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1

Fiber Length and Orientation in Long-Fiber Injection-Molded Thermoplastics. Part I: Modeling of Microstructure and Elastic Properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates the effects of fiber length and orientation distributions on the elastic properties of long-fiber injection-molded thermoplastics (LFTs). The corrected experimental fiber length distribution and the predicted and experimental orientation distributions were used in modeling to compute the elastic properties of the composite. First, from the fiber length distribution (FLD) data in terms of number of fibers versus fiber length, the probability density functions were built and used in the computation. Also, it has been shown that the two-parameter Weibull’s distribution can be used to represent the actual FLD. Next, the Mori-Tanaka model that employs the Eshelby’s equivalent inclusion method was applied to calculate the stiffness matrix of the aligned fiber composite containing the established FLD. The stiffness of the actual as-formed composite was then determined from the stiffness of the computed aligned fiber composite that was averaged over all possible orientations using the orientation averaging method. The methodology to predict the elastic properties of LFTs was validated via experimental verification of the longitudinal and transverse moduli determined for long glass fiber injection-molded polypropylene specimens. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effect of a variation of FLD on the composite elastic properties.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Holbery, James D.; Smith, Mark T.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Frame, Barbara J.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.

2008-05-01

2

Thermal monitoring of the thermoplastic injection molding process with FBGs  

Science.gov (United States)

Injection molding is an important polymer processing method for manufacturing plastic components. In this work, the thermal monitoring of the thermoplastic injection molding is presented, since temperature is a critical parameter that influences the process features. A set of fiber Bragg gratings were multiplexed, aiming a two dimensional monitoring of the mold. The results allowed to identify the different stages of the thermoplastic molding cycle. Additionally, the data provide information about the heat transfer phenomena, an important issue for the thermoplastic injection sector, and thus for an endless number of applications that employ this type of materials.

Alberto, Nélia J.; Nogueira, Rogério N.; Neto, Victor F.

2014-08-01

3

A Model for Fiber Length Attrition in Injection-Molded Long-Fiber Composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long-fiber thermoplastic (LFT) composites consist of an engineering thermoplastic matrix with glass or carbon reinforcing fibers that are initially 10 to 13 mm long. When an LFT is injection molded, flow during mold filling orients the fibers and degrades the fiber length. Fiber orientation models for injection molding are well developed, and special orientation models for LFTs have been developed. Here we present a detailed quantitative model for fiber length attrition in a flowing fiber suspension. The model tracks a discrete fiber length distribution (FLD) at each spatial node. Key equations are a conservation equation for total fiber length, and a breakage rate equation. The breakage rate is based on buckling of fibers due to hydrodynamic forces, when the fibers are in unfavorable orientations. The FLD model is combined with a mold filling simulation to predict spatial and temporal variations in fiber length distribution in a mold cavity during filling. The predictions compare well to experiments on a glassfiber/ PP LFT molding. Fiber length distributions predicted by the model are easily incorporated into micromechanics models to predict the stress-strain behavior of molded LFT materials. Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; electronic mail: ctucker@illinois.edu 1

TuckerIII, Charles L. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Phelps, Jay H [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; El-Rahman, Ahmed Abd [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL

2013-01-01

4

Influence of water sorption on mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective. This study investigated the influence of water sorption on certain mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. Materials and methods. Six thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, two polyesters, one polycarbonate, one polymethylmethacrylate) and a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) conventional heat-polymerized denture-based polymer, selected as a control, were tested. Specimens of each denture base material were fabricated according to ISO 1567 specifications and were either dry or water-immersed for 30 days (n = 10). The ultimate flexural strength, the flexural strength at the proportional limit and the elastic modulus of the denture base materials were calculated. Results. Water sorption significantly decreased the ultimate flexural strength, the flexural strength at the proportional limit and the elastic modulus of one of the polyamides and the PMMAs. It also significantly increased the ultimate flexural strength of the polycarbonate. Conclusion. The mechanical properties of some injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins changed after water sorption. PMID:24850507

Hamanaka, Ippei; Iwamoto, Misa; Lassila, Lippo; Vallittu, Pekka; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yutaka

2014-11-01

5

Modeling of the injection of loaded thermoplastic mixtures with application in metal injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study is focussed on the modeling and numerical simulation of the loaded thermoplastic mixtures currently used in metal injection molding. Due to the fact that the mixture is highly concentrated in metallic powders, the models based on the homogenization theory and using an equivalent viscosity are no longer suitable. So a biphasic formulation has been developed to describe the flow of such mixtures. An interaction term between powder and thermoplastic fluid polymer accounts for segregation or debinding effects. In this type of the problem, the solid phase fraction is a key fields variable. The associated equations are solved separately for each phase taking into account interactions and coupling effects. A general solver in 2D and 3D has been developed that account propagation of fluid front by the extension to biphasic cases of the VOF method. For solving the velocity/pressure problem the fractional step method has been extended to the biphasic cases. Numerical simulations have been compared to the experimental results obtained by a using multiple cavity with pressure and temperature sensors. Comparisons between numerical simulation results and experiments show good agreements in terms of pressure and temperature evolutions during molding. It is also demonstrated that the numerical results are accurate and sensitive to variation of the injection molding marameters. (author)

6

Transparent thermoplastics: Replication of diffractive optical elements using micro-injection molding  

Science.gov (United States)

Small plastic components with sub-micron and micron gratings for diffractive optics were prepared by micro-injection molding. The aim of the work was to improve the filling of binary diffractive gratings with high aspect ratio by varying the molding parameters. Tests were made under conventional processing conditions with four transparent thermoplastics: polycarbonate (PC), cyclo-olefin polymer (COP), styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN), and hexafluoropropylene-tetrafluoroethylene-ethylene terpolymer (HFP-TFE-Et). Melt and mold temperatures were kept as recommended by the manufacturer. Other molding parameters (injection speed, shot size, vacuum, holding pressure, and injection plunger diameter) were varied, and their effect on the profile of the gratings was measured by atomic force microscopy. The filling of the gratings (500 nm and 1000 nm) was clearly affected by injection speed, shot size, and injection piston diameter, but the most significant factor was the type of material. Replication fidelity was highest with PC and lowest with SAN.

Kalima, V.; Pietarinen, J.; Siitonen, S.; Immonen, J.; Suvanto, M.; Kuittinen, M.; Mönkkönen, K.; Pakkanen, T. T.

2007-10-01

7

Mathematical modeling of the in-mold coating process for injection-molded thermoplastic parts  

Science.gov (United States)

In-Mold Coating (IMC) has been successfully used for many years for exterior body panels made from compression molded Sheet Molding Compound (SMC). The coating material is a single component reactive fluid, designed to improve the surface quality of SMC moldings in terms of functional and cosmetic properties. When injected onto a cured SMC part, IMC cures and bonds to provide a pain-like surface. Because of its distinct advantages, IMC is being considered for application to injection molded thermoplastic parts. For a successful in mold coating operation, there are two key issues related to the flow of the coating. First, the injection nozzle should be located such that the thermoplastic substrate is totally covered and the potential for air trapping is minimized. The selected location should be cosmetically acceptable since it most likely will leave a mark on the coated surface. The nozzle location also needs to be accessible for easy of maintenance. Secondly, the hydraulic force generated by the coating injection pressure should not exceed the available clamping tonnage. If the clamping force is exceeded, coating leakage will occur. In this study, mathematical models for IMC flow on the compressible thermoplastic substrate have been developed. Finite Difference Method (FDM) is first used to solve the 1 dimensional (1D) IMC flow problem. In order to investigate the application of Control Volume based Finite Element Method (CV/FEM) to more complicated two dimensional IMC flow, that method is first evaluated by solving the 1D IMC flow problem. An analytical solution, which can be obtained when a linear relationship between the coating thickness and coating injection pressure is assumed, is used to verify the numerical results. The mathematical models for the 2 dimensional (2D) IMC flow are based on the generalized Hele-Shaw approximation. It has been found experimentally that the power law viscosity model adequately predicts the rheological behavior of the coating. The compressibility of the substrate is modeled by the 2-domain Tait PVT equation. CV/FEM is used to solve the discretized governing equations. A computer code has been developed to predict the fill pattern of the coating and the injection pressure. A number of experiments have been conducted to verify the numerical predictions of the computer code. It has been found both numerically and experimentally that the substrate thickness plays a significant role on the IMC fill pattern.

Chen, Xu

8

Young's modulus prediction of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to provide analytical models able to predict the elastic properties of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFT) in dependence of microstructural parameters such as the fiber volume content (vf), the fiber orientation distribution (FOD) and the fiber length distribution (FLD). The analytical predictions are compared to the experimental stiffness values from tensile tests on the composite materialshowing a good agreement.The FLD in terms of the probability density dis...

Garesci, F.; Fliegener, S.

2013-01-01

9

Injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book deals with injection molding and plastic industry with trend of plastic industry and injection molding like production and consume of plastic in the world, plastic molding such as forming and property process, various molding with shape forming, theories on main molding and the position of injection molding, prospect of injection molding. It also describes property of material on injection molding; introduction, molecule structure, density, crystalizability, transition point, heat condition quality and compressible volume.

10

Internal stresses analysis in electroformed nickel shells for thermoplastics injection mold core (rapid tooling)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study deals with a research field started at the LFI laboratorio de Fabricacion Integrada) of the ULPGC (Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria). Its aim is to analyse and propose improvements in the electroformed nickel cores manufacture. The main application of these cores is to be used as plastic injection molds. It has been considered an important part of this study taking under consideration internal stresses that appear in the nickel electroformed core. These stresses play a determinant role towards reaching a dimensional and resistant quality standard of the shells, which will be later transformed into cores. The investigation includes not only a theoretic study but also an experimental one. the testing method has the remarkable advantage of a wide industrial application because of its simplicity, low cost and reproducibility of the electrolytic bath actual conditions. (Author) 7 refs

11

Microinjection molding of thermoplastic polymers: morphological comparison with conventional injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The skin–core crystalline morphology of injection-molded semi-crystalline polymers is well documented in the scientific literature. The thermomechanical environment provokes temperature and shear gradients throughout the entire thickness of the part during molding, thus influencing the polymer crystallization. Crystalline morphologies of a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) micromolded part (?part) and a classical part (macropart) are compared with optical, thermal and x-ray diffraction analyses. Results show that the crystalline morphologies with regard to thickness vary between the two parts. While a 'skin–core' morphology is present for the macropart, the ?part exhibits a specific 'core-free' morphology, i.e. no spherulite is present at the center of the thickness. This result seems to be generated under the specific conditions used in microinjection molding that lead to the formation of smaller and more oriented crystalline entities

12

Highly conductive thermoplastic composite blends suitable for injection molding of bipolar plates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aimed at developing highly conductive, lightweight, and low-cost bipolar plates for use in proton exchange membranes (PEM) fuel cells. Injection and compression molding of highly filled polypropylene, PP, and polyphenylene sulfide, PPS, based blends were used as a mean for mass production of bipolar plates. Loadings up to 60-wt% in the form of graphite, conductive carbon black and carbon fibers were investigated. The developed formulations have a combination of properties and processability suitable for bipolar plate manufacturing, such as good chemical resistance, sufficient fluidity, and good electrical and thermal conductivity. Electrical resistivities around 0.15 and 0.09 Ohm-cm were respectively achieved for the PP and PPS-based blends, respectively. Two bipolar plate designs were successfully fabricated by molding the gas flow channels over aluminum plates to form a metallic/polymer composite plate, or simply by direct injection molding of the conductive polymer composite. For the first design, overall plate resistivities of 0.2 and 0.1 Ohm-cm were respectively attained using PP and PPS based blends as conductive skin. A lower volume resistivity of around 0.06 Ohm-cm was attained for the second injected plate design with PPS based blend. (author)

13

Ceramic injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interest in making complex net-shape ceramic parts with good surface finishing and sharp tolerances without machining is a driving force for studying the injection molding technique. This method consists of softhening the ceramic material by means of adding some plastic and heating in order to inject the mixture under pressure into a relatively cold mold where solidification takes place. Essentially, it is the same process used in thermoplastic industry but, in the present case, the ceramic powder load ranges between 80 to 90 wt.%. This work shows results obtained from the fabrication of pieces of different ceramic materials (alumina, barium titanate ferrites, etc.) in a small scale, using equipments developed and constructed in the laboratory. (Author)

14

Injection molding metallic glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advances in alloy development have produced the Zr35Ti30Be27.5Cu7.5 alloy with a crystallization-glass transition temperature, ?T, of 165 deg. C. This alloy's large supercooled liquid region provides the longest processing times and lowest processing viscosities of any metallic glass and was injection molded using tooling based on plastic injection molding technology. Injection-molded beams and die-cast beams were tested in three-point bending. The average modulus of rupture (MOR) was found to be similar, while injection-molded beams had a smaller standard deviation in MOR

15

Ceramic injection molding material analysis, modeling and injection molding simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

In comparison to unfilled polymers, a ceramic feedstocks has a very high viscosity, a very high heat conductivity and a different pvT-behavior. So far standard simulation tools for plastic injection molding are capable of simulating unfilled or fiber filled compounds with their typical low viscosity and heat conductivity etc. but not for very high ceramic powder filled polymers. This article shows an approach of preparing and adding ceramic feedstocks to standard injection molding tools. Two different feedstocks are used.

Drummer, D.; Messingschlager, S.

2014-05-01

16

Microcellular Injection Molding Using Helium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In comparison with conventional foaming process microcellular injection molding process has advantages such as small bubble size, the removal of sink mark, scale reliability, and weight lightening. So microcellular injection molded parts are applied to electrical product and automobile part. Conventional microcellular foaming process used carbon dioxide and nitrogen as a foaming agent. And it has been never researched and applied about microcellular injection molding process using helium. In this paper, we did a microcellular injection molding process using helium based on previous research result and made samples. From this we can certificate the possibility of microcellular continuous process using helium. Helium is lighter and faster in diffusion than carbon dioxide or nitrogen so through this technique, it can be solved the problem such as spray or labeling

17

Constitutive modelling of creep in a long fiber random glass mat thermoplastic composite  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of this proposed research is to characterize and model the creep behaviour of Glass Mat Thermoplastic (GMT) composites under thermo-mechanical loads. In addition, tensile testing has been performed to study the variability in mechanical properties. The thermo-physical properties of the polypropylene matrix including crystallinity level, transitions and the variation of the stiffness with temperature have also been determined. In this work, the creep of a long fibre GMT composite has been investigated for a relatively wide range of stresses from 5 to 80 MPa and temperatures from 25 to 90°C. The higher limit for stress is approximately 90% of the nominal tensile strength of the material. A Design of Experiments (ANOVA) statistical method was applied to determine the effects of stress and temperature in the random mat material which is known for wild experimental scatter. Two sets of creep tests were conducted. First, preliminary short-term creep tests consisting of 30 minutes creep followed by recovery were carried out over a wide range of stresses and temperatures. These tests were carried out to determine the linear viscoelastic region of the material. From these tests, the material was found to be linear viscoelastic up-to 20 MPa at room temperature and considerable non-linearities were observed with both stress and temperature. Using Time-Temperature superposition (TTS) a long term master curve for creep compliance for up-to 185 years at room temperature has been obtained. Further, viscoplastic strains were developed in these tests indicating the need for a non-linear viscoelastic viscoplastic constitutive model. The second set of creep tests was performed to develop a general non-linear viscoelastic viscoplastic constitutive model. Long term creep-recovery tests consisting of 1 day creep followed by recovery has been conducted over the stress range between 20 and 70 MPa at four temperatures: 25°C, 40°C, 60°C and 80°C. Findley's model, which is the reduced form of the Schapery non-linear viscoelastic model, was found to be sufficient to model the viscoelastic behaviour. The viscoplastic strains were modeled using the Zapas and Crissman viscoplastic model. A parameter estimation method which isolates the viscoelastic component from the viscoplastic part of the non-linear model has been developed. The non-linear parameters in the Findley's non-linear viscoelastic model have been found to be dependent on both stress and temperature and have been modeled as a product of functions of stress and temperature. The viscoplastic behaviour for temperatures up to 40°C was similar indicating similar damage mechanisms. Moreover, the development of viscoplastic strains at 20 and 30 MPa were similar over all the entire temperature range considered implying similar damage mechanisms. It is further recommended that the material should not be used at temperature greater than 60°C at stresses over 50 MPa. To further study the viscoplastic behaviour of continuous fibre glass mat thermoplastic composite at room temperature, multiple creep-recovery experiments of increasing durations between 1 and 24 hours have been conducted on a single specimen. The purpose of these tests was to experimentally and numerically decouple the viscoplastic strains from total creep response. This enabled the characterization of the evolution of viscoplastic strains as a function of time, stress and loading cycles and also to co-relate the development of viscoplastic strains with progression of failure mechanisms such as interfacial debonding and matrix cracking which were captured in-situ. A viscoplastic model developed from partial data analysis, as proposed by Nordin, had excellent agreement with experimental results for all stresses and times considered. Furthermore, the viscoplastic strain development is accelerated with increasing number of cycles at higher stress levels. These tests further validate the technique proposed for numerical separation of viscoplastic strains employed in obtaining the non-linear viscoelastic viscopla

Dasappa, Prasad

18

Processing and evaluation of long fiber thermoplastic composite plates for internal fixation  

Science.gov (United States)

The metallic plates used in internal fracture fixation may have up to ten times the elastic modulus of normal bone tissue, causing stress shielding-induced osteopenia in healed bone that can lead to re-fracture after plate removal and prolonged and painful recovery. Thermoplastic polymer matrix composites reinforced with long carbon fiber are promising alternative materials for internal fixation plates because they may be produced with relative ease and be tailored to have specific mechanical properties, alleviating the stress shielding problem. Long carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (LCF PEEK) plates were produced using the extrusion / compression molding process. Static flexural testing determined that LCF PEEK plates with rectangular cross-section had an average flexural modulus of 12 GPa, or 23% of the flexural modulus of a stainless steel plate. The LCF PEEK plates also experienced negligible (14.7%, 14.5%, and 16.7%) reductions in modulus after fatigue testing at applied moments of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 N•m, respectively, over 106 load cycles. Aging the plates in 0.9% NaCl solution for four and eight weeks caused 0.34% and 0.28% increases in plate mass, respectively. No significant decrease of flexural properties due to aging was detected. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed the PEEK matrix of the plates to be 24.5% crystalline, which is lower than typical PEEK crystallinity values of 30-35%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed three times as many fiber pullout areas in LCF PEEK fracture surfaces as in fracture surfaces of long carbon fiber-reinforced polyphenylenesulfide (LCF PPS), another plate material tested. DSC and SEM data suggest that improvements in processing conditions and fiber/matrix bonding, along with higher carbon fiber fractions, would enhance LCF PEEK plate performance. LCF PEEK remains a promising alternative to stainless steel for internal fixation plates.

Warren, Paul B.

19

Powder injection molding of niobium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Niobium and niobium-based alloys are used in a variety of high temperature applications ranging from light bulbs to rocket engines. Niobium has excellent formability and the lowest specific weight among refractory metals (Nb, Ta, Mo, W, and Re). Powder injection molding of niobium powder was investigated for efficiency of the process. The sintering of injection molded bars was conducted up to 2000 C in vacuum and low oxygen partial pressure atmosphere. This paper investigates the effect of sintering time, temperature and atmosphere on processing of pure niobium. (orig.)

20

Injection molding of metal powders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The powder Injection Moulding (PIM) process is a viable and competitive commercial technique for producing complex-shaped parts of various materials in high volumes. PIM based on a new binder system and using a Co-Cr-Mo alloy powder as a test material, has been described. The binder comprises a major fraction of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of various molecular weights and a minor fraction of very finely dispersed poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) incorporated in the form of an emulsion. Various processing stages of the PIM process, i.e., feedstock preparation, injection molding, de binding and sintering have been discussed. (author)

 
 
 
 
21

Injection molding of silicon nitride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Silicon Nitride with 9-13 vol% liquid phase, recrystallised at 1100-1400 C after sintering at 1850 C (2,5-3,5h) in a powder bed have been produced in near net shape by injection molding. During molding with a binder of polystyrene, micro wax and dispersion agents a maximum powder content of 62 vol% and 59 vol% was obtained for the the two Silicon Nitride powders (UBE, SN-ESP and HCST, S respectively). Due to microcracking during binder removal (Tmax=500 C) in atmospheric air the bending strength was low even at relative theoretical densities of 95,5%. (orig.)

22

Injection Molding of Plastics from Agricultural Materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic study to relate injection molding parameters to properties of blends of starch and synthetic polymer. From this study, we wished to develop a thorough understanding of the injection molding process and gain significant insight into designing molds and aiding in developing products cheaply and efficiently.

Bhattacharya, M.; Ruan, R.

2001-02-22

23

Impact resistance property of long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic; Chosen`i kyoka jushi no kosoku shogeki toksuei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tensile impact tests by the Hopkins pressure bar system are conducted for the determination of physical properties of glass-fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) experiencing a high strain ratio. In addition, for the confirmation of deformation resulting from the high-rate tests, the fracture behavior is observed in situ by use of a high-speed video camera. Specimens used in the tests include short-fiber-reinforced polypropylene (containing 40% glass fiber), KP sheets, and long-fiber-reinforced polypropylene (PP-Verton). After the tests, the specimens are examined under a SEM for their surface fractures. It is then found that the total absorbed energy and the maximum stress of the impact increase with an increase in the fiber length. An increase in the amount of compatibilizer results in an increase in the maximum stress. As for the stress after arriving at the maximum value, it falls sharply with an increase in the amount of compatibilizer. The above findings indicate that the long-fiber-reinforced plastic is a material high in resisting impact fracture and that its fracture behavior can be subjected to control. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Ono, T. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kubo, H.; Soeda, N.

1997-12-01

24

CD injection molding I: Navier-Stokes  

Science.gov (United States)

State simplifying assumptions which can be made regarding radial injection molding of liquid polycarbonate polymer into a CD mold, and simplify the cylindrical form of the Navier-Stokes equations accordingly.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2004-08-26

25

On Optimization of Injection Molding Cooling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is devoted to analysis and optimization of the injection molding process with a focus on the mold. In the analysis, both process parameters and the design of the mold are taken in consideration. A procedure has been developed, i.e. a method and a program code, which enables optimization of different quantities, not only restricted to injection molding simulation, by altering different variables. There are many ways to interpret the word “optimization”. In this work, “optimiz...

Ra?nnar, Lars-erik

2008-01-01

26

Injection Molding of High Aspect Ratio Nanostructures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a process for injection molding of 40 nm wide and >100 nm high pillars (pitch: 200 nm). We explored the effects of mold coatings and injection molding conditions on the replication quality of nanostructures in cyclic olefin copolymer. We found that optimization of molding parameters using native nickel molds only lead to slight improvements in replication quality. In contrast, a fluorocarbon based antistiction coating (FDTS) was found to improve the replication quality significantly.

Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels Bent

27

Feed stock preparation and achievement of shape complexity using powder injection molding (PIM)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Powder injection molding is one of the near net shape processing (NNSP) techniques used to produce geometrically complex shapes that need very little or no machining. This study presents the comparative study of feedstock preparation for Metal and Ceramic Injection Molding from the view point of achievement of shape complexity. Different variables of feedstock are studied, such as the role of binder, processing temperature, role of additives and the starting powder attributes on shape complexity. In this study, different binder systems; paraffin wax, polyethylene glycol, stearic acid, several thermoplastic resins and powders Fe and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ are studied. The differences between metal injection molding and ceramic injection molding are clearly emphasized. A major focus of this study is to attain the requisite engineering properties by a control of microstructure using different dies with increasing shape complexity. Powder is mixed with the binder system, the mix is injection molded into the desired shape cavity, the molded part is de-bound and after debinding it is sintered to produce high density products. (author)

28

Progress in simulating semi-flexible glass fiber orientation in an injection molded end-gated plaque  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics has gained increasing interest as a means to enhance a part's mechanical properties created through traditional melt processing techniques. Injection molding creates a complex microstructure to develop caused by flow field within the mold. Accurate predictions of fiber orientation can allow for mold design to be tailored to achieve a desired microstructure and mechanical properties. Simulations utilize the Bead-Rod orientation model adapted for concentrated suspensions to account for semi-flexible fibers by representing a fiber as two adjoined vectors that are free to rotate around the connecting point. This work uses orientation model parameters extracted from orientation data taken along the center plane at the transition between the gate and plaque. The entire mold cavity is simulated under non-isothermal conditions including the entry region to the plaque and the fountain flow behavior at the advancing front. Simulations of the semi-flexible model are compared to the Strain Reduction Factor (SRF) model developed for rigid fibers following the same simulation procedure. Predictions are compared to experimental data measured along and away from the plane of symmetry. Improvement in orientation predictions are obtained from the Bead-Rod model which greatly out performs the rigid fiber model away from the center plane.

Cieslinski, Mark J.; Meyer, Kevin J.; Baird, Donald G.

2014-05-01

29

Nanostructuring steel for injection molding tools  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of nanostructured plastic items by injection molding with ridges down to 400 nm in width, which is the smallest line width replicated from nanostructured steel shims, is presented. Here we detail a micro-fabrication method where electron beam lithography, nano-imprint lithography and ion beam etching are combined to nanostructure the planar surface of a steel wafer. Injection molded plastic parts with enhanced surface properties, like anti-reflective, superhydrophobic and structural colors can be achieved by micro- and nanostructuring the surface of the steel molds. We investigate the minimum line width that can be realized by our fabrication method and the influence of etching angle on the structure profile during the ion beam etching process. Trenches down to 400 nm in width have been successfully fabricated into a 316 type electro-polished steel wafer. Afterward a plastic replica has been produced by injection molding with good structure transfer fidelity. Thus we have demonstrated that by utilizing well-established fabrication techniques, nanostructured steel shims that are used in injection molding, a technique that allows low cost mass fabrication of plastic items, are produced.

Al-Azawi, A.; Smistrup, K.; Kristensen, A.

2014-05-01

30

Surface microstructure replication in injection molding  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In recent years, polymer components with surface microstructures have been in rising demand for applications such as lab-on-a-chip and optical components. Injection molding has proven to be a feasible and efficient way to manufacture such components. In injection molding, the mold surface topography is transcribed onto the plastic part through complex mechanisms. This replication, however, is not perfect, and the replication quality depends on the plastic material properties, the topography itself, and the process conditions. This paper describes and discusses an investigation of injection molding of surface microstructures. The fundamental problem of surface microstructure replication has been studied. The research is based on specific microstructures as found in lab-on-a-chip products and on rough surfaces generated from EDM (electro discharge machining) mold cavities. Emphasis is put on the ability to replicate surface microstructures under normal injection-molding conditions, i.e., with commodity materials within typical process windows. It was found that within typical process windows the replication quality depends significantly on several process parameters, and especially the mold temperature. For the specific microstructures, evidence suggests that step-height replication quality depends linearly on structure width in a certain range

Hansen, Hans NØrgaard

2006-01-01

31

Progress in Titanium Metal Powder Injection Molding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metal powder injection molding is a shaping technology that has achieved solid scientific underpinnings. It is from this science base that recent progress has occurred in titanium powder injection molding. Much of the progress awaited development of the required particles with specific characteristics of particle size, particle shape, and purity. The production of titanium components by injection molding is stabilized by a good understanding of how each process variable impacts density and impurity level. As summarized here, recent research has isolated the four critical success factors in titanium metal powder injection molding (Ti-MIM that must be simultaneously satisfied—density, purity, alloying, and microstructure. The critical role of density and impurities, and the inability to remove impurities with sintering, compels attention to starting Ti-MIM with high quality alloy powders. This article addresses the four critical success factors to rationalize Ti-MIM processing conditions to the requirements for demanding applications in aerospace and medical fields. Based on extensive research, a baseline process is identified and reported here with attention to linking mechanical properties to the four critical success factors.

Randall M. German

2013-08-01

32

Planning an Injection Mold Design Training Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increased use of plastics worldwide the shortage of trained personnel in moldmaking and design for plastic injection molds is becoming critical. Local schools and community colleges should provide courses in mold design and mold making, since most workers presently learn while working under experienced designers on the job. Following this…

Allyn, Edward P.

33

Binder Removal from Powder Injection Molded 316L Stainless Steel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study reports the results of preparation of 316L stainless steel polymer based injection molded feed stock, rheology of feed stock and injection molding. The plastic binder was extracted from molded samples. The binder extraction was carried out in two steps: by solvent and thermal techniques. The results showed that feed stock prepared was suitable for injection molding and this was confirmed by rheology data measured by using capillary rheometer. The test samples were injection molded ...

Omar, M. A.; Faiz Ahmad; Muhammad Rafi Raza; German, R. M.

2011-01-01

34

Study on manufacture of 2:17 Sm-Co magnets by powder injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manufacture of 2:17 Sm-Co magnets by powder injection molding was investigated. The binder of thermoplastic polymer was selected as the wax-based system including paraffin wax, stearic acid and high density polyethylene. Before mixing with paraffin wax and high density polyethylene, the powder of 5-8 ?m was coated by stearic acid. The molding compacts were obtained under 200 without deficits. Solvent debinding and thermal debinding were combined to remove the binder. The basic magnetic characteristics of the specimen were of the same level as those by powder metallurgy technique, which indicated that to fabricate 2:17 Sm-Co magnets by powder injection molding was feasible. (orig.)

35

Functional nanostructures on injection molded plastic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nanotechnology can be used to make inexpensive plastic parts with functional surfaces. The plastic parts can be molded using a standard injection molding process. The nanostructures are directly transferred from the surface of the molding tool to the surface of the molded plastic part during the molding process. The main advantage with this method is that surface treatments and chemical additives are avoided, which minimizes health risks and simplifies recycling. Another advantage is that the unique technology enables nanostructuring of free form molded parts. The functional surfaces can have many different properties including anti-reflective, self-cleaning, anti-stiction or color effects. In this work we focus on the superhydrophobic and self-cleaning properties.

Johansson, Alicia Charlotte; SØgaard, Emil

36

Injection molding and debinding of micro gears fabricated by micro powder injection molding  

Science.gov (United States)

Micro powder injection molding (?PIM) was investigated for possible mass production of micro-components at relatively low cost. However, scaling down to such a level produces challenges in injection molding and debinding. Micro gears were fabricated by ?PIM from in-house feedstock. The effect of injection speed and injection pressure on the replication of the micro gear cavity was investigated. Solvent debinding and thermal debinding processes were discussed. The results show that micro gears can be successfully fabricated under the injection pressure of 70 MPa and the 60% injection speed. Either too low or too high injection speed can cause incomplete filling of micro gears. The same is the case with too low injection pressure. Too high injection pressure can bring cracks. Solvent debinding of micro gears was performed in a mixture of petroleum ether and ethanol. Subsequently, micro gears were successfully debound by a multistep heating schedule.

Ni, Xin-lei; Yin, Hai-qing; Liu, Lin; Yi, Shan-jie; Qu, Xuan-hui

2013-01-01

37

Binder Removal from Powder Injection Molded 316L Stainless Steel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports the results of preparation of 316L stainless steel polymer based injection molded feed stock, rheology of feed stock and injection molding. The plastic binder was extracted from molded samples. The binder extraction was carried out in two steps: by solvent and thermal techniques. The results showed that feed stock prepared was suitable for injection molding and this was confirmed by rheology data measured by using capillary rheometer. The test samples were injection molded without physical defects. Paraffin Wax (major binder was extracted by using solvent extraction for 300 min. The thermal debinding was performed four different heating rates rage 1-7C min-1. The SEM results showed that the PW was completely extracted from the test samples after 300 min.

M.A. Omar

2011-01-01

38

Powder Injection Molding of Ceramic Engine Components for Transportation  

Science.gov (United States)

Silicon nitride has been the favored material for manufacturing high-efficiency engine components for transportation due to its high temperature stability, good wear resistance, excellent corrosion resistance, thermal shock resistance, and low density. The use of silicon nitride in engine components greatly depends on the ability to fabricate near net-shape components economically. The absence of a material database for design and simulation has further restricted the engineering community in developing parts from silicon nitride. In this paper, the design and manufacturability of silicon nitride engine rotors for unmanned aerial vehicles by the injection molding process are discussed. The feedstock material property data obtained from experiments were used to simulate the flow of the material during injection molding. The areas susceptible to the formation of defects during the injection molding process of the engine component were identified from the simulations. A test sample was successfully injection molded using the feedstock and sintered to 99% density without formation of significant observable defects.

Lenz, Juergen; Enneti, Ravi K.; Onbattuvelli, Valmikanathan; Kate, Kunal; Martin, Renee; Atre, Sundar

2012-03-01

39

Preparation and Characterization of Copper Feedstock for Metal Injection Molding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Powder loading is one of the most critical factors which have important influence on metal injection molding processes. In this study, four different loading feedstocks were prepared from gas atomized copper powder with wax-based binders. Mixes of four feedstocks with 2 Vol. % incremental powders loading from 55% to 61 Vol. % were carried out in a Z-blade mixer. The injection molding was carried out at low pressure. A combination of solvent and thermal debinding was used for binder removal fr...

Mohd Afian Omar; Mamat, O.; Ahmad, F.; Goudah, G.

2010-01-01

40

Modeling injection molding of net-shape active ceramic components.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To reduce costs and hazardous wastes associated with the production of lead-based active ceramic components, an injection molding process is being investigated to replace the current machining process. Here, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic particles are suspended in a thermoplastic resin and are injected into a mold and allowed to cool. The part is then bisque fired and sintered to complete the densification process. To help design this new process we use a finite element model to describe the injection molding of the ceramic paste. Flow solutions are obtained using a coupled, finite-element based, Newton-Raphson numerical method based on the GOMA/ARIA suite of Sandia flow solvers. The evolution of the free surface is solved with an advanced level set algorithm. This approach incorporates novel methods for representing surface tension and wetting forces that affect the evolution of the free surface. Thermal, rheological, and wetting properties of the PZT paste are measured for use as input to the model. The viscosity of the PZT is highly dependent both on temperature and shear rate. One challenge in modeling the injection process is coming up with appropriate constitutive equations that capture relevant phenomenology without being too computationally complex. For this reason we model the material as a Carreau fluid and a WLF temperature dependence. Two-dimensional (2D) modeling is performed to explore the effects of the shear in isothermal conditions. Results indicate that very low viscosity regions exist near walls and that these results look similar in terms of meniscus shape and fill times to a simple Newtonian constitutive equation at the shear-thinned viscosity for the paste. These results allow us to pick a representative viscosity to use in fully three-dimensional (3D) simulation, which because of numerical complexities are restricted to using a Newtonian constitutive equation. Further 2D modeling at nonisothermal conditions shows that the choice of representative Newtonian viscosity is dependent on the amount of heating of the initially room temperature mold. An early 3D transient model shows that the initial design of the distributor is sub-optimal. However, these simulations take several months to run on 4 processors of an HP workstation using a preconditioner/solver combination of ILUT/GMRES with fill factors of 3 and PSPG stabilization. Therefore, several modifications to the distributor geometry and orientations of the vents and molds have been investigated using much faster 3D steady-state simulations. The pressure distribution for these steady-state calculations is examined for three different distributor designs to see if this can indicate which geometry has the superior design. The second modification, with a longer distributor, is shown to have flatter, more monotonic isobars perpendicular to the flow direction indicating a better filling process. The effects of the distributor modifications, as well as effects of the mold orientation, have also been examined with laboratory experiments in which the flow of a viscous Newtonian oil entering transparent molds is recorded visually. Here, the flow front is flatter and voids are reduced for the second geometry compared to the original geometry. A horizontal orientation, as opposed to the planned vertical orientation, results in fewer voids. Recently, the Navier-Stokes equations have been stabilized with the Dohrman-Bochev PSPP stabilization method, allowing us to calculate transient 3D simulations with computational times on the order of days instead of months. Validation simulations are performed and compared to the experiments. Many of the trends of the experiments are captured by the level set modeling, though quantitative agreement is lacking mainly due to the high value of the gas phase viscosity necessary for numerical stability, though physically unrealistic. More correct trends are predicted for the vertical model than the horizontal model, which is serendipitous as the actual mold is held in a vertical geometry. The full, transient mold fillin

Baer, Tomas (Gram Inc.); Cote, Raymond O.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Yang, Pin; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Noble, David R.; Notz, Patrick K.; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Halbleib, Laura L.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Burns, George Robert; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

2006-11-01

 
 
 
 
41

Modelling and monitoring in injection molding  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This thesis is concerned with the application of statistical methods in quality improvement of injection molded parts. The methods described are illustrated with data from the manufacturing of parts for a medical device. The emphasis has been on the variation between cavities in multi-cavity molds. >From analysis of quality measurements from a longer period of manufacturing, it was found that differences in cavities was that source of variation with greatest influence on the lenght of the molded parts. The other large contribution to the lenght varation was the different machine settings. Samples taken within the same machine set-point did not cause great variation compared to the two preceding sources of variation. A simple graphical approach is suggested for finding patterns in the cavity differences. Applying this method to data from a 16 cavity mold, a clear connection was found between a parts lenght and the producing cavitys position in the mold. In a designed expriment it was possible to isolate the machine parameters contributing to the variation beteeen cavities. Thus, with a proper choice of levels for the machine variables, it was possible to reduce the varation between cavities substantially. Also an alternative model for the shrinkage of parts from a multi-cavity mold is suggested. From applying the model to data from a shringage study, it seemed that the observed part differences were not only due to differences in cavity dimensions. A model for the in-control varation for a multi-cavity molding process was suggested. Based on this model, control charting proceures have been suggested for monitoring the quality of the molded parts. Moreover, a capability index for multi-cavity molds has been suggested. Furthermore an alternative method for in-line quality charting is suggested. The method is for continuous control by attributes, and it is an alternative to the batch oriented approach mostly used. The procedure is especially efficient for quality requirements of very low proportion non-conformities. For the proposed charts the ARL function is derived. It is shown that in the case where a non-conforning unit is only expected very rarely during sampling, a moving sum chart and a CUSUM chart are equivalent. Finally, the correlation structure of 21 process variables has been studied prior to monitoring the process. Is is illustrated how the process can be analysed with multivariate techniques. It was found that two principal components reflected changes in machine set-points. Thus, there seems to be great potential in monitoring the process variables using a multivariate approach.

Thyregod, Peter

2001-01-01

42

The Shrinkage Behavior and Surface Topographical Investigation for Micro Metal Injection Molding  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Metal injection molding (MIM) is a near net shape manufacturing technology that can produce highly complex and dimensionally stable parts for high end engineering applications. Despite the recent growth and industrial interest, micro metal molding is yet to be the field of extensive research especially when it is compared with micro molding of thermoplastics. The current paper presents a thorough investigation on the process of metal injection molding where it systematically characterizes the effects of important process conditions on the shrinkage and surface quality of molded parts with micro features. Effects of geometrical factors like feature dimensions and distance from the gate on the replication quality are studied. The influence of process conditions on the achievable roughness for the final metal parts is discussed based on the experimental findings. The test geometry is characterized by 2½D surface structures containing thin ribs of different aspect ratios and thicknesses in the sub-mm dimensional range. The test parts were molded from Catamold 316L with a conventional injection molding machine. Afterwards, the parts were de-binded and sintered to produce the final test samples. Among the different process parameters studied, the melt temperature was the most influential parameters for better replication and dimensional stability of the final part. The results presented in the paper clearly show that the shrinkage in metal part is not uniform in the micro scale. It depends on the feature dimensions and also on the process conditions. A thin section of the part exhibits higher relative shrinkage compared with a thicker section. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that a micro part molded by MIM process will have higher relative shrinkage compared to a macro part made with the same process.

Islam, Aminul; Giannekas, Nikolaos

2014-01-01

43

A Study of Micro Injection Molding for High-Aspect-Ratio Optical Fiber Ferrules  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focused on manufacture of high-aspect-ratio optical fiber ferrules by micro thermoplastic injection molding technique. In the past, the optical fiber connectors were produced by ceramic powder injection molding and subsequent precision grinding process. In this work, plastic micro injection molding technique was attempted to manufacture net-shaped products at once. Each ferrule has a micro through hole in the center. The hole's diameter is 125±1?m, and its length is 9mm. During micro molding, how to keep the micro core pin at the center becomes a critical issue. In this work, a guiding slide system is introduced to hold the micro pin continuously. And the slide movement was controlled by a spring behind it. Such a guiding system can help reduce mis-alignment of the micro core pin and increase its life time. Taguchi's design of experiment was used to evaluate the effects of processing parameters on final properties. Experimental results reveal that the higher the spring force, the larger the product weight and the lower the shrinkage. In order to obtain better uniformity of diameters at different locations, diameters at three locations were measured. Measured data showed the shrinkage of diameter in the middle is greater than those at two ends. It is because the two ends cooled faster than the center region. This can be improved by applying higher mold temperature or appropriate holding pressure or holding time. The new design concept can be applied in molding micro tubes, especially for the high aspect ratio cases.

Lin, Zheng-Guan.; Tseng, Shi-Chang; Wang, James; Su, Yi-Chung

2004-06-01

44

The effects of process parameters on injection-molded PZT ceramics part fabrication- compounding process rheology.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solid solutions of lead-based perovskites are the backbone materials of the piezoelectric components for transducer, actuator, and resonator applications. These components, typically small in size, are fabricated from large sintered ceramic slugs using grinding and lapping processes. These operations increase manufacturing costs and produce a large hazardous waste stream, especially when component size decreases. To reduce costs and hazardous wastes associated with the production of these components, an injection molding technique is being investigated to replace the machining processes. The first step in the new technique is to compound an organic carrier with a ceramic powder. The organic carrier is a thermoplastic based system composed of a main carrier, a binder, and a surfactant. Understanding the rheology of the compounded material is necessary to minimize the creation of defects such as voids or cavities during the injection-molding process. An experiment was performed to model the effects of changes in the composition and processing of the material on the rheological behavior. Factors studied included: the surfactant of the organic carrier system, the solid loading of the compounded material, and compounding time. The effects of these factors on the viscosity of the material were investigated.

Halbleib, Laura L.; Yang, Pin; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Burns, George Robert

2005-05-01

45

Numerical approach of the injection molding process of fiber-reinforced composite with considering fiber orientation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most important challenges in the injection molding process of the short-glass fiber/thermoplastic composite parts is being able to predict the fiber orientation, since it controls the mechanical and the physical properties of the final parts. Folgar and Tucker included into the Jeffery equation a diffusive type of term, which introduces a phenomenological coefficient for modeling the randomizing effect of the mechanical interactions between the fibers, to predict the fiber orientation in concentrated suspensions. Their experiments indicated that this coefficient depends on the fiber volume fraction and aspect ratio. However, a definition of the fiber interaction coefficient, which is very necessary in the fiber orientation simulations, hasn't still been proven yet. Consequently, this study proposed a developed fiber interaction model that has been introduced a fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient. This supposed that the coefficient is a sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The proposed model was incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. Short-glass fiber/polyamide-6 composites were produced in the injection molding with the fiber weight concentration of 30 wt.%, 50 wt.%, and 70 wt.%. The physical properties of these composites were examined, and their fiber orientation distributions were measured by micro-computed-tomography equipment ?-CT. The simulation results showed a good agreement with experiment results

46

CENTRAL CONVEYING & AUTO FEEDING SYSTEMS FOR AN INJECTION MOLDING SHOP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays injection molding is probably the most important method of Processing of consumer and industrial goods, and is performed everywhere in the world. The developing of injection molding becomes a competition from day to day. This Process now integrated with computer control make the production better in quality and Better quantity. The trends of producing a plastics product in injection molding industries are recently changing from traditional method to using the FEA analysis. For injection molding industries, time and cost is very important aspects to consider because these two aspectswill directly related to the profits at a company. The next issue toconsider, to get the best parameter for the injection molding process, plastics has been waste. Through the experiment, operator will use large amount of plastics material to get the possibly parameters to setup the machine.To produce the parts with better quality and quantity these molding defects are the major obstacles in achieving the targets with quality & quantity. Various defects like Short shot, colour streaks and low productivity rates are associated with the material mixing and feeding as molded plastics are often a blend of two or more materials. Colors (master batch and other additives are often mixed (blended with the raw plastic material prior to the molding process in molding plants. So it is very necessary to work out auto blending and auto feeding of plasticgranules to the machine hopper. This paper will cover the studyof automatic blending unit & central conveying system for plasticgranule feeding to machine & will help in optimizing the injection molding process.

Sanjeev Kumar

2011-08-01

47

Process and part filling control in micro injection molding  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The influence of process parameters on ?-injection molding (?IM) and on ?-injection molded parts has been investigated using Design of Experiments. A mold with a sensor applied at injection location was used to monitor actual injection pressure and to determine the cavity filling time. Flow markers position was measured on the polymer ?-parts to evaluate filling behavior of the polymer melt flowing through ?-features. Experimental results obtained under different processing conditions were evaluated to correlate the process parameter levels influence on the selected responses. Results showed that the injection speed in one of the most influencing process parameters on the ?IM process and on the ?-parts filling.

Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans NØrgaard

2008-01-01

48

Two component micro injection molding for MID fabrication  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Molded Interconnect Devices (MIDs) are plastic substrates with electrical infrastructure. The fabrication of MIDs is usually based on injection molding and different process chains may be identified from this starting point. The use of MIDs has been driven primarily by the automotive sector, but recently the medical sector seems more and more interested. In particular the possibility of miniaturization of 3D components with electrical infrastructure is attractive. The paper describes possible manufacturing routes and challenges of miniaturized MIDs based on two component micro injection molding and subsequent metallization. The technology will be demonstrated by an industrial component.

Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans NØrgaard

2009-01-01

49

Dynamic of taking out molding parts at injection molding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most plastic parts used in automobile production are manufactured by injection molding. Their quality depends also on taking out molding and on the manipulators for it. Task of this contribution is to theoretically describe a transport of molding at taking out after injection molding in relation on its regulation. The following quantities are derived at it: the transition characteristic of the taking out system, the blocking diagram of taking out molding regulation, the amplitude and phase characteristic and the transition characteristic of action quantity at taking out molding regulation.

E. Ragan

2012-10-01

50

The manufactoring of a two–layered injection mold by welding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the technology of deposit cladding different materials, using the injection molds for thermoplastic as a case study. The aim of the study is to surface weld to the working surface of the mold a different material with corresponding physical properties. Steel (1.1141 and a copper alloy were used as the base, onto which different materials were surface-welded. Tungsten inert gas (TIG welding was employed to make molds inserts. An analysis of cross-sectioned specimens was made by optical microscopy, and chemical and hardness profiles were measured too. The thermal conductivity of base and cladded layer was also tested. Finally, a thermal fatigue test was employed to investigate the thermal fatigue properties of such surfaces.

A. Košnik

2011-10-01

51

The effects of boundary conditions on the dimensional changes and residual stresses in injection-molded parts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solidification of a molten layer of amorphous thermoplastic between cooled parallel plates is used to model the mechanics of part shrinkage and the buildup of residual stresses in the injection-molding process. Flow effects are neglected, and a thermorheologically simple thermoviscoelastic material model is assumed. The model allows material to be added to fill the space created by the pressure applied during solidification, so that this model can be used to assess packing-pressure effects in injection molding. The interactions between the mold surfaces and the solidifying material are accounted for by modeling different types of constraints through different model boundary conditions. For several different sets of boundary conditions, parametric results are presented on the effects of the packing pressure-the pressure applied during solidification to counteract the effects of volumetric shrinkage of the thermoplastic--on the in-plane and through-thickness shrinkages, and on residual stresses in plaque-like geometries. Plaques that can shrink in the in-plane direction while in the mold are shown to shrink more and to have higher residual stresses than plaques that are fully constrained while in the mold. Although the results are presented in terms of normalized variables based on the properties of bisphenol-A polycarbonate, they can be interpreted for other amorphous thermoplastics such as modified polyphenylene oxide, polyetherimide, and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene.

Bushko, W.C.; Stokes, V.K. [GE Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

52

Residual stress distribution in injection molded parts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the results of the investigations of influence of the amorphous polystyrene (PSprocessing on the diversity of the internal stresses observed in the injection moulded piece.Design/methodology/approach: For the tests, the standardized mould piece designed for the investigations ofthe processing shrinkage of thermoplastics materials has been used. The samples have been prepared using theDesign of Experiment (DoE theory.The state of internal stresses has been analysed by means of photoelastic method (used stress viewer equipmenton the basis of the layout and size of the isochromatics (fields with the same colour, which determine the mouldpiece’s areas where the same value for the difference of main tensions. In the article the results of investigationsof influence of 5 chosen processing parameters such as injection temperature Tw, mould temperature Tf,clamping pressure pd, cooling time tch and the injection speed vw on the changes in isochromatics layout as adeterminant for diversity of internal stresses in injection moulded pieces have been presented.Findings: The performed investigations of the influence of injection conditions on the state of internal stressesreached for injection mould pieces were to determine the parameters of injection at which the achieved state ofthe stresses in the mould piece (described by the difference of main tensions will show the lowest values.Practical implications: Effects of examinations of influence of processing conditions on residual stress ininjection molded parts (presented in the article could find practical application in polymer industry, both smalland large enterprises.Originality/value: New approach to fast estimation of value of residual stresses were present in the paper.

P. Postawa

2006-08-01

53

Fast prototyping of injection molded polymer microfluidic chips  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present fast prototyping of injection molding tools by the definition of microfluidic structures in a light-curable epoxy (SU-8) directly on planar nickel mold inserts. Optimized prototype mold structures could withstand injection molding of more than 300 replicas in cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) without any signs of failure or release. The key parameters to avoid mold failure are maximum adhesion strength of the epoxy to the nickel insert and minimum interfacial energy of the epoxy pattern to the molded polymer. Optimal molding of microstructures with vertical sidewalls was found for nickel inserts pre-coated by silicon oxide before applying the structured epoxy, followed by coating of the epoxy by a fluorocarbon layer prior to injection molding. Further improvements in the mold stability were observed after homogeneous coating of the patterned epoxy by a second reflowed layer of epoxy, likely due to the resulting reduction in sidewall steepness. We employed the latter method for injection molding bondable polymer microfluidic chips with integrated conducting polymer electrode arrays that permitted the culture and on-chip analysis of cell spreading by impedance spectroscopy.

Hansen, Thomas Steen; Larsen, Niels Bent

2010-01-01

54

Injection molded dielectromagnets prepared from mixture of hard magnetic powders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dielectromagnets are permanent magnets prepared from a hard magnetic powder bonded by binder. These permanent magnets are termed also as bonded permanent magnets. There are two ways to prepare dielectromagnets: compression molding and injection molding. Dielectromagnets prepared by injection molding, from the same hard magnetic powders, have worse magnetic properties than dielectromagnets prepared by compression molding, but they are cheaper. Isotropic dielectromagnets prepared from ferrite powder have low value of magnetic properties, but their advantage is positive value of temperature coefficient of JHc. They are low in price. Dielectromagnets prepared from melt-spun Nd-Fe-B have high values of magnetic properties.Value of temperature coefficient of JHc is their weakness. They are more expensive than ferrite dielectromagnets. Comparison of advantages and disadvantages of dielectromagnets prepared from different kinds of hard magnetic powder has produced an idea of making dielectromagnets from the mixture of these powders prepared by compression molding have magnetic and thermal properties of values between values of dielectromagnets from Nd-Fe-B and ferrite powders. It was described elsewhere. The purpose of this investigation is to prepare injection molded dielectromagnets from mixture of powders of strontium ferrite and melt-spun ribbon Nd-Fe-B and to find correlation between the composition of the mixture and magnetic e composition of the mixture and magnetic properties of dielectromagnets. A result of mixture composition on magnetic properties of injection molded dielectromagnets is shown. (author)

55

Packing parameters effect on injection molding of polypropylene nanostructured surfaces  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In today´s industry, applications involving surface patterning of sub-?m to nanometer scale structures have shown a high growth potential. To investigate the injection molding capability of replicating sub-?m surface texture on a large scale area, a 30x80 mm2 tool insert with surface structures having a diameter of 500 nm was employed. The tool insert surface was produced using chemical-based-batch techniques such aluminum anodization and nickel electroplating. During the injection molding process, polypropylene (PP) was employed as material and packing phase parameters (packing time, packing pressure) were investigated. The replicated surface topographies were quantitatively characterized by atomic force microscopy using specific three-dimensional surface parameters and qualitatively inspected by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the degree of replication from the tool to the polymer part was mainly influenced by packing pressure level and distance from the gate.

Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido

2012-01-01

56

Microcellular injection-molding of polylactide with chain-extender  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of adding an epoxy-based chain-extender (CE) on the properties of injection-molded solid and microcellular polylactide (PLA) were studied. PLA and PLA with 8 wt.% CE (PLA-CE) were melt-compounded using a twin-screw extruder. Solid and microcellular specimens were produced via a conventional and microcellular injection-molding process, respectively. Various characterization techniques including gel permeation chromatography, tensile testing and dynamic mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were applied to study the molecular weight, static and dynamic mechanical properties, cell morphology, and crystallization behavior, respectively. The addition of CE enhanced the molecular weight but decreased the crystallinity of PLA. The addition of CE also reduced the cell size and increased the cell density. Furthermore, the decomposition temperatures and several tensile properties, including specific strength, specific toughness, and strain-at-break of both solid and microcellular PLA specimens, increased with the addition of CE.

Pilla, Srikanth [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee (United States); Kramschuster, Adam [Polymer Engineering Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States); Yang Liqiang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee (United States); Lee, Junghoo [Polymer Engineering Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States); Gong Shaoqin, E-mail: sgong@uwm.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee (United States); Department of Materials, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee (United States); Turng, Lih-Sheng, E-mail: turng@engr.wisc.edu [Polymer Engineering Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

2009-05-05

57

Microcellular injection-molding of polylactide with chain-extender  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of adding an epoxy-based chain-extender (CE) on the properties of injection-molded solid and microcellular polylactide (PLA) were studied. PLA and PLA with 8 wt.% CE (PLA-CE) were melt-compounded using a twin-screw extruder. Solid and microcellular specimens were produced via a conventional and microcellular injection-molding process, respectively. Various characterization techniques including gel permeation chromatography, tensile testing and dynamic mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were applied to study the molecular weight, static and dynamic mechanical properties, cell morphology, and crystallization behavior, respectively. The addition of CE enhanced the molecular weight but decreased the crystallinity of PLA. The addition of CE also reduced the cell size and increased the cell density. Furthermore, the decomposition temperatures and several tensile properties, including specific strength, specific toughness, and strain-at-break of both solid and microcellular PLA specimens, increased with the addition of CE.

58

Injection molding of coarse 316L stainless steel powder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metal injection molding (MIM) process using 316L stainless steel powder of 45 ?m was investigated. The binder system consists of a major fraction of palm stearins and minor fraction of polyethylene with a powder loading of 65 vol. %. The rheological behaviour of the feedstock was determined using Capillary Rheometer. The feedstock then injected using vertical injection molding machine into the tensile test bar. Then molded parts were de bound and sintered in vacuum at temperature of 1360 degree Celsius. The results show that the viscosity of the feedstock decreased with the temperature increased. The best sintered density achieved was about 7.5 g/cm3 with the tensile strength of more than 460 MPa. The properties of the sintered specimens could be increased with the increasing of sintering temperature. (author)

59

Preparation and Characterization of Copper Feedstock for Metal Injection Molding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Powder loading is one of the most critical factors which have important influence on metal injection molding processes. In this study, four different loading feedstocks were prepared from gas atomized copper powder with wax-based binders. Mixes of four feedstocks with 2 Vol. % incremental powders loading from 55% to 61 Vol. % were carried out in a Z-blade mixer. The injection molding was carried out at low pressure. A combination of solvent and thermal debinding was used for binder removal from the samples and then the sintering process take place in argon gas at 900°C. It was observed that the feedstock containing 59 Vol. % of copper produce a free defect samples which was selected as the optimum feedstock.

Mohd. Afian Omar

2010-01-01

60

Pressureless sintering behavior of injection molded alumina ceramics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pressureless sintering behaviors of two widely used submicron alumina (MgOdoped and undoped with different solid loadings produced by injection molding have been studied systematically. Regardless of the sinterability of different powders depending on their inherent properties, solid loading plays a critical role on the sintering behavior of injection molded alumina, which greatly determines the densification and grain size, and leads to its full densification at low temperatures. As compared to the MgO-doped alumina powder, the undoped specimens exhibit a higher sinterability for its smaller particle size and larger surface area. While full densification could be achieved for MgO-doped powders with only a lower solid loading, due to the fact that MgO addition can reduce the detrimental effect of the large pore space on the pore-boundary separation.

Liu W.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Injection molding of M2 high speed steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this work is to study the feasibility of Powder Injection Molding in order to obtain M2 High Speed Steels with higher performances than those obtained by conventional P/M. With this object trials have been carried out in order to optimize all the process steps (mixing,injection, debinding and sintering) and to evaluate the mechanical properties (hardness and transverse tensile strength) of the manufactured M2 HSS sample. (Author) 11 refs

62

Finite Element Analysis of Reciprocating Screw for Injection Molding Machine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with, the solution of problem occurred for reciprocating screw of Injection molding machine. It identifies and solves the problem by using the modeling and simulation techniques. The problem occurred in the reciprocating screw of machine which was wearing of threads due to affect of temperature of mold materials(flow materials) i.e. Nylon, low density polypropylene, polystyrene, PVC etc., The main work was to model the components of machine with dimensions, assemble those com...

Nagrale, Nagsen B.; Baxi, Dr R. N.

2011-01-01

63

Injection molding of high aspect ratio sub-100 nm nanostructures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We have explored the use of mold coatings and optimized processing conditions to injection mold high aspect ratio nanostructures (height-to-width >1) in cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). Optimizing the molding parameters on uncoated nickel molds resulted in slight improvements in replication quality as described by height, width and uniformity of the nanoscopic features. Use of a mold temperature transiently above the polymer glass transition temperature (Tg) was the most important factor in increasing the replication fidelity. Surface coating of the nickel molds with a fluorocarbon-containing thin film (FDTS) greatly enhanced the quality of replicated features, in particular at transient mold temperatures above Tg. Injection molding using the latter mold temperature regime resulted in a bimodal distribution of pillar heights, corresponding to either full or very poor replication of the individual pillars. The poorly replicated structures on nickel molds with or without FDTS coatings all appeared fractured. We investigated the underlying mechanism in a macroscopic model system and found reduced wetting and strongly decreased adhesion of solidified COC droplets on nickel surfaces after coating with FDTS. Reduced adhesion forces are consistent with lowered friction that reduces the risk of fracturing the nanoscopic pillars during demolding. Optimized mold surface chemistry and associated injection molding conditions permitted the fabrication of square arrays of 40 nm wide and 107 nm high (aspect ratio >2.5) pillars on a 200 nm pitch.

Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels B

2013-01-01

64

A Recurrent Neural Network for Warpage Prediction in Injection Molding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Injection molding is classified as one of the most flexible and economical manufacturing processes with high volumeof plastic molded parts. Causes of variations in the process are related to the vast number of factors acting during aregular production run, which directly impacts the quality of final products. A common quality trouble in finishedproducts is the presence of warpage. Thus, this study aimed to design a system based on recurrent neural networksto predict warpage defects in products manufactured through injection molding. Five process parameters areemployed for being considered to be critical and have a great impact on the warpage of plastic components. Thisstudy used the finite element analysis software Moldflow to simulate the injection molding process to collect data inorder to train and test the recurrent neural network. Recurrent neural networks were used to understand the dynamicsof the process and due to their memorization ability, warpage values might be predicted accurately. Results show thedesigned network works well in prediction tasks, overcoming those predictions generated by feedforward neuralnetworks.

A. Alvarado-Iniesta

2012-11-01

65

Stability of FDTS monolayer coating on aluminum injection molding tools  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We present novel and highly useful results on FDTS monolayer coating of aluminum. ? The coating is particularly applicable for coating of prototyping injection molding tools, which often are made of Al. ? We have demonstrated that the coating prevails in injection molding conditions and that the coating will prevent wear of the tools. - Abstract: We have characterized perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) molecular coating of aluminum molds for polymer replication via injection molding (IM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data, sessile drop contact angles with multiple fluids, surface energies and roughness data have been collected. Samples have been characterized immediately after coating, after more than 500 IM cycles to test durability, and after 7 months to test temporal stability. The coating was deposited in an affordable process, involving near room temperature gas phase reactions. XPS shows detectable fluorine presence on both freshly coated samples as well as on post-IM samples with estimated 30 at.% on freshly coated and 28 at.% on post-IM samples with more than 500 IM cycles with polystyrene (PS) and ABS polymer.

66

Ion channel recordings on an injection-molded polymer chip  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we demonstrate recordings of the ion channel activity across the cell membrane in a biological cell by employing the so-called patch clamping technique on an injection-molded polymer microfluidic device. The findings will allow direct recordings of ion channel activity to be made using the cheapest materials and production platform to date and with the potential for very high throughput. The employment of cornered apertures for cell capture allowed the fabrication of devices without through holes and via a scheme comprising master origination by dry etching in a silicon substrate, electroplating in nickel and injection molding of the final part. The most critical device parameters were identified as the length of the patching capillary and the very low surface roughness on the inside of the capillary. The cross-sectional shape of the orifice was found to be less critical, as both rectangular and semicircular profiles seemed to have almost the same ability to form tight seals with cells with negligible leak currents. The devices were functionally tested using human embryonic kidney cells expressing voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav1.7) and benchmarked against a commercial state-of-the-art system for automated ion channel recordings. These experiments considered current–voltage (IV) relationships for activation and inactivation of the Nav1.7 channels and their sensitivity to a local anesthetic, lidocaine. Both IVs and lidocaine dose–response curves obtained from the injection-molded polymer device were in good agreement with data obtained from the commercial system.

Tanzi, Simone; Matteucci, Marco

2013-01-01

67

Residual orientation in micro-injection molded parts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The residual orientation following micro-injection molding of small rectangular plates with linear polyethylene has been examined using small-angle neutron scattering, and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. The effect of changing the molding conditions has been examined, and the residual chain orientation has been compared to the residual orientation of the crystallites as a function of position in the sample. This study has found that, for micromoldings, the orientation of the crystallites decreases with increasing injection speed and increasing mold thickness. The combined data suggest that the majority of the orientation present comes from oriented crystal growth rather than residual chain orientation.

68

Bubble growth in mold cavities during microcellular injection molding processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bubble nucleation and growth are the key steps in polymer foam generation processes. The mechanical properties of foam polymers are closely related to the size of the bubbles created inside the material, and most existing analysis methods use a constant viscosity and surface tension to predict the size of the bubbles. Under actual situations, however, when the polymer contains gases, changes occur in the viscosity and surface tension that cause discrepancies between the estimated and observed bubble sizes. Therefore, we developed a theoretical framework to improve our bubble growth rate and size predictions, and experimentally verified our theoretical results using an injection molding machine modified to make microcellular foam products

69

Residual orientation in micro-injection molded parts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The residual orientation following micro-injection molding of small rectangular plates with linear polyethylene has been examined using small-angle neutron scattering, and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. The effect of changing the molding conditions has been examined, and the residual chain orientation has been compared to the residual orientation of the crystallites as a function of position in the sample. This study has found that, for micromoldings, the orientation of the crystallites decreases with increasing injection speed and increasing mold thickness. The combined data suggest that the majority of the orientation present comes from oriented crystal growth rather than residual chain orientation.

Healy, John; Edward, Graham H.; Knott, Robert B. (Monash); (ANSTO)

2008-06-30

70

Processing and rheology in thermoplastic and thermoplastic composites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polymer process design methodologies using design of experiments and simple empirical relationships between important process parameters and process performance criteria were developed. Thermoplastic pultrusion, single screw extrusion, and injection molding were studied to illustrate the application of the developed methodologies. The three processes considered represent different shear rate regimes. ^ A model based on the power law viscosity-shear rate relationship was developed to predict...

Borgaonkar, Harshad M.

1998-01-01

71

Injection molding tools with micro/nano-meter pattern  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present invention relates to methods for embedded a micrometer and/or nanometer pattern into an injection molding tool. In a first main aspect, a micro/nanometer structured imprinting device is applied in, or on, an active surface so as to transfer the micro/nanometer patterned structure to the tool while the imprinting device is, at least partly, within a cavity of the injection molding tool. In a second main aspect, a base plate with a micro/nanometer structured pattern positioned on an upper part is positioned on the active surface within the tool, the lower part of the base plate facing the tool, the active surface receiving the base plate being non-planar on a macroscopic scale. Both aspects enable a simple and effective way of transferring the pattern, and the pattern may be transferred on the active working site of tool immediately prior to molding without the need for extensive preparations or remounting of the tool before performing the molding process.

Kristensen, Anders Technical University of Denmark,

72

On the Injection Molding of Nanostructured Polymer Surfaces  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Well-defined nano-topographies were prepared by electron-beam lithography and electroplated to form nickelshims. The surface pattern consisted of square pillars repeated equidistantly within the plane of the surface in a perpendicular arrangement. The width and distance between the squares both ranged from 310 to 3100 rim. All the pillars were 220 nm high. The nickel-shim was used as a surface-template during injection molding of polycarbonate. Secondly, a nickel shim, with a surface pattern consisted of a squared sine with a period of 700 nm and amplitude of 450 nm, was mounted on, and it was in good thermal contact with the upper plate in a hot-press. Polycarbonate/polystyrene was melted on the lower plate while the temperature of the shim was kept below the glass transition temperature. The upper plate was lowered until the shim was in contact with the melt. Experiments were carried out with a clean shim and a shim coated with a monolayer of fluorocarbonsilane. As a result of the surface coating, the amplitude of the replicated grating decreased from about 350 nm in polycarbonate and 100 nm in polystyrene to less than 10 nm. The experiments strongly suggest that the possibility to injection mold sub-micrometer surface structures in polymers mainly relates to adhesive energy between polymer and shim.

Pranov, Henrik; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

2006-01-01

73

Stability of FDTS monolayer coating on aluminum injection molding tools  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The injection molding industry often employs prototype molds and mold inserts from melt spun (rapid solidification processing [1,2]) aluminum, especially for applications in optics [3,4], photonics [5] and microfludics. Prototypes are also used for verification of mold filling. The use of aluminum tools has reduced lead time (days instead of weeks) and manufacturing cost (30% of conventional mold). Moreover, for aluminum, a surface roughness (RMS) below 5 nm can be obtained with diamond machining [3,4,6]. Conventional mold coatings add cost and complexity, and coatings with thicknesses of a few microns can obliterate small features. The nanoimprint lithography community extensively uses functional monolayer coatings on silicon/SiO2 lithographic stamps [7–11]. This treatment dramatically reduces stiction, and improves yield and quality of replicated nanostructures. Here we report on a fluorinated trichloro-silane based coating deposited on aluminum or its alloys by molecular vapor deposition. Wehave tested the stability of this coating in challenging conditions of injection molding, an environment with high shear stress from the molten polymer, pressures up to 200 MPa, temperatures up to 250 ?C, and rapid thermal cycling.

Cech, Jiri; Taboryski, Rafael J.

2012-01-01

74

Investigation of Properties of Powder Injection-Molded Steatites  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the mechanical and micro-structural properties of injection-molded steatites were investigated experimentally. Initially, steatite powders and binders of polyethylene glycol (PEG), polypropylene (PP), and stearic aside (SA) were mixed to prepare the feedstock. The mixing powders were granulated using the extruder. The short granules in cylindrical shapes were used as the feedstock in the injection-molding operations. Solvent- and thermal-debinding processes were applied to the green samples after the molding. The samples were sintered at 1300 °C for 4 h, and a theoretical density of 98-99% was achieved. Three-point bending and tensile tests were performed on the samples which were sintered at 1200-1300 °C. The maximum three-point bending and tensile strength values were found as 154 and 47 MPa, respectively. The morphology of fractured surface was done by scanning electron microscopy whereas porosity investigations were carried out using the same microscopy. Grain growth and structure on the specimens were also investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

Urtekin, L.; Uslan, I.; Tuc, B.

2012-03-01

75

A wide variety of injection molding technologies is now applicable to small series and mass production  

Science.gov (United States)

Micro plastic parts open new fields for application, e. g., to electronics, sensor technologies, optics, and medical engineering. Before micro parts can go to mass production, there is a strong need of having the possibility for testing different designs and materials including material combinations. Hence, flexible individual technical and technological solutions for processing are necessary. To manufacture high quality micro parts, a micro injection moulding machine named formicaPlast based on a two-step plunger injection technology was developed. Resulting from its design, the residence time and the accuracy problems for managing small shot volumes with reproducible high accuracy are uncompromisingly solved. Due to their simple geometry possessing smooth transitions and non adherent inner surfaces, the plunger units allow to process "all" thermoplastics from polyolefines to high performance polymers, optical clear polymers, thermally sensitive bioresorbables, highly filled systems (the so-called powder injection molding PIM), and liquid silicon rubber (LSR, here with a special kit). The applied platform strategy in the 1K and 2K version allows integrating automation for assembling, handling and packaging. A perpendicular arrangement allows encapsulation of inserts, also partially, and integration of this machine into process chains. Considering a wide variety of different parts consisting of different materials, the high potential of the technology is demonstrated. Based on challenging industrial parts from electronic applications (2K micro MID and bump mat, where both are highly structured parts), the technological solutions are presented in more detail.

Bloß, P.; Jüttner, G.; Jacob, S.; Löser, C.; Michaelis, J.; Krajewsky, P.

2014-05-01

76

A wide variety of injection molding technologies is now applicable to small series and mass production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Micro plastic parts open new fields for application, e. g., to electronics, sensor technologies, optics, and medical engineering. Before micro parts can go to mass production, there is a strong need of having the possibility for testing different designs and materials including material combinations. Hence, flexible individual technical and technological solutions for processing are necessary. To manufacture high quality micro parts, a micro injection moulding machine named formicaPlast based on a two-step plunger injection technology was developed. Resulting from its design, the residence time and the accuracy problems for managing small shot volumes with reproducible high accuracy are uncompromisingly solved. Due to their simple geometry possessing smooth transitions and non adherent inner surfaces, the plunger units allow to process 'all' thermoplastics from polyolefines to high performance polymers, optical clear polymers, thermally sensitive bioresorbables, highly filled systems (the so-called powder injection molding PIM), and liquid silicon rubber (LSR, here with a special kit). The applied platform strategy in the 1K and 2K version allows integrating automation for assembling, handling and packaging. A perpendicular arrangement allows encapsulation of inserts, also partially, and integration of this machine into process chains. Considering a wide variety of different parts consisting of different materials, the high potential of the technology is demonstrated. Based on challenging industrial parts from electronic applications (2K micro MID and bump mat, where both are highly structured parts), the technological solutions are presented in more detail

77

A wide variety of injection molding technologies is now applicable to small series and mass production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Micro plastic parts open new fields for application, e. g., to electronics, sensor technologies, optics, and medical engineering. Before micro parts can go to mass production, there is a strong need of having the possibility for testing different designs and materials including material combinations. Hence, flexible individual technical and technological solutions for processing are necessary. To manufacture high quality micro parts, a micro injection moulding machine named formicaPlast based on a two-step plunger injection technology was developed. Resulting from its design, the residence time and the accuracy problems for managing small shot volumes with reproducible high accuracy are uncompromisingly solved. Due to their simple geometry possessing smooth transitions and non adherent inner surfaces, the plunger units allow to process 'all' thermoplastics from polyolefines to high performance polymers, optical clear polymers, thermally sensitive bioresorbables, highly filled systems (the so-called powder injection molding PIM), and liquid silicon rubber (LSR, here with a special kit). The applied platform strategy in the 1K and 2K version allows integrating automation for assembling, handling and packaging. A perpendicular arrangement allows encapsulation of inserts, also partially, and integration of this machine into process chains. Considering a wide variety of different parts consisting of different materials, the high potential of the technology is demonstrated. Based on challenging industrial parts from electronic applications (2K micro MID and bump mat, where both are highly structured parts), the technological solutions are presented in more detail.

Bloß, P., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Jüttner, G., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Jacob, S., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Löser, C., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Michaelis, J., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Krajewsky, P., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de [Kunststoff-Zentrum in Leipzig gGmbH (KuZ), Leipzig (Germany)

2014-05-15

78

A Recurrent Neural Network for Warpage Prediction in Injection Molding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish La inyección de plásticos se considera como uno de los procesos de manufactura más flexibles y económicos con un gran volumen de producción de piezas de plástico. Las causas de variación durante la inyección de plásticos se relacionan con el amplio número de factores que intervienen durante un ciclo [...] de producción regular, tales variaciones impactan la calidad del producto final. Un problema común de calidad en productos terminados es la presencia de deformaciones. Así, este estudio tuvo como objetivo diseñar un sistema basado en redes neuronales recurrentes para predecir defectos de deformación en productos fabricados por medio de inyección de plásticos. Se emplean cinco parámetros del proceso por ser considerados críticos y que tienen un gran impacto en la deformación de componentes plásticos. El presente estudio hizo uso del software de análisis finito llamado Moldflow para simular el proceso de inyección de plásticos para recolectar datos con el fin de entrenar y probar la red neuronal recurrente. Redes neuronales recurrentes fueron utilizadas para entender la dinámica del proceso y debido a su capacidad de memorización, los valores de deformación pudieron ser predichos con exactitud. Los resultados muestran que la red diseñada funciona bien en términos de predicción, superando aquellas predicciones generadas por redes de propagación hacia adelante. Abstract in english Injection molding is classified as one of the most flexible and economical manufacturing processes with high volume of plastic molded parts. Causes of variations in the process are related to the vast number of factors acting during a regular production run, which directly impacts the quality of fin [...] al products. A common quality trouble in finished products is the presence of warpage. Thus, this study aimed to design a system based on recurrent neural networks to predict warpage defects in products manufactured through injection molding. Five process parameters are employed for being considered to be critical and have a great impact on the warpage of plastic components. This study used the finite element analysis software Moldflow to simulate the injection molding process to collect data in order to train and test the recurrent neural network. Recurrent neural networks were used to understand the dynamics of the process and due to their memorization ability, warpage values might be predicted accurately. Results show the designed network works well in prediction tasks, overcoming those predictions generated by feedforward neural networks.

A., Alvarado-Iniesta; D.J., Valles-Rosales; J.L., García-Alcaraz; A., Maldonado-Macias.

79

A Recurrent Neural Network for Warpage Prediction in Injection Molding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish La inyección de plásticos se considera como uno de los procesos de manufactura más flexibles y económicos con un gran volumen de producción de piezas de plástico. Las causas de variación durante la inyección de plásticos se relacionan con el amplio número de factores que intervienen durante un ciclo [...] de producción regular, tales variaciones impactan la calidad del producto final. Un problema común de calidad en productos terminados es la presencia de deformaciones. Así, este estudio tuvo como objetivo diseñar un sistema basado en redes neuronales recurrentes para predecir defectos de deformación en productos fabricados por medio de inyección de plásticos. Se emplean cinco parámetros del proceso por ser considerados críticos y que tienen un gran impacto en la deformación de componentes plásticos. El presente estudio hizo uso del software de análisis finito llamado Moldflow para simular el proceso de inyección de plásticos para recolectar datos con el fin de entrenar y probar la red neuronal recurrente. Redes neuronales recurrentes fueron utilizadas para entender la dinámica del proceso y debido a su capacidad de memorización, los valores de deformación pudieron ser predichos con exactitud. Los resultados muestran que la red diseñada funciona bien en términos de predicción, superando aquellas predicciones generadas por redes de propagación hacia adelante. Abstract in english Injection molding is classified as one of the most flexible and economical manufacturing processes with high volume of plastic molded parts. Causes of variations in the process are related to the vast number of factors acting during a regular production run, which directly impacts the quality of fin [...] al products. A common quality trouble in finished products is the presence of warpage. Thus, this study aimed to design a system based on recurrent neural networks to predict warpage defects in products manufactured through injection molding. Five process parameters are employed for being considered to be critical and have a great impact on the warpage of plastic components. This study used the finite element analysis software Moldflow to simulate the injection molding process to collect data in order to train and test the recurrent neural network. Recurrent neural networks were used to understand the dynamics of the process and due to their memorization ability, warpage values might be predicted accurately. Results show the designed network works well in prediction tasks, overcoming those predictions generated by feedforward neural networks.

A., Alvarado-Iniesta; D.J., Valles-Rosales; J.L., García-Alcaraz; A., Maldonado-Macias.

2012-12-01

80

Finite Element Analysis of Reciprocating Screw for Injection Molding Machine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with, the solution of problem occurred for reciprocating screw of Injection molding machine. It identifies and solves the problem by using the modeling and simulation techniques. The problem occurred in the reciprocating screw of machine which was wearing of threads due to affect of temperature of mold materials(flow materials i.e. Nylon, low density polypropylene, polystyrene, PVC etc., The main work was to model the components of machine with dimensions, assemble those components and then simulate the whole assembly for rotation of the screw. The modeling software used is PRO-E wildfire 4.0 for modeling the machine components like body, movable platen, fixed platen, barrel, screw, nozzle, etc. The analysis software ANSYS is used to analyze the reciprocating screws. The objectives involved are:- • To model all the components using modeling software Pro-E 4.0 • To assemble all the components of the machine in the software. • To make the assembly run in Pro-E software.• Analysis of screw of machine using Ansys 11.0 software. • To identify the wearing of threads and to provide the possible solutions.This problem is major for all industrial injection molding machines which the industries are facing and they need the permanent solution, so if the better solution is achieved then the industries will think for implementing it. The industries are having temporary solution but it will affect the life of the screw, because the stresses will be more in machined screw on lathe machine as compared to normal screw. Also if the screw will fail after some years of operation, the new screw available in the market will have the same problem. Also the cost associated with new screw and its mounting is much more as it is the main component of machine.

Nagsen B. Nagrale

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Characterization of polymeric binders for Metal Injection Molding (MIM) process  

Science.gov (United States)

The Metal Injection Molding (MIM) process is an economically attractive method of producing large amounts of small and complex metallic parts. This is achieved by combining the productivity of injection molding with the versatility of sintering of metal particulates. In MIM, the powdered metal is blended with a plastic binder to obtain the feedstock. The binder imparts flowability to the blend at injection molding conditions and strength at ambient conditions. After molding, the binder is removed in a sequence of steps that usually involves solvent-extraction and polymer burn-out. Once the binder is removed, the metal particles are sintered. In this research several topics of the MIM process were studied to understand how the polymeric binder, similar to the one used in the sponsoring company, works. This was done by examining the compounding and water debinding processes, the rheological and thermal properties, and the microstructure of the binder/metal composite at different processing stages. The factors studied included the metal contents, the composition of the binder and the processing conditions. The three binders prepared during the course of this research were blends of a polyolefin, polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM) and a water-soluble polymer (WSP). The polyolefin resins included polypropylene (PP), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE). The powdered metal in the feedstocks was 316 L stainless steel. The compounding studies were completed in an internal mixer under different conditions of temperature, rotational speed and feedstock composition. It was found that the metal concentration was the most important factor in determining the torque evolution curves. The observation of microstructure with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at different stages during compounding revealed that the metal particles neither agglomerate nor touch each other. The liquid extraction of the water-soluble polymer (WSP) from the molded parts (or water debinding) was investigated using two configurations of flow of water relative to the samples. Both permitted the reduction of the mass transfer resistance outside the parts, revealing information on the diffusion of the WSP inside the part exclusively. The debinding studies showed that a single effective diffusivity could be used to model the extraction process of the binder from molded parts. This approach is more accurate when the debinding time is above 2 hours. Steady shear and dynamic experiments were conducted on the binder and feedstocks samples containing LLDPE. The results of both experiments revealed that the feedstocks did not show yield stress even though the highest metal content was 64% by volume. Therefore, it was concluded that there were only hydrodynamic interactions between the metal particles. The thermal characterization of binders, polymers and feedstocks included differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The DSC tests were performed after preheating and quenching of the samples. The heating rate was 20°C/min. The TGA scans were conducted from room temperature to 700°C at 20°C/min. The DSC tests revealed that the melting point of the polymers depressed when blended in the binders and feedstocks. The depression was more intense for POM and the water-soluble polymer than for the polyolefins. Therefore, it was concluded that the melting point depression of POM and the water-soluble polymer was caused by their entrapment in the polyolefin matrix and in between the metal particles. The TGA scans showed that the feedstocks with higher metal concentration had higher final decomposition temperature, but similar onset temperature. The reason was that the higher the metal concentration the more difficult the diffusion of the products of the decomposition of the binder out of the samples. The morphological studies revealed that the binders were heterogeneous showing domains of the polar resins, embedded in a continuous phase composed of polyolefin. This distribution of phases was the result of th

Adames, Juan M.

82

Net shaping of tungsten components by micro powder injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For future fusion power plants, a He-cooled Divertor design has been developed by the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The Divertor as one of the plasma facing components has to withstand high heat loads of 10 MW/m2 as well as sputtering due to ion impact on the surface of the Divertor. Tungsten is considered the most promising material to be used for this application. Because of the high hardness of tungsten, fabrication of these parts by standard shaping technologies for steels such as milling is, depending on the component, either difficult or even impossible. The objective of this work is the adoption of tungsten on powder injection moulding (PIM) as a widely used mass production method for net shaping of micro structured ceramic and metal parts. It is well known that for design accuracy and good surface quality as well as high sinter activity the particle size of powders applied to micro PIM should be as small as possible while the powder content of the feedstock should be as high as possible but at least 50 vol.%. In case of tungsten, industrial available powders are usually highly agglomerated. In order to provide a homogeneous feedstock with a solid load above 50 vol.%, powders applied to PIM have to be deagglomerated. Depending on the grain size, tungsten shows different kinds of agglomeration states. Ultra fine grain sizes below 1 ?m build sponge like agglomerates, while bigger grain sizes result in agglomerates being built of individually grown crystals. It was found that pre-milling of powders with a grain size of 0,7 ?m FSSS has nearly no effect on the resulting viscosity whereas in case of 3 ?m FSSS deagglomeration drastically improves the viscosity and the processability of the feedstock. For further improvement of the feedstock, in this paper grain size dependent variations of the solid load shall be discussed to define an optimised grain size for Micro PIM of tungsten components. For initial PIM experiments, a first feedstock based on a tungsten powder with a grain size of 2,5 ?m FSSS and a solid load of 55 vol.% was developed and a microstructured cavity for a gear housing as well as Slot Arrays with 24 Slots were injection molded. Further on, tensile test bars and charpy-test specimens were replicated to provide mechanical data of tungsten samples being prepared by PIM. By debinding and sintering of injection molded tungsten parts, a density of 96% and a residual carbon content <0,003 wt.% was achieved. (author)

83

Metal Injection Molding (MIM of NdFeB Magnets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the increased and unstable prices for Rare Earth elements there are activities to develop alternative hard magnetic materials. Reducing the amount of material necessary to produce complex sintered NdFeB magnets can also help to reduce some of the supply problem. Metal Injection Molding (MIM is able to produce near net shape parts and can reduce the amount of finishing to achieve final geometry. Although MIM of NdFeB has been patented and published fairly soon after the development of the NdFeB magnets there has never been an industrial production. This could be due to the fact that MIM was very young at that time and hardly developed. Thus, the feasibility of the process needs to be revaluated. This paper presents results of our work on determining the process parameters influencing the magnetic properties of the sintered magnets as well as the shrinkage during processing. The role of binder and powder loading on the alignment of the particles as well as on the carbon and oxygen contamination was examined.

Hartwig T.

2014-07-01

84

Three dimensional modeling of metal powder injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, a three-dimensional transient finite element flow analysis code is used to solve powder injection molding problems. Free surface, non-isothermal flow solutions are obtained by solving the momentum, mass and energy equations. An additional transport equation is solved for the front tracking function indicating the flow front position. The flow of 17-4 stainless steel powder with a water-soluble binder is simulated in a thick three-dimensional part with a diaphragm gate. The compound used is very sensitive to thermal effects because of its high thermal diffusivity and highly sensitive temperature dependence of the viscosity. The simulation predicted several unusual experimentally observed flow patterns: bypass flow (flow external and/or internal to the initial annular flow) and nonuniform flow (nonaxisymmetric flow in a preferred direction through the diaphragm gate). The work considers the effect of filling time, melt/mold temperature, inertia, yield stress, and wall slip on flow patterns, in order to identify the processing conditions that separate regions of uniform and nonuniform flow. (author)

85

Imprinted and injection-molded nano-structured optical surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Inspired by nature, nano-textured surfaces have attracted much attention as a method to realize optical surface functionality. The moth-eye antireflective structure and the structural colors of Morpho butterflies are well- known examples used for inspiration for such biomimetic research. In this paper, nanostructured polymer surfaces suitable for up-scalable polymer replication methods, such as imprinting/embossing and injection-molding, are discussed. The limiting case of injection-moulding compatible designs is investigated. Anti-reflective polymer surfaces are realized by replication of Black Silicon (BSi) random nanostructure surfaces. The optical transmission at normal incidence is measured for wavelengths from 400 nm to 900 nm. For samples with optimized nanostructures, the reflectance is reduced by 50 % compared to samples with planar surfaces. The specular and diffusive reflection of light from polymer surfaces and their implication for creating structural colors is discussed. In the case of injection-moulding compatible designs, the maximum reflection of nano-scale textured surfaces cannot exceed the Fresnel reflection of a corresponding flat polymer surface, which is approx. 4 % for normal incidence. Diffraction gratings provide strong color reflection defined by the diffraction orders. However, the apperance varies strongly with viewing angles. Three different methods to address the strong angular-dependence of diffraction grating based structural color are discussed.

Christiansen, Alexander B.; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Clausen, Jeppe; Caringal, Gideon P.; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

2013-09-01

86

Processing development of Si3N4 components by injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of complex-shaped ceramic components by powder injection molding has been considered as a promising technique by industry. In this study silicon nitride was used as a sample material for demonstrating the possibility of fabricating ceramic components by injection molding. An optimized process for the manufacture of components by injection molding will be presented. The effects of solid content, binder type, solvent and thermal debinding and effects of firing atmosphere will be discussed. Some promising physical and mechanical properties of sintered silicon nitride will be illustrated. Some prototypes will also be demonstrated. The developed technique could be extended for fabricating engine or functional components. (author)

87

Two-component co-injection and transfer molding and gas-assisted injection molding of polymers: Simulation and experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

Two-component molding is a novel process for manufacturing polymer products with a sandwich structure or a hollow structure. Typically, two different materials are injected or transferred into a mold sequentially or simultaneously. The skin is generally a prime polymer with required surface and bulk properties for intended use. The core can be solid, foam or gas. Obtaining a uniform encapsulated structure is difficult and there are no science-based rules for optimization of process setup. Thus, a physical model and process simulations have been developed based on the kinematics and dynamics of a moving interface, and Hele-Shaw approximation. The model has incorporated temperature and shear rate dependences of viscosity of both skin and core component into the transient interface evolution. Based on the developed model, simulations have been carried out to study flow rate controlled simultaneous co-injection molding of thermoplastics, pressure-controlled sequential transfer molding of rubber compounds, and gas-assisted injection molding (GAIM). The simulation results were compared with the experimental data, and in general, good agreement was found between the predicted and experimentally measured interface distribution in moldings. For simultaneous co-injection molding, it is found that material pairs with a broad range of viscosities may be utilized. Breakthrough phenomena are mainly determined by the volume of melt of initial single phase injection and rheological properties of material combinations. When the core has a lower viscosity than the skin, or the volume of initial injection of skin melt is smaller, breakthrough is very likely. However, the breakthrough can be eliminated by controlling injection rate of the skin and core melts. For sequential transfer molding, it is found that the rubber distribution in moldings are dominated by the rheological properties of components and the volume fraction transferred, but independent of the gate pressure. When the core rubber has a lower viscosity than the skin rubber, the core front exhibits more block-shape penetration into the skin rubber. The penetration length of the core into the skin increases with an increase of the volume fraction transferred. For GAIM, it is found that the shot size, injection speed and gas injection delay time have the strongest effect on the gas penetration. A lower injection speed and a longer gas injection delay time lead to a smaller bubble diameter and longer gas penetration. A smaller shot size results in a longer gas penetration, eventually leading to a blow through of the gas.

Li, Chengtao

88

Design of Multimodel based MPC and IMC control schemes applied to injection molding machine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Good control of plastic melt temperature for injection molding is very important in reducing operator setup time, ensuring product quality, and preventing thermal degradation of the melt. The controllability and set points of barrel temperature also depend on the precise monitoring and control of plastic melt temperature. Motivated by the practical temperature control of injection molding, this paper proposes MPC and IMC based control scheme. A robust system identification and control methodology is developed which uses canonical varieties analysis for identification and model predictive control for regulation. The injection molding process consists of three zones and the mathematical model for each of the zone is different. The control output for each zone controller is assigned a weight based on the computed probability of each model and the resulting action is the weighted average of the control moves of the individual zone controllers.   Keywords: Injection-Molding Machine (IMM, IMC Control, Temperature Control.

Kanaga Lakshmi

2014-03-01

89

Development of Defects Free Stainless Steel Parts Using Powder Injection Molding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Austenitic 316L Stainless Steel (SS is widely used in aerospace, automotive, sports and medical industries due to its mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Defects free molding of parts depends upon the features of feedstock. In powder injection molding, feedstock preparation is critical step and any deficiency at this stage cannot be retrieve in latter steps. The objective of this research work is to optimize solid loading for defects free injection molded parts. During the present research work five formulations having solid loading 60-71 vol% were prepared by using multi component binder system. The degradation temperature of feedstocks was determined by using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and flow behavior through rheometer. Homogeneity of the feedstock was verified by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Finally, injection molding was done and it was found that the feedstocks having solid loading up to 69 vol% were successfully injection molded and components were without physical defects.

M.A. Omar

2013-01-01

90

Integrated Numerical Analysis of Induction-Heating-Aided Injection Molding Under Interactive Temperature Boundary Conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, several rapid-mold-heating techniques that can be used for the injection molding of thin-walled parts or micro/nano structures have been developed. High-frequency induction heating, which involves heating by electromagnetic induction, is an efficient method for the rapid heating of mold surfaces. The present study proposes an integrated numerical model of the high-frequency induction heating process and the resulting injection molding process. To take into account the effects of thermal boundary conditions in induction heating, we carry out a fully integrated numerical analysis that combines electromagnetic field calculation, heat transfer analysis, and injection molding simulation. The proposed integrated simulation is extended to the injection molding of a thin-wall part, and the simulation results are compared with the experimental findings. The validity of the proposed simulation is discussed according to the ways of the boundary condition imposition

91

Development of PMMA-precoating metal prostheses via injection molding: residual stresses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Injection molding polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was developed as a potential metal prosthesis precoating method for surgical implantation. However, residual stresses generated in the injection-molded PMMA affect the mechanical performance of the coating polymer. This study used plane polariscope testing to demonstrate the residual stress distribution in the injection-molded polymer. Slitting and strain gages were combined with finite element analysis to give a quantitative measure of the residual stresses. The residual stress testing indicated that the highest circumferential residual stress in the injection-molded PMMA was approximately 5 MPa in tension. Two methods, water soaking and slitting, were developed for reducing residual stresses. A series of four surgical implantation simulation processes were designed. The two methods for reducing residual stress were used in the simulations. PMID:11410905

Zhao, W; Barsun, S; Ramani, K; Johnson, T; King, R; Lin, S

2001-01-01

92

Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP) system for polymer injection molds manufacturing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-...

Tepic?, J.; Todic?, V.; Lukic?, D.; Milos?evic?, M.; Borojevic?, S.

2011-01-01

93

RECENT METHODS FOR OPTIMIZATION OF PLASTIC INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS –A RETROSPECTIVE AND LITERATURE REVIEW  

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Full Text Available Injection molding has been a challenging process for many manufacturers and researchers to produce products meeting requirements at the lowest cost. Faced with global competition in injection molding industry, using the trialand- error approach to determine the process parameters for injection molding is no longer good enough. Factors that affect the quality of a molded part can be classified into four categories: part design, mold design, machineperformance and processing conditions. The part and mold design are assumed as established and fixed. During production, quality characteristics may deviate due to drifting or shifting of processing conditions caused by machine wear, environmental change or operator fatigue. Determining optimal process parameter settings critically influences productivity, quality, and cost of production in the plastic injection molding (PIM industry. Previously, production engineers used either trial-and-error method or Taguchi’s parameter design method to determine optimal process parameter settings for PIM. However, these methods are unsuitable in present PIM because of the increasing complexity of product design and the requirement of multi-response quality characteristics. This article aims to review the recent research in designing and determining process parameters of injection molding. A number of research works based on various approaches have been performed in the domain of the parameter setting for injection molding. These approaches, including mathematical models, Taguchi method, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN,Fuzzy logic, Case Based Reasoning (CBR, Genetic Algorithms (GA, Finite Element Method(FEM,Non Linear Modeling, Response Surface Methodology, Linear Regression Analysis ,Grey Rational Analysis and Principle Component Analysis (PCA are described in this article. The strength and theweakness of individual approaches are discussed. It is then followed by conclusions and discussions of the potential research in determining process parameters for injection molding.

P.K. Bharti

2010-09-01

94

Comparative Thermal Analysis of Circular and Profiled Cooling Channels for Injection Mold Tools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Injection Mold Thermal Management is a critical issue in plastic injection molding process and has major effects on production cycle times that is directly linked with cost and also has effects on part quality. For this reason, cooling system design has great significance for plastic products industry by injection molding. It is crucial not only to reduce molding cycle time but also it considerably affects the productivity and quality of the product. The cooling channels in injection molding have circular cross section due to the conventional manufacturing technique of drilling. In Rapid Prototyping and Tooling techniques of fabricating conformal cooling channels, the channel cross section is again circular. In circular channel, there can be a problem that the distance from the edges of channel to the cavity is not constant and it is variable even for conformal channels. This can give problem of not having even heat dissipation. In this study, injection mold designing and thermal simulations were performed and comparison is presented between molds having cooling channels of circular cross section with mold with profiled cross section channels. Thermal analysis and simulations can effectively predict the performance of circular channels as compared to profiled channels. Some concepts are also presented for the manufacturing of molds with circular and profiled channels with the use of metal filled epoxies.

A.M.A. Rani

2011-01-01

95

Experimental and numerical analysis of the temperature distribution of injection molded products using protruding microprobes  

Science.gov (United States)

Injection molding has been one of the most important polymer processing methods for manufacturing plastic parts. In the process, the temperature is an important parameter that influences process features such as cycle times, crystallization rates, degree of crystallinity, melt flow properties, and molded product qualities. This study aims to, experimentally and numerically, examine the three-dimensional temperature distribution along the melt flow path of injection molded parts. A special experimental set-up, which includes an injection mold equipped with protruding microprobes for guiding embedded thermocouples, was designed and built to measure the temperature field along the flow path, i.e., inside the runner and the cavity, of injection molded products. The experimental results suggested that the disturbance induced by the probes remained negligible and precise temperature profiles could be measured at various positions inside the cavity. A significant increase of melt temperature was found to result from the viscous dissipation of the polymeric materials in the runner. Additionally, a commercially available code was employed to simulate and predict the temperature variation in injection molded parts. It was shown that the numerical simulation predicted better the temperature distributions inside the cavity than those along the runner.

Liu, Shih-Jung; Ho, Chia-Wei

2011-05-01

96

Outline of norbornene resin-application to RIM (reaction injection molding); Shinki noborunen jushi no tokusei to RIM seikei eno oyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reaction injection molding (RIM) is the molding system that two kinds of monomers each of which is low viscous and high reactive liquid are mixed and then immediately injected into a mold. Though the RIM has been developed already for urethane, urea resin, nylon, epoxy resin and polyester, this writer explained about the RIM for norbornene resin which has been developed and produced by the firm to which he belongs. Norbornene monomers are cyclopentadiene (CPD) which can be obtained by cracking of naphtha and its dimer, dicyclopentadiene (DCP), and these are possible to form bridging polymer by the ring-opening polymerization with the help of catalyst (WCl6) and its activator (Et2AlCl). The TIM system which is the leading injection molding for thermoplastic resin being suitable for mass production, and on the other hand, the HLU (hand-lay up) system which developed as molding system for large-sized mold goods being handwork-centered system, it can be said that the RIM system is situated in the middle position among these systems from the viewpoint of productivity. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Nakano, M. [Nippon Zeon Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1996-04-01

97

Interpretation for the Pressure and Temperature Signals of Injection Molding Process  

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Full Text Available An apparatus was developed to acquire temperature and pressure data from the injection molding process. There were three collecting points along the flow path which were allocated at the entrance to the nozzle, near the cavity gate and at the cavity end. Values and plots of temperature and pressure signals were interpreted. Firstly, each acquired signal was detailed introduced, and the characteristic points and segments of the signal plot were explained. Furthermore, comparison of process information which was introduced by one single was made among all of the acquired signals. The practical analysis shows that the pressure signal near the cavity gate is the most effective to describe the status of the sample melt during the injection molding process. But it has the significant delay of indicating the beginning of the cavity filling. With the explanation of signals, the injection molding experiments on the self-developed apparatus can be used to study the processing parameters of sample material.

Yugang Huang

2013-04-01

98

Cooling effects study by considering a turbulence model in injection molding  

Science.gov (United States)

Cooling stage is critical in injection molding process. A well designed cooling system can effectively shorten cycle time and improve product quality. Three-dimensional cooling analysis has been embedded in injection molding simulation which provides a useful tool for cooling system design validation. However, the current simulation tool is not perfect yet since it does not consider turbulent flow and pipe surface roughness effect. In the current study, a latest simulation tool was applied which can predict the turbulent flow effect on cooling. Two cooling systems (conventional and conformal) were simulated and compared to each other. Turbulence model and surface roughness effects were also studied. The simulation results show a good agreement with experimental data which is helpful at the design stage of an injection molding cooling system.

Hsu, Fu-Hung; Wu, Bo-Han; Huang, Chao-Tsai; Chang, Rong-Yeu

2014-05-01

99

Micro genetic algorithm based optimal gate positioning in injection molding design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with the optimization of runner system in injection molding design. The design objective is to locate gate positions by minimizing both maximum injection pressure at the injection port and maximum pressure difference among all the gates on a product with constraints on shear stress and/or weld-line. The analysis of filling process is conducted by a finite element based program for polymer flow. Micro genetic algorithm (mGA) is used as a global optimization tool due to the nature of inherent nonlinearlity in flow analysis. Four different design applications in injection molds are explored to examine the proposed design strategies. The paper shows the effectiveness of mGA in the context of optimization of runner system in injection molding design

100

Thermal-Fluid Coupled Analysis for Injection Molding Process by Considering Thermal Contact Resistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Injection molds are generally fabricated by assembling a number of plates in which the core and cavity components are assembled. This assembled structure has a number of contact interfaces where the heat transfer characteristics are affected by thermal contact resistance. In previous studies, numerical approaches were investigated to predict the effect of thermal contact resistance on the temperature distribution of injection molds. In this study, thermal-fluid coupled numerical analyses are performed to take into account the thermal contact effect on the numerical evaluation of the mold filling characteristics. Comparisons with experimental results show that the proposed coupled analysis provides more reliable results than the conventional analyses in predicting the mold filling characteristics by taking into account the effect of thermal contact resistance inside the injection mold assembly

 
 
 
 
101

Effect of injection molding cycle time on surface properties of polypropylene  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with the effect of shortening injection molding cycle time on morphology and properties of the compounded materials of polypropylene (PP), ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and talc. Recently, shear rate and cooling speed in injection molding for automotive parts have been increasing because of higher productivity. Orientation and crystallinity in the skin layer, which were measured by a polarizing optical microscope and wide angle X-ray diffraction, increased when shortening the cycle time. Phenomenon of bleeding out additives was observed for the evaluation of surface properties by ATR-FTIR. For decreasing resin temperature, higher crystallinity restricted diffusion of additives at the same position in the injection molded plaques. But comparing the gate with the flow end, the difference of bleeding in the position was controlled by the other factors.

Kobayashi, Yutaka; Kanai, Toshitaka

102

Injection molded pinched flow fractionation device for enrichment of somatic cells in cow milk  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper the continuous microfluidic separation technique pinched flow fractionation is applied to the enrichment of somatic cells from cow milk. Somatic cells were separated from the smallest fat particles and proteins thus better imaging and analysis of the cells can be achieved. The enrichment was performed using an all-polymer pinched flow fractionation device fabricated by injection molding. The polymer chips were bonded to a 500 lm polymer foil using UV assisted thermal bonding. The quality of the final devices was reproducible and the injection molding process combined with the use of cheap materials ensures the possibility for device mass production

Jensen, Marie PØdenphant; Marie, Rodolphe

2014-01-01

103

Injection molded superhydrophobic surfaces based on microlithography and black silicon processing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This work is concerned with the design, development, and testing of nanostructured polymer surfaces with self-cleaning properties that can be manufactured by injection molding. In particular, the superimposed micro- and nanometer length scales of the so-called Lotus effect were investigated in detail with an engineering perspective on choice of materials and manufacturability by injection molding. Microscope slides with superhydrophobic properties were succesfully fabricated. Preliminary results indicate a contact angle increase from 95° for the unstructured polymer to a maximum 150°. The lowest drop roll off angles observed were in the range 1° to 5°.

SØgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

2012-01-01

104

Evaluation of W-Cu metal matrix composites produced by powder injection molding and liquid infiltration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The near net shape processing of tungsten-copper metal matrix composites by powder injection molding and liquid copper infiltration was studied in this paper. In this technique, powder injection molded bimetallic components were produced. The component was debinded and subsequently heated to an elevated temperature. This facilitated the sintering of the high melting point metal and the liquidation of the lower melting point for infiltration into the preform of the former. Feasibility of this method in the manufacture of tungsten-copper metal matrix composites with high percentage copper, up to 38 wt.%, was demonstrated and mechanical properties were evaluated in this study

105

Parametric study of injection molding and hot embossing in polymer microfabrication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, plastics have begun to show great commercial potential especially in manufacturing micro-structured parts. Injection molding and hot embossing are two major microfabrication methods. Replication accuracy was investigated for these two methods. Polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA) was used as the polymer substrate. The mold insert (or master) was fabricated by LIGA-type method. In this study, hot embossing was found to have better replication accuracy for microstructure than injection molding. Experiments were also conducted to study the effects of process parameters on the replication quality

106

Development of Metal Plate with Internal Structure Utilizing the Metal Injection Molding (MIM Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we focus on making a double-sided metal plate with an internal structure, such as honeycomb. The stainless steel powder was used in the metal injection molding (MIM process. The preliminary studies were carried out for the measurement of the viscosity of the stainless steel feedstock and for the prediction of the filling behavior through Computer Aided Engineering (CAE simulation. PE (high density polyethylene (HDPE and low density polyethylene (LDPE and polypropylene (PP resins were used to make the sacrificed insert with a honeycomb structure using a plastic injection molding process. Additionally, these sacrificed insert parts were inserted in the metal injection mold, and the metal injection molding process was carried out to build a green part with rectangular shape. Subsequently, debinding and sintering processes were adopted to remove the sacrificed polymer insert. The insert had a suitable rigidity that was able to endure the filling pressure. The core shift analysis was conducted to predict the deformation of the insert part. The 17-4PH feedstock with a low melting temperature was applied. The glass transition temperature of the sacrificed polymer insert would be of a high grade, and this insert should be maintained during the MIM process. Through these processes, a square metal plate with a honeycomb structure was made.

Kwangho Shin

2013-12-01

107

Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Copper Matrix Nanocomposites via Metal Injection Molding Technique  

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Full Text Available New thermal management solutions are required to provide cost-effective means of dissipating heat from next generation microelectronic devices. In this paper, fabrication of heat sink nanocomposite made of copper reinforced by multiwalled carbon nanotubes up to 10 Vol. % using metal injection molding technique is presented. A mixture of Cu-MWNTs was compounded using internal mixer machine for homogenous dispersion of the solid powder in the binder. To ensure a flow able feedstock during injection molding process, different binder systems and their Cu-MWNTs feedstocks were examined using capillary rheometer machine. In order to avoid binder degradation, TGA test was carried out. The TGA results showed that the processing temperature such as mixing and injection molding should be lower than 170°C. The injection molding was carried out at low pressure. A combination of solvent and thermal debinding was used for binder removal, and then the samples were isothermally sintered at different sintering temperatures (900-1050°C in argon atmosphere. The results showed that the sintered samples experienced an isotropic shrinkage around 17% with relatively homogeneous dispersion of MWNTs in the copper matrix which is expected to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of the final product.

Norani M. Mohamed

2012-01-01

108

Injection molding of Y-TZP powders prepared by colloidal processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

TZP powders containing 3mol% Y2O3 were prepared from ZrOCl2 solution via an aqueous colloidal suspension of ZrO2. Processing variables were optimized to obtain powders suitable for injection molding. Wettability of powders with binders, fluidity of melting compound, removal of binder from green body, and properties of sintered body were investigated

109

Two component tungsten powder injection molding - An effective mass production process  

Science.gov (United States)

Tungsten and tungsten-alloys are presently considered to be the most promising materials for plasma facing components for future fusion power plants. The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) divertor design concept for the future DEMO power plant is based on modular He-cooled finger units and the development of suitable mass production methods for such parts was needed. A time and cost effective near-net-shape forming process with the advantage of shape complexity, material utilization and high final density is Powder Injection Molding (PIM). This process allows also the joining of two different materials e.g. tungsten with a doped tungsten alloy, without brazing. The complete technological process of 2-Component powder injection molding for tungsten materials and its application on producing real DEMO divertor parts, characterization results of the finished parts e.g. microstructure, hardness, density and joining zone quality are discussed in this contribution.

Antusch, Steffen; Commin, Lorelei; Mueller, Marcus; Piotter, Volker; Weingaertner, Tobias

2014-04-01

110

Numerical modeling of magnetic induction and heating in injection molding tools  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Injection molding of parts with special requirements or features such as micro- or nanostructures on the surface, a good surface finish, or long and thin features results in the need of a specialized technique to ensure proper filling and acceptable cycle time. The aim of this study is to increase the temperatures as close as possible to the cavity surface, by means of an integrated induction heating system in the injection molding tool, to improve the fluidity of the polymer melt hereby ensuring that the polymer melt will continue to flow until the mold cavity is completely filled. The presented work uses numerical modeling of the induction heating in the mold to investigate how the temperature in the mold will be distributed and how it is affected by different material properties.

Guerrier, Patrick; Hattel, Jesper Henri

2013-01-01

111

New Design and Injection Molding Analysis of a Low Smoke Zero Halogen Cable Trunk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The traditional production process of a cable trunk is plastic extrusion with PVC or other halogen containing materials. However, they have many disadvantages such as easy burning, producing toxic gases and smokes. A low smoke zero halogen (LSZH cable trunk was designed and developed in the present study and the injection molding process was adopted to produce the LSZH cable trunk. Numerical simulations were applied to investigate the effects of the important process parameters on the warpage of the cable trunk. Comparing the simulation results under different process conditions and consideration both of the volumetric shrinkage and the total warpage displacement, it is found that the process parameters, including mold temperature 75°C, melt temperature 265°C, injection pressure 190 MPa, packing pressure 152 MPa, cooling water temperature 50°C and injection time 3 s, are the optimal process conditions for the injection molding process of the new designed cable trunk.

Xiaoxun Zhang

2012-09-01

112

A Simulation Study of Conformal Cooling Channels in Plastic Injection Molding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In injection molding process, the cooling channel performance is one of the most crucial factors because it has significant effect on both production rate and the quality of the plastic part. In order to reduce the cycle time, and control the uniform distribution of temperature, it is necessary to create conformal cooling channels, which conform to the shape of the mold cavity and core. This paper presents a simulation study of different types of cooling channels in an injection molded plastic part and compares the performance in terms of time to ejection temperature, shrinkage, temperature profile, and part warpage to determine which configuration is more appropriate to provide uniform cooling with minimum cycle time. Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI simulation software is used to examine the results of the cooling channels performance.

Omar A. Mohamed, S.H. Masood, Abul Saifullah

2013-09-01

113

Investigation of process parameters for an Injection molding component for warpage and Shrinkage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to explore the influence of different mold temperatures on the warpage & shrinkage of the injection molded component’s. The simulation software MOLDEX 3D was used for this study, the simulations were done by varying different mold temperatures and their corresponding warpage & shrinkage were collected. It was found that the different mold wall temperature causes the asymmetrical polymer flow in the cross-section due to which the asymmetrical structure in the parts cross-section occurs and this was observed using the flow analysis software. So it is required to assurehomogeneous mold wall temperature across the entire cavityduring the production of injection molded parts. This researchfinally concludes that warpage and shrinkage decreases for increased values of mold temperature

Mohammad Aashiq M1 , Arun A.P1 ,Parthiban M

2013-04-01

114

Multi-scale filling simulation of micro-injection molding process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work proposes a multi-scale simulation method that can simulate filling during the micro-injection molding process. The multiscale simulation is comprised of two steps. In the first step, the macro-scale flow is analyzed using the conventional method. In the second step, the micro-scale simulation is conducted taking the slip and surface tension into consideration to investigate the filling of microcavity. Moreover, a conservative level set method is employed to accurately track the flow front. First, numerical tests have been done for circular micro-channels. The results show that slip and surface tension play important roles in the micro-regime. Second, to verify the multi-scale method, filling of a thin plate with micro-channel patterns has been simulated. The results show that the proposed multi-scale method is promising for micro-injection molding simulations

115

A study of magneto-crystalline alignment in sintered barium hexaferrite fabricated by powder injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Barium hexaferrite permanent magnets were produced by powder injection molding. Starting barium hexaferrite powder was prepared from a Fe2O3 and BaCO3 powder mixture by calcination followed by milling. The feedstock for powder injection molding was prepared by mixing barium hexaferrite powder with a low viscosity binder. Magnetic alignment was achieved by applying a high intensity magnetic field to the melted feedstock during the injection process. Green samples (with and without magnetic alignment) were subjected to solvent debinding and subsequent thermal debinding followed by sintering. Sintering conditions were optimized in order to achieve a maximum energy product value. Magneto-crystalline aligning in barium hexaferrite was studied on both green and sintered samples using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and magnetic measurements (hysteresisgraphs). All measurements were made both in a parallel and perpendicular direction to the aligning magnetic field. The obtained results confirmed magneto-crystalline alignment

116

Anisotropic injection molding of strontium ferrite powder using a PP/PEG binder system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, new binder system for anisotropic injection molding of Sr-ferrite was developed and a process for injection molding of Sr-ferrite was optimized. The developed binder system is composed of 30 vol% PP, 60 vol% PEG-20 000 and 10 vol% PEG-4000. The extraction by water was applied to remove the major binder components PEGs and the minor binder component, PP, was subsequently burned out in air. Behaviors of extraction and thermal debinding with time and debinding atmosphere and variations of the magnetic properties with sintering temperature were studied. The sintered magnets made by PIM process showed residual carbon content of 230 ppm and a maximum energy product of 4.2 MGOe

117

SAXS studies of the injection molding effects on the nanostructure of polyesters. I: polybutylene terephthalate (PBT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, the nanoperiodicity of some PBT samples, injection molded at different conditions, was evaluated as a function of the thickness of the samples. From the small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) results, it was possible to observe that, as expected, there is a gradient of the L and lc values found through the thickness of the samples. It was also found that at the center of the PBT sample injection molded at low injection temperature, Ti, the crystallinity degree evaluated previously by wide angle X-Ray diffraction (WAXD) is high. In a previous study it was pointed out that a high orientation process could be present in the center of this sample, increasing the XC evaluated from WAXD. The SAXS results presented here show that this is not the case, because if orientation is high, the value of L at this region of the sample would be smaller. (author)

118

Orientation of Carbon Fibers in Copper matrix Produced by Powder Injection Molding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fiber orientation is a big challenge in short fiber reinforced composites. Powder injection molding (PIM process has some intrinsic fiber alignment associated with it. During PIM process fibers in skin region of moldings are aligned as these regions experience higher shear flow caused by the mold walls. Fibers in the core region remain randomly aligned as these regions are far from mold walls and experience lesser shear flow. In this study short carbon fiber (CF reinforced copper matrix composite was developed by PIM process. Two copper composite feedstock formulations were prepared having 5 vol% and 10 vol% CFs and a wax based binder system. Fiber orientation was controlled during injection molding by using a modified mold that has a diverging sprue. The sprue creates converging flow when feedstock enters into the mold cavity. Fiber orientation was analysed after molding using FESEM. The orientation of fibers can be controlled by controlling flow of feedstock into the mold.

Irfan Shirazi M.

2014-07-01

119

A study of magneto-crystalline alignment in sintered barium hexaferrite fabricated by powder injection molding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Barium hexaferrite permanent magnets were produced by powder injection molding. Starting barium hexaferrite powder was prepared from a Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and BaCO{sub 3} powder mixture by calcination followed by milling. The feedstock for powder injection molding was prepared by mixing barium hexaferrite powder with a low viscosity binder. Magnetic alignment was achieved by applying a high intensity magnetic field to the melted feedstock during the injection process. Green samples (with and without magnetic alignment) were subjected to solvent debinding and subsequent thermal debinding followed by sintering. Sintering conditions were optimized in order to achieve a maximum energy product value. Magneto-crystalline aligning in barium hexaferrite was studied on both green and sintered samples using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and magnetic measurements (hysteresisgraphs). All measurements were made both in a parallel and perpendicular direction to the aligning magnetic field. The obtained results confirmed magneto-crystalline alignment.

Zlatkov, B.S. [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan-Strasse 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Nikolic, M.V. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11000 Beograd (Serbia)], E-mail: mariavesna@cms.bg.ac.yu; Aleksic, O. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11000 Beograd (Serbia); Danninger, H.; Halwax, E. [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Getreidemarkt 9/164, 1060 Wien (Austria)

2009-02-15

120

How to determine the parameters of polymer crystallization for modeling the injection-molding process?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To understand the relationship between 'polymers-processing conditions-structures-properties', crystallization is one of the major concerned phenomena. A general crystallization model derived from Avrami's work has been developed at CEMEF and implemented into a 3D finite element code for injection-molding named Rem3D®. It gives a precise description of the crystallization event, allows the determination of morphological features, but it requires a reliable determination of the crystallizatio...

Boyer, Se?verine A. E.; Silva, Luisa; Gicquel, Mounia; Devisme, Samuel; Chenot, Jean-loup; Haudin, Jean-marc

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Development of Metal Plate with Internal Structure Utilizing the Metal Injection Molding (MIM) Process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, we focus on making a double-sided metal plate with an internal structure, such as honeycomb. The stainless steel powder was used in the metal injection molding (MIM) process. The preliminary studies were carried out for the measurement of the viscosity of the stainless steel feedstock and for the prediction of the filling behavior through Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulation. PE (high density polyethylene (HDPE) and low density polyethylene (LDPE)) and polypropylene (PP)...

Kwangho Shin; Youngmoo Heo; Hyungpil Park; Sungho Chang; Byungohk Rhee

2013-01-01

122

Characterization Of Metal Injection Molding (MIM Feedstock Based On Water Soluble Binder System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metal Injection Molding (MIM is a new manufacturing technique especially to produce small and complex precision parts. Characterization of feedstock is one of the important tasks in order to evaluate the homogeneity level of the feedstock prepared and to control the quality of the parts during injection molding process. This paper attempts to investigate the characteristics of the MIM feedstock by performing rheological test using the feedstock consisted of 316L stainless steel powder with a mean particle size of 12 micrometer and a major fraction of water soluble binder system known as polyethylene glycol (PEG. Three different weight percentage of PEG at 65, 75, and 85 respectively were used during the investigation. The viscosity of MIM feedstock at different temperatures and shear rates were measured and evaluated. Results show that increasing the PEG content would decrease the viscosity of the feedstock. The rheological properties of the feedstock showed that the proposed method of mixing is adequate to produce a homogeneous feedstock that is favorable for injection molding process.

Norhamidi Muhamad

2008-08-01

123

Quality Control of Injection Molded Eyewear by Non-Contact Deflectometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Occupational eye wear such as safety spectacles are manufactured by injection molding techniques. Testing of the assembled safety spectacle lenses in transmission is state of the art, but there is a lack of surface measurement systems for occupational safety lenses. The purpose of this work was to validate a deflectometric setup for topography measurement, detection of defects and visualization of the polishing quality, e.g. casting indentations or impressions, for the production process of safety spectacles. The setup is based on a customized stereo phase measuring deflectometer (PMD), equipped with 3 cameras with f'1,2 = 16 mm and f'3 = 8.5 mm and a specified measurement uncertainty of ± 3 ?m. Sixteen plastic lenses and 8 corresponding injection molds from 4 parallel cavities were used for validation of the deflectometer. For comparison an interferometric method and a reference standard (< ?/10 super polished) was used. The accuracy and bias with a spherical safety spectacle sample was below 1 μm, according to DIN ISO 5725-2.2002-12. The repeatability was 2.1 ?m and 35.7 ?m for a blind radius fit. In conclusion, the PMD technique is an appropriate tool for characterizing occupational safety spectacle and injections mold surfaces. With the presented setup we were able to quantify the surface quality. This can be useful and may optimize the quality of the end product, in addition to standardized measuring systems in transmission.

Speck, A.; Zelzer, B.; Langenbucher, A.; Eppig, T.

2014-07-01

124

Foam injection molding of poly(lactic acid) with physical blowing agents  

Science.gov (United States)

Foam injection molding uses environmental friendly blowing agents under high pressure and temperature to produce parts having a cellular core and a compact solid skin (the so-called "structural foam"). The addition of a supercritical gas reduces the part weight and at the same time improves some physical properties of the material through the promotion of a faster crystallization; it also leads to the reduction of both the viscosity and the glass transition temperature of the polymer melt, which therefore can be injection molded adopting lower temperatures and pressures. These aspects are of extreme interest for biodegradable polymers, which often present a very narrow processing window, with the suitable processing temperatures close to the degradation conditions. In this work, foam injection molding was carried out by an instrumented molding machine, able to measure the pressure evolution in different positions along the flow-path. The material adopted was a biodegradable polymer, namely the Poly(lactic acid), PLA. The effect of a physical blowing agent (PBA) on the viscosity was measured. The density reduction and the morphology of parts obtained by different molding conditions was assessed.

Pantani, R.; Sorrentino, A.; Volpe, V.; Titomanlio, G.

2014-05-01

125

The use of stereolithography rapid tools in the manufacturing of metal powder injection molding parts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The utilization of stereolithography molds in the manufacture pre-series for injection molded plastic parts aims to reduce costs throughout the product life-time, but mainly during design and manufacturing phases. The use of this Rapid Tooling technique in powder metal injection molding is evaluated [...] in this work. One of the greatest differences between traditional and stereolithography tools is related to the heat conductivity of the materials employed. For example, steel molds have a heat conductivity coefficient 300 times higher than molds made with the photosensitive resin used in the stereolithography process. The discrepancy regarding the cooling rate of the molded parts during the injection cycle must be compensated with adjustments in the injection molding parameters, such as temperature, pressure and speed. The optimization of these parameters made it possible to eject green parts from the mold without causing defects which would become evident in debinding and sintering stages. The dimensional analysis performed at the end of each case study showed that the shrinking factor of the component after the sintering had the same value obtained for components using traditional metallic molds. Moreover, the dimensional error remains under 2% which can be considered low for a pre-series of components (or prototype series).

V. E., Beal; C. H., Ahrens; P. A., Wendhausen.

2004-03-01

126

The use of stereolithography rapid tools in the manufacturing of metal powder injection molding parts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The utilization of stereolithography molds in the manufacture pre-series for injection molded plastic parts aims to reduce costs throughout the product life-time, but mainly during design and manufacturing phases. The use of this Rapid Tooling technique in powder metal injection molding is evaluated in this work. One of the greatest differences between traditional and stereolithography tools is related to the heat conductivity of the materials employed. For example, steel molds have a heat conductivity coefficient 300 times higher than molds made with the photosensitive resin used in the stereolithography process. The discrepancy regarding the cooling rate of the molded parts during the injection cycle must be compensated with adjustments in the injection molding parameters, such as temperature, pressure and speed. The optimization of these parameters made it possible to eject green parts from the mold without causing defects which would become evident in debinding and sintering stages. The dimensional analysis performed at the end of each case study showed that the shrinking factor of the component after the sintering had the same value obtained for components using traditional metallic molds. Moreover, the dimensional error remains under 2% which can be considered low for a pre-series of components (or prototype series.

Beal V. E.

2004-01-01

127

Computing flow-induced stresses of injection molding based on PTT model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A numerical approach is introduced to solve the viscoelastic flow problem of filling and post-filling in injection molding. The governing equations are in terms of compressible, non-isothermal fluid, and the constitutive equation is based on the PTT model. By introducing some hypotheses according to the characteristics of injection molding, a quasi-Poisson type equation about pressure is derived with part integration. Besides, an analytical form of flow-induced stress is also generalized by using Undermined Coefficient Method. The conventional Galerkin approach is employed to solve the derived pressure equation, and the 'upwind' difference scheme is used to discrete the energy equation. Coupling is achieved between velocity and stress by Super Relax Iteration Method. The flow in the test mold is investigated by comparing the numerical results and photoelastic photos for polystyrene, showing flow-induced stresses are closely related to melt temperatures. The filling of a two-cavity box is also studied to investigate the viscoelastic effects on real injection molding.

128

Color measurement of plastics - From compounding via pelletizing, up to injection molding and extrusion  

Science.gov (United States)

The typical offline color measurement on injection molded or pressed specimens is a very expensive and time-consuming process. In order to optimize the productivity and quality, it is desirable to measure the color already during the production. Therefore several systems have been developed to monitor the color e.g. on melts, strands, pellets, the extrudate or injection molded part already during the process. Different kinds of inline, online and atline methods with their respective advantages and disadvantages will be compared. The criteria are e.g. the testing time, which ranges from real-time to some minutes, the required calibration procedure, the spectral resolution and the final measuring precision. The latter ranges between 0.05 to 0.5 in the CIE L*a*b* system depending on the particular measurement system. Due to the high temperatures in typical plastics processes thermochromism of polymers and dyes has to be taken into account. This effect can influence the color value in the magnitude of some 10% and is barely understood so far. Different suitable methods to compensate thermochromic effects during compounding or injection molding by using calibration curves or artificial neural networks are presented. Furthermore it is even possible to control the color during extrusion and compounding almost in real-time. The goal is a specific developed software for adjusting the color recipe automatically with the final objective of a closed-loop control.

Botos, J.; Murail, N.; Heidemeyer, P.; Kretschmer, K.; Ulmer, B.; Zentgraf, T.; Bastian, M.; Hochrein, T.

2014-05-01

129

Development of magnesium semi-solid injection molding; Magnesium han`yoyu shashutsu seikei gijutsu no kaihatsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnesium semi-solid injection molding is safety and clean process. We have investigated influence of molding conditions on mechanical properties and dimension accuracy of products by semi-solid injection molding. As a result it was proved that the accuracy of products by this process is superior to die casting. This advantage as well as better mechanical properties can be utilized for net shape molding of some automobile parts. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Sakamoto, K.; Sakate, N.; Ishida, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nishimura, K. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

1997-10-01

130

Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded

131

Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel [Dept. of Production Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, nám. T.G. Masaryka 5555, 760 01 Zlín, Czech Republic and Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovc (Czech Republic); Paravanova, Gordana [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcírnou 3685, 760 01 Zlín (Czech Republic)

2014-05-15

132

Optimizing Injection Molding Processing Parameters for Enhanced Mechanical Performance of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch High Density Polyethylene Composites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study reports on the influence of injection molding processing parameters on mechanical properties of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) filled High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE). The biocomposite pellets were first prepared using an extruder with 20 wt% EFB content before being processed in an injection-molding machine for specimen fabrication. Two processing parameters were varied systematically and independently during the composite sample fabrication. The holding pressure was increased ...

Ramli, M. S.; Abdul Latif, M. R.; Megat-yusoff, P. S. M.

2011-01-01

133

Neodymium: YAG laser damage threshold. A comparison of injection-molded and lathe-cut polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lenses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility that injection-molded intraocular lenses (IOLs) with imperfections called iridescent clefts could have a decreased threshold to neodymium: YAG (Nd:YAG) laser-induced damage was investigated. Thresholds for Nd:YAG laser-induced damage were determined for injection-molded and lathe-cut polymethylmethacrylate lenses. When aimed at a membrane in contact with a posterior convex surface, the average thresholds were 0.96 +/- 0.18 mJ (Standard deviation [SD]) and 1.80 +/- 0.55 mJ, respectively. The difference was significant at P = 0.001. When injection-molding polymethylmethacrylate was used to make lathe-cut IOLs, very few iridescent clefts were present, and the threshold to Nd:YAG laser-induced damage was 0.94 +/- 0.25 mJ. Iridescent clefts are therefore produced during the injection-molding process but they do not lower the threshold to Nd:YAG laser-induced damage. Rather, the reduced threshold in injection-molded lenses is most probably a result of the polymethylmethacrylate used in their manufacture. Clinically, iridescent clefts in a lens suggest that it has been manufactured by an injection-molding process and that Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy must be performed at the lowest possible energy level to avoid damage. PMID:3561960

Wilson, S E; Brubaker, R F

1987-01-01

134

Structural scheme optimization design for the stationary platen of a precision plastic injection molding machine  

Science.gov (United States)

The current development of precision plastic injection molding machines mainly focuses on how to save material and improve precision, but the two aims contradict each other. For a clamp unit, clamping precision improving depends on the design quality of the stationary platen. Compared with the parametric design of stationary platen, structural scheme design could obtain the optimization model with double objectives and multi-constraints. In this paper, a SE-160 precision plastic injection molding machine with 1600 kN clamping force is selected as the subject in the case study. During the motion of mold closing and opening, the stationary platen of SE-160 is subjected to a cyclic loading, which would cause the fatigue rupture of the tie bars in periodically long term operations. In order to reduce the deflection of the stationary platen, the FEA method is introduced to optimize the structure of the stationary platen. Firstly, an optimal topology model is established by variable density method. Then, structural topology optimizations of the stationary platen are done with the removable material from 50%, 60% to 70%. Secondly, the other two recommended optimization schemes are given and compared with the original structure. The result of performances comparison shows that the scheme II of the platen is the best one. By choosing the best alternative, the volume and the local maximal stress of the platen could be decreased, corresponding to cost-saving material and better mechanical properties. This paper proposes a structural optimization design scheme, which can save the material as well as improve the clamping precision of the precision plastic injection molding machine.

Ren, Bin; Zhang, Shuyou; Tan, Jianrong

2014-07-01

135

Cytocompatibility of titanium metal injection molding with various anodic oxidation post-treatments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metal injection molding (MIM) is a near net shape manufacturing method that allows for the production of components of small to moderate size and complex shape. MIM is a cost-effective and flexible manufacturing technique that provides a large innovative potential over existing methods for the industry of implantable devices. Commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) samples were machined to the same shape as a composite feedstock with titanium and polyoxymethylene, and these metals were injected, debinded and sintered to assess comparative biological properties. Moreover, we treated MIM-Ti parts with BIOCOAT Registered-Sign , BIODIZE Registered-Sign and BIOCER Registered-Sign , three different anodic oxidation techniques that treat titanium using acid, alkaline and anion enriched electrolytes, respectively. Cytocompatibility as well as morphological and chemical features of surfaces was comparatively assessed on each sample, and the results revealed that MIM-Ti compared to CP-Ti demonstrated a specific surface topography with a higher roughness. MIM-Ti and BIOCER Registered-Sign samples significantly enhanced cell proliferation, cell adhesion and cell differentiation compared to CP-Ti. Interestingly, in the anodization post-treatment established in this study, we demonstrated the ability to improve osseointegration through anionic modification treatment. The excellent biological response we observed with MIM parts using the injection molding process represents a promising manufacturing method for the future implantable devices in direct contact with bones. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal injection molding technique gives titanium a specific surface roughness. It enhances the biological response. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anodic oxidation method adds Ca, P, and Mg ions on the surface, promoting the cell adhesion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytocompatibility analyses show an increased cell adhesion and proliferation on MIM-Ti compared to pure titanium.

Demangel, Clemence; Auzene, Delphine [CRITT-MDTS, ZHT du Moulin Leblanc, 3, Bd Jean Delautre 08000 Charleville-Mezieres (France); Vayssade, Muriel [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, UMR 7338 Biomecanique-Bioingenierie, BP 20529 60205 Compiegne Cedex (France); Duval, Jean-Luc, E-mail: jean-luc.duval@utc.fr [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, UMR 7338 Biomecanique-Bioingenierie, BP 20529 60205 Compiegne Cedex (France); Vigneron, Pascale; Nagel, Marie-Daniele [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, UMR 7338 Biomecanique-Bioingenierie, BP 20529 60205 Compiegne Cedex (France); Puippe, Jean-Claude [Steiger Galvanotechnique, Route de Pra de Plan, 18 CH-1618 Chatel-St-Denis (Switzerland)

2012-10-01

136

Cytocompatibility of titanium metal injection molding with various anodic oxidation post-treatments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metal injection molding (MIM) is a near net shape manufacturing method that allows for the production of components of small to moderate size and complex shape. MIM is a cost-effective and flexible manufacturing technique that provides a large innovative potential over existing methods for the industry of implantable devices. Commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) samples were machined to the same shape as a composite feedstock with titanium and polyoxymethylene, and these metals were injected, debinded and sintered to assess comparative biological properties. Moreover, we treated MIM-Ti parts with BIOCOAT®, BIODIZE® and BIOCER®, three different anodic oxidation techniques that treat titanium using acid, alkaline and anion enriched electrolytes, respectively. Cytocompatibility as well as morphological and chemical features of surfaces was comparatively assessed on each sample, and the results revealed that MIM-Ti compared to CP-Ti demonstrated a specific surface topography with a higher roughness. MIM-Ti and BIOCER® samples significantly enhanced cell proliferation, cell adhesion and cell differentiation compared to CP-Ti. Interestingly, in the anodization post-treatment established in this study, we demonstrated the ability to improve osseointegration through anionic modification treatment. The excellent biological response we observed with MIM parts using the injection molding process represents a promising manufacturing method for the future implantable devices in for the future implantable devices in direct contact with bones. - Highlights: ? Metal injection molding technique gives titanium a specific surface roughness. It enhances the biological response. ? Anodic oxidation method adds Ca, P, and Mg ions on the surface, promoting the cell adhesion. ? Cytocompatibility analyses show an increased cell adhesion and proliferation on MIM-Ti compared to pure titanium.

137

Design Optimization of Stationary Platen of Plastic Injection Molding Machine Using FEA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plastic are certainly most versatile of all known materials today and have therefore, established themselves in enviable position from where are not even possible to replaced. Injection molding machine is one of the most widely used method of conversion of plastic into various end products application to wide range of plastic materials from plastic commodity to specialty engineering plastic.In injection molding machine stationary platen play a very important role. During the process generally compressive stress generates at particular regions. As load varies with fast rate there is chance to failure of tie bar rod. Due to heavy mould shape, size of platen also change, that’s increase its weight as well as stress level at certain region and this is not good in practice . This leads to failure of platen or failure of tie rod due to stretching by nut and platen. This create loss of money (Production stop, man (injured due to accident, and material (increase inventory cost. The aim of this project is study about those areas where stress can affect the failure of tie bar due to heavy weight of stationary platen the deflection or misalignment with movable platen. Finally redistribution of stress sothat uniforme stress achive (optimization of platen. This project is including Finite Element Analysis and Design Optimization of a Typical Structural Component of a Plastic Injection Molding Machine. The aim of project is to optimize a typical structural component (stationary platen by using finite element analysis after checking induced stresses with allowable design stress. Hence design modification of platen is carried out to achieve good strength and cost effectiveness.

Dheeraj Mandliya*1

2014-05-01

138

Effect of rheological parameters on curing rate during NBR injection molding  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, non-isothermal injection molding process for NBR rubber mixture considering Isayev-Deng curing kinetic model, generalized Newtonian model with Carreau-WLF viscosity was modeled by using finite element method in order to understand the effect of volume flow rate, index of non-Newtonian behavior and relaxation time on the temperature profile and curing rate. It was found that for specific geometry and processing conditions, increase in relaxation time or in the index of non-Newtonian behavior increases the curing rate due to viscous dissipation taking place at the flow domain walls.

Kyas, Kamil; Stanek, Michal; Manas, David; Skrobak, Adam

2013-04-01

139

Effect of injection molding processing conditions on optical properties of polyetherimide  

Science.gov (United States)

SABIC's ULTEMTM (polyetherimide) resin has been the choice of material for injection moldable micro lenses and lens arrays in optical communication components such as transceivers due to its unique combination of physical, thermal and optical properties including high refractive index, low absorption in near IR range, good dimensional stability and high heat performance. It's known that processing conditions affect properties of final parts. Often the processing conditions are optimized for best mechanical properties, while their effect on optical properties is sidelined. In this study, the effect of injection molding processing conditions on optical properties of polyetherimide resin is discussed.

Zhao, Wei; Wall, Christopher; Maddikeri, Raghavendra; May, Andy

2014-09-01

140

Influência do desempenho térmico de moldes fabricados com compósito epóxi/alumínio nas propriedades de pp moldado por injeção Thermal behavior of epoxy/aluminum rapid tooling composite during injection molding of polypropylene  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O surgimento das tecnologias de prototipagem rápida (RP e de ferramental rápido (RT tem despertado interesse da indústria de moldes de injeção. O vazamento de termofixos com cargas metálicas possibilita a construção de moldes usando materiais compósitos, os quais apresentam maior resistência que os utilizados por outras técnicas RT. Neste trabalho foi estudado o comportamento térmico de moldes fabricados em epóxi/alumínio durante a injeção de polipropileno através de avaliações da estrutura e de propriedades mecânicas utilizando difração de raio X e ensaios de dureza e de tração. Os corpos-de-prova injetados no molde em compósito epóxi/alumínio apresentaram pequenas diferenças no grau de cristalinidade das superfícies analisadas e propriedades mecânicas semelhantes aos corpos-de-prova injetados em molde de aço. O estudo mostrou um razoável desempenho térmico do molde compósito durante a injeção de polipropileno evidenciando a viabilidade de utilização destes moldes na produção de pequenas séries de protótipos e de produtos neste termoplástico.rapid prototyping (RP and rapid tooling (RT technologies are gaining increasing importance in the injection molding industry. Casting of resin/metal composites allows the construction of molds with greater resistance than those manufactured by other RT techniques such as Stereolithography. In this work, the thermal behavior of molds manufactured in epoxy/aluminum during the injection molding of polypropylene specimens was investigated. Structural and mechanical characterization of the molded specimens included X ray analysis, hardness and tensile testing. The samples presented small differences in the degree of crystallinity and similar mechanical properties in comparison with samples injected into steel molds. This study showed a reasonable thermal performance of the epoxy/aluminum mold during the injection molding of polypropylene, thus demonstrating the viability of using these molds to produce a few number of prototypes or products with this thermoplastic.

Gean V. Salmoria

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Influência do desempenho térmico de moldes fabricados com compósito epóxi/alumínio nas propriedades de pp moldado por injeção / Thermal behavior of epoxy/aluminum rapid tooling composite during injection molding of polypropylene  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O surgimento das tecnologias de prototipagem rápida (RP) e de ferramental rápido (RT) tem despertado interesse da indústria de moldes de injeção. O vazamento de termofixos com cargas metálicas possibilita a construção de moldes usando materiais compósitos, os quais apresentam maior resistência que o [...] s utilizados por outras técnicas RT. Neste trabalho foi estudado o comportamento térmico de moldes fabricados em epóxi/alumínio durante a injeção de polipropileno através de avaliações da estrutura e de propriedades mecânicas utilizando difração de raio X e ensaios de dureza e de tração. Os corpos-de-prova injetados no molde em compósito epóxi/alumínio apresentaram pequenas diferenças no grau de cristalinidade das superfícies analisadas e propriedades mecânicas semelhantes aos corpos-de-prova injetados em molde de aço. O estudo mostrou um razoável desempenho térmico do molde compósito durante a injeção de polipropileno evidenciando a viabilidade de utilização destes moldes na produção de pequenas séries de protótipos e de produtos neste termoplástico. Abstract in english rapid prototyping (RP) and rapid tooling (RT) technologies are gaining increasing importance in the injection molding industry. Casting of resin/metal composites allows the construction of molds with greater resistance than those manufactured by other RT techniques such as Stereolithography. In this [...] work, the thermal behavior of molds manufactured in epoxy/aluminum during the injection molding of polypropylene specimens was investigated. Structural and mechanical characterization of the molded specimens included X ray analysis, hardness and tensile testing. The samples presented small differences in the degree of crystallinity and similar mechanical properties in comparison with samples injected into steel molds. This study showed a reasonable thermal performance of the epoxy/aluminum mold during the injection molding of polypropylene, thus demonstrating the viability of using these molds to produce a few number of prototypes or products with this thermoplastic.

Gean V., Salmoria; Carlos H., Ahrens; Felix A. Y., Villamizar; Aurélio da C., Sabino Netto.

2008-09-01

142

Rapid and low-cost prototyping of medical devices using 3D printed molds for liquid injection molding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biologically inert elastomers such as silicone are favorable materials for medical device fabrication, but forming and curing these elastomers using traditional liquid injection molding processes can be an expensive process due to tooling and equipment costs. As a result, it has traditionally been impractical to use liquid injection molding for low-cost, rapid prototyping applications. We have devised a method for rapid and low-cost production of liquid elastomer injection molded devices that utilizes fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as an injection system. Low costs and rapid turnaround time in this technique lower the barrier to iteratively designing and prototyping complex elastomer devices. Furthermore, CAD models developed in this process can be later adapted for metal mold tooling design, enabling an easy transition to a traditional injection molding process. We have used this technique to manufacture intravaginal probes involving complex geometries, as well as overmolding over metal parts, using tools commonly available within an academic research laboratory. However, this technique can be easily adapted to create liquid injection molded devices for many other applications. PMID:24998993

Chung, Philip; Heller, J Alex; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Ottoson, Paige E; Liu, Jonathan A; Rand, Larry; Roy, Shuvo

2014-01-01

143

Surface topographic characterization for polyamide composite injection molds made of aluminum and copper alloys.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to ensure flexibility and rapid new product development, the mold industry made use of soft materials for cavity inserts in injection molds. However, materials of this kind are prone to wear. This article analyzes the topographic characterization of the surface and wear processes in injection molds cavities. Two materials have been used to produce the cavities: aluminum alloy EN AW?6082 T4 and copper alloy Cu Zn39 Pb3. The surface topography was measured with the use of optical interferometry profiling technology; roughness and surface parameters were determined according to ISO 4287, ISO 25178, and EUR 15178N. In order to complete this research, an experimental part with different thicknesses and shapes was designed, and cavity inserts of aluminum and copper were made. Polyamide PA6, with 30% fiberglass reinforcement, was employed in the experimental procedure. Measurements of cavity mold surfaces were performed after 9,200 cycles on each mold and at different locations on the mold. The surface measurement was made with a white light vertical scanning interferometry, also known as coherence scanning interferometry (ISO DIS 25178?604). The results are analyzed and differences between the two types of cavity inserts materials are discussed. PMID:23447356

Pereira, A; Hernández, P; Martinez, J; Pérez, J A; Mathia, T G

2014-01-01

144

Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Injection Molding Composites Reinforced by Bagasse Fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

BMC (Bulk Molding Compound) is composed of UP (Unsaturated Polyester) resin, glass fibers, and bagasse fibers which have been obtained after squeezing sugar cane. Our purpose is to use the bagasse fibers as reinforcement and filler in BMC to fabricate composites by injection molding and injection compression molding. The mechanical properties of injection molding composites were improved after adding the bagasse fibers. Observing the fracture surface of the tensile test specimen through SEM, we could notice the glass fibers were penetrated into the bagasse fibers longitudinally. Along with UP resin solidifying, the glass fibers were firmly fixed in the bagasse fibers and finally united with them. This phenomenon could bring on the same effect as the glass fibers length was prolonged, so that the adhesion interface between fiber and matrix resin became larger, which leads to the increase in the mechanical properties. Otherwise, it was observed that UP resin sufficiently permeated the bagasse fibers and solidified. This also contributes to enhancing the mechanical properties drastically.

Cao, Yong; Fukumoto, Isao

145

Optimization of injection molded parts by using ANN-PSO approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the work was the optimization of injection molded product warpage by using an integrated environment.Design/methodology/approach: The approach implemented took advantages of the Finite Element (FE Analysis to simulate component fabrication and investigate the main causes of defects. A FE model was initially designed and then reinforced by integrating Artificial Neural Network to predict main filling and packing results and Particle Swarm Approach to optimize injection molding process parameters automatically.Findings: This research has confirmed that the evaluation of the FE simulation results through the Artificial Neural Network system was an efficient method for the assessment of the influence of process parameter variation on part manufacturability, suggesting possible adjustments to improve part quality.Research limitations/implications: Future researches will be addressed to the extension of analysis to large thin components and different classes of materials with the aim to improve the proposed approach.Originality/value: The originality of the work was related to the possibility of analyzing component fabrication at the design stage and use results in the manufacturing stage. In this way, design, fabrication and process control were strictly links.

R. Spina

2006-02-01

146

Initial verification of an induction heating set-up for injection molding  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Molding of thin and long parts by injection molding leads to special requirements for the mold in order to ensure proper filling and acceptable cycle time. This paper investigates the applicability of embedded induction heating for the improvement of the filling of thin long parts. The object selected for the investigation is a thin spiral. For the complete molding of the component, elevated mold temperatures are required. For this propose a new injection molding set-up was developed, which allows rapid heating of the cavity wall by an induction heating system. The temperature was measured by two thermocouples placed in the die insert. The system was used to heat up the cavity wall with heating rates of up to 10 °C/s. Experiments were carried out with ABS material. The lengths of the object were measured by a suitable measurement set up. The experimental result show that the use of the induction heating system process is an efficient way for improving the filling of the cavity.

Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans NØrgaard

2013-01-01

147

Injection molding of nickel based 625 superalloy: Sintering, heat treatment, microstructure and mechanical properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sintering, microstructural and mechanical properties of injection molded nickel based 625 superalloy were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum sintered density achieved this study was 98.3% at 1300 Degree-Sign C for 3 h. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tensile strength of 674 MPa, elongation of 40.6% and hardness of 303 HV were achieved for sintered and heat treated conditions. - Abstract: This study concerns determination of optimum sintering and thermal process parameters for Ni-based alloy 625 superalloy formed by the method of powder injection molding (PIM). Samples, formed from the feedstock by mixing the prealloyed 625 powder with a multi-component binding system, are made subject to sintering at different temperatures following the debinding process. Samples that are sintered under such conditions giving way to the highest relative density (3 h at 1300 Degree-Sign C), are aged after they have been subject to solution treated thermal process. Sintered, solution treated and aged samples have been subjected to microstructural analysis and mechanical test. Mechanical tests such as hardness measurement and tensile test as well as microstructural characterization such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and elemental analysis all have shown that the aging thermal process increases strength of the material. However, it is observed that alloy 625 produced by the method of PIM is at such level to compete with the characteristics of cast alloy 625.

Oezguen, Oezguer [Bingol University, Technical Sciences Vocational School, 12000 Bingol (Turkey); Sakarya University, Graduate School of Applied and Natural Sciences, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Oezkan Guelsoy, H., E-mail: ogulsoy@marmara.edu.tr [Marmara University, Technology Faculty, Metallurgy and Materials Eng. Dep., 34722 Istanbul (Turkey); Yilmaz, Ramazan [Sakarya University, Technology Faculty, Metallurgy and Materials Eng. Dep., 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Findik, Fehim [Sakarya University, Technology Faculty, Metallurgy and Materials Eng. Dep., 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); International University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina)

2013-01-05

148

Effect of injection molding parameters on nanofillers dispersion in masterbatch based PP-clay nanocomposites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of injection molding parameters (screw rotational speed, back pressure, injec-tion flow rate and holding pressure on the nanofiller dispersion of melt-mixed PP/clay nanocomposites was investigated. The nanocomposites containing 4 wt% clay were obtained by dilution of a PP/clay masterbatch into a PP matrix. The evaluation of the dispersion degree was obtained from dynamic rheological measurements. The storage modulus and complex viscosity exhibit significant dependence on the injection molding parameters. PP/clay nanocomposite molded using more severe injection parameters (high shear and long residence time displays the highest storage modulus and complex viscosity, which illustrates the improved dispersion of clay platelets. This better dispersion leads to better mechanical properties particularly higher Young modulus, tensile strength and unnotched impact strength. A Taguchi analysis was used to identify the influence of individual process parameters. The major individual parameter is the injection flow rate, whose increase improves nanoclay dispersion. The combination of high back pressure and high screw rotational speed is also necessary to optimize the dispersion of clay nanoplatelets.

J. Soulestin

2012-03-01

149

Microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe-50%Ni alloy fabricated by powder injection molding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fe-50%Ni soft magnetic alloys were produced by powder injection molding using carbonyl iron and carbonyl nickel as raw materials. The effects of sintering temperature and time on the microstructure and magnetic properties of the alloys were investigated. The results indicate that the magnetic properties are dependent on the microstructure. The densification and grain size of the alloys increase with increasing sintering temperature and time, facilitating the enhancement of permeability and saturation induction, as well as the decrease of coercive force. In the case of the sintering temperature of 1360 Degree-Sign C for 10 h, the relative density of 97% and grain size of 200 {mu}m were obtained, and the maximum permeability of 43,541, saturation induction of 1.48 T and coercive force of 6.8 A/m were achieved. Further elongation of sintering time did not bring about any increase of densification and grain size. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-performance Fe-50%Ni alloy was produced by powder injection molding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic properties were found to be closely related to density and grain size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sintering parameters of Fe-50%Ni alloy were optimized.

Ma, Jidong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Qin, Mingli, E-mail: mlqin75@hotmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ruijie; Qu, Xuanhui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

2013-03-15

150

Micro Machining of Injection Mold Inserts for Fluidic Channel of Polymeric Biochips  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, the polymeric micro-fluidic biochip, often called LOC (lab-on-a-chip, has been focused as a cheap, rapid and simplified method to replace the existing biochemical laboratory works. It becomes possible to form miniaturized lab functionalities on a chip with the development of MEMS technologies. The micro-fluidic chips contain many micro-channels for the flow of sample and reagents, mixing, and detection tasks. Typical substrate materials for the chip are glass and polymers. Typical techniques for micro-fluidic chip fabrication are utilizing various micro pattern forming methods, such as wet-etching, micro-contact printing, and hot-embossing, micro injection molding, LIGA, and micro powder blasting processes, etc. In this study, to establish the basis of the micro pattern fabrication and mass production of polymeric micro-fluidic chips using injection molding process, micro machining method was applied to form micro-channels on the LOC molds. In the research, a series of machining experiments using micro end-mills were performed to determine optimum machining conditions to improve surface roughness and shape accuracy of designed simplified micro-channels. Obtained conditions were used to machine required mold inserts for micro-channels using micro end-mills. Test injection processes using machined molds and COC polymer were performed, and then the results were investigated.

Myeong-Woo Cho

2007-08-01

151

Effect of shear heating during injection molding on the morphology of PC/LCP blends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fiber relaxation of liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) in the mold during injection molding was investigated. A blend of LCP and polycarbonate was used. The LCP used, namely LC5000, is a thermotropic LCP consisting of 80% and 20% of hydroxybenzoic acid and ethylene terephthalate, respectively. The filling of the mold and the temperature profile of the melt in the mold, after the mold has been completely filled, were computed using the finite element/finite difference method (FE/FDM). The morphology of the fibers was greatly influenced by the temperature of the different layers in the sample. This was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of the injection-molded specimen. When shear heating caused the temperature of the melt to increase above 280 deg. C, relaxation of the fibers was rapid. This resulted in a final morphology where the LCP existed in short fibers or ellipsoids. It was concluded that the high shear rate, which is needed for fiber deformation, must be accompanied by fast cooling to minimize the effects of shear heating, so that the fibers formed could be retained

152

Microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe–50%Ni alloy fabricated by powder injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fe–50%Ni soft magnetic alloys were produced by powder injection molding using carbonyl iron and carbonyl nickel as raw materials. The effects of sintering temperature and time on the microstructure and magnetic properties of the alloys were investigated. The results indicate that the magnetic properties are dependent on the microstructure. The densification and grain size of the alloys increase with increasing sintering temperature and time, facilitating the enhancement of permeability and saturation induction, as well as the decrease of coercive force. In the case of the sintering temperature of 1360 °C for 10 h, the relative density of 97% and grain size of 200 ?m were obtained, and the maximum permeability of 43,541, saturation induction of 1.48 T and coercive force of 6.8 A/m were achieved. Further elongation of sintering time did not bring about any increase of densification and grain size. - Highlights: ? High-performance Fe–50%Ni alloy was produced by powder injection molding. ? The magnetic properties were found to be closely related to density and grain size. ? The sintering parameters of Fe–50%Ni alloy were optimized.

153

Injection molding of nickel based 625 superalloy: Sintering, heat treatment, microstructure and mechanical properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Sintering, microstructural and mechanical properties of injection molded nickel based 625 superalloy were studied. ? The maximum sintered density achieved this study was 98.3% at 1300 °C for 3 h. ? Tensile strength of 674 MPa, elongation of 40.6% and hardness of 303 HV were achieved for sintered and heat treated conditions. - Abstract: This study concerns determination of optimum sintering and thermal process parameters for Ni-based alloy 625 superalloy formed by the method of powder injection molding (PIM). Samples, formed from the feedstock by mixing the prealloyed 625 powder with a multi-component binding system, are made subject to sintering at different temperatures following the debinding process. Samples that are sintered under such conditions giving way to the highest relative density (3 h at 1300 °C), are aged after they have been subject to solution treated thermal process. Sintered, solution treated and aged samples have been subjected to microstructural analysis and mechanical test. Mechanical tests such as hardness measurement and tensile test as well as microstructural characterization such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and elemental analysis all have shown that the aging thermal process increases strength of the material. However, it is observed that alloy 625 produced by the method of PIM is at such level to compete with the characteristics of cast alloy 625.characteristics of cast alloy 625.

154

Bulk and Surface Molecular Orientation Distribution in Injection-molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers: Experiment and Simulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bulk and surface distributions of molecular orientation in injection-molded plaques of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) have been studied using a combination of techniques, coordinated with process simulations using the Larson-Doi 'polydomain' model. Wide-angle X-ray scattering was used to map out the bulk orientation distribution. Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) were utilized to probe the molecular orientation states to within about {approx}5 {micro}m and {approx}2 nm, respectively, of the sample surface. These noninvasive, surface-sensitive techniques yield reasonable self-consistency, providing complementary validation of the robustness of these methods. An analogy between Larson-Doi and fiber orientation models has allowed the first simulations of TLCP injection molding. The simulations capture many fine details in the bulk orientation distribution across the sample plaque. Direct simulation of surface orientation at the level probed by FTIR-ATR and NEXAFS was not possible due to the limited spatial resolution of the simulations. However, simulation results extracted from the shear-dominant skin region are found to provide a qualitatively accurate indicator of surface orientation. Finally, simulations capture the relation between bulk and surface orientation states across the different regions of the sample plaque.

Fang, J.; Burghardt, W; Bubeck, R; Burgard, S; Fischer, D

2010-01-01

155

Optimizing the Filling Time and Gate of the Injection Mold on Plastic Air Intake Manifold of Engines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to acquire the best filling time, Mold trial is made by setting different injection time, or Mold flow software is used to analyze data recorded by computer. Whether doing successive trials or being simulated point by point, is very tedious. A new method is put forward-seeking the minimum of curve being simulated by Lagrange interpolation. The minimum of the curve is the best filling time. This method can improve the efficiency of the simulation analysis. The software Mold flow provides the possibility to simulate the flow processes of plastic air intake manifold with different gate location and number of injection mold and to predict the position of air traps and weld lines. The location and number of the gate in injection mold are determined by comparing analysis results and avoid mold adjustment and mold repairing. Finished injection mold of plastic air intake manifold on basis of simulation is perfect.

Shiqiang Zhang

2013-01-01

156

High quality ion channels recordings on an injection molded polymer chip  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this thesis we demonstrate high quality recordings of the ion channel activity across the cell membrane in a biological cell by employing the so called patch clamping technique on an injection molded polymer microfluidic device. Such recordings are traditionally made using glass micropipettes, or in recent years using consumable microfluidic chips of high costs. The patch clamping method is widely used both in fundamental studies of electrophysiology of living cells and tissue and in drug discovery. The findings of this work will allow direct recordings of ion channel activity to be made using the cheapest materials and production platform to date, and with the potential for very high throughput. The employment of cornered apertures for cell capture allowed the fabrication of devices without through holes via a process comprising master origination by dry etching in a silicon substrate, electroplating in nickel, and injection molding of the final part. A thorough characterization of the patching orifices by means of SEM and AFM showed high replication accuracy through the fabrication process. The most critical device parameters were identified as the length of the patching capillaries and the very low surface roughness inside of the capillaries. The cross-sectional shape of the cornered apertures was found to be less critical, as apertures with different profiles were tested with cells and showed the same ability to form tight seals with cells with negligible leak currents. The ability to form high resistance seals in the GOhm range, the so called gigaseals, is demonstrated with a success rate of 15%. The devices were functionally tested with Human Embryonice Kidney (HEK) cells expressing voltage-gated sodium channels and benchmarked against a commercial state-of-the-art system for automated ion channel recordings. These experiments considered current-voltage relationships for activation and inactivation of the sodium channels and their sensitivity to a local anesthetic, lidocaine. Both IVs and lidocaine does response curves obtained from the injection molded polymer device were in excellent agreement with data obtained from the commercial system.

Tanzi, Simone

2013-01-01

157

Injection molded chips with integrated conducting polymer electrodes for electroporation of cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present the design-concept for an all polymer injection molded single use microfluidic device. The fabricated devices comprise integrated conducting polymer electrodes and Luer fitting ports to allow for liquid and electrical access. A case study of low voltage electroporation of biological cells in suspension is presented. The working principle of the electroporation device is based on a focusing of the electric field by means of a constriction in the flow channel for the cells. We demonstrate the use of AC voltage for electroporation by applying a 1 kHz, +/- 50 V square pulse train to the electrodes and show delivery of polynucleotide fluorescent dye in 46% of human acute monocytic leukemia cells passing the constriction.

Andresen, Kristian; Hansen, Morten

2010-01-01

158

Injection-molded Sm-Fe-N anisotropic magnets using unsaturated polyester resin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New injection-molding technology has been developed using an unsaturated polyester (UP) resin in order to produce bonded Sm-Fe-N anisotropic magnets. Sheet magnets of 50 mm x 20 mm x 0.36 mm are successfully made within a cycle time of 90 s. Magnetic properties obtained are almost the same as those obtained in column magnets of ?10 mm x 7 mm. Typical data of magnetic properties are as follows: B r = 0.72 T, H CJ = 796 kA/m and (BH)max 94.7 kJ/m3. The density is 4.79 Mg/m3. The degree of orientation of (0 0 6) is 5.31 calculated using the Wilson formula from X-ray diffraction result. Ring magnets of 7.4 mm x 3.2 mm x 0.3 mm are easily made from sheet magnets

159

Biodegradability of injection molded bioplastic pots containing polylactic acid and poultry feather fiber.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biodegradability of three types of bioplastic pots was evaluated by measuring carbon dioxide produced from lab-scale compost reactors containing mixtures of pot fragments and compost inoculum held at 58 °C for 60 days. Biodegradability of pot type A (composed of 100% polylactic acid (PLA)) was very low (13 ± 3%) compared to literature values for other PLA materials. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) results suggest that the PLA undergoes chemical structural changes during polymer extrusion and injection molding. These changes may be the basis of the low biodegradability value. Biodegradability of pot types B (containing 5% poultry feather, 80% PLA, 15% starch), and C (containing 50% poultry feather, 25% urea, 25% glycerol), were 53 ± 2% and 39 ± 3%, respectively. More than 85% of the total biodegradation of these bioplastics occurred within 38 days. NIRS results revealed that poultry feather was not degraded during composting. PMID:21320772

Ahn, H K; Huda, M S; Smith, M C; Mulbry, W; Schmidt, W F; Reeves, J B

2011-04-01

160

All polymer, injection molded nanoslits, fabricated through two-level UV-LIGA processes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Micro- and nanofluidic systems fabricated in silicon and glass substrates are expensive and have long production cycles. To minimize the time used by researchers to fabricate their systems, rather than using them, medium to high volume throughput of specific chips, containing fluidic channels in the micro- and nanoregime is required. To obtain this, injection molding is included in the research process for making several chips (100-1000) with the same layout. The time it takes for the individual chip to be fabricated in this way is much shorter than with conventional cleanroom methods, and the price is equally lower. Optimization of the final chip is explored, by looking at which aspects ratios are possible to obtain in polymer chips. Finally, signal to noise ratio of the chips used for fluorescent experiments is investigated, by an expected reduction of the excitation of fluorescent states in the polymer with the use of chips in different colors.

Østergaard, Peter Friis; Matteucci, Marco

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Injection molding micro patterns with high aspect ratio using a polymeric flexible stamper  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor filling occurs during the injection molding process of micro- or nano- scale patterns mainly because the hot polymer melt rapidly cools and its skin quickly solidifies upon contact with the mold surface. In this study, it is proposed to use Polyethylene terephthalate (PET film coated with patterned polyurethane acrylate (PUA as an effective thermal barrier. It can significantly hinder heat transfer into the mold during the molding process and thus may keep the melt viscosity low for longer duration. As a result, the replication would be improved not only during the filling phase but also during the packing phase. In order to verify the validity of the use of polymeric stamper, the melt-film interface temperature was evaluated by numerical simulation. Experimental results indicated that patterns possessing widths within the range of one to tens of micrometers and a height of approximately 10 µm were successfully filled and demolded.

2011-11-01

162

Multiple Performance Optimization for the Best Metal Injection Molding Green Compact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents and demonstrates the effectiveness of optimizing multiple quality characteristics of the injection molding of the MIM green compacts via Taguchi method-based Grey analysis. The modified algorithm adopted here was successfully used for both detraining the optimum setting of the process parameters and for combining multiple quality characteristics into one integrated numerical value called Grey relational grade. The significant molding parameters were identified as (1 Injection Pressure (2 Injection Temperature (3 Powder Loading (4 Mold Temperature (5 Holding Pressure and (6 Injection Speed. In addition, the multiple quality characteristics required are: (1 less defects (2 strong and (3 denser compact. The result concluded that the powder loading (C is very significant for the combination of the quality characteristics.

M.R. Harun

2011-01-01

163

Experimental validation of viscous and viscoelastic simulations of micro injection molding process  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effects of two different rheological models used in the simulation of the micro injection molding (µIM) process are investigated. The Cross-WLF viscous model and the Giesekus viscoelastic model are selected and their performance evaluated using 3D models implemented on two different commercially available software packages. Simulation results are then compared with the experimental µIM process. Validation parameters for the comparison are the flow front position during filling of the micro cavity. They are respectively obtained by applying the short-shots method and the flow-markers method. The µIM part is a polystyrene tensile bar test weighting 20mg and with three µ-features 300µm wide.

Gava, Alberto; Tosello, Guido

2009-01-01

164

Study of microcellular injection-molded polypropylene/waste ground rubber tire powder blend  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microcellular polypropylene/waste ground rubber tire powder blend processing was performed on an injection-molding machine with a chemical foaming agent. The molded samples produced based on the design of experiments (DOE) matrices were subjected to tensile testing and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses. Molding conditions and waste ground rubber tire (WGRT) powder have been found to have profound effects on the cell structures and mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP) and waste ground rubber tire powder composite samples. The result shows that microcellular PP/WGRT blend samples exhibit smaller cell size and higher cell density compare with polypropylene resin. Among the molding parameters studied, chemical foaming agent weight percentage has the most significant effect on cell size, cell density, and tensile strength. The results also suggest that tensile strength of microcellular PP/WGRT composites is sensitive to weight reduction, and skin thickness.

165

The effect of mold surface topography on plastic parat in-process shrinkage in injection molding  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An experimental study of the effect of mold surface roughness on in-process in-flow linear part shrinkage in injection molding has been carried out. The investigation is based on an experimental two-cavity tool, where the cavities have different surface topographies, but are otherwise identical. The study has been carried out for typical commercial polystyrene and polypropylene grades. The relationship between mold surface topography and linear shrinkage has been investigated with an experimental two-cavity mold producing simple rectangular parts with the nominal dimensions 1 x 25 x 50 mm (see figure 1). The cavities have different surface topographies on one side, but are otherwise identical (see discussion of other contribution factors).

ArlØ, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans NØrgaard

2003-01-01

166

End Uses Mechanical Properties Settled By The Modified Sintering Conditions Of The Metal Injection Molding Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most common mechanical applications require parts with specific properties as hard faced features. It is well known that treating parts under suitable atmospheres may improve hardness and strength yield of steels. Heat treatment process and more particularly thermo-chemical diffusion processes (such as carburizing or its variation: carbonitriding) can be performed to reach the industrial hardness profile requirements. In this work, a low-alloyed steel feedstock based on water soluble binder system is submitted to the MIM process steps (including injection molding, debinding and sintering). As-sintered parts are then treated under a low pressure carbonitriding treatment. This contribution focuses on preliminary results such as microstructural analyses and mechanical properties which are established at each stage of the process to determine and monitor changes.

167

Study of soft magnetic iron cobalt based alloys processed by powder injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a near net shape process, powder injection molding (PIM) opens new possibilities to process Fe-Co alloys for magnetic applications. Due to the fact that PIM does not involve plastic deformation of the material during processing, we envisioned the possibility of eliminating vanadium (V), which is generally added to Fe-Co alloys to improve the ductility in order to enable its further shaping by conventional processes such as forging and cold rolling. In our investigation we have found out two main futures related to the elimination of V, which lead to a cost-benefit gain in manufacturing small magnetic components where high-saturation induction is needed at low frequencies. Firstly, the elimination of V enables the achievement of much better magnetic properties when alloys are processed by PIM. Secondly, a lower sintering temperature can be used when the alloy is processed starting with elemental Fe and Co powders without the addition of V

168

Crystallization kinetics and morphology of PBT/MMT and PTT/MMT nanocomposites during injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work had as main objective to study the crystallization of nanocomposites of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) with a montmorillonite nanoclay (MMT) using an on-line optical monitoring system during the injection molding and to characterize the morphologies of the injection samples by polarized light optical microscopy (PLOM), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The optical system allowed to analyze the crystallization process by the changes of the optical properties during the solidification of the materials. It was concluded that the MMT lamellae accelerated the overall crystallization of the polymers. By PLOM, it was observed that the nanoclay caused qualitative changes on the morphology of the PTT (polymer with slow crystallization kinetics). The crystallinity indexes were not affected by the addition of the MMT; however, by WAXS it was shown that the nanocomposites had a higher orientation degree. (author)

169

Micromechanical modeling of the progressive failure in short glass-fiber reinforced thermoplastics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thermoplastics reinforced with short glass fibers are increasingly used in many industrial applications due to their attractive mechanical properties, rapid processing and relatively low manufacturing cost. Injection molding is a widely used process for the production of reinforced parts with complex shapes. However, the concentration and the orientation of the fibers vary from one point to the other. This induces a strong heterogeneity throughout the material, making the prediction of its be...

Kammoun, Slim

2011-01-01

170

Foaming morphology control of microcellular injection molded parts with gas counter pressure and dynamic mold temperature control  

Science.gov (United States)

Microcellular injection molding process is a promising solution for products with special requirements such as weight reduction, extra thin wall, high dimensional stability, clamping force reduction, etc. Despite microcellular foaming application used in reciprocating screw injection molding machine was built more than a decade, some limitations, such as poor surface quality or poor foaming control, confine the usage of this technology. Earlier CAE simulation tool for microcellular injection molding was not successful due to insufficient physical and computational considerations, limited by complicated bubble growth mechanism; so that, an economic and efficient tool for examining foaming quality of injection foaming product was lack. In this study, a recent developed three-dimensional simulation tool is used to predict injection foaming process. Predictions are carried out with commodity polypropylene and polystyrene with nitrogen and carbon dioxide supercritical fluids (SCFs). Comparisons of simulations between microcellular injection molding with and without counter pressure are discussed to provide insights into the correlation of surface quality and cell size distribution near the surface of product. Furthermore, comparisons between simulation predictions and experimental results of molding process, which is featured with dynamic mold temperature and gas counter pressure, are given for understanding quality improvement by controlling foaming morphology, and benefit of industrial application.

Shiu, Tai-Yi; Huang, Chao-Tsai; Chang, Rong-Yu; Hwang, Shyh-Shin

2014-05-01

171

CONVERSION OF WIND POWER TO HYDROGEN FUEL: DESIGN OF AN ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SYSTEM FOR AN INJECTION MOLDING FACILITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Injection molding plants are large consumers of electricity. At its current level of operations, Harbec Plastics (Ontario, NY) uses about 2,000,000 kilowatt-hours of electricity per year. Based on the US average fuel mix, approximately 1.5 pounds of CO2...

172

Mechanical properties of the weld line defect in micro injection molding for various nano filled polypropylene composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: > PP/CNFs and PP/TiO{sub 2} composites with relative high loading fractions (10, 20, 30 and 35 wt%) were fabricated by inner melt mixing process. Micro tensile test samples were formed by injection molding combined with variotherm process for all composites. > The morphological properties of all nano composites were characterized by WXRD, whose results imply the adding nano fillers did not change the crystal form of PP, but the crystallites size and distance between lattices of crystals were changed with various nano fillers and loading fractions. > DSC analysis show that due to the nucleating function of nano fillers, the peak temperature of crystallization was increased and the peak temperature of crystallization melting was decreased by adding the nanofillers. > The flow ability of nano composites was tested by high pressure single capillary rheometer and the results demonstrate that nano fillers increased the viscosity of PP matrix. > Based on these significant information and analysis foundation of the nano filled composites, the micro weld line samples were formed by injection molding process and characterized by tensile test method. From the achieved results, it can be found that in general, for functional nano filled polymer composites, the mechanical property of micro weld lines were obviously influenced by nano fillers' shape and loading fractions. > The E modulus of micro weld line was increased due to loading CNFs in PP matrix, while the elongation of the micro tensile samples with weld line is considerably decreased comparing with those of unfilled PP samples. The detrimental tensile strength of micro weld lines were observed when CNFs contents increasing, except for at a 10 wt%. > For TiO{sub 2} nano particles filled PP, due to the poor dispersion of nano particles, at low loading fraction of 10 wt%, the E modulus and tensile strength of micro weld lines were decreased by filling nano particles, but when the loading fraction is increased to 30%, the E modulus and tensile strength of micro weld line were increased again compared with the low loading level. > Finally, an empirical prediction equation for micro injection molded weld line strength of nano PP composites was proposed for higher nano filler loading fraction than 10 wt%. - Abstract: The nano filled functional polymer materials have been widely processed with micro injection molding technology for micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication. As the unfavorable defect in micro injection molding parts, weld line brings reduced mechanical and physical properties, especially for nano filled composites. In this study, polypropylene (PP) was compounded respectively with carbon nano fibers (CNFs) and TiO{sub 2} nano particles at various weight fractions (10, 20, 30, 35 wt%) through co-screws internal mixing. The morphological, thermal and rheological properties of nano composites were characterized by wider angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD), different scanning calorimeter (DSC) and high pressure capillary rheometer. Additionally, under the constant setting of injection molding process parameters in injection molding machine, micro tensile samples with weld lines for each nano filled PP composite were produced. The tensile tests were served as the characterizing method for weld line mechanical properties. The results show that when the CNFs is filled higher than 10 wt%, the tensile strength of samples with weld lines made of nano composites become lower than neat PP. While the raising CNFs content contributes to the improved E modulus of micro injection molded weld lines. Additionally, with the increasing fraction of CNFs in PP, the weld line area's elongation percent is decreased. Whereas for case of TiO{sub 2}, the 10 wt% is the threshold for micro injection molded weld line tensile strength turning from decrease trend to increase. The same as CNFs, elongation of micro weld line samples were in general lower than neat PP as well, due to the addition of TiO{sub 2} nano particles.

Xie Lei, E-mail: Lei.Xie@tu-clausthal.de [Institute of Polymer Materials and Plastics Engineering, Technology University of Clausthal, Agricola str.6, 38678, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Ziegmann, Gerhard [Institute of Polymer Materials and Plastics Engineering, Technology University of Clausthal, Agricola str.6, 38678, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

2011-01-12

173

Mechanical properties of the weld line defect in micro injection molding for various nano filled polypropylene composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? PP/CNFs and PP/TiO2 composites with relative high loading fractions (10, 20, 30 and 35 wt%) were fabricated by inner melt mixing process. Micro tensile test samples were formed by injection molding combined with variotherm process for all composites. ? The morphological properties of all nano composites were characterized by WXRD, whose results imply the adding nano fillers did not change the crystal form of PP, but the crystallites size and distance between lattices of crystals were changed with various nano fillers and loading fractions. ? DSC analysis show that due to the nucleating function of nano fillers, the peak temperature of crystallization was increased and the peak temperature of crystallization melting was decreased by adding the nanofillers. ? The flow ability of nano composites was tested by high pressure single capillary rheometer and the results demonstrate that nano fillers increased the viscosity of PP matrix. ? Based on these significant information and analysis foundation of the nano filled composites, the micro weld line samples were formed by injection molding process and characterized by tensile test method. From the achieved results, it can be found that in general, for functional nano filled polymer composites, the mechanical property of micro weld lines were obviously influenced by nano fillers' shape and loading fractions. ? The E modulus of micro weld line was increased due to loading CNFs in Peased due to loading CNFs in PP matrix, while the elongation of the micro tensile samples with weld line is considerably decreased comparing with those of unfilled PP samples. The detrimental tensile strength of micro weld lines were observed when CNFs contents increasing, except for at a 10 wt%. ? For TiO2 nano particles filled PP, due to the poor dispersion of nano particles, at low loading fraction of 10 wt%, the E modulus and tensile strength of micro weld lines were decreased by filling nano particles, but when the loading fraction is increased to 30%, the E modulus and tensile strength of micro weld line were increased again compared with the low loading level. ? Finally, an empirical prediction equation for micro injection molded weld line strength of nano PP composites was proposed for higher nano filler loading fraction than 10 wt%. - Abstract: The nano filled functional polymer materials have been widely processed with micro injection molding technology for micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication. As the unfavorable defect in micro injection molding parts, weld line brings reduced mechanical and physical properties, especially for nano filled composites. In this study, polypropylene (PP) was compounded respectively with carbon nano fibers (CNFs) and TiO2 nano particles at various weight fractions (10, 20, 30, 35 wt%) through co-screws internal mixing. The morphological, thermal and rheological properties of nano composites were characterized by wider angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD), different scanning calorimeter (DSC) and high pressure capillary rheometer. Additionally, under the constant setting of injection molding process parameters in injection molding machine, micro tensile samples with weld lines for each nano filled PP composite were produced. The tensile tests were served as the characterizing method for weld line mechanical properties. The results show that when the CNFs is filled higher than 10 wt%, the tensile strength of samples with weld lines made of nano composites become lower than neat PP. While the raising CNFs content contributes to the improved E modulus of micro injection molded weld lines. Additionally, with the increasing fraction of CNFs in PP, the weld line area's elongation percent is decreased. Whereas for case of TiO2, the 10 wt% is the threshold for micro injection molded weld line tensile strength turning from decrease trend to increase. The same as CNFs, elongation of micro weld line samples were in general lower than neat PP as well, due to the addition of TiO2 nano particles.

174

Birefringence, anisotropic shrinkage and luminance in injection molded light-guide plate: Modeling and experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with edge-lit backlight system have been widely used in industry due to several advantages over traditional cathode-ray tubes (CRTs). The main component of the backlight system is the light-guide plate (LGP) which is designed to provide the highest possible degree of light concentration and luminance efficiency. However, the relationship between processing conditions in manufacturing and their optical performance have not been established. In addressing this issue, LGP moldings were made of optical grade polycarbonates (PCs) of low and high viscosity and a polystyrene (PS). The theoretical and experimental studies on the effect of the processing conditions on the anisotropic shrinkage, residual stresses and birefringence, and resulting luminance in the injection molded V-groove LGPs were carried out. The stress-optical coefficient and relaxation modulus functions of polymers were obtained by specially designed rheo-optical instrument. These functions were incorporated to the linear viscoelastic and photoviscoelastic constitutive equations to predict the thermal birefringence in constrained, freely quenched plates and LGP moldings. The flow-induced birefringence and anisotropic shrinkage of LGPs were simulated by using a combination of a CV/FEM/FDM technique, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation, and orientation functions. The residual normal and transverse birefringence in LGPs along with shrinkages were measured. The predicted total birefringence was obtained by a summation of the predicted flow- and thermally-induced birefringence. Numerical results were compared with measurements at various processing conditions indicating a good agreement in the anisotropic shrinkage and a fair agreement in the residual birefringence. The luminance as a function of a viewing angle on the injection molded LGPs at various molding conditions was measured by means of the device that was built for this purpose. Strong effects from the processing conditions on optical performance were found. The results indicated that the LGPs made of low viscosity PC exhibited the best light concentration and the highest luminance while LGPs made of PS showed the lowest optical performance. Also, it was found that the luminance of LGPs showed a strong correlation with the depth of melt filling of the V-grooves and some correlation with the frozen-in birefringence.

Lin, Tsui-Hsun

175

Micro Injection Molding of Thin Walled Geometries with Induction Heating System  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To eliminate defects and improve the quality of molded parts, increasing the mold temperature is one of the applicable solutions. A high mold temperature can increase the path flow of the polymer inside the cavity allowing reduction of the number of injection points, reduction of part thickness and moulding of smaller and more complex geometries. The last two aspects are very important in micro injection molding. In this paper a new embedded induction heating system is proposed and validated. An experimental investigation was performed based on a test geometry integrating different aspect ratios of small structures. ABS was used as material and different combinations of injection velocity, pressure and mold temperature were tested. The replicated test objects were measured by means of an optical CMM machine. On the basis of the experimental investigation the efficacy of the embedded induction heating system with respect to improvement of replication quality, reduction of injection pressure and injection velocity as well as reduction of cycle time has been verified.

Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans NØrgaard

2014-01-01

176

Injection molding of nanopatterned surfaces in the sub-micrometer range with induction heating aid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Replication of sub-micrometer structures by injection molding leads to special requirements for the mold in order to ensure proper replica and acceptable cycle time. This paper investigates the applicability of induction heating embedded into the mold for the improvement of nanopattern replication. A tool insert having a surface containing functional geometries in the sub-micrometer range was produced using aluminum anodization and nickel electroplating. In order to provide elevated mold temperatures necessary for the complete replica of the pattern, a new mold setup was developed, which allows rapid heating of the cavity wall using an induction heating system. Temperature was measured using a thermocouple placed in the mold insert. The system was used to heat up the cavity wall with heating rates of up to 10 K/s. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC) were used as materials, and heating parameters were investigated after a preliminary optimization with standard heating conditions. The replicated surfaces were quantitatively characterized by atomic force microscopy using specific three-dimensional surface amplitude parameters and qualitatively inspected by scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the use of the induction heating system is an efficient way for improving nanoreplication.

Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans NØrgaard

2014-01-01

177

Trial production of titanium orthodontic brackets fabricated by metal injection molding (MIM) with sintering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Safety and esthetics are two indispensable factors to consider when fabricating orthodontic brackets. However, these factors are not easily achieved when conventional techniques (including forging and casting) are used in the mass production of titanium brackets, albeit the brackets exhibit excellent biocompatibility. In the present study, orthodontic brackets were manufactured by metal powder injection molding with sintering. Brackets with three different base designs were made and subjected to compression shear tests for evaluation of their bonding strength to enamel substrate. The shapes given to the dimple of the base were spherical, oval, and grooved. The maximum shear forces for each type were 11.1 kgf, 7.6 kgf, and 18.5 kgf, respectively. The bonding strengths of the titanium bracket were equivalent to those obtained with conventional stainless steel brackets. Moreover, uniform distribution of Vickers hardness values (average, 240 +/- 40 Hv) measured at three locations indicated that the titanium bracket was uniformly sintered. Accordingly, titanium brackets thus fabricated exhibit a potential for clinical application. PMID:8876601

Deguchi, T; Ito, M; Obata, A; Koh, Y; Yamagishi, T; Oshida, Y

1996-07-01

178

Finger-powered microfluidic systems using multilayer soft lithography and injection molding processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Point-of-care (POC) and disposable biomedical applications demand low-power microfluidic systems with pumping components that provide controlled pressure sources. Unfortunately, external pumps have hindered the implementation of such microfluidic systems due to limitations associated with portability and power requirements. Here, we propose and demonstrate a 'finger-powered' integrated pumping system as a modular element to provide pressure head for a variety of advanced microfluidic applications, including finger-powered on-chip microdroplet generation. By utilizing a human finger for the actuation force, electrical power sources that are typically needed to generate pressure head were obviated. Passive fluidic diodes were designed and implemented to enable distinct fluids from multiple inlet ports to be pumped using a single actuation source. Both multilayer soft lithography and injection molding processes were investigated for device fabrication and performance. Experimental results revealed that the pressure head generated from a human finger could be tuned based on the geometric characteristics of the pumping system, with a maximum observed pressure of 7.6 ± 0.1 kPa. In addition to the delivery of multiple, distinct fluids into microfluidic channels, we also employed the finger-powered pumping system to achieve the rapid formation of both water-in-oil droplets (106.9 ± 4.3 ?m in diameter) and oil-in-water droplets (75.3 ± 12.6 ?m in diameter) as well as the encapsulation of endothelial cells in droplets without using any external or electrical controllers. PMID:25102160

Iwai, Kosuke; Shih, Kuan Cheng; Lin, Xiao; Brubaker, Thomas A; Sochol, Ryan D; Lin, Liwei

2014-10-01

179

Thermal shock behavior of tungsten based alloys manufactured via powder injection molding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The focus of this work is to address mechanical strength and recrystallization resistance through thermal shock investigation of newly developed fine grained tungsten base materials (i.e., pure tungsten and two doped tungsten-grades incorporating either 1 or 5 vol%Y2O3 produced via powder injection molding (PIM)). Therefore, repetitive ELM (edge localized mode)-like loads (n = 100) were applied by means of an electron beam at various temperatures between RT and 400C (673 K) with a pulse duration of 1 ms and an absorbed power density of up to 1.13 GW/m{sup 2}. The microstructural properties, e.g. grain size, and Y2O3-particle distribution, were correlated with crack formation at a certain temperature, the crack propagation direction towards the bulk material and the amount of plastic deformation/surface roughening at higher temperatures. Thereby, it was shown that W-1 vol%Y2O3 outperformed all other investigated grades and reference materials from literature.

Pintsuk, G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, EURATOM-Association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Blagoeva, D. Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)); Opschoor, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

2013-11-15

180

EFFECTS OF INJECTION TEMPERATURE ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BAGASSE/POLYPROPYLENE INJECTION MOLDING COMPOSITES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effects of injection temperature on thermal degradation and porosity of the bagasse/polypropylene injection molding composites were studied. Above 185 ºC, incomplete filling occurred. The incomplete filling increased with increase of injection temperature. It was found that the gas generated by thermal degradation of bagasse fibers was so accumulated in the injection cylinder that the injected composites ended up with incomplete filling. A modified injection method with the venting of gas increased the complete filling percentage. Mechanical properties decreased with increase of injection temperature from 165 ºC to 260 ºC. This was due to increase of porosity and fiber shortening. The calculated flexural modulus, which incorporated the effect of porosity and fiber length, agreed well with the experimental results. Composites with maleic acid anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP were also investigated. Flexural strength and impact strength were improved by 45% and 35%, respectively, by addition of 20wt% MAPP. In the MAPP composites, fiber breakages at their roots were observed in the fracture surface after an impact test, while pulled-off fibers were observed in those without MAPP.

Shinichi Shibata

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Thermal shock behavior of tungsten based alloys manufactured via powder injection molding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The focus of this work is to address mechanical strength and recrystallization resistance through thermal shock investigation of newly developed fine grained tungsten base materials (i.e., pure tungsten and two doped tungsten-grades incorporating either 1 or 5 vol%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} produced via powder injection molding (PIM)). Therefore, repetitive ELM (edge localized mode)-like loads (n = 100) were applied by means of an electron beam at various temperatures between RT and 400 °C (673 K) with a pulse duration of 1 ms and an absorbed power density of up to 1.13 GW/m{sup 2}. The microstructural properties, e.g. grain size, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-particle distribution, were correlated with crack formation at a certain temperature, the crack propagation direction towards the bulk material and the amount of plastic deformation/surface roughening at higher temperatures. Thereby, it was shown that W–1 vol%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} outperformed all other investigated grades and reference materials from literature.

Pintsuk, G., E-mail: g.pintsuk@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, EURATOM-Association, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Blagoeva, D. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Opschoor, J. [ECN, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

2013-11-15

182

Thermal and mechanical behavior of injection molded Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate/Poly(epsilon-caprolactone blends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aiming the development of high-performance biodegradable polymer materials, the properties and the processing behavior of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate, P(3HB, and their blends with poly(epsilon-caprolactone, PCL, have been investigated. The P(3HB sample, obtained from sugarcane, had a molecular weight of 3.0 x 10(5 g.mol¹, a crystallinity degree of 60%, a glass transition temperature (Tg, at - 0.8 °C, and a melting temperature at 171 °C. The molecular weight of PCL was 0.8 x 10(5 g.mol-1. Specimens of 70/30 wt. (% P(3HB/PCL blends obtained by injection molding showed tensile strength of 21.9 (± 0.4 MPa, modulus of 2.2 (± 0.3 GPa, and a relatively high elongation at break, 87 (± 20%. DSC analyses of this blend showed two Tg´s, at - 10.6 °C for the P(3HB matrix, and at - 62.9 °C for the PCL domains. The significant decrease on the Tg of P(3HB evidences a partial miscibility of PCL in P(3HB. According to the Fox equation, the new Tg corresponds to a 92/8 wt. (% P(3HB/PCL composition.

Marcia Adriana Tomaz Duarte

2006-03-01

183

Automatic polishing process of plastic injection molds on a 5-axis milling center  

CERN Document Server

The plastic injection mold manufacturing process includes polishing operations when surface roughness is critical or mirror effect is required to produce transparent parts. This polishing operation is mainly carried out manually by skilled workers of subcontractor companies. In this paper, we propose an automatic polishing technique on a 5-axis milling center in order to use the same means of production from machining to polishing and reduce the costs. We develop special algorithms to compute 5-axis cutter locations on free-form cavities in order to imitate the skills of the workers. These are based on both filling curves and trochoidal curves. The polishing force is ensured by the compliance of the passive tool itself and set-up by calibration between displacement and force based on a force sensor. The compliance of the tool helps to avoid kinematical error effects on the part during 5-axis tool movements. The effectiveness of the method in terms of the surface roughness quality and the simplicity of impleme...

Pessoles, Xavier; 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2008.08.034

2010-01-01

184

Thermal and mechanical behavior of injection molded Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) blends  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Aiming the development of high-performance biodegradable polymer materials, the properties and the processing behavior of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), P(3HB), and their blends with poly(epsilon-caprolactone), PCL, have been investigated. The P(3HB) sample, obtained from sugarcane, had a molecular weight [...] of 3.0 x 10(5) g.mol¹, a crystallinity degree of 60%, a glass transition temperature (Tg), at - 0.8 °C, and a melting temperature at 171 °C. The molecular weight of PCL was 0.8 x 10(5) g.mol-1. Specimens of 70/30 wt. (%) P(3HB)/PCL blends obtained by injection molding showed tensile strength of 21.9 (± 0.4) MPa, modulus of 2.2 (± 0.3) GPa, and a relatively high elongation at break, 87 (± 20)%. DSC analyses of this blend showed two Tg´s, at - 10.6 °C for the P(3HB) matrix, and at - 62.9 °C for the PCL domains. The significant decrease on the Tg of P(3HB) evidences a partial miscibility of PCL in P(3HB). According to the Fox equation, the new Tg corresponds to a 92/8 wt. (%) P(3HB)/PCL composition.

Marcia Adriana Tomaz, Duarte; Roberson Goulart, Hugen; Eduardo Sant' Anna, Martins; Ana Paula Testa, Pezzin; Sérgio Henrique, Pezzin.

2006-03-01

185

Model and simulation for melt flow in micro-injection molding based on the PTT model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unsteady viscoelastic flows were studied using the finite element method in this work. The Phan-Thien–Tanner (PTT) model was used to represent the rheological behavior of viscoelastic fluids. To effectively describe the microscale effects, the slip boundary condition and surface tension were added to the mathematical model for melt flow in micro-injection molding. The new variational equation of pressure, including the viscoelastic parameters and slip boundary condition, was generalized using integration by parts. A computer code based on the finite element method and finite difference method was developed to solve the melt flow problem. Numerical simulation revealed that the melt viscoelasticity plays an important role in the prediction of melt pressure, temperature at the gate and the succeeding melt front advancement in the cavity. Using the viscoelastic model one can also control the rapid increase in simulated pressure, temperature, and reduce the filling difference among different cavities. The short shot experiments of micro-motor shaft showed that the predicted melt front from the viscoelastic model is in fair agreement with the corresponding experimental results

186

Thermal shock behavior of tungsten based alloys manufactured via powder injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The focus of this work is to address mechanical strength and recrystallization resistance through thermal shock investigation of newly developed fine grained tungsten base materials (i.e., pure tungsten and two doped tungsten-grades incorporating either 1 or 5 vol%Y2O3 produced via powder injection molding (PIM)). Therefore, repetitive ELM (edge localized mode)-like loads (n = 100) were applied by means of an electron beam at various temperatures between RT and 400 °C (673 K) with a pulse duration of 1 ms and an absorbed power density of up to 1.13 GW/m2. The microstructural properties, e.g. grain size, and Y2O3-particle distribution, were correlated with crack formation at a certain temperature, the crack propagation direction towards the bulk material and the amount of plastic deformation/surface roughening at higher temperatures. Thereby, it was shown that W–1 vol%Y2O3 outperformed all other investigated grades and reference materials from literature

187

Optimization of Micro Metal Injection Molding By Using Grey Relational Grade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Micro metal injection molding (?MIM) which is a variant of MIM process is a promising method towards near net-shape of metallic micro components of complex geometry. In this paper, ?MIM is applied to produce 316L stainless steel micro components. Due to highly stringent characteristic of ?MIM properties, the study has been emphasized on optimization of process parameter where Taguchi method associated with Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) will be implemented as it represents novel approach towards investigation of multiple performance characteristics. Basic idea of GRA is to find a grey relational grade (GRG) which can be used for the optimization conversion from multi objectives case which are density and strength to a single objective case. After considering the form 'the larger the better', results show that the injection time(D) is the most significant followed by injection pressure(A), holding time(E), mold temperature(C) and injection temperature(B). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is also employed to strengthen the significant of each parameter involved in this study.

188

Powder Injection Molding for mass production of He-cooled divertor parts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A He-cooled divertor for future fusion power plants has been developed at KIT. Tungsten and tungsten alloys are presently considered the most promising materials for functional and structural divertor components. The advantages of tungsten materials lie, e.g. in the high melting point, and low activation, the disadvantages are high hardness and brittleness. The machinig of tungsten, e.g. milling, is very complex and cost-intensive. Powder Injection Molding (PIM) is a method for cost effective mass production of near-net-shape parts with high precision. The complete W-PIM process route is outlined and, results of product examination discussed. A binary tungsten powder feedstock with a grain size distribution in the range 0.7-1.7 ?m FSSS, and a solid load of 50 vol.% was developed. After heat treatment, the successfully finished samples showed promising results, i.e. 97.6% theoretical density, a grain size of approximately 5 ?m, and a hardness of 457 HV0.1.

189

Influence of the local morphology on the surface tension of injection molded polypropylene  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we investigate the development of the morphology of an injection molding polypropylene under the local thermomechanical environment imposed during processing, and its effect on the contact angle and, hence, on the surface tension of the moldings. Melt and mold temperatures were varied in two levels. The local thermomechanical environment was characterized by mold filling computational simulations that allow the calculation of thermomechanical variables (e.g., local temperatures, shear stresses) and indices (related to the local morphology development). In order to investigate the structural hierarchy variations of the moldings in the thickness direction, samples from skin to core were used. The molecular orientation and degree of crystallinity were determined as function of the thickness, as well as the contact angle. The variations of the degree of crystallinity were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry. The level of molecular orientation was evaluated by birefringence measurements. The contact angles were measured in deionized water by sessile drop (needle in) method at room temperature, to determine the wettability of the samples. The contact angles were found to vary along the molding thickness in the skin, transition and core layers. These variations are related to the local morphologies developed. Results suggest that water contact angle increases with the level of molecular orientation and for finer microstructures.

Gomes, M.; Pontes, A. J.; Viana, J. C.

2014-05-01

190

Unique opportunities in powder injection molding of refractory and hard materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Powder injection molding (PIM) is a relatively new manufacturing process for the creation of complicated net-shapes outside the range usually possible via powder metallurgy technologies. This new process is now in production at more than 550 sites around the world. Although a small industry, PIM will soon pass $1 billion dollars (USA) in annual sales. This presentation overviews the PIM process, some of the new developments and some of the successes that have occurred with both refractory metals and hard metals. Example applications are seen in medical and dental devices, industrial components, wristwatches, jet engines, firearms, automotive components, and even hand tools. To help establish the novel growth opportunities, PIM is compared to other fabrication routes to better understand the design features arising with this new approach, providing a compelling case for substantial opportunities in the refractory and hard materials. Illustrations are provided of several components in production. New opportunities abound for the technology, since it eliminates the shape complexity barrier associated with die compaction and the cost of machining associated with complicated or dimensionally precise components. Further, a relative cost advantage exists for refractory and hard materials because PIM can use the same powders at the same prices as employed in alternative processes. Future successes will occur by early identification of candidate materials and designs. Early examples include tungsten heavy alloy components now reaching production rates of six million per month. (author)

191

Correlation of mechanical properties with complex orientation distributions in injection molded LCPs  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex flow & thermal histories during injection molding of liquid crystalline polymers lead to complicated distributions of molecular orientation in finished products. The potential for highly anisotropic mechanical properties in LCPs motivates better elucidation of how molding geometry and conditions impact the orientation state, and thus the spatial distribution of mechanical properties. We have used ex situ x-ray scattering to map the distribution of orientation in 3 x 3 molded plaques of various thicknesses. Additional process parameters included melt temperature, mold temperature, and filling speed. At most locations in the plaque, the orientation state reveals bimodal character, with one population roughly aligned along the anticipated flow direction during filling, and a separate population attributed to the transverse stretching associated with the diverging streamlines in the flow. Mechanical testing specimens are were cut from the plaques both parallel and perpendicular to the filling direction to assess the anisotropy in properties. Mechanical properties such as strength and stiffness were found to obey a universal correlation with x-ray measurements of molecular orientation projected onto the axis of the testing specimens. Thus, even in the presence of complex, spatially heterogeneous orientation states, simple average measures of orientation provide a robust means of anticipating macroscopic properties.

Rendon, Stanley; Burghardt, Wesley; Bubeck, Robert

2004-03-01

192

Time-Dependent Properties of Multimodal Polyoxymethylene Based Binder for Powder Injection Molding  

Science.gov (United States)

Powder injection molding (PIM) is one of the most versatile methods for the manufacturing of small complex shaped components from metal, ceramic or cemented carbide powders for the use in many applications. PIM consists of mixing the powder and a polymeric binder, injecting this mixture in a mold, debinding and then sintering. Catalytic debinding of polyoxymethylene (POM) is attractive since it shows high debinding rates and low risk of cracking. This work examines the possibility of using POM with bimodal molecular mass distribution as the main component of the binding agent by studying its time-dependent properties and comparing them to monomodal POM. Furthermore, possible optimization of the binder formulation was investigated by the addition of shorter polymeric chains (wax) to bimodal POM, as to create a multimodal material. It was observed that the magnitude of the complex viscosity for the commercial bimodal material was more than 2 times lower than for the chemically identical monomodal POM within the investigated frequency range and temperature. Viscosity values were observed to drop as the content of wax was increased, without compromising the binders mechanical properties in solid state. A new formulation of bimodal POM plus 8 wt.% of added wax provided the most appropriate results from investigated combinations. This work has shown how the addition of short polymeric chains in POM influences its time-dependent properties in solid and molten state, which can be an important tool for the optimization of binders designed to be used in PIM technology.

Gonzalez-Gutierrez, Joamin; Stringari, Gustavo Beulke; Zupancic, Barbara; Kubyshkina, Galina; Bernstorff, Bernd Von; Emri, Igor

193

Acoustic Emission Detection of Macro-Cracks on Engraving Tool Steel Inserts during the Injection Molding Cycle Using PZT Sensors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an improved monitoring system for the failure detection of engraving tool steel inserts during the injection molding cycle. This system uses acoustic emission PZT sensors mounted through acoustic waveguides on the engraving insert. We were thus able to clearly distinguish the defect through measured AE signals. Two engraving tool steel inserts were tested during the production of standard test specimens, each under the same processing conditions. By closely comparing the captured AE signals on both engraving inserts during the filling and packing stages, we were able to detect the presence of macro-cracks on one engraving insert. Gabor wavelet analysis was used for closer examination of the captured AE signals’ peak amplitudes during the filling and packing stages. The obtained results revealed that such a system could be used successfully as an improved tool for monitoring the integrity of an injection molding process.

Aleš Han?i?

2013-05-01

194

Acoustic emission detection of macro-cracks on engraving tool steel inserts during the injection molding cycle using PZT sensors.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an improved monitoring system for the failure detection of engraving tool steel inserts during the injection molding cycle. This system uses acoustic emission PZT sensors mounted through acoustic waveguides on the engraving insert. We were thus able to clearly distinguish the defect through measured AE signals. Two engraving tool steel inserts were tested during the production of standard test specimens, each under the same processing conditions. By closely comparing the captured AE signals on both engraving inserts during the filling and packing stages, we were able to detect the presence of macro-cracks on one engraving insert. Gabor wavelet analysis was used for closer examination of the captured AE signals' peak amplitudes during the filling and packing stages. The obtained results revealed that such a system could be used successfully as an improved tool for monitoring the integrity of an injection molding process. PMID:23673677

Sve?ko, Rajko; Kusi?, Dragan; Kek, Tomaž; Sarjaš, Andrej; Han?i?, Aleš; Grum, Janez

2013-01-01

195

Image-guided tissue engineering of anatomically shaped implants via MRI and micro-CT using injection molding.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study demonstrates for the first time the development of engineered tissues based on anatomic geometries derived from widely used medical imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Computer-aided design and tissue injection molding techniques have demonstrated the ability to generate living implants of complex geometry. Due to its complex geometry, the meniscus of the knee was used as an example of this technique's capabilities. MRI and microcomputed tomography (microCT) were used to design custom-printed molds that enabled the generation of anatomically shaped constructs that retained shape throughout 8 weeks of culture. Engineered constructs showed progressive tissue formation indicated by increases in extracellular matrix content and mechanical properties. The paradigm of interfacing tissue injection molding technology can be applied to other medical imaging techniques that render 3D models of anatomy, demonstrating the potential to apply the current technique to engineering of many tissues and organs. PMID:18593357

Ballyns, Jeffery J; Gleghorn, Jason P; Niebrzydowski, Vicki; Rawlinson, Jeremy J; Potter, Hollis G; Maher, Suzanne A; Wright, Timothy M; Bonassar, Lawrence J

2008-07-01

196

Optimizing Injection Molding Processing Parameters for Enhanced Mechanical Performance of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch High Density Polyethylene Composites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports on the influence of injection molding processing parameters on mechanical properties of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB filled High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE. The biocomposite pellets were first prepared using an extruder with 20 wt% EFB content before being processed in an injection-molding machine for specimen fabrication. Two processing parameters were varied systematically and independently during the composite sample fabrication. The holding pressure was increased from 60 to 90 bars while the injection temperature was varied from 150 to 210°C. The highest tensile strength of the composites was achieved at 70 bar holding pressure and 150°C injection temperature. However, the highest fracture strength was achieved at 80 bars whilst maintaining the injection temperature at 150°C. Flexural strength was shown to be unaffected by the varying pressure. The optimal processing parameters for highest mechanical performance were found to be at holding pressure of 80 bars and injection tempera

M.S. Ramli

2011-01-01

197

Acoustic Emission Detection of Macro-Cracks on Engraving Tool Steel Inserts during the Injection Molding Cycle Using PZT Sensors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an improved monitoring system for the failure detection of engraving tool steel inserts during the injection molding cycle. This system uses acoustic emission PZT sensors mounted through acoustic waveguides on the engraving insert. We were thus able to clearly distinguish the defect through measured AE signals. Two engraving tool steel inserts were tested during the production of standard test specimens, each under the same processing conditions. By closely comparing the c...

Aleš Han?i?; Andrej Sarjaš; Tomaž Kek; Dragan Kusi?; Rajko Sve?ko; Janez Grum

2013-01-01

198

Injection Molding of Titanium Alloy Implant For Biomedical Application Using Novel Binder System Based on Palm Oil Derivatives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) has been widely used as an implant for biomedical application. In this study, the implant had been fabricated using high technology of Powder Injection Molding (PIM) process due to the cost effective technique for producing small, complex and precision parts in high volume compared with conventional method through machining. Approach: Through PIM, the binder system is one of the most important criteria in order to successfully fabricat...

Ibrahim, R.; Azmirruddin, M.; Jabir, M.; Ismail, M. R.; Muhamad, M.; Awang, R.; Muhamad, S.

2010-01-01

199

Eliminating weldlines of an injection-molded part with the aid of high-frequency induction heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-frequency induction is an efficient way to heat mold surface by non-contact electromagnetic induction. It has been recently applied to injection molding because of its capability to heat and cool mold surface rapidly. This study applies high-frequency induction heating to eliminate weldlines in an injection-molded plastic part. To eliminate or reduce weldlines, the mold temperature at the corresponding weld locations should be maintained higher than the glass transition temperature of the resin material. Through 3 s of induction heating, the maximum temperature of 143 .deg. C is obtained on the mold surface around the elliptic coil, while the temperature of the mold plate is lower than 60 .deg. C. An injection molding experiment is then performed with the aid of induction heating, and the effect of induction heating conditions on the surface appearance of the weldline is investigated. The weldline on the heated region is almost eliminated, from which we can obtain the good surface appearance of the part

200

A 3D study on the effect of gate location on the cooling of polymer by injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Injection molding is one of the most widely used plastic part processing. The quality of the injection molded part is a function of plastic material, part geometry, mold structure and process conditions. Gate location is among the most critical factors in achieving dimensionally accurate parts and high productivity of the molding process. To investigate the effect of the gate location on the cooling of polymer by injection molding, a full three dimensional time-dependent analysis is carried out for a mold with cuboids-shape cavity having two different thicknesses. The cooling of the polymer material is carried out by cooling water flowing inside six horizontal circular channels. Three gate locations are assumed, normal to the cavity surface, normal to the small thickness of the cavity, and normal to the large thickness of the cavity. A numerical model by finite volume is used for the solution of the physical model. A validation of the numerical model is presented. The results show that the gate location normal to the small thickness of the cavity achieves the minimum time required to completely solidify the product and minimum solidification of the product during the filling stage. They also indicate that the temperature distribution through the output product is greatly affected by the position of the injection gate location.

 
 
 
 
201

PP-polymer nanocomposites with improved mechanical properties using elongational flow devices at the injection molding compounder  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous researches have been done in the field of improving PP by adding nanofillers. Consistently good scientific results and positive industrial feedback were reached; however, the industrial interest is still low due to the high technological and financial risks and too less benefit. Our experiments, using the worldwide unique Polymer NanoComposite Injection Molding Compounder (PNC-IMC) which combines the two processing steps of compounding and injection molding, showed an impressive increase of both mechanical and thermal properties, but more or less in the same range than in other publications. Thus we tried to improve the materials by using elongational flow generating devices for better intercalation and exfoliation of nanofillers in the polymer melt. This paper will give an overview on our first investigations, carried out on both a high pressure capillary rheometer (HPCR) and the injection molding machine (IMM) focusing on the mechanical properties. The PNCs were produced at the PNC-IMC with the 3in1 process. After the treatment in the HPCR the material was crushed, plates were prepared using a hydraulic vacuum press and tensile bars were milled, respectively tensile bars were produced with the IMM. The Young's modulus was successfully slightly improved. Thus future research will focus on both, the mechanism of improvement and the implementation of several of these devices into the PNC-IMC.

Battisti, M. G.; Friesenbichler, W.

2014-05-01

202

Powder Injection Molding - An innovative manufacturing method for He-cooled DEMO divertor components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), a He-cooled divertor design for future fusion power plants has been developed. This concept is based on the use of modular cooling fingers made from tungsten and tungsten alloy, which are presently considered the most promising divertor materials to withstand the specific heat load of 10 MW/m2. Since a large number of the finger modules (n > 250,000) are needed for the whole reactor, developing a mass-oriented manufacturing method is indispensable. In this regard, an innovative manufacturing technology, Powder Injection Molding (PIM), has been adapted to W processing at KIT since a couple of years. This production method is deemed promising in view of large-scale production of tungsten parts with high near-net-shape precision, hence, offering an advantage of cost-saving process compared to conventional machining. The complete technological PIM process for tungsten materials and its application on manufacturing of real divertor components, including the design of a new PIM tool is outlined and, results of the examination of the finished product after heat-treatment are discussed. A binary tungsten powder feedstock with a solid load of 50 vol.% was developed and successfully tested in molding experiments. After design, simulation and manufacturing of a new PIM tool, real divertor parts are produced. After heat-treatment (pre-sintering and HIP) the successful finished samples showed a sintered density of approximatel showed a sintered density of approximately 99%, a hardness of 457 HV0.1, a grain size of approximately 5 ?m and a microstructure without cracks and porosity.

203

Microstructural study of duplex stainless steels obtained by powder injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • The microstructural evolution of sintered PIM duplex stainless steels was studied. • A destabilization of austenite occurs after sintering at high temperature. • Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) revealed a remaining of 0.5% of austenite. • Ferrite content was also determined employing a magnetic method. -- Abstract: This experimental work is focused on the study of microstructural evolution during sintering of duplex stainless steels (DSS) obtained by powder injection molding (PIM). Ferritic 430L and austenitic 316L stainless steel powders were previously premixed in a 50/50 volume ratio and afterward they were sintered in low vacuum at different temperatures for 1 h. Microstructural analysis of sintered samples was conducted by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a compositional analysis of the alloying elements along different phases was performed by energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDS). Phase transformations were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments, and the magnetic phase content was measured with a ferritoscope. The intensity of the main austenite diffraction peak decreases as sintering temperature increases to finally disappear in the sample sintered at 1100 °C. This destabilization of the austenite is probably related to a high Nickel diffusion detected from austenite to ferrite particles. Moreover, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data were collected to quantify microstructural properties. Several EBSD pattern maps were acquired in order to define the amount of austenite phase. Due to the advantages of this technique a 0.5% of austenite could be detected after sintering at 1200 °C. After sintering process, the austenite content in sintered duplex stainless steels obtained through this processing route was lower than expected. Finally, Bain mechanism was proposed as an explanation to this phase transformation takes place. EBSD technique has been proved to be the most suitable to monitor the microstructure of sintered DSS

204

Microstructural study of duplex stainless steels obtained by powder injection molding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • The microstructural evolution of sintered PIM duplex stainless steels was studied. • A destabilization of austenite occurs after sintering at high temperature. • Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) revealed a remaining of 0.5% of austenite. • Ferrite content was also determined employing a magnetic method. -- Abstract: This experimental work is focused on the study of microstructural evolution during sintering of duplex stainless steels (DSS) obtained by powder injection molding (PIM). Ferritic 430L and austenitic 316L stainless steel powders were previously premixed in a 50/50 volume ratio and afterward they were sintered in low vacuum at different temperatures for 1 h. Microstructural analysis of sintered samples was conducted by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a compositional analysis of the alloying elements along different phases was performed by energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDS). Phase transformations were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments, and the magnetic phase content was measured with a ferritoscope. The intensity of the main austenite diffraction peak decreases as sintering temperature increases to finally disappear in the sample sintered at 1100 °C. This destabilization of the austenite is probably related to a high Nickel diffusion detected from austenite to ferrite particles. Moreover, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data were collected to quantify microstructural properties. Several EBSD pattern maps were acquired in order to define the amount of austenite phase. Due to the advantages of this technique a 0.5% of austenite could be detected after sintering at 1200 °C. After sintering process, the austenite content in sintered duplex stainless steels obtained through this processing route was lower than expected. Finally, Bain mechanism was proposed as an explanation to this phase transformation takes place. EBSD technique has been proved to be the most suitable to monitor the microstructure of sintered DSS.

Sotomayor, M.E., E-mail: msotomay@ing.uc3m.es [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Carlos III University of Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Kloe, R. de, E-mail: rene.de.kloe@ametek.nl [EDAX B. V., PO Box 4144, 5004 JC Tilburg (Netherlands); Levenfeld, B., E-mail: bll@ing.uc3m.es [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Carlos III University of Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Várez, A., E-mail: alvar@ing.uc3m.es [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Carlos III University of Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés (Spain)

2014-03-15

205

Reproducibility Study of NiTi Parts Made by Metal Injection Molding  

Science.gov (United States)

Powder metallurgy (P/M) is an attractive manufacturing process for net-shaped NiTi parts considering the limited machinability of NiTi alloys. Nevertheless, the industrial implementation of P/M processing for NiTi alloys is not trivial. To become competitive to manufacturing of NiTi alloys based on established ingot metallurgy, combination of fully pronounced shape memory behavior with sufficient mechanical properties is required. Successful use of P/M technology is strongly influenced by high affinity of NiTi alloys for uptake of oxygen and carbon, which leads to the formation of oxygen-containing Ti2Ni and TiC phases coupled with increase of Ni content in the matrix. In the case of Ni-rich NiTi alloys, this increase leads to a shift of phase transformation temperatures to lower values. Furthermore, precipitation of Ni4Ti3 during cooling from sintering temperature is difficult to avoid. Even if these precipitates might be used to decrease the Ni:Ti ratio of the matrix balancing oxygen and carbon uptake, significant loss of ductility arises, especially in the case of finely dispersed Ni4Ti3 precipitates. In the present work, each step of P/M manufacturing is discussed regarding its influence on the specific properties of NiTi alloys. The work is based on the application of prealloyed, gas atomized NiTi powders. Metal injection molding was used for net-shaped manufacturing of tensile samples, which enabled detailed study of sintering behavior combined with investigation of shape memory and mechanical properties depending on particle size, oxygen and carbon content as well as precipitation of Ni4Ti3 phase.

Bram, M.; Bitzer, M.; Buchkremer, H. P.; Stöver, D.

2012-12-01

206

Injection Molding Parameter Optimization of Titanium Alloy Powder Mix with Palm Stearin and Polyethylene for Multiple Performance Using Grey Relational Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper outlines the optimization the process of injection molding parameters for feedstock of titanium alloy powder and palm stearin binder using grey relational analysis method. A Grey Relational Grade (GRG) obtained from the Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) is used to solve the injection molding operations with the multiple performance characteristic. The L27 (313) of orthogonal array of Taguchi method were performed. Defects, strength and density are important chara...

Jamaludin, K. R.; Ruzi, M.; Ariffin, A. K.; Muhamad, N.; Mohamad Nor, N. H.; Sufizar, A.

2011-01-01

207

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF INJECTION-MOLDED FOAMED WHEAT STRAW FILLED HDPE BIOCOMPOSITES: THE EFFECTS OF FILLER LOADING AND COUPLING AGENT CONTENTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated the effect of filler loading and coupling agent contents on the densities and mechanical properties of injection-molded foamed biocomposites. Biocomposite pellets were manufactured using wheat straw flour, maleic anhydrite grafted polyethylene (MAPE), paraffin wax, and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with an extrusion process. Pellets and the chemical foaming agent (azodicarbonamide) were dry-mixed and foamed in an injection-molding machine. Densities and mechanical p...

Fatih Mengeloglu; Kadir Karaku?

2012-01-01

208

Investigating the Influence of Different Process Parameters on Shrinkage of Injection-Molded Parts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different models have been proposed to investigate the effects of various process parameters on shrinkage of plastic parts, which in most cases the effect of each parameter is obtained by changing one factor at a time. In this research, a simple flat model has been used and a simulation code has been developed. Then, through this simulation code, the effects of different process parameters have been investigated. This code was run for a typical thermoplastic (polycarbonate and finally, a Design Of Experiments (DOE approach was used to study the effects of multiple variables on shrinkage simultaneously.

A. R. Jafarian

2005-01-01

209

Fabrication and characterization of injection molded poly ({epsilon}-caprolactone) and poly ({epsilon}-caprolactone)/hydroxyapatite scaffolds for tissue engineering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL)/sodium chloride (NaCl), PCL/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/NaCl and PCL/PEO/NaCl/hydroxyapatite (HA) composites were injection molded and characterized. The water soluble and sacrificial polymer, PEO, and NaCl particulates in the composites were leached by deionized water to produce porous and interconnected microstructures. The effect of leaching time on porosity, and residual contents of NaCl and NaCl/HA, as well as the effect of HA addition on mechanical properties was investigated. In addition, the biocompatibility was observed via seeding human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on PCL and PCL/HA scaffolds. The results showed that the leaching time depends on the spatial distribution of sacrificial PEO phase and NaCl particulates. The addition of HA has significantly improved the elastic (E Prime ) and loss moduli (E Double-Prime ) of PCL/HA scaffolds. Human MSCs were observed to have attached and proliferated on both PCL and PCL/HA scaffolds. Taken together, the molded PCL and PCL/HA scaffolds could be good candidates as tissue engineering scaffolds. Additionally, injection molding would be a potential and high throughput technology to fabricate tissue scaffolds. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCL/NaCl, PCL/PEO/NaCl and PCL/PEO/NaCl/HA composites were injection molded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leaching time depends on the distribution of PEO phase and NaCl particulates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The elastic and loss moduli of PCL/HA scaffolds have significantly improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human hMSCs have attached, survived and proliferated well on PCL and PCL/HA scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molded PCL and PCL/HA scaffolds could be good candidates for tissue engineering.

Cui Zhixiang [Zhengzhou University, Henan (China); Nelson, Brenton; Peng, YiYan [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Li Ke [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Pilla, Srikanth; Li Wanju [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Turng, Lih-Sheng, E-mail: turng@engr.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin (United States); South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Huazhong University of Science of Technology, Wuhan (China); Shen Changyu, E-mail: shency@zzu.edu.cn [Zhengzhou University, Henan (China)

2012-08-01

210

Fabrication and characterization of injection molded poly (?-caprolactone) and poly (?-caprolactone)/hydroxyapatite scaffolds for tissue engineering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)/sodium chloride (NaCl), PCL/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/NaCl and PCL/PEO/NaCl/hydroxyapatite (HA) composites were injection molded and characterized. The water soluble and sacrificial polymer, PEO, and NaCl particulates in the composites were leached by deionized water to produce porous and interconnected microstructures. The effect of leaching time on porosity, and residual contents of NaCl and NaCl/HA, as well as the effect of HA addition on mechanical properties was investigated. In addition, the biocompatibility was observed via seeding human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on PCL and PCL/HA scaffolds. The results showed that the leaching time depends on the spatial distribution of sacrificial PEO phase and NaCl particulates. The addition of HA has significantly improved the elastic (E?) and loss moduli (E?) of PCL/HA scaffolds. Human MSCs were observed to have attached and proliferated on both PCL and PCL/HA scaffolds. Taken together, the molded PCL and PCL/HA scaffolds could be good candidates as tissue engineering scaffolds. Additionally, injection molding would be a potential and high throughput technology to fabricate tissue scaffolds. - Highlights: ?PCL/NaCl, PCL/PEO/NaCl and PCL/PEO/NaCl/HA composites were injection molded. ?Leaching time depends on the distribution of PEO phase and NaCl particulates. ?The elastic and loss moduli of PCL/HA scaffolds have significantly improved. ?Human hMSCs have attached, survived and proliferated well on PCL and PCL/HA scaffolds. ?Molded PCL and PCL/HA scaffolds could be good candidates for tissue engineering.

211

Application of Rapid Prototyping and Wire Arc Spray to the Fabrication of Injection Mold Tools (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund)  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid prototyping (RP) is a layer-by-layer-based additive manufacturing process for constructing three-dimensional representations of a computer design from a wax, plastic, or similar material. Wire arc spray (WAS) is a metal spray forming technique, which deposits thin layers of metal onto a substrate or pattern. Marshall Space Flight Center currently has both capabilities in-house, and this project proposed merging the two processes into an innovative manufacturing technique, in which intermediate injection molding tool halves were to be fabricated with RP and WAS metal forming.

Cooper, K. G.

2000-01-01

212

An investigation of flow properties of metal matrix composites suspensions for injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flow properties of metal matrix composites suspensions have significant effects on the fibre orientation during mould filling. The results presented in this paper relate to the flow properties of aluminium powder and glass fibres compounded into a sacrificial thermoplastics binder. For this purpose, a range of aluminium compounds and aluminium composite suspensions were investigated over a wide shear rate range expected to occur during injection mould process. Aluminium composites wee prepared by substituting glass fibres for aluminium in aluminium compound. Aluminium composite containing a maximum critical volume fraction of fibres which did not exhibit an increase n viscosity was determined. The effect of temperature on the flow behaviour of aluminium composite was also investigated. (author)

213

Low Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development Reaction Injection Molded 7.5 Meter Wind Turbine Blade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An optimized small turbine blade (7.5m radius) was designed and a partial section molded with the RIM (reaction-injection molded polymer) process for mass production. The intended market is for generic three-bladed wind turbines, 100 kilowatts or less, for grid-assist end users with rural and semi-rural sites, such as the farm/ranch market, having low to moderate IEC Class 3-4 wind regimes. This blade will have substantial performance improvements over, and be cheaper than, present-day 7.5m blades. This is made possible by the injection-molding process, which yields high repeatability, accurate geometry and weights, and low cost in production quantities. No wind turbine blade in the 7.5m or greater size has used this process. The blade design chosen uses a RIM skin bonded to a braided infused carbon fiber/epoxy spar. This approach is attractive to present users of wind turbine blades in the 5-10m sizes. These include rebladeing California wind farms, refurbishing used turbines for the Midwest farm market, and other manufacturers introducing new turbines in this size range.

David M. Wright; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

2007-07-31

214

Feature-based non-manifold modeling system to integrate design and analysis of injection molding products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current CAE systems used for both the simulation of the injection molding process and the structural analysis of plastic parts accept solid models as geometric input. However, abstract models composed of sheets and wireframes are still used by CAE systems to carry out more analyses more efficiently. Therefore, to obtain an adequate abstract model, designers often have to simplify and idealize a detailed model of a part to a specific level of detail and/or abstraction. For such a process, we developed a feature-based design system based on a non-manifold modeling kernel supporting feature-based multi-resolution and multi-abstraction modeling capabilities. In this system, the geometric models for the CAD and CAE systems are merged into a single master model in a non-manifold topological representation, and then, for a given level of detail and abstraction, a simplified solid or non-manifold model is extracted immediately for an analysis. For a design change, the design and analysis models are modified simultaneously. As a result, this feature based design system is able to provide a more integrated environment for the design and analysis of plastic injection molding parts

215

An Approach to Rib Design of Injection Molded Product Using Finite Element and Taguchi Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, not only Taguchi Method but also ANSYS in providing an economical and effective advance to the optimum design of the rib for a plastic injected product are introduced. The analytical model of a rectangular thermoplastic Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS plastic cover with rib of given thickness (2.8 mm was selected and constructed based on design experiences and the dimensions as well as the width of the rib were selected as the control factors for Taguchi Method. The deflection under a constant force of 150 Newton at the back centre of the cover was defined as quality characteristic. Additionally, the deformation experiment on a fixed thin beam was compared with the analytical result from ANSYS to verify the reliability of structure analysis from associated parameter setup and boundary condition operation. The L9(34 orthogonal array from Taguchi Method was moreover arranged to establish nine sets of finite element analysis models. Through Taguchi Method, the optimum design parameters were furthermore received from minimum deformation at back centre of the plastic cover analyzed by ANSYS. It is shown that the optimum structural parameters of a plastic rib can surely be effectively found with the integration of both Taguchi Method and ANSYS. Therefore, an Expert System of optimum design for various shapes of ribs can then be constructed through this study. This study exactly contributes a novel technique to the rib design for plastic injection industry in minimizing the development period of a new product.

Tian-Syung Lan

2008-01-01

216

Studies on the injection molding of polyvinyl chloride: Analysis of viscous heating and degradation in simple geometries  

Science.gov (United States)

In injection molding processes, computer aided engineering (CAE) allows processors to evaluate different process parameters in order to achieve complete filling of a cavity and, in some cases, it predicts shrinkage and warpage. However, because commercial computational packages are used to design complex geometries, detail in the thickness direction is limited. Approximations in the thickness direction lead to the solution of a 2½-D problem instead of a 3-D problem. These simplifications drastically reduce computational times and memory requirements. However, these approximations hinder the ability to predict thermal and/or mechanical degradation. The goal of this study was to determine the degree of degradation during PVC injection molding and to compare the results with a computational model. Instead of analyzing degradation in complex geometries, the computational analysis and injection molding trials were performed on typical sections found in complex geometries, such as flow in a tube, flow in a rectangular channel, and radial flow. This simplification reduces the flow problem to a 1-D problem and allows one to develop a computational model with a higher level of detail in the thickness direction, essential for the determination of degradation. Two different geometries were examined in this study: a spiral mold, in order to approximate the rectangular channel, and a center gated plate for the radial flow. Injection speed, melt temperature, and shot size were varied. Parts varying in degree of degradation, from no to severe degradation, were produced to determine possible transition points. Furthermore, two different PVC materials were used, low and high viscosity, M3800 and M4200, respectively (The Geon Company, Avon Lake, OH), to correlate the degree of degradation with the viscous heating observed during injection. It was found that a good agreement between experimental and computational results was obtained only if the reaction was assumed to be more thermally sensitive than found in literature. The results from this study show that, during injection, the activation energy for degradation was 65 kcal/mol, compared to 17--30 kcal/mol found in literature for quiescent systems.

Garcia, Jose Luis

2000-10-01

217

Drying Thermoplastics  

Science.gov (United States)

In searching for an improved method of removing water from polyester type resins without damaging the materials, Conair Inc. turned to the NASA Center at the University of Pittsburgh for assistance. Taking an organized, thorough look at existing technology before beginning research has helped many companies save significant time and money. They searched the NASA and other computerized files for microwave drying of thermoplastics. About 300 relevant citations were retrieved - eight of which were identified as directly applicable to the problem. Company estimates it saved a minimum of a full year in compiling research results assembled by the information center.

1976-01-01

218

Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) as matrix excipient for drug formulation by hot melt extrusion and injection molding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we evaluate poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)s (PEtOx) as a matrix excipient for the production of oral solid dosage forms by hot melt extrusion (HME) followed by injection molding (IM). Using metoprolol tartrate as a good water-soluble model drug we demonstrate that drug release can be delayed by HME/IM, with the release rate controlled by the molecular weight of the PEtOx. Using fenofibrate as a lipophilic model drug we demonstrate that relative to the pure drug the dissolution rate is strongly enhanced by formulation in HME/IM tablets. For both drug molecules we find that solid solutions, i.e. molecularly dissolved drug in a polymeric matrix, are obtained by HME/IM. PMID:22893256

Claeys, Bart; Vervaeck, Anouk; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Hoogenboom, Richard; De Geest, Bruno G

2012-10-15

219

DNA barcoding via counterstaining with AT/GC sensitive ligands in injection-molded all-polymer nanochannel devices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nanochannel technology, coupled with a suitable DNA labeling chemistry, is a powerful approach for performing high-throughput single-molecule mapping of genomes. Yet so far nanochannel technology has remained inaccessible to the broader research community due to high fabrication cost and/or requirement of specialized facilities/skill-sets. In this article we show that nanochannel-based mapping can be performed in all polymer chips fabricated via injection molding: a fabrication process so inexpensive that the devices can be considered disposable. Fluorescent intensity variations can be obtained from molecules extended in the polymer nanochannels via chemical counterstaining against YOYO-1. In particular, we demonstrate that the counterstaining induced fluorescent intensity variations to a large degree appear to be proportional to the theoretically computed sequence-maps of both local AT and GC variation along DNA sequences.

Østergaard, Peter Friis; Matteucci, Marco

2013-01-01

220

Influence of different process settings conditions on the accuracy of micro injection molding simulations: an experimental validation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Currently available software packages exhibit poor results accuracy when performing micro injection molding (µIM) simulations. However, with an appropriate set-up of the processing conditions, the quality of results can be improved. The effects on the simulation results of different and alternative process conditions are investigated, namely the nominal injection speed, as well as the cavity filling time and the evolution of the cavity injection pressure as experimental data. In addition, the sensitivity of the results to the quality of the rheological data is analyzed. Simulated results are compared with experiments in terms of flow front position at part and micro features levels, as well as cavity injection filling time measurements.

Tosello, Guido; Gava, Alberto

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Die-sinking electrical discharge machining of a high-strength copper-based alloy for injection molds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english High-strength copper alloys are used as materials for injection molding tools or as cores and inserts in steel molds because of their high thermal conductivity, corrosion and wear resistance. Unfortunately, there is little technological knowledge on the electrical discharge machining (EDM) of copper [...] -beryllium ASTM C17200 alloy. In this work, rough and finish machining conditions were tested using copper and tungsten-copper as materials for the electrodes. Cross-sectional micrographic and hardness examinations as well as surface roughness measurements were also carried out on workpieces after machining in order to study the thermally affected zones. Appropriate parameters settings for EDM of the investigated alloy are suggested.

F. L., Amorim; W. L., Weingaertner.

2004-06-01

222

Model and numerical simulation for the evolution of residual wall thickness in Water-Assisted Injection Molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The motion of water-melt interface confined in horizontal circular tubes during Water-Assisted Injection Molding (WAIM) has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. Of particular interest is the determination of residual melt film thickness on the walls. The reduced governing equations for viscous compressible non-Newtonian polymer melt during the second penetration in WAIM were established using dimensionless method. A formula used to calculate the second penetrating velocity was derived based on mathematical inference and mechanical principle. Experiments was conducted to measure the displacement of the water-melt interface as a function of the melt temperature, water pressure. The experimental results indicate the first penetration theory is not accurate in predicting residual wall thickness and the combined first and second penetration theories can improve the accuracy significantly.

223

A Fully Coupled Simulation and Optimization Scheme for the Design of 3D Powder Injection Molding Processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper is concerned with optimization and parametric identification of Powder Injection Molding process that consists first in injection of powder mixture with polymer binder and then to the sintering of the resulting powders parts by solid state diffusion. In the first part, one describes an original methodology to optimize the injection stage based on the combination of Design Of Experiments and an adaptive Response Surface Modeling. Then the second part of the paper describes the identification strategy that one proposes for the sintering stage, using the identification of sintering parameters from dilatometer curves followed by the optimization of the sintering process. The proposed approaches are applied to the optimization for manufacturing of a ceramic femoral implant. One demonstrates that the proposed approach give satisfactory results

224

Model and numerical simulation for the evolution of residual wall thickness in Water-Assisted Injection Molding  

Science.gov (United States)

The motion of water-melt interface confined in horizontal circular tubes during Water-Assisted Injection Molding (WAIM) has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. Of particular interest is the determination of residual melt film thickness on the walls. The reduced governing equations for viscous compressible non-Newtonian polymer melt during the second penetration in WAIM were established using dimensionless method. A formula used to calculate the second penetrating velocity was derived based on mathematical inference and mechanical principle. Experiments was conducted to measure the displacement of the water-melt interface as a function of the melt temperature, water pressure. The experimental results indicate the first penetration theory is not accurate in predicting residual wall thickness and the combined first and second penetration theories can improve the accuracy significantly.

Li, Qian; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Shixun; Shen, Changyu

2010-06-01

225

A X-ray study of ?-phase and molecular orientation in nucleated and non-nucleated injection molded polypropylene resins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of ? and ?-phases and the molecular orientation of injection molded disks of two isotactic polypropylene (i-PP resins were studied by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and pole figures. A nucleated (NPP and non-nucleated (HPP polymers were analyzed. The main proposal of this article was the comprehensive study of the interrelations between the processing conditions, phase contents and PP ?-phase molecular orientation of injection molded PP resins. In both resins, it was observed that the ?-phase was present in all regions along the thickness while the ?-phase was present mainly in the external layers, decreasing from the surface to the core; however this last phase was present in a very small amount in the NPP resin. For both polymers, the orientation of the macromolecules c-axis was higher along the flow direction (RD than along the transverse direction (TD. The b-axis of the PP ?-phase molecules was oriented to the thickness direction (ND. The orientation of the c-axis along RD and b-axis along ND of the NPP samples was considerably higher than of the HPP samples, due to the NPP faster crystallization kinetics. For both polymers, the most influential processing parameters on the molecular orientation were the mold temperature and flow rate. The results indicate that, as the mold temperature increased, the characteristic molecular orientation of PP ?-phase, with c-axis along RD and b-axis along ND, decreased. With increase in the flow rate an increase of the c-axis molecular orientation of the samples along RD was observed.

Marcia Maria Favaro

2009-01-01

226

Injection Molding of Titanium Alloy Implant For Biomedical Application Using Novel Binder System Based on Palm Oil Derivatives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V has been widely used as an implant for biomedical application. In this study, the implant had been fabricated using high technology of Powder Injection Molding (PIM process due to the cost effective technique for producing small, complex and precision parts in high volume compared with conventional method through machining. Approach: Through PIM, the binder system is one of the most important criteria in order to successfully fabricate the implants. Even though, the binder system is a temporary, but failure in the selection and removal of the binder system will affect on the final properties of the sintered parts. Therefore, the binder system based on palm oil derivative which is palm stearin had been formulated and developed to replace the conventional binder system. Results: The rheological studies of the mixture between the powder and binders system had been determined properly in order to be successful during injection into injection molding machine. After molding, the binder held the particles in place. The binder system had to be removed completely through debinding step. During debinding step, solvent debinding and thermal pyrolysis had been used to remove completely of the binder system. The debound part was then sintered to give the required physical and mechanical properties. The in vitro biocompatibility also was tested using Neutral Red (NR and mouse fibroblast cell lines L-929 for the direct contact assay. Conclusion: The results showed that the properties of the final sintered parts fulfill the Standard Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF 35 for PIM parts except for tensile strength and elongation due to the formation of titanium carbide. The in vitro biocompatibility on the extraction using mouse fibroblast cell line L-929 by means of NR assays showed non toxic for the sintered specimen titanium alloy parts.

R. Ibrahim

2010-01-01

227

Thermoplastic starch/wood composites: interfacial interactions and functional properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermoplastic starch (TPS)/wood composites were prepared from starch plasticized with 36 wt% glycerol. The components were homogenized by dry-blending, extruded and injection molded to tensile bars. Tensile properties, structure, deformation, water adsorption and shrinkage were determined as a function of wood content, which changed between 0 and 40 vol% in 7 steps. The modification of TPS with wood particles improves several properties considerably. Stiffness and strength increases, and the effect is stronger for fibers with larger aspect ratio. Wood fibers reinforce TPS considerably due to poor matrix properties and strong interfacial interactions, the latter resulting in the decreased mobility of starch molecules and in the fracture of large wood particles during deformation. Strong interfacial adhesion leads to smaller water absorption than predicted from additivity, but water uptake remains relatively large even in the presence of wood particles. The shrinkage of injection molded TPS parts is very large, around 10%, and dimensional changes occur on a very long timescale of several hundred hours. Shrinkage decreases to a low level already at 15-20 vol% wood content rendering the composites good dimensional stability. PMID:24507352

Müller, Péter; Renner, Károly; Móczó, János; Fekete, Erika; Pukánszky, Béla

2014-02-15

228

Thermoplastics as engineering materials: The mechanics, materials, design, processing link  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While the use of plastics has been growing at a significant pace because of weight reduction, ease of fabrication of complex shapes, and cost reduction resulting from function integration, the engineering applications of plastics have only become important in the past fifteen years. An inadequate understanding of the mechanics issues underlying the close coupling among the design, the processing (fabrication), and the assembly with these materials is a barrier to their use in structural applications. Recent progress on some issues relating to the engineering uses of plastics is surveyed, highlighting the need for a better understanding of plastics and how processing affects the performance of plastic parts. Topics addressed include the large deformation behavior of ductile resins, fiber orientation in chopped-fiber filled materials, structural foams, random glass mat composites, modeling of thickness distributions in blow-molded and thermoformed parts, dimensional stability (shrinkage, warpage, and residual stresses) in injection-molded parts, and welding of thermoplastics.

Stokes, V.K. [GE Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States). Engineering Mechanics Lab.

1995-10-01

229

An injection molding process for manufacturing highly porous and interconnected biodegradable polymer matrices for use as tissue engineering scaffolds.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this research, injection molding was combined with a novel material combination, supercritical fluid processing, and particulate leaching techniques to produce highly porous and interconnected structures that have the potential to act as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The foamed structures, molded with polylactide (PLA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) with salt as the particulate, were processed without the aid of organic solvents, which can be detrimental to tissue growth. The pore size in the scaffolds is controlled by salt particulates and interconnectivity is achieved by the co-continuous blending morphology of biodegradable PLA matrix with water-soluble PVOH. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) at the supercritical state is used to serve as a plasticizer, thereby imparting moldability of blends even with an ultra high salt particulate content, and allows the use of low processing temperatures, which are desirable for temperature-sensitive biodegradable polymers. Interconnected pores of approximately 200 microm in diameter and porosities of approximately 75% are reported and discussed. PMID:19957359

Kramschuster, Adam; Turng, Lih-Sheng

2010-02-01

230

Microstructure and mechanical properties of high Nb containing TiAl alloy parts fabricated by metal injection molding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metal injection molding (MIM) process was applied to fabricate parts of high Nb containing TiAl alloys with a nominal composition of Ti-45Al-8.5Nb-0.2W-0.2B-0.02Y (at.%), and the effects of sintering parameters on their microstructures and mechanical properties, as well as the fractographies after tensile tests were investigated. Results show that for sintering of the alloy in vacuum, effective densification took place in the temperature range 1460-1480 deg. C. Sintering at too high a temperature or too long a time will result in distortion or warpage of the sintered body or coarsening of the lamellar colony. When the optimum sintering parameters (1480 deg. C, 2 h) were chosen, the alloy with the relative density of 96.2% was obtained. The microstructure was homogenous and fine-grained near lamellar structure, consisting of {alpha}{sub 2}/{gamma} lamellar colonies with an average size of 60 {mu}m, small amounts of {beta} phase, few boride rods and yttrium oxide precipitates. Its compressive strength, compressibility, ultimate tensile strength and plastic elongation were 2839 MPa, 34.9%, 382 MPa and 0.46%, respectively. At tensile tests, translamellar fracture was the predominant mode and the microcracks often originated from pores and the interfaces of borides/matrix and {beta} phase/matrix.

Zhang Haoming, E-mail: zhmustb@yahoo.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); He Xinbo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Qu Xuanhui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao Liming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China)

2009-11-25

231

Metal injection molding as enabling technology for the production of metal prosthesis components: electrochemical and in vitro characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrial manufacturing of prosthesis components could take significant advantage by the introduction of new, cost-effective manufacturing technologies with near net-shape capabilities, which have been developed during the last years to fulfill the needs of different technological sectors. Among them, metal injection molding (MIM) appears particularly promising for the production of orthopedic arthroplasty components with significant cost saving. These new manufacturing technologies, which have been developed, however, strongly affect the chemicophysical structure of processed materials and their resulting properties. In order to investigate this relationship, here we evaluated the effects on electrochemical properties, ion release, and in vitro response of medical grade CoCrMo alloy processed via MIM compared to conventional processes. MIM of the CoCrMo alloy resulted in coarser polygonal grains, with largely varying sizes; however, these microstructural differences between MIM and forged/cast CoCrMo alloys showed a negligible effect on electrochemical properties. Passive current densities values observed were 0.49 µA cm(-2) for MIM specimens and 0.51 µA cm(-2) for forged CoCrMo specimens, with slightly lower transpassive potential in the MIM case; open circuit potential and Rp stationary values showed no significant differences. Moreover, in vitro biocompatibility tests resulted in cell viability levels not significantly different for MIM and conventionally processed alloys. Although preliminary, these results support the potential of MIM technology for the production of CoCrMo components of implantable devices. PMID:23661502

Melli, Virginia; Rondelli, Gianni; Sandrini, Enrico; Altomare, Lina; Bolelli, Giovanni; Bonferroni, Benedetta; Lusvarghi, Luca; Cigada, Alberto; De Nardo, Luigi

2013-10-01

232

Molecular orientation distributions during injection molding of liquid crystalline polymers: Ex situ investigation of partially filled moldings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of molecular orientation in thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) during injection molding has been investigated using two-dimensional wide-angle X-ray scattering coordinated with numerical computations employing the Larson-Doi polydomain model. Orientation distributions were measured in 'short shot' moldings to characterize structural evolution prior to completion of mold filling, in both thin and thick rectangular plaques. Distinct orientation patterns are observed near the filling front. In particular, strong extension at the melt front results in nearly transverse molecular alignment. Far away from the flow front shear competes with extension to produce complex spatial distributions of orientation. The relative influence of shear is stronger in the thin plaque, producing orientation along the filling direction. Exploiting an analogy between the Larson-Doi model and a fiber orientation model, we test the ability of process simulation tools to predict TLCP orientation distributions during molding. Substantial discrepancies between model predictions and experimental measurements are found near the flow front in partially filled short shots, attributed to the limits of the Hele-Shaw approximation used in the computations. Much of the flow front effect is however 'washed out' by subsequent shear flow as mold filling progresses, leading to improved agreement between experiment and corresponding numerical predictions.

Fang, Jun; Burghardt, Wesley R.; Bubeck, Robert A. (MMI); (NWU)

2013-01-10

233

Single Performance Optimization of Micro Metal Injection Molding for the Highest Green Strength by Using Taguchi Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Micro metal injection molding is drawing attention recently as one the most cost effective processes in powder metallurgy to produce small-scale intricate part and competitive cost for mass production of micro components where it is greatly influenced by injection parameter. Thus, this paper investigated the optimization of highest green strength which plays an important characteristic in determining the successful of micro MIM. Stainless steel SS 316L was used with composite binder, which consists of PEG and PMMA while SA works as a surfactant. Feedstock with 61.5% with several injection parameters were optimized which highly significant through screening experiment such as injection pressure(A, injection temperature(B, mold temperature(C, injection time(D and holding time(E. Besides that, interaction effects between injection pressure, injection temperature and mold temperature were also considered to optimize in the Taguchi’s orthogonal array. Analysis of variance (ANOVA in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N-larger is better for green strength was also presented in this paper. Result shows that interaction between injection temperature and mold temperature (BxC give highest significant factor followed by interaction between injection pressure and injection temperature (AxB. Single factor that also contributes to significant optimization are mold temperature(C, injection time (D and injection pressure (A. Overall, this study shows that Taguchi method would be among the best method to solve the problem with minimum number of trials.

M.H.I Ibrahim

2010-06-01

234

Effect of mixing on the rheology and particle characteristics of tungsten-based powder injection molding feedstock  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigates the effect of mixing technique and particle characteristics on the rheology and agglomerate dispersion of tungsten-based powder injection molding (PIM) feedstock. Experiments were conducted with as-received (agglomerated) and rod-milled (deagglomerated) tungsten powder mixed in a paraffin wax-polypropylene binder. Increase in the mixing shear rate decreased the agglomerate size of the agglomerated tungsten powder, decreased the viscosity, and improved the flow stability of the feedstock, interpreted as increased homogeneity of the feedstock. Higher solids volume fraction, lower mixing torques, and improved homogeneity were observed with deagglomerated tungsten powder, emphasizing the importance of particle characteristics and mixing procedures in the PIM process. Hydrodynamic stress due to mixing and the cohesive strength of the tungsten agglomerate were calculated to understand the mechanism of deagglomeration and quantify the effect of mixing. It was concluded that deagglomeration occurs due to a combination of rupture and erosion with the local hydrodynamic stresses exceeding the cohesive strength of the agglomerate

235

Microstructure and mechanical properties of high Nb containing TiAl alloy parts fabricated by metal injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metal injection molding (MIM) process was applied to fabricate parts of high Nb containing TiAl alloys with a nominal composition of Ti-45Al-8.5Nb-0.2W-0.2B-0.02Y (at.%), and the effects of sintering parameters on their microstructures and mechanical properties, as well as the fractographies after tensile tests were investigated. Results show that for sintering of the alloy in vacuum, effective densification took place in the temperature range 1460-1480 deg. C. Sintering at too high a temperature or too long a time will result in distortion or warpage of the sintered body or coarsening of the lamellar colony. When the optimum sintering parameters (1480 deg. C, 2 h) were chosen, the alloy with the relative density of 96.2% was obtained. The microstructure was homogenous and fine-grained near lamellar structure, consisting of ?2/? lamellar colonies with an average size of 60 ?m, small amounts of ? phase, few boride rods and yttrium oxide precipitates. Its compressive strength, compressibility, ultimate tensile strength and plastic elongation were 2839 MPa, 34.9%, 382 MPa and 0.46%, respectively. At tensile tests, translamellar fracture was the predominant mode and the microcracks often originated from pores and the interfaces of borides/matrix and ? phase/matrix.

236

Polyethylene ionomer-based nano-composite foams prepared by a batch process and MuCell injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To understand the correlation between foamability and melt rheology of polyethylene-based ionomers having different degrees of the neutralization and corresponding nano-composites, we have conducted the foam processing via a batch process in an autoclave and microcellular foam injection molding (FIM) process using the MuCell technology. We have discussed the obtainable morphological properties in both foaming processes. All cellular structures were investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy. The competitive phenomenon between the cell nucleation and the cell growth including the coalescence of cell was discussed in light of the interfacial energy and the relaxation rate as revealed by the modified classical nucleation theory and rheological measurement, respectively. The FIM process led to the opposite behavior in the cell growth and coalescence of cell as compared with that of the batch process, where the ionic cross-linked structure has significant contribution to retard the cell growth and coalescence of cell. The mechanical properties of the structural foams obtained by FIM process were discussed.

237

2:17-type SmCo magnets prepared by powder injection molding using a water-based binder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2:17-type SmCo permanent magnets by powder injection molding using a water-based binder have been studied. The water-based binder is methylcellulose solution, which consists of deionized water and methylcellulose. When the solution concentration is 0.5 wt%, the carbon content of the sintered magnets is below 0.1 wt% and the magnets have better magnetic properties. The magnetic properties and density of the sintered magnets can be increased through pre-sintering in vacuum (10-3 Pa) at 1200 deg. C. However, the Sm content of the magnets loses obviously in pre-sintering for a long period. The appropriate pre-sintering duration is 20-40 min. The magnetic properties of the magnets are: Br=0.97 T, Hcj=871 kA/m, BHmax=157 kJ/m3. The structure of the magnet consists of the matrix phases (2:17 phases) and the precipitate phases (1:5 phases)

238

Preservation of Geometrical Integrity of Supersolidus-Liquid-Phase-Sintered SKD11 Tool Steels Prepared with Powder Injection Molding  

Science.gov (United States)

The powder injection molded SKD11 tool steels often manifest shape retention problems during supersolidus liquid phase sintering due to the difficulties in controlling the amount of liquid phase. The typical temperature range for the sintering of SKD11 is only 10 K, between 1503 and 1513 K (1230 and 1240 °C), and this narrow sintering range demands a special furnace with very uniform temperature distribution. Through the addition of carbides, in particular TiC, this problem is resolved by enlarging the liquid + ? + carbide region in the phase diagram and by impeding the grain growth with the carbides. The resulting sintering window is broadened to 40 K, between 1513 and 1553 K (1240 and 1280 °C). The relevant mechanisms on the improvement of shape retention are discussed with a focus on the effect of carbide addition on the changes in the phase diagram and the microstructure. A guideline for the selection of effective carbides is also proposed based on the experimental results and the phase diagram analyses.

Chuang, K. H.; Hwang, K. S.

2011-07-01

239

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF INJECTION-MOLDED FOAMED WHEAT STRAW FILLED HDPE BIOCOMPOSITES: THE EFFECTS OF FILLER LOADING AND COUPLING AGENT CONTENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of filler loading and coupling agent contents on the densities and mechanical properties of injection-molded foamed biocomposites. Biocomposite pellets were manufactured using wheat straw flour, maleic anhydrite grafted polyethylene (MAPE, paraffin wax, and high-density polyethylene (HDPE with an extrusion process. Pellets and the chemical foaming agent (azodicarbonamide were dry-mixed and foamed in an injection-molding machine. Densities and mechanical properties of the foamed biocomposites samples were measured and analyzed using central composite design (CCD. The results showed that both filler loading and coupling agent contents affected the density and mechanical properties of foamed biocomposites. Densities in the range of 0.57 to 0.81 gr cm-3 were achieved. Best results were obtained when less than 20% wheat straw flour and 1% coupling agent content were used. The flexural modulus and tensile modulus of foamed biocomposites were improved with increasing filler loading. However, flexural strength, tensile strength, elongation at break, and impact strength values were diminished. The tensile strength of the biocomposites was positively affected by CA contents, but other mechanical properties were not affected by it. Overall, injection molded foamed biocomposites with moderate mechanical properties were produced.

Fatih Mengeloglu,

2012-06-01

240

Constante de mola de molas cerâmicas injetadas a baixa pressão / Spring constant of low-pressure injection molded ceramic springs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A dificuldade de usinagem de peças cerâmicas já sinterizadas é muito grande, principalmente devido à dureza e fragilidade destes materiais, o que implica em altos custos de produção. Por isso, grandes esforços tem sido feitos no sentido de melhorar os processos de conformação a verde existentes, ou [...] criar novos processos que permitam a obtenção de peças cada vez mais próximas do formato final desejado. Produzir peças cerâmicas com formatos complexos, livres de defeitos, é uma tarefa que implica em grandes dificuldades. Molas cerâmicas possuem formatos extremamente difíceis de serem moldados e, conseqüentemente, atualmente são produzidas comercialmente molas cerâmicas pelo processo de usinagem, geralmente a um custo elevado. Uma alternativa para a produção de molas cerâmicas é a moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão. Para o desenvolvimento de molas cerâmicas para aplicações tecnológicas, é necessário, além de obter peças íntegras e livres de defeitos, aferir algumas de suas propriedades, como a constante de mola. Uma vez que estas molas encontram aplicação em altas temperaturas, torna-se imprescindível realizar a medida da resistência imposta pela mola à deformação elástica em diferentes temperaturas. Para tanto, este trabalho propõem a montagem de um sistema para a medição da constante de mola de molas cerâmicas injetadas a baixa pressão, tanto à temperatura ambiente como em altas temperaturas, usando o método dinâmico da excitação por impulso para medir a frequência de vibração da mola suspensa no interior de um forno. Para ilustrar a aplicação desta técnica são apresentados resultados obtidos para uma mola helicoidal de alumina, da temperatura ambiente até 1100 ºC. Abstract in english The machining of sintered ceramic parts is a difficult process, mainly due to the hardness and brittleness of these materials, which implies in high production costs. Therefore, great efforts have been made to improve the forming processes of green ceramics, or create new processes to obtain the nea [...] r net shape parts. The production of ceramic parts with complex shapes, free of defects, is a task that involves great difficulties. Ceramic springs exhibits shapes extremely difficult to be molded and therefore are currently commercially produced mainly by machining, a process which is difficult and expensive. An alternative for the production of ceramic springs is by low-pressure injection molding. For the development of ceramic springs for technological applications, it is required in addition to getting parts intact and free of defects, to measure some of its properties, including the spring constant. Since these springs are usually applied at high temperatures, it becomes important to carry out the measurement of resistance imposed by the spring to elastic deformation at different temperatures. Accordingly, in this work we describe the assembly of an experiment for the measurement of the spring constant of low-pressure injection molded ceramic springs, both at ambient temperature and at high temperatures, using the dynamic impulse excitation method to measure the frequency of vibration of a suspended spring inside a furnace. Results are presented for a helical spring of alumina from room temperature to1100 ºC to illustrate the application of this technique.

R. A., Barbieri; J. E., Zorzi.

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Constante de mola de molas cerâmicas injetadas a baixa pressão Spring constant of low-pressure injection molded ceramic springs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A dificuldade de usinagem de peças cerâmicas já sinterizadas é muito grande, principalmente devido à dureza e fragilidade destes materiais, o que implica em altos custos de produção. Por isso, grandes esforços tem sido feitos no sentido de melhorar os processos de conformação a verde existentes, ou criar novos processos que permitam a obtenção de peças cada vez mais próximas do formato final desejado. Produzir peças cerâmicas com formatos complexos, livres de defeitos, é uma tarefa que implica em grandes dificuldades. Molas cerâmicas possuem formatos extremamente difíceis de serem moldados e, conseqüentemente, atualmente são produzidas comercialmente molas cerâmicas pelo processo de usinagem, geralmente a um custo elevado. Uma alternativa para a produção de molas cerâmicas é a moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão. Para o desenvolvimento de molas cerâmicas para aplicações tecnológicas, é necessário, além de obter peças íntegras e livres de defeitos, aferir algumas de suas propriedades, como a constante de mola. Uma vez que estas molas encontram aplicação em altas temperaturas, torna-se imprescindível realizar a medida da resistência imposta pela mola à deformação elástica em diferentes temperaturas. Para tanto, este trabalho propõem a montagem de um sistema para a medição da constante de mola de molas cerâmicas injetadas a baixa pressão, tanto à temperatura ambiente como em altas temperaturas, usando o método dinâmico da excitação por impulso para medir a frequência de vibração da mola suspensa no interior de um forno. Para ilustrar a aplicação desta técnica são apresentados resultados obtidos para uma mola helicoidal de alumina, da temperatura ambiente até 1100 ºC.The machining of sintered ceramic parts is a difficult process, mainly due to the hardness and brittleness of these materials, which implies in high production costs. Therefore, great efforts have been made to improve the forming processes of green ceramics, or create new processes to obtain the near net shape parts. The production of ceramic parts with complex shapes, free of defects, is a task that involves great difficulties. Ceramic springs exhibits shapes extremely difficult to be molded and therefore are currently commercially produced mainly by machining, a process which is difficult and expensive. An alternative for the production of ceramic springs is by low-pressure injection molding. For the development of ceramic springs for technological applications, it is required in addition to getting parts intact and free of defects, to measure some of its properties, including the spring constant. Since these springs are usually applied at high temperatures, it becomes important to carry out the measurement of resistance imposed by the spring to elastic deformation at different temperatures. Accordingly, in this work we describe the assembly of an experiment for the measurement of the spring constant of low-pressure injection molded ceramic springs, both at ambient temperature and at high temperatures, using the dynamic impulse excitation method to measure the frequency of vibration of a suspended spring inside a furnace. Results are presented for a helical spring of alumina from room temperature to1100 ºC to illustrate the application of this technique.

R. A. Barbieri

2011-12-01

242

Constante de mola de molas cerâmicas injetadas a baixa pressão / Spring constant of low-pressure injection molded ceramic springs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A dificuldade de usinagem de peças cerâmicas já sinterizadas é muito grande, principalmente devido à dureza e fragilidade destes materiais, o que implica em altos custos de produção. Por isso, grandes esforços tem sido feitos no sentido de melhorar os processos de conformação a verde existentes, ou [...] criar novos processos que permitam a obtenção de peças cada vez mais próximas do formato final desejado. Produzir peças cerâmicas com formatos complexos, livres de defeitos, é uma tarefa que implica em grandes dificuldades. Molas cerâmicas possuem formatos extremamente difíceis de serem moldados e, conseqüentemente, atualmente são produzidas comercialmente molas cerâmicas pelo processo de usinagem, geralmente a um custo elevado. Uma alternativa para a produção de molas cerâmicas é a moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão. Para o desenvolvimento de molas cerâmicas para aplicações tecnológicas, é necessário, além de obter peças íntegras e livres de defeitos, aferir algumas de suas propriedades, como a constante de mola. Uma vez que estas molas encontram aplicação em altas temperaturas, torna-se imprescindível realizar a medida da resistência imposta pela mola à deformação elástica em diferentes temperaturas. Para tanto, este trabalho propõem a montagem de um sistema para a medição da constante de mola de molas cerâmicas injetadas a baixa pressão, tanto à temperatura ambiente como em altas temperaturas, usando o método dinâmico da excitação por impulso para medir a frequência de vibração da mola suspensa no interior de um forno. Para ilustrar a aplicação desta técnica são apresentados resultados obtidos para uma mola helicoidal de alumina, da temperatura ambiente até 1100 ºC. Abstract in english The machining of sintered ceramic parts is a difficult process, mainly due to the hardness and brittleness of these materials, which implies in high production costs. Therefore, great efforts have been made to improve the forming processes of green ceramics, or create new processes to obtain the nea [...] r net shape parts. The production of ceramic parts with complex shapes, free of defects, is a task that involves great difficulties. Ceramic springs exhibits shapes extremely difficult to be molded and therefore are currently commercially produced mainly by machining, a process which is difficult and expensive. An alternative for the production of ceramic springs is by low-pressure injection molding. For the development of ceramic springs for technological applications, it is required in addition to getting parts intact and free of defects, to measure some of its properties, including the spring constant. Since these springs are usually applied at high temperatures, it becomes important to carry out the measurement of resistance imposed by the spring to elastic deformation at different temperatures. Accordingly, in this work we describe the assembly of an experiment for the measurement of the spring constant of low-pressure injection molded ceramic springs, both at ambient temperature and at high temperatures, using the dynamic impulse excitation method to measure the frequency of vibration of a suspended spring inside a furnace. Results are presented for a helical spring of alumina from room temperature to1100 ºC to illustrate the application of this technique.

R. A., Barbieri; J. E., Zorzi.

243

Injection molded component  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An intermediate component includes a first wall member, a leachable material layer, and a precursor wall member. The first wall member has an outer surface and first connecting structure. The leachable material layer is provided on the first wall member outer surface. The precursor wall member is formed adjacent to the leachable material layer from a metal powder mixed with a binder material, and includes second connecting structure.

James, Allister W; Arrell, Douglas J

2014-09-30

244

Glass fiber-reinforced engineering thermoplastics used in the car industry; GF-Thermoplastverbunde im PKW-Bereich  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Glass fiber reinforced engineering thermoplastics processed by injection molding, or in the form of glass fiber mat-reinforced polypropylenes, are used by the car industry for a wide variety of applications. The paper summarizes the materials and properties, mechanical performance, production variables, and the range of applications. Examples illustrate current applications for weight reduction at BMW as well as economics aspects. (orig./CB) [German] Glasfaserverstaerkte technische Thermoplaste (GF-T) in Form von Spritzguss und glasmattenverstaerktem PP sind heute in zahlreichen Anwendungen des Fahrzeuges zu finden. Einleitend steht ein vergleichender Ueberblick zur Einordnung von GF-T, hinsichtlich Materialaufbau, mechanischer Eigenschaften, Fertigungsparameter und Anwendungsspektrum. Bei BMW eingesetzte GF-T-Technologien wie Spritzguss- und GMT-Technik werden anhand von aktuellen Beispielen vorgestellt. Darueber hinaus werden auch neue bei BMW entwickelte GF-T-Werkstoffsysteme, -Technologien und -Bauweisenkonzepte, die das Potential zum Einsatz im Strukturbereich besitzen, vorgestellt. Die dabei erzielbaren Leichtbaupotentiale und letztendlich die Wirtschaftlichkeit werden abschliessend diskutiert. (orig.)

Mehn, R. [Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW), Muenchen (Germany)

2000-07-01

245

Effects of (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B borides on hardness in powder-injection-molded product fabricated with Fe-based alloy powders  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study, a powder injection molding (PIM) product containing (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B borides was fabricated with Fe-based alloy powders, and its microstructure and hardness were investigated in relation with volume fraction of (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B. In the Fe-based alloys designed by the thermodynamic calculation, the volume fractions of (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B increased with increasing (X{sub Cr}+X{sub B}) value, and were well matched with those obtained from the thermodynamic calculation. The hardness of the Fe-based alloys linearly increased with increasing volume fraction of (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B. When Fe-based alloy powders were injection-molded and sintered at 1165 Degree-Sign C, a densified microstructure with almost no pores was obtained. In the sintered microstructure, 56 vol% of (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B borides, together with a few pores (porosity; 0.5%), were relatively homogeneously distributed in the tempered martensite matrix, which resulted in the very high hardness over 600 VHN. Such a high hardness suggested that the present Fe-based alloy powders could be readily adopted for fabricating PIM products or for replacing conventional stainless steel PIM products.

Do, Jeonghyeon; Jeon, Changwoo; Paul Kim, Choongnyun; Lee, Byeong-Joo [Center for Advanced Aerospace Material, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sunghak, E-mail: shlee@postech.ac.kr [Center for Advanced Aerospace Material, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eon-Sik [Advanced Metallic Materials Research Department, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of); Shik Yoon, Tae [Bestner Co., 146-8 Sangdaewon-dong, Sungnam 462-121 (Korea, Republic of); Su Shin, Yang [New Growth Technology Strategy Department, POSCO, Seoul 135-777 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-30

246

The effect of injection molding conditions on the near-surface rubber morphology, surface chemistry, and adhesion performance of semi-crystalline and amorphous polymers  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis investigated the effect of injection molding processing variables, resin formulation and mold material on the resulting morphology and properties of semi-crystalline and amorphous polymers in parts molded on large presses with fully developed flow. Five different polymer resins and two different coating types were investigated, and the near-surface morphology was found to be dependent on material formulation, processing parameters, and geometry. For painted TPO, changes in the near-surface rubber morphology and surface chemistry based on material and processing conditions had no significant effect on the adhesion performance. For metal plated ABS, the adhesion performance was found to be heavily dependent on the rubber surface morphology, which varied with material formulation and processing conditions. One of the most significant findings was that forged aluminum injection molding tooling had little effect on the surface morphology or adhesion performance of either polypropylene or the two TPO formulations examined, despite the five-fold increase in thermal conductivity over traditional tool steel. Surface chemistry, however, was found to be affected by cooling rate, depending on material formulation. A UV stabilizer additive was found concentrated at 2.5 atomic percent on the surface of the aluminum molded part, but not the steel molded part, demonstrating a possible opportunity for using additives and aluminum tooling to create "designer surfaces". Processing conditions were found to have a competing role in metal plated ABS, where conditions that lowered surface stress and improved adhesion by a factor of 15 also increased the amount of bulk molded-in stress by nearly 7%. Both factors were found to play an important role in adhesion performance due to the effect of surface stress on the quality of the resulting etch structure. The bulk stress must be minimized to due to the large mechanical and thermal mismatch between the polymer and metal layers. This work provides a more in-depth understanding of the effect of processing and material composition on morphology, surface chemistry, molded-in stress and adhesion. This will establish guidelines for future injection molded part designs to alleviate delamination failures and minimize warp, as well as contribute to modeling predictions of shrink and mechanical behavior.

Weakley-Bollin, Shannon Christine

247

Moldagem por injeção de pós cerâmicos: remoção da parafina e do polipropileno utilizados como veículo orgânico Ceramic injection molding: removal of pafafin and polypropylene used as organic binder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A moldagem por injeção de pós cerâmicos tem se tornado um processo altamente atrativo por aliar a versatilidade e a produtividade da moldagem por injeção convencional às propriedades inerentes aos materiais cerâmicos. A remoção do ligante, usado como veículo orgânico nesse processo, é uma das etapas críticas para a produção de peças cerâmicas sem defeitos. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a influência da geometria das peças injetadas na remoção do ligante, tanto por imersão em solvente como por decomposição térmica. Alumina em pó foi misturada fisicamente a um ligante composto por polipropileno [PP], parafina [PW] e ácido esteárico [AE]. As peças com diferentes geometrias foram mantidas imersas em hexano, secas sob vácuo e acompanhada a variação de massa devido à solubilização do PW e AE. A determinação da porosidade das peças, realizada por meio das isotermas de adsorção/desorção de nitrogênio, mostrou um aumento de porosidade de 0,5% volume para aproximadamente 20% volume após a imersão em solvente. A remoção térmica do PP remanescente produziu hidrocarbonetos alifáticos e compostos insaturados, determinados e quantificados por espectroscopia de infravermelho, que permearam a estrutura porosa da peça. A geometria das peças tem grande influência na remoção do ligante, podendo afetar não só a qualidade do produto final, mas também as etapas subseqüentes do processo.Powder injection molding [PIM] has become highly attractive as it combines the versatility and productivity of conventional injection molding processes with the intrinsic properties of metallic and ceramic materials. The removal of organic binder, used as vehicles during the process, is one of the most critical stages in the production of ceramic devices in this process. In this work, the influence from the geometry of the injected part on the removal of the organic binder was evaluated for both solvent immersion and thermal degradation processes. Alumina powder was mixed with an organic binder, comprising polypropylene [PP], paraffin wax [PW] and stearic acid [SA], and injection molded in different geometries. Immersion of ceramic parts in hexane induced the solubilization of PW and SA, confirmed by weight variation. Parts porosity, determined through nitrogen adsorption isotherm, showed an increase from 0.5 v% before immersion to ca. 20 v% after immersion. PP burnout produced aliphatic hydrocarbons and unsaturated compounds that flow through a porous structure produced in early stages of this process. Parts geometry plays an important role in binder removal, affecting the quality of the sintered part as well as the remaining stages of the process.

Ricardo V. B. Oliveira

2004-09-01

248

Moldagem por injeção de pós cerâmicos: remoção da parafina e do polipropileno utilizados como veículo orgânico / Ceramic injection molding: removal of pafafin and polypropylene used as organic binder  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A moldagem por injeção de pós cerâmicos tem se tornado um processo altamente atrativo por aliar a versatilidade e a produtividade da moldagem por injeção convencional às propriedades inerentes aos materiais cerâmicos. A remoção do ligante, usado como veículo orgânico nesse processo, é uma das etapas [...] críticas para a produção de peças cerâmicas sem defeitos. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a influência da geometria das peças injetadas na remoção do ligante, tanto por imersão em solvente como por decomposição térmica. Alumina em pó foi misturada fisicamente a um ligante composto por polipropileno [PP], parafina [PW] e ácido esteárico [AE]. As peças com diferentes geometrias foram mantidas imersas em hexano, secas sob vácuo e acompanhada a variação de massa devido à solubilização do PW e AE. A determinação da porosidade das peças, realizada por meio das isotermas de adsorção/desorção de nitrogênio, mostrou um aumento de porosidade de 0,5% volume para aproximadamente 20% volume após a imersão em solvente. A remoção térmica do PP remanescente produziu hidrocarbonetos alifáticos e compostos insaturados, determinados e quantificados por espectroscopia de infravermelho, que permearam a estrutura porosa da peça. A geometria das peças tem grande influência na remoção do ligante, podendo afetar não só a qualidade do produto final, mas também as etapas subseqüentes do processo. Abstract in english Powder injection molding [PIM] has become highly attractive as it combines the versatility and productivity of conventional injection molding processes with the intrinsic properties of metallic and ceramic materials. The removal of organic binder, used as vehicles during the process, is one of the m [...] ost critical stages in the production of ceramic devices in this process. In this work, the influence from the geometry of the injected part on the removal of the organic binder was evaluated for both solvent immersion and thermal degradation processes. Alumina powder was mixed with an organic binder, comprising polypropylene [PP], paraffin wax [PW] and stearic acid [SA], and injection molded in different geometries. Immersion of ceramic parts in hexane induced the solubilization of PW and SA, confirmed by weight variation. Parts porosity, determined through nitrogen adsorption isotherm, showed an increase from 0.5 v% before immersion to ca. 20 v% after immersion. PP burnout produced aliphatic hydrocarbons and unsaturated compounds that flow through a porous structure produced in early stages of this process. Parts geometry plays an important role in binder removal, affecting the quality of the sintered part as well as the remaining stages of the process.

Ricardo V. B., Oliveira; Eduardo A., Pinheiro; Valdir, Soldi; Alfredo T. N., Pires; Márcio C., Fredel.

2004-09-01

249

Moldagem por injeção de pós cerâmicos: remoção da parafina e do polipropileno utilizados como veículo orgânico / Ceramic injection molding: removal of pafafin and polypropylene used as organic binder  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A moldagem por injeção de pós cerâmicos tem se tornado um processo altamente atrativo por aliar a versatilidade e a produtividade da moldagem por injeção convencional às propriedades inerentes aos materiais cerâmicos. A remoção do ligante, usado como veículo orgânico nesse processo, é uma das etapas [...] críticas para a produção de peças cerâmicas sem defeitos. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a influência da geometria das peças injetadas na remoção do ligante, tanto por imersão em solvente como por decomposição térmica. Alumina em pó foi misturada fisicamente a um ligante composto por polipropileno [PP], parafina [PW] e ácido esteárico [AE]. As peças com diferentes geometrias foram mantidas imersas em hexano, secas sob vácuo e acompanhada a variação de massa devido à solubilização do PW e AE. A determinação da porosidade das peças, realizada por meio das isotermas de adsorção/desorção de nitrogênio, mostrou um aumento de porosidade de 0,5% volume para aproximadamente 20% volume após a imersão em solvente. A remoção térmica do PP remanescente produziu hidrocarbonetos alifáticos e compostos insaturados, determinados e quantificados por espectroscopia de infravermelho, que permearam a estrutura porosa da peça. A geometria das peças tem grande influência na remoção do ligante, podendo afetar não só a qualidade do produto final, mas também as etapas subseqüentes do processo. Abstract in english Powder injection molding [PIM] has become highly attractive as it combines the versatility and productivity of conventional injection molding processes with the intrinsic properties of metallic and ceramic materials. The removal of organic binder, used as vehicles during the process, is one of the m [...] ost critical stages in the production of ceramic devices in this process. In this work, the influence from the geometry of the injected part on the removal of the organic binder was evaluated for both solvent immersion and thermal degradation processes. Alumina powder was mixed with an organic binder, comprising polypropylene [PP], paraffin wax [PW] and stearic acid [SA], and injection molded in different geometries. Immersion of ceramic parts in hexane induced the solubilization of PW and SA, confirmed by weight variation. Parts porosity, determined through nitrogen adsorption isotherm, showed an increase from 0.5 v% before immersion to ca. 20 v% after immersion. PP burnout produced aliphatic hydrocarbons and unsaturated compounds that flow through a porous structure produced in early stages of this process. Parts geometry plays an important role in binder removal, affecting the quality of the sintered part as well as the remaining stages of the process.

Ricardo V. B., Oliveira; Eduardo A., Pinheiro; Valdir, Soldi; Alfredo T. N., Pires; Márcio C., Fredel.

250

Effect of thermal history on the rheology of thermoplastic polyurethanes  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of thermal history on the rheological behavior of ester- and, ether-based commercial thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) was investigated. It was found from 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that the ester-based TPU consisted of 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and butane diol (BDO) as hard segments and poly(butylene adipate) as soft segments, and the ether-based TPU consisted of MDT-BDO as hard segments and poly(oxytetramethylene) as soft segments. During isothermal annealing, the dynamic storage and loss moduli (G' and G'' ) of specimens, which had been prepared by injection molding at different temperatures, were monitored at a fixed angular frequency. It was found that thermal history of specimens had a profound influence on the variations of G' and G' ' with time observed during isothermal annealing. Isochronal dynamic temperature sweep experiments indicated that the TPUs exhibit hysteresis effect during heating and cooling, very similar to that observed in microphase-separated block polymers and thermotropic liquid-crystalline polymers reported in the literature. It was found that time-temperature superposition failed to produce reduced (or master) plots for the TPUs employed. This conclusion was reinforced by the temperature dependence of log G ' versus log G'' plots over the entire range of temperatures (110--190°C) investigated, suggesting that the morphological state of the TPU specimens varied with temperature. Little evidence was found from differential scanning calorimetry that thermal transitions took place in the TPU specimens during isothermal annealing, while values of G' and G' ' were found to vary with time. Measurements were taken of N-H stretching absorption bands in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra during isothermal annealing at 170°C for specimens prepared by injection molding at different temperatures. The analysis of FTIR spectra indicated that variations of hydrogen bonding with time during isothermal annealing resemble very much variations of G' with time during isothermal annealing. Little evidence was found from 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy that exchange reactions took place in the TPU specimens during isothermal annealing at elevated temperatures. It is concluded from the present study that microphase separation transition or order-disorder transition in TPU cannot be determined from oscillatory shear rheometry.

Yoon, Pil Joong

251

On the failure mode in dry and hygrothermally aged short fiber-reinforced injection-molded polyarylamide composites by acoustic emission  

Science.gov (United States)

The failure mode in injection-molded short glass (GF) and carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polyarylamide (PAR) composites was studied on compact tension (CT) specimens in as-received (AR), hygrothermally aged (HA) and re-dried (RD) states, respectively, using acoustic emission (AE) and fractography. A significant difference was revealed in the failure manner characterized by the cumulative run, amplitude and energy distribution of the AE events as a function of the water content of the composites. Furthermore, a correlation was found between the cumulative AE events up to the maximum load and the fracture toughness of the composites. It was shown that the fracture response and thus the failure behavior of the water-saturated PAR composites can be restored by drying. This fact indicates that the water absorption and desorption are of a purely physical nature, i.e. they are reversible processes. It was established that chopped fiber-reinforced PAR composites fail by matrix deformation along with fiber/matrix debonding in the crack initiation, whereas fiber pull-out becomes dominant in the crack propagation range. Water uptake shifts both the AE amplitude and energy curves toward lower values, a phenomenon attributed to plastification of the PAR matrix by water.

Czigány, T.; Mohd Ishak, Z. A.; Karger-Kocsis, J.

1995-09-01

252

Particle-polymer Interactions Analysis For Metal Powder Injection Molding Feedstock: A Molecular-dynamics Simulation With Dissipative Particle Dynamics Using ESPResSo  

Science.gov (United States)

The applicability of Dissipative Particle Dynamics is investigated for the rheological study of melts composed of particles/polymers in microcavities for micro injection moulding. The need for prediction of rheological parameters of fluid in Particle charged-Micro Injection Molding is of great importance so far as this would give crucial information concerning, e.g., spatial arrangement of polymeric chains and metallic particles and possible segregation effects. Complex fluids like polymer melts have macroscopic behaviour that greatly depends on their microstructure. The dynamics of a complex fluid is fundamentally affected by its microscopic structure. A complex fluid is no longer completely described by the Navier-Stokes equation, but described by so-called Fokker-Planck equations. A fluid is represented by interacting particles. These particles are allowed to move in a continuous space. Each particle carries certain information pertaining to the flow like the volume of the fluid, or only the mass of the fluid. The equations of motion can also be defined through Newton's laws of motion as in molecular dynamics. Simulations are carried out using molecular dynamics simulation package ESPResSo.

Larsen, Guillaume; Cheng, Zhi Qiang; Barriere, Thierry; Liu, Bao Sheng; Gelin, Jean-Claude

2011-05-01

253

A method for manufacturing a tool part for an injection molding process, a hot embossing process, a nano-imprint process, or an extrusion process  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing a tool part for an injection molding process, a hot embossing process, nano-imprint process or an extrusion process. First, there is provided a master structure (10) with a surface area comprising nanometre-sized protrusions (11) with a minimum density of approximately 105 protrusions/mm2, the protrusions being positioned in a non- periodic, irregular pattern, said protrusions being created by a process comprising alternating passivation and etching into the master structure. Secondly, there is made a transfer of the master structure into a metal insert (20), the metal insert having a corresponding nanometre-sized pattern (21) from said protrusions, and thirdly, adapting the metal insert into a tool part (30) for enabling nanometre- sized patterns being formed by the tool part. The invention provides an easier and faster way of manufacturing the master structure, e.g. a black silicon wafer. It is a further advantage of the present invention that it provides an advantageous way of making tools capable of producing self-cleaning surfaces without the need for chemical coating.

SØgaard, Emil Technical University of Denmark,

254

Determinação da redução da resistência à tração em corpos de prova com Weld Line / Determination of reduction of the weld line strength in injection molded  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho objetivou-se determinar a redução da resistência à tração de corpos de prova com linhas de solda. Os corpos de prova ASTM foram moldados pelo processo de injeção com diferentes temperaturas de plastificação (180 ºC a 280 ºC). O material utilizado foi o polímero termoplástico Polystyro [...] l 158 K da Basf. Este estudo relaciona as linhas de solda em produtos moldados por injeção com a redução da resistência mecânica devido a fragilização na região da linha de solda. Para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho foi projetado e desenvolvido um molde de injeção com uma cavidade em forma de corpo de prova com canal de ataque pelas extremidades. Desta forma no momento da junção dos fluxos obtêm-se uma linha de solda no centro do corpo de prova. Os parâmetros do processo de injeção foram determinados a partir de um aplicativo comercial. A temperatura do molde e o tempo de injeção permaneceram constantes. O tempo de solidificação do material foi determinado analiticamente, considerando-se o centro do corpo de prova como referência. Foram injetados dez corpos de prova em cada uma das temperaturas. Foi observada de forma clara a existência de linhas de junção no centro da peça e as condições de processo utilizadas não permitiram a formação de linha de solda fria. Após a realização dos ensaios de tração, foi determinado que a tensão de ruptura decresce nas seguintes condições: com a diminuição da temperatura de injeção e do tempo de solidificação e com o aumento da trinca. A ruptura sempre ocorreu na linha de solda. Abstract in english In this paper, the purpose is to determine the weld line strength in injection molded samples. The ASTM standard dogbone-shaped samples were molded over a range of melt temperatures (180 ºC up to 280 ºC). The plastic used was a commercial grade of polystyrene (PS), BASF Polystyrol 158K. This study l [...] inks weld lines in parts by injection molding with mechanical strength reduction due to embrittling effect in weld-line region. A single-cavity mold double-gated was used to generate ASTM D638 Type I tensile specimens. The double-gated and runner allow the parts to be molded with weld line. The injection process parameters were determined by imputing resin, machine and geometry information into a CAE software package. The mold temperature and fill time were maintaining the same. The frozen time was determined by analytic equation, which considers the center of the thickness as reference. For each melt temperature 10 samples were tested. The weld line was clearly noted in the centre of the samples and the process condition set avoided the cold weld line. By the strength tests were possible to realize that lower the injection temperature lower the frozen time and higher the length of the crack. Then low injection temperature leads to low maximum strength. The fracture always occurs in the weld line.

R.P., Bom; A.F., Kalin.

2008-06-01

255

Development and evaluation of P/M processing techniques to improve and control the mechanical properties of metal injection molded parts  

Science.gov (United States)

Metal Injection Molding (MIM) is one of the most rapidly growing areas of powder metallurgy (P/M) but the growth of MIM into new markets and more demanding applications is limited by two fundamental barriers, the availability of low cost metal powders and a lack of knowledge and understanding of how mechanical properties, especially toughness, are affected by the many parameters in the MIM process. The goals of this study were to investigate solutions to these challenges for MIM. Mechanical alloying (MA) is a technique which can produce a wide variety of powder compositions in a size range suited to MIM and in smaller batches. However MA typically suffers from low production volumes and long milling times. This study will show that a saucer mill can produce sizable volumes of MA powders in times typically less than an hour. The MA process was also used to produce powders of 17-4PH stainless steel and the NiTi shape memory alloy for a MIM feedstock. This study shows that the MA powder characteristics led to successful MIM processing of parts. Previous studies have shown that the toughness of individual MIM parts can vary widely within a single production run and from one producer to another. In the last part of the study a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach was used to evaluate the effects of MIM processing parameters on the mechanical properties. Analysis of Variance produced mathematical models for Charpy impact toughness, hardness, density, and carbon content. Tensile properties did not produce a good model due to processing problems. The models and recommendations for improving both toughness and reproducibility of toughness are presented.

Sago, James Alan

256

Effects of Cr and B Contents on Volume Fraction of (Cr,Fe)2B and Hardness in Fe-Based Alloys Used for Powder Injection Molding  

Science.gov (United States)

In the current study, Fe-based alloys were used for powder injection molding (PIM) parts with various qualities and hardness ranges by varying chemical compositions according to thermodynamically calculated phase diagrams. Their microstructure and hardness values were analyzed and compared with those of the PIM specimens made from conventional Fe-based alloy powders or stainless steel powders. The Cr-to-B ratio ( X Cr/ X B) and the sum of Fe, Cr, and B content ( X Fe+ X Cr+ X B) were varied to design nine Fe-based alloy compositions based on the composition of Armacor "M" alloy powders (Liquidmetal Technologies, Lake Forest, CA). According to the microstructural analysis results of the cast and heat-treated Fe-based alloys, large amounts of (Cr,Fe)2B were formed in the tempered martensite matrix. The volume fraction of (Cr,Fe)2B was varied from 42 pct to 91 pct with alloy compositions, and these results were well matched with the thermodynamically calculated volume fractions of (Cr,Fe)2B. The hardness of the fabricated alloys was varied from 300 VHN to 1600 VHN with alloy compositions, and this value increased linearly with the increasing volume fraction of (Cr,Fe)2B. From the correlation data between the volume fraction of (Cr,Fe)2B and hardness, the high-temperature equilibrium phase diagram, which could be used for the design of Fe-based alloys with various fractions and hardness values of (Cr,Fe)2B, was made.

Do, Jeonghyeon; Lee, Hyuk-Joong; Jeon, Changwoo; Ha, Dae Jin; Kim, Choongnyun Paul; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Lee, Sunghak; Shin, Yang Su

2012-07-01

257

Aplicação das técnicas de planejamento e análise de experimentos no processo de injeção plástica Application design of experiments in the injection molding process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experimentos industriais são realizados pelas empresas com o intuito de melhorar o desempenho dos produtos e os processos de fabricação. Nesse sentido, este trabalho tem por objetivo estudar e aplicar as técnicas de planejamento e análise de experimentos na melhoria da qualidade industrial. Especificamente são aplicadas as técnicas de planejamento Fatorial Fracionado 2k-p, Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta e Análise de Variância, em um processo de moldagem por injeção plástica. Com essa pesquisa experimental foi possível identificar os níveis ótimos de regulagem e os parâmetros mais importantes da injeção plástica: temperatura da máquina e pressão de injeção. Para finalizar é avaliado o procedimento de implementação das técnicas de experimentação e as dificuldades práticas encontradas na empresa.Industrial experiments are made by companies in order to improve the quality characteristics of products and production processes. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to study and apply the design of experiments in the industrial quality improvement. In addition, as a part of the objective, an application of the techniques of design Fractional Factorial 2k-p, Analysis of Variance and Response Surface Methodology is done. It is focused in an injection molding process applied by a company, that makes and trades plastic products for the civil construction. Using this experimental study, the most important parameters of plastic injection are identified: machine temperature and injection pressure. At the same time, the optimal levels of adjustment of these parameters are determined. From this study, it is evaluated both the implantation procedures of the designs of experiments as well as the difficulties faced. Also, this study tries to contribute to the university-company relationship.

Edwin V. Cardoza Galdamez

2004-04-01

258

Aplicação das técnicas de planejamento e análise de experimentos no processo de injeção plástica / Application design of experiments in the injection molding process  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Experimentos industriais são realizados pelas empresas com o intuito de melhorar o desempenho dos produtos e os processos de fabricação. Nesse sentido, este trabalho tem por objetivo estudar e aplicar as técnicas de planejamento e análise de experimentos na melhoria da qualidade industrial. Especifi [...] camente são aplicadas as técnicas de planejamento Fatorial Fracionado 2k-p, Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta e Análise de Variância, em um processo de moldagem por injeção plástica. Com essa pesquisa experimental foi possível identificar os níveis ótimos de regulagem e os parâmetros mais importantes da injeção plástica: temperatura da máquina e pressão de injeção. Para finalizar é avaliado o procedimento de implementação das técnicas de experimentação e as dificuldades práticas encontradas na empresa. Abstract in english Industrial experiments are made by companies in order to improve the quality characteristics of products and production processes. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to study and apply the design of experiments in the industrial quality improvement. In addition, as a part of the objective [...] , an application of the techniques of design Fractional Factorial 2k-p, Analysis of Variance and Response Surface Methodology is done. It is focused in an injection molding process applied by a company, that makes and trades plastic products for the civil construction. Using this experimental study, the most important parameters of plastic injection are identified: machine temperature and injection pressure. At the same time, the optimal levels of adjustment of these parameters are determined. From this study, it is evaluated both the implantation procedures of the designs of experiments as well as the difficulties faced. Also, this study tries to contribute to the university-company relationship.

Edwin V. Cardoza, Galdamez; Luiz C. Ribeiro, Carpinetti.

2004-04-01

259

Aplicação das técnicas de planejamento e análise de experimentos no processo de injeção plástica / Application design of experiments in the injection molding process  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Experimentos industriais são realizados pelas empresas com o intuito de melhorar o desempenho dos produtos e os processos de fabricação. Nesse sentido, este trabalho tem por objetivo estudar e aplicar as técnicas de planejamento e análise de experimentos na melhoria da qualidade industrial. Especifi [...] camente são aplicadas as técnicas de planejamento Fatorial Fracionado 2k-p, Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta e Análise de Variância, em um processo de moldagem por injeção plástica. Com essa pesquisa experimental foi possível identificar os níveis ótimos de regulagem e os parâmetros mais importantes da injeção plástica: temperatura da máquina e pressão de injeção. Para finalizar é avaliado o procedimento de implementação das técnicas de experimentação e as dificuldades práticas encontradas na empresa. Abstract in english Industrial experiments are made by companies in order to improve the quality characteristics of products and production processes. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to study and apply the design of experiments in the industrial quality improvement. In addition, as a part of the objective [...] , an application of the techniques of design Fractional Factorial 2k-p, Analysis of Variance and Response Surface Methodology is done. It is focused in an injection molding process applied by a company, that makes and trades plastic products for the civil construction. Using this experimental study, the most important parameters of plastic injection are identified: machine temperature and injection pressure. At the same time, the optimal levels of adjustment of these parameters are determined. From this study, it is evaluated both the implantation procedures of the designs of experiments as well as the difficulties faced. Also, this study tries to contribute to the university-company relationship.

Edwin V. Cardoza, Galdamez; Luiz C. Ribeiro, Carpinetti.

260

Thermoplastic Waves in Magnetars  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetar activity is generated by shear motions of the neutron star surface, which relieve internal magnetic stresses. An analogy with earthquakes and faults is problematic, as the crust is permeated by strong magnetic fields which greatly constrain crustal displacements. We describe a new deformation mechanism that is specific to strongly magnetized neutron stars. The magnetically stressed crust begins to move because of a thermoplastic instability, which launches a wave that shears the crust and burns its magnetic energy. The propagating wave front resembles the deflagration front in combustion physics. We describe the conditions for the instability, the front structure, and velocity, and discuss implications for observed magnetar activity.

Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Levin, Yuri

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

Synthesis of APA6 thermoplastic matrices for the manufacture of greencomposites  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research work assesses the manufacture of long fiber thermoplastic matrix composite materials (GreenComposites). Thermoplastic matrices are too viscous to be injected into the conventional LCM (Liquid Comopsite Molding) molds, and then epoxy, polyester o vinylester resins are used. Nevertheless, the groundbreaking anionic polymerization of ?-caprolactam allows such a synthesis of a thermoplastic APA6 matrix inside the mold. This matrix is sintered from the starting monomers, and presents high mechanical performance and recyclability. In order to do the reactive injection in a LCM mold, it is necessary to control the polymerization mechanism of such a thermoplastic matrix. Likewise, it puts special emphasis on detecting and solving all problems which arose during synthesis. For instance, moisture values were assessed for all starting reactants, since humidity keeps polymerization from occurring. It is thought that once the synthesis and the resulting material characterization are well controlled, the manufacture of GreenComposites through monomers injection and in situ polymerization, as well as addition of state-of-the-art fabrics such as basalt, can proceed successfully.

Alfonso, A.; Andrés, J.; García-Manrique, J. A.

2012-04-01

262

Effect of powder characteristics on the microstructures and mechanical properties of sintered alloy tool steel compacts by metal injection molding; Kinzoku funmatsu shashutsu seikeiho ni yoru shoketsu gokin koguko no soshiki oyobi kikaiteki seishitsu ni oyonodu funmatsu tokusei no eikyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of powder characteristics on the microstructures and mechanical properties of sintered alloy tool steel (SKD11) compacts by metal injection molding were investigated. A gas-atomized (GA) and a water-atomized (WA) alloy tool steel powders and a polyamide binder were used. They were mixed well and injected into metallic molds for transverse test specimens. These injection-molded specimens were debound at 593 K in air and then were sintered at various temperatures between 1,473 K and 1,483 K in vacuum. These sintered compacts were heated at 1,293 K and quenched, and then were tempered at various temperatures between 453 K and 803 K. The densification of the GA powder compact was fairly superior to that of the WA powder compacts. Consequently, the mechanical properties of the sintered GA powder compacts were superior to those of the sintered WA powder compacts. The mechanical properties equivalent to those of the wrought alloy tool steel could be fabricated successfully by controlling the sintering and heat-treatment conditions precisely. (author)

Nakayama, H. [King invest Co. Ltd., Hiroshima (Japan); Kyogoku, H.; Komatsu, S. [Kinki University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

2000-12-15

263

New melt-processable thermoplastic polyimides for opto-electronic applications  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid development and adoption of digital technology is leading to an increase in demand for smaller, faster digital data devices and faster digital telecommunication networks. This trend requires increased network bandwidth to handle large amounts of data and seamless integration of network devices with compatible end-user devices. This need is being met by using fiber-optic and photonics technology, infra-red (IR) signals to transmit information, and is fundamental changing the communication industry, thereby creating a need for new polymeric materials. New ULTEM* polyetherimide (PEI) and EXTEM* thermoplastic polyimide (TPI) resins meet the material requirements for the optoelectronics industry. These resins have building blocks enabling IR light transmission without degrading signal quality. They can be injection-molded into thin, precision optical lenses and connectors. ULTEM* resins are been widely used in this industry as fiber-optic components in trans-receivers. EXTEM* resins are amenable to lead-free soldering (LFS), a greener industrial assembly process. While still being IR-transparent, EXTEM* resin is an ideal material for LFS capable substrates, connectors and lenses. An optical product portfolio has been developed and is being presented as a solution to the opto-electronics component industry and some of the successful applications therein.

Narayanan, Aditya; Haralur, Gurulingamurthy

2012-10-01

264

Fibroblastic response and surface characterization of O(2)-plasma-treated thermoplastic polyetherurethane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Injection-molded samples of thermoplastic polyetherurethane (TPU) were treated with low-temperature oxygen plasma for different processing times in order to enhance cellular attachment for a gastric implant. Its effects were investigated by contact angle measurement, surface topography, cytotoxicity and cell colonization tests. No significant changes were found in the surface roughness of plasma treatment with plasma treatment time of less than 5 min. Longer treatment showed significantly higher surface roughness. It seems that there was a link between the changes in contact angle and enhanced cell growth on the treated surface, although only for the range up to plasma treatment times of 3 min. Prolonged treatment times did not cause any major changes in the water contact angle, but strongly improved the number of growing cells on the surface. Plasma treatment for 3-7 min led to a twofold increase in the number of cells compared to untreated samples and did not significantly alter the WST-1 nor worsened the lactate dehydrogenase activity compared to the control. Thus, it appears that O(2) plasma treatment is a suitable surface modification method for a gastric implant made of TPU in order to improve surface cell attachment where 3-7 min is the recommended treatment time. PMID:20208128

Schlicht, Henning; Haugen, Håvard J; Sabetrasekh, Roya; Wintermantel, Erich

2010-04-01

265

Fibroblastic response and surface characterization of O2-plasma-treated thermoplastic polyetherurethane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Injection-molded samples of thermoplastic polyetherurethane (TPU) were treated with low-temperature oxygen plasma for different processing times in order to enhance cellular attachment for a gastric implant. Its effects were investigated by contact angle measurement, surface topography, cytotoxicity and cell colonization tests. No significant changes were found in the surface roughness of plasma treatment with plasma treatment time of less than 5 min. Longer treatment showed significantly higher surface roughness. It seems that there was a link between the changes in contact angle and enhanced cell growth on the treated surface, although only for the range up to plasma treatment times of 3 min. Prolonged treatment times did not cause any major changes in the water contact angle, but strongly improved the number of growing cells on the surface. Plasma treatment for 3-7 min led to a twofold increase in the number of cells compared to untreated samples and did not significantly alter the WST-1 nor worsened the lactate dehydrogenase activity compared to the control. Thus, it appears that O2 plasma treatment is a suitable surface modification method for a gastric implant made of TPU in order to improve surface cell attachment where 3-7 min is the recommended treatment time.

266

Thermoplastic tape compaction device  

Science.gov (United States)

A device is disclosed for bonding a thermoplastic tape to a substrate to form a fully consolidated composite. This device has an endless chain associated with a frame so as to rotate in a plane that is perpendicular to a long dimension of the tape, the chain having pivotally connected chain links with each of the links carrying a flexible foot member that extends outwardly from the chain. A selected number of the foot members contact the tape, after the heating thereof, to cause the heated tape to bond to the substrate. The foot members are each a thin band of metal oriented transversely to the chain, with a flexibility and width and length to contact the tape so as to cause the tape to conform to the substrate to achieve consolidation of the tape and the substrate. A biased leaf-type spring within the frame bears against an inner surface of the chain to provide the compliant pressure necessary to bond the tape to the substrate. The chain is supported by sprockets on shafts rotatably supported in the frame and, in one embodiment, one of the shafts has a drive unit to produce rotation such that the foot members in contact with the tape move at the same speed as the tape. Cooling jets are positioned along the frame to cool the resultant consolidated composite. 5 figures.

Campbell, V.W.

1994-12-27

267

Annealing Reduces Free Volumes In Thermoplastics  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigation conducted to determine free volumes and water-absorption characteristics of two types of thermoplastic polymide as functions of annealing histories. Reductions reach asymptotic values after several annealing cycles. High-temperature thermoplastics excellent candidates for use in aerospace applications. Graphite-fiber composites containing thermoplastic matrices have wide applicability.

Singh, Jag J.; St. Clair, Terry L.

1988-01-01

268

Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic resins  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a program designed to optimize the fabrication procedures for graphite thermoplastic composites are described. The properties of the composites as a function of temperature were measured and graphite thermoplastic fan exit guide vanes were fabricated and tested. Three thermoplastics were included in the investigation: polysulfone, polyethersulfone, and polyarylsulfone. Type HMS graphite was used as the reinforcement. Bending fatigue tests of HMS graphite/polyethersulfone demonstrated a gradual shear failure mode which resulted in a loss of stiffness in the specimens. Preliminary curves were generated to show the loss in stiffness as a function of stress and number of cycles. Fan exit guide vanes of HMS graphite polyethersulfone were satisfactorily fabricated in the final phase of the program. These were found to have stiffness and better fatigue behavior than graphite epoxy vanes which were formerly bill of material.

Navak, R. C.

1977-01-01

269

Energetic Thermoplastic Elastomers  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of our research is to synthesize energetic polyether binders with the ability to undergo reversible physical crosslinking at temperatures compatible with high energy propellant ingredients. Commercially available thermoplastic elastomers fail to meet our criteria because of excessively high processing temperatures and melt viscosity, high modulus and low stress/strain capability. It was proposed to synthesize ABA type block polymers with the A blocks being polymers able to form crystalline structure (as opposed to glasses) having a sharp melting point of 85-95°C. This would enable phase miscibility in the melt, thus lowering melt viscosity, and reduce creep close to the melting point. ABA structures were chosen over (AB)n, enabling low molecular weight polymers to be synthesized, again lowering viscosity. In order to successfully achieve our objectives, it was necessary to synthesize precise polymer structures with little deviation from the required structure. After evaluating blocklinking techniques, we decided to employ living cationic polymerization with systematic monomer addition. To this end, we have examined numerous catalysts and co-catalysts. Our research at this time is centered on bis cumyl chloride/silver antimony hexafluoride in which we see promising results. The effects of polymerization temperature, catalyst formation, catalyst concentration, rate of monomer addition and monomer concentration were determined with respect to molecular weight control and structure. Polymer workup and purification, a problem in our initial studies, has been resolved. We have now synthesized polymers varying in molecular structure and correlated the resulting physical properties to structural changes. The effect of structure and molecular weight on melt viscosity and morphology is now being examined.

Manser, G. E.; Fletcher, R. W.

1988-05-01

270

Análise do desenvolvimento morfológico da blenda polimérica PBT/ABS durante as etapas de mistura por extrusão e moldagem por injeção / Analysis of the morphological development of PBT/ABS blends during the extrusion and injection molding processes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O enfoque principal deste trabalho foi observar o desenvolvimento da morfologia de fases da blenda binária PBT/ABS e desta blenda compatibilizada pela adição de um copolímero acrílico reativo, durante a etapa de mistura por extrusão e de moldagem por injeção. A evolução da morfologia das blendas, du [...] rante a etapa de mistura, foi analisada através do uso de amostras coletadas de uma extrusora de rosca dupla co-rotacional, com acessório especialmente projetado para coleta in line. A morfologia observada nas amostras obtidas por injeção foi realizada utilizando amostras retiradas de corpos de prova moldados. As amostras obtidas por extrusão e por moldagem por injeção foram posteriormente preparadas através de crio-ultramicrotomia e observadas através de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM). Uma "Função Dispersão" foi desenvolvida neste trabalho para comparar as diversas morfologias sob diferentes condições de processamento e de compatibilização. A adição de compatibilizante favorece a formação de uma morfologia de domínios de ABS dispersos em PBT, ao longo do canhão da extrusora, e previne satisfatoriamente o fenômeno de coalescência destes domínios durante o processo de moldagem por injeção. A função dispersão foi utilizada principalmente para mostrar a tendência da evolução morfológica e mostrou um bom desempenho para tal. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to observe the development of the phase morphology of the PBT/ABS blends during their extrusion mixing and injection molding steps. The evolution of the blend morphology during the mixing stage was analyzed using a specially designed co-rotational twin-screw extruder with a [...] collecting device located along the barrel. Blend samples were collected in-line along the length of the extruder barrel during the blending process. Blend morphology was also observed from specimens molded through injection molding. All the samples were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They were prepared by cryo-ultramicrotomy and the rubbery phase of the ABS contained in the blends was stained with osmium tetroxide (OsO4). A special function was established and is proposed to analyze the blend morphology trends through image analysis. In binary blends, the ABS phase showed better dispersion after the mixture passed through the extruder die. However, a coalescence phenomenon was observed during the next molding step. Compatibilized PBT/ABS blends showed better dispersion than binary blends, even after injection molding. The special function used to quantify the dispersion throughout the mixing and molding steps showed an excellent performance.

Edson N., Ito; Luiz A., Pessan; Elias, Hage Jr.; José A., Covas.

2004-06-01

271

Análise do desenvolvimento morfológico da blenda polimérica PBT/ABS durante as etapas de mistura por extrusão e moldagem por injeção Analysis of the morphological development of PBT/ABS blends during the extrusion and injection molding processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O enfoque principal deste trabalho foi observar o desenvolvimento da morfologia de fases da blenda binária PBT/ABS e desta blenda compatibilizada pela adição de um copolímero acrílico reativo, durante a etapa de mistura por extrusão e de moldagem por injeção. A evolução da morfologia das blendas, durante a etapa de mistura, foi analisada através do uso de amostras coletadas de uma extrusora de rosca dupla co-rotacional, com acessório especialmente projetado para coleta in line. A morfologia observada nas amostras obtidas por injeção foi realizada utilizando amostras retiradas de corpos de prova moldados. As amostras obtidas por extrusão e por moldagem por injeção foram posteriormente preparadas através de crio-ultramicrotomia e observadas através de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM. Uma "Função Dispersão" foi desenvolvida neste trabalho para comparar as diversas morfologias sob diferentes condições de processamento e de compatibilização. A adição de compatibilizante favorece a formação de uma morfologia de domínios de ABS dispersos em PBT, ao longo do canhão da extrusora, e previne satisfatoriamente o fenômeno de coalescência destes domínios durante o processo de moldagem por injeção. A função dispersão foi utilizada principalmente para mostrar a tendência da evolução morfológica e mostrou um bom desempenho para tal.The aim of this work was to observe the development of the phase morphology of the PBT/ABS blends during their extrusion mixing and injection molding steps. The evolution of the blend morphology during the mixing stage was analyzed using a specially designed co-rotational twin-screw extruder with a collecting device located along the barrel. Blend samples were collected in-line along the length of the extruder barrel during the blending process. Blend morphology was also observed from specimens molded through injection molding. All the samples were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. They were prepared by cryo-ultramicrotomy and the rubbery phase of the ABS contained in the blends was stained with osmium tetroxide (OsO4. A special function was established and is proposed to analyze the blend morphology trends through image analysis. In binary blends, the ABS phase showed better dispersion after the mixture passed through the extruder die. However, a coalescence phenomenon was observed during the next molding step. Compatibilized PBT/ABS blends showed better dispersion than binary blends, even after injection molding. The special function used to quantify the dispersion throughout the mixing and molding steps showed an excellent performance.

Edson N. Ito

2004-06-01

272

Crystallization kinetics and morphology of PBT/MMT and PTT/MMT nanocomposites during injection molding;Cinetica de cristalizacao e morfologia de nanocompositos de PBT/MMT e PTT/MMT durante a moldagem por injecao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work had as main objective to study the crystallization of nanocomposites of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) with a montmorillonite nanoclay (MMT) using an on-line optical monitoring system during the injection molding and to characterize the morphologies of the injection samples by polarized light optical microscopy (PLOM), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The optical system allowed to analyze the crystallization process by the changes of the optical properties during the solidification of the materials. It was concluded that the MMT lamellae accelerated the overall crystallization of the polymers. By PLOM, it was observed that the nanoclay caused qualitative changes on the morphology of the PTT (polymer with slow crystallization kinetics). The crystallinity indexes were not affected by the addition of the MMT; however, by WAXS it was shown that the nanocomposites had a higher orientation degree. (author)

Favaro, Marcia M.; Branciforti, Marcia C.; Bretas, Rosario E.S., E-mail: mmfavaro@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEM/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

2009-07-01

273

Aplicação de redes NeuroFuzzy ao processamento de peças automotivas por meio de injeção de polímeros / Application of neurofuzzy networks for the processing of automotive parts by polymer injection molding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O processamento de peças automotivas por meio de injeção de polímeros envolve vários fenômenos físicos que ocorrem simultaneamente e que possuem caráter não linear e multivariável. Softwares comerciais podem ser utilizados na previsão dos parâmetros do processo, o que pode ser caro e inviável. Pode- [...] se determinar os parâmetros de forma analítica, mas o tratamento desse problema requer a aplicação de teorias clássicas dos fenômenos de transporte, de difícil equacionamento. As redes NeuroFuzzy são aplicáveis a esse problema porque reúnem a capacidade de aprender das redes neurais artificiais com a capacidade da lógica Fuzzy de transformar variáveis linguísticas em regras. Neste trabalho combinou-se uma rede neural artificial Multilayer Perceptron e uma rede neural artificial Radial Basis Function à lógica Fuzzy para construir-se um modelo de inferência que previu o tempo de ciclo de processos de injeção de polímeros. Os resultados obtidos confirmam as redes NeuroFuzzy como opção para esse tipo de problema. Abstract in english The injection molding of automotive parts is a complex process due to the many non-linear and multivariable phenomena that occur simultaneously. Commercial software applications exist for modeling the parameters of polymer injection but can be prohibitively expensive. It is possible to identify thes [...] e parameters analytically, but applying classical theories of transport phenomena requires accurate information about the injection machine, product geometry, and process parameters. However, neurofuzzy networks, which achieve a synergy by combining the learning capabilities of an artificial neural network with a fuzzy set's inference mechanism, have shown success in this field. The purpose of this paper was to use a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network and a radial basis function artificial neural network combined with fuzzy sets to produce an inference mechanism that could predict injection mold cycle times. The results confirmed neurofuzzy networks as an effective alternative to solving such problems.

Carlos de Oliveira, Affonso; Renato José, Sassi.

274

Aplicação de redes Neuro Fuzzy ao processamento de peças automotivas por meio de injeção de polímeros / Application of neurofuzzy networks for the processing of automotive parts by polymer injection molding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O processamento de peças automotivas por meio de injeção de polímeros envolve vários fenômenos físicos que ocorrem simultaneamente e que possuem caráter não linear e multivariável. Softwares comerciais podem ser utilizados na previsão dos parâmetros do processo, o que pode ser caro e inviável. Pode- [...] se determinar os parâmetros de forma analítica, mas o tratamento desse problema requer a aplicação de teorias clássicas dos fenômenos de transporte, de difícil equacionamento. As redes NeuroFuzzy são aplicáveis a esse problema porque reúnem a capacidade de aprender das redes neurais artificiais com a capacidade da lógica Fuzzy de transformar variáveis linguísticas em regras. Neste trabalho combinou-se uma rede neural artificial Multilayer Perceptron e uma rede neural artificial Radial Basis Function à lógica Fuzzy para construir-se um modelo de inferência que previu o tempo de ciclo de processos de injeção de polímeros. Os resultados obtidos confirmam as redes NeuroFuzzy como opção para esse tipo de problema. Abstract in english The injection molding of automotive parts is a complex process due to the many non-linear and multivariable phenomena that occur simultaneously. Commercial software applications exist for modeling the parameters of polymer injection but can be prohibitively expensive. It is possible to identify thes [...] e parameters analytically, but applying classical theories of transport phenomena requires accurate information about the injection machine, product geometry, and process parameters. However, neurofuzzy networks, which achieve a synergy by combining the learning capabilities of an artificial neural network with a fuzzy set's inference mechanism, have shown success in this field. The purpose of this paper was to use a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network and a radial basis function artificial neural network combined with fuzzy sets to produce an inference mechanism that could predict injection mold cycle times. The results confirmed neurofuzzy networks as an effective alternative to solving such problems.

Carlos de Oliveira, Affonso; Renato José, Sassi.

275

Superconductivity and mechanical properties of Al2O3 long fiber-added BPSCCO bulk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Bi-system bulk superconductor is expected to be applied to a current lead that has large capacity because of its low thermal conductivity. However, it is a ceramic material and mechanically brittle, so it must be handled very carefully to prevent damaging. Moreover, damage by electromagnetic force becomes an important problem when the conductor is applied to a large energy system. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the Bi-system bulk superconductor must be improved. We have examined the effect of adding short fiber to the Bi1.85Pb0.35Sr1.90Ca2.05Cu3.05Oy (BPSCCO) bulk and studied the possibility of BPSCCO bulk fiber reinforcement. The critical current density of the short fiber-added BPSCCO was lower than that of the BPSCCO bulk because some compounds were created by reaction between the short fiber and the BPSCCO matrix. The interface between the fiber and the BPSCCO matrix was not coherent, so the mechanical property of the short fiber-added BPSCCO was inferior to BPSCCO bulk. Although the bonding force on the fiber/matrix interface is weak, long fibers give a wider contact area between the fiber and BPSCCO matrix. In this study, the influence of the contact area on mechanical properties was investigated using a long-fiber ceramic. Al2O3 long fiber-added BPSCCO (Al2O3 long fiber/BPSCCO) samples were fabricated. The Al2O3 long fed. The Al2O3 long fibers were arranged unidirectionally in the BPSCCO matrix. The superconductivity and mechanical properties of these samples were examined. The critical current density measurement at 77 K showed inferior superconductivity of the Al2O3 long fiber/BPSCCO sample to the BPSCCO bulk. It is considered that the compounds created by the reaction between the Al2O3 long fiber and the BPSCCO matrix degraded the superconductivity of the sample. A room-temperature, three-point bending test of the Al2O3 long fiber/BPSCCO sample sintered at l,078 K for 90 ks showed that a higher volume fraction of the Al2O3 long fiber resulted in lower bending strength and higher stiffness. It was clarified that an increment in the contact area between the fiber and matrix increased the stiffness of the sample, but the bending strength was still lower because of the weak interfacial contact and concentration of stress on the matrix side of the Al2O3 long fiber/BPSCCO-matrix interface. Therefore, to realize the fiber reinforcement of BPSCCO bulk, it is recognized that improvements in interfacial contact must be achieved. (author)

276

Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

1988-12-01

277

Friction testing of thermoplastic composites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Friction phenomena play a major role in thermoplastic composite forming processes. In order to make use of the large potential these materials have, accurate CAE tools are needed that as a consequence incorporate temperature, pressure and velocity dependent friction behavior. To obtain a sound understanding of friction behavior a large number of friction measurement set-ups have been described in literature. A benchmark to compare different testing methods was proposed during the Esaform2010 ...

Sachs, Ulrich; Haanappel, Sebastiaan; Rietman, Bert; Akkerman, Remko

2011-01-01

278

Vibration Characteristics of Thermoplastic Composite  

Science.gov (United States)

Unreinforced, Long fiber and Short fiber polypropylene composites are being used in many antivibration applications, due to their time and temperature dependent specific mechanical properties. Their good damping behavior accounts for many engineering applications. For utilization of these materials in specific engineering applications, there is a need to understand the damping behavior of composites under dynamic load. For this work, unreinforced and 20% long and short reinforced glass fiber polypropylene composite materials were tested for forced transverse vibration damping characteristics under static as well as fatigue loading conditions. The damping characteristics are quantified by forced frequency response of the test material. Presence of reinforced fibers increases the damping capacity. Among reinforcements, short fiber reinforced polypropylene shows increased damping capacity then long glass fiber reinforced.

Haldar, Amit Kumar; Singh, Satnam; Prince

2011-12-01

279

Properties of 17-4 PH stainless steels produced by metal injection molding process; Kinzoku funmatsu shashutsu seikei process ni yoru 17-4 PH stainless ko no shotokusei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metal injection molding (MIM) process is hoped to be an advanced powder processing technique for the attributes of forming the high density, complex shaped and high performance components. This process also alleviates the need for secondary working operations because of the net shape forming, which is a suitable production route for the hard materials. In this study, the effects of MIM processing variations on the mechanical properties and microstructures of precipitation-hardenable 17-4 PH stainless steels were investigated. Carbon content, density, structure, and properties of the MIM steels were very dependent on the debinding, wintering, an heat treatment conditions. Especially, the amount of retained austerity in the structure increased with an increase of the residual carbon content, resulting in poor mechanical properties. Accordingly, the carbon control was a very important operation for this steel, which was successfully performed by adjusting the weight loss of debound compacts. Finally, high performance properties comparable to those of wrought steels were obtained by optimizing the heat treatments. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Baba, T. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Miura, H.; Honda, T. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tokuyama, Y. [Mitsubishi Steel MGF, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1995-10-15

280

Simulação do processo de injeção de polipropileno isotático (iPP) utilizando um modelo de cinética de cristalização quiescente / Simulation of injection molding process of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) using a quiescent crystallization kinetics model  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho concentrou-se na simulação das fases de preenchimento e resfriamento do processo de injeção do polipropileno isotático. Foi utilizado um modelo matemático baseado nas equações de conservação onde foi considerada a cinética de cristalização quiescente como termo fonte na equação da ener [...] gia. Os parâmetros do modelo de cinética de cristalização, assim como os do modelo de viscosidade, foram obtidos experimentalmente. Para a solução das equações governantes foi utilizado o método dos volumes finitos. Como resultados foram obtidos os campos de temperatura, pressão, velocidade, taxa de cisalhamento e cristalinidade em diferentes condições de processamento. Abstract in english This work is concerned with the simulation of the filling and cooling stages of the injection molding process of an isotactic polypropylene (iPP). A mathematical model based on the conservation equations was used. A crystallization kinetics model was considered as a source term in the energy equatio [...] n. The parameters of the crystallization kinetics model, as well as the viscosity model, were obtained by experimental techniques. For the solution of the governing equations the finite volume method was employed. Temperature, pressure, velocity, shear rate and crystalinity profiles under different processing conditions were obtained.

Marcos A, d' Ávila; Carlos H, Ahrens; Rosario E. S, Bretas.

 
 
 
 
281

Simulação do processo de injeção de polipropileno isotático (iPP utilizando um modelo de cinética de cristalização quiescente Simulation of injection molding process of isotactic polypropylene (iPP using a quiescent crystallization kinetics model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho concentrou-se na simulação das fases de preenchimento e resfriamento do processo de injeção do polipropileno isotático. Foi utilizado um modelo matemático baseado nas equações de conservação onde foi considerada a cinética de cristalização quiescente como termo fonte na equação da energia. Os parâmetros do modelo de cinética de cristalização, assim como os do modelo de viscosidade, foram obtidos experimentalmente. Para a solução das equações governantes foi utilizado o método dos volumes finitos. Como resultados foram obtidos os campos de temperatura, pressão, velocidade, taxa de cisalhamento e cristalinidade em diferentes condições de processamento.This work is concerned with the simulation of the filling and cooling stages of the injection molding process of an isotactic polypropylene (iPP. A mathematical model based on the conservation equations was used. A crystallization kinetics model was considered as a source term in the energy equation. The parameters of the crystallization kinetics model, as well as the viscosity model, were obtained by experimental techniques. For the solution of the governing equations the finite volume method was employed. Temperature, pressure, velocity, shear rate and crystalinity profiles under different processing conditions were obtained.

Marcos A d'Ávila

1997-12-01

282

Simulação do processo de injeção de polipropileno isotático (iPP) utilizando um modelo de cinética de cristalização quiescente / Simulation of injection molding process of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) using a quiescent crystallization kinetics model  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho concentrou-se na simulação das fases de preenchimento e resfriamento do processo de injeção do polipropileno isotático. Foi utilizado um modelo matemático baseado nas equações de conservação onde foi considerada a cinética de cristalização quiescente como termo fonte na equação da ener [...] gia. Os parâmetros do modelo de cinética de cristalização, assim como os do modelo de viscosidade, foram obtidos experimentalmente. Para a solução das equações governantes foi utilizado o método dos volumes finitos. Como resultados foram obtidos os campos de temperatura, pressão, velocidade, taxa de cisalhamento e cristalinidade em diferentes condições de processamento. Abstract in english This work is concerned with the simulation of the filling and cooling stages of the injection molding process of an isotactic polypropylene (iPP). A mathematical model based on the conservation equations was used. A crystallization kinetics model was considered as a source term in the energy equatio [...] n. The parameters of the crystallization kinetics model, as well as the viscosity model, were obtained by experimental techniques. For the solution of the governing equations the finite volume method was employed. Temperature, pressure, velocity, shear rate and crystalinity profiles under different processing conditions were obtained.

Marcos A, d' Ávila; Carlos H, Ahrens; Rosario E. S, Bretas.

1997-12-01

283

MODIFICATION OF JACK PINE TMP LONG FIBERS BY ALKALINE PEROXIDE – PART 1. CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FIBERS AND SPENT LIQUOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to improve the quality of jack pine TMP long fibers, particularly with respect to the strength properties, by alkaline peroxide treatment. This paper reports the chemical characteristics of the treated long fibers and the spent liquors originating from various treatments. It was observed that, in comparison with hydrogen peroxide, the alkalinity of the treatment solutions had a greater influence on most fibre characteristics and spent liquor properties.

Ying Han

2008-08-01

284

[94 km Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors based on ultra-long fiber ring laser pumping].  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel optical amplification configuration based on ultra-long fiber laser with a ring cavity was proposed and applied to Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensing system, in order to extend the measurement distance significantly. The parameters used in the experiment were optimized, considering the main limitations of the setup, such as depletion, self-phase modulation (SPM) and pump-signal relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer. Through analyzing Brillouin gain spectrum, we demonstrated distributed sensing over 94 km of standard single-mode fiber with 3 meter spatial resolution and strain/temperature accuracy of 28 /1. 4 degree C. PMID:25095405

Yuan, Cheng-Xu; Wang, Zi-Nan; Jia, Xin-Hong; Li, Jin; Yan, Xiao-Dong; Cui, An-Bin

2014-05-01

285

Dark states ultra-long fiber laser for practically secure key distribution  

Science.gov (United States)

We present and demonstrate a novel ultra-long fiber laser key distribution system (UFL-KDS). The scheme quenches the lasing process when in its secure states, thus forming "dark states" which provide simple detection on one hand and increased difficulty of eavesdropping on the other. We analyze the practical aspects of previously studied UFL-KDS schemes as well as those of the one presented here and demonstrate successful key distribution across a 200 km link with bit-rates that can exceed 0.5 kbps. Spectral and temporal passive attack strategies are analyzed and discussed in details.

Kotlicki, Omer; Scheuer, Jacob

2014-10-01

286

Interlaminar fracture toughness of thermoplastic composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Edge delamination tension and double cantilever beam tests were used to characterize the interlaminar fracture toughness of continuous graphite-fiber composites made from experimental thermoplastic polyimides and a model thermoplastic. Residual thermal stresses, known to be significant in materials processed at high temperatures, were included in the edge delamination calculations. In the model thermoplastic system (polycarbonate matrix), surface properties of the graphite fiber were shown to be significant. Cricital strain energy release rates for two different fibers having similar nominal tensile properties differed by 30 to 60 percent. The reason for the difference is not clear. Interlaminar toughness values for the thermoplastic polyimide composites (LARC-TPI and polyimidesulfone) were 3 to 4 in-lb/sq in. Scanning electron micrographs of the EDT fracture surfaces suggest poor fiber/matrix bonding. Residual thermal stresses account for up to 32 percent of the strain energy release in composites made from these high-temperature resins.

Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Johnston, Norman J.; O'Brien, T. Kevin

1989-01-01

287

The reactive extrusion of thermoplastic polyurethane  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this thesis was to increase the understanding of the reactive extrusion of thermoplastic polyurethane. Overall, several issues were identified: • Using a relative simple extrusion model, the reactive extrusion process can be described. This model can be used to further investigate and optimize the reactive extrusion of thermoplastic polyurethane. • Premixing has a small beneficiary effect on the efficiency of the extrusion process and the quality of the product for...

Verhoeven, Vincent Wilhelmus Andreas

2006-01-01

288

Avaliação do comportamento térmico por DSC na região da pele e do núcleo de amostras injetadas de nanocompósitos de poliamida 6/argila organofílica / Polyamide 6/organoclay nanocomposites: evaluation of thermal behavior of injection molded samples by DSC  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nanocompósitos de poliamida 6/argila organofílica foram preparados pelo método de intercalação por fusão. A argila foi tratada com o sal quaternário de amônio (Cetremide) visando-se à obtenção da argila organofílica (OMMT). Esta foi caracterizada por fluorescência de raio X (FRX), Espectroscopia no [...] Infravermelho (FTIR) e Difração de Raio X (DRX). Os resultados dessas análises evidenciaram incorporação do sal entre as camadas da argila, tornando-a organofílica. Os nanocompósitos foram obtidos em extrusora de rosca dupla corrotacional, com 3% em peso de argila, e estes foram posteriormente injetados. A caracterização dos nanocompósitos por DRX mostrou uma estrutura esfoliada e/ou parcialmente esfoliada. As análises por Calorimetria Exploratória Diferencial (DSC) foram realizadas nas regiões da pele (superfície) e do núcleo (centro) dos corpos de prova e, mostraram as fases cristalinas ? e ? na pele e apenas a fase ? no núcleo e que o grau de cristalinidade na pele foi menor do que no núcleo. Abstract in english Polyamide 6/organoclay nanocomposites were prepared using the melt intercalation technique. The clay was treated with a quaternary ammonium salt (Cetremide) to obtain the organoclay (OMMT), which was characterized with X ray fluorescence (XRF), Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X ray diffraction (XRD [...] ). The results of these analyses showed the incorporation of the salt in the clay structure, confirming the organophilization. The nanocomposites were obtained in a co-rotational twin screw extruder with 3 wt. (%) of clay, and then the pellets were injection molded. The characterization by XRD of the nanocomposites showed an exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structure. The analysis by DSC were made in the skin and core regions of the samples, showing the ? and ?-crystalline forms in the skin and only the ?-form in the core region. The degree of crystallinity in the skin was lower than in the core.

Renê A. da, Paz; Amanda M. D., Leite; Edcleide M., Araújo; Tomas J. A., Melo; Luiz A., Pessan.

289

IMAGE ANALYSIS DEDICATED TO POLYMER INJECTION MOLDING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work follows the general framework of polymer injection moulding simulation whose objectives are the mastering of the injection moulding process. The models of numerical simulation make it possible to predict the propagation of the molten polymer during the filling phase from the positioning of one point of injection or more. The objective of this paper is to propose a particular way to optimize the geometry of mold cavity in accordance with physical laws. A direct correlation is pointed out between geometric parameters issued from skeleton transformation and Hausdorff's distance and results provided by implementation of a classical model based on the Hele-Shaw equations which are currently used in the main computer codes of polymer injection.

David Garcia

2011-05-01

290

Injection molding of power-law polymer  

Science.gov (United States)

A polymer in injected with a constant pressure gradient between two parallel plates. The progression of the polymer front is modeled for a power law fluid (typical of a polymer) and compared to results for a Newtonian fluid.

Krane, Matthew J.

2008-10-25

291

Comparison between Palm Oil Derivative and Commercial Thermo-Plastic Binder System on the Properties of the Stainless Steel 316L Sintered Parts  

Science.gov (United States)

Binder system is one of the most important criteria for the powder injection molding (PIM) process. Failure in the selection of the binder system will affect on the final properties of the sintered parts. The objectives of this studied is to develop a novel binder system based on the local natural resources and environmental friendly binder system from palm oil derivative which is easily available and cheap in our country of Malaysia. The novel binder that has been developed will be replaced the commercial thermo-plastic binder system or as an alternative binder system. The results show that the physical and mechanical properties of the final sintered parts fulfill the Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) standard 35 for PIM parts. The biocompatibility test using cell osteosarcoma (MG63) and vero fibroblastic also shows that the cell was successfully growth on the sintered stainless steel 316L parts indicate that the novel binder was not toxic. Therefore, the novel binder system based on palm oil derivative that has been developed as a binder system fulfills the important criteria for the binder system in PIM process.

Ibrahim, R.; Azmirruddin, M.; Wei, G. C.; Fong, L. K.; Abdullah, N. I.; Omar, K.; Muhamad, M.; Muhamad, S.

2010-03-01

292

Effect of significant processing variables on thermoplastic matrix pultruded composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoplastic matrix pultruded composites offer attractive cost savings in production. Processing techniques which lead to high speed production are discussed. The major advantages and limitations of thermoplastic materials are also presented

293

Laser beam welding of thermoplastics  

Science.gov (United States)

Current product development showing an ever shrinking physical volume is asking for new, reliable joining technologies. Laser beam technologies conceal innovative solutions to overcome limitations of conventional joining technologies. Laser beam welding of thermoplastics offers several process technical advantages. The joining energy is fed contact-less into the joining area, avoiding mechanical stress and thermal load to the joining partners. The energy is supplied spatially (seam width on the order of 100 ?m) and timely (interaction time on the order of ms) very well defined. Different process strategies are possible leading to flexibility, product adapted irradiation, short process times and high quality weld seams as well as to high integration abilities and automation potentials. During the joining process no vibration, no thermal stress, no particle release takes place. Therefore, destruction of mechanically and electronically highly sensitive components, such as microelectronics, is avoided. The work place pollution is neglectable compared to other joining technologies, such as gluing (fume) or ultrasonic welding (noise, pieces of fluff). Not only micro-components can be welded in a reproducible way but also macro-components while obtaining a hermetic sealing with good optical appearance. In this publication firstly, an overview concerning process technical basis, aspects and challenges is given. Next, results concerning laser penetration welding of polymers using high power diode lasers are presented, while comparing contour and simultaneous welding by experimental results and the on-line process monitoring.

Russek, Ulrich A.; Palmen, A.; Staub, H.; Poehler, J.; Wenzlau, C.; Otto, G.; Poggel, M.; Koeppe, A.; Kind, H.

2003-07-01

294

Efeito do processamento em misturas de alumina/ligantes orgânicos usadas na moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão Effect of processing variables in alumina/organic binders mixtures used in low-pressure injection molding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão (MIBP é uma técnica que já vem sendo empregada na produção de peças cerâmicas com formas e geometrias complexas. A homogeneidade da mistura de ligantes orgânicos e pós cerâmicos é um fator determinante que deve ser controlado para minimizar a formação de imperfeições no processamento de feedstocks para MIBP. Defeitos típicos de processamento por MIBP, como bolhas de ar e aglomerados, geram gradientes de densidade nas misturas que, após conformação, possuem poucas possibilidades de remoção. Essas imperfeições comprometem o desempenho dos produtos obtidos por essa técnica. Este trabalho está focado na avaliação dessas heterogeneidades e como elas podem ser correlacionadas com a variação da densidade aparente e com o comportamento reológico dessas misturas. Para tanto, aluminas submicrométricas, como recebida e desaglomerada, foram adicionadas a uma mistura fundida de ligantes a base de parafinas, ceras e aditivos e processada em dois tipos diferentes de misturadores, com e sem o auxílio de vácuo. Foi observada a presença de aglomerados existentes na alumina como recebida, possivelmente gerados durante a etapa de calcinação. Também foi observado que o tipo de misturador e a aplicação ou não de vácuo durante a etapa final do processamento têm grande influência no tempo de mistura necessário para reduzir a viscosidade do feedstock para a injeção.The low-pressure injection molding (LPIM is a technique already being used in the production of ceramic parts with complex shapes and geometries. The homogeneity of the mixture of organic binder and ceramic powder is a determining factor which must be controlled to minimize defects formation while feedstock processing to LPIM. Typical defects of LPIM processing, such as air bubbles and agglomerates, generate density gradients in the mixtures, which, after shaping, have little possibility of removal. These imperfections compromise the performance of the products obtained by this technique. This work is focused on the evaluation of these inhomogeneities and how they can be correlated with density variation and the rheological behavior of these mixtures. Therefore, submicrometer aluminas, as received and deagglomerated, were added to a molten mixture of paraffin based binders, waxes and additives and processed in two different mixers, with and without vacuum. The presence of alumina agglomerates was observed in the powder as received, possibly generated during the calcination step. It was also observed that the type of mixer and vacuum application or not during the final processing step, has a major influence on the mixing time required to reduce the viscosity of the feedstock for injection.

P . A. Ourique

2013-03-01

295

Moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão de peças complexas de cerâmicas avançadas produzidas com pós submicrométricos / Low-pressure injection molding of complex parts of advanced ceramic produced with fine powder  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão (MIBP) tem constituído, nos últimos anos, uma excelente alternativa para a produção de pequenos lotes de peças cerâmicas diversificadas e com formas complexas. Esta técnica de conformação é relativamente simples e barata, mas apresenta diversos problemas na et [...] apa de extração dos ligantes, principalmente quando o pó cerâmico é muito fino e as peças possuem grande seção transversal. Neste trabalho é descrita uma metodologia específica para a produção de peças cerâmicas por moldagem por injeção a baixa pressão de alumina submicrométrica (0,4 mim), incluindo a formulação da mistura para injeção, bem como detalhes do processo de extração dos ligantes orgânicos utilizados na moldagem. Para o desenvolvimento deste processo fez-se necessário (i) entender melhor o processo de MIBP, (ii) desenvolver a formulação da mistura de pó cerâmico e aditivos orgânicos, (iii) confeccionar moldes adequados para a injeção a baixas pressões e (iv) otimizar os parâmetros de injeção. A metodologia desenvolvida neste trabalho, possibilita a confecção de peças cerâmicas complexas, com seção transversal relativamente grande, permitindo uma produção robusta de pequenos lotes de peças cerâmicas diversificadas com ótima qualidade e excelente reprodutibilidade. Abstract in english In the past years, low-pressure injection molding (LPIM) has been a good alternative for the production of small batches of diversified complex shapes ceramic parts. This molding technique is relatively simple and cheap, but presents several problems related to debinding, especially for fine ceramic [...] particle, and large cross-section ceramic pieces. In this work, we present a metodology for the production of ceramic parts based on the LPIM of submicrometer-sized alumina powder (0.4 mum). The binder formulation is described, as well as the details of the debinding stage. For the development of this process it was necessary (i) to achieve a better understanding of the LPIM process, (ii) develop the binder formulation and to find the better proportion for the binder plus ceramic powder mixture, (iii) to prepare molds suitable for LPIM and (iv) to optimize the injection parameters. The procedure here reported makes it possible to produce complex shape ceramic parts, with relatively large cross-section, allowing the robust production of small batches of diversified ceramic parts, with high quality and excellent reproducibility.

J. E., Zorzi; C. A., Perottoni; J. A. H. da, Jornada.

2004-09-01

296

Moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão de peças complexas de cerâmicas avançadas produzidas com pós submicrométricos Low-pressure injection molding of complex parts of advanced ceramic produced with fine powder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão (MIBP tem constituído, nos últimos anos, uma excelente alternativa para a produção de pequenos lotes de peças cerâmicas diversificadas e com formas complexas. Esta técnica de conformação é relativamente simples e barata, mas apresenta diversos problemas na etapa de extração dos ligantes, principalmente quando o pó cerâmico é muito fino e as peças possuem grande seção transversal. Neste trabalho é descrita uma metodologia específica para a produção de peças cerâmicas por moldagem por injeção a baixa pressão de alumina submicrométrica (0,4 mim, incluindo a formulação da mistura para injeção, bem como detalhes do processo de extração dos ligantes orgânicos utilizados na moldagem. Para o desenvolvimento deste processo fez-se necessário (i entender melhor o processo de MIBP, (ii desenvolver a formulação da mistura de pó cerâmico e aditivos orgânicos, (iii confeccionar moldes adequados para a injeção a baixas pressões e (iv otimizar os parâmetros de injeção. A metodologia desenvolvida neste trabalho, possibilita a confecção de peças cerâmicas complexas, com seção transversal relativamente grande, permitindo uma produção robusta de pequenos lotes de peças cerâmicas diversificadas com ótima qualidade e excelente reprodutibilidade.In the past years, low-pressure injection molding (LPIM has been a good alternative for the production of small batches of diversified complex shapes ceramic parts. This molding technique is relatively simple and cheap, but presents several problems related to debinding, especially for fine ceramic particle, and large cross-section ceramic pieces. In this work, we present a metodology for the production of ceramic parts based on the LPIM of submicrometer-sized alumina powder (0.4 mum. The binder formulation is described, as well as the details of the debinding stage. For the development of this process it was necessary (i to achieve a better understanding of the LPIM process, (ii develop the binder formulation and to find the better proportion for the binder plus ceramic powder mixture, (iii to prepare molds suitable for LPIM and (iv to optimize the injection parameters. The procedure here reported makes it possible to produce complex shape ceramic parts, with relatively large cross-section, allowing the robust production of small batches of diversified ceramic parts, with high quality and excellent reproducibility.

J. E. Zorzi

2004-09-01

297

Efeito do processamento em misturas de alumina/ligantes orgânicos usadas na moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão / Effect of processing variables in alumina/organic binders mixtures used in low-pressure injection molding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão (MIBP) é uma técnica que já vem sendo empregada na produção de peças cerâmicas com formas e geometrias complexas. A homogeneidade da mistura de ligantes orgânicos e pós cerâmicos é um fator determinante que deve ser controlado para minimizar a formação de impe [...] rfeições no processamento de feedstocks para MIBP. Defeitos típicos de processamento por MIBP, como bolhas de ar e aglomerados, geram gradientes de densidade nas misturas que, após conformação, possuem poucas possibilidades de remoção. Essas imperfeições comprometem o desempenho dos produtos obtidos por essa técnica. Este trabalho está focado na avaliação dessas heterogeneidades e como elas podem ser correlacionadas com a variação da densidade aparente e com o comportamento reológico dessas misturas. Para tanto, aluminas submicrométricas, como recebida e desaglomerada, foram adicionadas a uma mistura fundida de ligantes a base de parafinas, ceras e aditivos e processada em dois tipos diferentes de misturadores, com e sem o auxílio de vácuo. Foi observada a presença de aglomerados existentes na alumina como recebida, possivelmente gerados durante a etapa de calcinação. Também foi observado que o tipo de misturador e a aplicação ou não de vácuo durante a etapa final do processamento têm grande influência no tempo de mistura necessário para reduzir a viscosidade do feedstock para a injeção. Abstract in english The low-pressure injection molding (LPIM) is a technique already being used in the production of ceramic parts with complex shapes and geometries. The homogeneity of the mixture of organic binder and ceramic powder is a determining factor which must be controlled to minimize defects formation while [...] feedstock processing to LPIM. Typical defects of LPIM processing, such as air bubbles and agglomerates, generate density gradients in the mixtures, which, after shaping, have little possibility of removal. These imperfections compromise the performance of the products obtained by this technique. This work is focused on the evaluation of these inhomogeneities and how they can be correlated with density variation and the rheological behavior of these mixtures. Therefore, submicrometer aluminas, as received and deagglomerated, were added to a molten mixture of paraffin based binders, waxes and additives and processed in two different mixers, with and without vacuum. The presence of alumina agglomerates was observed in the powder as received, possibly generated during the calcination step. It was also observed that the type of mixer and vacuum application or not during the final processing step, has a major influence on the mixing time required to reduce the viscosity of the feedstock for injection.

P . A., Ourique; A., Susin Neto; S. G., Echeverrigaray; R. C. D., Cruz; J. E., Zorzi.

2013-03-01

298

Os efeitos no empacotamento de peças injetadas para diferentes espessuras de canais de ataque (gate) tipo filme / The effects of injection molding packing for different thickness of film type gates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a variação da massa de corpos de prova fabricados pelo processo de moldagem por injeção. A partir de equações que tratam da solidificação de placas, foi correlacionado o tempo de solidificação do canal de ataque com o tempo de início de estabilização da mas [...] sa do corpo de prova obtido na cavidade do molde de injeção. Para o desenvolvimento experimental foi utilizado o copolímero estireno-acrilonitrila (SAN). Para a realização dos corpos de prova, foi necessário secar o material, fixar alguns parâmetros de processo, tais como pressão de injeção, tempo de injeção, temperatura nos diferentes estágios e temperatura do molde. Os parâmetros variáveis foram o tempo e a pressão de recalque. Com os corpos de prova prontos, suas massas foram determinadas, inicialmente, para o conjunto corpo de prova e canais de distribuição; em seguida, para o corpo de prova individualmente, sendo este previamente separado dos canais de distribuição. A variação da massa dos corpos de prova para as diferentes pressões de recalque e seus respectivos desvios-padrão foram representadas graficamente em função da variação do tempo de recalque. A massa do corpo de prova começou a estabilizar a partir de um certo tempo. Este tempo foi determinado graficamente e ficou coerente com os resultados dos tempos calculados a partir de equações que tratam do resfriamento de placas. Abstract in english The aim of his study is to determine the model test bulk used by the injection molding process. The mathematical model governing by the plate solidification will indicate the solidification time of the gate together with the beginning of the stabilization of the cavity bulk. In this test a styrene-a [...] crylonitrile copolymer (SAN) will be used. In order to develop the model tests, the material had to be dried to establish some parameters like: injection pressure, injection time, temperature of the different stages as well as moulding temperature. The variable parameters were the time and the discharge pressure. As the model tests were fully develoved, bulks were determined, first for the mould cavity and branches and next for the single cavity which was separated from the branches. The variation of the cavity bulk for the different discharge pressures and the standard deviation were graphically represented due to the time deviation of the discharge. The results showed that the time the bulk cavity begins to stabilize matches the calculated time, for the non-flow temperature, as well as the glass part temperature, the discharge pressure.

Altair Carlos da, Cruz; Ricardo Pedro, Bom.

299

Efeito do processamento em misturas de alumina/ligantes orgânicos usadas na moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão / Effect of processing variables in alumina/organic binders mixtures used in low-pressure injection molding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão (MIBP) é uma técnica que já vem sendo empregada na produção de peças cerâmicas com formas e geometrias complexas. A homogeneidade da mistura de ligantes orgânicos e pós cerâmicos é um fator determinante que deve ser controlado para minimizar a formação de impe [...] rfeições no processamento de feedstocks para MIBP. Defeitos típicos de processamento por MIBP, como bolhas de ar e aglomerados, geram gradientes de densidade nas misturas que, após conformação, possuem poucas possibilidades de remoção. Essas imperfeições comprometem o desempenho dos produtos obtidos por essa técnica. Este trabalho está focado na avaliação dessas heterogeneidades e como elas podem ser correlacionadas com a variação da densidade aparente e com o comportamento reológico dessas misturas. Para tanto, aluminas submicrométricas, como recebida e desaglomerada, foram adicionadas a uma mistura fundida de ligantes a base de parafinas, ceras e aditivos e processada em dois tipos diferentes de misturadores, com e sem o auxílio de vácuo. Foi observada a presença de aglomerados existentes na alumina como recebida, possivelmente gerados durante a etapa de calcinação. Também foi observado que o tipo de misturador e a aplicação ou não de vácuo durante a etapa final do processamento têm grande influência no tempo de mistura necessário para reduzir a viscosidade do feedstock para a injeção. Abstract in english The low-pressure injection molding (LPIM) is a technique already being used in the production of ceramic parts with complex shapes and geometries. The homogeneity of the mixture of organic binder and ceramic powder is a determining factor which must be controlled to minimize defects formation while [...] feedstock processing to LPIM. Typical defects of LPIM processing, such as air bubbles and agglomerates, generate density gradients in the mixtures, which, after shaping, have little possibility of removal. These imperfections compromise the performance of the products obtained by this technique. This work is focused on the evaluation of these inhomogeneities and how they can be correlated with density variation and the rheological behavior of these mixtures. Therefore, submicrometer aluminas, as received and deagglomerated, were added to a molten mixture of paraffin based binders, waxes and additives and processed in two different mixers, with and without vacuum. The presence of alumina agglomerates was observed in the powder as received, possibly generated during the calcination step. It was also observed that the type of mixer and vacuum application or not during the final processing step, has a major influence on the mixing time required to reduce the viscosity of the feedstock for injection.

P . A., Ourique; A., Susin Neto; S. G., Echeverrigaray; R. C. D., Cruz; J. E., Zorzi.

300

Vector rectangular-shape laser based on reduced graphene oxide interacting with long fiber taper  

CERN Document Server

A vector dual-wavelength rectangular-shape laser (RSL) based on a long fiber taper deposited with reduced graphene oxide is proposed, where the nonlinearity is enhanced due to large evanescent-field-interacting length and strong field confinement of a 8 mm fiber taper with a waist diameter of 4 micronmeters. Graphene flakes are deposited uniformly on the taper waist with light pressure effect, so this structure guarantees both excellent saturable absorption and high nonlinearity. The RSL with a repetition rate of 7.9 MHz exhibits fast polarization switching in two orthogonal polarization directions, and the temporal and spectral characteristics are investigated. The results suggest that the long taper-based graphene structure is an efficient choice for nonlinear devices.

Gao, Lei; Zeng, Jing; Huang, Wei; Liu, Min

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Temperature gradient sensor based on a long-fiber Bragg grating and time-frequency analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A photonic sensor based on a 10-cm-long fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is presented and experimentally validated that is dedicated to detect the presence and the position of a temperature gradient. The system is based on the measurement of the central frequency distribution of the grating based on time-frequency domain analysis. A short optical pulse, having duration much shorter than the transit time along the grating, is coupled into the FBG, and the back-reflected pulse is scanned by means of an oscilloscope. A spatial resolution of 1 mm, given by half the input pulse duration, is achieved. The proposed sensor is based on a simple configuration and presents a sensing range of 10 cm, which could be further enhanced by fabricating a longer grating. PMID:25360970

Ricchiuti, A L; Barrera, D; Nonaka, K; Sales, S

2014-10-01

302

Vector rectangular-shape laser based on reduced graphene oxide interacting with a long fiber taper  

Science.gov (United States)

A vector dual-wavelength rectangular-shape laser (RSL) based on a long fiber taper deposited with reduced graphene oxide is proposed, where the nonlinearity is enhanced due to large evanescent-field-interacting length and strong field confinement of a 8 mm fiber taper with a waist diameter of 4 micronmeters. Graphene flakes are deposited uniformly on the taper waist with light pressure effect, so this structure guarantees both excellent saturable absorption and high nonlinearity. The RSL with a repetition rate of 7.9 MHz exhibits fast polarization switching in two orthogonal polarization directions, and the temporal and spectral characteristics are investigated. The results suggest that the long taper-based graphene structure is an efficient choice for nonlinear devices.

Gao, Lei; Zhu, Tao; Huang, Wei; Zeng, Jing

2014-10-01

303

Acetylation of chicken feathers for thermoplastic applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poultry feathers are renewable resources, inexpensive and abundantly available, but have limited applications. Although keratin extracted from feathers has been chemically modified, there are no reports on the chemical modification or development of thermoplastics from poultry feathers. Acetylation is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly approach to make biopolymers thermoplastic. Several biopolymers have been acetylated and used to produce fibers, films, and extrudates. In this research, chicken feathers were acetylated, and the structure and properties of the acetylated feathers were studied. Acetylation conditions such as concentration of chemicals and catalyst and time and temperature of acetylation were optimized. Acetylation of feathers was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (P-GC-MS). The acetylated feathers were analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to understand their thermal behavior. Acetylated feathers were thermoplastic and could be compression molded to form transparent films despite the relatively low percentage of acetyl content. PMID:21882886

Hu, Chunyan; Reddy, Narendra; Yan, Kelu; Yang, Yiqi

2011-10-12

304

Characteristics of in-air thermoplastic recording.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concepts and characteristics of in-air thermoplastic recording are reviewed. The in-air method of electrophotographic recording relies upon a gaseous discharge of air molecules to form a latent charge pattern in the likeness of the image. Modulation is achieved with a light sensitive photoreceptor, and images are stored as surface deformations on the thermoplastic film. Development is instantaneous with heat, projection by schlieren optics, and erasure by melting the thermoplastic. The technique has been applied to (1) document type recording, where the entire image appears simultaneously, and (2) the recording of charactron type CRT images, where the information appears as a rapid short-time sequence of high intensity alphanumeric symbols. Problem areas are studied with the aid of the equivalent circuit and its transient analysis. Resolution, reciprocity, photoconductor characteristics, reusability, image sampling, and the effects of humidity are discussed. PMID:20076115

D'Antonio, N F

1969-01-01

305

Assembly injection moulding joins metal and thermoplastics; Montagespritzgiessen verbindet Metall und Thermoplast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Automotive safety restraint system components increasingly use flexible styrenic and olefinic TPEs. With continued evolution in automotive interior design and performance requirements, demands on material technology are concomitantly rising. A growing trend towards molded in color solutions with low gloss aesthetics require TPE materials with ery low gloss, improved scratch resistance, and low temperature ductility. Innovations utilizing Teknor Apex's compounding technology have enabled the development of low gloss styrenic elastomers for airbag door applications that provide an optimized combination of low temperature performance, surface aesthetics (low gloss and improved scratch resistance), and ease of processing. This paper highlights the salient features of these new compounds and the effect of injection molding condition on the gloss at the surface of the cover.

Drummer, Dietmar; Meister, Steve [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Kunststofftechnik; Reichart, Marc [HBW Gubesch Kunststoff Engineering GmbH, Wilhelmsdorf (Germany)

2010-03-08

306

Efficacy of screens in removing long fibers from an aerosol stream--sample preparation technique for toxicology studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber dimension (especially length) and biopersistence are thought to be important variables in determining the pathogenicity of asbestos and other elongate mineral particles. In order to prepare samples of fibers for toxicology studies, it is necessary to develop and evaluate methods for separating fibers by length in the micrometer size range. In this study, we have filtered an aerosol of fibers through nylon screens to investigate whether such screens can efficiently remove the long fibers (L >20 µm, a typical macrophage size) from the aerosol stream. Such a sample, deficient in long fibers, could then be used as the control in a toxicology study to investigate the role of length. A well-dispersed aerosol of glass fibers (a surrogate for asbestos) was generated by vortex shaking a Japan Fibrous Material Research Association (JFMRA) glass fiber powder. Fibers were collected on a mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter, imaged with phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and lengths were measured. Length distributions of the fibers that penetrated through various screens (10, 20 and 60?µm mesh sizes) were analyzed; additional study was made of fibers that penetrated through double screen and centrally blocked screen configurations. Single screens were not particularly efficient in removing the long fibers; however, the alternative configurations, especially the centrally blocked screen configuration, yielded samples substantially free of the long fibers. PMID:24417374

Ku, Bon Ki; Deye, Gregory J; Turkevich, Leonid A

2014-02-01

307

Electromechanical instabilities of thermoplastics: Theory and in situ observation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermoplastics under voltages are used in diverse applications ranging from insulating cables to organic capacitors. Electromechanical instabilities have been proposed as a mechanism that causes electrical breakdown of thermoplastics. However, existing experiments cannot provide direct observations of the instability process, and existing theories for the instabilities generally assume thermoplastics are mechanically unconstrained. Here, we report in situ observations of electromechanical instabilities in various thermoplastics. A theory is formulated for electromechanical instabilities of thermoplastics under different mechanical constraints. We find that the instabilities generally occur in thermoplastics when temperature is above their glass transition temperatures and electric field reaches a critical value. The critical electric field for the instabilities scales with square root of yield stress of the thermoplastic and depends on its Young's modulus and hardening property. PMID:23112349

Wang, Qiming; Niu, Xiaofan; Pei, Qibing; Dickey, Michael D; Zhao, Xuanhe

2012-10-01

308

Properties Of High-Performance Thermoplastics  

Science.gov (United States)

Report presents review of principal thermoplastics (TP's) used to fabricate high-performance composites. Sixteen principal TP's considered as candidates for fabrication of high-performance composites presented along with names of suppliers, Tg, Tm (for semicrystalline polymers), and approximate maximum processing temperatures.

Johnston, Norman J.; Hergenrother, Paul M.

1992-01-01

309

Thermoplastic film camera for holographic recording  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design thermoplastic-film recording camera and its performance for holography of extended objects are reported. Special corona geometry and accurate control of development heat by constant current heating and high resolution measurement of the develop temperature make easy recording of reproducible, large aperture holograms possible. The experimental results give the transfer characteristics, the diffraction efficiency characteristics and the spatial frequency response. (orig.)

310

Evolução da morfologia de fases de blendas PA6/AES em extrusora de dupla rosca e moldagem por injeção / Evolution of phase morphology of PA6/AES blends during the twin screw extrusion and injection molding processes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A evolução da morfologia de fases em blendas não reativas e reativas de poliamida-6 com copolímero de acrilonitrila/EPDM/estireno (AES) em uma extrusora de rosca dupla co-rotacional foi investigada. A evolução da morfologia de fases ao longo da extrusora de rosca dupla foi monitorada através da cole [...] ta de pequenas amostras em válvulas no barril da extrusora e caracterização por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET). Foram utilizados como compatibilizantes reativos os copolímeros metacrilato de metila-co-anidrido maleico (MMA-MA) e metacrilato de metila-co-metacrilato de glicidila (MMA-GMA). Os grupos anidrido maleico e epóxi nos copolímeros podem reagir com os grupos finais de cadeia da poliamida durante o processamento no estado fundido e melhorar a interação na interfase do sistema PA6/AES. A blenda PA6/AES não compatibilizada apresentou uma morfologia grosseira de fases onde a fase AES não está bem dispersa na matriz de PA6 devido à falta de interações adequadas entre os componentes da blenda. A adição do compatibilizante MMA-GMA não proporcionou boa dispersão de fases e não melhorou as propriedades mecânicas da blenda, provavelmente porque as possíveis reações no sistema são lentas e podem não ocorrer na extrusora. Por outro lado, a blenda compatibilizada com o copolímero MMA-MA apresentou uma excelente resistência ao impacto à temperatura ambiente e uma diminuição na temperatura de transição dúctil-frágil. As partículas de AES apresentam-se muito mais refinadas e sofrem uma redução significativa em seu tamanho já no início do processo de extrusão. A morfologia observada nas amostras injetadas apresentou uma boa correlação com as propriedades mecânicas obtidas. Abstract in english The evolution of phase morphology in non-reactive vs reactive blends with polyamide and ethylene-propylene-diene elastomer grafted with styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (AES) in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder was investigated. The morphological evolution of these blends along a twin-screw extruder [...] was monitored by quickly collecting small samples from the melt at specific extruder barrel locations and characterizing them with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The copolymers methyl methacrylate-co-maleic anhydride (MMA-MA) and methyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate (MMA-GMA) were used as compatibilizing agents. The maleic anhydride and the epoxy groups of the copolymers can react with the polyamide end groups during melt processing and improve the interphase interaction in the PA6/AES system. The uncompatibilized blends showed a coarse phase morphology where the AES phase is not well dispersed in the PA6 matrix due to lack of adequate interaction between the components. The addition of MMA-GMA compatibilizer neither promoted good phase dispersion or improved the mechanical properties of the blends, probably because the possible reactions are very slow and may not occur inside the extruder. On the other hand, the addition of the MMA-MA copolymer promotes better impact strength and good phase dispersion in the blend. The AES particles undergo significant reduction in the first stages of the mixture inside the extruder. The morphology observed for the injection molded specimens was correlated with the mechanical properties.

Adriane, Bassani; Elias, Hage Jr; Luiz A., Pessan; Ana V, Machado; José A., Covas.

2005-07-01

311

Evolução da morfologia de fases de blendas PA6/AES em extrusora de dupla rosca e moldagem por injeção Evolution of phase morphology of PA6/AES blends during the twin screw extrusion and injection molding processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A evolução da morfologia de fases em blendas não reativas e reativas de poliamida-6 com copolímero de acrilonitrila/EPDM/estireno (AES em uma extrusora de rosca dupla co-rotacional foi investigada. A evolução da morfologia de fases ao longo da extrusora de rosca dupla foi monitorada através da coleta de pequenas amostras em válvulas no barril da extrusora e caracterização por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET. Foram utilizados como compatibilizantes reativos os copolímeros metacrilato de metila-co-anidrido maleico (MMA-MA e metacrilato de metila-co-metacrilato de glicidila (MMA-GMA. Os grupos anidrido maleico e epóxi nos copolímeros podem reagir com os grupos finais de cadeia da poliamida durante o processamento no estado fundido e melhorar a interação na interfase do sistema PA6/AES. A blenda PA6/AES não compatibilizada apresentou uma morfologia grosseira de fases onde a fase AES não está bem dispersa na matriz de PA6 devido à falta de interações adequadas entre os componentes da blenda. A adição do compatibilizante MMA-GMA não proporcionou boa dispersão de fases e não melhorou as propriedades mecânicas da blenda, provavelmente porque as possíveis reações no sistema são lentas e podem não ocorrer na extrusora. Por outro lado, a blenda compatibilizada com o copolímero MMA-MA apresentou uma excelente resistência ao impacto à temperatura ambiente e uma diminuição na temperatura de transição dúctil-frágil. As partículas de AES apresentam-se muito mais refinadas e sofrem uma redução significativa em seu tamanho já no início do processo de extrusão. A morfologia observada nas amostras injetadas apresentou uma boa correlação com as propriedades mecânicas obtidas.The evolution of phase morphology in non-reactive vs reactive blends with polyamide and ethylene-propylene-diene elastomer grafted with styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (AES in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder was investigated. The morphological evolution of these blends along a twin-screw extruder was monitored by quickly collecting small samples from the melt at specific extruder barrel locations and characterizing them with a transmission electron microscope (TEM. The copolymers methyl methacrylate-co-maleic anhydride (MMA-MA and methyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate (MMA-GMA were used as compatibilizing agents. The maleic anhydride and the epoxy groups of the copolymers can react with the polyamide end groups during melt processing and improve the interphase interaction in the PA6/AES system. The uncompatibilized blends showed a coarse phase morphology where the AES phase is not well dispersed in the PA6 matrix due to lack of adequate interaction between the components. The addition of MMA-GMA compatibilizer neither promoted good phase dispersion or improved the mechanical properties of the blends, probably because the possible reactions are very slow and may not occur inside the extruder. On the other hand, the addition of the MMA-MA copolymer promotes better impact strength and good phase dispersion in the blend. The AES particles undergo significant reduction in the first stages of the mixture inside the extruder. The morphology observed for the injection molded specimens was correlated with the mechanical properties.

Adriane Bassani

2005-07-01

312

Microscale Patterning of Thermoplastic Polymer Surfaces by Selective Solvent Swelling  

Science.gov (United States)

A new method for the fabrication of microscale features in thermoplastic substrates is presented. Unlike traditional thermoplastic microfabrication techniques, in which bulk polymer is displaced from the substrate by machining or embossing, a unique process termed orogenic microfabrication has been developed in which selected regions of a thermoplastic surface are raised from the substrate by an irreversible solvent swelling mechanism. The orogenic technique allows thermoplastic surfaces to be patterned using a variety of masking methods, resulting in three-dimensional features that would be difficult to achieve through traditional microfabrication methods. Using cyclic olefin copolymer as a model thermoplastic material, several variations of this process are described to realize growth heights ranging from several nanometers to tens of microns, with patterning techniques include direct photoresist masking, patterned UV/ozone surface passivation, elastomeric stamping, and noncontact spotting. Orogenic microfabrication is also demonstrated by direct inkjet printing as a facile photolithography-free masking method for rapid desktop thermoplastic microfabrication. PMID:22900539

Rahmanian, Omid; Chen, Chien-Fu; DeVoe, Don L.

2012-01-01

313

Microscale patterning of thermoplastic polymer surfaces by selective solvent swelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new method for the fabrication of microscale features in thermoplastic substrates is presented. Unlike traditional thermoplastic microfabrication techniques, in which bulk polymer is displaced from the substrate by machining or embossing, a unique process termed orogenic microfabrication has been developed in which selected regions of a thermoplastic surface are raised from the substrate by an irreversible solvent swelling mechanism. The orogenic technique allows thermoplastic surfaces to be patterned using a variety of masking methods, resulting in three-dimensional features that would be difficult to achieve through traditional microfabrication methods. Using cyclic olefin copolymer as a model thermoplastic material, several variations of this process are described to realize growth heights ranging from several nanometers to tens of micrometers, with patterning techniques include direct photoresist masking, patterned UV/ozone surface passivation, elastomeric stamping, and noncontact spotting. Orogenic microfabrication is also demonstrated by direct inkjet printing as a facile photolithography-free masking method for rapid desktop thermoplastic microfabrication. PMID:22900539

Rahmanian, Omid; Chen, Chien-Fu; DeVoe, Don L

2012-09-01

314

Glass transition temperature of thermoplastic starches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thermoplastic starch was produced by mixing potato starch and glycerol in a single screw extruder. The glass transition temperatures of the materials obtained were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both the influence of extruder parameters and material parameters, such as moisture and glycerol content and amyloses/amylopectine ratio were investigated. Repeated extrusion cycles affect the glass transition temperature only to a very small extent.

Mitrus, M.

2005-01-01

315

Separation and recovery of thermoplastics by froth floatation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes efforts by Argonne National Laboratory to develop a froth flotation process for separating and recovering plastics from mixed plastics waste streams generated from shredding obsolete appliances and automobiles. A process for recovering and separating equivalent-density ABS and HIPS from obsolete appliances was developed and pilot-tested with a through-put of 1,250 lbs/hr. The basic process is outlined; unit operations and equipment are discussed, and material balances are presented. The resulting ABS product was analyzed and its physical and mechanical properties were established. Its properties resembled those of virgin, mid-grade ABS that is commercially sold today and is widely used by the automotive industry. Injection-molding tests were also conducted by automotive-components suppliers, using the 100% recovered ABS. Headlamp back-cans and automotive ventilation-system duct components were injection molded and the results showed that the recovered ABS met the specifications for these applications. These results confirmed that the recovered ABS can be used as a substitute for virgin plastic materials for molding highly complex automotive component designs, and in parts for other durable goods. Economic analysis of a commercial-scale system was also performed using manufacturers' equipment quotes and operating data from the pilot plant, and it predicts a simple payback of less than 2 years for plants producing about 850 tons per year of ABS.

Karvelas, D. E.; Jody, B. J.; Pomykala, J., Jr.; Daniels, E. J.

1999-10-22

316

Development of thermoplastic coated multifunctional transmission elements  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on key challenges of the development of steel cords reinforced thermoplastic elastomer composites with smart functionalities: adhesion tailoring for a durable mechanical load transfer through steel cords or other transmission elements by the use of surface treatments and primers, and integrated distributed temperature and strain sensing by the use of embedded fiber optic sensors. Traditional surface treatments including silane coupling agent were outperformed in processing time, adhesion and durability by a fast-curing coupling method using a UV-curable primer; and the integrated distributed temperature and strain sensing capability was demonstrated. The practical applications of the resulting multifunctional transmission element are then discussed in light of these results.

Golaz, B.; Michaud, V.; de Oliveira, R.; Månson, J.-A. E.

2012-04-01

317

Model of holographic recording in thermoplastic materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for the evaluation of images reconstructed from holograms recorded in thermoplastic materials is reported. The method is based on the use of the experimental modulation transfer function and nonlinear holographic characteristics of the recording material. Calculations have been carried out for high-numerical-aperture holograms of a five-element Ronchi ruling. The quality of the reconstructed image as a function of the recording parameters has been computed. The model predicts that it is possible to optimize holographic recording in these materials. PMID:18273129

Bányász, I

1998-04-10

318

Supportability evaluation of thermoplastic and thermoset composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Nearly 300 advanced composite components manufactured by Northrop Corporation are flying on U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy supersonic aircraft as part of a three-year Air Force/Navy/Northrop supportability evaluation. Both thermoplastic and high-temperature thermoset composites were evaluated for their in-service performance on 48 USAF and Navy F-5E fighter and USAFT-38 trainer aircraft in the first large-scale, long-term maintenance evaluation of these advanced materials. Northrop manufactured four types of doors for the project-avionics bay access, oil fill, inlet duct inspection, and a main landing gear door. The doors are made of PEEK (polyetheretherketone) thermoplastic, which is tougher and potentially less expensive to manufacture than conventional composites; and 5250-3 BMI (bismaleimide) thermoset, which is manufactured like a conventional epoxy composite but can withstand higher service temperatures. Results obtained so far indicate that both the BMI and PEEK are durable with PEEK being somewhat better than BMI.

Chanani, G. R.; Boldi, D.; Cramer, S. G.; Heimerdinger, M. W.

1990-01-01

319

Low Cost Processing of Commingled Thermoplastic Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

A low cost vacuum consolidation process has been investigated for use with commingled thermoplastic matrix composites. In particular, the vacuum consolidation behaviour of commingled polypropylene/glass fibre and commingled nylon/carbon fibre precursors were studied. Laminates were consolidated in a convection oven under vacuum pressure. During processing, the consolidation of the laminate packs was measured by use of non-contact eddy current sensors. The consolidation curves are then used to tune an empirical consolidation model. The overall quality of the resulting laminates is also discussed. Dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and mechanical tensile testing were also performed in order to determine the effects of varying processing parameters on the physical and mechanical properties of the laminates. Through this analysis, it was determined that the nylon/carbon fibre blend was not suitable for vacuum consolidation, while the polypropylene/glass fibre blend is a viable option for vacuum consolidation. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a foundation from which low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) components can be designed and manufactured from thermoplastic matrix composites using a low cost processing technique as an alternative to traditional thermoset composite materials.

Chiasson, Matthew Lee

320

Recent Developments on Thermoplastic Elastomers by Dynamic Vulcanization  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive overview is given of the recent developments of thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) with special reference to the technological advancements. TPVs combine the high volume molding capability of thermoplastics with the elastomeric properties of thermoset rubber. Therefore, they lend themselves to a broad range of applications in various fields. TPVs represent the second largest group of soft thermoplastic elastomers, after styrenic-based block copolymers. TPVs have undergone evolutionary changes in terms of the selection of polymers, design of crosslinking, compounding techniques, and methods of production, and have achieved better elastic recovery, easy processability and low hardness etc.

Babu, R. Rajesh; Naskar, Kinsuk

 
 
 
 
321

Giant magnetoimpedance effect enhanced by thermoplastic drawing  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed thermoplastic forming (TPF) on FeCoNbB metallic glass ribbons with a supercooled liquid region exceeding 100 K, and found the sample after TPF is still completely amorphous. More importantly, the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect was improved after the forming process: the maximum GMI ratio and sensitivity increased from 41% to 12.3%/Oe in the case of as-cast sample to 280% and 358.2%/Oe in the case of resulting sample after TPF, respectively. The hysteresis loops and domain patterns were subsequently studied, which revealed that the primary factor leading to the improvement of the GMI effect was the enhanced longitudinal magnetic anisotropy induced by the TPF process. We therefore assume that TPF is an effective way that improves the GMI effect, which differs from conventional annealing methods.

Qiang, Jian; Estevez, Diana; Dong, Yaqiang; Man, Qikui; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei

2014-09-01

322

Pen microfluidics: rapid desktop manufacturing of sealed thermoplastic microchannels.  

Science.gov (United States)

A unique technique for the rapid fabrication of thermoplastic microfluidic chips is described. The method enables the realization of fully-sealed microchannels in around one hour while requiring only minimal infrastructure by taking advantage of a solvent swelling mechanism that allows raised features to be patterned on the surface of homogeneous thermoplastic materials. Patterning is achieved without photolithography by simply drawing the desired microchannel pattern onto the polymer surface using a suitable ink as a masking layer, either manually or under robotic control, followed by timed exposure to solvent vapor to yield a desired depth for the masked channel features. The channels are then permanently sealed through solvent bonding of the microchannel chip to a mating thermoplastic substrate. The process is demonstrated using cyclic olefin copolymer as a thermoplastic material, with fully operational microfluidic devices fabricated following a true desktop manufacturing model suitable for rapid prototyping. PMID:23344819

Rahmanian, Omid; DeVoe, Don L

2013-03-21

323

Thermoplastic Hardening of Martensitic Steels and Titanium Alloys.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report contains a discussion of the mechanical-thermal working of metastable beta-alloys of titanium and examines areas and prospects for the use of thermoplastic hardening methods of structural materials with stabilization of the structural state.

G. E. Kainova, M. A. Komarov, M. K. Shorshorov, L. K. Gordienko

1972-01-01

324

Characterisation of IPNs of thermoplastic elastomers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tough but strong composites can form using thermoplastic elastomers as starting materials by controlling nanometer-scale texture. Block copolymers based on butadiene or isoprene and styrene are widely used industrially. They can, when blended, toughen polystyrene but the formation of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) is another potentially better way to enable compatibilization. IPNs combine two or more polymers in network form with one network polymerised and/or crosslinked in the immediate presence of the other. Materials can be formed with controlled morphologies, by for example growing the dispersed phase. Jones et al produced polystyrene/poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) IPNs using thermal methods. Phase separation is confined to domains ? 20-40 nm and materials can have good mechanical and impact properties. Some samples however embrittled due to thermal degradation of the butadiene regions in the SBS material. It is possible to form similar IPNs of PS/SBS using gamma irradiation, which provides a room-temperature alternative to traditional thermal methods. However the previous work was confined to an oil-extended grade of SBS where the influence of the oil extension was not known. Here two main types of IPNs of block copolymers (thermoplastic elastomers, TPEs) and PS were prepared using sequential polymerisation. In one type, the TPE was thermally crosslinked, and styrene was polymerised and crosslinked using gamma irradiation to produce tough transparen irradiation to produce tough transparent IPNs which show no evidence of thermal degradation. A second group was prepared thermally, but with varying ratios of PS and TPE. These are of interest as the ratio affects strength and toughness. In this presentation we emphasise morphological aspects at the nm level using transmission electron microscopy and small angle neutron scattering

325

Characteristics and utilization of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE)-an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The unique feature of thermoplastic elastomer, the combining of processing characteristics of thermoplastics with the physical properties of vulcanized rubber is reviewed. Highlights of TPE and its characteristics is aimed to generate interest in TPE, where SANS technique will be utilized for its characterization. The topics discussed include rubber elasticity, state of aggregation of polymers, microseparation in block copolymer system, application of TPE, and finally some notes in developing interest in TPE and SANS in Indonesia. (author)

Roestamsjah [R and D Center for Applied Chemistry, Indonesian Inst. of Sciences (Indonesia)

1998-10-01

326

Hybrid Joining of Aluminum to Thermoplastics with Friction Stir Welding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hybrid structures including aluminum-thermoplastic and aluminum-reinforced thermoplastic composite are increasingly important in the near future innovations due to its lightweight and high strength-to-weight ratio. A critical point for metal-polymer application is that sound joining of these materials is difficult to achieve owing to a large difference in surface energy and dissimilar structure between metal and polymer. In practice, two major joining methods for hybrid structures are mechani...

Ratanathavorn, Wallop

2012-01-01

327

Effect of annealing history on free volume in thermoplastics  

Science.gov (United States)

Two different types of thermoplastic glassy polymers have been investigated for the effects of thermal annealing on their free volumes. It has been observed that free volumes in glassy polymers decrease asymptotically to a steady level after about four thermal anneals lasting for 24 hours at a temperature about 50 C below their glass transition temperatures. These results indicate that composites incorporating properly annealed thermoplastic matrices may not experience any additional internal stresses due to subsequent thermal excursions experienced while in service.

Singh, J. J.; St.clair, T. L.

1986-01-01

328

Distributed Raman amplification using ultra-long fiber laser with a ring cavity: characteristics and sensing application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Distributed Raman amplification (DRA) based on ultra-long fiber laser (UL-FL) pumping with a ring cavity is promising for repeaterless transmission and sensing. In this work, the characteristics (including gain, nonlinear impairment and noise figure) for forward and backward pumping of the ring-cavity based DRA scheme are fully investigated. Furthermore, as a typical application of the proposed configuration, ultra-long-distance distributed sensing with Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) over 142.2 km fiber with 5m spatial resolution and ± 1.5 °C temperature uncertainty is achieved, without any repeater. The key point for the significant performance improvement is the system could offer both of uniform gain distribution and considerably suppressed pump-probe relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer, by optimized design of system structure and parameters. PMID:24103994

Jia, Xin-Hong; Rao, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Zi-Nan; Zhang, Wei-Li; Yuan, Cheng-Xu; Yan, Xiao-Dong; Li, Jin; Wu, Han; Zhu, Ye-Yu; Peng, Fei

2013-09-01

329

Novel polymer blends with thermoplastic starch  

Science.gov (United States)

A new class of polymers known as "bioplastics" has emerged and is expanding rapidly. This class consists of polymers that are either bio-based or biodegradable, or both. Among these, polysaccharides, namely starch, are of great interest for several reasons. By gelatinizing starch via plasticizers, it can be processed in the same way as thermoplastic polymers with conventional processing equipment. Hence, these bio-based and biodegradable plastics, with their low source and refinery costs, as well as relatively easy processability, have made them ideal candidates for incorporation into various current plastic products. Four different plasticizers have been chosen here for gelatinization of thermoplastic starch (TPS): glycerol, sorbitol, diglycerol and polyglycerol, with the latter two being used for the first time in such a process. Two methodological categories are used. The first involves a calorimetric method (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) as well as optical microscopy; these are "static" methods where no shear is applied A wide range of starch/water/plasticizer compositions were prepared to explore the gelatinization regime for each plasticizer. The onset and conclusion gelatinization temperatures for sorbitol and glycerol were found to be in the same vicinity, while diglycerol and polyglycerol showed significantly higher transition temperatures. The higher molecular weight and viscosity of polyglycerol allow this transition to occur at an even higher temperature than with diglycerol. This is due to the increase in molecular weight and viscosity of the two new plasticizers, as well as their significant decrease in water solubility. It is demonstrated that the water/plasticizer ratio has a pronounced effect on gelatinization temperatures. When plasticizer content was held constant and water content was increased, it was found that the gelatinization temperature decreased for all the plasticizers. Meanwhile, when the water content was held constant and the plasticizer content was increased, the gelatinization temperature increased for glycerol, sorbitol and diglycerol, but it moved in the opposite direction in the case of polyglycerol. The gelatinization temperature variation for glycerol, sorbitol and diglycerol caused by changing water and plasticizer content indicates that water is the primary agent causing granular swell and plasticization in the gelatinization process. Due to the high molecular weight and viscosity, as well as the low hydroxyl group density (~ one --OH per two carbon) and borderline solubility of polyglycerol in water, it is believed that water-aided penetration of the plasticizer among the crystalline structure of starch molecules is significantly decelerated. So it is proposed that in the case of low-water solubility of the plasticizers, gelatinization temperature is determined more by the total amount of the plasticizer and water, rather than the water/plasticizer ratio. Increasing the miscibility of polyglycerol in water by increasing the temperature of the initial slurry, results in a return of the system to the typical thermal dependence of gelatinization with plasticizer/water ratio. Secondly, the gelatinization of starch under "dynamic conditions" was studied. In this case, a constant shear is applied to the slurry, along with a temperature ramp to induce gelatinization. This is, in fact, a rheological technique that heats up the slurry, while a mechanical shear is applied throughout. The reason for using this method is that in the plastic industry, thermoplastic starch is produced via processes involving shear such as extrusion, but, to date, there has not yet been a thorough study on the effect of pure shear on the gelatinization process. Glycerol, diglycerol and sorbitol were subjected to different dynamic gelatinization treatments in a couette flow system, and the results were compared with static gelatinization. Applying shear showed virtually no effect on the onset gelatinization temperature. However, the conclusion temperature was remarkably reduced

Taghizadeh, Ata

330

Biodegradable thermoplastic polyurethanes incorporating polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new hybrid thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) system that incorporates an organic, biodegradable poly(D, L-lactide) soft block with a hard block bearing the inorganic polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) moiety is introduced and studied. Changes in the polyol composition made through variation of the hydrophilic initiator molecular weight show direct control of the final transition temperatures. Incorporating POSS into the hard segments allows for excellent elasticity above T(g), as evidenced with dynamic mechanical analysis, not seen in most other biodegradable materials. This elasticity is attributed to physical cross-links formed in the hard block through POSS crystallization, as revealed with wide-angle X-ray diffraction. Increasing the POSS incorporation level in the TPU hard block was observed to increase crystallinity and also the rigidity of the material. The highest incorporation, using a statistical average of three POSS units per hard block, demonstrated one-way shape memory with excellent shape fixing capabilities. In vitro degradation of this sample was also investigated during a two month period. Moderate water uptake and dramatic molecular weight decrease were immediately observed although large mass loss (approximately 20 wt %) was not observed until the two month time point. PMID:18698847

Knight, Pamela T; Lee, Kyung Min; Qin, Haihu; Mather, Patrick T

2008-09-01

331

Improved adhesion for thermoplastic polymers using oxyfluorination  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrial applications of thermoplastic polymers are often limited by their poor adhesion properties. In this work the effect of surface oxyfluorination on the adhesion properties was investigated for polyethylene (PE), polyoxymethylene (POM), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and polyamide 6 (PA6). The adhesive joint strength was quantified using lap-shear tests. These results were correlated with the changes in the chemical composition of the surface, determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), in the surface free energy, measured by the contact angle method, and in the topography, using white-light confocal microscopy. The adhesive strength is strongly improved for all four polymers, but the degree of this increase depends on the polymer type. The surface free energy shows a similar trend for all four polymers. A high surface free energy exceeding 50 mN/m was observed after oxy-fluorination, whereby the polar component was strongly predominant. Surface topography measurements show no significant increase of the surface roughness. So the effect of oxyfluorination results primarily in increased wettability and polarity, due to changes of the chemical composition of the surface. XPS measurements confirm the integration of fluorine and oxygen groups in the polymer chain, which correlates with the increased polarity.

Achereiner, F.; Münstedt, H.; Zeiler, T.

2008-03-01

332

Method for bonding a thermoplastic polymer to a thermosetting polymer component:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The invention relates to a method for bonding a thermoplastic polymer to a thermosetting polymer component, the thermoplastic polymer having a melting temperature that exceeds the curing temperature of the thermosetting polymer. The method comprises the steps of providing a cured thermosetting polymer component comprising an implant of a thermoplastic polymer at least at the part of the thermosetting polymer component to be bonded, locating a thermoplastic polymer in contact with at least the...

Tooren, M. J. L.

2012-01-01

333

Simple room temperature bonding of thermoplastics and poly(dimethylsiloxane).  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a simple and versatile method for bonding thermoplastics to elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) at room temperature. The bonding of various thermoplastics including polycarbonate (PC), cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and polystyrene (PS), to PDMS has been demonstrated at room temperature. An irreversible bonding was formed instantaneously when the thermoplastics, activated by oxygen plasma followed by aminopropyltriethoxysilane modification, were brought into contact with the plasma treated PDMS. The surface modified thermoplastics were characterized by water contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The tensile strength of the bonded hybrid devices fabricated with PC, COC, PMMA, and PS was found to be 430, 432, 385, and 388 kPa, respectively. The assembled devices showed high burst resistance at a maximum channel pressure achievable by an in-house built syringe pump, 528 kPa. Furthermore, they displayed very high hydrolytic stability; no significant change was observed even after the storage in water at 37 °C over a period of three weeks. In addition, this thermoplastic-to-PDMS bonding technique has been successfully employed to fabricate a relatively large sized device. For example, a lab-on-a-disc with a diameter of 12 cm showed no leakage when it spins for centrifugal fluidic pumping at a very high rotating speed of 6000 rpm. PMID:21152492

Sunkara, Vijaya; Park, Dong-Kyu; Hwang, Hyundoo; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Soper, Steven A; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

2011-03-01

334

Fabrication of thermoplastics chips through lamination based techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we propose a novel strategy for the fabrication of flexible thermoplastic microdevices entirely based on lamination processes. The same low-cost laminator apparatus can be used from master fabrication to microchannel sealing. This process is appropriate for rapid prototyping at laboratory scale, but it can also be easily upscaled to industrial manufacturing. For demonstration, we used here Cycloolefin Copolymer (COC), a thermoplastic polymer that is extensively used for microfluidic applications. COC is a thermoplastic polymer with good chemical resistance to common chemicals used in microfluidics such as acids, bases and most polar solvents. Its optical quality and mechanical resistance make this material suitable for a large range of applications in chemistry or biology. As an example, the electrokinetic separation of pollutants is proposed in the present study. PMID:22487893

Miserere, Sandrine; Mottet, Guillaume; Taniga, Velan; Descroix, Stephanie; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Malaquin, Laurent

2012-04-24

335

Thermoplastic Explosive Compositions on the Base of Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane is an azostructural compound known as CL-20. We performed a series of experiments with CL-20 synthesized in Russia to evaluate the possibility to use it in pressed high explosive compositions. We used it in thermoplastic compositions both with an inert binder and energetic binder. The compositions were conventionally named CL-20? and CL-20A. It was determined that the thermoplastic compositions had the most high detonation parameters and a level of sensitivity to mechanical effects acceptable to allow their processing. Their detonation characteristics were compared with that of some known foreign compositions based on CL-20.

Ilyin, V. P.; Smirnov, S. P.; Kolganov, E. V.; Pechenev, Yu. G.

2006-08-01

336

Optimization of injection molding process parameters by a hybrid of artificial neural network and artificial bee colony algorithm / Optimización de los parámetros del proceso de inyección de plásticos a través de un híbrido de redes neuronales artificiales y el algoritmo de la colonia artificial de abejas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este estudio presenta un híbrido de redes neuronales artificiales con el algoritmo de la colonia artificial de abejas para optimizar los parámetros del proceso de inyección de plásticos con el objetivo de minimizar la deformación en productos plásticos. Una red neuronal de propagación hacia adelante [...] es empleada para obtener una relación matemática entre los parámetros del proceso y el objetivo a optimizar. El algoritmo de la colonia artificial de abejas es usado para encontrar el conjunto óptimo de valores de los parámetros que resultarían en la solución óptima. Un caso experimental es presentado acoplando simulaciones de Moldflow junto con los esquemas mencionados con el fin de validar el enfoque propuesto. La temperatura del plástico, temperatura del molde, presión de empaque, tiempo de empaque, y tiempo de enfriamiento son consideradas como las variables de diseño. Los resultados revelan que el enfoque propuesto puede eficientemente apoyar a ingenieros a determinar los parámetros óptimos y alcanzar ventajas competitivas en términos de calidad y costos. Abstract in english This paper presents a hybrid of artificial neural networks and artificial bee colony algorithm to optimize the process parameters in injection molding with the aim of minimize warpage of plastic products. A feedforward neural network is employed to obtain a mathematical relationship between the proc [...] ess parameters and the optimization goal. Artificial bee colony algorithm is used to find the optimal set of process parameters values that would result in the optimal solution. An experimental case is presented by coupling Moldflow simulations along with the intelligent schemes in order to validate the proposed approach. Melt temperature, mold temperature, packing pressure, packing time, and cooling time are considered as the design variables. Results revealed the proposed approach can efficiently support engineers to determine the optimal process parameters and achieve competitive advantages in terms of quality and costs.

Alejandro, Alvarado Iniesta; Jorge L., García Alcaraz; ManuelIván, Rodríguez Borbón.

337

Optimization of injection molding process parameters by a hybrid of artificial neural network and artificial bee colony algorithm / Optimización de los parámetros del proceso de inyección de plásticos a través de un híbrido de redes neuronales artificiales y el algoritmo de la colonia artificial de abejas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este estudio presenta un híbrido de redes neuronales artificiales con el algoritmo de la colonia artificial de abejas para optimizar los parámetros del proceso de inyección de plásticos con el objetivo de minimizar la deformación en productos plásticos. Una red neuronal de propagación hacia adelante [...] es empleada para obtener una relación matemática entre los parámetros del proceso y el objetivo a optimizar. El algoritmo de la colonia artificial de abejas es usado para encontrar el conjunto óptimo de valores de los parámetros que resultarían en la solución óptima. Un caso experimental es presentado acoplando simulaciones de Moldflow junto con los esquemas mencionados con el fin de validar el enfoque propuesto. La temperatura del plástico, temperatura del molde, presión de empaque, tiempo de empaque, y tiempo de enfriamiento son consideradas como las variables de diseño. Los resultados revelan que el enfoque propuesto puede eficientemente apoyar a ingenieros a determinar los parámetros óptimos y alcanzar ventajas competitivas en términos de calidad y costos. Abstract in english This paper presents a hybrid of artificial neural networks and artificial bee colony algorithm to optimize the process parameters in injection molding with the aim of minimize warpage of plastic products. A feedforward neural network is employed to obtain a mathematical relationship between the proc [...] ess parameters and the optimization goal. Artificial bee colony algorithm is used to find the optimal set of process parameters values that would result in the optimal solution. An experimental case is presented by coupling Moldflow simulations along with the intelligent schemes in order to validate the proposed approach. Melt temperature, mold temperature, packing pressure, packing time, and cooling time are considered as the design variables. Results revealed the proposed approach can efficiently support engineers to determine the optimal process parameters and achieve competitive advantages in terms of quality and costs.

Alejandro, Alvarado Iniesta; Jorge L., García Alcaraz; ManuelIván, Rodríguez Borbón.

2013-06-01

338

Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/polyolefin (PO) blends  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a very important material with high versatility and superior physical properties. Melt blending TPU with metallocene polyolefin (PO) can lower TPU cost and improve polyolefin properties like abrasion resistance, adhesion, and paintability. Since TPU and non-polar PO blends are completely immiscible, efficient compatibilizers become the key issue and remain challenging. My main thesis work is to develop and study compatibilized TPU/PO blends. Although reactive compatibilization is considered the most efficient method, fast interfacial reactions between highly reactive functional groups are necessary to generate compatibilizers within usually short processing time. It is known that the urethane linkage (carbamate -NHCOO-) in TPU can reversibly dissociate to generate highly reactive isocyanates at melt temperatures. To find out the best reactive compatibilization, three approaches were employed on different molecular scales: (1) model urethane compound (dibutyl & dioctyl 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl carbamate)) and small functional molecule (primary amine, secondary amine, hydroxyl, acid, anhydride, and epoxide) reactions at 200°C monitored by nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transform infrared to examine the basic chemistry; (2) short, model TPU's with different chemical structures blended with functional polymers including poly(ethylene glycol) and polybutadiene to explore the effect of interface in immiscible mixtures; (3) melt blending of a commercial TPU with polypropylene (PP), further involving more complicated morphology, using different types of functional PP's (note: amine functional PP's were prepared by melt amination) as compatibilizers followed by rheological, morphological, thermal, and mechanical characterizations. Besides the core thesis project on TPU blends, other related work that has been accomplished includes: (1) adhesion between TPU and PP; (2) rheological properties of TPU; (3) block copolymer formation by reactive coupling. In the first work, the unique interfacial reactions were applied to promote TPU-PP adhesion that was quantified by asymmetric double cantilever beam test. In the second study, the abnormally high flow activation energy of TPU was explained by simultaneously investigating the effect of temperature and thermal degradation on the melt viscosity. In the third project, block copolymers were prepared by rapid reactive coupling of amine and isocyanate functional polymers and the reaction kinetics were also studied.

Lu, Qiwei

339

Processing and characterization of unidirectional thermoplastic nanocomposites  

Science.gov (United States)

The manufacture of continuous fibre-reinforced thermoplastic nanocomposites is discussed for the case of E-Glass reinforced polypropylene (PP) matrix and for E-Glass reinforced Polyamide-6 (Nylon-6), with and without dispersed nanoclay (montmorillonite) platelets. The E-Glass/PP nanocomposite was manufactured using pultrusion, whereas the E-Glass/Nylon-6 nanocomposite was manufactured using compression molding. Mechanical characterization of nanocomposites were performed and compared with traditional microcomposites. Compressive as well as shear strength of nanocomposites was improved by improving the yield strength of the surrounding matrix through the dispersion of nanoclay. Significant improvements were achieved in compressive strength and shear strength with relatively low nanoclay loadings. Initially, polypropylene with and without nanoclay were melt intercalated using a single-screw extruder and the pultruded nanocomposite was fabricated using extruded pre-impregnated (pre-preg) tapes. Compression tests were performed as mandated by ASTM guidelines. SEM and TEM characterization revealed presence of nanoclay in an intercalated and partially exfoliated morphology. Mechanical tests confirmed significant improvements in compressive strength (˜122% at 10% nanoclay loading) and shear strength (˜60% at 3% nanoclay loading) in modified pultruded E-Glass/PP nanocomposites in comparison with baseline properties. Uniaxial tensile tests showed a small increase in tensile strength (˜3.4%) with 3% nanoclay loading. Subsequently, E-Glass/Nylon-6 nanocomposite panels were manufactured by compression molding. Compression tests were performed according to IITRI guidelines, whereas short beam shear and uni-axial tensile tests were performed according to ASTM standards. Mechanical tests confirmed strength enhancement with nanoclay addition, with a significant improvement in compressive strength (50% at 4% nanoclay loading) and shear strength (˜36% at 4% nanoclay loading) when compared with the baseline E-Glass/Nylon-6. Uni-axial tensile tests resulted in a small increase in tensile strength (˜3.2%) with 4% nanoclay loading. Also, hygrothermal aging (50°C and 100% RH) of baseline and nanoclay modified (4%) E-Glass/Nylon-6 was studied. It was observed that the moisture diffusion process followed Fickian diffusion. E-Glass/Nylon-6 modified with 4% nanoclay loading showed improved barrier performance with a significant reduction (˜30%) in moisture uptake compared to baseline E-Glass/Nylon-6 composites. Significant improvement in mechanical properties was also observed in hygrothermally aged nanocomposite specimens when compared with the aged baseline composite.

Narasimhan, Kameshwaran

340

Graft polymerization of native chicken feathers for thermoplastic applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inexpensive and biodegradable thermoplastics were developed through graft polymerization of native chicken feather with methyl acrylate as a potential substitute for petroleum products. Poultry feathers are available in large quantities at a low price. However, natural chicken feathers have poor thermoplasticity, cannot be used to develop thermoplastic products, have very limited industrial applications, and are often considered as solid wastes. In this research, the effects of graft polymerization conditions, such as molar ratio of NaHSO(3) to K(2)S(2)O(8), initiator and monomer concentrations, pH, temperature and time of polymerization, on grafting parameters, that is, the conversion of monomer to polymer, grafting percentage, and grafting efficiency were evaluated. Methyl acrylate was found to be successfully grafted onto functional groups on the surfaces of the chicken feathers, and optimal graft polymerization conditions were also obtained. The feather-g-poly(methyl acrylate) developed showed good thermoplasticity, and feather films had substantially higher tensile properties than soy protein isolate and starch acetate films. PMID:21302951

Jin, Enqi; Reddy, Narendra; Zhu, Zhifeng; Yang, Yiqi

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

Development and evaluation of thermoplastic street maintenance material  

Science.gov (United States)

An all-weather permanent street patching material was investigated for flexible and rigid pavements. The economic, operational, and material requirements are discussed along with the results of field tests with various mixtures of EVA resins and asphalt. Cost analyses for thermoplastic patching methods are included.

Siemens, W. D.

1973-01-01

342

Anterior deprogramming device fabrication using a thermoplastic material.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a simple and efficient technique to fabricate an anterior deprogramming device using a thermoplastic material. The material, softened by heating, is adapted to the maxillary incisors while moldable. The operator guides the mandible into closure as the material stiffens. The device is then trimmed, and a posterior centric relation record is made using the recording material of choice. PMID:14668765

Land, Martin F; Peregrina, Alejandro

2003-12-01

343

Wear comparison of thermoplastic materials used for orthodontic retainers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clear thermoplastic retainers are an alternative to fixed lingual retainers and removable Hawley appliances. However, thermoplastic retainers have demonstrated poor wear resistance and durability after only a few months of use. In this study, a simulated wear device was used to compare the wear of different thermoplastic materials used for orthodontic retainers. Three thermoplastic products were evaluated: C+ (Raintree Essix, New Orleans, La),.040-in Invisacryl C (Great Lakes Orthodontics, Towanda, NY), and.040-in TR sheet material (Bay Dental Direct, Bay City, Mich). Twenty specimens were fabricated for each group. The specimens were vacuum thermoformed according to the manufacturers' recommendations and subjected to wear for 1000 cycles in a wear apparatus with steatite ceramic abraders. Depth of wear was determined by surface profilometry. The maximum peak-to-valley measurement was recorded for each specimen. Mean wear (SD) in microns was as follows: C+, 5.9 (2.4); Invisacryl C, 6.1 (2.6); and TR, 1.6 (0.9). One-way analysis of variance detected a significant difference between groups (P .05). PMID:12970663

Gardner, Gary D; Dunn, William J; Taloumis, Louis

2003-09-01

344

Thermoplastic transfer molding of fiber-reinforced composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the manufacturing methods for composite materials, resin transfer molding (RTM) process is considered to be one of most cost-effective and competitive methods for producing high performance composites with complex shapes. This process can be described simply as the fluxing of resin through the inlet of a mold and subsequent impregnation of the pre-placed preform inside the mold. The fiber wetting and process times are greatly affected by the resin viscosity. In addition, high fiber volume fraction and variable porosity of the preform makes fiber impregnation even more difficult. Improper fiber impregnation causes degradation of material properties and has been a major concern for RTM. Moreover, the production time becomes very long for large sized parts. RTM has been exclusively applied to the manufacture of thermoset-matrix composites, and not for the manufacture of thermoplastic-matrix composites because of the relatively high viscosity of thermoplastic resins. To achieve a fast process time and improved wetting quality, several process mechanisms inspired by RTM are proposed in the first section of this dissertation. These processes were studied with the interest of applying them to the manufacture of thermoplastic-matrix composites, thus utilizing the methods and advantages of RTM. In these processes, resin is fluxed directly onto the stacked preform and driven through fibers by mechanically enforced consolidation. This mechanical consolidation is achieved by segmenting and articulating the mold. The individual and successive motion of the segmented mold propagates the resin through the preform. Mold fill-up was simulated for this novel process and compared with the equivalent RTM process. In the second section, percolation of thermoplastic melts between two neighboring fibers was modeled with non-Newtonian parameters to understand the effects of thermoplastic rheology on overall infiltration. In contrast to Darcy's model based on a Newtonian fluid, the viscosity dependent on the shear-rate and the threshold-yield in thermoplastic melts was predicted. A relevant experiment was performed on glass preforms to investigate thermoplastic infiltration through the heterogeneous pore structure of such technologically important structural materials.

Choi, Jun-Hyuk

345

Long term stability and mechanical properties of Al2O3-NiAl composites reinforced with partially fragmented long fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The long term thermal stability of Al2O3-NiAl composite was investigated for in-service requirements. ? For the first time a method to predict the strength of this composite is proposed. ? The theoretical predictions show good agreement with experimental results. - Abstract: Long fiber reinforced NiAl composites, fabricated by high temperature processing, are designed for long term thermal exposure during service. This treatment causes partial fragmentation of the long fibers, which degrades the mechanical performance of the composite. We investigated the mechanical properties of Al2O3-NiAl long fiber composites, fabricated by hot pressing and exposed to 2000 h annealing at 700 deg. C and 1100 deg. C. The composites showed basically good thermal stability during annealing except for grain coarsening of NiAl. Owing to fiber fragmentation during cooling after composite fabrication, the mechanical performance of the composites is determined by the load partitioning in a mixture of long and broken fibers. We propose a method to calculate the strength of such composites, based on microstructural information and composite fracture mechanisms. The theoretical predictions show good agreement with experimental results.

346

Validation of three-dimensional micro injection molding simulation accuracy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Data analysis and simulations on micro-molding experiments have been conducted. Micro molding simulations have been executed taking into account actual processing conditions implementation in the software. Various aspects of the simulation set-up have been considered in order to improve the simulation accuracy (i.e. decrease deviations from experimental values): injection speed profile, cavity injection pressure, melt and mold temperatures, three-dimensional mesh parameters, and material rheological characterization. Quality factors investigated for the quantitative comparisons were: short shot length, injection pressure profile, molding mass and flow pattern. The importance of calibrated micro molding process monitoring for an accurate implementation strategy of the simulation and its validation has been demonstrated. In fact, inconsistencies and uncertainties in the experimental data must be minimized to avoid introducing uncertainties in the simulation calculations. Simulations of bulky sub-100 milligrams micro molded parts have been validated and a methodology for accurate micro molding simulations was established.

Tosello, Guido Technical University of Denmark,

2011-01-01

347

Interfacial strength development in thermoplastic resins and fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental program to develop test methods to be used to characterize interfacial (autohesive) strength development in polysulfone thermoplastic resin and graphite-polysulfone prepreg during processing is reported. Two test methods were used to examine interfacial strength development in neat resin samples. These included an interfacial tension test and a compact tension (CT) fracture toughness test. The interfacial tensile test proved to be very difficult to perform with a considerable amount of data scatter. Thus, the interfacial test was discarded in favor of the fracture toughness test. Interfacial strength development was observed by measuring the refracture toughness of precracked compact tension specimens that were rehealed at a given temperature and contact time. The measured refracture toughness was correlated with temperature and contact time. Interfacial strength development in graphite-polysulfone unidirectional composites was measured using a double cantilever beam (DCB) interlaminar fracture toughness test. The critical strain energy release rate of refractured composite specimens was measured as a function of healing temperature and contact time.

Howes, Jeremy C.; Loos, Alfred C.

1987-01-01

348

Dielectric Characterization of PCL-Based Thermoplastic Materials for Microwave Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose the use of a polycaprolactone (PCL)-based thermoplastic mesh as a tissue-immobilization interface for microwave imaging and microwave hyperthermia treatment. An investigation of the dielectric properties of two PCL-based thermoplastic materials in the frequency range of 0.5 – 3.5 GHz is presented. The frequency-dependent dielectric constant and effective conductivity of the PCL-based thermoplastics are characterized using measurements of microstrip transmission lines fabricated o...

Aguilar, Suzette M.; Shea, Jacob D.; Al-joumayly, Mudar A.; Veen, Barry D.; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C.

2012-01-01

349

The relative fire resistance of select thermoplastic materials. [for aircraft interiors  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative thermal stability, flammability, and related thermochemical properties of some thermoplastic materials currently used in aircraft interiors as well as of some candidate thermoplastics were investigated. Currently used materials that were evaluated include acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide, and polyvinyl fluoride. Candidate thermoplastic materials evaluated include: 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene polycarbonate-poly(dimethylsiloxane) block polymer, chlorinated polyvinylchloride homopolymer, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyethersulfone, polyphenylene sulfide, polyarylsulfone, and polyvinylidene fluoride.

Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

1978-01-01

350

A thermoplastic polyimidesulfone. [synthesis of processable and solvent resistant system  

Science.gov (United States)

A polymer system has been prepared which has the excellent thermoplastic properties generally associated with polysulfones, and the solvent resistance and thermal stability of aromatic polyimides. This material, with improved processability over the base polyimide, can be processed in the 260-325 C range in such a manner as to yield high quality, tough unfilled moldings; strong, high-temperature-resistant adhesive bonds; and well consolidated, graphite-fiber-reinforced moldings (composites). The unfilled moldings have physical properties that are similar to aromatic polysulfones which demonstrates the potential as an engineering thermoplastic. The adhesive bonds exhibit excellent retention of initial strength levels even after thermal aging for 5000 hours at 232 C. The graphite-fiber-reinforced moldings have mechanical properties which makes this polymer attractive for the fabrication of structural composites.

St. Clair, T. L.; Yamaki, D. A.

1984-01-01

351

Micro hot embossing of thermoplastic polymers: a review  

Science.gov (United States)

Micro hot embossing of thermoplastic polymers is a promising process to fabricate high precision and high quality features in micro/nano scale. This technology has experienced more than 40 years development and has been partially applied in industrial production. Three modes of micro hot embossing including plate-to-plate, roll-to-plate and roll-to-roll have been successively developed to meet the increasing demand for large-area patterned polymeric films. This review surveys recent progress of micro hot embossing in terms of polymeric material behavior, embossing process and corresponding apparatus. Besides, challenges and innovations in mold fabrication techniques are comprehensively summarized and industrial applications are systematically cataloged as well. Finally, technical challenges and future trends are presented for micro hot embossing of thermoplastic polymers.

Peng, Linfa; Deng, Yujun; Yi, Peiyun; Lai, Xinmin

2014-01-01

352

Residual Strains in Thick Thermoplastic Composites: an Experimental Approach:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thermoplastic composites are currently investigated for application in windmill turbine blades for their recyclability. A suitable manufacturing technology for these thick structures is liquid resin infusion followed by in-situ polymerisation of Anionic Polyamide-6 (APA-6). During manufacturing of thick composite structures, temperature variations arise through the thickness, which can result in residual strains and through-the-thickness variations of properties, such as degrees of cure and c...

Parlevliet, P. P.

2010-01-01

353

Thermoplastic polymers surfaces for Dip-Pen Nanolithography of oligonucleotides  

Science.gov (United States)

Different thermoplastic polymers were spin-coated to prepare smooth surfaces for the direct deposition of end-group modified oligonucleotides by Dip-Pen Nanolithography. A study of the diffusion process was done in order to investigate the dependence of calibration coefficient and quality of deposited features on environmental parameters (temperature, relative humidity) and ink's molecular weight and functionality. The optimization of the process parameters led to the realization of high quality and density nanoarrays on plastics.

Suriano, Raffaella; Biella, Serena; Cesura, Federico; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano

2013-05-01

354

Thermoset-thermoplastic aromatic polyamide containing N-propargyl groups  

Science.gov (United States)

The compounds of the class of aromatic polyamides useful as matrix resins in the manufacture of composites or laminate fabrication were developed. The process for preparing this thermoplastic-thermoset polyamide system involves incorporating a latent crosslinking moiety along the backbone of the polyamide to improve the temperature range of fabrication thereof wherein the resin softens at a relatively low temperature (approx. 154 C) and subsequently sets-up or undergoes crosslinking when subjected to higher temperature (approx. 280 C).

St.clair, T. L.; Wolfe, J. F.; Greenwood, T. D. (inventors)

1984-01-01

355

Creep of thermoplastic polyurethane reinforced with ozone functionalized carbon nanotubes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work focused on the mechanical behavior, especially creep resistance, of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) filled with ozone-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). It was found that the ozone functionalization of MWCNTs could improve their dispersion and interfacial adhesion to the TPU matrix as proved by scanning electron microscope and Raman spectrometer. It finally contributed to the enhancement of Young’s modulus and yield strength of TPU/MWCNT composites. Moreover, the...

Zhang, Z.; Jia, Y.; Jiang, Z. M.; Gong, X. L.

2012-01-01

356

Numerical Modeling for Combustion of Thermoplastic Materials in Microgravity  

Science.gov (United States)

A time-dependent, three-dimensional model is under development to predict the temperature field, burning rate, and bubble bursting characteristics of burning thermoplastic materials in microgravity. Model results will be compared with experiments performed under microgravity and normal gravity conditions. The model will then be used to study the effects of variations in material properties and combustion conditions on burning rate and combustion behavior.

Butler, Kathryn M.

1997-01-01

357

Diode Laser Assisted Filament Winding of Thermoplastic Matrix Composites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new consolidation method for the laser-assisted filament winding of thermoplastic prepregs is discussed: for the first time a diode laser is used, as well as long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene prepregs. A consolidation apparatus was built by means of a CNC motion table, a stepper motor and a simple tensioner. Preliminary tests were performed in a hoop winding configuration: only the winding speed was changed, and all the other process parameters (laser power, distance from the laser ...

Claudia Prosperi; Erica Anna Squeo; Fabrizio Quadrini

2010-01-01

358

Microstructure And Mechanical Properties Of Lead Oxide- Thermoplastic Elas Tomer Composite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research on microstructure and mechanical properties of lead oxide-thermoplastic elastomer composite with Pb3O4 as lead oxide. Thermoplastic elastomer synthesized from natural rubber as the elastomer and methyl metacrilate as the thermoplastic and irradiated simultaneously with optimum gamma ray. Thermoplastic elastomer (NR-PMMA) grind in a laboplastomill and Pb3O4 was added in varied amount of 10%. 30%. 40% and 50%wt.The results showed that mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation break) decreased as the Pb3O4 composition increased. Microstructure from SEM observation showed that Pb3O4 distributed evenly and having function as filler in composite

359

Consolidation modeling of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoplastic matrix composites offer rapid, clean processing compared to their thermoset counterparts. In automotive applications they also provide useful toughness and recyclability. Recent developments in co- mingling technology consisting of uniform combination of reinforcement and matrix have provided a new hybrid yam which facilitates a range of fabrication options combined with the potential for relatively low pressure processing. Both isothermal and non-isothermal compression moulding processes have successfully been used to produce thermoplastic composite materials while maintaining various process parameters. These process parameters including mainly pressure and temperature have a major influence on the final quality of the component including void content due to high melt viscosity of thermoplastic. A mathematical model has been developed and described in this paper that monitors these process parameters and their effect on the quality of the composite material. The results thus obtained were compared with the experimental results obtained by making flat plaques and tubular parts. Co-mingled material used during the experimental and modeling consisted of glass fibre as a reinforcement and polypropylene as the matrix. (author)

360

Thermal Degradation, Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Wheat Straw Flour Filled Recycled Thermoplastic Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal behaviors of wheat straw flour (WF) filled thermoplastic composites were measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Morphology and mechanical properties were also studied using scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine, respectively. Presence of WF in thermoplastic matrix reduced the degradation temperature of the composites. One for WF and one for thermoplastics, two main decomposition peaks were observed. Morphological study showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between WFs and thermoplastic. WFs were embedded into the thermoplastic matrix indicating improved adhesion. However, the bonding was not perfect because some debonding can also be seen on the interface of WFs and thermoplastic matrix. In the case of mechanical properties of WF filled recycled thermoplastic, HDPE and PP based composites provided similar tensile and flexural properties. The addition of coupling agents improved the properties of thermoplastic composites. MAPE coupling agents performed better in HDPE while MAPP coupling agents were superior in PP based composites. The composites produced with the combination of 50-percent mixture of recycled HDPE and PP performed similar with the use of both coupling agents. All produced composites provided flexural properties required by the ASTM standard for polyolefin-based plastic lumber decking boards.

Mengeloglu, Fatih; Karakus, Kadir

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Temperature dependent visco-elasto-plastic deformations of short glassfiber reinforced thermoplasts : modelling, numerics and experiments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird ein visko-elasto-plastisches Materialmodell zur Beschreibung des realen Materialverhaltens eines kurzglasfaserverstärkten Thermoplasts entwickelt. Hierzu müssen zunächst zahlreiche Experimente durchgeführt werden um das phänomenologische Verhalten des kurzfaserverstärkten Thermoplastes Polyamid 66 mit 35 % Glasfaseranteil charakterisieren zu können. Untersucht wird sowohl das Verhalten im Kurzzeitbereich, wie auch das Langzeitverhalten des faserverstärkten...

Rieger, Sonja

2004-01-01

362

Use of Melt Flow Rate Test in Reliability Study of Thermoplastic Encapsulation Materials in Photovoltaic Modules  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Use of thermoplastic materials as encapsulants in photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a potential concern in terms of high temperature creep, which should be evaluated before thermoplastics are qualified for use in the field. Historically, the issue of creep has been avoided by using thermosetting polymers as encapsulants, such as crosslinked ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA). Because they lack crosslinked networks, however, thermoplastics may be subject to phase transitions and visco-elastic flow at the temperatures and mechanical stresses encountered by modules in the field, creating the potential for a number of reliability and safety issues. Thermoplastic materials investigated in this study include PV-grade uncured-EVA (without curing agents and therefore not crosslinked); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); and three polyolefins (PO), which have been proposed for use as PV encapsulation. Two approaches were used to evaluate the performance of these materials as encapsulants: module-level testing and a material-level testing.

Moseley, J.; Miller, D.; Shah, Q.-U.-A. S. J.; Sakurai, K.; Kempe, M.; Tamizhmani, G.; Kurtz, S.

2011-10-01

363

All-thermoplastic nanoplasmonic microfluidic device for transmission SPR biosensing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early and accurate disease diagnosis still remains a major challenge in clinical settings. Biomarkers could potentially provide useful tools for the detection and monitoring of disease progression, treatment safety and efficacy. Recent years have witnessed prodigious advancement in biosensor development with research directed towards rapid, real-time, label-free and sensitive biomarker detection. Among emerging techniques, nanoplasmonic biosensors pose tremendous potential to accelerate clinical diagnosis with real-time multiplexed analysis, rapid and miniaturized assays, low sample consumption and high sensitivity. In order to translate these technologies from the proof-of-principle concept level to point of care clinical diagnosis, integrated, portable devices having small footprint cartridges that house low-cost disposable consumables are sought. Towards this goal, we developed an all-polymeric nanoplasmonic microfluidic (NMF) transmission surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. The device was fabricated in thermoplastics using a simple, single step and cost-effective hot embossing technique amenable to mass production. The novel 3D hierarchical mold fabrication process enabled monolithic integration of blazed nanogratings within the detection chambers of a multichannel microfluidic system. Consequently, a single hard thermoplastic bottom substrate comprising plasmonic and fluidic features allowed integration of active fluidic elements, such as pneumatic valves, in the top soft thermoplastic cover, increasing device functionality. A simple and compact transmission-based optical setup was employed with multiplexed end-point or dual-channel kinetic detection capability which did not require stringent angular accuracy. The sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the transmission SPR biosensor was demonstrated through label-free immunodetection of soluble cell-surface glycoprotein sCD44 at clinically relevant picomolar to nanomolar concentrations. PMID:23287840

Malic, Lidija; Morton, Keith; Clime, Liviu; Veres, Teodor

2013-03-01

364

Computational modelling of a thermoforming process for thermoplastic starch  

Science.gov (United States)

Plastic packaging waste currently forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and as such is causing increasing environmental concerns. Such packaging is largely non-biodegradable and is particularly difficult to recycle or to reuse due to its complex composition. Apart from limited recycling of some easily identifiable packaging wastes, such as bottles, most packaging waste ends up in landfill sites. In recent years, in an attempt to address this problem in the case of plastic packaging, the development of packaging materials from renewable plant resources has received increasing attention and a wide range of bioplastic materials based on starch are now available. Environmentally these bioplastic materials also reduce reliance on oil resources and have the advantage that they are biodegradable and can be composted upon disposal to reduce the environmental impact. Many food packaging containers are produced by thermoforming processes in which thin sheets are inflated under pressure into moulds to produce the required thin wall structures. Hitherto these thin sheets have almost exclusively been made of oil-based polymers and it is for these that computational models of thermoforming processes have been developed. Recently, in the context of bioplastics, commercial thermoplastic starch sheet materials have been developed. The behaviour of such materials is influenced both by temperature and, because of the inherent hydrophilic characteristics of the materials, by moisture content. Both of these aspects affect the behaviour of bioplastic sheets during the thermoforming process. This paper describes experimental work and work on the computational modelling of thermoforming processes for thermoplastic starch sheets in an attempt to address the combined effects of temperature and moisture content. After a discussion of the background of packaging and biomaterials, a mathematical model for the deformation of a membrane into a mould is presented, together with its finite element discretisation. This model depends on material parameters of the thermoplastic and details of tests undertaken to determine these and the results produced are given. Finally the computational model is applied for a thin sheet of commercially available thermoplastic starch material which is thermoformed into a specific mould. Numerical results of thickness and shape for this problem are given.

Szegda, D.; Song, J.; Warby, M. K.; Whiteman, J. R.

2007-05-01

365

Thermoplastic development of electroradiographic charge patterns for medical applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionography and Xeroradiography using toner development are much less sensitive than X-ray recording on screen-film systems. The aim of our work was to find a direct development technique with high sensitivity for electroradiographic charge patterns to obtain a relief pattern on a thermoplastic material. For the ionography as well as for the xeroradiography new carrier frequency techniques were developed which permit the screening of the signal charge due to the X-ray without screening the biascharge. Combining suitable plastic and elastic components we adapted the thermal and electric properties of the thermoplastics to the special requirements of electroradiography. With some of these optimized materials we achieved a charge sensitivity of 10-10 C/cm2 corresponding to a calculated X-ray sensitivity of 50 ?R. However, this X-ray sensitivity could not be achieved experimentally. Due to this and other drawbacks regarding picture quality, resistence to cycling, resolution and aging we conclude, that this technique is not suitable for practical applications. (orig.)

366

Anomalous ductility in thermoset/thermoplastic polymer alloys.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mechanical properties of highly cross-linked polymer (HCP) networks, e.g., thermosets, can be significantly modified by adding linear polymer chains, e.g., thermoplastics. In this work, we study thermoset/thermoplastic polymer alloys by means of large scale molecular dynamics simulations (MD) of a coarse-grained model. We focus here on the effect of the linear chain fraction, Gammal, on the mechanical properties of HCP network for a fixed chain length. Our MD simulations show that the ductility (measured by the strain-to-fracture) of an alloy decreases with increasing Gammal up to a threshold fraction, Gammal*, beyond which it increases with Gammal. We find that for GammalGammal* ad