscandia - isostatic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frassetto, Andrew; Thybo, Hans


    The mountains across southern Norway and other margins of the North Atlantic Ocean appear conspicuously high in the absence of recent convergent tectonics. We investigate this phenomenon with receiver functions calculated for seismometers deployed across southern Fennoscandia. These are used to constrain the structure and seismic properties of the lithosphere and primarily to measure the thickness and infer the bulk composition of the crust. Such parameters are key to understanding crustal isostasy and assessing its role, or lack thereof, in supporting the observed elevations. Our study focuses on the southern Scandes mountain range that has an average elevation >1.0 km above mean sea level. The crust-mantle boundary (Moho) is ubiquitously imaged, and we occasionally observe structures that may represent the base of the continental lithosphere or other thermal, chemical, or viscous boundaries in the upper mantle. The Moho resides at similar to 25-30 km depth below mean sea level in southeastern coastal Norwayand parts of Denmark, similar to 35-45 km across the southern Scandes, and similar to 50-60 km near the Norwegian-Swedish border. That section of thickest crust coincides with much of the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt and often exhibits a diffuse conversion at the Moho, which probably results from the presence of a high wave speed, mafic lower crust across inner Fennoscandia. A zone of thinned crust (

  18. Boron isotopes in tourmaline from the ca. 3.7-3.8 Ga Isua supracrustal belt, Greenland: Sources for boron in Eoarchean continental crust and seawater (United States)

    Grew, Edward S.; Dymek, Robert F.; De Hoog, Jan C. M.; Harley, Simon L.; Boak, Jeremy; Hazen, Robert M.; Yates, Martin G.


    Boron is highly concentrated in Earth's crust relative to primitive mantle. However, when present-day crustal concentrations were achieved remains debatable. It has been proposed that seawater boron ?11B was lower than at present, consistent with a model relating increase in sea-water ?11B to the proportion of B extracted from Earth's mantle into the oceans and crust. Our in situ ion microprobe analyses of tourmaline in 17 samples from the Eoarchean Isua supracrustal belt, Southwest Greenland, gave the following average ?11B with uncertainties ranging from ±0.4 to ±1.9‰: ?11B = -7.1 to -11.5‰ in amphibolite; ?11B = -10.5 to -25.3‰ in mica schist; ?11B = -19.2‰ in metachert (one sample), and ?11B = -21.9‰ in metaconglomerate (one sample). Tourmaline is largely schorl-dravite, rarely uvite-feruvite, and shows color and compositional zoning. ?11B varies from grain to grain in most samples; grains in a kyanite-staurolite schist are isotopically zoned, possibly because the rims incorporated B released by muscovite breakdown. The patterns in color-zoned tourmaline grains in our samples are not consistent with detrital origin of the cores, which rules out the possibility of there being tourmaline detritus from pre-existing continental crust in the studied samples. The tourmaline-bearing rocks are found in both the ca. 3700 Ma northern and ca. 3800 Ma southern terranes in the Isua supracrustal belt. Following an approach suggested by Chaussidon and Appel, we estimated Eoarchean seawater ?11B by calculating back from ?11B of tourmaline in metasedimentary rocks using fractionation of boron isotopes between clays and muscovite, tourmaline and aqueous fluid. This calculation gave an estimated ?11B ? +14 ± 15‰ for Eoarchean seawater, 25‰ lower than present-day seawater (?11B = +39.5‰). For comparison, an estimate obtained simply by direct comparison of ?11B for Eoarchean and Phanerozoic tourmaline presumed to have crystallized in similar environments gives ?11B ? +30‰ for Eoarchean seawater. At first, our results appear to be contradictory. On the one hand, tourmaline is as widespread and abundant in the Isua supracrustal rocks as it is in many younger complexes, which suggests that extraction of boron from the mantle had reached levels close to present day levels. On the other hand, there is no evidence of boron having been extracted prior to ca. 3800 Ma and a seawater ?11B lower than present-day ?11B = 39.5‰ implies that extraction of B from the mantle had not reached the present-day extent. The proto-arc scenario proposed by A. Nutman and co-authors offers a possible resolution to the contradiction by considering the abundance and isotopic composition of B in the Isua supracrustal rocks as a localized phenomenon that should not be interpreted to reflect B concentrations in an Earth-circling ocean. Accumulation of boron in seawater in a partially isolated basin associated with a proto-arc and the attendant volcanism might have been sufficiently rapid for the needed concentrations to be attained in a relatively short time.

  19. The tectonic structure of the Song Ma fault zone, Vietnam (United States)

    Wen, Strong; Yeh, Yu-Lien; Tang, Chi-Cha; Phong, Lai Hop; Toan, Dinh Van; Chang, Wen-Yen; Chen, Chau-Huei


    Indochina area is a tectonic active region where creates complex topographies and tectonic structures. In particular, the Song Ma fault zone plays an important role in understanding the mechanism and revolution of the collision between the Indian plate and Eurasian plate. In order to have better understanding the seismotectonic structures of the Song Ma fault zone, a three-year project is proposed to study the seismotectonic structures of crust in this region. The main goal of this project is to deploy temporary broad-band seismic stations around/near the shear zone to record high quality microearthquakes. By using the data recorded by the temporary array and the local seismic network, we are able to conduct seismological studies which include using waveform inversion to obtain precise fault plane solutions of microearthquakes, one-dimensional (1-D) velocity structure of the crust in the region as well as the characteristics of seismogeneric zone. From the results of earthquake relocation and focal mechanisms, we find that the spatial distribution of events occurred in Song Ma fault zone forms in several distinct groups which are well correlated local geological structures and further use to gain insights on tectonic evolution.

  20. Hydroacoustic Monitoring of Oceanic Spreading Centers: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Dziak


    Full Text Available Mid-ocean ridge volcanism and extensional faulting are the fundamental processes that lead to the creation and rifting of oceanic crust, yet these events go largely undetected in the deep ocean. Currently, the only means available to observe seafloor-spreading events in real time is via the remote detection of the seismicity generated during faulting or intrusion of magma into brittle oceanic crust. Hydrophones moored in the ocean provide an effective means for detecting these small-magnitude earthquakes, and the use of this technology during the last two decades has facilitated the real-time detection of mid-ocean ridge seafloor eruptions and confirmation of subseafloor microbial ecosystems. As technology evolves and mid-ocean ridge studies move into a new era, we anticipate an expanding network of seismo-acoustic sensors integrated into seafloor fiber-optic cabled observatories, satellite-telemetered surface buoys, and autonomous vehicle platforms.

  1. The breaking strain of neutron star crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadau, Kai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Horowitz, C J [INDIANA UNIV


    Mountains on rapidly rotating neutron stars efficiently radiate gravitational waves. The maximum possible size of these mountains depends on the breaking strain of neutron star crust. With multimillion ion molecular dynamics simulations of Coulomb solids representing the crust, we show that the breaking strain of pure single crystals is very large and that impurities, defects, and grain boundaries only modestly reduce the breaking strain to around 0.1. Due to the collective behavior of the ions during failure found in our simulations, the neutron star crust is likely very strong and can support mountains large enough so that their gTavitational wave radiation could limit the spin periods of some stars and might be detectable in large scale interferometers. Furthermore, our microscopic modeling of neutron star crust material can help analyze mechanisms relevant in Magnetar Giant and Micro Flares.

  2. Fission track dating of authigenic quartz in red weathering crusts of carbonate rocks in Guizhou province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cenozoic evolution history of Guizhou Province, which is located on the southeastern flank of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is unclear because of the lack of sedimentation records. The red weathering crusts widespread on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau may bear critical information about their evolution history. This work firstly determined the ages of four red weathering crusts in eastern, central and northern Guizhou. The material used in fission track dating is well-crystallized quartz occurring in many in-situ weathering crusts of carbonate rocks. The results showed that the fission track ages of quartz vary over a wide range from 1 Ma to 25 Ma in the four profiles, significantly younger than the ages of Triassic and Cambrian parent rocks. In combination with the regionally geological evolution history during the period from 25 Ma to 1 Ma, the ages of quartz can exclude the possibility that the origin of quartz has nothing to do with primary clastic minerals in parent rocks, authigenesis during diagenesis and hydrothermal precipitation or replacement by volcanic activities. It is deduced that the well-crystallized quartz was precipitated from Si-rich weathering fluids during weathering processes of carbonate rocks. The recorded ages of quartz from the four profiles are consistent with the episodes of planation surfaces on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the stages of red soil in the tropics of South China, the tectonically stable periods in Guizhou, and the ages of weathereriods in Guizhou, and the ages of weathering in other parts of the world during the Cenozoic era. That is to say, the ages of authigenic quartz dated by the fission track method are well feasible and credible. (authors)

  3. Workshop on the Growth of Continental Crust (United States)

    Ashwal, Lewis D. (editor)


    Constraints and observations were discussed on a fundamental unsolved problem of global scale relating to the growth of planetary crusts. All of the terrestrial planets were considered, but emphasis was placed on the Earth's continental crust. The title of each session is: (1) Extraterrestrial crustal growth and destruction; (2) Constraints for observations and measurements of terrestrial rocks; (3) Models of crustal growth and destruction; and (4) Process of crustal growth and destruction.

  4. Cenozoic changes in atmospheric lead recorded in central Pacific ferromanganese crusts


    Klemm, V; Reynolds, B.; Frank, M; Pettke, T.; Halliday, AN


    The possible sources of pre-anthropogenic Pb contributed to the world's oceans have been the focus of considerable study. The role of eolian dust versus riverine inputs has been of particular interest. With better calibration of isotopic records from central Pacific ferromanganese crusts using Os isotope stratigraphy it now appears that deep water Pb isotopic compositions were effectively homogeneous over a distance of 5000 km for the past 80 Myr. The composition shifted slightly from high 20...

  5. A Seafloor Microbial Biome Hosted within Incipient Ferromanganese Crusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, Alexis S.; Knowles, A. S.; Eldridge, D. L.; Arey, Bruce W.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Webb, Samuel M.; Bailey, B. E.; Tebo, Bradley M.; Staudigel, Hubert


    Unsedimented volcanic rocks exposed on the seafloor at ridge systems and Seamounts host complex, abundant and diverse microbial communities that are relatively cosmopolitan in distribution (Lysnes, Thorseth et al. 2004; Mason, Stingl et al. 2007; Santelli, Orcutt et al. 2008). The most commonly held hypothesis is that the energy released by the hydration, dissolution and oxidative alteration of volcanic glasses in seawater drives the formation of an ocean crust biosphere (Thorseth, Furnes et al. 1992; Fisk, Giovannoni et al. 1998; Furnes and Staudigel 1999). The combined thermodynamically favorable weathering reactions could theoretically support anywhere from 105 to 109 cells/gram of rock depending upon the metabolisms utilized and cellular growth rates and turnover (Bach and Edwards 2003; Santelli, Orcutt et al. 2008). Yet microbially-mediated basalt alteration and energy conservation has not been directly demonstrated on the seafloor. By using synchrotron-based x-ray microprobe mapping, x-ray absorption spectroscopy and high-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations of young volcanic glasses recovered from the outer flanks of Loihi Seamount, we intended to identify the initial rates and mechanisms of microbial basalt colonization and bioalteration. Instead, here we show that microbial biofilms are intimately associated with ferromanganese crusts precipitating onto basalt surfaces from cold seawater. Thus we hypothesize that microbial communities colonizing seafloor rocks are established and sustained by external inputs of potential energy sources, such as dissolved and particulate Fe(II), Mn(II) and organic matter, rather than rock dissolution.

  6. Implications of Laurentian Grenville crust in the northern Scandinavian Caledonides (United States)

    Steltenpohl, Mark; Andresen, Arild; Augland, Lars; Prouty, Jonathan; Corfu, Fernando


    Field and geochronological data (40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb ID-TIMS and SHRIMP) on granitoids and their metasedimentary host rocks in the Salten region, northern Norway, document large Early Neoproterozoic plutons intruding slightly older metasedimentary protoliths. The Bratten-Landegode-Tårnvika gneiss complex, herein called the Rørstad complex, and the Heggmo unit have traditionally been interpreted to represent Baltican basement culminations (~ 1.8 Ga), but we document them to be exotic Grenville elements within separate thrust sheets at the structurally highest preserved tectonostratigraphic level (Uppermost Allochthon) of the Scandinavian Caledonides. Neoproterozoic ages for magmatism in these two tectonic units range between ~ 950 and 926 Ma, whereas metasedimentary host rocks of the Heggmo unit were deposited after ~1050 Ma (youngest zircon) prior to their intrusion. We suggest correlation of the metasedimentary rocks between the Heggmo and the Rørstad, although differences in their tectonometamorphic histories are clear. The Rørstad complex was migmatized in the Late Ordovician (~450 Ma) and later intruded by pegmatites and diorite sheets at ~433 and 428 Ma, respectively. Ordovician migmatites have not been found in the Heggmo unit, but relics of ~450 Ma activity might be masked by intense migmatization and associated leuocogranite activity are documented. 40Ar/39Ar step-heating analysis of hornblende and K-feldspar locally record pre-Scandian thermal effects, whereas muscovites and phlogopites indicate Siluro-Devonian metamorphism and cooling from Scandian emplacement. The Rørstad complex and the Heggmo unit show one-to-one correlations in ages with Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic rock complexes from the southern segment of the East Greenland Caledonides, as well as affinities to other complexes throughout the North Atlantic realm. The discovery of Laurentian Grenville-continental crust in the Uppermost Allochthon of the Scandinavian Caledonides requires substantial revision of the tectonostratigraphy of this part of the Caledonides. The Rørstad and Heggmo preserve a record of tectonic events that had taken place on the northeastern Laurentian continent prior to its Caledonian continent-continent collision with Baltica. We hypothesize on interactions and displacements between the two conjugate continental margins during the Scandian phase of the Caledonian orogeny.

  7. Role of the Deep Mantle in Generating EM-I in Ocean Island Basalts: Insight from the Kerguelen Archipelago (Indian Ocean) (Invited) (United States)

    Weis, D.


    The Kerguelen Plume is responsible for one of the longest (both in length and time) hotspot tracks on Earth, starting at ~120 Ma with the formation of the Rajmahal Traps in India. The tectonic setting evolved from continental break-up at ~120 Ma, to a position above the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR) at ~40 Ma, to a purely oceanic environment today. The Cretaceous record of volcanism on the Central and Southern Kerguelen Plateau shows interaction of mantle plume-derived magmas with continental-related material (5000 km-long Ninetyeast Ridge (82-38 Ma) lacks any evidence of such shallow contamination. Upper mantle components (depleted, SEIR-type) participated in the formation of the submarine Northern Kerguelen Plateau (~34 Ma). The Kerguelen Archipelago is covered (>80%) by flood basalts erupted between 30 and 24 Ma. With decreasing age and increasing distance from the SEIR, the compositions evolved from tholeiitic in the northwest, to transitional in the central part of the archipelago, and to alkaline in the Southeast Province. The transition from tholeiitic to mildly alkalic compositions primarily reflects changes in melting conditions (lower extents of partial melting at higher pressures), associated with crust and lithosphere thickening as the distance from the SEIR increased. High-precision Pb-Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data reveal that the archipelago flood basalts were derived from melting of an enriched component (EM-I) in the plume source, without any trace of continental contamination during eruption. The enriched component dominates the chemistry of the alkalic basalts (25-24 Ma), whereas the older (28-26 Ma) tholeiitic-transitional basalts contain a higher proportion of a depleted-SEIR component. In binary isotope plots, Kerguelen compositions form subparallel trends that are distinctly more enriched than those from Hawaii. Seismic data shows the presence of two large-low-shear-velocity-provinces (LLSVP) in the deep mantle, one centred in the Pacific, the other below Africa. When projected down to the core-mantle boundary (CMB), Kerguelen and Tristan (Atlantic Ocean) are located on the eastern and western edges of the tall steep-sided LLSVP African anomaly, respectively. The other two islands with EM-I signatures, Hawaii and Pitcairn, overlie the edges of the Pacific LLSVP. We infer that these deep zones with velocity anomalies at the CMB are the repositories for enriched components in the mantle that are brought to the surface by strong mantle plumes. Kerguelen and Tristan carry the strongest enriched signature, also referred to as the ';DUPAL anomaly', whereas Pitcairn and Hawaii have a distinct, slightly less pronounced enriched signature. The differences in EM-I compositions indicate that some of the material constituting the LLSVP at the base of the mantle is different in the African and Pacific anomalies. In Hawaii, the EM-I signature can be traced back to at least 5 Ma, whereas in Kerguelen it can be traced back until 34 Ma on the archipelago and Northern Kerguelen Plateau, and until 82 Ma along the Ninetyeast Ridge. This implies that the LLSVPs are long-lived features of the deep mantle; in the case of the African anomaly, on the order of 100 million years.

  8. The Moho beneath western Tibet: Shear zones and eclogitization in the lower crust (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongjie; Wang, Yanghua; Houseman, Gregory A.; Xu, Tao; Wu, Zhenbo; Yuan, Xiaohui; Chen, Yun; Tian, Xiaobo; Bai, Zhiming; Teng, Jiwen


    The Tibetan Plateau is formed by continuing convergence between Indian and Asian plates since ?50 Ma, involving more than 1400 km of crustal shortening. New seismic data from western Tibet (the TW-80 experiment at 80°E) reveal segmentation of lower crustal structure by the major sutures, contradicting the idea of a mobile lower crust that flows laterally in response to stress variations. Significant changes in crustal structure and Moho depth occur at the mapped major tectonic boundaries, suggesting that zones of localized shear on sub-vertical planes extend through the crust and into the upper mantle. Converted waves originating at the Moho and at a shallower discontinuity are interpreted to define a partially eclogitized layer that extends 200 km north of the Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone, beneath the entire Lhasa block at depths of between 50 and 70 km. This layer is thinner and shallower to the north of the Shiquanhe Fault which separates the northern Lhasa block from the southern part, and the degree of eclogitization is interpreted to increase northward. The segmentation of the Tibetan crust is compatible with a shortening deformation rather than shear on horizontal planes. Unless the Indian-plate mantle lithosphere plunges steeply into the mantle beneath the Indus-Yarlung suture, leaving Indian-plate crust accreted to the southern margin of Tibet, then it too must have experienced a similar shortening deformation.

  9. Basin Excavation, Lower Crust, Composition, and Bulk Moon Mass balance in Light of a Thin Crust (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Ziegler, R. A.


    New lunar gravity results from GRAIL have been interpreted to reflect an overall thin and low-density lunar crust. Accordingly, crustal thickness has been modeled as ranging from 0 to 60 km, with thinnest crust at the locations of Crisium and Moscoviense basins and thickest crust in the central farside highlands. The thin crust has cosmochemical significance, namely in terms of implications for the Moon s bulk composition, especially refractory lithophile elements that are strongly concentrated in the crust. Wieczorek et al. concluded that the bulk Moon need not be enriched compared to Earth in refractory lithophile elements such as Al. Less Al in the crust means less Al has been extracted from the mantle, permitting relatively low bulk lunar mantle Al contents and low pre- and post-crust-extraction values for the mantle (or the upper mantle if only the upper mantle underwent LMO melting). Simple mass-balance calculations using the method of [4] suggests that the same conclusion might hold for Th and the entire suite of refractory lithophile elements that are incompatible in olivine and pyroxene, including the KREEP elements, that are likewise concentrated in the crust.

  10. Formation of the giant Chalukou porphyry Mo deposit in northern Great Xing'an Range, NE China: Partial melting of the juvenile lower crust in intra-plate extensional environment (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Zhen; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Li, Guang-Ming; Ishihara, Shunso; Jin, Lu-Ying; Song, Guo-Xue; Meng, Zhao-Jun


    The Chalukou porphyry Mo deposit (2.46 Mt @ 0.087% Mo), located in the northern Great Xing'an Range, NE China, is the largest Mo deposit discovered in China so far. The host rocks consist of aplite porphyry, granite porphyry and quartz porphyry, and are intruded into Lower Ordovician intermediate-felsic volcanic-sedimentary rocks and pre-ore monzogranite and are cut by post-ore feldspar porphyry, diorite porphyry and quartz monzonite porphyry. Here, we present the zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry, Sr-Nd isotopic and zircon Hf isotopic data for the pre-ore, syn-ore and post-ore intrusive rocks. The Chalukou ore-forming porphyries intruded during 147-148 Ma and have high-silica, alkali-rich, metaluminous to slightly peraluminous compositions and are oxidized. They are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (e.g. K, Rb, U and Th), light REE and depleted in high-field strength elements (e.g. Nb, P and Ti). Depletions in Eu, Ba, Sr, Nb, Ta, P and Ti suggest that they have experienced strong fractional crystallization of plagioclase, biotite, hornblende and accessory minerals. The pre-ore monzogranite (~ 172 Ma) also belongs to the high-K calc-alkaline series. Highly fractionated REE patterns ((La/Yb) N = 19.6-21.7), high values of Sr/Y (54-69) and La/Yb (29-32), are adakite-like geochemical features. The post-ore rocks (~ 141-128 Ma) have similar geochemical characteristics with ore-forming porphyries except that quartz monzonite porphyry shows no Ba-Sr negative anomaly. All intrusive rocks have relative low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.705413-0.707889) and ?Nd (t) values (- 1.28 to + 0.92), positive ?Hf (t) values (+ 2.4 to + 10.1) and young two-stage Nd and Hf model ages (TDM2 (Nd) = 863-977 Ma, TDM2 (Hf) = 552-976 Ma). These geochemical and isotopic data are interpreted to demonstrate that the ore-forming porphyries formed by partial melting of the juvenile lower crust caused by underplating of mafic magmas in an intra-plate extensional setting. The pre-ore monzogranite formed by partial melting of thickened lower crust in a collisional setting caused by closure of Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean. The post-ore feldspar porphyry shares a similar magma source with ore-forming porphyry, but the quartz monzonite porphyry has a relatively deeper magma source region and has not experienced as much fractional crystallization. The transformation from middle Jurassic compression to late Jurassic extension created favorable conditions for the generation and emplacement of the ore-forming magma. The juvenile lower crust provided the main source of molybdenum for Chalukou deposit. Enrichment of Mo by fractional crystallization played an important role in concentrating Mo during formation of the Chalukou Mo deposit. The age (~ 147 Ma), high fluorine, and associated Pb-Zn deposits are all different from other major porphyry Mo deposits in NE China; Chalukou is a new mineral deposit type in the Great Xing'an Range.

  11. Deep melting of recycled crust from stagnant slab and genesis of alkaline basalts in eastern China (United States)

    Chen, L.; Hofmann, A. W.; Zeng, G.; Yu, X.


    Recycled oceanic crust from the core-mantle boundary has been widely accepted as important components in the sources of many hot spot-associated basalts. However, other than the core-mantle boundary, the mantle transition zone may be the other ';graveyard' for subducted crust, because the subducted slabs are usually stagnant there. To date, whether and how such recycled crust of stagnant slab contributes to the genesis of intraplate basalts is still poorly understood. In eastern China, the subducted Pacific slab is stagnant as a high-velocity anomaly in the mantle transition zone, and Cenozoic alkaline basalts are widely distributed as typical intraplate basalts in continental background, which provide a chance to explore this question. Here we found that alkaline basalts from Shandong, a province just above the eastern front of the stagnant Pacific slab in central eastern China, can be mainly produced by mixing of two endmember components. The two components are represented by two kinds of alkaline basalts which have similar (and moderately depleted) isotopic compositions but complementary (sub-mantle and super-mantle) incompatible element ratios of K/U, Ba/Th, and Ti/Gd. These complementary geochemical signatures are accordant with those of carbonatitic melts and solid residue from recycled young oceanic crust, respectively. This observation supports that recycled crust from the stagnant slab has experienced recent low-degree melting in deep upper mantle, possibly in an adiabatic process induced by a kind of edge flow at the eastern front of the stagnant slab, and feed the shallow sources of alkaline basalts with two kinds of components, carbonatitic liquids and eclogitic residues, respectively.

  12. Rheic Ocean ophiolitic remnants in southern Iberia questioned by SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages on the Beja-Acebuches amphibolites (United States)

    Azor, A.; Rubatto, D.; Simancas, J. F.; GonzáLez Lodeiro, F.; MartíNez Poyatos, D.; MartíN Parra, L. M.; Matas, J.


    The Rheic Ocean was a major oceanic domain between Avalonia and Gondwana in Ordovician-Silurian times. Most of the Paleozoic plate reconstructions assume that the Rheic Ocean suture lies within southern Iberia, coinciding with the contact between the South Portuguese Zone and the Ossa-Morena Zone. This paper reports four Sensitive High Resolution Ion Micro-Probe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon ages from mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-featured rocks of the Beja-Acebuches Amphibolite unit, which crops out along the boundary between the Ossa-Morena and the South Portuguese Zone, and is considered its most conspicuous suture unit. The obtained ages range from 332 ± 3 to 340 ± 4 Ma, corresponding to the crystallization of the mafic protoliths. These Early Carboniferous ages for the Beja-Acebuches amphibolites imply that this unit can no longer be viewed as an ophiolite belonging to the Rheic Ocean suture, since this oceanic domain was presumably closed in Devonian times. Tectonic reconstructions joining in a single suture line the Beja-Acebuches Amphibolite unit in southern Iberia to either the Devonian Lizard ophiolite in southern England or the root zone of the Devonian/Ordovician ophiolitic units in northwest Iberia must be therefore reconsidered because of the age difference. We interpret the Beja-Acebuches Amphibolite unit to represent a narrow and very ephemeral realm of oceanic-like crust that opened in Early Carboniferous times, after total consumption of the Rheic Ocean. We suggest that a mantle plume underneath southern Iberia in Early Carboniferous times is the most plausible large-scale geodynamic scenario for the formation of these MORB-featured rocks.

  13. Early Cretaceous intra-oceanic rifting in the Proto-Indian Ocean recorded in the Masirah Ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman


    Marquer, Didier; Mercolli, Ivan; Peters, Tjerk


    The Masirah Ophiolite (Sultanate of Oman) was part of an oceanic basin (Proto-Indian Ocean) formed by the break-up of Gondwana in Late Jurassic times similar to the Somali basin. It was obducted onto the Arabian continental margin in the Early Paleocene, 100 Ma after its formation. Hence, it is possible to investigate the different tectonic and magmatic processes that have affected the oceanic lithosphere during these 100 Ma. Tithonian ridge magmatism, tectonism and hydrothermal alteration ar...

  14. Nuclei in Strongly Magnetised Neutron Star Crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, Rana


    We discuss the ground state properties of matter in outer and inner crusts of neutron stars under the influence of strong magnetic fields. In particular, we demonstrate the effects of Landau quantization of electrons on compositions of neutron star crusts. First we revisit the sequence of nuclei and the equation of state of the outer crust adopting the Baym, Pethick and Sutherland (BPS) model in the presence of strong magnetic fields and most recent versions of the theoretical and experimental nuclear mass tables. Next we deal with nuclei in the inner crust. Nuclei which are arranged in a lattice, are immersed in a nucleonic gas as well as a uniform background of electrons in the inner crust. The Wigner-Seitz approximation is adopted in this calculation and each lattice volume is replaced by a spherical cell. The coexistence of two phases of nuclear matter - liquid and gas, is considered in this case. We obtain the equilibrium nucleus corresponding to each baryon density by minimizing the free energy of the c...

  15. Growth of the lower continental crust (United States)

    Rudnick, Roberta L.

    One of the largest uncertainties in crustal composition and growth models is the nature of the lower continental crust. Specifically, by what processes is it formed and modified, and when is it formed, particularly in reference to the upper crust? The main reason for this lack of information is the scarcity of lower crustal rock samples. These are restricted to two types: rocks which outcrop in granulite facies terrains and granulite facies xenoliths which are transported to the earth's surface by young volcanics. The important conclusions arising from the xenolith studies are: the majority of mafic lower crustal xenoliths formed through cumulate process, resitic xenoliths are rare; and formation and metamorphism of the deep crust is intimately linked to igneous activity and/or orogeny which are manifest in one form or another at the earth's surface. Therefore, estimates of crustal growth based on surface exposures is representative, although the proportion of remobilized pre-existing crust may be significantly greater at the surface than in the deep crust.

  16. Unified Structural Representation of the southern California crust and upper mantle (United States)

    Shaw, John H.; Plesch, Andreas; Tape, Carl; Suess, M. Peter; Jordan, Thomas H.; Ely, Geoffrey; Hauksson, Egill; Tromp, Jeroen; Tanimoto, Toshiro; Graves, Robert; Olsen, Kim; Nicholson, Craig; Maechling, Philip J.; Rivero, Carlos; Lovely, Peter; Brankman, Charles M.; Munster, Jason


    We present a new, 3D description of crust and upper mantle velocity structure in southern California implemented as a Unified Structural Representation (USR). The USR is comprised of detailed basin velocity descriptions that are based on tens of thousands of direct velocity (Vp, Vs) measurements and incorporates the locations and displacement of major fault zones that influence basin structure. These basin descriptions were used to developed tomographic models of crust and upper mantle velocity and density structure, which were subsequently iterated and improved using 3D waveform adjoint tomography. A geotechnical layer (GTL) based on Vs30 measurements and consistent with the underlying velocity descriptions was also developed as an optional model component. The resulting model provides a detailed description of the structure of the southern California crust and upper mantle that reflects the complex tectonic history of the region. The crust thickens eastward as Moho depth varies from 10 to 40 km reflecting the transition from oceanic to continental crust. Deep sedimentary basins and underlying areas of thin crust reflect Neogene extensional tectonics overprinted by transpressional deformation and rapid sediment deposition since the late Pliocene. To illustrate the impact of this complex structure on strong ground motion forecasting, we simulate rupture of a proposed M 7.9 earthquake source in the Western Transverse Ranges. The results show distinct basin amplification and focusing of energy that reflects crustal structure described by the USR that is not captured by simpler velocity descriptions. We anticipate that the USR will be useful for a broad range of simulation and modeling efforts, including strong ground motion forecasting, dynamic rupture simulations, and fault system modeling. The USR is available through the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) website (

  17. Models of strange stars having a crust (United States)

    Vartanyan, Yu. L.; Grigoryan, A. K.


    Models of strange quark stars with a crust consisting of atomic nuclei and degenerate electrons, maintained by an electrostatic barrier at the surface of the strange quark matter, are investigated for a realistic range of parameters of the MIT bag model. The density at which neutrons escape from nuclei, ? = ?drip, is taken as the maximum possible boundary density of the crust. Series of strange stars are calculated as a function of central density. Configurations with masses of 1.44 and 1.77 M{ie 330-1} and a gravitational redshift Zs = 0.23, corresponding to the best-known observational data, are investigated. The presence of a crust results in the existence of a minimum mass for strange stars, and also helps to explain the glitch phenomenon of pulsars within the framework of the existence of strange quark matter.

  18. The crust role at Paramillos Altos intrusive belt: Sr and Pb isotope evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramillos Altos Intrusive Belt (PAIB) (Ostera, 1996) is located in the thick skinned folded-thrust belt of Malargue, southwestern Mendoza, Argentina. Geochemical, geochronologic and isotopic studies were carried out in it (Ostera 1996, 1997, Ostera et al. 1999; Ostera et al. 2000) and these previous papers suggested a minor involvement of the crust in the genesis of the PAIB. According with Ostera et al. (2000) it is composed by stocks, laccoliths, dykes and sills which range in composition from diorites to granodiorites, and from andesites to rhyolites, and divided in five Members, which range in age from Middle Miocene to Early Miocene: a- Calle del Yeso Dyke Complex (CYDC), with sills and dykes of andesitic composition (age: 20±2 Ma). b- Puchenque-Atravesadas Intrusive Complex (PAIC), composed by dykes and stocks ranging from diorites to granodiorites (age: 12.5±1 Ma). c- Arroyo Serrucho Stock (SAS), an epizonal and zoned stock, with four facies, with K/Ar and Ar/Ar dates of 10±1 and 9.5±0.5 Ma. d- Portezuelo de los Cerros Bayos (PCB), that includes porphyritic rocks of rhyolitic composition, of 7.5±0.5 Ma. e- Cerro Bayo Vitrophyres (CBV), with andesitic sills and dykes (age: 4.8±0.2 Ma). We present in this paper new Sr and Pb isotopes data that constrain the evolution of the PAIB (au)

  19. The Inner Crust and its Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, Débora P; Providência, Constança; Alloy, Marcelo D


    In this chapter we discuss some possible physical pictures that describe the constitution of the inner crust of compact objects. Different relativistic models both with constant couplings and density dependent ones are used. We calculate the liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter from the thermodynamic and dynamic instabilities. The equations of state used to describe the crust are related to the crust-core transition properties. Cold and warm pasta phases with and without alpha particles are constructed. The influence of the pasta phase and its internal structure on the diffusion coefficients associated with Boltzman transport equations used to simulate the evolution of protoneutron stars are shown. Finally, the possible existence of bare quark stars and the effects of strong magnetic fields on quark matter are considered. Open questions are pointed out.

  20. Platinum stable isotopes in ferromanganese crust and nodules (United States)

    Corcoran, Loretta; Seward, Terry; Handler, Monica R.


    Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crust and nodules are slow-growing chemical sediments that form by direct precipitation from seawater, resulting in a record of changing seawater chemistry. These sediments are the primary sink for platinum in the modern oxic marine environment, hosting well-documented enrichments over other platinum-group elements (PGEs): the Pt anomaly [1]. Platinum is a non-bio-essential, highly siderophile, transition metal with six stable isotopes (190Pt, 192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, and 198Pt) with several oxidation states (Pt0, Pt2+ and Pt4+). Platinum is generally considered to exist in the hydrosphere as Pt2+ although its behaviour in the marine environment is poorly constrained, and Pt4+may also be present. Variations in ocean redox state, together with changes in source fluxes to the oceans, may therefore lead to small variations (materials underwent platinum stable isotopic measurement as an analogue for the Pt isotopic fractionation associated with continental weathering. [1] Hodge, V.F. et al. (1985) Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 72, 158-162. [2] Creech, J. et al. (2013) Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 28. 853-865.

  1. Tectonomagmatic setting and provenance of the Santa Marta Schists, northern Colombia: Insights on the growth and approach of Cretaceous Caribbean oceanic terranes to the South American continent (United States)

    Cardona, A.; Valencia, V.; Bustamante, C.; García-Casco, A.; Ojeda, G.; Ruiz, J.; Saldarriaga, M.; Weber, M.


    Metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary rocks accreted to the northern South American continental margin are major vestiges of the Caribbean oceanic plate evolution and its interactions with the continent. Selected whole rock geochemistry, Nd-Sr isotopes and detrital zircon geochronology were obtained in metabasic and metasedimentary rocks from the Santa Marta and San Lorenzo Schists in northernmost Colombia. Trace element patterns are characterized by primitive island arc and MORB signatures. Similarly initial 87Sr/ 86Sr-? Nd isotopic relations correlate with oceanic arcs and MORB reservoirs, suggesting that the protoliths were formed within a back-arc setting or at the transition between the inta-oceanic arc and the Caribbean oceanic crust. Trace element trends from associated metasedimentary rocks show that the provenance was controlled by a volcanic arc and a sialic continental domain, whereas detrital U/Pb zircons from the Santa Marta Schists and adjacent southeastern metamorphic units show Late Cretaceous and older Mesozoic, Late Paleozoic and Mesoproterozoic sources. Comparison with continental inland basins suggests that this arc-basin is allocthonous to its current position, and was still active by ca. 82 Ma. The geological features are comparable to other arc remnants found in northeastern Colombia and the Netherland Antilles. The geochemical and U/Pb detrital signatures from the metasedimentary rocks suggest that this tectonic domain was already in proximity to the continental margin, in a configuration similar to the modern Antilles or the Kermadec arc in the Pacific. The older continental detritus were derived from the ongoing Andean uplift feeding the intra-oceanic tectonic environment. Cross-cutting relations with granitoids and metamorphic ages suggest that metamorphism was completed by ca. 65 Ma.

  2. Structure and isostatic compensation of the Comorin Ridge, north central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, K.M.; Krishna, K.S.; Bansal, A.R.


    flexural plate model with an elastic thickness of about 15 km is obtained. Admittance analysis together with the results from gravity forward modelling reveal that the south part was emplaced on relatively weak oceanic crust with both surface and subsurface...

  3. Composition and genesis of zeolitic claystones from the central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.; Das, P.


    More than fifty indurated sediments recovered from the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIoB) are examined during the course of collection for manganese nodules and crusts. The samples occur as slabs either over which ferromanganese oxides are present...

  4. Tungsten Stable Isotope Compositions of Ferromanganese Crusts (United States)

    Abraham, K.; Barling, J.; Hein, J. R.; Schauble, E. A.; Halliday, A. N.


    We report the first accurate and precise data for mass-dependent fractionation of tungsten (W) stable isotopes, using a double spike technique and MC-ICPMS. Results are expressed relative to the NIST 3136 W isotope standard as per mil deviations in 186W/184W (?186W). Although heavy element mass-dependent fractionations are expected to be small, Tl and U both display significant low temperature isotopic fractionations. Theoretical calculations indicate that W nuclear volume isotopic effects should be smaller than mass-dependent fractionations at low temperatures. Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts precipitate directly from seawater and have been used as paleoceanographic recorders of temporal changes in seawater chemistry. Crusts are strongly enriched in W and other metals, and are a promising medium for exploring W isotopic variability. Tungsten has a relatively long residence time in seawater of ~61,000 years, mainly as the tungstate ion (WO42-). Water depth profiles show conservative behaviour. During adsorption on Fe-Mn crusts, W species form inner-sphere complexes in the hexavalent (W6+) state. The major host phase is thought to be Mn oxides and the lighter W isotope is expected to be absorbed preferentially. Surface scrapings of 13 globally distributed hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts display ?186W from -0.08 to -0.22‰ (±0.03‰, 2sd). A trend toward lighter W isotope composition exists with increasing water depth (~1500 to ~5200m) and W concentration. One hydrothermal Mn-oxide sample is anomalously light and Mn nodules are both heavy and light relative to Fe-Mn crusts. Tungsten speciation depends on concentration, pH, and time in solution and is not well understood because of the extremely slow kinetics of the reactions. In addition, speciation of aqueous and/or adsorbed species might be sensitive to pressure, showing similar thermodynamic stability but different effective volumes. Thus, W stable isotopes might be used as a water-depth barometer in marine environments; time-series in Fe-Mn crusts may show a heavier isotope composition in older crust layers due to the shallower water environments in the early history of the seamounts on which the crusts grow.

  5. Nagssugtoqidian mobile belt of West Greenland: A cryptic 1850 Ma suture between two Archaean continents - chemical and isotopic evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New chemical and isotopic data permit the recognition of a cryptic suture zone between two Archean continental masses within the Nagssugtoqidian mobile belt of West Greenland. This discovery has important implications for Precambrian crustal evolution: suture zones may not always be identifiable from geologic field observations, with the consequence that mobile belts in which undetected sutures exist may be mis-identified as ensialic, and thought to require special non-plate tectonic models to account for their development. The Nagssugtoqidian belt consists mainly of Archaean gneisses reworked during the Proterozoic, with metamorphic grade and degree of isotopic disturbance increasing towards the center of the belt. At the centre of the belt the Nagssugtoqidian includes metasediments and calc-alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of Proterozoic age, almost always strongly deformed and metamorphosed. From isotopic evidence (Sri ca. 0.703; model ?1 values ca. 8.0; initial ?Nd ca. 0) it is clear that the Proterozoic igneous rocks do not include any significant contributions derived from the Archaean crust, and the chemistry of rocks, together with the isotope data, suggests that they were formed at a destructive plate margin. The Proterozoic rocks are found in a narrow zone (up to 30 km wide) between the Archaean gneisses to the north and south of Nordre Stroemfjord, and are interpreted as reflecting the existence of a suture between two Archaean continental blocks. Zircon U-Pb data and other isotope evidence show that subduction started before ca. 1920 Ma ago, and lasted until ca. 1850 Ma when collision occurred, with consequent crustal thickening, high-grade metamorphism and local anatexis. Given the time-span for the operation of subduction, the existence of a wide Nagssugtoqidian ocean can be inferred, even for slow rates of plate motion. (orig./SHOE)

  6. Postcollisional mafic igneous rocks record crust-mantle interaction during continental deep subduction. (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Fu; Dai, Li-Qun; Zheng, Yong-Fei


    Findings of coesite and microdiamond in metamorphic rocks of supracrustal protolith led to the recognition of continental subduction to mantle depths. The crust-mantle interaction is expected to take place during subduction of the continental crust beneath the subcontinental lithospheric mantle wedge. This is recorded by postcollisional mafic igneous rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt and its adjacent continental margin in the North China Block. These rocks exhibit the geochemical inheritance of whole-rock trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes as well as zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopes from felsic melts derived from the subducted continental crust. Reaction of such melts with the overlying wedge peridotite would transfer the crustal signatures to the mantle sources for postcollisional mafic magmatism. Therefore, postcollisonal mafic igneous rocks above continental subduction zones are an analog to arc volcanics above oceanic subduction zones, providing an additional laboratory for the study of crust-mantle interaction at convergent plate margins. PMID:24301173

  7. Crust and Mantle Anisotropy Variations from the Coast to Inland In Central and Southern Mexico (United States)

    Castillo, J. A.; Perez-Campos, X.; Husker, A. L.; Valenzuela Wong, R.


    We examine radial and tangential receiver functions (RFs) obtained along the Meso America Subduction Experiment (MASE), a profile from the Pacific coast in central-southern Mexico to the Gulf of Mexico. Tangential RFs show waveform variations in timing and polarity, both in the Moho and the slab Ps phases in function of its backazimuth; also, radial RFs show arrivals timing variation; all of which suggests a non-homogeneous horizontal layer medium. Using a particle motion analysis and a cross-correlation procedure, we are able to quantify the shear wave splitting in the continental crust, the subducted oceanic crust and the mantle below each station of the array in terms of a time delay, and a fast azimuth direction. From these variations, we distinguish between three major regions: 1) dipping subducted slab, 2) horizontal subducted slab, 3) absence of subducted slab. Results for region 1 are consistent with the geometry of the Cocos plate previously determined by other studies, showing a minimum energy content in the tangential RFs for the NE-SW geographic quadrants. In region 2, we identify a strong azimuthal dependence with a variable periodicity of 180° and 360° as well as the existence of "split" Ps phases in our data, possibly related to the presence of fluids and the ultra low velocity layer (ULVL) localized between the continental and oceanic crust. We compare these results with previous silent earthquakes (SSE) and non-volcanic tremors (NVT) studies in the area.

  8. Crust-mantle interaction beneath the Luxi Block, eastern North China Craton: Evidence from coexisting mantle- and crust-derived enclaves in a quartz monzonite pluton (United States)

    Lan, Ting-Guang; Fan, Hong-Rui; Santosh, M.; Hu, Fang-Fang; Yang, Kui-Feng; Yang, Yue-Heng; Liu, Yongsheng


    The Laiwu quartz monzonite in the Luxi Block of eastern North China Craton (NCC) is characterized by the presence of abundant plagioclase amphibolite and gabbro-diorite enclaves. Here we present LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb ages which show that the host quartz monzonite was emplaced at 129.8 ± 1.0 Ma, whereas the protolith of the plagioclase amphibolite enclaves formed during early Paleoproterozoic. The gabbro-diorite enclaves were produced simultaneously with or slightly earlier than the formation of the host quartz monzonite. Combined with the Archean and Paleoproterozoic zircons as well as the low ?Nd(0) values (- 18.4 to - 18.0) in the plagioclase amphibolite enclaves, the equilibrium temperature and pressure conditions (645-670 °C and 4.8-6.5 Kb) suggest that the plagioclase amphibolite enclaves are fragments of the middle crust. The gabbro-diorite enclaves mainly originated from an enriched lithospheric mantle metasomatized by melts/fluids derived from the continental crust, as indicated by their low SiO2 (54.4-54.7 wt.%) and high MgO (10.9-11.1 wt.%) contents as well as the negative ?Nd(t) values (- 13.5 to - 10.7) and enrichment of LILEs (e.g., Ba and Sr) and depletion of HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta, P and Ti). Compared with the ancient crustal rocks and the mafic plutons considered to have been derived from lithospheric mantle in the Luxi Block, the moderate ?Nd(t) (- 15.7 to - 15.1) and ?Hf(t) (- 20.7 to - 13.0) values of the quartz monzonite in our study suggest that both mantle- and crust-derived melts were involved in the magma generation. Thus we propose a model involving magma mixing between mantle- and crust-derived melts for the formation of the quartz monzonite. Since significant crust-mantle interaction is recorded not only in the quartz monzonite and its enclaves in the Luxi Block but also in the other granitoids widespread in the NCC, it is considered that large-scale crust-mantle interaction and magmatic underplating were associated with the Mesozoic lithospheric mantle thinning and crustal reactivation in the eastern NCC.

  9. Pulsar Glitches: The Crust may be Enough

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarewicz, J; Horowitz, C J


    Pulsar glitches-the sudden spin-up in the rotational frequency of a neutron star-suggest the existence of an angular-momentum reservoir confined to the inner crust of the neutron star. Large and regular glitches observed in the Vela pulsar have originally constrained the fraction of the stellar moment of inertia that must reside in the solid crust to about 1.4%. However, crustal entrainment-which until very recently has been ignored-suggests that in order to account for the Vela glitches, the fraction of the moment of inertia residing in the crust must increase to about 7%. This indicates that the required angular momentum reservoir may exceed that which is available in the crust. We explore the possibility that uncertainties in the equation of state provide enough flexibility for the construction of models that predict a large crustal thickness and consequently a large crustal moment of inertia. Given that analytic results suggest that the crustal moment of inertia is sensitive to the transition pressure at ...

  10. Millennial-scale ocean acidification and late Quaternary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riding, Dr Robert E [University of Tennessee (UT); Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Braga, Dr Juan Carlos [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Estratigraf?a y Paleontolog?a, Granada, Spain


    Ocean acidification by atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased almost continuously since the last glacial maximum (LGM), 21 000 years ago. It is expected to impair tropical reef development, but effects on reefs at the present day and in the recent past have proved difficult to evaluate. We present evidence that acidification has already significantly reduced the formation of calcified bacterial crusts in tropical reefs. Unlike major reef builders such as coralline algae and corals that more closely control their calcification, bacterial calcification is very sensitive to ambient changes in carbonate chemistry. Bacterial crusts in reef cavities have declined in thickness over the past 14 000 years with largest reduction occurring 12 000 10 000 years ago. We interpret this as an early effect of deglacial ocean acidification on reef calcification and infer that similar crusts were likely to have been thicker when seawater carbonate saturation was increased during earlier glacial intervals, and thinner during interglacials. These changes in crust thickness could have substantially affected reef development over glacial cycles, as rigid crusts significantly strengthen framework and their reduction would have increased the susceptibility of reefs to biological and physical erosion. Bacterial crust decline reveals previously unrecognized millennial-scale acidification effects on tropical reefs. This directs attention to the role of crusts in reef formation and the ability of bioinduced calcification to reflect changes in seawater chemistry. It also provides a long-term context for assessing anticipated anthropogenic effects.

  11. Global Moho from the combination of the CRUST2.0 model and GOCE data (United States)

    Reguzzoni, Mirko; Sampietro, Daniele; Sansò, Fernando


    The discontinuity surface between Earth crust and mantle, the so-called Moho, is commonly estimated by means of seismic or gravimetric methods. Usually these methods do not yield the same result since they are based on different geological and geophysical hypotheses, as well as different data types, also in terms of quality and spatial distribution. In particular, global crust models based only on seismic data (e.g. the CRUST2.0 model) can be locally very accurate since seismic profiles give an almost direct observation of the actual crust structure, but can be quite uninformative in large regions where no data are available or they are too inhomogeneous. On the contrary, when using satellite gravity observations like those provided by the ESA mission GOCE, information on the Moho can be inferred from a uniform and global data set. However, Moho models estimated by gravity data are in general characterized by simplified hypotheses to guarantee the uniqueness of the solution of the inverse gravitational problem. The aim of this work is to attenuate these drawbacks by combining the seismic global model CRUST2.0 with gravity observations from the GOCE satellite mission. More specifically, the used GOCE data are grid values at mean satellite altitude estimated by the so-called space-wise approach. After reducing the data to a two-layer model by removing the effect of topography, bathymetry and sediments, a combined inversion driven by a priori information on the CRUST2.0 accuracy and by the error covariance structure of the GOCE grids is performed. In addition, the observation errors as well as the error due to the data reduction are tentatively taken into account to estimate the accuracy of the final Moho model. The result is an update of the CRUST2.0 Moho model with a 0.5° × 0.5° resolution, which at the same time contains seismic and geological information and it is consistent, at 20 mE level, to the actually observed gravity field. A first comparison with the CRUST2.0 Moho shows that in the continental crust the mean difference between the two models is of the order of 1.5 km with standard deviations depending on the considered region. As expected, the main variations (standard deviation of the order of 7 km) are located in South America, Africa and Antarctica where very few data in the CRUST2.0 were originally used. In the rest of the world, differences have a standard deviation of about 4 km. As for the oceanic crust, it can be noted that the corrections to the CRUST2.0 model are of the order of 3 km (mean value) with a standard deviation of 6 km. Finally, the solution computed in this paper has been compared with a set of Moho models at different scales from global to local ones showing that it is reasonably consistent (differences of about 5 km standard deviation) also with seismic observations.

  12. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Scenarios

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Scenarios provide useful insight into the complex factors that drive ecosystem change, estimating the magnitude of regional...

  13. Anatexis, hybridization and the modification of ancient crust: Mesozoic plutonism in the Old Woman Mountains area, California (United States)

    Miller, C.F.; Wooden, J.L.


    A compositionally expanded array of granitic (s.l.) magmas intruded the > 2 Ga crust of the Old Woman Mountains area between 160 and 70 Ma. These magmas were emplaced near the eastern (inland) edge of the Jurassic/Cretaceous arcs of western North America, in an area where magma flux, especially during the Jurassic, was considerably lower than to the west. The Jurassic intrusives and over half of the Cretaceous intrusives are predominantly metaluminous and variable in composition; a major Cretaceous suite comprises only peraluminous monzogranite. Only the Jurassic intrusions show clear evidence for the presence of mafic liquids. All units, including the most mafic rocks, reveal isotopic evidence for a significant crustal component. However, none of the Mesozoic intrusives matches in isotopic composition either average pre-intrusion crust or any major unit of the exposed crust. Elemental inconsistencies also preclude closed system derivation from exposed crust. Emplacement of these magmas, which doubled the volume of the mid- to upper crust, did not dramatically change its elemental composition. It did, however, affect its Nd and especially Sr isotopic composition and modify some of the distinctive aspects of the elemental chemistry. We propose that Jurassic magmatism was open-system, with a major influx of mantle-derived mafic magma interacting strongly with the ancient crust. Mesozoic crustal thickening may have led to closed-system crustal melting by the Late Cretaceous, but the deep crust had been profoundly modified by earlier Mesozoic hybridization so that crustal melts did not simply reflect the original crustal composition. The clear evidence for a crustal component in magmas of the Old Woman Mountains area may not indicate any fundamental differences from the processes at work elsewhere in this or other magmatic arcs where the role of pre-existing crust is less certain. Rather, a compositionally distinctive, very old crust may simply have yielded a more readily identifiable crustal fingerprint. The same processes that were involved here-mafic magma influx, hybridization, and remelting of hybridized crust-are likely to be typical of arc settings. ?? 1994.

  14. Compositional Freeze-Out of Neutron Star Crusts


    Hoffman, Kelsey; Heyl, Jeremy


    We have investigated the crustal properties of neutron stars without fallback accretion. We have calculated the chemical evolution of the neutron star crust in three different cases (a modified Urca process without the thermal influence of a crust, a thick crust, and a direct Urca process with a thin crust) in order to determine the detailed composition of the envelope and atmosphere as the nuclear reactions freeze out. Using a nuclear reaction network up to technetium, we c...

  15. Evidence for the subduction and underplating of an oceanic plateau beneath the south Peruvian margin during the late Cretaceous: structural implications (United States)

    Soler, P.; Carlier, G.; Marocco, R.


    uring late Cretaceous times (Santonian to Maastrichtian), the southern Peruvian and northernmost Chilean Andes show a series of tectonic, magmatic and sedimentological features, which appear to be specific to this area when compared with northern and southern parts of the Andes: a gap in the magmatic activity in the Coastal Range and the Western Cordillera between 84 and 70 Ma; huge overthrusting faults involving the Precambrian basement in the Arequipa region; and the syntectonic filling of the Cuzco and Sicuani foreland continental basins. These particular features may be regarded as consequences of the subduction and underplating of a paleo-oceanic plateau (the "Mollendo ridge") which would have occurred in this area between ±85 and ±70 Ma B.P. with an almost N-S direction of convergence between the Farallon and South American plates. This inferred "Mollendo ridge" would have been an eastern equivalent of the present-day Manihiki plateau of the western Pacific Ocean. The proposed model provides new elements for the interpretation of the subsequent structural and magmatic evolution of the central Andes; it permits the explanation of the particular location and the petrochemical and metallogenetic features of the Andahuaylas-Yauri batholith. The segment of abnormally thick crust created by the underplating of the "Mollendo ridge" and by overthrusting tectonics will act as an accumulation point for further Cenozoic deformation along the Andean margin; then the subduction of the "Mollendo ridge" would mark the outset of the development of the oroclinal bending of the central Andes (the Arica elbow) and of the associated Altiplano and its anomalous thick crust.

  16. COOL: Crust of the Oman Ophiolite and its Lithosphere - a passive seismic experiment (United States)

    Weidle, Christian; Agard, Philippe; Ducassou, Céline; El-Hussain, Issa; Prigent, Cécile; Meier, Thomas


    Plate tectonics has established a framework for geoscientists to understand most geologic/tectonic processes that shaped our present-day Earth. 'Obduction', the emplacement of young, dense oceanic lithosphere (ophiolites) on top of older lighter continental lithosphere remains, however, a rather odd phenomenon. Some ophiolites are fundamentally similar to young oceanic crust and it is hence assumed that they were obducted as thrust sheets at the onset of continental subduction in a previously intra-oceanic subduction setting. The Peri-Arabic obduction corresponded to a spectacular, almost synchronous thrust movement along thousands of km from Turkey to Oman. At the eastern margin of the Arabian plate, the world's largest and best preserved ophiolite was emplaced in only a few My during Upper Cretaceous and is exposed today atop the Oman Mountain range. Although being the best studied ophiolite in the world, rather little is still known about the internal structure of the ophiolite and the Oman Mountains. The dimension of the ophiolite is large enough (~700 km) to be studied with seismological methods, providing thus a rare setting to investigate oceanic crust on land without ocean bottom installations. We have deployed a network of 40 broadband seismometers across the Oman Mountains in Oct/Nov 2013 for passive seismic registration for a duration of ca. 15 months. The network is complemented by 10 permanent stations in the area operated by the Earthquake Monitoring Center in Oman. Aims of the project include: - Seismological imaging of the geometry and internal properties of obducted oceanic, and its underlying continental lithosphere. - Regional tomographic velocity models will provide constraints on geodynamic processes that led to large scale obduction. - Investigating the "quiet" Makran subduction zone for local seismicity will improve understanding of seismic hazard on the eastern Arabian plate.

  17. Discovery and utilization of sorghum genes (Ma5/Ma6) (United States)

    Mullet, John E; Rooney, William L; Klein, Patricia E; Morishige, Daryl; Murphy, Rebecca; Brady, Jeff A


    Methods and composition for the production of non-flowering or late flowering sorghum hybrid. For example, in certain aspects methods for use of molecular markers that constitute the Ma5/Ma6 pathway to modulate photoperiod sensitivity are described. The invention allows the production of plants having improved productivity and biomass generation.

  18. The bearing of spinel cataclasites on the crust-mantle structure of the moon (United States)

    Herzberg, C. T.


    Subsolidus thermodynamic calculations have been made to define the temperature and pressure conditions required to equilibrate lunar spinel cataclasites (olivine + high alumina orthopyroxene + pleonaste spinel + plagioclase + or - cordierite) that occur as clasts in 15445, 73263, and 72435. The results, which are subject to modification by improved thermodynamic data and experiment, indicate that those samples that are cordierite-free and of high Mg/(Mg + Fe) were derived from the lower crust and possibly from a high-velocity zone of the uppermost mantle. However, the cordierite-bearing type in 72435,8 /low Mg/(Mg + Fe)/ resided in the upper levels of the crust prior to excavation by impact. Consideration of the relevant supersolidus phase equilibria indicates that the whole-rock chemistry of all spinel cataclasites can only be explained by pleonaste spinel accumulation. These materials are interpreted to be primordial cumulate rocks formed during the differentiation of the lunar magma ocean.

  19. The morphostructure of the atlantic ocean floor its development in the meso-cenozoic

    CERN Document Server

    Litvin, V M


    The study of the topography and structure of the ocean floor is one of the most important stages in ascertaining the geological structure and history of development of the Earth's oceanic crust. This, in its turn, provides a means for purposeful, scientifically-substantiated prospecting, exploration and development of the mineral resources of the ocean. The Atlantic Ocean has been geologically and geophysically studied to a great extent and many years of investigating its floor have revealed the laws governing the structure of the major forms of its submarine relief (e. g. , the continental shelf, the continental slope, the transition zones, the ocean bed, and the Mid-Oceanic Ridge). The basic features of the Earth's oceanic crust structure, anomalous geophysical fields, and the thickness and structure of its sedimentary cover have also been studied. Based on the investigations of the Atlantic Ocean floor and its surrounding continents, the presently prevalent concept of new global tectonics has appeared. A g...

  20. Reconciling evidence for Tethyan intra-oceanic subduction and a two-stage collision between India and Eurasia (United States)

    Gibbons, Ana D.; Zahirovic, Sabin; Dietmar Müller, R.; Whittaker, Joanne M.; Yatheesh, Vadakkeyakath


    We present a plate tectonic model for the India-Eurasia collision that includes a time-dependent network of evolving plate boundaries with synthetic plates constructed for now-subducted Tethyan ocean floor, including back-arc basins that formed on the southern Eurasian margin. Southern Eurasia and Southeast Asia are riddled with dismembered oceanic arcs indicating long-lived intra-oceanic subduction. This intra-oceanic subduction may have extended further west into the India-Eurasia convergence zone in the NeoTethys, which was consumed during Greater India's northward trajectory towards Eurasia from the Early Cretaceous. Fragments of obducted oceanic crust within the Himalayan Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone, between India and Eurasia, cluster around two age groups, the Late Jurassic and mid Cretaceous (Barremian-Aptian). The adakitic, boninitic and MORB-affinities of the various ophiolites along strike suggest that there was at least one generation of intra-oceanic subduction, whose plate boundary configuration remains uncertain, though it is best preserved in the Kohistan-Ladakh Arc. Paleomagnetic and magmatic characterisation studies from the ophiolites suggest that the intra-oceanic arc was as far south as the equator during the Early Cretaceous before subduction resumed further north beneath the southern Eurasian margin (Lhasa terrane) to consume the back-arc basin. During ~80-65 Ma, a hiatus in subduction-related magmatism along the southern Lhasa terrane may indicate the approach of the back-arc spreading centre towards the active Andean-style margin. We incorporate these observations into a regional, self-consistent plate tectonic model for the dispersal of East Gondwana, simultaneously considering geophysical data and seafloor spreading histories from abyssal plains offshore West Australia and East Antarctica, including Jurassic seafloor age data from offshore NW Australia that limits northern Greater India to a maximum of ~1000 km. This Greater India collided with the Tethyan intra-oceanic arc, including the Kohistan and Ladakh arcs, from the Mid Paleocene. Greater India's leading edge, bearing the intra-oceanic arc, finally closed the Tethyan seaway with progressive suturing to Eurasia from the Mid-Late Eocene, which coincides with the age of the youngest marine deposits found between India and Eurasia. Our model of mid-ocean ridge and subduction zone geometries, locations and divergence/convergence vectors through time can be represented as a time-dependent plate velocity mesh and is testable by combining coupled plate-mantle simulations with mantle seismic tomography. The model also provides a basis for future modifications in order to assimilate new data and test alternative tectonic scenarios.

  1. Models for Interpreting Tungsten Isotope Anomalies in the Earth's Crust (United States)

    Humayun, M.; Brandon, A. D.; Righter, K.


    There have been several reports of positive tungsten isotope anomalies of about +15 ppm in rocks from Nuvvuagittuq (4.3 Ga), Isua (3.8 Ga) and Kostomuksha (2.8 Ga) that challenge models of differentiation and mantle mixing. Here, we employ constraints from experimental partitioning of W between metal and silicate, and from partial melting models, to evaluate the production and preservation of these W isotope anomalies in the Earth's earliest crust. We will also provide a revised interpretation of the Kostomuksha W isotope anomalies based on flow differentiation and metamorphism of komatiites. Two sets of models are produced. Model Set 1: Because D(metal-silicate) for W diminishes with increasing depth, the deep mantle has a higher W abundance, and a lower Hf/W ratio and consequently evolves a negative anomaly in W while the upper mantle evolves a complementary positive anomaly. Subsequent solid-state convection (4.55-2.8 Ga) mixes away the complementary W isotope anomalies to yield the modern mantle null value. This set of models predicts that the complementary negative anomalies in W should eventually be discovered in ancient magmatic rocks of deep mantle origin such as komatiites. Model Set 2: Tungsten is significantly more incompatible (like U, Th and Ba) than Hf, the latter being similar in compatibility to Sm. Our results show that extraction of low-degree partial melts (<2%) leaving a Hadean depleted mantle that can have Sm/Nd~20% higher than chondrites also creates a f(Hf/W)~2-3, sufficient to generate the anomalies observed in Archean rocks. These models increase Hf/W and Sm/Nd ratios in a correlated fashion explaining the tendency of positive W isotope anomalies to occur in rocks with positive Nd isotope anomalies. Recycling of the complementary Hadean crust would result in negative anomalies in later plume lavas, while partitioning of W into an enriched "hidden reservoir" would not. Nd isotope anomalies indicate a melting event around 35-75 Ma after solar system formation, the upper end of which is consistent with our models of Hf/W fractionation, that also yield a depleted mantle composition consistent with DMM. Production of the anomalies is accompanied by the need to preserve the anomalies. We argue that the most effective means of preserving the W isotope anomalies is by crustal storage, and we hypothesize that W is efficiently recycled back to juvenile crust during subduction zone processing. Eventually, the addition of juvenile W from the mantle will dilute the positive W isotope anomalies stored in the early crust. The amount of juvenile W required to be added is about a factor of 4 or more, and it is likely that this occurred during the late Archean crustal growth phase (2.5 Ga), so that positive W isotope anomalies are not likely to occur in much younger rocks. A secular decline in crustal W isotope anomalies is predicted.

  2. Anomalous Subsidence at the Ocean Continent Transition of the Gulf of Aden Rifted Continental Margin (United States)

    Cowie, Leanne; Kusznir, Nick; Leroy, Sylvie


    It has been proposed that some rifted continental margins have anomalous subsidence and that at break-up they were elevated at shallower bathymetries than the isostatic response predicted by classical rift models (McKenzie, 1978). The existence of anomalous syn- or early-post break-up subsidence of this form would have important implications for our understanding of the geodynamics of continental break-up and sea-floor spreading initiation. We have investigated subsidence of the young rifted continental margin of the eastern Gulf of Aden, focussing on the western Oman margin (break-up age 17.6 Ma). Lucazeau et al. (2008) have found that the observed bathymetry here is approximately 1 km shallower than the predicted bathymetry. In order to examine the proposition of an anomalous early post break-up subsidence history of the Omani Gulf of Aden rifted continental margin, we have determined the subsidence of the oldest oceanic crust adjacent to the continent-ocean boundary (COB) using residual depth anomaly (RDA) analysis corrected for sediment loading and oceanic crustal thickness variation. RDAs corrected for sediment loading using flexural backstripping and decompaction have been calculated by comparing observed and age predicted oceanic bathymetries in order to identify anomalous subsidence of the Gulf of Aden rifted continental margin. Age predicted bathymetric anomalies have been calculated using the thermal plate model predictions of Crosby and McKenzie (2009). Non-zero RDAs at the Omani Gulf of Aden rifted continental margin can be the result of non standard oceanic crustal thickness or the effect of mantle dynamic topography or a non-classical rift and break-up model. Oceanic crustal basement thicknesses from gravity inversion together with Airy isostasy have been used to predict a "synthetic" gravity RDA, in order to determine the RDA contribution from non-standard oceanic crustal thickness. Gravity inversion, used to determine crustal basement thickness, incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction and uses sediment thicknesses from 2D seismic data. Reference Moho depths used in the gravity inversion have been calibrated against seismic refraction Moho depths. The difference between the sediment corrected RDA and the "synthetic" gravity derived RDA gives the component of the RDA which is not due to variations in oceanic crustal thickness. This RDA corrected for sediment loading and crustal thickness variation has a magnitude between +600m and +1000m (corresponding to anomalous uplift) and is comparable to that reported (+1km) by Lucazeau et al. (2008). We are unable to distinguish whether this anomalous uplift is due to mantle dynamic topography or anomalous subsidence with respect to classical rift model predictions.

  3. Seismic Characterization Of Crust On The Newfoundland Non-Volcanic Rifted Margin: Prestack Depth Migrations Of The SCREECH Survey Around ODP Leg 210 Sites 1276 And 1277 (United States)

    Shillington, D. J.; Holbrook, W. S.; Tucholke, B. E.; Odp Leg 210 Scientific Party, .; Hopper, J. R.; van Avendonk, H.; Louden, K.; Larsen, H. C.


    The presence of 70 km of seismically featureless basement on the Newfoundland non-volcanic margin seaward of unambiguous continental crust and landward of recognized seafloor spreading anomalies has long fueled a debate concerning the affinity of crust within this ocean-continent transition zone. Proposed models include highly extended and intruded continental crust, slow-spreading oceanic crust, and serpentinized peridotite, each of which carries specific implications for margin formation and incipient seafloor spreading. One means of distinguishing between different crustal types is seismic reflection character. We present a grid of prestack depth migrated seismic reflection sections from the Newfoundland margin around recently drilled ODP Leg 210 Sites 1276 and 1277. Previously determined P-wave velocities and Poisson's Ratios calculated on SCREECH Transect 2 suggest the presence of over 75 km of oceanic crust on the Newfoundland margin that is not found on the conjugate Iberian margin. However, drilling at Site 1276, which lies in the transition zone, did not reach basement, so the affinity of this crust remains uncertain. Seismic and drilling investigations on the Iberian margin have revealed the presence of large tracts of exhumed, serpentinized peridotite between normal oceanic and normal continental crust. As a result, characterizing enigmatic crust on Newfoundland is essential for constraining the transition from late stage rifting to initial seafloor spreading. Drilling at Site 1276 recovered diabase sills an estimated 100-200 meters above basement. These sills typically have velocities of 5500-6000 m/s and are separated by lower velocity sediments, a small proportion of which have very slow seismic velocities and low densities (1600 m/s, 2.1 g/cc); initial shipboard work suggests that these sills might be the source of bright reflections that are found above transitional basement on SCREECH Transect 2. Large contrasts in density and velocity would be expected to generate a series of very large reflection coefficients in the lowermost sedimentary section and would likely impede signal penetration beneath the bright package of resulting reflections. Because these sills overlie a critical section of crust on the Newfoundland margin, understanding whether the featureless character results from signal penetration or properties of the crustal rocks themselves is critical to characterizing this unusual crust and thus placing constraints on the transition from amagmatic rifting to seafloor spreading.

  4. Kinematic model for decoupling orogenic crust from upper mantle during a switch in subduction polarity at the junction of the Alps, Carpathians and Dinarides (United States)

    Handy, M. R.; Ustaszewski, K.; Kissling, E.; Spakman, W.; Rosenberg, C. L.


    We depict the Alpine belt in a series of tectonic maps for critical time slices (10, 20, 35, 67, 84 Ma) to show how its evolution can be related to the geometry of subducting lithosphere as imaged by seismic tomography. These maps are constructed by deriving shortening and extensional values from cross sections across key parts of the chain in a stepwise fashion (external to internal parts), then applying these values as successive retrotranslations of points on stable parts of the Adriatic microplate. All motions thus obtained for Adria are with respect to a European reference frame. This approach works best in the Alps due to an abundance of geologic data, but less so in parts of the Carpathians and Dinarides where age and structural information are still limited. To test the kinematic plausibility of a N- to NE-dipping slab fragment beneath the Eastern Alps (Lippitsch et al. 2003), we first horizontalized the presently inclined positive Vp-anomaly, then applied the above sequence of retrotranslations to this image (taken to be the leading edge of the subducted Adriatic margin) to obtain the putative trace of the Adriatic margin at the time slices above. The following features characterize our model: (1) From 67-35 Ma, a N-S trending Alps-Dinarides Transfer (ADT) fault delimited the eastern end of the Alps, linking 465 km of SSE-directed "European" subduction of Alpine Tethys with a still unconstrained amount of oblique dextral convergence and N- to NE-directed "Dinaric" subduction of the Adriatic margin of Neotethys. The trace of the ADT in map view coincides with the reconstructed eastern edge of the future Adriatic slab fragment, suggesting that the ADT may have nucleated along an inherited structure (e.g., transform fault) of the Adriatic margin; (2) Beginning at c. 35 Ma, collision in the Alps coincided with an increased in the obliquity of dextral convergence in the Dinarides and with breakoff of the European slab beneath the Alps. Separation of the Adriatic slab fragment from the rest of the Adriatic slab beneath the Dinarides may have begun already in late Paleogene time; (3) Counter-clockwise rotation (20°) and oblique NE-ward subduction of the Adriatic slab fragment beneath the Alpine orogenic wedge began at c. 20 Ma as constrained by the onset of indentation, rapid exhumation and lateral escape in the Tauern Window and Eastern Alps, and shortening in the Southern Alps. We speculate that vertical tearing of this subducting lithospheric fragment led to asthenospheric upwelling and thermal erosion of the Adriatic slab beneath the northern Dinarides. This favoured wholesale decoupling of the crust and mantle in Miocene time, thereby facilitating lateral escape of orogenic crust in the Eastern Alps, rollback subduction of the Carpathian oceanic embayment and associated extension of the Pannonian Basin.

  5. Dynamics of the Precambrian Continental Crust (United States)

    Perchuk, L. L.; Gerya, T. V.; van Reenen, D. D.; Smit, C. A.


    The Precambrian continental crust is mainly composed of (1) granite greenstone belts (GGB) and (2) granulite facies complexes (GFC). The GFC are often separated from GGB by inward dipping crustal scale shear zones with characteristic sense of movements reflecting thrusting of GFC onto cratonic rocks. The isotope age of the shear zones is identical to GFC, while the latter are always younger than the granite greenstone belts. The dynamics relationships between these two geological units strongly determine tectonic evolution of the Precambrian continental crust. Numerous thermobarometric studies of magmatic and metamorphic rocks show that the Archaean to Early Protorozoic crust as well as the Mantle were hot and therefore relatively soft. Such geothermal regimes may limit separation and movement of micro continents, limiting collisional mechanisms in evolution of the Precambrian crust. The goal of this paper is to show evidence for an alterative model that is based on the mechanism of gravitational redistribution of rocks within the Precambrian continental crust, which might be initiated by a fluid/heat flow related to mantle plumes. The model is tested on the basis of geological, geochemical, geophysical and petrologic data for many paired GFT GGB complexes around the word. Studied granulite complexes are located in between Archaean GGB from which they are separated by inward dipping crustal scale shear zones with reverse sense of movements. The most important evidence for this mechanism is: (i) the near isobaric cooling (IC) and (ii) decompression cooling (DC) shapes of the retrograde P T paths recorded in GFC, while rocks from the juxtaposed GGB in footwalls of the bounding shear zones record P T loops. The Pmax of the loops corresponds to the Pmin, recorded in GFC. Thus the GGB P T loop reflects the burial and ascending of the juxtaposed GGB while the GFC P T path records the exhumation only. The identical isotopic age of GFC and contacting rocks from the shear zone strongly indicates simultaneous dynamics of both contacting complexes: while GFC move up to the surface, relatively cool the GGB metabasalts and metakomatiites therefore move down, cooling the granulites next to the bounding shear zone. The existence of both DC and IC paths in the same GGB can thus be explained by differences in the movement of different crustal 3blocks* during their ascent. The results of our numerical modelling suggest that GFC may develop as crustal scale intrusive shaped bodies in a period of about 8.5 Myr. Seismic tomography shows that the mantle underneath the Limpopo GFC exhibits a cratonic signature, indicating intracratonic origin. Thus, the studied GFC were initially formed from GGB and then exhumed within relatively thin (30 35 km thick) continental crust.

  6. Crust and upper mantle structure in the Caribbean region by group velocity tomography and regionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the crust and upper mantle structure of the Central America and Caribbean region is presented as a result of the processing of more than 200 seismograms recorded by digital broadband stations from SSSN and GSN seismic networks. By FTAN analysis of the fundamental mode of the Rayleigh waves, group velocity dispersion curves are obtained in the period range from 10 s to 40 s; the error of these measurements varies from 0.06 and 0.10 km/s. From the dispersion curves, seven tomographic maps at different periods and with average spatial resolution of 500 km are obtained. Using the logical combinatorial classification techniques, eight main groups of dispersion curves are determined from the tomographic maps and eleven main regions, each one characterized by one kind of dispersion curves, are identified. The average dispersion curves obtained for each region are extended to 150 s by adding data from the tomographic study of and inverted using a non-linear procedure. As a result of the inversion process, a set of models of the S-wave velocity vs. depth in the crust and upper mantle are found. In six regions, we identify a typically oceanic crust and upper mantle structure, while in the other two the models are consistent with the presence of a continental structure. Two regions, located over the major geological zones of the accretionary crust of the Caribbean region, are characterized by a peculiar crust and upper mantle structure, indicating the presence of lithospheric roots reaching, at least, about 200 km of depth. (author)

  7. Uplift and Relief Evolution of Africa Since 250 Ma (United States)

    Guillocheau, F.


    The goal of the TopoAfrica Project was to quantify the growth of long wavelength (x1000 km) topography over the last 250 Ma at the scale of a continent - Africa - and to understand (1) their relationship with the underlying mantle dynamics over such a time period and (2) their consequence on some Earth surface processes. A direct inversion of the geological data into estimates of paleotopography is difficult. Quantification of past topographies at continent-scale requires geological data coupled with a sediment production (erosion) and transport numerical model. The quantification of the Meso-Cenozoic topographies of the African continent is based on uplift (mean time interval 10 Ma) and paleoprecipitation maps (input of the model) and siliciclastic sedimentary fluxes and thermochronological data. 1. No relief, older than Late Cretaceous (75-65 Ma), are preserved in Africa. The oldest relief corresponds to part of the present-day South African Plateau. Northward, no relief is older than the Middle Eocene (50-40 Ma). 2. Two main periods of uplift occurred after oceanic break-up, during Late Cretaceous (Late Cenomanian to Middle Campanian, 95-15 Ma) and during Miocene (23-5 Ma) times. 3. The mantle dynamic cannot explain all the long wavelength relief of Africa, even during Cenozoic times. The critical point was the movement of the African plate over the African superplume, perennial since at least the Early Cretaceous (110-100 Ma): this horizontal movement controlled the uplift of the South African Plateau during Late Cretaceous times (90-75 Ma). Other mechanisms have to be involved to explain the growth of the marginal bulges of the South Atlantic margins or the double bending of the Congo Cuvette during Neogene times.

  8. MoMA: SOUNDINGS (United States)


    Soundings is MoMA's first major exhibition of sound art, presenting work by 16 contemporary artists, all born in the 1960s, 70s, and 80s, who work with sound. The artists include: Luke Fowler, Toshiya Tsunoda, Marco Fusinato, Richard Garet, Florian Hecker, Christine Sun Kim, Jacob Kirkegaard, Haroon Mirza, Carsten Nicolai, Camille Norment, Tristan Perich, Susan Philipsz, Sergei Tcherepnin, Hong-Kai Wang, Jana Winderen, and Stephen Vitiello. Probably the best way to view the online exhibition is to skip right to the Artists section (URL listed above), where there is a list of linked artists names. Following the links will lead visitors to images of each artist's works, biographical information, and of course, sound. For example, look at and listen to Susan Philipsz's Study of Strings, 2012, an installation at Kassel Hauptbahnhof. This piece is a reinterpretation of a 1943 composition by Pavel Haas (Czech, 1899â??1944), who composed the score while imprisoned at the Theresienstadt concentration camp. A performance was filmed in 1944 for a Nazi propaganda film. Philipsz's piece omits the instruments - and musicians - who were executed at the camp.

  9. Changing recycled oceanic components in the mantle source of the Shuangliao Cenozoic basalts, NE China: New constraints from water content (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Xia, Qun-Ke; Ingrin, Jannick; Jia, Zu-Bing; Feng, Min


    The mantle source of the Cenozoic intraplate basalts from the Shuangliao volcanoes in the Songliao Basin in northeastern China (Xu et al., 2012) has been suggested to contain young subducted recycled oceanic crust (ROC), whereas the mantle source of the Cenozoic basalts from the nearby Changbaishan volcanoes contain recent and ancient recycled marine sediments (Kuritani et al., 2011). To determine the possible contributions of recycled marine sediments to the mantle source of the Shuangliao Cenozoic basalts, we measured the H2O content in clinopyroxene (cpx) phenocrysts by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and calculated H2O contents of equilibrated melts using the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. Major and trace element compositions measured in the Shuangliao whole rocks are consistent with a previous study by Xu et al. (2012) and display typical HIMU characteristics. The calculated H2O content of the "primary" magmas varies from 0.90 to 3.06 wt.%, falling in the range of back-arc basin basalts (BABBs) and island arc basalts (IABs) and it is higher than that of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and ocean island basalts (OIBs). The relationships between H2O/Ce and (Ba/Th)n (n denotes normalization to primitive mantle composition), (Nb/La)n and Ce/Pb of the Shuangliao basalts indicate that in addition to ROC with low H2O/Ce and high (Nb/La)n, recycled marine sediments with high H2O/Ce, (Ba/Th)n and low Ce/Pb and a normal depleted mantle (DMM) component should also be involved in the magma source. In addition, the mantle source of the later (~ 43 Ma) basalts should contain more recycled marine sediments than that of the earlier (~ 51 Ma) basalts.

  10. Evolution of the long-wavelength, subduction-driven topography of South America since 150 Ma (United States)

    Flament, N. E.; Gurnis, M.; Williams, S.; Bower, D. J.; Seton, M.; Müller, D.


    Subduction to the west of South America spans 6000 km along strike and has been active for over 250 Myr. The influence of the history of subduction on the geodynamics of South America has been profound, driving mountain building and arc volcanism in the Andean Cordillera. Here, we investigate the long-wavelength changes in the topography of South America associated with subduction and plate motion and their interplay with the lithospheric deformation associated with the opening of the South Atlantic. We pay particular attention to the topographic expression of flat-lying subduction zones. We develop time-dependent geodynamic models of mantle flow and lithosphere deformation to investigate the evolution of South American dynamic and total topography since the late Jurassic (150 Ma). Our models are semi-empirical because the computational cost of fully dynamic, evolutionary models is still prohibitive. We impose the kinematics of global plate reconstructions with deforming continents in forward global mantle convection models with compositionally distinct crust and continental lithosphere embedded within the thermal lithosphere. The shallow thermal structure of subducting slabs is imposed, allowing us to investigate the evolution of dynamic topography around flat slab segments in time-dependent models. Multiple cases are used to investigate how the evolution of South American dynamic topography is influenced by mantle viscosity, the kinematics of the opening of the South Atlantic and alternative scenarios for recent and past flat-slab subduction. We predict that the migration of South America over sinking oceanic lithosphere resulted in continental tilt to the west until ~ 45 Ma, inverting to an eastward tilt thereafter. This first-order result is consistent with the reversal of the drainage of the Amazon River system. We investigate which scenarios of flat-slab subduction since the Eocene are compatible with geological constraints on the evolution of the Solimoes Basin, the Chaco Basin, the Sierras Pampeanas and the Central Patagonian Basin. To broadly constrain mantle viscosity, we compare models to the total subsidence inferred from well data offshore Argentina and Brazil, and to mantle tomography, since the initial and boundary conditions are based on independent plate reconstructions.

  11. Mesoscopic pinning forces in neutron star crusts


    Seveso, Stefano; Pizzochero, Pierre M.; GRILL, FABRIZIO; Haskell, Brynmor


    The crust of a neutron star is thought to be comprised of a lattice of nuclei immersed in a sea of free electrons and neutrons. As the neutrons are superfluid their angular momentum is carried by an array of quantized vortices. These vortices can pin to the nuclear lattice and prevent the neutron superfluid from spinning down, allowing it to store angular momentum which can then be released catastrophically, giving rise to a pulsar glitch. A crucial ingredient for this model...

  12. r-process in neutron star crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the formation of heavy and superheavy nuclei in the universe is a challenging problem. It is predicted that the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) could be responsible for the synthesis of heavy and superheavy elements in supernova explosions and neutron star crust under extreme physical conditions. However, there is much debate about the astrophysical sites, in which ideal r-process conditions are met. Supernova, could not reproduce the observed solar abundances of r-process elements and has been abandoned by recent studies. Neutron-rich ejecta of compact binary mergers are now believed to be a perfect candidate for an astrophysical r-process. In the events of merging of binary neutron star or a neutron star with a black hole, the crust matter can be dynamically stripped and ejected. Once the density decreases below neutron drip, ?-decay channels begin opening in full, and a conventional r-process begins leading to the formation of very heavy nuclei when the seed nuclei rapidly capture the free neutrons. Recently it has been shown that the decompression of the neutron star matter from the outer crust provides suitable condition for nucleosynthesis of r-nuclei with A ? 140. The decompression is triggered by a phase transition to strange quark matter at the core of a neutron star that ejects neutron-rich matter at the surface

  13. Syn-volcanic cannibalisation of juvenile felsic crust: Superimposed giant 18O-depleted rhyolite systems in the hot and thinned crust of Mesoproterozoic central Australia (United States)

    Smithies, R. H.; Kirkland, C. L.; Cliff, J. B.; Howard, H. M.; Quentin de Gromard, R.


    Eruptions of voluminous 18O-depleted rhyolite provide the best evidence that the extreme conditions required to produce and accumulate huge volumes of felsic magma can occur in the upper 10 km of the crust. Mesoproterozoic bimodal volcanic sequences from the Talbot Sub-basin in central Australia contain possibly the world's most voluminous accumulation of 18O-depleted rhyolite. This volcanic system differs from the better known, but geochemically similar, Miocene Snake River Plain - Yellowstone Plateau of North America. Both systems witnessed 'super' sized eruptions from shallow crustal chambers, and produced 18O-depleted rhyolite. The Talbot system, however, accumulated over a much longer period (>30 Ma), at a single depositional centre, and from a magma with mantle-like isotopic compositions that contrast strongly with the isotopically evolved basement and country-rock compositions. Nevertheless, although the Talbot rhyolites are exclusively 18O-depleted, the unavoidable inference of an 18O-undepleted precursor requires high-temperature rejuvenation of crust in an upper-crustal chamber, and in this respect the evolution of the Talbot rhyolites and 18O-depleted rhyolites of the Snake River Plain - Yellowstone Plateau is very similar. However, instead of older crustal material, the primary upper-crustal source recycled into Talbot rhyolites was comagmatic (or nearly so) felsic rock itself derived from a contemporaneous juvenile basement hot-zone. Whereas giant low ?18O volcanic systems show that voluminous melting of upper crust can occur, our studies indicate that felsic magmas generated at lower crustal depths can also contribute significantly to the thermal and material budget of these systems. The requirement that very high-temperatures be achieved and sustained in the upper crust means that voluminous low ?18O magmatism is rare, primarily restricted to bimodal tholeiitic, high-K rhyolite (A-type) magmatic associations in highly attenuated lithosphere. In the case of the Talbot system, at least, our data suggest that an unusually hot pre-history might also be required to thermally prime the crust.

  14. 42 CFR 495.202 - Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. (United States)


    ...ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM ...MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. (a) Identification...MA-affiliated eligible hospital” in § 495.200 but...users of certified EHR technology. (b) Identification...MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. (1) A...

  15. A new compilation of plate tectonics in the Indian Ocean (United States)

    Munschy, M.; Bernard, A.; Rotstein, Y.; Ravaut, P.


    A new compilation of plate tectonics in the Indian Ocean is presented. It is based on a synthesis of all magnetic anomaly interpretations and on the identifications of fracture zone in the most recent satellite gravity data. We detail the development of the Indian Ocean by 12 phases. The analysis solves all the problems of gaps and overlaps between the continents that border the Indian Ocean (at a scale of about 50-100 km) and matches well the magnetic anomalies and identified fracture zones. The initial opening of the Indian Ocean started some 180 Ma ago with the breakup between Africa and Madagascar-India-Antarctica, in a northwest-southeast direction and at 160 Ma it turned to a north-south direction. This single ridge geometry continued until 140 Ma, at which time India, Antarctica and Australia all broke from each other. This new plate configuration, with two triple junctions, lasted until 120 Ma, when spreading between Africa and Madagascar stopped. At 96 Ma, a major reorganization of plate movements occurred: spreading stopped between Antarctica and Australia while spreading direction between Antarctica and India rotated by more than 40° and right lateral shear motion began between India and Madagascar. At 84 Ma, spreading started in the Mascarene Basin in a northeast-southwest direction and continued until 63 Ma. From 77 Ma to 54 Ma, spreading between Africa and Antarctica at the Southwest Indian Ridge was oblique by more than 40°. At 63 Ma, spreading stopped in the Mascarene Basin and started along the Carlsberg and Central Indian ridges. This event can be interpreted as a ridge jump. The last large reorganization of plate motions in the Indian Ocean occurred at 44 Ma. At that time, spreading directions between Australia and Antarctica restarted, spreading direction between Antarctica and Africa, Madagascar and India and India and Antarctica, all rotated.

  16. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Population

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Population data sets provide baseline population information as one of the drivers of ecosystem change. The data helped in...

  17. The structure of accreted neutron star crust

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, C J


    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the structure of neutron star crust made of rapid proton capture nucleosynthesis material. We find a regular body centered cubic lattice, even with the large number of impurities that are present. Low charge $Z$ impurities tend to occupy interstitial positions, while high $Z$ impurities tend to occupy substitutional lattice sites. We find strong attractive correlations between low $Z$ impurities that could significantly increase the rate of pycnonuclear (density driven) nuclear reactions. The thermal conductivity is significantly reduced by electron impurity scattering. Our results will be used in future work to study the effects of impurities on mechanical properties such as the shear modulus and breaking strain.

  18. Upper and lower crust recycling in the source of CAMP basaltic dykes from southeastern North America (United States)

    Callegaro, Sara; Marzoli, Andrea; Bertrand, Hervé; Chiaradia, Massimo; Reisberg, Laurie; Meyzen, Christine; Bellieni, Giuliano; Weems, Robert E.; Merle, Renaud


    The densest dykes swarm of the Central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP) occur in southeastern North America (SENA) and were intruded between 202 and 195 Ma during Pangea break-up. New combined geochemical data (major and trace elements, Sr-Nd-Pb-Os isotopes) constrain the mantle source of these magmatic bodies and their evolution path. While Sr-Nd isotopic compositions for SENA rocks (87Sr/86Sr200Ma 0.70438-0.70880 and 143Nd/144Nd200Ma 0.51251-0.51204) fall within the low-Ti CAMP field, Pb-Pb isotopes (206Pb/204Pb200Ma 17.46-18.85, 207Pb/204Pb200Ma 15.54-15.65, 208Pb/204Pb200Ma 37.47-38.76) are peculiar to this area of the CAMP and cover a considerable span of compositions, especially in 206Pb/204Pb200Ma. Given the generally unradiogenic Os isotopic compositions (187Os/188Os200Ma 0.127-0.144) observed and the lack of correlation between these and other geochemical markers, crustal contamination during the evolution of SENA dykes must have been limited (less than 10%). Thus the isotopic variation is interpreted to reside primarily within the mantle source. These observations, coupled with typical continental signatures in trace elements (positive anomaly in Pb and negative anomalies in Ti and Nb), require another means of conveying a continental flavor to these magmas, which is here hypothesized to be the shallow recycling within the upper mantle of subducted lower and upper crustal materials. Pseudo-ternary mixing models show that a maximum of 10% recycled crust is enough to explain their trace element patterns as well as their isotopic heterogeneity. Looking at the larger picture of the origin of the CAMP, the thermal contribution of a mantle plume cannot be ruled out due to the relatively high mantle potential temperatures (1430-1480 °C) calculated for high-Fo SENA olivines. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the chemical involvement of a mantle plume is negligible (less than 5%) if either a C- or an EM-flavored plume is considered. Rather, the possibility of a PREMA-flavored mantle plume, enriched by 5-20% recycled crustal material, remains a possible, though less plausible, source for these tholeiites.

  19. Ocean Animals (United States)


    There are many types of Ocean Animals, today we wil be going to identify several Ocean Anumals through specific body parts that makeOcean Animals different from one another. To begin examine the links below to see what different types of ocean animals there are and what makes those animals different from one another Beluga Whales- National Geographic Kids Dolphins- Who lives in the sea? Puffer fish- National Geographic Stingrays- National Geographic Kids ...

  20. Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization: Constraints from Fractional Crystallization Experiments (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.


    The currently accepted paradigm of lunar formation is that of accretion from the ejecta of a giant impact, followed by crystallization of a global scale magma ocean. This model accounts for the formation of the anorthosite highlands crust, which is globally distributed and old, and the formation of the younger mare basalts which are derived from a source region that has experienced plagioclase extraction. Several attempts at modelling the crystallization of such a lunar magma ocean (LMO) have been made, but our ever-increasing knowledge of the lunar samples and surface have raised as many questions as these models have answered. Geodynamic models of lunar accretion suggest that shortly following accretion the bulk of the lunar mass was hot, likely at least above the solidus]. Models of LMO crystallization that assume a deep magma ocean are therefore geodynamically favorable, but they have been difficult to reconcile with a thick plagioclase-rich crust. A refractory element enriched bulk composition, a shallow magma ocean, or a combination of the two have been suggested as a way to produce enough plagioclase to account for the assumed thickness of the crust. Recently however, geophysical data from the GRAIL mission have indicated that the lunar anorthositic crust is not as thick as was initially estimated, which allows for both a deeper magma ocean and a bulk composition more similar to the terrestrial upper mantle. We report on experimental simulations of the fractional crystallization of a deep (approximately 100km) LMO with a terrestrial upper mantle-like (LPUM) bulk composition. Our experimental results will help to define the composition of the lunar crust and mantle cumulates, and allow us to consider important questions such as source regions of the mare basalts and Mg-suite, the role of mantle overturn after magma ocean crystallization and the nature of KREEP

  1. Contrasting zircon Hf and O isotopes in the two episodes of Neoproterozoic granitoids in South China: Implications for growth and reworking of continental crust (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhang, Shao-Bing; Zhao, Zi-Fu; Wu, Yuan-Bao; Li, Xianhua; Li, Zhengxiang; Wu, Fu-Yuan


    The genetic links among rift magmatism, crustal growth and water-rock interaction are an important issue about mass and heat transfer between mantle and crust during supercontinent breakup. A combined study of Hf and O isotopes in zircons from Neoproterozoic granitoids in South China provides evidence for growth and reworking of juvenile and ancient crusts with different styles of water-rock interactions along rift tectonic zones. Two generations of the granitoids show contrasting features in both zircon Hf and O isotope compositions, indicating their distinct petrogenesis. The ˜ 825 Ma granitoids exhibit negative ?Hf( t) values of - 3.4 ± 0.8 to - 1.6 ± 0.8 with old model Hf ages of 1.81 ± 0.07 to 1.92 ± 0.10 Ga, and high ?18O values of 8.7 to 10.4‰. These indicate that the source material of granitoid magmas was derived from melting of Paleoproterozoic basement that has the Hf isotope signature similar to the enriched mantle but experienced chemical weathering process before anatexis. Reworking of ancient crust is demonstrated to occur at ˜ 825 Ma in the orogenic collapse zone, with overprinting of subsolidus hydrothermal alteration during magma emplacement. In contrast, the 760-750 Ma bimodal intrusives are characterized by positive ?Hf( t) values of 3.5 ± 0.8 to 9.9 ± 0.8 with young model Hf ages of 0.94 ± 0.06 to 1.18 ± 0.06 Ga, and both low and high ?18O values of 4.2 to 6.2‰ relative to 5.3 ± 0.3‰ for the normal mantle zircon. Prompt reworking of juvenile crust is suggested to occur at ˜ 750 Ma in the rifted tectonic zone, with occurrence of supersolidus hydrothermal alteration and local low- 18O magmatism during supercontinent breakup. Contributions of the depleted mantle to their magma sources are contrasting in the two episodes of magmatism in association with breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia. While the change in melt source from the crust to the mantle keeps pace with the advance from continental rifting to supercontinent breakup, significant transport of both heat and material from the depleted mantle to the continental crust only occurred along the active rifting zone. In either case, the growth and reworking of continental crust are episodically associated with rift magmatism.

  2. DTA for superalloy MA6000 and ferritic steel MA956

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercialized mechanically alloyed yttria dispersion strengthened alloys exhibit unusual recrystallisation behavior. In spite of their large stored energy content, they tend to recrystallise temperatures close to melting. The recrystallised microstructure is often very coarse and highly anisotropic, characterized by columnar grains. To investigate the factors behind such strange recrystallisation behavior, DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) experiments were performed for the measurement of stored energy in the as-deformed condition to oxide dispersion strengthened superalloys commercially designated as MA6000 and MA956. The ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) MA6000 measured and calculated values of energies suggest that the material in deformed condition is primary recrystallized and subsequent change in microstructure by further heat treatment can be described as secondary recrystallization and attributed to the driving force for that is the energy stored in the material in the form of grain boundaries. Whereas, a much higher stored energy was measured for MA956 and a small part of that appears to be due to grain boundary energy. The highly deformed microstructure in as-received condition and higher energy values suggest that the coarse columnar grain is-the product of primary recrystallisation in MA956. (author)

  3. Direct observation of adakite melts generated in the lower continental crust, Fiordland, New Zealand. (United States)

    Stevenson, J.; Daczko, N.; Clarke, G.; Pearson, N.; Klepeis, K.


    Adakite igneous rocks have a distinctive chemistry that links them to melting of a mafic source at high pressure (P > 1.2 - 1.5 GPa; e.g. Peacock et al. 1994). They have been attributed to melting of subducted oceanic crust (Kay, 1978; Defant and Drummond, 1990) or melting of the crustal roots of thick continental arcs (Atherton and Petford, 1993). We report the first direct evidence for the generation of adakite melts in mafic lower continental crust. The Pembroke Granulite represents the deepest crust (P = 12 - 14 kbar , T = 750 - 800^oC; Daczko et al. 2001) in an exhumed Cretaceous arc in the South Island of New Zealand (Clarke et al., 2000). The Pembroke Granulite has the bulk chemistry, assemblage, and partial melting textures involving peritectic garnet, to be the source region for an adakite melt. The partial melting textures form the source for numerous trondhjemitic vein-filled fractures, which we suggest were the initial conduit for the adakite melt as it migrated away from its source. LA-ICMPS point analyses of minerals in the dioritic gneiss host rock, partial melting textures, and trondhjemitic veins of the Pembroke Granulite are consistent with this interpretation. The originally overlying Separation Point Batholith contains rocks of adakitic composition thought to have been formed through melting in a continental arc (Muir et al., 1995; 1998); the melts formed in the Pembroke Granulite are texturally, compositionally, geochemically, and structurally consistent with being the source of the Separation Point adakites. References: Atherton, M. P. and Petford, N.: Generation of sodium-rich magmas from newly underplated basaltic crust. Nature, 362, 144--146, 1993. Clarke, G. L., Klepeis, K. A. and Daczko, N. R.: Cretaceous high-P granulites at Milford Sound, New Zealand: their metamorphic history and emplacement in a convergent margin setting. J. Metamorphic Geol., 18, 359--374, 2000. Daczko, N. R., Klepeis, K. A. and Clarke, G. L.: Evidence of Early Cretaceous collisional-style orogenesis in northern Fiordland, New Zealand and its effects on the evolution of the lower crust. J. Structural Geol., 23, 693--713, 2001. Defant, M. J. and Drummond, M. S.: Derivation of some modern arc magmas by melting of young subducted lithosphere. Nature, 347, 662--665, 1990. Kay, R. W.: Aleutian magnesian andesite: melts from subducted Pacific Ocean Crust. Journal of Volcan. Geotherm Res., 4, 117--132, 1978. Muir, R. J., Weaver, S. D., Bradshaw, J. D., Eby, G. N. and Evans, J. A.: The Cretaceous Separation Point batholith, New Zealand: granitoid magmas formed by melting of a mafic lithosphere. J. Geol. Soc. London., 152, 689--701, 1995. Peacock, S. M., Rushmer, T. and Thompson, A. B.: Partial melting of subducted oceanic crust. EPSL, 121, 227--244, 1994.

  4. Experimental Fractional Crystallization of the Lunar Magma Ocean (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.


    The current paradigm for lunar evolution is of crystallization of a global scale magma ocean, giving rise to the anorthositic crust and mafic cumulate interior. It is thought that all other lunar rocks have arisen from this differentiated interior. However, until recently this paradigm has remained untested experimentally. Presented here are the first experimental results of fractional crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) using the Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) bulk lunar composition [1].

  5. Crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, R.J.; Lee, S.J.; Sim, S.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Experimental and analytical studies of the crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability have been performed to examine the crust formation process as a function of boundary temperatures as well as to investigate heat transfer characteristics between molten pool and overlying water in order to evaluate coolability of the molten pool. The experimental test results have shown that the surface temperature of the bottom plate is a dominant parameter in the crust formation process of the molten pool. It is also found that the crust thickness of the case with direct coolant injection into the molten pool is greater than that of the case with a heat exchanger. Increasing mass flow rate of direct coolant injection to the molten pool does not affect the temperature of molten pool after the crust has been formed in the molten pool because the crust behaves as a thermal barrier. The Nusselt number between the molten pool and the coolant of the case with no crust formation is greater than that of the case with crust formation. The results of FLOW-3D analyses have shown that the temperature distribution contributes to the crust formation process due to Rayleigh-Benard natural convection flow.

  6. Ductile deformation of the continental crust below volcanic and non-volcanic passive margins: insight from high quality industrial seismic profiles (United States)

    Clerc, Camille; Jolivet, Laurent; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Ballard, Jean-François


    High quality industrial seismic profiles have now been acquired along most of the world's passive margins. Stunningly increasing resolution over the past decades leads to unravel unexpected structures and to see real images of models drawn from the integration of field data. Some profiles show clear indications of ductile deformation of the deep continental crust, more or less localized along large-scale shallow-dipping shear zones. Maximums of deformation are suggested at the very base of the continental crust, and the Moho appears to be strongly sheared. These shear zones show a top-to-the-continent sense of shear consistent with the activity of counter-regional (continentward) normal faults observed in the upper crust. This pattern is responsible for a migration of the deformation and associated sedimentation or volcanic activity toward the ocean. We present some of the most striking examples and discuss their implications for the time-temperature-subsidence history of the margins. The distal domain of the non-magmatic margins is generally represented with an important sag basin (i.e. West African margins). This kind of sag basin is usually described as a vertically subsiding basin without differential tilting and resting on a highly thinned, little faulted continental crust. In contrast, we present new interpretations of seismic profiles across the West African margins showing evidences of intense syn-sedimentary tectonic activity within the Sag-basin. Sequences of low-angle normal faults horizontalizing in a hyper-stretched and ductile continental crust control a migration of the depot-center toward the ocean, in response to the horizontal extraction of the base of the continental crust and upper mantle. Finally, the hyper-thinned continental crust has undergone a ductile stretching under a cover of early syn-rift sediments, which implies a probable high thermal regime during rifting.

  7. Crusted Scabies in the Burned Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jais Oliver; AlsbjØrn, Bjarne


    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first report of a burned patient with CS in the English language literature. CS is also highly contagious and may lead to a nosocomial outbreak. Furthermore, CS seems to have a detrimental impact on the burned patient's course of treatment. A scabicide treatment is necessary to guarantee successful treatment of the burns.

  8. Mesoscopic pinning forces in neutron star crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Seveso, Stefano; Grill, Fabrizio; Haskell, Brynmor


    The crust of a neutron star is thought to be comprised of a lattice of nuclei immersed in a sea of free electrons and neutrons. As the neutrons are superfluid their angular momentum is carried by an array of quantized vortices. These vortices can pin to the nuclear lattice and prevent the neutron superfluid from spinning down, allowing it to store angular momentum which can then be released catastrophically, giving rise to a pulsar glitch. A crucial ingredient for this model is the maximum pinning force that the lattice can exert on the vortices, as this allows us to estimate the angular momentum that can be exchanged during a glitch. In this paper we perform, for the first time, a detailed and quantitative calculation of the pinning force \\emph{per unit length} acting on a vortex immersed in the crust and resulting from the mesoscopic vortex-lattice interaction. We consider realistic vortex tensions, allow for displacement of the nuclei and average over all possible orientation of the crystal with respect to...

  9. Evolution of high Arctic ocean basins and continental margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engen, Oeyvind


    Taking advantage of the much increased detail offered by new data, the dissertation attempts to answer some of the remaining questions about the ocean basins and continental margins flanking the Eurasia-North America plate boundary. Its four constituent papers result from integrated geophysical analysis of gravity and magnetic anomalies, bathymetry, seismic reflection and refraction profiles, earthquake locations and focal mechanisms, and onshore and offshore geological data. The overall objectives are to: 1) Elucidate aspects of the structure, composition and evolution of the Eurasia Basin and Norwegian-Greenland Sea and their passive continental margins. 2) Relate the findings to fundamental Earth processes, specifically associated with lithospheric break-up and seafloor spreading. Summary of Papers: The present-day global seismograph network is capable of detecting earthquakes with nearly uniform magnitude threshold throughout the Eurasia Basin region. Given that the location of each earthquake is constrained by at least 12 recording stations, global earthquake catalogues confidently show that 1) earthquakes along the oceanic part of the plate boundary occur in swarms; 2) plate boundary stress decreases eastwards, in accordance with decreasing spreading rates; and 3) deformation takes place in a narrow zone in the oceanic domain but is abruptly defocused at the transition to the Laptev Sea continental rift system. When integrated with bathymetry and potential field data, the earthquake distribution indicates four distinct plate boundary provinces. The Spitsbergen Transform System is a series of oblique ridges and transform faults where the seismicity becomes increasingly diffuse to the north. The western Gakkel Ridge (west of 60{sup E}) has clustered and focused seismicity, accentuated topography and highamplitude magnetic anomalies, whereas the eastern Gakkel Ridge has smoother topographic relief, lower magnetic amplitudes, and slightly more focused seismicity. At the Laptev Sea continental slope, the change from ultra-slow seafloor spreading to active continental rifting takes place over a less than 60-km-wide continent-ocean transition featuring a 150-200-km-long sheared margin segment. The western Gakkel Ridge province is magmatically segmented. The central, sparsely magmatic segment is characterised by discrete magmatic centres that have been stationary with respect to the spreading axis since at least Chron 6 times (apprx. 19.6 Ma) and possibly since before Chron 18 times (apprx. 39.9 Ma). The westernmost, volcanic segment may have been amagmatic during Chron 13-5 times (apprx. 33.3-9.8 Ma). Sedimentary rocks in the Nansen Basin comprise four turbidite units with typical seismic velocities of 2.3, 2.2, 1.9 and 1.8 km s-1. The upper unit is associated with glaciomarine deposition in the Franz-Victoria Fan system and dates accordingly to approx. 2.3 Ma. The deeper, regional velocity contrast from 2.2 to 1.9 km s-1 probably represents a late Miocene (apprx. 10 Ma) response to major paleoceanographic changes during the opening of the Fram Strait gateway. A location of the continent-ocean transition (COT) on conjugate margins of the western Eurasia Basin and the northern Norwegian-Greenland Sea is proposed from the relation between seismically observed crustal thinning and seaward increasing mantle Bouguer anomalies. A refined location of the COT around the Hovgaard and Greenland ridges is also provided. The new COT location indicates that the distinct segmentation of the western Barents Sea margin is mirrored on the conjugate northeast Greenland margin. The Hinlopen margin north of Svalbard is characterised by a steep boundary fault on the COT and may be a sheared margin segment. The present geological and geophysical data base favours a continental origin of the Yermak Plateau and the Morris Jesup Rise, but a firm conclusion on their crustal structure cannot yet be drawn. A continuous oceanic corridor formed through shear-rifted continental crust in the Fram Strait between Chron 5B (14.8 Ma) and Chron 5 times (9.8

  10. A Continuous History of Plume-Influenced Rifting in the North Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Parnell-Turner, Ross; White, Nicky; Henstock, Tim; Murton, Bramley; Maclennan, John; Jones, Stephen


    Evolution of the North Atlantic Ocean has been dominated the Iceland mantle plume. Here we present an unbroken record of variable mantle plume activity stretching back 55 Ma, through analysis of regional seismic reflection images. Residual depth anomalies of oceanic lithosphere, long wavelength gravity anomalies and seismic tomographic models show that this convective upwelling reaches from Baffin Bay to Western Norway, and from offshore Newfoundland to Spitzbergen. At fringing passive margins, there is strong evidence for present-day dynamic support of the crust (e.g. Scotland, Western Norway). The Iceland plume is bisected by a mid-oceanic ridge, which provides a record of the temporal evolution of the plume. Transient behavior of the plume is indirectly recorded within the fabric of oceanic floor south of Iceland. We exploit regional seismic reflection profiles that traverse the oceanic basin between northwest Europe and Greenland. A diachronous pattern of V-shaped ridges is imaged beneath a thickening blanket of sediment, revealing a complete record of transient periodicity that can be traced continuously. This periodicity increases from ~3 to ~8 Myr with clear evidence for minor, but systematic, asymmetric crustal accretion. V-shaped ridges grow with time and reflect small (e.g. 5-30°C) changes in mantle temperature, consistent with quasi-periodic generation of hot solitary waves triggered by growth of thermal boundary layer instabilities within the mantle. Our continuous record of convective activity suggests that the otherwise uniform thermal subsidence of sedimentary basins, which fringe the North Atlantic Ocean, has been periodically interrupted by transient uplift events. These elevation changes can explain a suite of diverse observations from the geologic record. Regional Paleogene erosion surfaces in the Faroe-Shetland Basin, the punctuated deposition of contourite drifts, and the history of denudation on the UK continental shelf can all be explained by transient mantle plume behaviour. These manifestations of convective activity should lead to improved insights into the fluid dynamics of the mantle, with implications for the subsidence history of sedimentary elsewhere.

  11. Paleomagnetism continents and oceans

    CERN Document Server

    McElhinny, Michael W; Dmowska, Renata; Holton, James R; Rossby, H Thomas


    Paleomagnetism is the study of the fossil magnetism in rocks. It has been paramount in determining that the continents have drifted over the surface of the Earth throughout geological time. The fossil magnetism preserved in the ocean floor has demonstrated how continental drift takes place through the process of sea-floor spreading. The methods and techniques used in paleomagnetic studies of continental rocks and of the ocean floor are described and then applied to determining horizontal movements of the Earth''s crust over geological time. An up-to-date review of global paleomagnetic data enables 1000 millionyears of Earth history to be summarized in terms of the drift of the major crustal blocks over the surface of the Earth. The first edition of McElhinny''s book was heralded as a "classic and definitive text." It thoroughly discussed the theory of geomagnetism, the geologicreversals of the Earth''s magnetic field, and the shifting of magnetic poles. In the 25 years since the highly successful first editio...

  12. New Tectonic Map of the Arctic (TeMAr) and the Question of Distinguishing the Paleo-Asian Ocean (United States)

    Petrov, Oleg; Shokalsky, Sergey; Morozov, Andrey; Kashubin, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny


    Over the last decade in the framework of the international project "Atlas of Geological Maps of the Circumpolar Arctic at 1:5 M scale" under the auspices of UNESCO/CGMW, a new Tectonic Map of the Arctic (TeMAr) has been compiled; its first version (draft) was displayed at the 34th IGC in Brisbane. To date, the international working groups of the geological surveys of Arctic states involving France and Germany have already compiled the geological map and geophysical maps of magnetic anomaly and gravity fields of the Arctic, set of geophysical maps and sections reflecting the deep structure of the Arctic region up to 60°N. The set includes: zoning map of the Circumpolar Region by nature of potential fields, thickness maps of the sedimentary cover, consolidated crust, and the Earth's crust in general, schematic map of the Earth's crust types in the Circumpolar region showing the distribution of areas with oceanic, continental, and transitional crust, seismic velocity models of tectonic structures of the Arctic. It has been revealed during TeMAr compilation that the basement in the central Arctic region is one of the largest on the planet accretion polychronous collages clamped by three cratons - Siberian, North American, and East European. It combines orogenic belts of different ages from 1 Ga (Timan, Yenisei, Central Taimyr, Chukchi-Seward orogens) to 205-135 Ma (Pai-Khoi-Novaya Zemlya, Novosibirsk orogens). These fold belts enclose and cement the Early Precambrian cratonic blocks (North-Kara, Alpha-Mendeleev ridges etc.). Arctic accretionary collage (mobile belt) is built up to the south by the Ural-Mongolian (Central Asian) also polychronous mobile belt, that formed on the place of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in the age range from Neoproterozoic to Permian. Thus one can observe the largest Arctic-Paleo-Asian mobile belt, which corresponds to the paleo-ocean comparable in size to the modern Atlantic and Indian oceans. This mobile belt is characterized by a complex combination of accretionary and rifting tectonic-magmatic processes, with their gradual rejuvenation to the north and east until the junction with the Pacific mobile belt structures. At its early stages, accretionary tectonics with a wide development of volcanic belts dominated; at the late ones (in the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic) stretching, rifting and postrift subsidence were widely shown with the formation of oil and gas sedimentary basins with a thick sedimentary cover (East Barents, West Siberian, South Kara, Yenisei-Khatanga, North Chukchi, Beaufort), large igneous provinces (East and West Siberian, Central Arctic) and rift systems (Canada Basin, Laptev Sea, etc.). During the Cenozoic, penetration of the North Atlantic rift system, accompanied by intraplate volcanism of NALIP, into the Central Arctic is observed. As a result, suprarift Eurasian oceanic basin crossing across the strike structures of the Arctic-Paleo-Asian mobile belt was formed. Spatial and age boundaries, the history of origination and development of this belt as a global-level structure should be the subject of further investigations under the international Asian and Arctic projects.

  13. Reference crust-mantle density contrast beneath Antarctica based on the Vening Meinesz-Moritz isostatic inverse problem and CRUST2.0 seismic model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robert, Tenzer; Mohammad, Bagherbandi.


    Full Text Available El contraste de densidad de la discontinuidad de Mohorovicic (Moho) debajo de la Antártida fue estimado con base en la solución del problema isostático Vening Meinesz-Moritz y a partir de datos obtenidos con el modelo sísmico de la corteza global (CRUST2.0). La solución se encontró a través de un aj [...] uste al método de mínimos cuadrados por el método de elementos. El modelo geopotencial global (GOCO02S), el modelo topográfico/batimétrico (DTM2006.0), los datos de espesor del hielo para la Antártida (reunidos por el proyecto BEDMAP) y el modelo sísmico de corteza global (CRUST2.0) fueron utilizados para calcular las anomalías gravitatorias isostáticas. Ya que los datos de CRUST2.0 para las estructuras de la corteza en la Antártida no son exactos (debido a la falta de información sísmica para esta parte del planeta), el contraste de densidad de la Discontinuidad de Mohorovicic fue determinado a partir de un modelo de corteza homogéneo que tiene una densidad constante de 2,670 kg/m³. Los valores estimados del contraste de densidad de la Moho se encontraron entre 160 y 682kg/m³. La distribución espacial del contraste de densidad de la Moho exhibe mayores rasgos en la configuración de la plancha tectónica de la Antártida continental y su alrededor oceánico. El valor máximo encontrado excede los 500 kg/m³ y se ubica en la parte Este continental, con extensión en las Montañas Transantárticas. El contraste de densidad de la Moho (zona de transición entre la corteza y el manto terrestre) en el Oeste de la Antártida osciló entre 400-500 kg/m³, excepto para la máxima local de ? 550 kg/m³, en el centro de la Península Antártida. Abstract in english The crust-mantle (Moho) density contrast beneath Antarctica was estimated based on solving the Vening Meinesz-Moritz isostatic problem and using constraining information from a seismic global crustal model (CRUST2.0). The solution was found by applying a least-squares adjustment by elements method. [...] Global geopotential model (GOCO02S), global topographic/bathymetric model (DTM2006.0), ice-thickness data for Antarctica (assembled by the BEDMAP project) and global crustal model (CRUST2.0) were used for computing isostatic gravity anomalies. Since CRUST2.0 data for crustal structures under Antarctica are not accurate (due to a lack of seismic data in this part of the world), Moho density contrast was determined relative to a reference homogenous crustal model having 2,670 kg/m³ constant density. Estimated values of Moho density contrast were between 160 and 682 kg/m³. The spatial distribution of Moho density contrast resembled major features of the Antarctic’s continental and surrounding oceanic tectonic plate configuration; maxima exceeding 500 kg/m³ were found throughout the central part of East Antarctica, with an extension beneath the Transantarctic mountain range. Moho density contrast in West Antarctica decreased to 400-500 kg/m³, except for local maxima up to ? 550 kg/m³ in the central Antarctic Peninsula.

  14. Structure of the Crust Beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and receiver functions was carried out to investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle structures beneath Cameroon. This was achieved using data from 32 broadband seismic stations installed for 2 years across Cameroon. The Moho depth estimates reveal that the Precambrian crust is variable across the country and shows some significant differences compared to other similar geologic units in East and South Africa. These differences suggest that the setting of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) and the eastward extension of the Benue Trough have modified the crust of the Panafrican mobile belt in Cameroon by thinning beneath the Rift area and CVL. The velocity models obtained from the joint inversion show at most stations, a layer with shear wave velocities ? 4.0 km/s, indicating the presence of a mafic component in the lower crust, predominant beneath the Congo Craton. The lack of this layer at stations within the Panafrican mobile belt may partly explain the crustal thinning observed beneath the CVL and rift area. The significant presence of this layer beneath the Craton, results from the 2100 Ma magmatic events at the origin of the emplacement of swarms of mafic dykes in the region. The CVL stations are underlain by a crust of 35 km on average except near Mt-Cameroon where it is about 25 km. The crustal thinning observed beneath Mt. Cameroon supported by the observed positive gravity anomalies here, suggests the presence of dense astenospheric material within the lithosphere. Shear wave velocities are found to be slower in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the CVL than the nearby tectonic terrains, suggesting that the origin of the line may be an entirely mantle process through the edge-flow convection process. (author)

  15. Growth of the continental crust: constraints from radiogenic isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most models for evolution of continental crust are expressed in the form of a diagram illustrating the cumulative crustal mass (normalized relative to the present crustal mass) as a function of time. Thus, geochronological data inevitably play a major role in either constructing or testing crustal growth models. For all models, determining the start-time for effective crustal accretion is of vital importance. To this end, the continuing search for, and reliable characterization of, the most ancient crustal rock-units remains a worthy enterprise. Another important role for geochronology and radiogenic isotope geochemistry is to assess the status of major geological events as period either of new crust generation or of reworking of earlier formed continental crust. For age characterization of major geological provinces, using the critieria outined, the mass (or volume) of crust surviving to the present day should be determinable as a function of crust formation age. More recent developments, however, appear to set severe limitations on recycling of crust, at least by the process of sediment subduction. In modeling crustal growth without recycling, valuable constaints on growth rate variations through time can be provided if variations in the average age of the continental crust can be monitored through geological history. The question of the average age of the exposed continental crust was addressed by determining Sm-Nd crustal residence model ages (T-CR) for fine-grainresidence model ages (T-CR) for fine-grained sediment loads of many of the world's major rivers

  16. The oceanic mantle as an important repository for the light elements Li, Be and B


    Pelletier, Laure; Kalt, Angelika


    It is important to quantify the Li, Be and B content of oceanic peridotites, in order to evaluate their contributions to the light element input in subduction zones (compared to oceanic crust). In previous studies, the input related to oceanic mantle was usually neglected, because no strong data are available for the light element contents (minerals, whole rock samples). The objective of this thesis is to provide a dataset of Li, Be and B contents of minerals and whole rock samples from fresh...

  17. Transition metal isotope fractionation in marine hydrothermal deposits of the Mohns Ridge, North Atlantic Ocean


    Möller, Kirsten


    Seafloor hydrothermal vent systems form along mid-ocean ridges in all of the Earth’s oceans. They have a major impact on the chemical exchange between the lithosphere and the hydrosphere, as vast volumes of seawater cycle through these systems, thereby interacting with young, oceanic crust. Furthermore, seafloor hydrothermal vent systems provide an excellent environment for organisms to thrive, resulting in diverse and unique vent faunas. Due to their favourable ecological cond...

  18. Crusting susceptibility in some allic Colombian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many lab methods were used: dry and water soil aggregates stability, instability index and erosion index and their results were related with soil characteristics like texture, Fe and Al oxides and organic matter. Soil samples collected within 0-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm of the soil surface came from terrains with many kinds of both forest and savanna intervened systems. Those results were analyzed like a completely randomized designed. It was found that significative changes in oxides content could increase soil-crusting susceptibility unless soil humus was up to was up to 4%. In this sense, pastures or its rotation with rice and leguminous offer a best alternative for intervening these natural systems. Intensive land husbandry or monocultures with low stubble soil incorporation caused an increase in physical instability at the top of soil. Dry soil stability test and instability index were most adequate for these soils

  19. Persistent crust-core spin lag in neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Glampedakis, Kostas


    It is commonly believed that the magnetic field threading a neutron star provides the ultimate mechanism (on top of fluid viscosity) for enforcing long-term corotation between the slowly spun down solid crust and the liquid core. We show that this argument fails for axisymmetric magnetic fields with closed field lines in the core, the commonly used `twisted torus' field being the most prominent example. The failure of such magnetic fields to enforce global crust-core corotation leads to the development of a persistent spin lag between the core region occupied by the closed field lines and the rest of the crust and core. We discuss the repercussions of this spin lag for the evolution of the magnetic field, suggesting that, in order for a neutron star to settle to a stable state of crust-core corotation, the bulk of the toroidal field component should be deposited into the crust soon after the neutron star's birth.

  20. Persistent crust-core spin lag in neutron stars (United States)

    Glampedakis, Kostas; Lasky, Paul D.


    It is commonly believed that the magnetic field threading a neutron star provides the ultimate mechanism (on top of fluid viscosity) for enforcing long-term corotation between the slowly spun-down solid crust and the liquid core. We show that this argument fails for axisymmetric magnetic fields with closed field lines in the core, the commonly used `twisted torus' field being the most prominent example. The failure of such magnetic fields to enforce global crust-core corotation leads to the development of a persistent spin lag between the core region occupied by the closed field lines and the rest of the crust and core. We discuss the repercussions of this spin lag for the evolution of the magnetic field, suggesting that, in order for a neutron star to settle to a stable state of crust-core corotation, the bulk of the toroidal field component should be deposited into the crust soon after the neutron star's birth.

  1. The permeability of gabbro in oceanic core complexes (United States)

    Titarenko, S.; McCaig, A. M.


    In IODP Expedition 340T, a thermal gradient of about 100 °C km-1 was measured in IODP Hole U1309D (Blackman et al. 2013), located in 1.2 My old gabbroic crust in the footwall of an oceanic detachment fault in the Atlantis Massif, just west of the mid-Atlantic Ridge at 30° N. The gradient is linear below 748 mbsf, indicating an essentially conductive regime, and slightly concave above that depth, suggesting slow, long-term downward flow of seawater in surrounding rocks. The lack of any vigorous hydrothermal circulation at this site is remarkable considering that the serpentinite-hosted Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is located only 5 km to the south, and has been venting highly alkaline fluids at 40-90 °C for at least the last 140,000 years. We have created a 2-D topographic model of the Atlantis Massif using a N-S profile through the LCHF and the drillhole location, and modelled hydrothermal circulation using Comsol Multiphysics. A maximum permeability of 10-17 m2 below 750 mbsf, and a basal heatflow of 0.22 Wm-1 are required at the drillhole location to suppress hydrothermal circulation and preserve the observed conductive thermal gradient at depth. The concave gradient above this depth can be closely fitted over long time periods with a layer 750 m thick of higher permeability, ~3x 10-14 m2. Fluid vents at the site of the LCHF and in a small knoll north of the drill hole, and enters the seafloor everywhere else, including the drillhole location. Model vent temperatures are only about 20 °C however, much less that at the LCHF. A model with a deeper permeable zone beneath the LCHF, with a permeability of 10-15 m2 or more, is required to match simultaneously both observed vent temperatures and the drillhole gradient. This deep permeable zone is hosted in serpentinite but is most likely related to active faulting related to the Atlantis Transform Fault, not lithological control on permeability. Data from the flanks of both fast and intermediate spreading ridges in the Pacific, and volcanic plateaux in the Atlantic, suggest that the topmost basalts are extremely permeable even in crust up to 60 Ma, with estimates ranging from 10-13 to 10-9 m2. This has profound effects on the thermal structure of the crust, particularly where bare seamounts allow access of seawater to this shallow aquifer. In the Atlantic, up to 50% of the cuts has formed in the detachment mode of seafloor spreading, and lacks a continuous basaltic layer. The most prominent bare seamounts are often oceanic core complexes exposing gabbro and serpentinite. It follows that the hydrological and thermal regime in the Atlantic is likely to be inhomogeneous and unpredictable. Additionally, our data show that even in a tectonically active massif <1.2 M.y. in age, the large scale permeability of gabbro at low temperature is much less than that normally used in black smoker modelling (10-14 to 10-12 m2). Sheeted sill models of crustal construction at fast spreading ridges require removal of heat by deep circulation of seawater close to the ridge crest. Any permeability allowing such deep circulation is likely to be extremely transient in nature.

  2. Ocean Terracing


    Cathcart, Richard; Bolonkin, Alexander


    Artworks can improve humanity ability to apply macro-engineering principles which skirt or correct oceanographic problems impairing the economic usefulness of coastal land, the overhead airshed, and seawater temperature and salinity stability. A new form of Art, Ocean Art, is here proposed which centers on deliberate terracing of appropriate regions of our world ocean; a proposed example of macro-engineered useful Ocean Art is the technically possible 21-st Century terracing...

  3. Element recycling from subducting slabs to arc crust: A review (United States)

    Spandler, Carl; Pirard, Cassian


    Subduction zones not only return oceanic lithosphere into the mantle, but are also sites where chemical components are transferred from the downgoing plate back to the surface in arc crust and, to a lesser extent, fore-arc and back-arc basins. Understanding of subduction-zone processes has evolved significantly over a relatively brief 40-year research history, thanks to combined insights from experimental petrology, geophysics, numerical and thermodynamic modelling, arc magma geochemistry and studies of high- and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks. Early models considered aqueous fluids produced by metamorphic devolatilisation of the slab to be responsible for directly transferring chemical components of the slab into the overlying mantle wedge, as well as fluxing melting of the mantle wedge to produce arc basalt. Subducting crustal rocks were considered too cold to melt under most circumstances. However, the latest generation of thermal modelling combined with improved understanding of the chemistry and phase petrology of subduction-zone fluids and melts indicates that conditions for deep slab melting are likely met in subduction zones, provided that free fluid is available at sub-arc depths. We outline a model to explain element transfer out of subducting slabs that involves serpentinite subduction and slab partial melting. Serpentinite is likely to comprise part of the subducting slab, either as downgoing oceanic lithosphere that was hydrated at, or near, the seafloor, or as down-dragged fore-arc mantle wedge that was initially hydrated at shallow levels by aqueous fluids emanating from underthrust crustal rocks. Slab coupling with convecting asthenospheric mantle at sub-arc depths leads to slab heating and devolatilisation of deep slab serpentinite and/or hydrated mélange atop of the slab. Interaction between these fluids and coesite-phengite eclogite at the top of the slab produces hydrous slab melts, which then migrate out of the slab to ultimately contribute to arc magma generation. In this scenario hydrous slab melts dominate element transfer from the slab to arc magmas, although serpentinites (and/or related hybrid mélange rocks) are the initial source of H2O and some trace elements (e.g., B, Cl, As, and Sb). This model conforms to petrological and geophysical constraints on deep subduction conditions, and in general is consistent with the geology of blueschist-and eclogite-facies terranes and key geochemical and isotopic features of arc lavas.

  4. Intensive Ammonia and Methane Oxidation in Organic Liquid Manure Crusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Daniel Aagren; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    Intensive agricultural practice leads to periodic accumulation of enormous amounts of liquid manure (slurry) from animal husbandry, and large quantities of environmentally hazardous ammonia and methane are emitted from the manure storages. Floating surface crusts have been suggested to harbour methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and are known to accumulate nitrite and nitrate, indicating the presence of ammonia oxidizers (AOB). We have surveyed six manure tanks with organic covers to investigate the prevalence of MOB and AOB and to link the potential activity with physical and chemical aspects of the crusts. PCR targeting the unique methane and ammonia monooxygenases were applied together with FISH to detect the presence of the two bacterial groups. Potential activity was assessed by short term slurry incubations of crust samples while monitoring NO2- production or CH4 consumption. Crusts were characterized with respect to O2 availability by in situ profiling with electrochemical microsensors. Results show that oxygen penetration increased from few micrometers up to several centimetres with crust age. AOB and ammonium oxidation are ubiquitously present in well-developed manure crusts whereas MOB were only present in old crusts which then could have very high potential rates of methane oxidation. In old crusts the potential rates of both processes were in the range of reported fluxes of CH4 and NH3 from slurry storages without surface crust. Results indicate that with respect to NH3 and possibly also CH4 emission mitigation, an organic surface crust can be effective if populations of MOB and AOB are allowed to build up.

  5. Ocean Color

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  6. Structure and emplacement of granite plutons in the Paleoproterozoic crust of Eastern Burkina Faso: rheological implications (United States)

    Vegas, Nestor; Naba, Seta; Bouchez, Jean Luc; Jessell, Mark


    The Fada N'Gourma area in Burkina Faso is underlain by Paleoproterozoic rocks that make the northeastern West-African Craton. This region is composed of NE-trending volcano-sedimentary belts and foliated tonalites, affected by several shear zones. A generation of younger, ˜2100 Ma-old, non-foliated biotite-bearing granites intrudes the former rock units. We have investigated the younger granite pluton of Kouare that was previously considered as forming a single body with the pluton of Satenga to the west, a pluton which likely belongs to the ˜20 Ma more recent Tenkodogo-Yamba batholith. Magnetic fabric measurements have been combined with microstructural observations and the analysis of field and aeromagnetic data. The granite encloses angular enclaves of the host tonalites. Magmatic microstructures are preserved inside the pluton and solid-state, high-temperature deformation features are ubiquitous at its periphery. The presence of steeply plunging lineations in the pluton of Kouare and its adjacent host-rocks suggests that large volumes of granitic magmas became crystallized while they were ascending through the crust that was softened and steepened close to the contact. Around Kouare, the foliation in the host tonalites conforms with a map-scale, Z-shaped fold in between NNE-trending shear zones, implying a bulk clockwise rotation of the material contained in-between the shear zones, including the emplacing pluton. Regionally, the Fada N'Gourma area is concluded to result from NW-shortening associated with transcurrent shearing and vertical transfer of granitic magmas. This study concludes that the ˜2200 Myears old juvenile crust of Burkina Faso was brittle before the intrusion of the biotite-granites, became softened close to them and that gravity-driven and regional scale wrench tectonics were active together.

  7. Shear wave velocity structure of the Anatolian Plate: anomalously slow crust in southwestern Turkey (United States)

    Delph, Jonathan R.; Biryol, C. Berk; Beck, Susan L.; Zandt, George; Ward, Kevin M.


    The Anatolian Plate is composed of different lithospheric blocks and ribbon continents amalgamated during the closure of the Paleotethys Ocean and Neotethys Ocean along a subduction margin. Using ambient noise tomography, we investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle shear wave velocity structure of the Anatolian Plate. A total of 215 broad-band seismic stations were used spanning 7 yr of recording to compute 13 778 cross-correlations and obtain Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements for periods between 8 and 40 s. We then perform a shear wave inversion to calculate the seismic velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle. Our results show that the overall crustal shear wave velocities of the Anatolian crust are low (˜3.4 km s-1), indicative of a felsic overall composition. We find that prominent lateral seismic velocity gradients correlate with Tethyan suture zones, supporting the idea that the neotectonic structures of Turkey are exploiting the lithospheric weaknesses associated with the amalgamation of Anatolia. Anomalously slow shear wave velocities (˜3.15 km s-1 at 25 km) are located in the western limb of the Isparta Angle in southwestern Turkey. In the upper crust, we find that these low shear wave velocities correlate well with the projected location of a carbonate platform unit (Bey Da?lari) beneath the Lycian Nappe complex. In the lower crust and upper mantle of this region, we propose that the anomalously slow velocities are due to the introduction of aqueous fluids related to the underplating of accretionary material from the underthrusting of a buoyant, attenuated continental fragment similar to the Eratosthenes seamount. We suggest that this fragment controlled the location of the formation of the Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator fault in the eastern Aegean Sea during rapid slab rollback of the Aegean Arc in early Miocene times. Lastly, we observe that the uppermost mantle beneath continental Anatolia is generally slow (˜4.2 km s-1), indicating higher than usual temperatures consistent with the influx of asthenosphere to shallow depths as a result of the segmentation and break-up of the subducting African lithosphere.

  8. Ocean Drilling Program Janus Database: Legs 174, 175 Data (United States)

    Data from Leg 174A (Cork Hole 395A), Leg 174B (Continuing the New Jersey Mid-Atlantic Sea-level Transect), and Leg 175 (Benguela Current) of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) are now available online. The Ocean Drilling Program (described in the August 5, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) conducts basic research into the "history of the ocean basins and the nature of the crust beneath the floor." ODP is funded principally by the National Science Foundation (NSF), along with large contributions from ODP's international partners.

  9. The 17 Ma old Turkana beaked whale fossil: new paleoaltimetry constraints for uplift and environmental change in East Africa (United States)

    Wichura, Henry; Jacobs, Louis L.; Strecker, Manfred R.; Lin, Andrew; Polcyn, Michael J.; Manthi, Fredrick K.; Winkler, Dale A.; Matthew, Clemens


    Timing and magnitude of vertical motions of the Earth's crust is key to evaluate the impact of tectonic processes on changes in atmospheric circulation patterns, rainfall, and environmental conditions. The East African Plateau (EAP) is a major topographic feature that fundamentally impacts the patterns of the Indian-African Monsoon and the eastward transport of air masses from the Congo Basin. Uplift of the EAP in Kenya has been linked to mantle processes, but due to the lack of reliable palaeoaltimetric data it has been challenging to unambiguously constrain plateau evolution, vertical motions associated with late Cenozoic rifting of the East African Rift System, and ensuing environmental change. We explored the fossil remains of a beaked whale (Ziphiidae) from the Turkana region in the northern Kenya Rift, 700 km inland from the present-day coastline of the Indian Ocean. The whale fossil, preserved near sea level, was discovered at an elevation of 620 m and thus constrains the uplift of the northeastern flanks of the EAP. The Kenyan ziphiid was discovered in fluvio-lacustrine sediments of the extensional Oligo-Miocene Lokichar basin (Mead, 1975) along with terrestrial mammals and freshwater molluscs below a basalt dated at 17.1 ± 1.0 Ma (Boschetto et al., 1992). The unifying characteristics of riverine occurrences of modern marine mammals include sufficient discharge in low-gradient rivers to maintain pathways deep enough to facilitate migration, and the absence of shallow bedrock, rapids, and waterfalls. The most likely route, which may have had these characteristics is a fluvial corridor controlled by protracted thermal subsidence of the Cretaceous Anza Rift, which once linked extensional processes in Central and East Africa with the continental margin of northeastern Africa. The fossil locality and analogies with present-day occurrences of marine mammals in terrestrial realms suggest that the ziphiid stranded slightly above sea level. In combination with Miocene lava flows that utilized eastward-directed drainages away from the EAP the fossil find thus provides the older of only two empirical palaeoelevation points that constrain the onset of uplift of the EAP to the interval between approximately 17 and 13 Ma. Our results show that topographic uplift of the EAP is a viable mechanism that induced palaeoclimatic change from a low-elevation humid environment to highly variable, much drier conditions, which altered biotic communities and drove evolution in East Africa, including that of primates.

  10. Component geochronology of the ca. 3920 Ma Acasta Gneiss (United States)

    Cates, Nicole L.; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Caro, Guillaume; Hopkins, Michelle D.; Abramov, Oleg; Trail, Dustin; Bleeker, Wouter; Guitreau, Martin; Blichert-Toft, Janne


    Compiled U-Pb zircon ages of the oldest parts of the Acasta Gneiss Complex (AGC) in the Northwest Territories (Canada) span about 4050-3850 Ma (Stern and Bleeker, 1998); yet older 4200 Ma xenocrystic U-Pb zircon ages have also been reported for this terrane (Iizuka et al., 2006). The AGC has at least 50 km2 of outcrop exposure, but only a small subset has been documented in the detail required to investigate a complex history. To better understand this history, ion microprobe zircon geochronology was combined with whole-rock and zircon rare earth element compositions (+Y; [REE+Y]zirc) and Ti-in-zircon thermometry (Tixln) from a sub-divided ~60 cm2 slab of Acasta banded gneiss, and compared to other nearby variably deformed AGC granitoid gneiss samples. Micro-sampling by this method reveals components with distinctive [Th/U]zirc vs. Tixln and [REE+Y]zirc that are correlative with separate 235,238U-207,206Pb zircon age populations and whole-rock compositions, but not with 147Sm-143Nd isotope systematics. Lattice-strain theory used to model [REE+Y] reconciles U-Pb zircon geochronology for the individual components, which also preserve strong positive Eu* anomalies. Modeling shows that the magmas that gave rise to the oldest domains formed at contemporary oxygen fugacities. The AGC preserves a legacy older than about 4000 Ma, but this derives from incomplete assimilation of older crust. Magmatic emplacement at ca. 3920 Ma is contemporaneous with the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) of the Moon. Later superimposed Eoarchean events (3850-3720 Ma) are reminiscent of formation times for the Itsaq Gneiss Complex in West Greenland (Nutman et al., 1996), Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt in northern Québec (Cates et al. 2013), and Manfred Complex in Western Australia (Kinny et al., 1990). Equilibration of Sm-Nd occurred at the scale of individual components over the course of one or more of these events.

  11. Ocean technology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peshwe, V.B.


    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Caprara


    Full Text Available Soil surface crusting has severe agricultural and environmental effects. The action of beating rains can destroy soil surface structure and in some cases lead to surface sealing and crusting which, in turn, reduce soil conductivity, seed emergence and increase the runoff hazard. The susceptibility of different soils to crusting was studied by a new experimental apparatus and model. A micro rain – simulator mounted on a rotating disc sprinkles water on soil sample and after a certain time (or revolutions of the disc the water ponded on soil surface completely percolates and water is again applied to the soil surface. The model was used to follow the variation of soil hydraulic conductivity as a function of time or total water applied during the crust formation. The effects of soil sieved crumbs and duration of pre-saturation were investigated during the crust formation. For some soils crusting decreases along the sprinkling events, with the diameter of aggregates presenting high values; sometimes significant structural deterioration in the aggregate of higher diameter occurs after a initial resistance to crusting as evidenced by a sharp reduced hydraulic conductivity. The role of the pre-saturation time seem more important for less resistant soils.

  13. The giant Dexing porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit in east China: product of melting of juvenile lower crust in an intracontinental setting (United States)

    Hou, Zengqian; Pan, Xiaofei; Li, Qiuyun; Yang, Zhiming; Song, Yucai


    The Dexing porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit in east China (1,168 Mt at 0.45 % Cu) is located in the interior of the South China Craton (SCC), made up of two lithospheric blocks, the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks. The Cu-Mo-Au mineralization is associated with mid-Jurassic granodioritic porphyries with three high-level intrusive centers, controlled by a series of lineaments at the southeastern edge of the Yangtze block. Available age data define a short duration (172-170 Ma) of the felsic magmatism and the mineralization (171 ± 1 Ma). The deposit shows broad similarities with deposits in volcanoplutonic arcs, although it was formed in an intracontinental setting. Porphyries associated with mineralization are mainly granodiorites, which contain abundant phenocrysts (40-60 %) and carry contemporaneous microgranular mafic enclaves (MMEs). They are mainly high-K calc-alkaline and show geochemical affinities with adakite, characterized by relatively high MgO, Cr, Ni, Th, and Th/Ce ratios. The least-altered porphyries yielded relatively uniform ? Nd( t) values from -0.9 to +0.6, and wide (87Sr/86Sr)i range between 0.7046 and 0.7058 partially overlapping with the Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the MMEs and mid-Jurassic mafic rocks in the SCC. Zircons from the porphyries have positive ? Hf( t) values (3.4 to 6.9), and low ?18O values (4.7 to 6.3 ‰), generally close to those of depleted mantle. All data suggest an origin by partial melting of a thickened juvenile lower crust involving mantle components (e.g., Neoproterozoic mafic arc magmas), triggered by invasion of contemporaneous mafic melts at Dexing. The MMEs show textural, mineralogical, and chemical evidence for an origin as xenoliths formed by injection of mafic melts into the felsic magmas. These MMEs usually contain magmatic chalcopyrite, and have original, variable contents of Cu (up to 500 ppm). Their geochemical characteristics suggest that they were derived from an enriched mantle source, metasomatized by Proterozoic slab-derived fluids, and supplied a part of Cu, Au, and S for the Dexing porphyry system during their injection into the felsic magmas. The 171 ± 1 Ma magmatic-hydrothermal event at Dexing is contemporaneous with the mid-Jurassic extension in the SCC, followed by 160-90 Ma arc-like magmatism in southeastern China. With respect to the tectono-magmatic evolution of the SCC, the emplacement of Cu-bearing porphyries and the associated Cu mineralization occurred in response to the transformation from a tensional regime, related to mid-Jurassic extension, to a transpressional regime, related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific oceanic lithosphere.

  14. ???? ???????? / Ma?????? ?????????

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ta???????, ????????


    Koolilaste järjest kehvenev tervis sundis sotsiaalministeeriumi uuest õppeaastast kehtestama korra, mis päästab õpilased raske ranitsa tassimisest ja keelab koduste ülesannete andmise nädalavahetusteks

  15. LOCV approach and core-crust transition in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigdeli, M.; Elyasi, S. [University of Zanjan, Department of Physics, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this paper, we have calculated the core-crust transition parameters and the location of inner edge for crust in the neutron stars. We have also investigated the structural properties of neutron stars, such as mass and radius for the core and crust, the moment of inertia, and its crustal fraction. Here we have employed the lowest-order constrained variational approach and used the UV{sub 14} + TNI and AV{sub 18} potentials to compute the equation of state of nuclear matter. Finally, we have compared our results with those of other techniques. (orig.)

  16. Thermal conductivity of the crust of accreting neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K


    Recently, crust cooling times have been measured for neutron stars after extended outbursts. These observations are very sensitive to the thermal conductivity $\\kappa$ of the crust and strongly suggest that $\\kappa$ is large. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of the structure of the crust of an accreting neutron star using a complex composition that includes many impurities. The composition comes from simulations of rapid proton capture nucleosynthesys followed by electron captures. We find an ordered crystal structure with a high thermal conductivity that is in agreement with observation. We do not find an amorphous solid that could have a low conductivity.

  17. An elderly long-term care resident with crusted scabies. (United States)

    Sandre, Matthew; Ralevski, Filip; Rau, Neil


    Crusted scabies is a highly contagious form of scabies. Altered immune response, nutritional deficiencies and modified host response are all risk factors for crusted scabies. The authors report a case involving a patient found to have a chronic maculopapular, erythematous rash with large hyperkeratotic, white and grey plaques on the soles of both feet. An ultimate diagnosis of crusted scabies was reached after a delay in diagnosis suspected to be caused by the similarity in appearance to more common skin conditions such as psoriasis. After topical permethrin was unsuccessful, intermittent dosing of oral ivermectin resulted in a rapid reduction in cutaneous plaques. PMID:25798153

  18. Collective Modes in the Superfluid Inner Crust of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Michael


    The neutron-star inner crust is assumed to be superfluid at relevant temperatures. The contribution of neutron quasiparticles to thermodynamic and transport properties of the crust is therefore strongly suppressed by the pairing gap. Nevertheless, the neutron gas still has low-energy excitations, namely long-wavelength collective modes. We summarize different approaches to describe the collective modes in the crystalline phases of the inner crust and present an improved model for the description of the collective modes in the pasta phases within superfluid hydrodynamics.

  19. Models Of Strange Stars With A Crust And Strange Dwarfs


    Vartanyan, Yu. L.; Grigoryan, A. K.; Sargsyan, T. R.


    Strange quark stars with a crust and strange dwarfs consisting of a compact strange quark core and an extended crust are investigated in terms of a bag model. The crust, which consists of atomic nuclei and degenerate electrons, has a limiting density of ro_ cr=ro_drip=4.3*10^11g/cm^3. A series of configurations are calculated for two sets of bag model parameters and three different values of ro_cr (10^9g/cm^3

  20. Ma's identity and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian S?ota


    Full Text Available In the paper we distinguish the, so called, Ma's polynomials and we introduce connections of these polynomials with the classic Cauchy polynomials and the Ferrers-Jackson's polynomials. Presented connections enable to receive certain interesting divisibility relations for all these three types of polynomials and some other symmetric polynomials. Application of the discussed identities for determining the limits of quotients of the respective polynomials in two variables are also presented here.

  1. Structure of thinned continental crust across the Orphan Basin from a dense wide-angle seismic profile and gravity data (United States)

    Lau, K. W. Helen; Watremez, Louise; Louden, Keith E.; Nedimoví?, Mladen R.


    We present a 500-km long, 2-D P-wave velocity model across the Orphan Basin, offshore NE Newfoundland, Canada, from Flemish Cap to the Bonavista Platform, formed using refraction and wide-angle reflection data from 89 ocean-bottom seismometers. This layered model builds on a recent traveltime tomography result using additional constraints from coincident multichannel seismic reflection and gravity data plus borehole logs from three wells. The model shows (i) post-rift Tertiary (velocities ˜1.7-3.5 km s-1) and (ii) both post-rift and syn-rift, Cretaceous and Jurassic sediments (˜4-5 km s-1), deposited within an eastern and a western sub-basin that are separated by a major basement block. The existence of Jurassic sediments indicates a pre-Cretaceous rifting phase in the eastern sub-basin, and possibly in the western sub-basin. However, there is no evidence that Triassic sediments are widespread across the Orphan Basin. Two upper crustal sublayers and one lower crustal layer are defined by differences in velocities (5.4-6.1, 6.1-6.5 and 6.3-7.1 km s-1, respectively) and vertical velocity gradients (mean = 0.14, 0.10 and 0.05 s-1, respectively). Crustal thinning is asymmetric across the Orphan Basin. Within the eastern sub-basin, continental crust beneath Flemish Cap (˜32 km thick; ? ˜ 1.1) thins westward into a 35-km-wide zone of hyperextended crust ( 3.4) beneath an 11-km-deep sedimentary basin. Within the western sub-basin, the Bonavista Platform crust (˜32 km thick) thins eastward into a 116-km-wide zone of hyperextended crust. Two zones of thicker crust (? = 2-3.5) exist within the central section, with muted topography within the eastern part and large basement highs in the western part, separated by the eastward dipping White Sail Fault (WSF). The zone to the east of the WSF displays higher velocities in the lower crust than to the west. This can only be explained by a lateral ductile flow across the zone boundary. By combining the two upper crustal sublayers into one, we define the full crustal thicknesses of the upper and lower crusts as 12 and 22 km, respectively. The extension and thinning factors of these two layers are calculated across the basin. Discrepancies between upper crustal thinning and lower crustal thinning are common but only produce a small mass deficit (˜7 per cent or 1.5 km) in the lower crust. Structural connections are shown between the Rockall Trough and the West Orphan Basin and between the Porcupine Basin and the East Orphan Basin in that a wider hyperextended western basin is paired with a narrower eastern basin by a middle zone of thicker crust. In contrast to the Rockall Trough and the Porcupine Basin, serpentinized mantle is not observed in the East Orphan Basin where hyperextended crust is observed (?max ˜ 8.5). One possible cause is that the restricted size of the basin and its location adjacent to Flemish Cap may have permitted a heavier supply of sediment to cover the basement early during its extension. Such a cover would inhibit the flow of water into the crust and thus leave the mantle unchanged.

  2. Geochemistry of oceanic anoxic events (United States)

    Jenkyns, Hugh C.


    Oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) record profound changes in the climatic and paleoceanographic state of the planet and represent major disturbances in the global carbon cycle. OAEs that manifestly caused major chemical change in the Mesozoic Ocean include those of the early Toarcian (Posidonienschiefer event, T-OAE, ˜183 Ma), early Aptian (Selli event, OAE 1a, ˜120 Ma), early Albian (Paquier event, OAE 1b, ˜111 Ma), and Cenomanian-Turonian (Bonarelli event, C/T OAE, OAE 2, ˜93 Ma). Currently available data suggest that the major forcing function behind OAEs was an abrupt rise in temperature, induced by rapid influx of CO2 into the atmosphere from volcanogenic and/or methanogenic sources. Global warming was accompanied by an accelerated hydrological cycle, increased continental weathering, enhanced nutrient discharge to oceans and lakes, intensified upwelling, and an increase in organic productivity. An increase in continental weathering is typically recorded by transient increases in the seawater values of 87Sr/86Sr and 187Os/188Os ratios acting against, in the case of the Cenomanian-Turonian and early Aptian OAEs, a longer-term trend to less radiogenic values. This latter trend indicates that hydrothermally and volcanically sourced nutrients may also have stimulated local increases in organic productivity. Increased flux of organic matter favored intense oxygen demand in the water column, as well as increased rates of marine and lacustrine carbon burial. Particularly in those restricted oceans and seaways where density stratification was favored by paleogeography and significant fluvial input, conditions could readily evolve from poorly oxygenated to anoxic and ultimately euxinic (i.e., sulfidic), this latter state being geochemically the most significant. The progressive evolution in redox conditions through phases of denitrification/anammox, through to sulfate reduction accompanied by water column precipitation of pyrite framboids, resulted in fractionation of many isotope systems (e.g., N, S, Fe, Mo, and U) and mobilization and incorporation of certain trace elements into carbonates (Mn), sulfides, and organic matter. Sequestration of CO2 in organic-rich black shales and by reaction with silicate rocks exposed on continents would ultimately restore climatic equilibrium but at the expense of massive chemical change in the oceans and over time scales of tens to hundreds of thousands of years.

  3. Flow of partially molten crust traced by AMS-based kinematic analysis of leucogranite sheets (United States)

    Norlander, B.; Teyssier, C.; Ferré, E.


    One of the most important realizations in tectonics in the last 10 years is that active orogens are commonly underlain by a layer of partially molten crust. This layer can flow laterally (channel flow, collapse flow) and accommodate the growth of continental plateaux, or flow vertically to form gneiss and migmatite domes. In spite of its recognized importance in orogenic processes, the flow of partially molten crust, recorded in the structural geology of migmatites, is poorly understood largely because the structural tools to analyze migmatites are in their infancy. We present results of a study aimed at understanding the flow of partially molten crust that was exhumed in the Shuswap metamorphic core complex (MCC) in early Tertiary time. Instead of studying the flow of complex migmatites directly, we used the deformation of the structurally simpler leucogranite sheets that were emplaced in the migmatite terrain at 60-55 Ma. The leucogranites concentrate beneath the detachment; therefore, the deformation of the leucogranites captures the flow kinematics of the upper part of the partially-molten crust, a critical region to distinguish between channel flow and flow related to detachment tectonics (predicted sense of shear is opposite for the two models). The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of 91 leucogranite samples along a 70 km long traverse oriented E-W (parallel to the MCC extension direction) shows that magnetic foliation is largely flat-flying, and lineation is dominantly E-W, except in the region of Sugar Mountain (central part of the MCC), where lineation is steeply plunging. Analysis of shear-sense criteria on 60 samples cut parallel to K1-K3 AMS plane indicate that fabrics developed under magmatic state, and high temperature to low-temprature solid state display top-to-W shear in the west and top-to-E shear in the east of the MCC; Sugar Mountain is the kinematic hinge of this system and shows more coaxial strain. These results are consistent with a conjugate system of detachments accommodating crustal boudinage and are inconsistent with channel flow. Activation of these detachments allowed upward motion of the deep footwall where decompression led to voluminous melting and the generation of diapiric domes. A belt of migmatite domes located approximately 25 km to the east of the Sugar Mountain kinematic hinge can be explained by this process.

  4. Natural constraints on the rheology of the lower continental crust (Musgrave Ranges, Central Australia) (United States)

    Hawemann, Friedrich; Mancktelow, Neil; Wex, Sebastian; Camacho, Alfredo; Pennacchioni, Giorgio


    Current models and extrapolated laboratory data generally predict viscous flow in the lower continental crust and any localized brittle deformation at these depths has been proposed to reflect downward propagation of the frictional-viscous transition zone during short-term seismic events and related high strain rates. Better natural constraints on this proposed rheological behaviour can be obtained directly from currently exposed lower crust that has not been strongly overprinted during its exhumation. One of the largest and best preserved lower crustal sections is located in the Musgrave Ranges, Central Australia. The Petermann Orogeny (550 Ma) in this area is characterized by the development of localized shear zones on a wide range of scales, overprinting water-deficient granulites of Musgravian age (1.2 Ga) as well as younger granites and gabbros. Shearing is rarely localized on lithological inhomogeneities, but rather on precursor fractures and on commonly associated pseudotachylytes. The only exception is that older dolerite dykes are often exploited, possibly because they are planar layers of markedly smaller grain size. Sheared pseudotachylyte often appears caramel-coloured in the field and has a fine grained assemblage of Grt+Cpx+Fsp. Multiple generations of pseudotachylyte formed broadly coeval with shearing are indicated by clasts of sheared pseudotachylyte within pseudotachylyte veins that then themselves subsequently sheared. The ductile shear zones formed under sub-eclogitic conditions of ca. 650°C and 1.2 GPa, generally typical of the lower continental crust. However, the P-T conditions during pseudotachylyte formation cannot be readily determined using classical geothermobarometry, because of the fine grain sizes and possible disequilibrium. The software "Xmaptools" (by Pierre Lanari) allows the quantification of X-ray maps produced by EDS or WDS. It provides both very precise definition of local mineral compositions for exchange geothermobarometry on a statistical basis, and an estimate of the bulk pseudotachylyte composition for small areas, avoiding clasts and heterogeneous composition of the former melt. The combination with thermodynamic modelling using PerpleX is used to test the results from geothermobarometry. The estimated conditions are similar to the ductile shear zones and support evidence for synchronous action of brittle faulting and viscous shearing in the lower crust.

  5. Estimation of seismic velocity in the subducting crust of the Pacific slab beneath Hokkaido, northern Japan by using guided waves (United States)

    Shiina, T.; Nakajima, J.; Toyokuni, G.; Kita, S.; Matsuzawa, T.


    A subducting crust contains a large amount of water as a form of hydrous minerals (e.g., Hacker et al., 2003), and the crust plays important roles for water transportation and seismogenesis in subduction zones at intermediate depths (e.g., Kirby et al., 1996; Iwamori, 2007). Therefore, the investigation of seismic structure in the crust is important to understand ongoing physical processes with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. A guided wave which propagates in the subducting crust is recorded in seismograms at Hokkaido, northern Japan (Shiina et al., 2014). Here, we estimated P- and S-wave velocity in the crust with guided waves, and obtained P-wave velocity of 6.6-7.3 km/s and S-wave velocity of 3.6-4.2 km/s at depths of 50-90 km. Moreover, Vp/Vs ratio in the crust is calculated to be 1.80-1.85 in that depth range. The obtained P-wave velocity about 6.6km/s at depths of 50-70 km is consistent with those estimated in Tohoku, northeast Japan (Shiina et al., 2013), and this the P-wave velocity is lower than those expected from models of subducting crustal compositions, such as metamorphosed MORB model (Hacker et al., 2003). In contrast, at greater depths (>80 km), the P-wave velocity marks higher velocity than the case of NE Japan and the velocity is roughly comparable to those of the MORB model. The obtained S-wave velocity distribution also shows characteristics similar to P waves. This regional variation may be caused by a small variation in thermal regime of the Pacific slab beneath the two regions as a result of the normal subduction in Tohoku and oblique subduction in Hokkaido. In addition, the effect of seismic anisotropy in the subducting crust would not be ruled out because rays used in the analysis in Hokkaido propagate mostly in the trench-parallel direction, while those in Tohoku are sufficiently criss-crossed.

  6. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual evaluation is a synthesis of works published in 2006. Comparisons are presented between the wind power performances and European Commission White Paper and Biomass action plan objectives. The sector covers the energy exploitation of all energy flows specifically supplied by the seas and oceans. At present, most efforts in both research and development and in experimental implementation are concentrated on tidal currents and wave power. 90% of today worldwide ocean energy production is represented by a single site: the Rance Tidal Power Plant. Ocean energies must face up two challenges: progress has to be made in finalizing and perfecting technologies and costs must be brought under control. (A.L.B.)

  7. Yellow sorediate crusts called Caloplaca citrina in England.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Powell, M.; Vondrák, Jan


    Ro?. 2012, ?. 110 (2012), s. 20-24. ISSN 0300-4562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodiversity * crytic species * sorediate crusts Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  8. The origin of continental crust: Outlines of a general theory (United States)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.


    The lower continental crust, formerly very poorly understood, has recently been investigated by various geological and geophysical techniques that are beginning to yield a generally agreed on though still vague model (Lowman, 1984). As typified by at least some exposed high grade terranes, such as the Scottish Scourian complex, the lower crust in areas not affected by Phanerozoic orogeny or crustal extension appears to consist of gently dipping granulite gneisses of intermediate bulk composition, formed from partly or largely supracrustal precursors. This model, to the degree that it is correct, has important implications for early crustal genesis and the origin of continental crust in general. Most important, it implies that except for areas of major overthrusting (which may of course be considerable) normal superposition relations prevail, and that since even the oldest exposed rocks are underlain by tens of kilometers of sial, true primordial crust may still survive in the lower crustal levels (of. Phinney, 1981).

  9. Micrometer-scale porosity as a biosignature in carbonate crusts (United States)

    Bosak, Tanja; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Corsetti, Frank A.; Newman, Dianne K.


    We formed calcite crusts in the presence and absence of the heterotrophic bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain G20 to investigate microbial morphological signatures in fast-accreting carbonate precipitates. Submicrometer- to micrometer-sized pores (micropores) were present and ubiquitous in the G20 crusts but absent in abiotically precipitated crusts. Bacterial micropores resemble inclusions under transmitted light, but have distinct size, biological shapes and patterns (swirling or dendritic) and are distributed differently from common fluid inclusions. We observed similar porosity in both modern and ancient carbonate crusts of putative biotic origin. Our experiments support the microbial origin of micropores and help define specific criteria whereby to recognize these features as biosignatures in the rock record.

  10. Biological soil crusts in post-mining areas.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukešová, Alena; Zahradníková, M.; Frouz, J.

    Boca Raton : Taylor & Francis CRC Press, 2013, s. 53-65. ISBN 978-1-4665-9931-4 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biological soil crusts * post-mining areas Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  11. 33 CFR 80.135 - Hull, MA to Race Point, MA. (United States)


    ... 2010-07-01 false Hull, MA to Race Point, MA. 80.135 Section 80...Atlantic Coast § 80.135 Hull, MA to Race Point, MA. (a) Except inside lines...longitude 70°52.6? W., to Race Point on Cape Cod. (b) A line...

  12. Crusted scabies-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome


    Fernández-Sánchez Mónica; Saeb-Lima Marcela; Alvarado-de la Barrera Claudia; Reyes-Terán Gustavo


    Abstract Background Despite the widely accepted association between crusted scabies and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, crusted scabies has not been included in the spectrum of infections associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy. Case presentation We report a case of a 28-year-old Mexican individual with late HIV-infection, who had no apparent skin lesions but soon after initiation of antiretroviral th...

  13. An elderly long-term care resident with crusted scabies


    Sandre, Matthew; Ralevski, Filip; Rau, Neil


    Crusted scabies, also referred to as Norwegian scabies, is a highly contagious infection of the skin caused by Sarcoptes scabiei mites. The authors report a case involving a 94-year-old woman with dementia who presented with symptoms of crusted scabies, which were initially believed to be due to a different skin condition. The risk factors as well as appropriate treatment courses for this infection are also reviewed.

  14. Ultrafine-scale magnetostratigraphy of marine ferromanganese crust


    Oda, Hirokuni; Usui, Akira; Miyagi, Isoji; Joshima, Masato; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Shantz, Chris; Fong, Luis E.; McBride, Krista K.; Harder, Rene; Baudenbacher, Franz J.


    Hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts are iron-manganese oxide chemical precipitates on the seafloor that grow over periods of tens of millions of years. Their secular records of chemical, mineralogical, and textural variations are archives of deep-sea environmental changes. However, environmental reconstruction requires reliable high-resolution age dating. Earlier chronological methods using radiochemical and stable isotopes provided age models for ferromanganese crusts, but have limitations on...

  15. Emplacement of ultramafic rocks into the continental crust monitored by light and other trace elements: An example from the Geisspfad body (Swiss-Italian Alps)


    Pelletier, Laure; Müntener, Othmar; Kalt, Angelika; Vennemann, Torsten W.; Belgya, Tamás


    In order to evaluate the influence of continental crustal rocks on trace element budgets of serpentinized peridotites incorporated into the continental crust, we have analyzed the chemical composition of whole rock samples and minerals of the Geisspfad ultramafic complex (Swiss-Italian Alps). This complex represents a relict oceanic succession composed of serpentinites, ophicarbonates and metabasic rocks, emplaced into crustal gneisses during Alpine collision. Following peak metamorphic amphi...

  16. Rare isotopes and thermonuclear explosions: journey through the crust of an accreting neutron star (United States)

    Schatz, Hendrik


    Recent progress in nuclear astrophysics has been driven by simultaneous advances in observational astronomy, experimental nuclear physics and computational modeling. A prime example is the physics of accreting neutron stars in X- ray binaries. Nuclear reactions in the atmosphere, crust and in the liquid heavy metal ocean covering the surface of these neutron stars give rise to a range of observable phenomena such as X-ray bursts, superbursts, and millisecond oscillations, which in many cases have only been discovered recently. At the same time, a new generation of rare isotope beam accelerators has made it possible to begin to study experimentally the properties of the extremely unstable nuclei involved in these reactions. By following the fate of an accreted matter element through its journey into the deep crust of the neutron star I will review recent experimental and theoretical progress, discuss open questions, and outline avenues for the future that have the potential to achieve a better understanding of the physics of neutron stars.

  17. Development of biological soil crusts and their influence on soil hydrology in the recultivation area of lignite open-cast mining district in Lower Lusatia (Germany) (United States)

    Spröte, R.; Veste, M.; Fischer, T.; Raab, T.; Bens, O.; Hüttl, R. F.


    Cyanobacteria, green algae, mosses and lichens are often the first colonizers of substrate and initial soil surfaces. They are an important factor of initial soil formation as they stabilize the substrate and decrease erosion processes. Biological soil crusts accumulate the initial soil organic matter and provide nitrogen fixation. Once settled, the crusts influence the soil water regime by delaying or limiting infiltration through enhanced water repellency. Aim of this study was to compare the influence of biological soil crusts on soil hydrology under conditions on various substrates and of different ages in recultivated areas of the open-cast mining district of Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, NE Germany) with various recultivation aims. In Brandenburg (NE Germany), where the climate is transitional between oceanic and continental and the summers are characterized by generally low of precipitation (mean annual rainfall 559 mm, mean annual temperature 9.3° C) open landscapes provide ideal conditions for biological soil crusts, e. g. on mobile sand dunes in former military training areas and in recultivation areas related to open-cast mining with initial soil development. Here biological soil crusts are commonly found (Spröte et al., 2010). At five study sites in recultivation areas with different reclamation approaches (natural development, pine reforestation, birch reforestation) we defined four types of biological soil crusts: i) cyanobacterial and green algae crusts on the soil surface with no vegetation where dominating sand grains were physically stabilized in their contact zones by this crust type (type 1), ii) cyanobacteria and green algae partially filled in the matrix pores and enmeshed sand grains between sparse vegetation cover (type 2), iii) biological soil crusts with mosses which covered most of the surface between the vegetation (type 3) and (iv) with soil lichens (type 4). We investigated the development of the amount of chlorophyll a which is an indicator for biomass productivity and depends from the species composition and crust type, and the water repellency index which shows the influence of biological soil crusts on hydrological parameters. Additionally, organic matter content (dry combustion) as well as soil pH (soil: H2O = 1:2.5) were determined. Texture was analysed by wet sieving and fractionation pipette method. At all study sites and for all crust types soil pH ranged between 7.2 to 4.7 and decreased from type 1 to type 4. Soil organic matter and chlorophyll a concentrations ranged from 0.3 and 1.7% and from 0.95 to 16.44 mg m-2, respectively, and increased from type 1 to type 4. With few exceptions, water repellency indices ranging between 1.0 and 1.85, followed this trend. Constrarily, infiltration rates decreased from type 1 to type 4. The cause for limited infiltration is the swelling of extracellular polysaccharides in the biological soil crusts (Fischer et al., 2010) and the influence of the particle size distribution and porosity of the substrate with a relatively high content of silt and clay at some study sites. Fischer, T., Veste, M., Wiehe, W. & Lange, P. (2010): Water repellency and pore clogging at early succesional stages of microbiotic crusts on inland dunes, Brandenburg, NE Germany. - Catena, 80, 47-52. Spröte, R.,Fischer, T., Veste, M., Raab, T., Wiehe, W., Lange, P., Bens, O., Hüttl, R.F. (2010): Biological topsoil crusts at early successional stages on Quaternary substrates dumped by mining in Brandenburg, NE Germany. Géomorphologie: relief, processus, environnement 4/2010: 359-370.

  18. Open Oceans.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuláš, Radek

    Vol. 1. EOLSS Publishers, 2002, s. - Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : environment * ocean * paleogeography Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  19. Neutron Star Asteroseismology. Axial Crust Oscillations in the Cowling Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Samuelsson, L; Samuelsson, Lars; Andersson, Nils


    Recent observations of quasi-periodic oscillations in the aftermath of giant flares in soft gamma-ray repeaters suggest a close coupling between the seismic motion of the crust after a major quake and the modes of oscillations in a magnetar. In this paper we consider the purely elastic modes of oscillation in the crust of a neutron star in the relativistic Cowling approximation (disregarding any magnetic field). We determine the axial crust modes for a large set of stellar models, using a state-of-the-art crust equation of state and a wide range of core masses and radii. We also devise useful approximate formulae for the mode-frequencies. We show that the relative crust thickness is well described by a function of the compactness of the star and a parameter describing the compressibility of the crust only. Considering the observational data for SGR 1900+14 and SGR 1806-20, we demonstrate how our results can be used to constrain the mass and radius of an oscillating neutron star.

  20. Sea surface temperature and salinity in the south Atlantic subtropical gyre over the last 4 Ma (United States)

    Wojcieszek, D. E.; Dekens, P. S.


    The early Pliocene (3-5 Ma) is the most recent time in the Earth's history when climate was significantly warmer than today. Even though atmospheric pCO2 (360-410 ppm) was similar to today, the average global temperature was 3-4°C warmer, ice sheets were smaller, and sea level was approximately 35 m higher than today. Recent studies show that reduced zonal and meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradients played a role in sustaining Pliocene warmth and increasing SST gradients coincides with Pliocene-Pleistocene climate cooling. Ocean circulation is another important factor in climate transitions. Changes in shallow overturning circulation (ventilated thermocline) and ocean heat transport are hypothesized to be responsible for increasing Earth's sensitivity to orbital forcing and the onset of Pleistocene glaciations. However, most early Pliocene SST records are focused in the northern hemisphere and tropical upwelling regions, while data from the subtropical southern hemisphere is scarce. We present G.sacculifer Mg/Ca and ?18O records from ODP site 1264 (28.53°S; 2.85°E, 2505 m water depth), located on the Walvis Ridge in the south Atlantic subtropical gyre and within the influence of the Agulhas leakage. The Mg/Ca SST record displays no long-term trend over the past 4 Ma. The ?18O record indicates that sea surface salinity (SSS) gradually decreased from the early Pliocene to today. In the modern ocean the Agulhas Current is a western boundary current in the Indian Ocean that sheds rings of salty Indian Ocean waters into the SE Atlantic. The current is driven by a high air pressure system (the downward portion of the Hadley cell) over the south Indian Ocean and therefore responds to climatic shifts. Previous work indicates that weaker Hadley circulation in the early Pliocene lead to expanded subtropical gyres. This would have enhanced inter-ocean flow from the Indian to the Atlantic Ocean, resulting in higher SSS. Contraction of the south Indian Ocean subtropical gyre due to strengthening Hadley circulation from the early Pliocene to today would have resulted in a decreasing influence of the Agulhas Current, and therefore reduced SSS in the SE Atlantic. Increasing foraminifera abundance and decreasing nannofossil content from 4 Ma to today at ODP site 1264 implies a change from turbulent conditions in the Pliocene to calm gyre-like conditions in the modern ocean, consistent with a reduced Agulhas current influence. We conclude that the SST and SST records at ODP site 1264 reflect a decreasing influence of the Agulhas Current on the south-eastern Atlantic over the last 4 Ma.

  1. Melt anomalies in the Indian Ocean basin: Constraints on dynamic interaction between the Marion/Crozet hotspots and the Southwest Indian Ridge (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Lin, J.; Gao, J.


    We investigate melt anomalies created by hotspots in the Indian Ocean and their implications on the dynamic interaction between hotspots and the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). Residual mantle Bouguer anomalies (RMBA) were calculated by subtracting from satellite-derived free-air gravity (Sandwell and Smith, version 18.1) the predicted attractions of water-sediment, sediment-crust, and crust-mantle interfaces as well as the effects of cooling lithosphere. Residual bathymetry anomaly (RBA) was calculated by subtracting from the shipboard and predicted bathymetry (Sandwell and Smith, version 11.1) the effects of sediment unloading and seafloor subsidence due to lithospheric cooling. The results of analysis reveal profound negative RMBA in several regions: (1) The Conrad Rise, which is south of the SWIR on crustal age of 90 - 84 Ma, is associated with negative RMBA with amplitude of up to -360 mGal, corresponding to maximum crustal thickening of 19 km for an end-member model in which the RMBA is caused only by crustal thickness variations. The Madagascar Ridge, which is on the conjugate crust to the north of the SWIR, is associated with negative RMBA of similar amplitude. (2) A region of negative RMBA or thickened crust is found in the vicinity of the Marion Island, Del Cano Rise, and the Crozet plateau, with the calculated RMBA of -300, -320, and -400 mGal, respectively. (3) Along the present-day SWIR axis, the mean RMBA is most negative (about -110 mGal) between the Andrew Bain and Gallieni FZ, moderate (about -50 mGal) between the Gallieni and Atlantis II FZ, and most positive (about zero mGal) east of the Atlantis II FZ approaching the Rodrigues triple junction. (4) Plate reconstruction based on matching crustal isochrones reveals that the eastern part of the Del Cano Rise was created by the interaction of the Marion hotspot with the paleo-Rodrigues triple junction at 74 - 69 Ma; the central part of the Del Cano Rise was formed when the Marion hotspot was centered on the SWIR at 69 - 50 Ma; while the western end of the Del Cano Rise might most be created by intra-plate volcanism of Marion hotspot at 36 - 21 Ma. The above interpretation is consistent with the observations that the eastern and central portions of the Del Cano Rise are well explained by Airy isostatic compensation models, indicating their formation on relatively weak lithosphere in proximity of a seafloor spreading center. In contrast, the western Del Cano Rise is best explained by plate flexural models of intra-plate loading on relatively thick lithosphere. Together these results attest the importance of hotspot melt anomalies and ridge-hotspot interaction in the lithosphere accretion of the Southwest Indian Ridge.

  2. Comparing Oceans (United States)

    A variety of classroom activities and lessons that compare the world's oceans. Activities included: The Gulf of Maine, Satellite Comparisons, Design a Fish, What Migrations, Incredible Feasting of Whales, Paddle to the Sea, and Ocean Soundings. Discover why weather at identical latitudes is not always the same, learn the different ways whales eat, and find out the temperature difference between the Gulf Stream and surrounding water. Links to other Aquarium modules.

  3. Anomalous Subsidence at Rifted Continental Margins: Distinguishing Mantle Dynamic Topography from Anomalous Oceanic Crustal Thickness (United States)

    Cowie, L.; Kusznir, N. J.


    It has been proposed that some continental rifted margins have anomalous subsidence histories and that at breakup they were elevated at shallower bathymetries than the isostatic response of classical rift models (McKenzie 1978) would predict. The existence of anomalous syn or post breakup subsidence of this form would have important implications for our understanding of the geodynamics of continental breakup and rifted continental margin formation, margin subsidence history and the evolution of syn and post breakup depositional systems. We have investigated three rifted continental margins; the Gulf of Aden, Galicia Bank and the Gulf of Lions, to determine whether the oceanic crust in the ocean-continent transition of these margins has present day anomalous subsidence and if so, whether it is caused by mantle dynamic topography or anomalous oceanic crustal thickness. Residual depth anomalies (RDA) corrected for sediment loading, using flexural backstripping and decompaction, have been calculated by comparing observed and age predicted oceanic bathymetries in order to identify anomalous oceanic bathymetry and subsidence at these margins. Age predicted bathymetric anomalies have been calculated using the thermal plate model predictions from Crosby & McKenzie (2009). Non-zero sediment corrected RDAs may result from anomalous oceanic crustal thickness with respect to the global average, or from mantle dynamic uplift. Positive RDAs may result from thicker than average oceanic crust or mantle dynamic uplift; negative RDAs may result from thinner than average oceanic crust or mantle dynamic subsidence. Gravity inversion incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction and sediment thickness from 2D seismic data has been used to determine Moho depth and oceanic crustal basement thickness. The reference Moho depths used in the gravity inversion have been calibrated against seismic refraction Moho depths. The gravity inversion crustal basement thicknesses together with Airy isostasy have been used to predict a "synthetic" gravity derived RDA. Sediment corrected RDA for oceanic crust in the Gulf of Aden are positive (+750m) indicating anomalous uplift with respect to normal subsidence. Gravity inversion predicts normal thickness oceanic crust and a zero "synthetic" gravity derived RDA in the oceanic domain. The difference between the positive sediment corrected RDA and the zero "synthetic" gravity derived RDA, implies that the anomalous subsidence reported in the Gulf of Aden is the result of mantle dynamic uplift. For the oceanic crust outboard of Galicia Bank both the sediment corrected RDA and the "synthetic" gravity derived RDA are negative (-800m) and of similar magnitude, indicating anomalous subsidence, which is the result of anomalously thin oceanic crust, not mantle dynamic topography. We conclude that there is negligible mantle dynamic topography influencing the Galicia Bank region. In the Gulf of Lions, gravity inversion predicts thinner than average oceanic crust. Both sediment corrected RDA (-1km) and "synthetic" gravity derived RDA (-500m) are negative. The more negative sediment corrected RDA compared with the "synthetic" gravity derived RDA implies that the anomalous subsidence in the Gulf of Lions is the result of mantle dynamic subsidence as well as thinner than average oceanic crust.

  4. H11346_MB25M_GEO.TIF: Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the 25-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11346 in the vicinity of Edgartown Harbor, MA (Geographic, WGS84)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  5. H11077_MB0.5M_GEO.TIF: Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the 0.5-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11077 in Woods Hole, MA (Geographic)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  6. H11077_MB1.5M_GEO.TIF: Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the 1.5-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11077 in Woods Hole, MA (Geographic)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  7. H11077_MB1.5M_UTM19.TIF: Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the 1.5-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11077 in Woods Hole, MA (UTM Zone 19)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  8. H11077_MB0.5M_UTM19.TIF: Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the 0.5-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11077 in Woods Hole, MA (UTM Zone 19)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  9. H11346_MB25M_UTM19.TIF: Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the 25-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11346 in the vicinity of Edgartown Harbor, MA (UTM Zone 19, WGS84)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  10. Using (U-234/U-238) to assess diffusion rates of isotope tracers in ferromanganese crusts


    Henderson, Gm; Burton, KW


    Ferromanganese crusts record seawater isotope history for several elements useful for paleoceanography. Interpreting crust isotope profiles, however, requires an assessment of the rate of diffusion of each element within the crust. We address this issue using U- and Th-isotope profiles, coupled with concentration measurements of some trace elements whose isotopes are often measured in crusts. A depth profile of (230Th(xs)/234U) for a North Atlantic crust (Alv539) yields a growth rate of 3.05 ...

  11. Mid-oceanic ridge system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.


    centered at the summit, evidence of a magma chamber within the volcano. Large seamounts are often fed by "hot spots" in the deep mantle. These hot spots are associated with plumes of molten rock rising from the deep within the 197 Earth's mantle... model of fracture zone suggests the thickness of oceanic lithosphere is about 100Km. Carlsberg Ridge Analysis of the magnetic data leads to the identification of the Brunhes / Matuyama boundary (0.73 Ma) across the ridge axis and the absence...

  12. Galactic-cosmic-ray-produced 3He in a ferromanganese crust: any supernova 60Fe excess on earth? (United States)

    Basu, S; Stuart, F M; Schnabel, C; Klemm, V


    An excess of 60Fe in 2.4-3.2 x 10(6) year old ferromanganese crust (237 KD) from the deep Pacific Ocean has been considered as evidence for the delivery of debris from a nearby supernova explosion to Earth. Extremely high ;{3}He/;{4}He (up to 6.12 x 10(-3)) and 3He concentrations (up to 8 x 10(9) atoms/g) measured in 237 KD cannot be supernova-derived. The helium is produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and delivered in micrometeorites that have survived atmospheric entry to be trapped by the crust. 60Fe is produced by GCR reactions on Ni in extraterrestrial material. The maximum (3)He/(60)Fe of 237 KD (80-850) is comparable to the GCR (3)He/(60)Fe production ratio (400-500) predicted for Ni-bearing minerals in iron meteorites. The excess 60Fe can be plausibly explained by the presence of micrometeorites trapped by the crust, rather than injection from a supernova source. PMID:17501264

  13. Oceanic core complexes and ancient oceanic lithosphere: Insights from Iapetan and Tethyan ophiolites (Canada and Albania) (United States)

    Tremblay, Alain; Meshi, Avni; Bédard, Jean H.


    Oceanic ridges are extensional environments characterized by brittle to ductile normal faulting and episodic magma supply. Studies in modern oceanic settings suggest that the interplay of low-angle detachments and high-angle normal faults locally lead to the exhumation of lower crust and upper mantle peridotites to the seafloor as oceanic core complexes. Along the Mid-Atlantic ridge, core complexes typically occur in inside corners of intersections between the ridge axis and major transform faults. The core complexes were exhumed by movement along long-lived detachment faults that extend for 10s of km, and that are crosscut by high-angle normal faults oriented parallel to the rift axis. Ridge segments with abundant detachments would be characterized by lithosphere having little or no upper crust. Similar features in ophiolites may also reflect the dominance of amagmatic extension. This contribution presents two examples of fossilized oceanic core complexes preserved in the Canadian Appalachian and Albanian Dinaride ophiolite belts. In the Canadian Appalachians, the Southern Quebec ophiolites experienced two Paleozoic orogenies after their obduction onto the Laurentian margin. Although locally obscured by tectonic fabrics and structures, the original relationships between the ophiolitic mantle, the overlying plutonic section, and onlapping Ordovician siliciclastic rocks are well-preserved in the Thetford-Mines ophiolite which also shows similarities with lithological and structural features of the Mirdita ophiolite, where conformable contacts between the sedimentary cover sequence (debris flows and flysch deposits) and the mantle and crustal sections are superbly exposed. The Jurassic Mirdita ophiolite in Albania underlies ca. 4000 km 2 and was only slightly affected by the Tertiary Alpine orogeny of Eastern Europe. Well-exposed sections of the ophiolite suggest that the oceanic mantle was exhumed prior to obduction and locally records the formation of an oceanic core complex. Mafic cumulates of the Mirdita ophiolite have been totally excised in places, and exhumation-related shear zones are preserved in the Krabbi-Puka massif. The shear zones are manifested both within the mantle and at the contact with overlying basalts. The ophiolitic sedimentary sequence was deposited on basalts, sheeted dykes or gabbros, and typically consists of debris flows intercalated with, and overlain by slumped oceanic sedimentary rocks. The lithological and structural characteristics of both the Thetford-Mines and the Mirdita ophiolites are consistent with extensional tectonism, crustal excision and lower crust/upper mantle exhumation during formation. Both ophiolites are believed to have originated during asymmetrical oceanic extension in a suprasubduction zone setting, with preservation of the upper-plate/lower-plate segments during obduction.

  14. Abandoned Paleocene spreading center in the northeastern Indian Ocean: evidence from magnetic and seismic reflection data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Rao, D.G.


    of the Wharton Ridge and India-Antarctica Ridge, after the first major plate reorganization of the Indian Ocean (about 95 plus or minus 5 Ma), but ceased shortly after formation of anomaly 30 (about 65 Ma). Then it jumped southward between anomalies 32n.2 and 33...

  15. Titanite petrochronology of the Pamir gneiss domes: Implications for middle to deep crust exhumation and titanite closure to Pb and Zr diffusion (United States)

    Stearns, M. A.; Hacker, B. R.; Ratschbacher, L.; Rutte, D.; Kylander-Clark, A. R. C.


    The Pamir Plateau, a result of the India-Asia collision, contains extensive exposures of Cenozoic middle to lower crust in domes exhumed by north-south crustal extension. Titanite grains from 60 igneous and metamorphic rocks were investigated with U-Pb + trace element petrochronology (including Zr thermometry) to constrain the timing and temperatures of crustal thickening and exhumation. Titanite from the Pamir domes records thickening from ~44 to 25 Ma. Retrograde titanite from the Yazgulem, Sarez, and Muskol-Shatput domes records a transition from thickening to exhumation at ~20-16 Ma, whereas titanite from the Shakhadara dome records prolonged exhumation from ~20 to 8 Ma. The synchronous onset of exhumation may have been initiated by breakoff of the Indian slab and possible convective removal of the Asian lower crust and/or mantle lithosphere. The prolonged exhumation of the Shakhdara and Muztaghata-Kongur Shan domes may have been driven by continued rollback of the Asian lithosphere concurrent with shortening and northwestward translation of the Pamir Plateau.

  16. Magnetised Neutron Star Crusts and Torsional Shear Modes of Magnetars

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, Rana


    We discuss outer and inner crusts of neutron stars in strong magnetic fields. Here, we demonstrate the effect of Landau quantization of electrons on the ground state properties of matter in outer and inner crusts in magnetars. This effect leads to the enhancement of the electron number density in strong magnetic fields with respect to the zero field case. For the outer crust, we adopt the magnetic Baym-Pethick-Sutherland model and obtain the sequence of nuclei and equation of state (EoS). The properties of nuclei in the inner crust in the presence of strong magnetic fields are investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. The coexistence of two phases of nuclear matter - liquid and gas, is assumed in this case. The proton number density in the Wigner-Seitz cell is affected in strong magnetic fields through the charge neutrality. We perform this calculation using the Skyrme nucleon-nucleon interaction with different parameterisations. We find nuclei with larger mass and atomic numbers in the inner crust in the pr...

  17. Multi-disciplinary characterisation of a sandstone surface crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstones are used in many contemporary and historical buildings. With time, these buildings become dark and a surface crust is formed. Generally, these crusts mainly consist of minerals of which the constituents were mobilised from the interior of the stone, and material from the surrounding environment like air pollutants and dust. Many traditional techniques, such as optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and the Drilling Resistance Measurement System, have been used to study these crusts in the past. The advent of more advanced techniques allows a better characterisation of sandstone surface crusts, commonly present in urban stone decay. High-resolution X-ray radiography and tomography, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (?-XANES) and 2D micro-XRF scanning at laboratory and synchrotron sources, combined with more traditional research methods were applied to the study of a sandstone surface crust. This shows that the combination of these highly advanced techniques, which were not designed with the purpose of answering geological or environmental questions, can generate complementary 2D and 3D imagery of geological materials, opening up new approaches in the study of element migration inside porous geomaterials. Capsule: I hereby state that this work is significant to the rest of the scientific community.

  18. Models Of Strange Stars With A Crust And Strange Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Vartanyan, Y L; Sargsyan, T R; Vartanyan, Yu. L.


    Strange quark stars with a crust and strange dwarfs consisting of a compact strange quark core and an extended crust are investigated in terms of a bag model. The crust, which consists of atomic nuclei and degenerate electrons, has a limiting density of ro_ cr=ro_drip=4.3*10^11g/cm^3. A series of configurations are calculated for two sets of bag model parameters and three different values of ro_cr (10^9g/cm^3<=ro_cr<=ro_drip) to find the dependence of a star's mass M and radius R on the central density. Sequences of stars ranging from compact strange stars to extended strange dwarfs are constructed out of strange quark matter with a crust. The effect of the bag model parameters and limiting crust density ro_cr on the parameters of the strange stars and strange dwarfs is examined. The strange dwarfs are compared with ordinary white dwarfs and observational differences between the two are pointed out.

  19. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are 5 different ways of harnessing ocean energy: tides, swells, currents, osmotic pressure and deep water thermal gradients. The tidal power sector is the most mature. A single French site - The Rance tidal power station (240 MW) which was commissioned in 1966 produces 90% of the world's ocean energy. Smaller scale power stations operate around the world, 10 are operating in the European Union and 5 are being tested. Underwater generators and wave energy converters are expanding. In France a 1 km2 sea test platform is planned for 2010. (A.C.)

  20. Crust-mantle density distribution in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau revealed by satellite-derived gravity gradients (United States)

    LI, Honglei; Fang, Jian; Braitenberg, Carla; Wang, Xinsheng


    As the highest, largest and most active plateau on Earth, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has a complex crust-mantle structure, especially in its eastern part. In response to the subduction of the lithospheric mantle of the Indian plate, large-scale crustal motion occurs in this area. Despite the many previous studies, geodynamic processes at depth remain unclear. Knowledge of crust and upper mantle density distribution allows a better definition of the deeper geological structure and thus provides critically needed information for understanding of the underlying geodynamic processes. With an unprecedented precision of 1-2 mGal and a spatial resolution better than 100 km, GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) mission products can be used to constrain the crust-mantle density distribution. Here we used GOCE gravitational gradients at an altitude of 10km after reducing the effects of terrain, sediment thickness variations, and Moho undulations to image the density structures of eastern Tibet up to 200 km depths. We inverted the residual satellite gravitational gradients using a least square approach. The initial density model for the inversion is based on seismic velocities from the tomography. The model is composed of rectangular blocks, having a uniform density, with widths of about 100 km and variable thickness and depths. The thickness of the rectangular cells changes from10 to 60km in accordance with the seismic model. Our results reveal some large-scale, structurally controlled density variations at depths. The lithospheric root defined by higher-density contrast features from southwest to northeast, with shallowing in the central part: base of lithosphere reaches a depth of180 km, less than 100km, and 200 km underneath the Lhasa, Songpan-Ganzi, and Ordos crustal blocks, respectively. However, these depth values only represent a first-order parameterization because they depend on model discretization inherited from the original seismic tomography model. For example, the thickness of the uniform density blocks centered at140 km depth is as large as 60 km. Low-density crustal anomalies beneath the southern Lhasa and Songpan-Ganzi blocks in our model support the idea of weak lower crust and possible crustal flow, as a result of the thermal anomalies caused by the upwelling of hot deep materials. The weak lower crust may cause the decoupling of the upper crust and the mantle. These results are consistent with many other geophysical studies, confirming the effectiveness of the GOCE gravitational gradient data. Using these data in combination with other geodynamic constraints (e.g., gravity and seismic structure and preliminary reference Earth model), an improved dynamic model can be derived.

  1. Reduced order ARMA spectral estimation of ocean waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Witz, J.A.; Lyons, G.J.


    , Autoregressive (AR), Moving Average (MA) and Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) algorithms. The AR algorithm generates the current value of the time series as the sum of a linear combination of its past values and a white noise deviate. The MA algorithm... yields the values of the time series as a linear combination of white noise deviates. The ARMA algorithm is a combination of the AR and MA algorithms. One of the most important parameters measured in a structural monitoring system is the ocean wave...

  2. Near conductive cooling rates in the upper-plutonic section of crust formed at the East Pacific Rise (United States)

    Faak, Kathrin; Coogan, Laurence A.; Chakraborty, Sumit


    A new geospeedometer, based on diffusion modeling of Mg in plagioclase, is used to determine cooling rates of the upper section of the lower oceanic crust formed at fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges. The investigated natural sample suites include gabbroic rocks formed at three different locations along the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise. These samples cover a depth interval of 0-840 m below the sheeted dike/gabbro boundary and therefore allow the variation of cooling rate as a function of depth within the upper plutonic sequence to be determined. We demonstrate that the cooling rates we obtained are robust (reproducible and consistent across different vertical sections at fast spreading ridges) and decrease significantly with increasing sample depth (covering almost 4 orders of magnitude, ranging from ?1 °C y-1 for the shallowest samples to 0.0003 °C y-1 for the deepest samples). Both the absolute cooling rates, and the rate of decrease of cooling rate with depth, are consistent with conductive thermal models. In contrast, the absolute cooling rates determined from the deeper samples (>300 m below DGB), and the large decrease in cooling rate with depth are inconsistent with thermal models that include substantial cooling by off-axis hydrothermal circulation within the upper plutonic section of the crust.

  3. An alternative early opening scenario for the Central Atlantic Ocean


    Labails, Cinthia; Olivet, Jean-louis; Aslanian, Daniel; Roest, Walter


    The opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean basin that separated North America from northwest Africa is well documented and assumed to have started during the Late Jurassic. However, the early evolution and the initial breakup history of Pangaea are still debated: most of the existing models are based on one or multiple ridge jumps at the Middle Jurassic leaving the oldest crust on the American side, between the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA) and the Blake Spur Magnetic Anomaly (BSMA). Acco...

  4. Isotope composition and volume of Earth’s early oceans


    Pope, Emily C.; Bird, Dennis K; Rosing, Minik T.


    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of Earth’s seawater are controlled by volatile fluxes among mantle, lithospheric (oceanic and continental crust), and atmospheric reservoirs. Throughout geologic time the oxygen mass budget was likely conserved within these Earth system reservoirs, but hydrogen’s was not, as it can escape to space. Isotopic properties of serpentine from the approximately 3.8 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt in West Greenland are used to characterize hydrogen and oxygen isotop...

  5. Pb isotopic evidence for early Archaean crust in South Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an isotopic remote sensing study focussed on delineating the extent of Early Archean crust north and south of the Nuuk area and in south Greenland is presented. Contamination of the Late Archean Nuk gneisses and equivalents by unradiogenic Pb uniquely characteristic of Amitsoq gneiss was detected as far south as Sermilik about 70 km south of Nuuk and only as far north as the mouth of Godthabsfjord. This study was extended to the southern part of the Archean craton and the adjoining Early Proterozoic Ketilidian orogenic belt where the Pb isotopes suggest several episodes of reworking of older uranium depleted continental crust. The technique of using the Pb isotope character of younger felsic rocks, in this case Late Archean and Early Proterozoic gneisses and granites to sense the age and isotopic character of older components, is a particularly powerful tool for reconstructing the evolutionary growth and development of continental crust

  6. Hot spot activity and tectonic settings near Amsterdam–St. Paul plateau (Indian Ocean)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Janin, M.; Hemond, C.; Guillou, H.; Maia, M.; Johnson, K.T.M.; Bollinger, C.; Liorzou, C.; Mudholkar, A.V.


    and Technology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA (5) National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, 403004, India. * Corresponding author: Keywords: ridge-hotspot interaction, K-Ar geochronology... with (1) on-axis magmatism building a thicker oceanic crust and (2) off-axis magmatism occurring later and resulting into the construction of edifices on the oceanic bottom. In this paper, we used K-Ar dating...

  7. The influence of petrogenetic processes on the composition of Ocean Island Basalts


    Jamais, Marie


    Ocean Island Basalts (OIB) provide important information on the chemical and physical characteristics of their mantle sources. However, the geochemical composition of a generated magma is significantly affected by partial melting and/or subsequent fractional crystallization processes. In addition, the isotopic composition of an ascending magma may be modified during transport through the oceanic crust. The influence of these different processes on the chemical and isotopic composition of OIB ...

  8. Density constraints of lunar upper crust from gravity and topography (United States)

    Huang, Q.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Ping, J.


    Remote sensing and in situ measurements have shown that there are large lateral and vertical variations in the composition of the lunar crust. These crustal density diversities can be investigated using newly obtained global gravity and topography data. We applied a localized spectral admittance technique to various crustal regions by windowing the free-air gravity and surface topography with the band-limited localization windows of Wieczorek and Simons (2005, 2007). These admittances were interpreted using a geophysical model that includes both surface and subsurface loads that are supported by an elastic lithosphere. By varying the crustal density, elastic thickness and loading ratio in certain ranges, the best fitting bulk densities for a number of homogeneous regions were constrained to vary laterally from 2590 kg m-3 to 3010 kg m-3, with a mean value of 2700 kg m-3. Assuming the composition of the upper crust is uniform, the porosity of the upper crust could be determined if the pore-free surface density is known. Based on the known compositions of lunar rocks and estimated mineralogical norms, we found that the pore-free densities of lunar rocks were highly correlated with FeO and TiO2 abundance. The rock density can vary from 2884 to 3038 kg m-3 in estimated regions by using the iron and titanium abundances from Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometer. We calculated the porosity of each region and found a mean value of ~7.4±3.4%, with permissible values from 0 to 14%. Furthermore, we took into account the vertical variation of crust density, and developed a novel technique that the density profile of the crust could be inverted using higher resolution gravity models. Since all these analyses are challenging using the recent Kaguya gravity models, higher resolution gravity data expected from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission would place tight constrains on both the lateral and vertical density variations of the lunar crust.

  9. 42 CFR 495.204 - Incentive payments to qualifying MA organizations for MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. (United States)


    ...and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. 495.204 Section 495...THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements...and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. (a) General rule...its qualifying MA-eligible hospitals. The incentive payment...

  10. Magma mixing and crust-mantle interaction in the Triassic monzogranites of Bikou Terrane, central China: Constraints from petrology, geochemistry, and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic systematics (United States)

    Yang, Li-Qiang; Deng, Jun; Qiu, Kun-Feng; Ji, Xing-Zhong; Santosh, M.; Song, Kai-Rui; Song, Yao-Hui; Geng, Jian-Zhen; Zhang, Chuang; Hua, Bei


    Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) are common in the monzogranites from the Yangba pluton in the Bikou Terrane of central China. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating yields ages of 208.7 ± 0.7 Ma and 209.3 ± 0.9 Ma for the host monzogranites, and 211.9 ± 0.8 Ma for the MMEs, indicating formation from coeval magmas. The field occurrence and textures including spheroidal shapes, transitional contacts, igneous mineral assemblages, acicular apatites, and oscillatory zoning with repeated resorption surfaces in plagioclase, indicate that the MMEs crystallized from mafic magma that was injected into and mingled with the host felsic magma. The host monzogranites are intermediate-felsic, metaluminous, and lack typical peraluminous minerals or alkaline mafic minerals, suggesting their I-type affinity. The monzogranites display depletion in high field strength elements, with Nb and Ta anomalies, and enrichment in large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements (LREE), with slightly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu? = 0.72-0.93). The MMEs from the Yangba pluton are intermediate, metaluminous, and have higher K2O, Al2O3, Fe2O3T, MgO, Ni, and Cr contents than the pluton. The MMEs also display much higher total rare earth element (REE) concentrations and REE patterns that are sub-parallel to those of the host rocks, enrichments in Rb, Th, U, K, and LREE, and depletions in Ba, Nb, Ta, and Ti. These features are similar to those of the host rocks, indicating crust-mantle interaction during their petrogenesis. Zircons from the MMEs have highly variable ?Hf(t) values (-5.5 to +8.7) with corresponding two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) of 1.14 to 1.42 Ga, indicating they were derived from depleted mantle with crustal contamination. In contrast, zircons from host monzogranite show ?Hf(t) values ranging from -1.7 to +2.7, with TDM2 of 1.13 to 1.21 Ga, corresponding to that of the basement rocks in the Bikou Terrane, which indicates that these granitic magmas were probably derived from the Neoproterozoic juvenile lower crust with minor contribution of Mesoproterozoic ancient lower crust. The integrated petrology and elemental and isotopic geochemistry suggest that the MMEs and host monzogranites were generated by the interaction of a granitic magma and a mafic magma in the lower crust. We envisage that Neoproterozoic subcontinental lithosphere mantle-derived mafic magma intruded the lower continental crust during Late Triassic, following the Late Permian to Early Triassic collision between the South China and North China Blocks.

  11. Ocean energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This timely volume provides a comprehensive review of current technology for all ocean energies. It opens with an analysis of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), with and without the use of an intermediate fluid. The historical and economic background is reviewed, and the geographical areas in which this energy could be utilized are pinpointed. The production of hydrogen as a side product, and environmental consequences of OTEC plants are considered. The competitiveness of OTEC with conventional sources of energy is analysed. Optimisation, current research and development potential are also examined. Separate chapters provide a detailed examination of other ocean energy sources. The possible harnessing of solar ponds, ocean currents, and power derived from salinity differences is considered. There is a fascinating study of marine winds, and the question of using the ocean tides as a source of energy is examined, focussing on a number of tidal power plant projects, including data gathered from China, Australia, Great Britain, Korea and the USSR. Wave energy extraction has excited recent interest and activity, with a number of experimental pilot plants being built in northern Europe. This topic is discussed at length in view of its greater chance of implementation. Finally, geothermal and biomass energy are considered, and an assessment of their future is given. The authors also distinguished between energy schemes which might be valuable in less-industrialized regions of the world, but uneconomical in the developed countries. A large number of illustrations support the text. This book will be of particular interest to energy economists, engineers, geologists and oceanographers, and to environmentalists and environmental engineers

  12. Harnessing Ocean Energy by Tidal Current Technologies


    Nasir Mehmood; Zhang Liang; Jawad Khan


    The world is heavily dependent on fossil fuels since most of its energy requirements are fulfilled by conventional methods of burning these fuels. The energy demand is increasing by day with growing population. The energy production by fossil fuels is devastating the environment and survival of life on globe is endangered. The renewal energy technologies are vital to ensure future energy sustenance and environmental issues. Ocean is a vast resource of renewable energy. The technology today ma...

  13. Magnetic anomalies across the transitional crust of the passive conjugate margins of the North Atlantic: Iberian Abyssal Plain/Northern Newfoundland Basin (United States)

    Srivastava, S.; Sibuet, J.; Manatschal, G.


    The magma starved Iberia Abyssal Plain (IAP) margin off Iberia is probably one of the most studied non-volcanic continental margin in the world. Numerous multi-channel seismic cruises, detailed refraction surveys, and ODP drilling (Legs 149 and 173) have been carried out across it. Yet serious disagreement exists about the nature and mode of emplacement of the transitional crust which lies between true continental and true oceanic crusts in this region. One group regards this crust to be excessively thinned continental crust through which mantle was exhumed while the other group regards it to be oceanic crust, a mixture of basalt and mantle material, formed during ultraslow seafloor spreading. However, neither the drilling, which was carried out only on the basement highs and recovered serpentinized peridotites together with some gabbroic material, nor the detailed refraction measurements have been of much help in solving this dispute because the velocity values in this region neither correspond to true volcanic materials nor to true continental rocks. Similarly the magnetic anomalies in this region have been also interpreted differently by the two groups. One group negates the existence of any seafloor spreading type anomalies over the transition zone. On the other hand, examination of surface and deep-tow magnetic data from conjugate sections of the margins across this part of the North Atlantic shows a good correlation between them. The prime reason for such differences in the interpretation of magnetic data lies in the low amplitude of the surface magnetic anomalies forming the M sequence anomalies in this region compared to those of similar age present in the Central Atlantic. We demonstrate here that the symmetrical magnetic anomalies identified within the transitional zones between Iberia and North America, and across passive margins in general where separation between plates has been very slow, are caused by the serpentinization of the exhumed mantle rocks and not by oceanic crust formed by seafloor spreading. Ages of mantle exhumation at ODP Sites 1067, 1068 and 1070 are similar to ages determined as if the crust was emplaced by seafloor spreading. We have demonstrated that sources of these magnetic anomalies are not located 6-8 km below the basement as previously suggested but lie within the upper crust, as for conventional seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies. From paleomagnetic measurements performed on serpentinized peridotites from three ODP sites in IAP and proxies in the Alps, we suggest that the crystallization of magnetite grains during the primary mantle serpentinization are related to mantle exhumation processes along downward concave faults, resulting in highly magnetized serpentinized rocks giving rise to magnetic anomalies similar to 'seafloor spreading' anomalies, but with different amplitudes. Finally, we suggest a mechanism of emplacement of the transitional crust for the conjugate IAP/Northern Newfoundland Basin margins similar to the mode of emplacement of amagmatic segments observed at slow or ultraslow seafloor spreading ridges. One of the consequences of this work is that magnetic data might give useful time constraints on the emplacement of transitional crust across non-volcanic passive margins but not information concerning its nature.

  14. Solvent evaporation of spin cast films: crust effects


    De Gennes, Pierre-Gilles


    When a glassy polymer film is formed by evaporation, the region near the free surface is polymer rich and becomes glassy first, as noticed long ago by Scriven et al. We discuss the thickness of this "crust" and the time interval where it is present -before freezing of the whole film. We argue that the crust is under mechanical tension, nd should form some cracks. This may be the source of the roughness observed on the final, dry films, when the solvent vapor pressure is high...

  15. Soil stabilization by biological soil crusts in arid Tunisia (United States)

    Guidez, Sabine; Couté, Alain; Bardat, Jacques


    As part of the fight against desertification (LCD) in arid Tunisia, we have been able to highlight the important role played by biological soil crusts (BSC) in soil stabilization. The identification of the major species of cyanobacteria, lichens and bryophytes, their adaptation and terrestrial colonization strategies in this high climatic constraints area through their morpho-anatomical criteria have been set. In addition to their biological composition, their internal arrangement (i.e. texture and microstructure) reflects the structural stability of BSC against erosion. Precisely, the aggregative power of cyanobacteria and their ways of moving inside a soil, the capacity of mosses to grow through the sediments and lichens ability to bind at particles on surface, thus stabilizing the substrate have been demonstrated. Then, the three biological components ability to capture soil particles has been widely illustrated, proving the major environmental contribution of BSC in arid areas biological crusts formation, providing that soils will experience an increase of organic matter and fine particles rates subsequently gaining faster and better stability. Although the thickness and the morphology of crusts are related to the cover rates of these different biological components, the water properties of the latter, studied at the environmental SEM, illustrate their important role in altering the water cycle. Thus, the mixed crusts, i.e. with good presence of three biological components, cause the highest runoff rates by their ability to retain the water and spread on the surface. In spite of a swelling coefficient in presence of water higher than cryptogams, the cyanobacterial crusts located in newly stabilized areas of our studied region, remain finally insufficiently dense to impact surface hydrology. But, we showed after all that the cyanobacteria, pioneer species, have a certain environmental role. The lichen crusts cause a increased runoff because the lichens have a ability to extend them horizontally on the soil surface. Despite the water capture for their metabolism, the water flows; it isn't released in the depth. The moss crusts show an opposite process with an increased infiltration thanks to the possibility of a vertical transit of water through their sheets, stem and roots. So, in relation to bare soils, a crust with a good microbial and cryptogamic development causes more runoff. As part of the fight against the desertification in arid Tunisia, hydrological impact of BSC may lead to elaborate some ecosystem strategies in water and soils management. Indeed, climate aridity is not synonymous with edaphic aridity.

  16. Morphotectonic characteristics of the northern part of the Carlsberg Ridge near the Owen Fracture Zone and the occurrence of oceanic core complex formation (United States)

    Han, X.; Wu, Z.; Qiu, B.


    Oceanic core complexes (OCC) are massifs in which lower-crustal and upper-mantle rocks are exposed at the sea floor. They form at mid-ocean ridges through slip on detachment faults rooted below the spreading axis. Carlsberg ridge (CR) is a typical slow spreading ridge, with the full spreading rate of 24-26 mm/Ma. During a 28-day geophysical survey of DY24 cruise in May-June, 2012, multibeam bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic data were collected. In this paper, we present the preliminary studies on the morphotectonic characteristics of the northern part of the Carlsberg Ridge near the Owen Fracture Zone. There are 9 core complexes were identified in the region between 10.4°N -8.8°N. Six of them locate near median valley, 3 of them locate off-axis. They are characterized by blocky dome-shaped highs 10-23 km across, rising to depths shallower than 2000 m, and dipping shallowly toward the axis near the ridge. Each is capped by spreading-parallel corrugations and corresponding to the gravity highs and magnetic lows. In contrast to the OCC formation, there are several NW-SE linear basaltic volcanic constructions running parallel to the ridge axis. They are usually 1-4 km in width, a few hundred meters high, and 10-24 km in length. Our observation displays that vigorous tectonic extension occurred in the segment of Carlsberg ridge between 10.4°N -8.8°N. Further geological sampling would provide information on the nature of the potential OCC formation for the study of the emplacement and evolution of lower ocean crust and shallow mantle of the investigated area of Carlsberg ridge. Acknowledgments: This study was supported by COMRA project DY125-12-R-03.

  17. Propagation of coupled Rayleigh-gravity waves on the ocean floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Grimalsky


    Full Text Available It is shown that the Ocean-Earth crust interface can propagate gravity-sound Rayleigh waves. Dispersion properties of waves and flux of energy are derived. It is shown that the waves split into low and fast velocity branches. The fast branch has a multimode structure and has a cutoff in frequency and wave number. Numerical solutions are discussed.

  18. Microprobe monazite constraints for and early (ca. 790 Ma) Braziliano orogeny: The Embu Terrane, southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the Mantiqueira Orogenetic System, Southeastern Brazil, comprises discrete episodes of tectonic collage and docking of remnants of Rodinia break-up in the borders of the Sao Francisco Craton. This system is related to the closure of the Adamastor ocean and assemblage of the western Gondwana super-continent during Neoproterozoic times (ca. 610-530 Ma, Brito Neves et al., 1999; Campos Neto, 2000). This report presents monazite microprobe dating results for metassediments from the Embu Complex, an important lithological unit from the Ribeira Belt, currently included in the Juiz de Fora terrane, a unit added to the Sao Francisco Craton at ca. 600-580 Ma. (Campos Neto, 2000). The age results unravel a main metamorphic episode and related orogeny at ca. 790 Ma and bring new insights concerning the agglutination of Gondwana in this region during the Neoproterozoic (au)

  19. Fundamental properties of MA-cont

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal and mechanical properties of minor actinide (MA) containing mixed oxide (MOX) fuel were studied from the properties measurements of simulated fuel materials and computer simulations. The simulated fuel materials were prepared, in which MA is substituted by rare earth elements such as Nd. the effect of Nd content to the elastic moduli and thermal conductivity of simulated fuel materials was studied. The molecular dynamics (MD) calculation was performed for MA containing MOX fuels in the temperature range from 300 K to 2500 K to evaluate the thermophysical properties viz., the lattice parameter, thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity. The thermodynamic modelling was carried out for the O-MA-Pu-U system and the oxygen potentials of MA containing MOX fuels were evaluated from the assessed thermodynamic database. The results were compared with the experimental results obtained by JNC groups. (author)

  20. Oxygen Distribution and Potential Ammonia Oxidation in Floating, Liquid Manure Crusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Daniel Aagren; Nielsen, Lars Peter


    Floating, organic crusts on liquid manure, stored as a result of animal production, reduce emission of ammonia (NH3) and other volatile compounds during storage. The occurrence of NO2- and NO3- in the crusts indicate the presence of actively metabolizing NH3 oxidizing bacteria (AOB) which may be partly responsible for this mitigation effect. Six manure tanks with organic covers (straw and natural) were surveyed to investigate the prevalence and potential activity of AOB and its dependence on the O2 availability in the crust matrix as studied by electrochemical profiling. Oxygen penetration varied from <1 mm in young, poorly developed natural crusts and old straw crusts, to several centimeters in the old, natural crusts. AOB were ubiquitously present in all crusts investigated but nitrifying activity could only be detected in old natural crusts and young straw crust with high O2 availability. In old natural crusts total potential NH3 oxidation rates were similar to reported fluxes of NH3 from slurry without surface crust. These results indicate that old, natural surface crusts may develop into a porous matrix with high O2 availability that harbors an active population of aerobic microorganisms, including AOB. The microbial activity may thus contribute to a considerable reduction of ammonia emissions from slurry tanks with well-developed crusts.

  1. The 3D Velocity Structures beneath the Song Ma Fault Zone, North Vietnam (United States)

    Wu, W. J.; Wen, S.; Tang, C. C.; Yeh, Y.; Phong, L. H.; Toan, D. V.; Chen, C.


    The Indochina area is a tectonic active region where creates complex topographies and tectonic structures. Especially, the Ma River shear zone plays an important role in understanding the mechanism and revolution of the escape process between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. In order to have better understanding the seismotectonic structures around the fault zone, this study has carried out a project to deploy 12 temporary broadband seismic stations around/near the Ma River area to record high quality waveform data. In this study, we adopt damping least-square inversion method to investigate the Vp structures and Vp/Vs ratios of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Ma River fault zone, northern Vietnam. From many studies, the velocity structure can be used as an indicator to identify the geometry of fault and precise the earthquake location. Therefore, the goal of this research is to analyze the degree of correlation between the velocity structure and the characteristics of the seismicity, and its tectonic implications. Finally the distribution of Vp/Vs ratio and its association with fault activities is also investigated. Our results indicate that the variation of velocity structure beneath the Ma River fault zone is caused by local geological structures, and the earthquake clusters are located between the Ma River fault and the Song-La fault in the northern Vietnam. Besides, the obtained focal mechanisms from the tomography inversion also exhibit that the orientations are northeast-southwest trending with normal faulting nearby the Ma river fault and should be highly correlation with local geological structures. Based on the analysis of focal mechanism solutions, this area is in extension status which is consistent with the geological survey. Finally, we find a dense cluster occurred in the bending segment of the Ma River fault, and according to the distribution of seismic events, there may exist a south-dipping fault in the southern part of Ma River fault. However, this argument needs to be investigated more in future study.

  2. Hf-Nd-Sr isotopes and incompatible element abundances in island arcs: Implications for magma origins and crust-mantle evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Hf, Nd and Sr isotopic data and abundances of K, Rb, Cs, Ba, Sr, Hf and REE for 32 samples from seven intra-oceanic island arcs. Samples from the Marianas, Izu, Aleutian and New Britain arcs have tightly grouped 176Hf/177Hfproportional0.28320, 143Nd/144Ndproportional0.51303 and 87Sr/86Srproportional0.7035 close to, but distinct from, mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) for 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr. In contrast, samples from the Sunda, Banda and Lesser Antilles arcs are much more variable towards lower 176Hf/177Hf and 143Nd/144Nd, and higher 87Sr/86Sr. Isotopically, island arcs on the whole are closely similar to ocean islands. Some commonly-occurring features of the trace element geochemistry of island arcs are apparent in our data: alkali and alkaline-earth elements, particularly Cs, have high abundance relative to LREE compared to oceanic basalts; negative Ce anomalies occur in six out of seven arcs. However, Hf does not appear underabundant relative to REE. The isotopic data require a continental component in all island arcs, in addition to probable mantle and oceanic crust contributions, even for the arcs with isotope ratios close to MORB. In the absence of continental crust, we can best explain this component by subducted pelagic sediment in the arc magma source region. The involvement of sediments in all arcs implies that there is an inherent recycling of older continent to island arcs, and potentially to new continent, of at least 1%. Conservative calculations show that the upper subducted slab (basalt + sediment) passes beyond the arc magma genesis zone and enters the deep mantle with a minimum of 500-1000 ppm K, and corresponding amounts of other incompatible elements. If this material is not completely homogenized with the mantle and later becomes part of the source of ocean island magmas, then the ocean island-island arc isotopic similarity is a result of their similar mix of source materials-mantle peridotite with trace element signatures from oceanic crust and sediment. (orig.)

  3. The continent-ocean transition at the southern margin of the South China Sea (United States)

    Franke, Dieter


    The South China Sea is surrounded by magma-poor or non-volcanic rifted margins like Iberia, Newfoundland and southern Australia. Seafloor spreading started in the Early Oligocene. The area thus is at an evolutionary stage in between the Late Miocene Woodlark Basin and the Cretaceous Iberia/Newfoundland margins or the ancient Mesozoic margins preserved in the Alps. We focus on the southern margin of the South China Sea and the transition area from oceanic crust to extended continental crust between the continental blocks of Reed Bank and the islands of Palawan/Calamian Group. Several BGR surveys, the last one in 2008, have established a database of more than 5.000 km of regional multi-channel reflection seismic lines, accompanied with magnetic and gravity profiles. One of the key issues of the 2008 survey was to investigate the structure and architecture of the transitional area between continental and oceanic crust (COT). Our approach to define the COT was based on • identification of the outermost fault-blocks defining stretched continental crust • identification of typical high-frequency diffractive oceanic crust reflections in the stacked sections • identification of seafloor-spreading anomalies and the transition to small-scale magnetic variation of presumably continental crust • identification of the landward extent of the oceanic Moho reflection • Lateral extent of the break-up unconformity • Gravity modelling The COT was found to be highly variable along the newly acquired lines. We distinguish between two types showing different styles of continent-ocean transitions. One type of continent-ocean transition shows a distinct outer ridge at the COT. The recent seafloor relief is steep. The ridge is elevated for about 1-1.5 s (TWT) with respect to the rift-onset unconformity or top oceanic crust, respectively. A clear magnetic signal might imply a volcanic/magmatic origin for the ridge. However, we observe extensional faults at the rims and also within this ridge that are not expected for volcanic intrusions. The other type is characterized by rotated fault blocks, bounded by listric normal faults that ramp down to a common detachment surface. Above the strongly eroded pre-rift basement half-grabens developed. Small-scale offsets in the basement are levelled out by the overlying sediments. The seafloor relief is smooth across this type of COT. There are examples of continuous listric extensional faults of more or less equal through and also equal block geometry from the continental to the oceanic crust. This results in a gradual deepening of the continental basement to the oceanic crust. Alternatively horst structures of varying size are located between the rotated faults blocks. A common observation here is a major listric normal fault that bounds the oceanic crust to the most seaward located fault block or local high.

  4. Geoelectrical and geological structure of the crust in Western Slovakia.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezák, V.; Pek, Josef; Vozár, J.; Bielik, M.; Vozár, J.


    Ro?. 58, ?. 3 (2014), s. 473-488. ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : magnetotellurics * MT15 profile * Western Carpathians * applied geophysics * Earth ’s crust Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.806, year: 2014

  5. The Vegetation of Lateritic Crusts in Northwestern Benin (Atakora Region)


    Sieglstetter, Robert; Wittig, Rüdiger; Hahn, Karen


    Most of the grass savannas on lateritic crusts found in the North-Western of Benin are free of trees and a shrub layer is only sparsely developed. The only constant member of the shrub layer, is Terminalia laxiflora. Intermediate constancy show Entada africana and Annona senegalensis. With regard to the herbaceous layer two types can be identified: On very shallow soils (

  6. Structure of the Crust and the Lithosperic Mantle in Siberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia


    The study addresses the structure of the lithosphere of Siberia, including the Siberian Craton and the West Siberian Basin, with a particular focus on the crustal structure of the entire region and the density structure of its lithospheric mantle. The first part of the study included the development of a new regional crustal model, SibCrust, that is a digital crustal model for both the Siberian Craton and the West Siberian Basin. The SibCrust model, constrained by digitizing of all available seismic profiles and crustal velocity models across the Siberia, also includes a critical quality assessment of regional seismic data and crustal regionalization based on seismic structure of the crust. The second part of the study included the development of the SibDensity model that is the density model of the lithospheric mantle calculated by the mass balance method. Mantle density modeling involved calculation of the crustal correction based on the SibCrust model. The SibDensity model is made of two independent parts calculated for two major tectonic provinces with contrasting geodynamic evolution: the West Siberian Basin and the Siberian Craton. The modeling results, that are lateral variations in the lithospheric mantle density, are interpreted in terms of regional tectonic evolution, namely the mechanism by which the Paleozoic intracontinental basin has been formed and the tectono-magmatic processes by which the Archean-Proterozoic craton has been modified as reflected in the composition of its mantle.

  7. Structure of the crust and the lithospheric mantle in Siberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia


    The study addresses the structure of the lithosphere of Siberia, including the Siberian Craton and the West Siberian Basin, with a particular focus on the crustal structure of the entire region and the density structure of its lithospheric mantle. The first part of the study included the development of a new regional crustal model, SibCrust, that is a digital crustal model for both the Siberian Craton and the West Siberian Basin. The SibCrust model, constrained by digitizing of all available seismic profiles and crustal velocity models across the Siberia, also includes a critical quality assessment of regional seismic data and crustal regionalization based on seismic structure of the crust. The second part of the study included the development of the SibDensity model that is the density model of the lithospheric mantle calculated by the mass balance method. Mantle density modeling involved calculation of the crustal correction based on the SibCrust model. The SibDensity model is made of two independent parts calculated for two major tectonic provinces with contrasting geodynamic evolution: the West Siberian Basin and the Siberian Craton. The modeling results, that are lateral variations in the lithospheric mantle density, are interpreted in terms of regional tectonic evolution, namely the mechanism by which the Paleozoic intracontinental basin has been formed and the tectono-magmatic processes by which the Archean-Proterozoic craton has been modified as reflected in the composition of its mantle.

  8. Pairing: from atomic nuclei to neutron-star crusts


    Chamel, Nicolas; Pearson, Michael J.; Goriely, Stéphane


    Nuclear pairing is studied both in atomic nuclei and in neutron-star crusts in the unified framework of the energy-density functional theory using generalized Skyrme functionals complemented with a local pairing functional obtained from many-body calculations in homogeneous nuclear matter using realistic forces.

  9. Crusted scabies in a chid with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurimar C.F. Wanke


    Full Text Available A child with systemic lupus erythematosus who has been treated with prednisone for three years, developed crusted scabies. Scrapings from lesions revealed Sarcoptes scabiei adult mites mad eggs. The patient died with septicemia and renal failure soon after starting topical 20% sulfur. A marked improvement was observed in the cutaneous lesions.


    Rainfall in deserts occurs in discrete events or pulses. The frequency and magnitude of precipitation pulses may differentially drive ecosystem components, such as soil microbes, plants, and microbial crusts. As significant components of desert ecosystems, microbial crusts are photosynthetic commu...

  11. Glauconitic laminated crusts from Jurassic pillow-lava deposits (Betic Cordillera, South Spain)


    Reolid, Matías; Abad, Isabel


    An exceptional record of Jurassic glauconitic laminated crusts is reported from veins of spaces among pillow-lava bodies in the Middle Subbetic (Betic Cordillera). The veins are composed by green crusts with planar (

  12. Mass independently fractionated sulfur isotopes reveal recycling of Archean lithosphere in modern oceanic hotspot lavas (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew; Cabral, Rita; Rose-Koga, Estelle; Koga, Ken; Whitehouse, Martin; Antonelli, Michael; Farquhar, James; Day, James; Hauri, Erik


    Oceanic crust and sediments are introduced to the mantle at subduction zones, but the fate of this subducted material within the mantle, as well as the antiquity of this process, is unknown. The mantle is compositionally and isotopically heterogeneous, and it is thought that much of this heterogeneity derives from incorporation of diverse subducted components—both crustal and oceanic lithosphere—over geologic time. Basaltic lavas erupted at some oceanic hotspot volcanoes have long been considered to be melts of ancient subducted lithosphere. However, compelling evidence for the return of subducted materials in mantle plumes is lacking. We report mass independently fractionated (MIF) S-isotope signatures in olivine-hosted sulfides from 20-million-year-old ocean island basalts (OIBs) from Mangaia, Cook Islands (Polynesia). Terrestrial MIF S-isotope signatures were generated exclusively through atmospheric photochemical reactions until ~2.45 billion years ago. Therefore, the discovery of MIF-S in young OIBs indicates that sulfur—likely derived from hydrothermally-altered oceanic crust—was subducted into the mantle before 2.45 Ga and recycled into the mantle source of Mangaia lavas. These new data provide evidence for ancient materials, with MIF 33S depletions, in the mantle source for Mangaia lavas. An Archean age for recycled oceanic crust provides key constraints on the length of time that subducted crustal material can survive in the mantle and on the timescales of mantle convection from subduction to melting and eruption at plume-fed hotspots. The new S-isotope measurements confirm inferences about the cycling of sulfur between the major reservoirs from the Archean to the Phanerozoic, extending from the atmosphere and oceans to the crust and mantle, and ultimately through a return cycle to the surface that, here, is completed in Mangaia lavas. It remains to be seen whether hotspots lavas sampling different compositional mantle endmembers (e.g., EM1, EM2, DMM) will exhibit evidence for recycling of Archean protoliths.

  13. Global distribution of azimuthal anisotropy within the upper mantle and the crust (United States)

    Schaeffer, Andrew; Lebedev, Sergei


    We present our new global, azimuthally anisotropic model of the upper mantle and the crust. We compare two versions of this new model, the rough SL2013svAr and smooth SL2013svA, which are constrained by a larger, updated waveform fit dataset (>900, 000 vertical component seismogram fits) than that used in the construction of the isotropic model SL2013sv (Schaeffer and Lebedev, 2013). These two anisotropy models are computed using a more precise regularization of anisotropy, which is tuned to honour the both the amplitude and orientation of the anisotropic terms uniformly, including near the poles. Automated, multimode waveform inversion was used to extract structural information from surface and S wave forms, yielding resolving power from the crust down to the transition zone. Our unprecedentedly large waveform dataset, with complementary high-resolution regional arrays in additional to global networks, produces improved resolution of global azimuthal anisotropy patterns. The model also reveals smaller scale patterns of 3D anisotropy variations related to regional lithospheric deformation and mantle flow, in particular in densely sampled regions. In oceanic regions, we examine the strength of azimuthal anisotropy, as a function of depth, spatial position with respect to the spreading ridge, and deviation in fast axis orientation from the current and fossil spreading directions. In continental regions, azimuthal anisotropy is more complex. Reconciling complementary observations given by shear wave splitting, surface-wave array analysis, and large-scale, global 3D models offers new insights into the mechanisms of continental deformation and the architecture and evolution of the lithosphere. Finally, quantitative comparisons with other recently published models demonstrate which features are consistently resolved across the different models, and therefore provide a means to estimate the robustness of anisotropic patterns and amplitudes. Reference: Schaeffer, A. J., and S. Lebedev. Global shear-speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone. Geophys. J. Int., 194, 417-449, 2013.

  14. Mossbauer studies and oxidised manganese ratio in ferromanganese nodules and crusts from the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Mudholkar, A.V.


    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Geo-Mar_Lett_11_51.pdf.txt stream_source_info Geo-Mar_Lett_11_51.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  15. Variability in microbial communities attached to minerals and glasses incubated in young ocean crust (United States)

    Smith, A.; Colwell, F. S.; Popa, R.; Fisk, M. R.


    To investigate whether mineral chemistry influences the distribution and composition of attached subseafloor microbial communities, we initiated a four-year incubation of twelve igneous minerals and glasses in IODP Hole 1301A on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Minerals were suspended at 278 meters below seafloor, within the warm basalt basement, with an osmotic pump to ensure fluid flow. Post-recovery, we performed high-throughput sequencing of the V4-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene from genomic DNA extracted from all minerals and glasses using bacterial and archaeal primers. Archaeoglobaceae was the dominant family on all samples; however almost no archaeal sequences were recovered from the high-Fe mineral fayalite. Bacteria were diverse, and included Clostridia, Ralstonia, Thermosipho, and representatives of the deep-branching candidate division OP1. Low-Fe olivine had the most diverse community, and the least diverse community was found on diopside. Several mineral communities were similar to each other, yet many were dissimilar to all other communities. Our results suggest that the composition of microbial communities colonizing subseafloor basalts is influenced by the chemistry of the minerals present, and that communities are heterogeneously distributed in basalts. These findings have important implications for understanding the role of attached subseafloor communities in geochemical cycling of elements and the weathering of basalts.

  16. Fluorescence lidar remote sensing: an experimental test for investigating black crusts on ancient buildings (United States)

    Lognoli, David; Pantani, Marta


    We report the first field experiment on the monitoring of black crusts by fluorescence lidar. Black crusts are an aesthetic and structural damage to the external parts of stone monuments mainly caused by atmospheric deposition. The experiment carried out on the cathedral (duomo) in Pisa, Italy, demonstrates that the presence of black crusts change the fluorescence spectra of the stone substrates in both shape and absolute values. All the investigated black crusts have the similar spectral signature and characteristic behavior.

  17. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of earth crust stability of Beishan and nerghbouring areas, Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of earth crust stability is a research project priot to siting of the repository of high-radioactive waste disposal. Based on fuzzy mathematics authors have developed a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model of earth crust stability, then divided the studied region into eight a reas with different stability of earth crust on the basis of analysing the structure of earth crust, seismic characteristics, active faults and recent tectonic stress field. (author)

  18. Dynamic Topography in the Oceanic Realm of West Africa, India, and the Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Hoggard, M. J.; Roberts, G.; White, N. J.


    It is generally agreed that convection in the mantle can generate vertical motions at the Earth's surface. Consequently, the recorded history of subsidence and uplift holds important clues about mantle convection. We use the well-established relationship between seafloor subsidence and age to map present-day residual depth anomalies in the oceanic realm. This map yields estimates of the spatial variation of dynamic topography, providing care is taken to rule out other potential causes of subsidence or uplift such as flexure adjacent to seamounts and subduction zones. Global analysis indicates that anomalies typically vary between ±1 km, over wavelengths of ~1000 km. This analysis of residual topography is concentrated on the oldest oceanic crust that abuts continental margins in order to provide a leg up onto the continents, where measuring absolute values of dynamic topography is considerably more complicated. Here we begin by looking at three areas in more detail - the west coast of Africa, India and the Gulf of Mexico. Residual depths along the west coast of Africa capture two full wavelengths of dynamic topography, which correlate well with the long-wavelength free air gravity anomaly. To constrain the temporal evolution of dynamic topography, we focus on regions such as the Gulf of Mexico which is currently drawn-down by ~2 km at its centre. Backstripping stratigraphic data from wells implies the majority of the anomalous subsidence has occurred in the last ~15 Ma. The east coast of India shows a drawdown of 2 km beneath the Bengal fan and the development of this anomaly is clearly recorded in the transition from progradational to aggradational behaviour within the margin's clinoform architecture. Analysis of adjacent river profiles indicates recent onshore uplift has provided high quantities of clastic detritus that have been deposited on the margin. Oceanic residual depths along the west African margin overlain by the long wavelength filtered free air gravity anomaly in contours of 10 mGal. The filigree corresponds to estimates calculated from published global grid datasets of water and sediment thickness. The points are based on primary data such as reflection seismic profiles. Circles are our most accurate residual depth measurements where crustal thickness is known. Downwards pointing triangles are maximum estimates and upwards pointing triangles are minimum.

  19. The Petrology and Geochemistry of Feldspathic Granulitic Breccia NWA 3163: Implications for the Lunar Crust (United States)

    McLeod, C. L.; Brandon, A. D.; Lapen, T. J.; Shafer, J. T.; Peslier, A. H.; Irvine, A. J.


    Lunar meteorites are crucial to understand the Moon s geological history because, being samples of the lunar crust that have been ejected by random impact events, they potentially originate from areas outside the small regions of the lunar surface sampled by the Apollo and Luna missions. The Apollo and Luna sample sites are contained within the Procellarum KREEP Terrain (PKT, Jolliff et al., 2000), where KREEP refers to potassium, rare earth element, and phosphorus-rich lithologies. The KREEP-rich rocks in the PKT are thought to be derived from late-stage residual liquids after approx.95-99% crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO). These are understood to represent late-stage liquids which were enriched in incompatible trace elements (ITE) relative to older rocks (Snyder et al., 1992). As a consequence, the PKT is a significant reservoir for Th and KREEP. However, the majority of the lunar surface is likely to be significantly more depleted in ITE (84%, Jolliff et al., 2000). Lunar meteorites that are low in KREEP and Th may thus sample regions distinct from the PKT and are therefore a valuable source of information regarding the composition of KREEP-poor lunar crust. Northwest Africa (NWA) 3163 is a thermally metamorphosed ferroan, feldspathic, granulitic breccia composed of igneous clasts with a bulk anorthositic, noritic bulk composition. It is relatively mafic (approx.5.8 wt.% FeO; approx.5 wt.% MgO) and has some of the lowest concentrations of ITEs (17ppm Ba) compared to the feldspathic lunar meteorite (FLM) and Apollo sample suites (Hudgins et al., 2011). Localized plagioclase melting and incipient melting of mafic minerals require localized peak shock pressures in excess of 45 GPa (Chen and El Goresy, 2000; Hiesinger and Head, 2006). NWA 3163, and paired samples NWA 4481 and 4883, have previously been interpreted to represent an annealed micro-breccia which was produced by burial metamorphism at depth in the ancient lunar crust (Fernandes et al., 2009). This is in contrast to the interpretation of Hudgins et al. (2009) where NWA 3163 was interpreted to have formed through contact metamorphism. To further constrain its origin, we examine the petrogenesis of NWA 3163 with a particular emphasis on in-situ measurement of trace elements within constituent minerals, Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic systematics on separated mineral fractions and petrogenetic modeling.

  20. OESbathy version 1.0: a method for reconstructing ocean bathymetry with realistic continental shelf-slope-rise structures (United States)

    Goswami, A.; Olson, P. L.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.


    We present a method for reconstructing global ocean bathymetry that uses a plate cooling model for the oceanic lithosphere, the age distribution of the oceanic crust, global oceanic sediment thicknesses, plus shelf-slope-rise structures calibrated at modern active and passive continental margins. Our motivation is to reconstruct realistic ocean bathymetry based on parameterized relationships of present-day variables that can be applied to global oceans in the geologic past, and to isolate locations where anomalous processes such as mantle convection may affect bathymetry. Parameters of the plate cooling model are combined with ocean crustal age to calculate depth-to-basement. To the depth-to-basement we add an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer, constrained by sediment thickness in the modern oceans and marginal seas. A continental shelf-slope-rise structure completes the bathymetry reconstruction, extending from the ocean crust to the coastlines. Shelf-slope-rise structures at active and passive margins are parameterized using modern ocean bathymetry at locations where a complete history of seafloor spreading is preserved. This includes the coastal regions of the North, South, and Central Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean between Australia and Antarctica, and the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America. The final products are global maps at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution of depth-to-basement, ocean bathymetry with an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer, and ocean bathymetry with reconstructed continental shelf-slope-rise structures. Our reconstructed bathymetry agrees with the measured ETOPO1 bathymetry at most passive margins, including the east coast of North America, north coast of the Arabian Sea, and northeast and southeast coasts of South America. There is disagreement at margins with anomalous continental shelf-slope-rise structures, such as around the Arctic Ocean, the Falkland Islands, and Indonesia.

  1. OESbathy version 1.0: a method for reconstructing ocean bathymetry with realistic continental shelf-slope-rise structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Goswami


    Full Text Available We present a method for reconstructing global ocean bathymetry that uses a plate cooling model for the oceanic lithosphere, the age distribution of the oceanic crust, global oceanic sediment thicknesses, plus shelf-slope-rise structures calibrated at modern active and passive continental margins. Our motivation is to reconstruct realistic ocean bathymetry based on parameterized relationships of present-day variables that can be applied to global oceans in the geologic past, and to isolate locations where anomalous processes such as mantle convection may affect bathymetry. Parameters of the plate cooling model are combined with ocean crustal age to calculate depth-to-basement. To the depth-to-basement we add an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer, constrained by sediment thickness in the modern oceans and marginal seas. A continental shelf-slope-rise structure completes the bathymetry reconstruction, extending from the ocean crust to the coastlines. Shelf-slope-rise structures at active and passive margins are parameterized using modern ocean bathymetry at locations where a complete history of seafloor spreading is preserved. This includes the coastal regions of the North, South, and Central Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean between Australia and Antarctica, and the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America. The final products are global maps at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution of depth-to-basement, ocean bathymetry with an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer, and ocean bathymetry with reconstructed continental shelf-slope-rise structures. Our reconstructed bathymetry agrees with the measured ETOPO1 bathymetry at most passive margins, including the east coast of North America, north coast of the Arabian Sea, and northeast and southeast coasts of South America. There is disagreement at margins with anomalous continental shelf-slope-rise structures, such as around the Arctic Ocean, the Falkland Islands, and Indonesia.

  2. Exposure to natural radiation from the earth's crust, atmosphere and outer space - the natural radioactivity of the earth's crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any conclusions to be drawn from the geochemical distribution pattern of radioactive elements for one's own conduct require to study their distribution in soil, earth crust, magmatic differentiation, rock disintegration zone and biosphere. The author notes that high activities in soils and rocks are contrasted by relatively low radiation dose levels absorbed by the human body. This is different for incorporated radiation. (DG)

  3. The Study of Crustal Heterogeneity in Ma River Fault Zone, Vietnam : An Application in Receiver Function (United States)

    Su, C. M. M.; Wen, S.; Tang, C. C.; Yeh, Y. L.; Toan, D. V.; Phong, L. H.; Chen, C.


    The Indochina block is located at the junction of four plates, which are India, Eurasia, Philippine Sea and Pacific plates, and the geological evolution at this area is also complex. Due to the well-known Red River fault zone play an important role in the evolution of the escape of the Indochina block, the southern part of this fault zone also exist another boundary fault zone, which is called Ma river fault. This area still exists many unknowns in the tectonic evolution. Therefore, this study analyzes teleseismic receiver functions to determine the crustal structure along the Ma river fault, northern Vietnam. We have selected teleseismic events with Mw?5, and epicenter distance is between 30° and 90° and a Multiple-Taper Correlation (MTC) method is adapted to calculate receiver functions (RFs) for each station. The converted phase, such as P-to-S obtained from RFs, allows us to have insights on the characteristics of crustal structures including the dip of discontinuous interface and anisotropy as well. The above properties have significant effects on amplitudes and arrival time of RFs. Thus, we use Neighborhood Algorithm applied to receiver functions computed from 5 stations has yielded optimum crustal models that include anisotropy and has minimum misfit between the observed RFs and synthetic ones. Our preliminary results indicate that the depth of the Moho discontinuity in the Ma river fault zone is between 25 km and 35 km, the range of S-wave velocity is from 3.6 km/s to 4.5 km/s, and the orientations of crustal anisotropy are related with the local stress status as well. In addition, the low-velocity zone in the lower crust is observed beneath our study area. We hypothesize that the low-velocity zone in the lower crust might be caused by rising of upper mantle, or an extension of the low-velocity zone in the lower crust which is observed beneath the southeastern Tibet and the South China block.

  4. Eclogites with oceanic crustal and mantle signatures from the Bellsbank kimberlite, South Africa. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sr, Nd, and O isotopic compositions of garnet and clinopyroxene mineral separates from nine eclogite xenoliths from the Bellsbank kimberlite (erupted at 120 Ma) define three groups. Group A eclogites, considered to be mantle cumulates, are characterized by ?18O and 87Sr/86Sr values typical of mantle-derived materials (+5.1 to +5.6per mille and 0.7042-0.7046, respectively), and very low Sm/Nd ratios, (apparent) Rb/Sr ratios and ?Nd[120] values (0.057-0.078, 0.00005-0.00136 and -14 to -16 respectively). The REE and isotopic data for these eclogites can be modelled in terms of crystallization from a Group II kimberlite magma at ? 1-1.5 Ga. Group B and C eclogites, believed to be the metamorphosed products of ancient subducted oceanic crust, are characterized by low ?18O (+2.9 to +4.7), extremely high ?Nd[120] (?+40 to +219), and radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.708-0.710). The Sm/Nd ratios of the Group B eclogites are very high (up to 1.6). The data for Group B and C eclogites define a linear correlation on Sm/Nd and 1/Nd vs. ?Nd[120] diagrams. These relationships are consistent with mixing of the Bellsbank kimberlite (?Nd[120] = -10; Sm/Nd = 0.10) with a depleted eclogite end-member (?Nd[120] + 219; Sm/Nd = 1.6) during a cryptic metasomatic event. The Sr isotopic variations in Group B and C eclogites cannot be generated by simple two-compbe generated by simple two-component mixing. The Sr, Nd, and O isotope data for Group B and C eclogittes probably reflect a complex sequence of depletion and enrichment events, in both crust and mantle settings. Enrichments which possibly affected the Group B and C eclogites include seawater-alteration of a MORB-like protolith, which lowered the ?18O and raised the 87Sr/86Sr ratio, but left the Nd isotopic compositions unchanged, and cryptic metasomatism by the magmatism that produced the Bellsbank kimberlite. (orig./WB)

  5. Provenance of the Heavy Mineral-enriched Alluvial Deposits at the West Coast of Red Sea. Implications to the Evolution of Arabian-Nubian Crust (United States)

    Mahar, M. A.; Ibrahim, T.; Goodell, P.


    Here we present the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic record of detrital zircons from the active alluvial fans at the west coast of the Red Sea. The Ras Manazal alluvial fan (primarily composed of zircon, magnetite with some rutile, ilmenite and monazite) yielded a relatively restricted age population ranges from 765 to 666 Ma. These ages and present-day drainage pattern is consistent that the sediments are primarily derived from erosion of nearby subduction related granitoids in the immediate west (i.e., not more than 50 km from the Red Sea coast) of the fan. In contrast, approximately 160 km south, at the Egypt-Sudan border, the Wadi Diit fan is relatively more enriched in ilmenite and REE-bearing phases (e.g., thorite, monazite, xenotime, garnet etc.) and yielded five zircon age populations of 1) 824-733 Ma, 2) 730-705 Ma, 3) 646-608 Ma, 4) 516-500 Ma, and 5) 134-114 Ma. The age populations 1-3 if coupled with the present-day drainage pattern can be related to the earlier subduction related and later post collision granitoids in the southern part of the South Eastern Desert and Gebeit terrane of northern Sudan. Sparse Early Cretaceous zircons (134-114 Ma) are derived from the Mesozoic volcanic suits in the source region. However, the age group 516-500 Ma is enigmatic. Wadi Diit zircons are primarily derived from granitoids in the broad S-N directed Hamisana Shear Zone and its subordinate SW to NE directed Onib-Sol-Hamed Suture Zone. These shear zones provided pathways for the present-day drainage system for sediment transportation to the Wadi Diit and adjacent coastal region. We infer that the ca. 500 Ma late-stage magmatic zircons represent a hitherto unknown magmatic event, possibly related to the shear heating associated with the crustal scale shear zones. This implies that the shear zones in the South Eastern Desert and northern Sudan remained thermally active as late as ~500 Ma. The time resolved hafnium composition (?Hf (t)) of both fans varies from +3.5 to +13.5. Our new U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic composition suggests that the detrital zircons were derived from the Neoproterozoic juvenile crust. This is consistent with the Neoproterozoic juvenile igneous and metamorphic rocks in the Eastern Desert and northern Sudan.

  6. Provenance of the heavy mineral-enriched alluvial deposits at the west coast of the Red Sea. Implications for evolution of Arabian-Nubian crust (United States)

    Mahar, Munazzam Ali; Ibrahim, Tarek M. M.; Goodell, Philip C.


    Here we present the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic record of detrital zircons from the active alluvial fans at the west coast of the Red Sea. The Ras Manazal alluvial fan (primarily composed of zircon, magnetite with some rutile, ilmenite and monazite) yielded a relatively restricted age population ranges from 765 to 666 Ma. These ages and present-day drainage pattern is consistent that the sediments are primarily derived from erosion of nearby subduction related granitoids in the immediate west (i.e., not more than 50 km from the Red Sea coast) of the fan. In contrast, approximately 160 km south, at the Egypt-Sudan border, the Wadi Diit fan is relatively more enriched in ilmenite and REE-bearing phases (e.g., thorite, monazite, xenotime, garnet, etc.) and yielded five zircon age populations of (1) 824-733 Ma, (2) 730-705 Ma, (3) 646-608 Ma, (4) 516-500 Ma, and (5) 134-114 Ma. The age populations 1-3 if coupled with the present-day drainage pattern can be related to the earlier subduction related and later post collision granitoids in the southern part of the South Eastern Desert and Gebeit terrane of northern Sudan. Sparse Early Cretaceous zircons (134-114 Ma) are derived from the Mesozoic volcanic suits in the source region. However, the age group 516-500 Ma is enigmatic. Wadi Diit zircons are primarily derived from granitoids in the broad S-N directed Hamisana Shear Zone and its subordinate SW to NE directed Onib-Sol-Hamed Suture Zone. These shear zones provided pathways for the present-day drainage system for sediment transportation to the Wadi Diit and adjacent coastal region. We infer that the ca. 500 Ma late-stage magmatic zircons represent a hitherto unknown magmatic event, possibly related to the shear heating associated with the crustal scale shear zones. This implies that the shear zones in the South Eastern Desert and northern Sudan remained thermally active as late as ?500 Ma. The time resolved hafnium composition (?Hf (t)) of both fans varies from +3.5 to +13.5. Our new U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic composition suggests that the detrital zircons were derived from the Neoproterozoic juvenile crust. This is consistent with the Neoproterozoic juvenile igneous and metamorphic rocks in the Eastern Desert and northern Sudan.

  7. The Origin of Andesite in the Deep Crust: Evidence from the West-Central Mexican Arc (United States)

    Lange, R. A.; Ownby, S.; Delgado Granados, H.; Hall, C. M.


    Although it has long been recognized that andesite is one of the most common magma types erupted at subduction zones and is relatively rare at other tectonic settings, there continues to be a confusing array of different models to explain both its origin and its unique abundance at convergent margins. End-member processes that are most frequently invoked include: (1) crystal fractionation of hydrous basalt (in the upper, middle, and/or lower crust); (2) partial melting of hydrated, mafic lower crust; (3) magma mixing of basalt with rhyolite/dacite; and (4) assimilation of granitoid upper crust by basalt/basaltic andesite. In this study, we test the relative importance of the four end-member differentiation mechanisms to form andesite by examining a segment of the west-central Mexican arc (Michoacán-Guanajuato), which spans ~200 km of arc length and is notable for the scarcity of Quaternary dacite and rhyolite, despite a crustal thickness of ~40-45 km. This arc segment is further remarkable for the relative scarcity of large volcanoes and is instead characterized by >380 small shields (median: 1000 monogenetic cones and flows. We focused our study on the Tancítaro-Nueva Italia region (~4400 km2), which spans ~80 km of arc length along the volcanic front. On the basis of 65 40Ar/39Ar ages, mapping, and ArcGIS tools, we show that ~326 ± 57 km3 of magma has erupted from > 200 vents since 1.2 Ma. The total proportions of erupted lava types are 6-7% basalt, ~18% basaltic andesite, and ~74-76% andesite. One of the most striking features of this volcanic field is the phenocryst-poor character of lavas erupted from peripheral vents (1-25% crystals) compared to those erupted from the main vent, Volcán Tancítaro (30-45% crystals). Another key observation is that the bulk composition of the crystal-rich andesites are very similar to the most crystal-poor (<5%) andesites, which leads to two conclusions: (1) andesite occurs as a liquid composition, as evidenced by the crystal-poor examples, and (2) minimal plagioclase accumulation affects the bulk composition of the crystal-rich andesites, which is consistent with the absence of any Eu anomalies. No dacite or rhyolite has erupted, and there is thus no evidence of crystal fractionation of andesite, including segregation of interstitial liquid from crystal-rich andesites in the upper crustal chamber feeding V. Tancítaro. Magma mixing between dacite/rhyolite and basalt/basaltic andesite to make andesite can be ruled out on two counts: (1) the absence of any dacite or rhyolite as a requisite end-member for mixing, and (2) such mixing could not produce crystal-poor (1-5%) andesite. Although hornblende is absent from the phenocryst assemblage of the basalts and basaltic andesites, rare-earth element patterns among the andesites, basaltic andesites, and basalts show that crystal-liquid separation of up to 40% hornblende is required to form the andesites from the basalts. Therefore, the primary mechanism to form crystal-poor andesite in this arc segment appears to be partial melting of hornblende-rich (~40%) gabbronorite in the lowermost crust. No other mechanisms satisfy all the geochemical and petrological constraints.

  8. Earth at 200 Ma: Global palaeogeography refined from CAMP palaeomagnetic data (United States)

    Ruiz-Martínez, Vicente Carlos; Torsvik, Trond H.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Gaina, Carmen


    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province was formed approximately 200 Ma ago as a prelude to the breakup of Pangea, and may have been a cause of the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction. Based on a combination of (i) a new palaeomagnetic pole from the CAMP related Argana lavas (Moroccan Meseta Block), (ii) a global compilation of 190-210 Ma poles, and (iii) a re-evaluation of relative fits between NW Africa, the Moroccan Meseta Block and Iberia, we calculate a new global 200 Ma pole (latitude = 70.1° S, longitude = 56.7° E and A95 = 2.7°; N = 40 poles; NW Africa co-ordinates). We consider the palaeomagnetic database to be robust at 200 ± 10 Ma, which allows us to craft precise reconstructions near the Triassic-Jurassic boundary: at this very important time in Earth history, Pangea was near-equatorially centered, the western sector was dominated by plate convergence and subduction, while in the eastern sector, the Palaeotethys oceanic domain was almost consumed because of a widening Neothethys. We show that there has been negligible net displacement of the Moroccan Meseta relative to Africa since 200 Ma. We calculate a new fit between Iberia and NW Africa, showing that models inferring minor Cretaceous rotation and major Cretaceous sinistral translation of Iberia relative to Europe are inconsistent with palaeomagnetic Iberia-Africa fits at 200 Ma. During Pangea breakup (~ 195 Ma, opening of the Central Atlantic), and shortly after the CAMP outburst, Laurasia rotated clockwise relative to Gondwana around an Euler pole located in SE Iberia. The CAMP and its likely contribution to climate change, mass extinction and Pangea breakup profoundly changed planet Earth and we show that CAMP was sourced by a deep mantle plume that started its disturbing journey from the core-mantle boundary.

  9. Northern Hemisphere climate control of the Bengali rivers discharge during the past 4 Ma (United States)

    Gourlan, Alexandra T.; Meynadier, Laure; Allègre, Claude J.; Tapponnier, Paul; Birck, Jean-Louis; Joron, Jean-Louis


    Nd isotopes are useful tracers for paleoceanography due to the short Nd residence time in seawater and the large differences between the isotopic signatures of various geological reservoirs. Therefore, ?Nd variations reflect the geological history of individual oceanic basins. Using a differential dissolution technique, which extracts Nd isotopes of seawater trapped in MnO 2 coatings and carbonates in marine sediment, we measured almost two hundred samples from ODP Sites 758 and 757 in the Northern Bay of Bengal covering the last 4 Ma. For the first time, we have shown a covariation between ?Nd and ? 18O over at least the last 800 ka. We also show that from 4 Ma to 2.6 Ma, ?Nd is almost constant and starts to fluctuate at 2.6 Ma when northern glaciations increased. From 2.6 Ma to 1 Ma the fluctuation period is close to 40 ka while from 1 Ma to present it is dominantly 100 ka. We attribute these findings to mixing between Himalayan river water (that ultimately originates as Indian summer monsoon rain) and normal Bay of Bengal seawater. Previous studies on seawater, using ?Nd, ? 18O analyzed on planktonic foraminifera and sedimentary data, can be integrated into this model. A simple quantitative binary mixing model suggests that the summer monsoon rain was more intense during interglacial than glacial periods. During last glacial episode, the monsoon trajectory was deviated to the east. At a large scale, the Indian monsoon is fully controlled by the variations in Northern Hemisphere climate but with a complex response function to this forcing. Our study clearly establishes the large potential of Nd isotope data to evaluate the hydrological river regime during the Quaternary and its relationship with climate fluctuations, particularly when the sediment archive is sampled close to sediment sources.

  10. Salatoimikud : ma tahan uskuda / Mart Rummo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rummo, Mart


    USA sarjale "The X-Files" põhinev teine järjefilm "Salatoimikud: Ma tahan uskuda" ("The X-Files: I Want to Believe") : režissöör Chris Carter : peaosades David Duchovny, Gillian Anderson : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Kanada 2008

  11. A new 200 Ma paleomagnetic pole for Africa, and paleo-secular variation scatter from Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) intrusives in Morocco (Ighrem and Foum Zguid dykes)


    Palencia-Ortas, A.; Ruiz-Martínez, V. C.; Villalaín, J. J.; Osete, María Luisa; Vegas, R.; Touil, A.; Hafid, A.; McIntosh, G; D. J. J. van Hinsbergen; Torsvik, T. H.


    Available apparent polar wander (APW) paths for the 200 Ma configuration of Pangea, just prior to the opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean, differ as much as 10o in arc length. Here, we add new data from northwest Africa for this time, obtained from the northeasttrending Foum-Zguid and Ighrem dykes (ca. 200 Ma). These dykes form part of the northern domain of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), and crosscut the Anti-Atlas Ranges in Morocco, and compositionally corre...

  12. Lithium isotope constraints on crust-mantle interactions and surface processes on Mars (United States)

    Magna, Tomáš; Day, James M. D.; Mezger, Klaus; Fehr, Manuela A.; Dohmen, Ralf; Aoudjehane, Hasnaa Chennaoui; Agee, Carl B.


    Lithium abundances and isotope compositions are reported for a suite of martian meteorites that span the range of petrological and geochemical types recognized to date for Mars. Samples include twenty-one bulk-rock enriched, intermediate and depleted shergottites, six nakhlites, two chassignites, the orthopyroxenite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 and the polymict breccia Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034. Shergottites unaffected by terrestrial weathering exhibit a range in ?7Li from 2.1 to 6.2‰, similar to that reported for pristine terrestrial peridotites and unaltered mid-ocean ridge and ocean island basalts. Two chassignites have ?7Li values (4.0‰) intermediate to the shergottite range, and combined, these meteorites provide the most robust current constraints on ?7Li of the martian mantle. The polymict breccia NWA 7034 has the lowest ?7Li (-0.2‰) of all terrestrially unaltered martian meteorites measured to date and may represent an isotopically light surface end-member. The new data for NWA 7034 imply that martian crustal surface materials had both a lighter Li isotope composition and elevated Li abundance compared with their associated mantle. These findings are supported by Li data for olivine-phyric shergotitte NWA 1068, a black glass phase isolated from the Tissint meteorite fall, and some nakhlites, which all show evidence for assimilation of a low-?7Li crustal component. The range in ?7Li for nakhlites (1.8 to 5.2‰), and co-variations with chlorine abundance, suggests crustal contamination by Cl-rich brines. The differences in Li isotope composition and abundance between the martian mantle and estimated crust are not as large as the fractionations observed for terrestrial continental crust and mantle, suggesting a difference in the styles of alteration and weathering between water-dominated processes on Earth versus possibly Cl-S-rich brines on Mars. Using high-MgO shergottites (>15 wt.% MgO) it is possible to estimate the ?7Li of Bulk Silicate Mars (BSM) to be 4.2 ± 0.9‰ (2?). This value is at the higher end of estimates for the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE; 3.5 ± 1.0‰, 2?), but overlaps within uncertainty.

  13. Central West African crust investigation through modeling of GOCE gravity and tensor components (United States)

    Peyrefitte, A.; Guillen, A.; Panet, I.; Métivier-Pajot, G.; Martelet, G.; Diament, M.; Bonvalot, S.


    The African continent is still one of the less understood areas of the Earth at the regional scale as in geological and geodynamical term. This is due to the paucity of global geophysical dataset and to the complexity of the African geology characterized by ancient cratons, recent orogenic belts and large sedimentary basins, often affected by recent to actual intraplate volcanism, rifting or hotspots. The GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) satellite mission, of the European Space Agency (ESA) has mapped the Earth's gravity with unprecedented detail (1°x1° at global scale). It provided a new class of gravity observations (gradiometric measurements) that can be used to investigate the lithospheric structures and processes from regional to global scales. We propose to investigate the contribution of this new dataset, i.e. the gravity tensor components for the knowledge and the characterization of the major geological domains of part of the African continent. We chose our area of interest so that it 1 - comprises an oceanic and a continental domain in order to study the land/sea transition 2- reflects the complexity of the African geology 3- is located on an area of Africa where the GOCE gravity model significantly improves the existing EGM2008. We focused our study on a 30 °x30 ° area that includes the Congo sedimentary basin, the Congo craton and the Cameroon volcanic line. We modeled the effect of the continental and marine crust in this area using CRUST2.0 and the Global Digital Map of Sediment Thickness, both being mainly based on seismic data. The resulting crustal model contains six layers with a spatial resolution of 1°x1° with density variations resulting from seismic velocity models. The computation is performed using 3D Geomodeller software (©Intrepid-geophysics,BRGM): it first allowed computing the forward gravity and gradiometric responses caused by our 3D crustal model. We then performed a stochastic inversion of the gravity field and/or gravity tensor components in order to investigate what information gravity and tensor components data specifically bring in complement to seismic information in the spatial scales we investigated. We present here, how to use gravity tensor components relatively to the standard gravity data at such a regional scale and we discuss our results obtained from forward and inverse modeling.

  14. Evolution and geochemistry of the Tertiary calc-alkaline plutons in the Adak Island region of the central Aleutian oceanic island arc (United States)

    Kay, Suzanne; Citron, Gary P.; Kay, Robert W.; Jicha, Brian; Tibbetts, Ashley


    Calc-alkaline plutons are major crustal building blocks of continental margin mountain belts like the Mesozoic to Tertiary Andes and the Sierra Nevada, but are rare in oceanic island arcs. Some of the most calc-alkaline I-type island arc plutons are in the Central Aleutians with the most extreme signatures, as indicated by FeO/MgO ratios of southern Adak Island and the 10 km wide Miocene Kagalaska pluton to the north on eastern Adak and the adjacent Kagalaska Island. Although small compared to most continental plutons, similarities in intrusive units, mineralogy and chemistry suggest common formation processes. The Aleutian calc-alkaline plutonic rocks mainly differ from continental plutons in having more oceanic like isotopic (87Sr/86Sr = 0.703-0.7033; Epsilon Nd = 9-7.8) and LIL (e.g., higher K/Rb) ratios. The Adak region plutons differ from Tertiary plutons on Unalaska Island further east in being more K-rich and in having a more oxidized and lower-temperature mineralogy. From a regional perspective, the Adak area plutons intrude Eocene/Oligocene Finger Bay Formation mafic volcanic and sedimentary rocks and postdate the small ~38 Ma tholeiitic Finger Bay pluton. The chemistry of these older magmatic rocks is basically similar to that of young Central Aleutian magmatic rocks with boninites and arc tholeiitic magmas seemingly being absent. The formation of the calc-alkaline plutons seems to require a sufficient crustal thickness, fluid concentration and contractional stress such that magma chambers can stabilize significant amounts of pargasitic hornblende. Seismic receiver function analyses (Janiszewski et al., 2013) indicate the modern Adak crust is ~ 37 km thick. Existing and new hornblende, plagioclase and biotite Ar/Ar ages from 16 Hidden Bay pluton and Gannet Lake stock gabbro, porphyritic diorite, diorite, granodiorite, leucogranodiorite and aplite samples range from 34.6 to 30.9 Ma and indicate an ~ 4 Ma intrusion history. Biotite Ar/Ar ages for Kagalaska gabbro and granodiorite samples range from 14.7 to 13.9 Ma. The new ages are consistent with the plutons being related to several eruptive centers and forming during the waning stages of volcanism as the magmatic arc front was displaced to the north, possibly in response to accelerated periods of forearc subduction erosion. The gabbroic to leucogranodioritic units evolved in the lower to mid-crust with more silicic magmas rising buoyantly to higher levels where final crystallization and segregation of aplites occurred. Most gabbro and all mafic diorite units are largely crystal cumulates; one gabbro approaches the melt composition of a high Al basalt. The volumetrically dominant silicic diorites and granodiorites (58-63% SiO2) show the most zoning in their mineral phases and approach melt compositions. The leucogranodiorite (67-70% SiO2)unit was the last to crystallize. The silicic units are considered to be deep-crustal differentiates of high-Al basalt magmas, although partial melting of older magmatic rocks may play a role. Mafic dikes in the pluton represent the basic magmas under the dying arc front as the front moved northward.

  15. Ocean Maps Coordinate Planes

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, Julia


    Learn about ocean maps and the concepts surrounding coordinate planes as Ocean Maps explores geography under the sea, early and current navigation practices, and the variety of ways the ocean can be mapped such as sonar, submersibles, and satellites.

  16. Dynamics of the Cretaceous Oceans: A Numerical Recipe (United States)

    Ridgwell, A. J.


    Recipe for OAE layer-cake: Take one whole fresh super-continent and break into pieces. Pick out the rock phosphate and place to one side. Immerse the continental fragments in seawater until the shelves and interior seaways are thoroughly flooded. Add a pinch of CO2 and heat gently. While the ocean is warming and de-oxygenating, gradually stir in the phosphate that was put aside earlier. Keep stirring and adding CO2 and phosphate until a thick black carbon crust suddenly forms. Remove the crust. Repeat to create as many carbon layers as possible before the cake starts to cool and the ocean re-oxygenates. In this talk I will test this recipe using an Earth system model, discussing the potential role of sedimentary phosphate regeneration feedbacks in triggering carbon burial events, and the role of massive carbon burial in creating the necessary conditions to exit an OAE. I will also illustrate how the dynamics of entering and exiting an OAE depend on boundary conditions such as continental configuration and whether enhanced CO2 out-gassing and weathering (and its attendant higher rate of nutrient supply to the ocean) is a sufficient trigger. Finally, in utilizing an isotope-enabled Earth system model ('GENIE' - in generating an OAE-like event, the plausibility of the recipe can be tested by analyzing the simulated phasing of climate, d13C, ocean redox, and carbon burial, which I will show contrasted with the geological record.

  17. OESbathy version 1.0: a method for reconstructing ocean bathymetry with generalized continental shelf-slope-rise structures (United States)

    Goswami, A.; Olson, P. L.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.


    We present a method for reconstructing global ocean bathymetry that combines a standard plate cooling model for the oceanic lithosphere based on the age of the oceanic crust, global oceanic sediment thicknesses, plus generalized shelf-slope-rise structures calibrated at modern active and passive continental margins. Our motivation is to develop a methodology for reconstructing ocean bathymetry in the geologic past that includes heterogeneous continental margins in addition to abyssal ocean floor. First, the plate cooling model is applied to maps of ocean crustal age to calculate depth to basement. To the depth to basement we add an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer constrained by sediment thickness in the modern oceans and marginal seas. A three-parameter continental shelf-slope-rise structure completes the bathymetry reconstruction, extending from the ocean crust to the coastlines. Parameters of the shelf-slope-rise structures at active and passive margins are determined from modern ocean bathymetry at locations where a complete history of seafloor spreading is preserved. This includes the coastal regions of the North, South, and central Atlantic, the Southern Ocean between Australia and Antarctica, and the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America. The final products are global maps at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution of depth to basement, ocean bathymetry with an isostatically adjusted multicomponent sediment layer, and ocean bathymetry with reconstructed continental shelf-slope-rise structures. Our reconstructed bathymetry agrees with the measured ETOPO1 bathymetry at most passive margins, including the east coast of North America, north coast of the Arabian Sea, and northeast and southeast coasts of South America. There is disagreement at margins with anomalous continental shelf-slope-rise structures, such as around the Arctic Ocean, the Falkland Islands, and Indonesia.

  18. Deep subduction of continental crust in accretionary orogen: Evidence from U-Pb dating on diamond-bearing zircons from the Qinling orogen, central China (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wu, Yuan-Bao; Gao, Shan; Zheng, Jian-Ping; Liu, Qian; Liu, Xiao-Chi; Qin, Zheng-Wei; Yang, Sai-Hong; Gong, Hu-Jun


    Accretionary orogenic belts are considered the most important sites for the generation of continental crust. However, it is still not very clear whether in such settings the continental crust has been significantly transported back to the mantle accompanied with its lateral growth. Continental UHP rocks, the best indicators of the recycling of the continental crust, have rarely been discovered in accretionary orogenic belts, which hinder the exploration of this essential process. The possible occurrence of early Paleozoic UHP metamorphism in the Qinling orogen provides an excellent opportunity to address this question. This article reports an integrated study of U-Pb age, trace element and mineral inclusion of zircon from an amphibolite sample in the Qinling orogen. The zircon crystals show typical metamorphic growth zoning, low Th/U ratios, flat HREE patterns, and insignificant Eu anomalies. They give a weighted mean U-Pb age of 490.4 ± 5.8 Ma. Most importantly, an in situ diamond inclusion was identified from one of the zircon crystals. Therefore, the obtained 490.4 ± 5.8 Ma age was taken as registering the peak UHP metamorphism. The discovery of in situ diamond inclusion provides important evidence for the UHP metamorphism of the Qinling orogen and indicates that the North Qinling microcontinent was subducted to mantle depths of > 120 km when it collided with the Erlangping arc attached to the southern margin of the North China Block. Combining with previous results, we suggested that the North Qinling UHP terrane underwent fast exhumation from > 120 km to ca. 30 km within 10 Myr intervals. As a few examples of UHP metamorphism have been discovered in some accretionary orogens, more attention needs to be paid to the occurrence of continental UHP metamorphism during accretionary orogenic process. Furthermore, evident crustal growth has been documented in the North Qinling orogen during the early Paleozoic. It is inferred that the accretionary orogenic belts may play important roles in recycling of continental crust into the mantle besides generation of continental crust.

  19. The formation and rejuvenation of continental crust in the central North China Craton: Evidence from zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotope (United States)

    Li, Qing; Santosh, M.; Li, Sheng-Rong; Guo, Pu


    The Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO) along the central part of the North China Craton (NCC) is considered as a Paleoproterozoic suture along which the Eastern and Western Blocks of the NCC were amalgamated. Here we investigate the Precambrian crustal evolution history in the Fuping segment of the TNCO and the subsequent reactivation associated with extensive craton destruction during Mesozoic. We present zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb and Lu-Hf data on TTG (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) gneiss, felsic orthogneiss, amphibolite and granite from the Paleoproterozoic suite which show magmatic ages in the range of 2450-1900 Ma suggesting a long-lived convergent margin. The ?Hf(t) values of these zircons range from -11.9 to 12 and their model ages suggest magma derivation from both juvenile components and reworked Archean crust. The Mesozoic magmatic units in the Fuping area includes granite, diorite and mafic microgranular enclaves, the zircons from which define a tight range of 120-130 Ma ages suggesting a prominent Early Cretaceous magmatic event. However, the ?Hf(t) values of these zircons show wide a range from -30.3 to 0.2, indicating that the magmatic activity involved extensive rejuvenation of the older continental crust.

  20. The origin and crust/mantle mass balance of Central Andean ignimbrite magmatism constrained by oxygen and strontium isotopes and erupted volumes (United States)

    Freymuth, Heye; Brandmeier, Melanie; Wörner, Gerhard


    Volcanism during the Neogene in the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) of the Andes produced (1) stratovolcanoes, (2) rhyodacitic to rhyolitic ignimbrites which reach volumes of generally less than 300 km3 and (3) large-volume monotonous dacitic ignimbrites of up to several thousand cubic kilometres. We present models for the origin of these magma types using O and Sr isotopes to constrain crust/mantle proportions for the large-volume ignimbrites and explore the relationship to the evolution of the Andean crust. Oxygen isotope ratios were measured on phenocrysts in order to avoid the effects of secondary alteration. Our results show a complete overlap in the Sr-O isotope compositions of lavas from stratovolcanoes and low-volume rhyolitic ignimbrites as well as older (>9 Ma) large-volume dacitic ignimbrites. This suggests that the mass balance of crustal and mantle components are largely similar. By contrast, younger (crystallization (AFC) models show that the largest chemical changes occur in the lower crust where magmas acquire a base-level geochemical signature that is later modified by middle to upper crustal AFC. Using geospatial analysis, we estimated the volume of these ignimbrite deposits throughout the Central Andes during the Neogene and examined the spatiotemporal pattern of so-called ignimbrite flare-ups. We observe a N-S migration of maximum ages of the onset of large-volume "ignimbrite pulses" through time: Major pulses occurred at 19-24 Ma (e.g. Oxaya, Nazca Group), 13-14 Ma (e.g. Huaylillas and Altos de Pica ignimbrites) and 70 km3 Ma-1 km-1 (assuming plutonic/volcanic ratios of 1:5) which are additional to, but within the order of, the arc background magmatic flux. Comparing our results to average shortening rates observed in the Andes, we observe a "lag-time" with large-volume eruptions occurring after accelerated shortening. A similar delay exists between the ignimbrite pulses and the subduction of the Juan Fernandez ridge. This is consistent with the idea that large-volume ignimbrite eruptions occurred in the wake of the N-S passage of the ridge after slab steepening has allowed hot asthenospheric mantle to ascend into and cause the melting of the mantle wedge. In our model, the older large-volume dacitic ignimbrites in the northern part of the CVZ have lower (15-37 %) crustal contributions because they were produced at times when the Central Andean crust was thinner and colder, and large-scale melting in the middle crust could not be achieved. Younger ignimbrite flare-ups further south (22°S) formed with a significantly higher crustal contribution (22-68 %) because at that time the Andean crust was thicker and hotter and, therefore primed for more extensive crustal melting. The rhyolitic lower-volume ignimbrites are more equally distributed in the CVZ in time and space and are produced by mechanisms similar to those operating below large stratovolcanoes, but at times of higher melt fluxes from the mantle wedge.

  1. Oceans, Ice Shells, and Life on Europa (United States)

    Schenk, Paul


    The four large satellites of Jupiter are famous for their planet-like diversity and complexity, but none more so than ice-covered Europa. Since the provocative Voyager images of Europa in 1979, evidence has been mounting that a vast liquid water ocean may lurk beneath the moon's icy surface. Europa has since been the target of increasing and sometimes reckless speculation regarding the possibility that giant squid and other creatures may be swimming its purported cold, dark ocean. No wonder Europa tops everyone's list for future exploration in the outer solar system (after the very first reconnaissance of Pluto and the Kuiper belt, of course). Europa may be the smallest of the Galilean moons (so-called because they were discovered by Galileo Galilei in the early 17th century) but more than makes up for its diminutive size with a crazed, alien landscape. The surface is covered with ridges hundreds of meters high, domes tens of kilometers across, and large areas of broken and disrupted crust called chaos. Some of the geologic features seen on Europa resemble ice rafts floating in polar seas here on Earth-reinforcing the idea that an ice shell is floating over an ocean on this Moon-size satellite. However, such features do not prove that an ocean exists or ever did. Warm ice is unusually soft and will flow under its own weight. If the ice shell is thick enough, the warm bottom of the shell will flow, as do terrestrial glaciers. This could produce all the observed surface features on Europa through a variety of processes, the most important of which is convection. (Convection is the vertical overturn of a layer due to heating or density differences-think of porridge or sauce boiling on the stove.) Rising blobs from the base of the crust would then create the oval domes dotting Europa's surface. The strongest evidence for a hidden ocean beneath Europa's surface comes from the Galileo spacecraft's onboard magnetometer, which detected fluctuations in Jupiter's magnetic field consistent with a conductor inside Europa. The most likely conductor: a somewhat salty ocean.

  2. Geoelectromagnetic investigation of the earth’s crust and mantle

    CERN Document Server

    Rokityansky, Igor I


    Electrical conductivity is a parameter which characterizes composition and physical state of the Earth's interior. Studies of the state equations of solids at high temperature and pressure indicate that there is a close relation be­ tween the electrical conductivity of rocks and temperature. Therefore, measurements of deep conductivity can provide knowledge of the present state and temperature of the Earth's crust and upper mantle matter. Infor­ mation about the temperature of the Earth's interior in the remote past is derived from heat flow data. Experimental investigation of water-containing rocks has revealed a pronounced increase of electrical conductivity in the temperature range D from 500 to 700 DC which may be attributed to the beginning of fractional melting. Hence, anomalies of electrical conductivity may be helpful in identitying zones of melting and dehydration. The studies of these zones are perspective in the scientific research of the mobile areas of the Earth's crust and upper mantle where t...

  3. Applicability of salt reduction strategies in pizza crust. (United States)

    Mueller, Eva; Koehler, Peter; Scherf, Katharina Anne


    In an effort to reduce population-wide sodium intake from processed foods, due to major health concerns, several different strategies for sodium reduction in pizza crust without any topping were evaluated by sensory analyses. It was possible to reduce sodium by 10% in one single step or to replace 30% of NaCl by KCl without a noticeable loss of salty taste. The late addition of coarse-grained NaCl (crystal size: 0.4-1.4mm) to pizza dough led to an enhancement of saltiness through taste contrast and an accelerated sodium delivery measured in the mouth and in a model mastication simulator. Likewise, the application of an aqueous salt solution to one side of the pizza crust led to an enhancement of saltiness perception through faster sodium availability, leading to a greater contrast in sodium concentration. Each of these two strategies allowed a sodium reduction of up to 25% while maintaining taste quality. PMID:26304455

  4. Spin diffusive modes and thermal transport in neutron star crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Sedrakian, Armen


    In this contribution we first review a method for obtaining the collective modes of pair-correlated neutron matter as found in a neutron star inner crust. We discuss two classes of modes corresponding to density and spin perturbations with energy spectra $\\omega = \\omega_0 + \\alpha q^2$, where $\\omega_0 = 2\\Delta$ is the threshold frequency and $\\Delta$ is the gap in the neutron fluid spectrum. For characteristic values of Landau parameters in neutron star crusts the exitonic density modes have $\\alpha 0$ and they exist above $\\omega_0$ which implies that these modes are damped. As an application of these findings we compute the thermal conductivity due to spin diffusive modes and show that it scales as $T^{1/2} \\exp(-2\\omega_0/T)$ in the case where their two-by-two scattering cross-section is weakly dependent on temperature.

  5. Magnetic crust concept and magnetic anomalies of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The magnetic map of Slovakia was compiled as part of a project titled Atlas of Geophysical maps and profiles in 2001. Reduction to pole transformation (RTP) was applied to the magnetic anomalies using the magnetization angle of the induced magnetization to remove distortion of magnetic anomalies caused by the Earth's magnetic field. The reduced to the pole anomalies have good correlations with tectonic structures. To remove effects of topography, 3 km upward continuation was applied to RTP anomalies. Curie point depth (CPD) map was produced using 3 km upward continuation aeromagnetic anomalies. The depth to the tops and centroid of the magnetic anomalies were calculated by azimuthally averaged power spectrum method for the whole area. Such estimates can be indicative of temperatures in the crust; because magnetic minerals lose their spontaneous magnetization at the Curie temperature of the dominant magnetic minerals in the rocks. The Curie point depths of Slovakia vary from 15.2 km and 20.9 km. Higher heat-flow areas (>100 mWm-2) are around at the central volcanics and eastern part of Slovakia. CPD values are shallow in these areas. Two cross sections of E-W direction were produced for determining to correlation between CPD, heat flow and crustal thickness. There is a good correlation between CPD and heat flow values, however a better correlation between CPD and crust depth. The Curie point isotherm also separates the magnetic and non-magnetic level in the crust which investigated for two cross sections. In this correlation, shallow CPD is supported by high heat flow and shallow crust depth except Central Volcanics. In the Central Volcanics, the correlation is different from other sides due to intensive magnetized rocks and isostasy.

  6. Neutron-Phonon Interaction in Neutron Star Crusts


    Sedrakian, Armen


    The phonon spectrum of Coulomb lattice in neutron star crusts above the neutron drip density is affected by the interaction with the ambient neutron Fermi-liquid. For the values of the neutron-phonon coupling constant in the range $0.1 \\le \\lambda \\le 1$ an appreciable renormalization of the phonon spectrum occurs which can lead to a lattice instability manifested in an exponential growth of the density fluctuations. The BCS phonon exchange mechanism of superconductivity lea...

  7. U-Th stratigraphy of a cold seep carbonate crust


    Bayon, G.; Henderson, Gm; Bohn, M


    On continental margins, oxidation of methane-rich fluids from the sediment often leads to formation of authigenic carbonate pavements on the seafloor. The biogeochemical processes involved during this carbonate precipitation are increasingly understood, but little is known about the duration or mode of carbonate crust formation. Here, we report uranium and thorium concentrations and isotope compositions for a set of 14 samples drilled across an authigenic carbonate pavement, which provide the...

  8. Geometry of the Crust-Mantle boundary beneath the Dinarides (United States)

    Stipcevic, Josip; Tkalcic, Hrvoje; Herak, Marijan; Dettmer, Jan; Gosar, Andrej


    The convergent boundary zone surrounding the Adriatic Sea represents the major component in the larger tectonic framework of the Mediterranean area. Dinarides, as a part of this convergence zone, are usually seen as the region where the interaction between Adriatic microplate and the Eurasian mainland was initiated. During the structural evolution of circum Adiratic area, Dinarides have remained one the key geodynamical factors, thus influencing larger scale tectonics. Hence, exploration of complex structural features below the Dinarides will directly improve overall understanding about the development of Central Mediterranean area. In this study we map seismic as well as structural attributes characterizing the crust beneath the Dinarides using non-linear inversion techniques of receiver functions. For this purpose we have acquired the data from 60 broadband stations located mostly in the External Dinarides. We employ receiver functions, both radial and transverse, to model lateral variations in lithospheric structure including the geometry of the interface between crust and mantle (e.g. Moho dip). Thick crust (>40 km) is observed beneath the Dinaric high elevation zone with thickness decreasing towards the Pannonian Basin. Particularly deep Moho interface is observed in the central and southern parts of the study area, reaching depths in excess of 50 km. More dense station coverage in the NW Dinarides allowed us to discern relatively sharp transition between thick Adriatic crust and shallower European Moho. The synthesized picture of the Moho geometry obtained by combining results from receiver function profiles and waveform inversion reveals opposite dipping directions in respect to general NW trending axis of the Dinaric mountain chain. On the Adriatic side, Moho is dipping towards NE while on the Pannonian side, the dip direction switches to W-SW. The trend of the dipping Moho can be constructed to infer that the two colliding plates converge immediately east of high elevation zone.

  9. The origin, nature and distribution of gypsum crusts in deserts


    Watson, A.


    ?All the warm deserts of the world exhibit gypsum crusts in favourable localities, generally areas with a source of gypsum and less than 250 mm of rainfall annually. The features, comprising loose powdery or cemented crystalline accumulations of calcium sulphate dihydrate, are found at the surface or within the uppermost 10 m of regolith. Thicknesses vary from a few millimetres to several metres and purities range from about 15% to nearly 100% gypsum. A review of the literat...

  10. Cyanobacterial Soil Crust Distribution in the State of Qatar (United States)

    Richer, R. A.; Anchassi, D.; El Assad, I.; El Matbouly, M.; Fares, F.; Metcalf, J.; Makki, I.


    Despite the importance of biological soils crusts (BSCs) to ecosystem function, the distribution of BSCs in Qatar have not been documented. We sought to document terrestrial BSC coverage for the State of Qatar using a transect system to sample 91 (10 km X 10 km) blocks accounting for 80% of the landmass of the country. Smooth crusts were found to contain Microcoleus species, while hypolithic communities had unicellular cyanobacteria and filamentous Oscillatoriaceae. Biological soil crust coverage ranged from 0% to 87%, with a gradient in coverage from north to south. This gradient correlated with corresponding patterns of rainfall, soil type and topographical features. Overall country coverage is 26% comparable to value found in the Kalahari desert in southern Africa and other desert regions. The predominance of high BSC coverage areas in the northern half of Qatar may be attributed to soil composition and water availability. Qatar is characterized by shallow, natural depressions. These depressions predominate in the northern half of Qatar and may facilitate BSC development by affecting soil composition and water pooling. The southern area of the country shows little BSC coverage, which may be attributed to the predominance of sand (i.e. mobile surface substrate) which inhibits the formation of BSCs. The southwestern area of Qatar is characterized by an alluvial fan system with quartz pebbles being common. While BSC mat formation was not common in these areas, hypolithic cyanobacteria located on quartz was present. The current rate of development and development related disturbance in Qatar may threaten biological soil crusts, with larger ecosystem impacts. Disturbance of the soil surface has been shown to destroy current BSCs and inhibit the development of new BSCs. Destruction of BSC organisms is important to consider since they provide both carbon and nitrogen which support the larger plant community and reduce wind and water erosion. In addition, disturbance of the soil during construction activities may result in aerosolization of cyanobacteria and associated toxins.

  11. Instability of Superfluid Flow in the Neutron Star Inner Crust


    Link, Bennett


    Pinning of superfluid vortices to the nuclear lattice of the inner crust of a neutron star supports a velocity difference between the superfluid and the solid as the star spins down. Under the Magnus force that arises on the vortex lattice, vortices undergo {\\em vortex creep} through thermal activation or quantum tunneling. We examine the hydrodynamic stability of this situation. Vortex creep introduces two low-frequency modes, one of which is unstable above a critical waven...

  12. Multilayer Capacitor Model of the Earth's Upper Crust


    ÜSTÜNDA?, Berk; KALENDERL?, Özcan; EY?DO?AN, Haluk


    In this study, an equivalent electric circuit model of Earth's upper crust is proposed to explain the behavior of measurement patterns acquired from network of the earthquake forecast project. A multi-layer capacitor model having active components that couples with the monopolar probe close to the surface is used to determine earthquake precursory patterns due to structural changes in time. Equivalent circuit model was developed for a) dilatency process that is assumed to be a s...

  13. Equation of state and thickness of the inner crust of neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Grill, Fabrizio; Providência, Constança; Vidaña, Isaac; Avancini, Sidney S


    The cell structure of $\\beta$-stable clusters in the inner crust of cold and warm neutron stars is studied within the Thomas-Fermi approach using relativistic mean field nuclear models. The relative size of the inner crust and the pasta phase of neutron stars is calculated, and the effect of the symmetry energy slope parameter, $L$, on the profile of the neutron star crust is discussed. It is shown that while the size of the total crust is mainly determined by the incompressibility modulus, the relative size of the inner crust depends on $L$. It is found that the inner crust represents a larger fraction of the total crust for smaller values of $L$. Finally, it is shown that at finite temperature the pasta phase in $\\beta$-equilibrium matter essentially melts above $5-6$ MeV, and that the onset density of the rodlike and slablike structures does not depend on the temperature.

  14. Persistence of deeply sourced iron in the Pacific Ocean. (United States)

    Horner, Tristan J; Williams, Helen M; Hein, James R; Saito, Mak A; Burton, Kevin W; Halliday, Alex N; Nielsen, Sune G


    Biological carbon fixation is limited by the supply of Fe in vast regions of the global ocean. Dissolved Fe in seawater is primarily sourced from continental mineral dust, submarine hydrothermalism, and sediment dissolution along continental margins. However, the relative contributions of these three sources to the Fe budget of the open ocean remains contentious. By exploiting the Fe stable isotopic fingerprints of these sources, it is possible to trace distinct Fe pools through marine environments, and through time using sedimentary records. We present a reconstruction of deep-sea Fe isotopic compositions from a Pacific Fe-Mn crust spanning the past 76 My. We find that there have been large and systematic changes in the Fe isotopic composition of seawater over the Cenozoic that reflect the influence of several, distinct Fe sources to the central Pacific Ocean. Given that deeply sourced Fe from hydrothermalism and marginal sediment dissolution exhibit the largest Fe isotopic variations in modern oceanic settings, the record requires that these deep Fe sources have exerted a major control over the Fe inventory of the Pacific for the past 76 My. The persistence of deeply sourced Fe in the Pacific Ocean illustrates that multiple sources contribute to the total Fe budget of the ocean and highlights the importance of oceanic circulation in determining if deeply sourced Fe is ever ventilated at the surface. PMID:25605900

  15. Persistence of deeply sourced iron in the Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Horner, Tristan J.; Williams, Helen M.; Hein, James R.; Saito, Mak A.; Burton, Kevin W.; Halliday, Alex N.; Nielsen, Sune G.


    Biological carbon fixation is limited by the supply of Fe in vast regions of the global ocean. Dissolved Fe in seawater is primarily sourced from continental mineral dust, submarine hydrothermalism, and sediment dissolution along continental margins. However, the relative contributions of these three sources to the Fe budget of the open ocean remains contentious. By exploiting the Fe stable isotopic fingerprints of these sources, it is possible to trace distinct Fe pools through marine environments, and through time using sedimentary records. We present a reconstruction of deep-sea Fe isotopic compositions from a Pacific Fe?Mn crust spanning the past 76 My. We find that there have been large and systematic changes in the Fe isotopic composition of seawater over the Cenozoic that reflect the influence of several, distinct Fe sources to the central Pacific Ocean. Given that deeply sourced Fe from hydrothermalism and marginal sediment dissolution exhibit the largest Fe isotopic variations in modern oceanic settings, the record requires that these deep Fe sources have exerted a major control over the Fe inventory of the Pacific for the past 76 My. The persistence of deeply sourced Fe in the Pacific Ocean illustrates that multiple sources contribute to the total Fe budget of the ocean and highlights the importance of oceanic circulation in determining if deeply sourced Fe is ever ventilated at the surface. PMID:25605900

  16. Magnetic Fields Induced in the Solid Earth and Oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, Alexei Technical University of Denmark

    Electromagnetic induction in the Earth's interior is an important contributor to the near-Earth magnetic field. Oceans play a special role in the induction, due to their relatively high conductance of large lateral variability. Electric currents that generate secondary magnetic fields are induced in the oceans by two different sources: by time varying external magnetic fields, and by motion of the conducting ocean water through the Earth's main magnetic field. Significant progress in the accurate and detailed prediction of magnetic fields induced by these sources has been achieved during the last years, utilizing realistic 3-D conductivity models of the oceans, crust and mantle. In addition to these improvements in the prediction of 3-D induction effects, much attention has been paid to identifying magnetic signals of oceanic origin in observatory and satellite data. During the talk we will present the results of 3-D model studies that aim at estimating magnetic signals (at ground and satellite altitude) induced by a variety of realistic sources. In particular we will consider induction from ionospheric currents (Sq and electrojets), magnetospheric currents (magnetic storms), ocean tides, and global ocean circulation. Finally, we will discuss how the results of 3-D predictions can be utilized in geomagnetic field modeling and in a recovery of deep conductivity structures.

  17. Investigation of Biological Soil Crusts Metabolic Webs Using Exometabolomic Analysis (United States)

    Northen, T.; Karaoz, U.; Jenkins, S.; Lau, R.; Bowen, B.; Cadillo-Quiroz, H.; Garcia-Pichel, F.; Brodie, E.; Richard, B.


    Desert biological soil crusts are simple cyanobacteria-dominated surface soil microbial communities found in areas with infrequent wetting, often extreme temperatures, low coverage of vascular plants and constitute the world's largest biofilm. They exist for extended periods in a desiccated dormant state, yet rapidly re-boot metabolism within minutes of wetting. These soil microbial communities are highly dependent on filamentous cyanobacteria such as Microcoleus vaginatusto stabilize the soil and to act as primary producers for the community through the release carbon sources to feed a diversity of heterotrophs. Exometabolomic analysis was performed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry on biological soil crust pore water and spent media of key soil bacterial isolates. Comparison of spent vs. fresh media was used to determine uptake or release of metabolites by specific microbes. To link pore water experiments with isolate studies, metabolite extracts of authentic soil were used as supplements for isolate exometabolomic profiling. Our soil metabolomics methods detected hundreds of metabolites from soils including may novel compounds. Only a small set of which being targeted by all isolates. Beyond these few metabolites, the individual bacteria examined showed specialization towards specific metabolites. Surprisingly, many of the most abundant oligosaccharides and other metabolites were ignored by these isolates. The observed specialization of biological soil crust bacteria may play a significant role in determining community structure.

  18. Ages, isotopes and evolution of Precambrian continental crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is certain that typical continental crust of unkwown extent and thickness but comprising a wide variety of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, mostly characteristic of the 'granite-greenstone' association, was in existence by about 3700-3800 m.y. ago. Rocks in the general age range 2600-2800 m.y. are very widely distributed. This was undoubtedly one of the major rock-forming episodes in earth history. In this paper, geochronological, isotopic and much other evidence is cited in support of the hypothesis that irreversible chemical differentiation of part of the upper mantle has produced new continental, sialic crust over the whole of geological time. It is possible that the addition of new sial occurred during relatively short (ca. 100-200 m.y.), possibly worldwide mantle differentiation episodes, widely separated in time during which the new sial also underwent almost synchronous, rapid igneous, metamorphic and geochemical differentiation. These events are termed 'accretion-differentiation' episodes. Continental growth greatly dominates over continental recycling, because of the permanence of sialic crust. A basically uniformitarian approach to earth history is favoured for the past 3800 m.y

  19. Outer crust of a cold non-accreting magnetar (United States)

    Basilico, D.; Arteaga, D. Peña; Roca-Maza, X.; Colò, G.


    The outer-crust structure and composition of a cold, non-accreting magnetar are studied. We model the outer crust to be made of fully equilibrated matter where ionized nuclei form a Coulomb crystal embedded in an electron gas. The main effects of the strong magnetic field are those of quantizing the electron motion in Landau levels and of modifying the nuclear single-particle levels producing, on average, an increased binding of nucleons in nuclei present in the Coulomb lattice. The effect of a homogeneous and constant magnetic field on nuclear masses has been predicted by using a covariant density functional in which induced currents and axial deformation due to the presence of a magnetic field that breaks time-reversal symmetry have been included self-consistently in the nucleon and meson equations of motion. Although not yet observed, for B ?1016 G both effects contribute to produce different compositions—odd-mass nuclei are frequently predicted—and to increase the neutron-drip pressure as compared to a typical neutron star. Specifically, in such a regime, the magnetic-field effects on nuclei favor the appearance of heavier nuclei at low pressures. As B increases, such heavier nuclei are also preferred up to larger pressures. For the most extreme magnetic field considered, B =1018 G, and for the models studied, almost the whole outer crust is made of 4092Zr52.

  20. Stress constraints and hydrofracturing stress data for the continental crust (United States)

    Rummel, F.; Möhring-Erdmann, G.; Baumgärtner, J.


    Faulting and seismicity in the upper continental crust require considerable differential stresses. Application of experimentally developed friction, fracture and flow laws shows that high differential stresses can only exist in the uppermost crust. Direct hydraulic fracturing measurements in deep boreholes seem to support this rock mechanics conclusion. The experimental data base presently consists of approximately 500 hydrofrac tests conducted in about 100 boreholes at about 30 different geographical locations. To illustrate the variation of measured stresses with depth, the data are expressed as dimensionless horizontal stresses in the form S H,h/Sv=(?/z)+?, where S v=? gz Extrapolation of the experimental data to greater depth shows that the minor horizontal stress approaches the value S h/Sv=0.5 which limits friction on wet faults, and that the major horizontal stress approaches a value close to S H/Sv=1 at rather shallow depth (5 to 10 km.). This limits faulting and seismicity in most of the upper crust to either strike-slip or normal faults. The lower boundary for seismicity is mainly dependent on tectonic strain accumulation and rock creep at the environmental conditions at depth.

  1. In situ evidence for continental crust on early Mars (United States)

    Sautter, V.; Toplis, M. J.; Wiens, R. C.; Cousin, A.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Maurice, S.; Forni, O.; Lasue, J.; Ollila, A.; Bridges, J. C.; Mangold, N.; Le Mouélic, S.; Fisk, M.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Beck, P.; Pinet, P.; Le Deit, L.; Rapin, W.; Stolper, E. M.; Newsom, H.; Dyar, D.; Lanza, N.; Vaniman, D.; Clegg, S.; Wray, J. J.


    Understanding of the geologic evolution of Mars has been greatly improved by recent orbital, in situ and meteorite data, but insights into the earliest period of Martian magmatism (4.1 to 3.7 billion years ago) remain scarce. The landing site of NASA’s Curiosity rover, Gale crater, which formed 3.61 billion years ago within older terrain, provides a window into this earliest igneous history. Along its traverse, Curiosity has discovered light-toned rocks that contrast with basaltic samples found in younger regions. Here we present geochemical data and images of 22 specimens analysed by Curiosity that demonstrate that these light-toned materials are feldspar-rich magmatic rocks. The rocks belong to two distinct geochemical types: alkaline compositions containing up to 67 wt% SiO2 and 14 wt% total alkalis (Na2O + K2O) with fine-grained to porphyritic textures on the one hand, and coarser-grained textures consistent with quartz diorite and granodiorite on the other hand. Our analysis reveals unexpected magmatic diversity and the widespread presence of silica- and feldspar-rich materials in the vicinity of the landing site at Gale crater. Combined with the identification of feldspar-rich rocks elsewhere and the low average density of the crust in the Martian southern hemisphere, we conclude that silica-rich magmatic rocks may constitute a significant fraction of ancient Martian crust and may be analogous to the earliest continental crust on Earth.

  2. The 1590-1520 Ma Cachoeirinha magmatic arc and its tectonic implications for the Mesoproterozoic SW Amazonian craton crustal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Amarildo S.


    Full Text Available Isotopic and chemical data of rocks from the Cachoeirinha suite provide new insights on the Proterozoic evolution of the Rio Negro/Juruena Province in SW Amazonian craton. Six U-Pb and Sm-Nd analyses in granitoid rocks of the Cachoeirinha suite yielded ages of 1587-1522 Ma and T DM model ages of 1.88-1.75 Ga (EpsilonNd values of -0.8 to +1.0. In addition, three post-tectonic plutonic rocks yielded U-Pb ages from 1485-1389 Ma (T DM of 1.77-1.74 Ga and EpsilonNd values from -1.3 to +1.7. Variations in major and trace elements of the Cachoeirinha suite rocks indicate fractional crystallization process and magmatic arc geologic setting. These results suggest the following interpretations: (1 The interval of 1590-1520 Ma represents an important magmatic activity in SW Amazonian craton. (2 T DM and arc-related chemical affinity supportthe hypothesis that the rocks are genetically associated with an east-dipping subduction zone under the older (1.79-1.74 Ga continental margin. (3 The 1590-1520 Ma age of intrusive rocks adjacent to an older crust represents similar geological framework along the southern margin of Baltica, corroborating the hypothesis of tectonic relationship at that time.

  3. Accretionary nature of the crust of Central and East Java (Indonesia) revealed by local earthquake travel-time tomography (United States)

    Haberland, Christian; Bohm, Mirjam; Asch, Günter


    Reassessment of travel time data from an exceptionally dense, amphibious, temporary seismic network on- and offshore Central and Eastern Java (MERAMEX) confirms the accretionary nature of the crust in this segment of the Sunda subduction zone (109.5-111.5E). Traveltime data of P- and S-waves of 244 local earthquakes were tomographically inverted, following a staggered inversion approach. The resolution of the inversion was inspected by utilizing synthetic recovery tests and analyzing the model resolution matrix. The resulting images show a highly asymmetrical crustal structure. The images can be interpreted to show a continental fragment of presumably Gondwana origin in the coastal area (east of 110E), which has been accreted to the Sundaland margin. An interlaced anomaly of high seismic velocities indicating mafic material can be interpreted to be the mantle part of the continental fragment, or part of obducted oceanic lithosphere. Lower than average crustal velocities of the Java crust are likely to reflect ophiolitic and metamorphic rocks of a subduction melange.


    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improvethe coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmentaland private...

  5. The geochemistry of Oceanic Anoxic Events: (United States)

    Jenkyns, Hugh


    Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) record profound changes in the climatic and palaeoceanographic state of the planet and represent major disturbances in the global carbon cycle. OAEs that manifestly caused major chemical change in the Mesozoic Ocean include those of the early Toarcian (Posidonienschiefer Event, T-OAE, ~183Ma), early Aptian (Selli Event, OAE 1a, ~120Ma), early Albian (Paquier Event, OAE 1b, ~111Ma) and Cenomanian-Turonian (Bonarelli Event, C/T OAE, OAE 2, ~93Ma). Currently available data suggest that the major forcing function behind OAEs was an abrupt rise in temperature, induced by rapid influx of CO2 into the atmosphere from volcanogenic and/or methanogenic sources. Global warming was accompanied by an accelerated hydrological cycle, increased continental weathering, enhanced nutrient discharge to oceans and lakes, intensified upwelling, and an increase in organic productivity transmitted to the sedimentary record as black shales. An increase in continental weathering is typically recorded by transient increases in the seawater values of 87Sr/86Sr and 187Os/188Os ratios acting against, in the case of the Cenomanian-Turonian and early Aptian OAEs, a longer term trend to less radiogenic values. This latter trend indicates that hydrothermally and volcanically sourced nutrients may also have stimulated local increases in organic productivity. Increased flux of organic matter favoured intense oxygen demand in the water column, as well as increased rates of marine and lacustrine carbon burial. Particularly in those restricted oceans and seaways where density stratification was favoured by palaeogeography and significant fluvial input, conditions could readily evolve from poorly oxygenated to anoxic and ultimately euxinic (i.e sulphidic), this latter state being geochemically the most significant. The progressive evolution in redox conditions through phases of denitrification/anammox, through to sulphate reduction accompanied by water-column precipitation of pyrite framboids, resulted in fractionation of many isotope systems (e.g., N, S, Fe, Mo) and mobilization and incorporation of certain trace elements into carbonates, sulphides and organic matter. Sequestration of CO2 in organic-rich black shales and by reaction with silicate rocks exposed on continents would ultimately restore climatic equilibrium, but at the expense of massive chemical change in the oceans and over timescales of tens to hundreds of thousands of years.

  6. The global Moho depth map for continental crust (United States)

    Baranov, Alexey; Morelli, Andrea


    Different tectonic units cover the continents: platform, orogens and depression structures. This structural variability is reflected both in thickness and physical properties of the crust. We present a new global Moho map for the continental crust, derived from geophysical data selected from the literature and regional crustal models. The Moho depth is represented with a resolution of 1x1 on a Cartesian grid. A large volume of new data has been analyzed: mostly active seismic experiments, as well as receiver functions and geological studies. We have used the following regional studies: for Europe and Greenland, models EPcrust [Molinari and Morelli, 2011]and EUNAseis [Artemieva and Thybo, 2103]; for North Asia, Moho models from [Cherepanova et al., 2013; Iwasaki et al., 2013; Pavlenkova, 1996]; for Central and Southern Asia, model AsCrust [Baranov, 2010] with updates for India [Reddy and Rao, 2013]; China [Teng et al., 2013];Arabian [Mechie et al., 2013]; for Africa, the model by [Pasyanos and Nyblade, 2007] as a framework and added many others regional studies; for South America, models by [Assumpção et al.,2013; Chulick et al.,2013; Lloyd et al., 2010]; for North America, the model by [Keller, 2013]; for Australia, the model by [Salmon et al., 2013]; for Antarctica, model ANTMoho [Baranov and Morelli, 2013] with update for West Antarctica (POLENET project, [Chaput et al., 2013]). For two orogens we have found the maximum depth at - 75 km (Tibet and Andes). In our model the average thickness of the continental crust is about 34 km (st. deviation 9 km) whereas in CRUST 2.0 model the average Moho for continental areas is about 38 km. The new Moho model for continents exhibits some remarkable disagreement at places with respect to global model CRUST 2.0. The difference in crustal thickness between these two models may amount up to 30 km, mainly due to improved resolution of our model's Moho boundary. There are significant changes in several regions: among them, Darfur, Africa (-22 km); Madagascar (-28 / +14 km), Andes (-30 km); Parana delta, South America (-20 km); California (-20 km); Gamburtsev Mountains, East Antarctica (+24 km). Such analysis remains in large part true also for a comparison with the Moho from the recent CRUST 1.0 model, except for a better agreement in the Americas. Our model provides a starting point for numerical modeling of deep mantle structures via a thorough revision of the crustal effects in the observed fields. This model will be used as a starting point in the gravity modeling of the lithosphere and upper mantle structures. Also it may be used for wave propagation modelling at continental scale, crustal correction in tomography and other seismological applications. The new model will be available for download in digital format. We plan to update the model in the near future by including new data, particularly in the most poorly covered regions.

  7. Partial melting of thickened continental crust in central Tibet: Evidence from geochemistry and geochronology of Eocene adakitic rhyolites in the northern Qiangtang Terrane (United States)

    Long, Xiaoping; Wilde, Simon A.; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Chao; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Li, Jie; Jiang, Ziqi; Dan, Wei


    The composition of the deep crust is a key to understanding the formation of the low-velocity zone in the middle to lower crust of the Tibetan Plateau. The Suyingdi rhyolites exposed in the northern Qiangtang Terrane have high Sr (296-384 ppm) and low Y (5.81-7.93 ppm), with therefore high Sr/Y ratios (42-56), showing geochemical features of adakitic rocks. Zircon U-Pb dating yields an eruption age of 38.2 ± 0.8 Ma (MSWD = 0.78). These adakitic rhyolites are high-K calc-alkaline in composition, displaying a weakly peraluminous character. They have low MgO content (0.20-0.70 wt.%) and Mg# values (24-39), as well as low Sc (2.25-2.76 ppm), Cr (8-14 ppm), Co (1.6-3.5 ppm) and Ni (2-3 ppm) concentrations. The rocks are LREE-enriched ((La/Yb)N = 50-62) and display weakly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.82-0.95) and pronounced negative Nb and Ta anomalies. They have low initial (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.707860 to 0.708342) and enriched Nd isotopic compositions with ?Nd (t) values ranging from -8.4 to -5.0, which are indistinguishable from those of Cenozoic potassic and ultra-potassic lavas exposed in northern Tibet. Their much higher SiO2 and lower Fe2O3 contents, yet similar MgO, Cr, Co, Ni, and Mg# values to the potassic and ultra-potassic lavas, however, indicate that the rhyolites are unlikely to have formed by fractional crystallization of these lavas. Because of their low Nb/Ta ratios and similar Sr-Nd isotopic compositions to granulite xenoliths within the Cenozoic potassic rocks, we infer that the Suyingdi adakitic rhyolites were most likely produced by partial melting of a thickened lower crust in the garnet stability field. The magma source is most likely dominated by granulite facies metabasalts and clay-poor metamorphosed sedimentary rocks which indicate that the lower crust of northern Tibet is heterogeneous. In combination with data from previously-reported peraluminous and metaluminous adakitic rocks in the same region, the age and petrogenesis of the Suyingdi adakitic rhyolites suggest that the low-velocity zone in the deep crust of central and northern Tibet was most likely the result of partial melting of thickened crust.

  8. Ma Ying-jeou’s Presidential Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sullivan


    Full Text Available Despite the substantial advances made in cross-Strait relations during Ma Ying-jeou’s (Ma Yingjiu first term, the ROC president’s rhetoric varied considerably as he grappled with the difficult reality of implementing campaign and inauguration pledges to establish better relations with China while striving to maintain national respect and sovereignty. In this article, we put forward a framework for measuring, analysing and explaining this variation in President Ma’s first-term discourse. Analysing a very large number of Ma’s speeches, addresses, etc., we provide empirical assessments of how the content of Ma’s public pronouncements has developed over time, how his rhetoric varies according to the strategic context and timing of a speech, and how his discourse compares to that of his predecessor, Chen Shui-bian (Chen Shuibian. In addressing these questions, the article contributes a quantitative perspective to existing work on political discourse in Taiwan and to the growing methodological and applied literature on how to systematically analyse Chinese political text.

  9. Molecular and chemical features of the excreted extracellular polysaccharides in Induced Biological Soil Crusts of different ages (United States)

    Rossi, Federico; Lanzhou, Chen; Liu, Yongding; Adessi, Alessandra; De Philippis, Roberto


    Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) are complex microbial associations widely distributed in arid and semiarid environments. These microbial associations have recently been acknowledged as important in restoration ecology (Bowker 2007). The primary colonization of cyanobacteria and other crust organisms after events such as fire or cessation of plowing is considered critical for later vascular plant establishment, due to the control of seed germination and due to the complex pathways that BSCs are capable to establish between plants and crust organisms and exudates (Rossi et al. 2013). In a ten year study carried out in the hyper-arid region of Inner Mongolia (China), introduction of man - made BSCs (induced BSCs, IBSCs) proved to be effective in producing a shift of the ecosystem state from high abiotic to low abiotic stress, evidenced by an increase in photothrophic abundance and subshrub cover. The prerequisite for an efficient exploitation of crust organisms as soil colonizers is their capability to secrete large amount of exopolysaccharides (EPS) which are important, among the reasons, as they lead to soil and BSC stabilization and represent a noticeable source of C that can be respired by the crustal community. By these means, a deep chemical and physiological knowledge concerning these exudates is required. Notwithstanding the large amount of literature available, recently thoroughly reviewed by Mager and Thomas (2011), the chemical characteristics of EPS from BSCs, and in particular from IBSCs, have not been investigated yet. We analyzed the monosaccharidic composition and the molecular weight distribution of two EPS fractions, the more soluble fraction and the fraction more tightly bound to cells, extracted from IBSCs collected in the Inner Mongolian desert, inoculated in different years (namely 4, 6 and 8 years before the sampling), thus characterized by different developmental stages. We thereafter investigated the degradation processes involving EPS, assessing the activity of two key enzymes for sugar degradation: dehydrogenase and sucrase. The results obtained demonstrated a high complexity in terms of monosaccharidic composition and molecular weight, the latter resulting differently distributed between the two fractions. Enzymatic activity resulted mainly directed to the more soluble, low - molecular weight carbohydrates. The data presented represent a first study of the biochemical processes involving carbon from EPS released by IBSCs on bare substrates after the colonization of soils by the inoculated cyanobacteria. Bowker MA (2007) Biological soil crusts rehabilitation in theory and practice: an underexploited opportunity. Restoration Ecology 15(1): 13 - 23. Mager DM, Thomas AD (2011) Extracellular polysaccharides from cyanobacterial soil crusts: A review of their role in dryland soil processes. Journal of Arid Environments 75: 91 - 97. Rossi F, Diels L, Olguin E, De Philippis R (2013) Microbial fixation of CO2 in water bodies and in drylands to combat climate change, soil loss and desertification. New Biotechnology. DOI: .

  10. Ocean Drilling Program: Results from tenth year of drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Coyne, J.C.; McPherson, R.G.; Merrill, R.B.; Olivas, R.E. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has completed 61 internationally staffed expeditions and ten years of scientific ocean drilling in search of answers relating to the tectonic evolution of passive and active continental margins, origin and evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. To address these problems, ODP has made numerous advances in technology for retrieval of continuous undisturbed cores under hostile environmental conditions. ODP curates over 198 km of cored material and associated scientific data bases and publishes results of the scientific expeditions in a continuous series of Proceedings volumes. During its tenth year, ODP continued its pioneering exploration in the Atlantic Ocean. This paper reviews the drilling activities associated with the Atlantic Leg of the project. It focuses on volcanic rifted margins and magma emplacement; the chemical composition and evolution of the lower crust and mantle; depth transect reconstruction for a variety of temporal resolutions; research on the Amazon deep-sea fan and associated paleoclimatology; temporal and spatial scales of fluid flow, the role of faults in fluid transport, and the relationships between mechanical state and seismicity in the northern Barbados accretionary prism; and the history of volcanic activity in the Canary Hotspot, the detailed evolution of large volcanic oceanic islands, the growth of volcanic aprons and the filling of the distal Madeira Abyssal Plain. Finally, Leg 158 investigated fluid flow, alteration and mineralization and associated geochemical fluxes, microbiological processes and the subsurface mixture of an active hydrothermal system on a slow spreading, sediment-free mid-ocean ridge (TAG area -- Mid Atlantic Ridge).

  11. Oceans of Energy? (United States)

    NOAA Ocean Explorer

    This lesson focuses on the importance of ocean exploration as a way to learn how to capture, control, and distribute renewable ocean energy resources. Students begin by identifying ways the ocean can generate energy and then research one ocean energy source using the Internet. Finally, students build a Micro-Hydro Electric Generator.

  12. Methanotrophs, methanogens and microbial community structure in livestock slurry surface crusts<