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Sample records for laser doppler flowmeter

  1. Laser double Doppler flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poffo, L.; Goujon, J.-M.; Le Page, R.; Lemaitre, J.; Guendouz, M.; Lorrain, N.; Bosc, D.

    2014-05-01

    The Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a non-invasive method for estimating the tissular blood flow and speed at a microscopic scale (microcirculation). It is used for medical research as well as for the diagnosis of diseases related to circulatory system tissues and organs including the issues of microvascular flow (perfusion). It is based on the Doppler effect, created by the interaction between the laser light and tissues. LDF measures the mean blood flow in a volume formed by the single laser beam, that penetrate into the skin. The size of this measurement volume is crucial and depends on skin absorption, and is not directly reachable. Therefore, current developments of the LDF are focused on the use of always more complex and sophisticated signal processing methods. On the other hand, laser Double Doppler Flowmeter (FL2D) proposes to use two laser beams to generate the measurement volume. This volume would be perfectly stable and localized at the intersection of the two laser beams. With FL2D we will be able to determine the absolute blood flow of a specific artery. One aimed application would be to help clinical physicians in health care units.

  2. Estimation of amputation level with a laser Doppler flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Jørgensen, J P; Vollmer-Larsen, B; Nielsen, S L; Alsbjørn, B

    1989-01-01

    Leg amputation levels were decided in 24 patients suffering from atherosclerosis, using the conventional techniques of segmental blood pressure and radioisotope skin clearance. The skin microcirculation was measured and recorded before operation with a laser doppler flowmeter. A high correlation...

  3. Laser Doppler flowmeter measures gas velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, W.; Huffaker, R. M.

    1966-01-01

    Utilizing the large magnitudes of Doppler shifts obtainable from a CW gas laser, local velocity vectors are measured by using the visible light from the laser. This technique is applicable for the measurement of velocity of any moving surface.

  4. Doppler flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karplus, Henry H. B. (Hinsdale, IL); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A Doppler flowmeter impulses an ultrasonic fixed-frequency signal obliquely into a slurry flowing in a pipe and a reflected signal is detected after having been scattered off of the slurry particles, whereby the shift in frequencies between the signals is proportional to the slurry velocity and hence slurry flow rate. This flowmeter filters the Doppler frequency-shift signal, compares the filtered and unfiltered shift signals in a divider to obtain a ratio, and then further compares this ratio against a preset fractional ratio. The flowmeter utilizes a voltage-to-frequency convertor to generate a pulsed signal having a determinable rate of repetition precisely proportional to the divergence of the ratios. The pulsed signal serves as the input control for a frequency-controlled low-pass filter, which provides thereby that the cutoff frequency of the filtered signal is known. The flowmeter provides a feedback control by minimizing the divergence. With the cutoff frequency and preset fractional ratio known, the slurry velocity and hence flow will also be determinable.

  5. Evaluation of cutaneous blood flow responses by 133Xe washout and a laser-Doppler flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for noninvasive measurement of cutaneous blood flow is laser-Doppler flowmetry. The technique is based on the fact that laser light is back-scattered from the moving red blood cells, with Doppler-shifted frequencies; these impulses lead to photodetectors and are converted to flow signals. In this work we used a new system with a low noise level. Comparison was made between this technique and the atraumatic epicutaneous 133Xe technique for measurement of cutaneous blood flow during reactive hyperemia and orthostatic pressure changes. The laser-Doppler flowmeter seems to measure blood flow in capillaries as well as in arteriovenous anastomoses, while the 133Xe method probably measures only capillary flow. A calibration of the laser-Doppler method against the 133Xe method would appear to be impossible in skin areas where arteriovenous anastomoses are present. The changes in blood flow during reactive hyperemia, orthostatic pressure changes, and venous stasis were found to be parallel as measured by the two methods in skin areas without shunt vessels. The laser-Doppler flowmeter would appear to be a useful supplement to the 133Xe washout method in cutaneous vascular physiology, but it is important to keep in mind that different parameters may be measured

  6. Compact laser Doppler flowmeter for application in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosov, Ivan V.; Mareew, Gleb O.; Finokhina, Olga A.; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2005-06-01

    Lightweight handheld laser Doppler instrument is designed for blood flow assessment in soft tissues of oral cavity. Laser light source, fiber optic probe detector and amplifier circuitry are mounted inside the compact hand held probe assembly to minimize noise and to exclude optical fiber motion artifacts. Both the instrument and data processing software are optimized for the using of the standard PC sound interface as the data acquisition device that provides low cost and effective solution for clinical use. The instrument is suitable for quantitative diagnostics of gingivitis and other disorders in dentistry.

  7. Application of the laser Doppler flowmeter for measurement of blood pressure and functional parameters of microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chang-Lin; Lin, Zhan-Sheng; Chen, Yen-Yu; Lin, Yuan-Hsiang; Lai, Mei-Feng; Li, Meng-Lin

    2012-01-01

    The laser Doppler flowmeter has become an effective tool for the clinical study of microcirculation with non-invasive measurements and excellent velocity resolution. Microcirculation flow measurements cannot be used as reference criteria for circulation function. Thus, the relative change in fingertip microcirculation was measured through inflation and deflation of an automatic sphygmomanometer wrapped around the arm, and the blood pressure and functional parameters of circulation, such as biological zero (BZ), peak flow (PF) and time to peak flow (tp), were determined. For 50 healthy participants, the correlation coefficients for the laser Doppler flowmeter and oscillometric results were 0.950 and 0.838 for systolic and diastolic pressure, respectively. The mean and standard errors for both methods fell within the range specified in the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation standards. The BZ of an edema patient was about 5 times higher than normal. For patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD), the PF could not be determined, and the tp was about twice the normal value. The accuracy of blood pressure measurements using the laser Doppler flowmeter was comparable to that of the commonly used oscillometric sphygmomanometer, and the physiological circulation functional parameters were useful in identifying signs of edema and PAOD. PMID:23114464

  8. Doppler radar flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petlevich, Walter J. (Uniontown, PA); Sverdrup, Edward F. (Adamsburg, PA)

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  9. Integrated laser Doppler blood flowmeter designed to enable wafer-level packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yoshinori; Goma, Masaki; Onoe, Atsushi; Higurashi, Eiji; Sawada, Renshi

    2010-08-01

    The authors propose a new sensor structure for an integrated laser Doppler blood flowmeter that consists of two silicon cavities with a PD and laser diode inside each cavity. A silicon lid formed with a converging microlens completes the package. This structure, which was achieved using micromachining techniques, features reduced optical power loss in the sensor, resulting in its small size and significantly low power consumption. Measurements using a model tissue blood flow system confirmed that the new sensor had high linearity and a wide dynamic range for measuring tissue blood flow. PMID:20199932

  10. A new laser Doppler flowmeter prototype for depth dependent monitoring of skin microcirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiras, E.; Campos, R.; Semedo, S.; Oliveira, R.; Requicha Ferreira, L. F.; Humeau-Heurtier, A.

    2012-03-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is now commonly used in clinical research to monitor microvascular blood flow. However, the dependence of the LDF signal on the microvascular architecture is still unknown. That is why we propose a new laser Doppler flowmeter for depth dependent monitoring of skin microvascular perfusion. This new laser Doppler flowmeter combines for the first time, in a device, several wavelengths and different spaced detection optical fibres. The calibration of the new apparatus is herein presented together with in vivo validation. Two in vivo validation tests are performed. In the first test, signals collected in the ventral side of the forearm are analyzed; in the second test, signals collected in the ventral side of the forearm are compared with signals collected in the hand palm. There are good indicators that show that different wavelengths and fibre distances probe different skin perfusion layers. However, multiple scattering may affect the results, namely the ones obtained with the larger fibre distance. To clearly understand the wavelength effect in LDF measurements, other tests have to be performed.

  11. Doppler radar flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petlevich, W.J.; Sverdrup, E.F.

    1978-05-23

    A Doppler radar flowmeter is described. It consists of a transceiver which produces an ausio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  12. ANL Doppler flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karplus, H.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Lee, S.; Simpson, T.

    1985-10-01

    A flowmeter has been developed for measuring flow velocity in hot slurries. The flowmeter works on an ultrasonic Doppler principle in which ultrasound is injected into the flowing fluid through the solid pipe wall. Isolating waveguides separate the hot pipe from conventional ultrasonic transducers. Special clamp-on high-tempreature transducers also can be adapted to work well in this application. Typical flows in pilot plants were found to be laminar, giving rise to broad-band Doppler spectra. A special circuit based on a servomechanism sensor was devised to determine the frequency average of such a broad spectrum. The device was tested at different pilot plants. Slurries with particulates greater than 70 m (0.003 in.) yielded good signals, but slurries with extremely fine particulates were unpredictable. Small bubbles can replace the coarse particles to provide a good signal if there are not too many. Successful operation with very fine particulate slurries may have been enhanced by the presence of microbubbles. 11 refs., 46 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. A novel, microscope based, non-invasive laser Doppler flowmeter for choroidal blood flow assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmaier, C; Werkmeister, R M; Bogner, B; Runge, C; Schroedl, F; Brandtner, H; Radner, W; Schmetterer, L; Kiel, J W; Grabner, G; Reitsamer, H A

    2011-06-01

    Impaired ocular blood flow is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous ocular diseases like glaucoma or AMD. The purpose of the present study was to introduce and validate a novel, microscope based, non-invasive Laser Doppler Flowmeter (NI-LDF) for measurement of blood flow in the choroid. The custom made NI-LDF was compared with a commercial fiber optic based laser Doppler flowmeter (Perimed PF4000). Linearity and stability of the NI-LDF were assessed in a silastic tubing model (i.d. 0.3mm) at different flow rates (range 0.4-3ml/h). In a rabbit model continuous choroidal blood flow measurements were performed with both instruments simultaneously. During blood flow measurements ocular perfusion pressure was changed by manipulations of intraocular pressure via intravitreal saline infusions. The NI-LDF measurement correlated linearly to intraluminal flow rates in the perfused tubing model (r=0.99, p<0.05) and remained stable during a 1h measurement at a constant flow rate. Rabbit choroidal blood flow measured by the PF4000 and the NI-LDF linearly correlated with each other over the entire measurement range (r=0.99, y=x?1.01-12.35P.U., p<0.001). In conclusion, the NI-LDF provides valid, semi quantitative measurements of capillary blood flow in comparison to an established LDF instrument and is suitable for measurements at the posterior pole of the eye. PMID:21443871

  14. Monitoring of traumatic process after hernioplasty by allografts using laser doppler flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This is a comparative analysis of correlation between pathological phenomena of hemomicrom circulation at local trophic level of healing postoperative wounds by primary and secondary intention after hernioplasty by biomembranes (allografts) and by artificial reticular endoprosthesis. In this study two groups of patients were formed: I group (77 patients) underwent hernioplasty by implantation of biomembranes (Tutoplast allografts Fascia temporalis, Dermis); II group (81 patients) had hernioplasty using artificial reticular endoprosthesis. Comparative complex investigation of healing postoperative wounds was done by laser Doppler flowmeter, which allows fairly evaluating staging of traumatic process in 158 patients aging from 20 to 73 years, male, that underwent surgical treatments of inguinal hernia. In all patients traditional surgical technique using non-tension plasty methods for anterior abdominal wall was applied using above-mentioned materials. In first group wound healing took place by primary intention in all 77 patients and on amplitude-frequency spectrum of LDF charts happened by 4 phases: 1) reaction to trauma; 2) initial regeneration; 3) wound consolidation; 4) scar organization. In the second group - in 75 cases wound healing also took place by primary intention, but in 6 cases a secondary intention happened, which consisted on amplitude-frequency spectrum of LDF charts of 6 phases: 1) inflammation, 2) wound clearance from necrotic suppurative masses; 3) initial regeneration; 4) forming of granulations; 5) wound consolidation; 6) scar reorganization. To improve results of surgical treatment in patients with hernia it is needed to approach the choice of material for hernioplasty differentially depending hemodynamic type of microcirculation. Characteristics of vascular tissue system of future operative area directly influence the course of traumatic process in postoperative follow-up. Monitoring of traumatic process following hernioplasty by allografts done by laser Doppler flowmeter allows prognosing the course of early postoperative follow-up and to diagnosing complications in advance. (Author)

  15. Schlieren laser Doppler flowmeter for the human optical nerve head with the flicker stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Martial H.; Truffer, Frederic; Evequoz, Hugo; Khayi, Hafid; Mottet, Benjamin; Chiquet, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    We describe a device to measure blood perfusion for the human optic nerve head (ONH) based on laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) with a flicker stimuli of the fovea region. This device is self-aligned for LDF measurements and includes near-infrared pupil observation, green illumination, and observation of the ONH. The optical system of the flowmeter is based on a Schlieren arrangement which collects only photons that encounter multiple scattering and are back-scattered out of the illumination point. LDF measurements are based on heterodyne detection of Doppler shifted back-scattered light. We also describe an automated analysis of the LDF signals which rejects artifacts and false signals such as blinks. By using a Doppler simulator consisting of a lens and a rotating diffusing wheel, we demonstrate that velocity and flow vary linearly with the speed of the wheel. A cohort of 12 healthy subjects demonstrated that flicker stimulation induces an increase of 17.8% of blood flow in the ONH.

  16. Choroidal laser Doppler flowmeter with enhanced sensitivity based on a scattering plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Ding, Zhihua; Geiser, Martial; Wu, Tong; Chen, Minghui

    2011-04-01

    A portable choroidal laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF) with enhanced sensitivity based on a scattering plate is developed. The portable LDF is weighted 2 kg operated at center wavelength of 780 nm, leading to a better penetration into the eye fundus in contrast to the previous LDF operated at center wavelength of 670 nm. Enhancement of number of detected photons that undergo Doppler scattering and improved measured speed of choroidal blood flow are achieved with the use of a scattering plate positioned in front of the eye. The mechanism of detection and sensitivity enhancement is theoretically analyzed. Evaluation of system performance is done by in vivo measurements on ten volunteers. The results demonstrate that an increased percentage of backscattering light at high Doppler shift frequency is collected due to utilization of the scattering plate. However, this kind of light detection influences spatial resolution of the system and decreases the total signal measured. The proposed method for detection and sensitivity enhancement might be useful in a case where the perception of very slight alternation of blood flow is pursued and the spatial resolution is not as critical as that in a choroidal vascular bed. PMID:21529094

  17. [The muscular blood flow in rats in ontogenesis as measured by the needle probe laser Doppler flowmeter "LAKK-01"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichenko, V M; Grigor'eva, T A; Shoshenko, K A

    2007-06-01

    In anesthetized Wistar rats of the age of 4, 13, 30 and 90 days, blood flow in m. gracilis was measured with the aid of laser-Doppler flowmeter "LAKK-01" with a needle probe. The sharpest postnatal falling of a muscular blood flow was revealed in the first month of life. Features of measurement of the blood flow and biological background by a needle probe in skeletal muscles of rats of various age described. PMID:17850023

  18. Detection of Site-Specific Blood Flow Variation in Humans during Running by a Wearable Laser Doppler Flowmeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Wataru; Nogami, Hirofumi; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Furue, Masutaka; Higurashi, Eiji; Sawada, Renshi

    2015-01-01

    Wearable wireless physiological sensors are helpful for monitoring and maintaining human health. Blood flow contains abundant physiological information but it is hard to measure blood flow during exercise using conventional blood flowmeters because of their size, weight, and use of optic fibers. To resolve these disadvantages, we previously developed a micro integrated laser Doppler blood flowmeter using microelectromechanical systems technology. This micro blood flowmeter is wearable and capable of stable measurement signals even during movement. Therefore, we attempted to measure skin blood flow at the forehead, fingertip, and earlobe of seven young men while running as a pilot experiment to extend the utility of the micro blood flowmeter. We measured blood flow in each subject at velocities of 6, 8, and 10 km/h. We succeeded in obtaining stable measurements of blood flow, with few motion artifacts, using the micro blood flowmeter, and the pulse wave signal and motion artifacts were clearly separated by conducting frequency analysis. Furthermore, the results showed that the extent of the changes in blood flow depended on the intensity of exercise as well as previous work with an ergometer. Thus, we demonstrated the capability of this wearable blood flow sensor for measurement during exercise. PMID:26445047

  19. Detection of Site-Specific Blood Flow Variation in Humans during Running by a Wearable Laser Doppler Flowmeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Iwasaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wearable wireless physiological sensors are helpful for monitoring and maintaining human health. Blood flow contains abundant physiological information but it is hard to measure blood flow during exercise using conventional blood flowmeters because of their size, weight, and use of optic fibers. To resolve these disadvantages, we previously developed a micro integrated laser Doppler blood flowmeter using microelectromechanical systems technology. This micro blood flowmeter is wearable and capable of stable measurement signals even during movement. Therefore, we attempted to measure skin blood flow at the forehead, fingertip, and earlobe of seven young men while running as a pilot experiment to extend the utility of the micro blood flowmeter. We measured blood flow in each subject at velocities of 6, 8, and 10 km/h. We succeeded in obtaining stable measurements of blood flow, with few motion artifacts, using the micro blood flowmeter, and the pulse wave signal and motion artifacts were clearly separated by conducting frequency analysis. Furthermore, the results showed that the extent of the changes in blood flow depended on the intensity of exercise as well as previous work with an ergometer. Thus, we demonstrated the capability of this wearable blood flow sensor for measurement during exercise.

  20. Inability of a Confocal Scanning Laser Doppler Flowmeter to Measure Choroidal Blood Flow in the Pig Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandav, S; Morgan, W.H; Townsend, R; Cringle, S.J; Yu, D.Y

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether the Heidelberg Retinal Flowmeter (HRF), a confocal scanning laser Doppler flowmeter, can measure choroidal blood flow in pig eyes. An HRF was used to obtain flow maps from in vitro pig eyes under a range of perfusion flow rates (0 500 L/min) under conditions in which only the choroid was perfused. In some cases choroidal blood flow was also measured simultaneously using a conventional fiberoptic based Laser Doppler Perfusion Monitor (LDPM) which used the same laser wavelength (780 nm). The relationship between perfusion flow, HRF measured flow and LDPM measured flow was determined. HRF flow maps were also obtained in vivo as a function of focal plane setting through the retina and choroid. Across the range of perfusion flow rates through the isolated eyes there was a poor correlation with HRF measured choroidal flow and perfusion flow. In contrast, there was a strong linear relationship between perfusion flow and LDPM measured blood flow. Both in vitro and in vivo, no choroidal vessels could be visualised in the HRF flow maps, even when the focal plane was in the choroid. The HRF is unable to measure choroidal blood flow in pig eyes. This is not due to an inability of the 780 nm laser to penetrate into the choroid or due to red blood cell velocities in the choroid being higher than the measurement range of the instrument. PMID:19547666

  1. Use of a semiconductor laser doppler velocimeter as flowmeter of high accuracy; Einsatz eines Laser-Doppler-Velozimeters als Volumenstrom-Messgeraet hoher Genauigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bublitz, D. [Berliner Kraft- und Licht (Bewag)-AG (Germany). Hauptabteilung Waerme; Frank, S. [Berliner Kraft- und Licht (Bewag)-AG (Germany). Hauptabteilung Waerme; Siekmann, H.E. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1996-10-01

    Reliable flow-rate measurements by means of LDV can be accomplished even under unsteady and disturbed flow conditions. The attainable uncertainties amount to less than 0.6%. Hence, a new standard for flow-rate measurements is established that is used in the calibration test-rig of Bewag since January 1996. During in-situ-calibrations the disturbed velocity distribution can be taken into consideration. Thus, the recommended up- and downstream straight pipe length might be shortened for conventional flowmeters. Hence, the design of district heating facilities can be optimized and investment costs might be saved while the performance of the meters is maintained or even improved. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] In Fernwaermesystemen wird die vom Versorgungsunternehmen gelieferte Waerme mit konventionellen Volumenmessteilen bilanziert. Dabei koennen unbemerkt zusaetzliche Messunsicherheiten von nicht zu vernachlaessigender Groessenordnung auftreten, besonders im Langzeiteinsatz oder aufgrund gestoerter Geschwindigkeitsverteilungen. Mit einem Halbleiter-Laser-Doppler-Velozimeter ist eine mobile Vor-Ort-Ueberpruefung von Volumenmessteilen unter Beruecksichtigung der jeweiligen Betriebs- und Installationsbedingungen moeglich. Darueber hinaus wird die Laser-Doppler-Velozimetrie seit Januar 1996 als alternatives Volumenstromnormal in der Pruefstelle fuer Waermemessgeraete KC1 eingesetzt. In diesem Bericht werden die Ergebnisse vorgestellt, die mit einem kompakten Halbleiter-Laser-Doppler-Velozimeter unter Laboratoriums- und Praxisbedingungen im Verbundnetz der Bewag-Fernwaerme erzielt wurden. (orig./GL)

  2. Correlation between Changes in Leg Blood Flow and Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index: A Study Using Laser Doppler Flowmeter The 1st Report

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Sekiguchi, Miho; Midorikawa, Hirofumi; Sato, Koichi; Akase, Kazuyoshi; Sawada, Renshi; Konno, Shin-Ichi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to use non-invasive laser Doppler flowmeter to measure changes in blood flow in peripheral vessels in the legs before and after stress induced by leg elevation stress test and investigate correlations with the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI).

  3. Quantitative measurement of gastric mucosal microcirculation using a combined laser Doppler flowmeter and spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bludau, M; Vallbhmer, D; Gutschow, C; Hlscher, A H; Schrder, W

    2008-01-01

    Anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy and esophagogastrostomy depends on the vascularization of the gastric conduit. So far, no adequate methods are available to monitor postoperatively mucosal microcirculation of the gastric conduit. The aim of this experimental study was to assess a recently developed microprobe with a microlight-guide spectrophotometer (O2C, Fa. LEA Medizintechnik, Giessen, Germany) to quantitatively measure gastric mucosal blood flow (MBF) and mucosal oxygen saturation (MOS) of different gastric areas. Eighteen patients without gastric pathology were included in this study. During conventional gastroscopy the microprobe was introduced via the working channel of a standard endoscope and positioned in well-defined areas of the antrum and fundus. The tip of the microprobe consisted of a combined laser Doppler and tissue spectrometer measuring continuously the MBF (perfusion units, PU) and MOS (SO(2), in %). The mean MOS of the antrum was significantly higher compared with the fundus (antrum: 82% +/- 7.9 standard deviation [SD], fundus: 72% +/- 10.4; P = 0.0002). The mean MBF was not significantly different between antrum and fundus (antrum: 201 PU +/- 40 SD, fundus: 223 PU +/- 29 SD). This study demonstrates the feasibility of the gastric O2C microprobe to measure parameters of gastric microcirculation from the endoluminal side. PMID:18564159

  4. Correlation between Changes in Leg Blood Flow and Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index: A Study Using Laser Doppler Flowmeter The 1st Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Sekiguchi, Miho; Midorikawa, Hirofumi; Sato, Koichi; Akase, Kazuyoshi; Sawada, Renshi; Konno, Shin-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to use non-invasive laser Doppler flowmeter to measure changes in blood flow in peripheral vessels in the legs before and after stress induced by leg elevation stress test and investigate correlations with the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI). Methods: Subjects included 28 patients over 20 years of age (mean, 73 years) who reported chiefly of leg symptoms such as intermittent claudication, numbness, chills, or cramps had been examined at the study institution, and agreed to participate in the study. The ABI of both legs was measured, and patients were divided into two groups: low ABI (ABI ?0.9) and normal ABI (ABI ?0.9). Blood flow in the big toe was measured using a box-type laser Doppler flowmeter before, during, and after leg-elevation stress. Amplitude of the recorded waveform and changes in blood flow were compared. Results: Average ABI was 1.09 0.10 in the normal ABI group (33 legs) and 0.68 0.17 in the low ABI group (21 legs). Amplitude before and during stress was significantly smaller in the low ABI group than in the normal ABI group (p<0.01), and there was a significant correlation with ABI before and during stresses (r= 0.4606, r= 0.5048, respectively; p<0.05). Change in blood flow during stress was significantly lower in the low ABI group than in the normal ABI group (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation between change in blood flow during stress and ABI in both groups (r= 0.5073; p<0.05). There was also a significant correlation between change in blood flow and change in amplitude in both groups (r= 0.5477; p<0.05). Conclusion: Results of this study show, that comparing amplitude and change in blood flow before and after leg extension and elevation stress, there was a correlation between change in blood flow and amplitude, and ABI during stress. A box-type laser Doppler flowmeter may provide a means of screening for peripheral arterial disease. PMID:23555434

  5. Wearable blood flowmeter appcessory with low-power laser Doppler signal processing for daily-life healthcare monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, K; Higuchi, Y; Ogasawara, T; Koizumi, H; Haga, T

    2014-01-01

    A new appcessory for monitoring peripheral blood flow in daily life consists of a wearable laser Doppler sensor device and a cooperating smart phone application. Bluetooth Low Energy connects them wirelessly. The sensor device features ultralight weight of 15 g and an intermittent signal processing technique that reduces power consumption to only 7 mW at measurement intervals of 0.1 s. These features enable more than 24-h continuous monitoring of peripheral blood flow in daily life, which can provide valuable vital-sign information for healthcare services. PMID:25571431

  6. Pancreatic capillary blood flow during caerulein-induced pancreatitis evaluated by a laser-doppler flowmeter in rats / Estudo das alteraes do fluxo capilar pancretico aps infuso de cerulena avaliado por laser-Doppler em ratos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto Ferreira, Meirelles Jr.; Reginaldo, Ceneviva; Jos Liberato Ferreira, Caboclo; Michael M., Eisenberg.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O fluxo capilar pancretico (FCP) foi estudado para determinar suas alteraes durante a pancreatite aguda induzida por cerulena, em ratos. MTODOS: Vinte ratos foram divididos em grupo controle e grupo cerulena. Um laser-Doppler fluxmetro foi empregado para determinar, continuamente, o [...] FCP durante 120 minutos. A presso arterial mdia (PAM) e a freqncia cardaca (FC) foram determinadas, durante o experimento. Anlise bioqumica srica e estudo histopatolgico, por microscopia tica, do tecido pancretico foram realizados, ao final do experimento. RESULTADOS: O FCP foi em mdia 109,08 2,17% e 68,24 16,79% nos grupos controle e cerulena , respectivamente. No grupo cerulena, houve uma diminuio mdia de 31,75 16,79%. Os nveis de amilase srica foram de 1323,70 239,10U.I-1 e 2184,60 700,46U.I-1 nos grupos controle e cerulena, respectivamente. Houve diferena significante (p Abstract in english PURPOSE: The pancreatic capillary blood flow (PCBF) was studied to determine its alterations during caerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. METHODS: Twenty rats were divided in groups: control and caerulein. A laser-Doppler flowmeter to measure PCBF continuously was used. Blood pressure (BP) and hea [...] rt rate (HR) were monitored. Serum biochemistry analyses were determined. Histopathological study was performed. RESULTS: The PCBF measured a mean of 109.08 14.54% and 68.24 10.47% in control group and caerulein group, respectively. Caerulein group had a mean decrease of 31.75 16.79%. The serum amylase was 1323.70 239.10U.I-1 and 2184.60 700.46U.I-1 in control and caerulein groups, respectively. There was a significant difference in the PCBF (p

  7. Pancreatic capillary blood flow during caerulein-induced pancreatitis evaluated by a laser-doppler flowmeter in rats Estudo das alteraes do fluxo capilar pancretico aps infuso de cerulena avaliado por laser-Doppler em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ferreira Meirelles Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The pancreatic capillary blood flow (PCBF was studied to determine its alterations during caerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. METHODS: Twenty rats were divided in groups: control and caerulein. A laser-Doppler flowmeter to measure PCBF continuously was used. Blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR were monitored. Serum biochemistry analyses were determined. Histopathological study was performed. RESULTS: The PCBF measured a mean of 109.08 14.54% and 68.24 10.47% in control group and caerulein group, respectively. Caerulein group had a mean decrease of 31.75 16.79%. The serum amylase was 1323.70 239.10U.I-1 and 2184.60 700.46U.I-1 in control and caerulein groups, respectively. There was a significant difference in the PCBF (pOBJETIVO: O fluxo capilar pancretico (FCP foi estudado para determinar suas alteraes durante a pancreatite aguda induzida por cerulena, em ratos. MTODOS: Vinte ratos foram divididos em grupo controle e grupo cerulena. Um laser-Doppler fluxmetro foi empregado para determinar, continuamente, o FCP durante 120 minutos. A presso arterial mdia (PAM e a freqncia cardaca (FC foram determinadas, durante o experimento. Anlise bioqumica srica e estudo histopatolgico, por microscopia tica, do tecido pancretico foram realizados, ao final do experimento. RESULTADOS: O FCP foi em mdia 109,08 2,17% e 68,24 16,79% nos grupos controle e cerulena , respectivamente. No grupo cerulena, houve uma diminuio mdia de 31,75 16,79%. Os nveis de amilase srica foram de 1323,70 239,10U.I-1 e 2184,60 700,46U.I-1 nos grupos controle e cerulena, respectivamente. Houve diferena significante (p<0,05 no FCP e na amilasemia, quando comparado o grupo controle com o grupo cerulena. Embora micro e macrovacuolizao estivessem presentes no grupo cerulena, no houve diferena histolgica entre os grupos. CONCLUSO: A diminuio do FCP parece um evento precoce, antecedendo o aparecimento de alteraes histopatolgicas, por microscopia tica, que caracterizam este modelo de pancreatite edematosa aguda.

  8. Evaluation of a pulsed ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, M. K.

    1973-01-01

    The in vivo application of the pulsed ultrasound Doppler velocity meter (PUDVM) for measuring arterial velocity waveforms is reported. In particular, the performance of the PUDVM is compared with a hot film anemometer of proven accuracy.

  9. Assessment of abnormal blood flow and efficacy of treatment in patients with systemic sclerosis using a newly developed microwireless laser Doppler flowmeter and arm-raising test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, M; Takeuchi, S; Hayashida, S; Urabe, K; Sawada, R; Furue, M

    2007-10-01

    Background Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) frequently suffer from recalcitrant digital ulceration because of impaired cutaneous blood flow (CBF). A simple and accurate CBF measurement would be helpful to evaluate the disease status and efficacy of treatment in such patients. Objectives To examine the feasibility of a newly developed, micromachined integrated laser blood flowmeter (MILBF) for evaluation of abnormal CBF responses in patients with SSc. Methods CBF of finger pulp was measured in eight patients with SSc and in six healthy controls using MILBF. CBF in the steady state and the responses to the arm-raising test and cold provocation were assessed. The therapeutic efficacy of a single and an intensive prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)) infusion treatment was also evaluated in some of the SSc patients. Results The patients with SSc showed significantly lower steady-state CBF than controls. The rate of blood flow with cold provocation and the velocity of blood flow recovery after cold provocation (VR-CP) tended to be lower in patients with SSc. Augmentation of amplitude of the digital pulse wave by arm raising (AA-AR) was observed in controls, but not in patients with SSc. We also found that VR-CP and AA-AR may be good markers for evaluating the efficacy of vasodilatory treatment. It should be noted that the examined patients did not complain of any pain and/or distress during the arm-raising test, as opposed to during cold provocation. Conclusions CBF assessment using MILBF and an arm-raising test is accurate, noninvasive and well tolerated and thus the combination may be a better alternative method to evaluate abnormal CBF and efficacy of treatment in patients with SSc. PMID:17640308

  10. Flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast response flowmeter for high speed transient flow measurement in water has a threaded body in a threaded hole in a cylinder confining the flow. The body carries a blade extending into the flow and disposed so that the face of the blade is presented to the flow. The blade carries a strain gauge and flow is measured in terms of strain. An apparatus for calibrating the flowmeter is also described. (author)

  11. Fiber optic flowmeter based on distributed feedback fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wentao; Li, Feng; Xu, Hongbin; Huang, Wenzhu; Li, Fang

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a novel fiber flowmeter based on distributed feedback fiber laser (DFB-FL). The DFB-FL is encapsulated in a PU tube which is put in the center of the flow pipe. When the flow speed changes, the flow induced pressure turbulence on the surface of the PU tube will change correspondingly. This pressure fluctuation is demodulated using phase-generated-carrier (PGC) method. The test result shows that the sensitivity of the fiber laser flowmeter is about 810-3 pm/(m3/h). A resolution of 1.2510-4 m3/h is achieved.

  12. Holographic laser Doppler ophthalmoscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Simonutti, Manuel; Sahel, J A; Gross, Michel; Samson, Benjamin; Magnain, Caroline; Atlan, Michael; 10.1364/OL.35.001941

    2010-01-01

    We report laser Doppler ophthalmoscopic fundus imaging in the rat eye with near-IR heterodyne holography. Sequential sampling of the beat of the reflected radiation against a frequency-shifted optical local oscillator is made onto an array detector. Wide-field maps of fluctuation spectra in the 10 Hz to 25 kHz band exhibit angiographic contrasts in the retinal vascular tree without requirement of an exogenous marker.

  13. Laser doppler perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recording of tissue perfusion is important in assessing the influence of peripheral vascular diseases on the microcirculation. This thesis reports on a laser doppler perfusion imager based on dynamic light scattering in tissue. When a low power He-Ne laser beam sequentally scans the tissue, moving blood cells generate doppler components in the back-scattered light. A fraction of this light is detected by a photodetector and converted into an electrical signal. In the processor, a signal proportional to the tissue perfusion at each measurement site is calculated and stored. When the scanning procedure is completed, a color-coded perfusion image is presented on a monitor. To convert important aspects of the perfusion image into more quantitative parameters, data analysis functions are implemented in the software. A theory describing the dependence of the distance between individual measurement points and detector on the system amplification factor is proposed and correction algorithms are presented. The performance of the laser doppler perfusion imager was evaluated using a flow simulator. A linear relationship between processor output signal and flow through the simulator was demonstrated for blood cell concentrations below 0.2%. The median sampling depth of the laser beam was simulated by a Monte Carlo technique and estimated to 235 μm. The perfusion imager has been used in the clinic to study perfusion changes in port wine stains treated with argon laser and to investigate the intensity and extension of the cutaneous axon reflex response after electrical nerve stimulation. The fact that perfusion can be visualized without touching the tissue implies elimination of sterilization problems, thus simplifying clinical investigations of perfusion in association with diagnosis and treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. 22 refs

  14. Ultrasound propagation in steel piping at electric power plant using clamp-on ultrasonic pulse doppler velocity-profile flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturi nozzles are widely used to measure the flow rates of reactor feedwater. This flow rate of nuclear reactor feedwater is an important factor in the operation of nuclear power reactors. Some other types of flowmeters have been proposed to improve measurement accuracy. The ultrasonic pulse Doppler velocity-profile flowmeter is expected to be a candidate method because it can measure the flow profiles across the pipe cross sections. For the accurate estimation of the flow velocity, the incidence angle of ultrasonic entering the fluid should be carefully estimated by the theoretical approach. However, the evaluation of the ultrasound propagation is not straightforward for the several reasons such as temperature gradient in the wedge or mode conversion at the interface between the wedge and pipe. In recent years, the simulation code for ultrasound propagation has come into use in the nuclear field for nondestructive testing. This article analyzes and discusses ultrasound propagation in steel piping and water, using the 3D-FEM simulation code and the Kirchhoff method, as it relates to the flow profile measurements in power plants with the ultrasonic pulse Doppler velocity-profile flowmeter. (author)

  15. Laser Doppler flowmetry in microvascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Adrichem, L.N.A. van

    1992-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis, describing clinical and experimental studies, laser Doppler flowmetry is evaluated as diagnostic tool to assess tissue microcirculation after various microvascular operations. The second part concerns the application of laser Doppler flowmetry to investigate and to objectivate the negative effects of cigarette smoking upon the microcirculation under normal circumstances as well as after microvascular operative procedures. Success of plastic ...

  16. Automatic body flexibility classification using laser doppler flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, I.-Chan; Li, Yung-Hui; Bau, Jian-Guo

    2015-10-01

    Body flexibility is an important indicator that can measure whether an individual is healthy or not. Traditionally, we need to prepare a protractor and the subject need to perform a pre-defined set of actions. The measurement takes place at the same time when the subject performs required action, which is clumsy and inconvenient. In this paper, we propose a statistical learning model using the technique of random forest. The proposed system can classify body flexibility based on LDF signals analyzed in the frequency domain. The reasons of using random forest are because of their efficiency (fast in classification), interpretable structures and their ability to filter out irrelevant features. In addition, using random forest can prevent the problem of over-fitting, and the output model will become more robust to noises. In our experiment, we use chirp Z-transform (CZT), to transform a LDF signal into its energy values in five frequency bands. Combining the power of the random forest algorithm and frequency band analysis methods, a maximum recognition rate of 66% is achieved. Compared to traditional flexibility measuring process, the proposed system shortens the long and tedious stages of measurement to a simple, fast and pre-defined activity set. The major contributions of our work include (1) a novel body flexibility classification scheme using non-invasive biomedical sensor; (2) a set of designed protocol which is easy to conduct and practice; (3) a high precision classification scheme which combines the power of spectrum analysis and machine learning algorithms.

  17. Research on the Laser Doppler Torque Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on laser Doppler effect, single section rotational speed of a rotating shaft was measured. By measuring the two sections rotational speed, the difference of the rotational speed between the two could be made. Integrating the rotational speed difference, the relative torsional angle of the two sections under the action of torsional virbration was received, so the rotating shaft torque was gotten. Non-contact torque measurement of rotary machine was achieved. The system was designed and the experiment was done on the torque experiment equipment. The result of experimentation indicate that the relative error between Laser Doppler and conventional torque measuring method that was less than 0.2%, and the measurement accuracy of Laser Doppler was high

  18. Long-range, noncoherent laser Doppler velocimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, S H; Kremer, R; Searcy, P A; Rivers, M; Menders, J; Korevaar, E

    1991-11-15

    An experimental demonstration of a long-range, noncoherent laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) is presented. The LDV detects incoming Doppler-shifted signal photons by using the sharp spectral absorption features in atomic or molecular vapors. The edge of the absorption feature is used to convert changes in frequency to large changes in transmission. Preliminary measurements of wind velocity using seeded aerosols showed that the LDV results agreed with mechanical anemometer measurements to within the accuracy of the LDV measurements. With optimization the LDV will provide accurate range-resolved and vibration-tolerant wind-speed measurements at large distances. PMID:19784143

  19. Analysis of ultrasound propagation in high-temperature nuclear reactor feedwater to investigate a clamp-on ultrasonic pulse doppler flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flow rate of nuclear reactor feedwater is an important factor in the operation of a nuclear power reactor. Venturi nozzles are widely used to measure the flow rate. Other types of flowmeters have been proposed to improve measurement accuracy and permit the flow rate and reactor power to be increased. The ultrasonic pulse Doppler system is expected to be a candidate method because it can measure the flow profile across the pipe cross section, which changes with time. For accurate estimation of the flow velocity, the incidence angle of ultrasound entering the fluid should be estimated using Snell's law. However, evaluation of the ultrasound propagation is not straightforward, especially for a high-temperature pipe with a clamp-on ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. The ultrasound beam path may differ from what is expected from Snell's law due to the temperature gradient in the wedge and variation in the acoustic impedance between interfaces. Recently, simulation code for ultrasound propagation has come into use in the nuclear field for nondestructive testing. This article analyzes and discusses ultrasound propagation, using 3D-FEM simulation code plus the Kirchhoff method, as it relates to flow profile measurement in nuclear reactor feedwater with the ultrasonic pulse Doppler system. (author)

  20. Considerations for Calibrating a Laser Doppler Anemometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Michael L [ORNL; Keck, Joe [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Laser Doppler Anemometers have long been the device-of-choice for air velocity measurements due to their avoidance of turbulence induced by insertion-method air velocity measurement devices. At first glance, the use of a Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) for calibrating air velocity meters appears to be a relatively simple and straightforward process. As is typical in most metrological applications the process becomes much more complex when attempting to use the apparatus to make high-performance, metrology measurements. This paper focuses on the considerations for calibration of a LDA beginning with a discussion why an LDA needs to be calibrated. Other areas of discussion include alignment of the optics, dealing with imperfections in the alignment process, establishing the traceability of measurements from the apparatus and design and development of and experiences with using a calibration apparatus.

  1. Laser Doppler measurement of cutaneous blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Doppler velocimetry is an instrument system which has only recently been applied to the evaluation and quantitation of perfusion in the micro-vascular bed. The instrument is based on the Doppler principle, but uses low power laser light rather than the more commonly used ultrasound, and has a sample volume of approximately 1 mm/sup 3/. As it is non-invasive, it can be used on any skin surface or exposed microvascular bed and provides a continuous semi-quantitative measure of microcirculatory perfusion, it has a number of advantages as compared to other cutaneous blood flow measurement techniques. Initial studies have shown that it is easily used, and it has demonstrated good correlation with both xenon radio-isotope clearance and microsphere deposition techniques. Areas of current evaluation and utilization are in most major areas of medicine and surgery and include plastic, vascular and orthopaedic surgery, dermatology, gastro-enterology, rheumatology, burns and anaesthesiology

  2. Fish embryo multimodal imaging by laser Doppler digital holography

    CERN Document Server

    Verrier, Nicolas; Picart, Pascal; Gross, Michel

    2015-01-01

    A laser Doppler imaging scheme combined to an upright microscope is proposed. Quantitative Doppler imaging in both velocity norm and direction, as well as amplitude contrast of either zebrafish flesh or vasculature is demonstrated.

  3. Production logging development for coalbed methane using downhole laser measurement technology (optical flowmeter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNichol, D. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The production logging development for coalbed methane (CBM) using downhole laser measurement technology (optical flowmeter) was explored with reference to the challenges of logging multiple low rate coal seams using current spinner technology. Limitations of current spinner technology were addressed along with the progression and development of the optical production tool and how laser technology works. The paper emphasized the importance of improving the measurement of individual seam contributions. It discussed the reasons for measurement, such as regulatory requirements. The presentation also defined what a production log is and described and presented measurement issues for low flow spinners. A production log is a graphical or image presentation from a downhole tool that measures velocity of fluids in a producing wellbore with respect to depth. It typically also measures pressure and temperature. The production log is used to measure the contribution from more than one seam in a commingled wellbore. Current technology uses a propeller or spinner that counts rotations per minute. Low flow spinners use funnels or shrouds to force most of the gas molecules through the spinner path. The tool is dropped down the wellbore at three controlled speeds. An example diagram of a low flow spinner was illustrated. This presentation outlined some measurement issues such as very low-flow, a decrease in velocity across a seam, and a lack of data for a portion of a well. A data comparison between a spinner and optical flowmeter was provided as well as other observations and final conclusions. Several photographs of an optical flowmeter were also provided throughout the presentation. 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  4. An improved instantaneous laser Doppler velocity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desio, Charles V.; Olcmen, Semih; Schinetsky, Philip

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, improvements made on a single velocity component instantaneous laser Doppler velocimetry (ILDV) system are detailed. The ILDV system developed in this research effort is capable of measuring a single velocity component at a rate as high as two megahertz. The current system accounts for the effects of the laser intensity variation on the measured velocity and eliminates the use of a Pockels cell used in previous ILDV systems. The system developed in the current effort was tested using compressible, subsonic jet flows. The ILDV system developed would be most beneficial where a high data capture rate is needed such as in shock tubes, and high-speed wind tunnels.

  5. Electromagnetic flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of the sodium flowmeter is described. The basic equations are derived and the main parameters of the flowmeter with the permanent magnet designed for sodium steam generators are given. (F.M.)

  6. Widefield laser doppler velocimeter: development and theory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansche, Bruce David; Reu, Phillip L.; Massad, Jordan Elias

    2007-03-01

    The widefield laser Doppler velocimeter is a new measurement technique that significantly expands the functionality of a traditional scanning system. This new technique allows full-field velocity measurements without scanning, a drawback of traditional measurement techniques. This is particularly important for tests in which the sample is destroyed or the motion of the sample is non-repetitive. The goal of creating ''velocity movies'' was accomplished during the research, and this report describes the current functionality and operation of the system. The mathematical underpinnings and system setup are thoroughly described. Two prototype experiments are then presented to show the practical use of the current system. Details of the corresponding hardware used to collect the data and the associated software to analyze the data are presented.

  7. Miniature laser Doppler anemometer for sensor concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damp, Stephan

    1991-07-01

    Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) is well established in fluid dynamic research. Most wind tunnel and water tunnel experiments are supported by LDA measurements due to their ability to measure instantaneous velocities with high precision. However, the classical LDA equipment is very voluminous, has large power consumption and needs skilled staff for operation. Because LDA is a nonintrusive measuring procedure with no calibration needs, its use outside the laboratory would be very interesting. Process control and calibration of classical fluid sensors can be considered to be the main applications. Along with semiconductor lasers and detectors instead of gas lasers and photomultipliers, a dramatic reduction in spatial volume and power consumption results. Therefore, essential requirements for a sensor concept are fulfilled. The paper presents a miniaturized LDA as a sensor head. It has the dimensions of 4.7 cm by 4.5 cm by 5.7 cm. It consumes less than 3 W electrical power on a 12 V power supply. The measuring distance is 9.5 cm. The velocity range which can be covered reaches from 5 m/s up to 500 m/s.

  8. Sub-Doppler laser cooling of potassium atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Landini, M.; Roy, S.; L. Carcagn\\xec; Trypogeorgos, D.; Fattori, M.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate sub-Doppler laser cooling of bosonic potassium isotopes, whose small hyperfine splitting has so far prevented cooling below the Doppler temperature. We find instead that the combination of a dark optical molasses scheme that naturally arises in this kind of systems and an adiabatic ramping of the laser parameters allows to reach sub-Doppler temperatures for small laser detunings. We demonstrate temperatures as low as 25(3)microK and 47(5)microK in high-density...

  9. Sub-Doppler laser cooling of potassium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landini, M. [LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di fisica, Universita di Trento, I-38123 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Roy, S.; Carcagni, L.; Trypogeorgos, D. [LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Fattori, M.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G. [LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    We investigate the sub-Doppler laser cooling of bosonic potassium isotopes, whose small hyperfine splitting has so far prevented cooling below the Doppler temperature. We find instead that the combination of a dark optical molasses scheme that naturally arises in this kind of system and an adiabatic ramping of the laser parameters allows us to reach sub-Doppler temperatures for small laser detunings. We demonstrate temperatures as low as 25{+-}3 {mu}K and 47{+-}5 {mu}K in high-density samples of the two isotopes {sup 39}K and {sup 41}K, respectively. Our findings should find application to other atomic systems.

  10. Sub-Doppler laser cooling of potassium atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Landini, M; Carcagni', L; Trypogeorgos, D; Fattori, M; Inguscio, M; Modugno, G

    2011-01-01

    We investigate sub-Doppler laser cooling of bosonic potassium isotopes, whose small hyperfine splitting has so far prevented cooling below the Doppler temperature. We find instead that the combination of a dark optical molasses scheme that naturally arises in this kind of systems and an adiabatic ramping of the laser parameters allows to reach sub-Doppler temperatures for small laser detunings. We demonstrate temperatures as low as 25(3)microK and 47(5)microK in high-density samples of the two isotopes 39K and 41K, respectively. Our findings will find application to other atomic systems.

  11. Laser Doppler anemometer signal processing for blood flow velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozdova, M. A.; Fedosov, I. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2015-03-01

    A new method for analysing the signal in a laser Doppler anemometer based on the differential scheme is proposed, which provides the flow velocity measurement in strongly scattering liquids, particularly, blood. A laser Doppler anemometer intended for measuring the absolute blood flow velocity in animal and human near-surface arterioles and venules is developed. The laser Doppler anemometer signal structure is experimentally studied for measuring the flow velocity in optically inhomogeneous media, such as blood and suspensions of scattering particles. The results of measuring the whole and diluted blood flow velocity in channels with a rectangular cross section are presented.

  12. Sub-Doppler laser cooling of potassium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the sub-Doppler laser cooling of bosonic potassium isotopes, whose small hyperfine splitting has so far prevented cooling below the Doppler temperature. We find instead that the combination of a dark optical molasses scheme that naturally arises in this kind of system and an adiabatic ramping of the laser parameters allows us to reach sub-Doppler temperatures for small laser detunings. We demonstrate temperatures as low as 253 ?K and 475 ?K in high-density samples of the two isotopes 39K and 41K, respectively. Our findings should find application to other atomic systems.

  13. Blood flow measurement by laser Doppler method in orofacial region

    OpenAIRE

    Grga ?urica; Deletovi? Bojan; ivkovi? Slavoljub; Krljak Elena

    2010-01-01

    Laser Doppler is a noninvasive, objective, reproducible and painless method for measuring blood flow in tissue microcirculation. This method is based on the Doppler effect, the change in frequency of light reflecting from blood cells in motion. Light from helium-neon laser through optical fibers and probes is directed to the surface of the tissue in which the flow is measured. Light portion is reflected from the cells in motion and changes the frequency while another portion is reflecte...

  14. Muscle activity characterization by laser Doppler Myography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Casaccia, Sara; Marchionni, Paolo; Ercoli, Ilaria; Primo Tomasini, Enrico

    2013-09-01

    Electromiography (EMG) is the gold-standard technique used for the evaluation of muscle activity. This technique is used in biomechanics, sport medicine, neurology and rehabilitation therapy and it provides the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. Among the parameters measured with EMG, two very important quantities are: signal amplitude and duration of muscle contraction, muscle fatigue and maximum muscle power. Recently, a new measurement procedure, named Laser Doppler Myography (LDMi), for the non contact assessment of muscle activity has been proposed to measure the vibro-mechanical behaviour of the muscle. The aim of this study is to present the LDMi technique and to evaluate its capacity to measure some characteristic features proper of the muscle. In this paper LDMi is compared with standard superficial EMG (sEMG) requiring the application of sensors on the skin of each patient. sEMG and LDMi signals have been simultaneously acquired and processed to test correlations. Three parameters has been analyzed to compare these techniques: Muscle activation timing, signal amplitude and muscle fatigue. LDMi appears to be a reliable and promising measurement technique allowing the measurements without contact with the patient skin.

  15. Image-based tracking laser Doppler vibrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative version of the tracking laser Doppler vibrometer based on image acquisition and processing (iTLDV) is proposed. The iTLDV is developed for tracking of arbitrary motions; the system is feedback controlled and allows measuring the vibrations of a moving target by driving moving mirrors via position signals of the target obtained from a charge-coupled-device camera and an image processing algorithm. The tracking system developed has been applied to an industrial test case subject to self-excited vibrations, in order to verify the performances and limits in the operating conditions. The system demonstrates its ability to measure vibration time histories on a windscreen wiper in operative conditions. This test case represents a challenging measurement problem, since no other measurement techniques are available that are able to extract such data. Some examples of obtained data are shown, which highlight the potential of iTLDV. In addition, position accuracy and measurement uncertainty are discussed. For the windscreen wiper, the worst position accuracy is estimate as 1.2 mm along the wiper axis, while the measurement uncertainty mainly depends on the commercial vibrometer applied in the setup (about 2% depending on operative conditions)

  16. Muscle activity characterization by laser Doppler Myography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromiography (EMG) is the gold-standard technique used for the evaluation of muscle activity. This technique is used in biomechanics, sport medicine, neurology and rehabilitation therapy and it provides the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. Among the parameters measured with EMG, two very important quantities are: signal amplitude and duration of muscle contraction, muscle fatigue and maximum muscle power. Recently, a new measurement procedure, named Laser Doppler Myography (LDMi), for the non contact assessment of muscle activity has been proposed to measure the vibro-mechanical behaviour of the muscle. The aim of this study is to present the LDMi technique and to evaluate its capacity to measure some characteristic features proper of the muscle. In this paper LDMi is compared with standard superficial EMG (sEMG) requiring the application of sensors on the skin of each patient. sEMG and LDMi signals have been simultaneously acquired and processed to test correlations. Three parameters has been analyzed to compare these techniques: Muscle activation timing, signal amplitude and muscle fatigue. LDMi appears to be a reliable and promising measurement technique allowing the measurements without contact with the patient skin

  17. Frequency stability comparison of diode lasers locked to Doppler and sub-Doppler resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolderbach, C.; Andreeva, Ch.; Cartaleva, Stefka S.; Mileti, Gaetano; Slavov, Dimitar G.

    2004-06-01

    We present a systematic quantitative comparison of the performance parameters of two Extended Cavity Diode Lasers (ECDL), stabilized to Doppler and sub-Doppler profiles. The experimental study is carried out on Rb atomic vapour cells. The frequency shift of the resonance under investigation with respect to a reference resonance is measured and analyzed, in dependence on the modulation amplitude, cell temperature, laser power, applied magnetic field and misalignment of the pump-probe beams angle. The Allan variance is measured for both locking methods. It shows that the stabilization to the Doppler profile results in about one order of magnitude lower stability than the one to SA resonances for the short-term measurement. However, the stability achieved using both methods is sufficient for many applications and for some of them the simplicity of the Doppler locking method can be advantageous.

  18. Gingival blood flow measurement with a non-contact laser flowmeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, M; Xu, Y B; Nagasawa, T

    2001-07-01

    A non-contact laser flowmeter was used to measure the changing of the gingival blood flow. Five university students with healthy oral condition were selected in this study. The blood flow measurement on the extensor digitorum (above the head of third metacarpal), with the changing of distance and angle between the probe and the tissue was used as a pre-study experiment. Blood flow rate was determined in the labial gingiva (2 mm above the cervical line) of upper central incisor using a stent fixing the probe at a 3-mm distance from the tissue. A basal level of gingival blood flow was taken two times each day for 5 days. The effects of water of different temperatures on the gingival blood flow are discussed. With the changing of distance, the blood flow rate became smaller, but there was no significant effect from the angle. The reproducibility was acceptable through the 5-day measurement. After stimulating with warm and body temperature water, the blood flow first increased significantly and then went back to the basal line (faster with the body temperature water). With cold water, different reactions between the subjects were observed. PMID:11422694

  19. Laser Doppler technology applied to atmospheric environmental operating problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, E. A.; Bilbro, J. W.; Dunkin, J. A.; Jeffreys, H. B.

    1976-01-01

    Carbon dioxide laser Doppler ground wind data were very favorably compared with data from standard anemometers. As a result of these measurements, two breadboard systems were developed for taking research data: a continuous wave velocimeter and a pulsed Doppler system. The scanning continuous wave laser Doppler velocimeter developed for detecting, tracking and measuring aircraft wake vortices was successfully tested at an airport where it located vortices to an accuracy of 3 meters at a range of 150 meters. The airborne pulsed laser Doppler system was developed to detect and measure clear air turbulence (CAT). This system was tested aboard an aircraft, but jet stream CAT was not encountered. However, low altitude turbulence in cumulus clouds near a mountain range was detected by the system and encountered by the aircraft at the predicted time.

  20. Blood flow measurement by laser Doppler method in orofacial region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grga ?urica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser Doppler is a noninvasive, objective, reproducible and painless method for measuring blood flow in tissue microcirculation. This method is based on the Doppler effect, the change in frequency of light reflecting from blood cells in motion. Light from helium-neon laser through optical fibers and probes is directed to the surface of the tissue in which the flow is measured. Light portion is reflected from the cells in motion and changes the frequency while another portion is reflected from the static tissue maintaining the same frequency as the initial light. The total reflected light, with changed and original frequency, reaches photo detector in the same probe where the emitter is and it is transformed into electrical impulse. In the orofacial region the laser Doppler method is used to examine blood flow in the mandible, teeth pulp and masticator muscles. A significant drawback of the laser Doppler method is its sensitivity to the ambient conditions during measuring and the fact that blood flow is measured in all blood vessels of examined microregion. Therefore, the circulation of isolated individual blood vessels can not be monitored. Laser Doppler method can give reliable indicators of blood flow in mouth tissue and method is acceptable for the patients.

  1. Holographic laser Doppler imaging of microvascular blood flow

    OpenAIRE

    Magnain, C.; Castel, A.; Boucneau, T.; Simonutti, M.; Ferezou, I.; Rancillac, A.; Vitalis, T; Sahel, J. A.; Paques, M; Atlan, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on local superficial blood flow monitoring in biological tissue from laser Doppler holographic imaging. In time averaging recording conditions, holography acts as a narrowband bandpass filter, which, combined with a frequency shifted reference beam, permits frequency selective imaging in the radiofrequency range. These Doppler images are acquired with an off axis Mach Zehnder interferometer. Microvascular hemodynamic components mapping is performed in the cerebral ...

  2. Processor operated correlator with applications to laser Doppler signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, C.; Johnsen, B.; Hassager, Ole

    1984-01-01

    A 64-channel correlator is designed with application to the processing of laser Doppler anemometry signals in the range 200 Hz to 250 kHz. The correlator is processor operated to enable the consecutive sampling of 448 correlation functions at a rate up to 500 Hz. Software is described to identify a...... Doppler frequency from each correlation and the system is especially designed for transient flow signals. Doppler frequencies are determined with an accuracy of about 0.1%. Review of Scientific Instruments is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  3. Non-intrusive Shock Measurements Using Laser Doppler Vibrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statham, Shannon M.; Kolaini, Ali R.

    2012-01-01

    Stud mount accelerometers are widely used by the aerospace industry to measure shock environments during hardware qualification. The commonly used contact-based sensors, however, interfere with the shock waves and distort the acquired signature, which is a concern not actively discussed in the community. To alleviate these interference issues, engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are investigating the use of non-intrusive sensors, specifically Laser Doppler Vibrometers, as alternatives to the stud mounted accelerometers. This paper will describe shock simulation tests completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, compare the measurements from stud mounted accelerometers and Laser Doppler Vibrometers, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of introducing Laser Doppler Vibrometers as alternative sensors for measuring shock environments.

  4. Fano-Doppler laser cooling of hybrid nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfo, Alessandro; Saija, Rosalba; Savasta, Salvatore; Jones, Philip H; Iat, Maria Antonia; Marag, Onofrio M

    2011-09-27

    Laser cooling the center-of-mass motion of systems that exhibit Fano resonances is discussed. We find that cooling occurs for red or blue detuning of the laser frequency from resonance depending on the Fano factor associated with the resonance. The combination of the Doppler effect with the radiation cross-section quenching typical of quantum interference yields temperatures below the conventional Doppler limit. This scheme opens perspectives for controlling the motion of mesoscopic systems such as hybrid nanostructures at the quantum regime and the exploration of motional nonclassical states at the nanoscale. PMID:21806014

  5. Usefulness of intraoperative laser Doppler flowmetry and thermography to predict a risk of postoperative hyperperfusion after superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass for moyamoya disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Takakazu; Kawashima, Akitsugu; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Hori, Tomokatsu; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2011-07-01

    We investigated whether postoperative hyperperfusion in moyamoya disease can be predicted using intraoperative laser Doppler flowmetry and/or thermography. A prospective study was conducted on 27 patients (39 hemispheres) with moyamoya disease who underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass. During surgery, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with a laser Doppler flowmeter and the temperature of the cortical surface was measured with an infrared thermograph. Postoperative hyperperfusion was assessed immediately after surgery based on CBF study under sedation (propofol) as >100% increase in corrected rCBF compared to preoperative values. Postoperative hyperperfusion on CBF was observed in two patients (7.4%). A significant correlation was observed between intraoperative rCBF changes and postoperative rCBF increase (Pearson's method: r=0.555, p=0.0003; simple regression: Y=1.22X+3.289, r (2)=0.308, p=0.0004). Furthermore, the rCBF changes measured by laser Doppler flowmetry were significantly greater in patients with postoperative hyperperfusion (p=0.0193) and CHS (p=0.0193). The present study suggests that intraoperative rCBF measurement using laser Doppler flowmetry may predict a risk of post-EC-IC bypass cerebral hyperperfusion in moyamoya disease. PMID:21643682

  6. Holographic laser Doppler imaging of microvascular blood flow

    CERN Document Server

    Magnain, C; Boucneau, T; Simonutti, M; Ferezou, I; Rancillac, A; Vitalis, T; Sahel, J A; Paques, M; Atlan, M

    2014-01-01

    We report on local superficial blood flow monitoring in biological tissue from laser Doppler holographic imaging. In time averaging recording conditions, holography acts as a narrowband bandpass filter, which, combined with a frequency shifted reference beam, permits frequency selective imaging in the radiofrequency range. These Doppler images are acquired with an off axis Mach Zehnder interferometer. Microvascular hemodynamic components mapping is performed in the cerebral cortex of the mouse and the eye fundus of the rat with near-infrared laser light without any exogenous marker. These measures are made from a basic inverse method analysis of local first order optical fluctuation spectra at low radiofrequencies, from 0 Hz to 100 kHz. Local quadratic velocity is derived from Doppler broadenings induced by fluid flows, with elementary diffusing wave spectroscopy formalism in backscattering configuration. We demonstrate quadratic mean velocity assessment in the 0.1 to 10 millimeters per second range in vitro ...

  7. Laser Doppler velocimetry based on the photoacoustic effect in a CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a simple laser Doppler velocimeter in which the photoacoustic effect was used to measure the rotation wheel speed. A Doppler signal, caused by mixing a returning wave with an originally existing wave inside the CO2 laser cavity, was detected using a microphone in the laser tube. Frequency of the microphone output was in proportion to the rotation speed of a wheel and is dependent on the cosine of the angle between the direction of the laser beam and tangent of wheel velocity. A Doppler-shifted frequency as high as 34 kHz was detected using this method. A frequency response of a few megahertz is expected from the laser Doppler velocimeter based on the photoacoustic effect in a CO2 laser by using a wider bandwidth microphone

  8. Influence of laser frequency noise on scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer based laser Doppler velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    n this work, we study the performance of a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer based laser Doppler velocimeter (sFPILDV) and compare two candidate 1.5 um single-frequency laser sources for the system – a fiber laser (FL) and a semiconductor laser (SL). We describe a straightforward calibration...

  9. Anomaly Detection In Additively Manufactured Parts Using Laser Doppler Vibrometery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Carlos A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    Additively manufactured parts are susceptible to non-uniform structure caused by the unique manufacturing process. This can lead to structural weakness or catastrophic failure. Using laser Doppler vibrometry and frequency response analysis, non-contact detection of anomalies in additively manufactured parts may be possible. Preliminary tests show promise for small scale detection, but more future work is necessary.

  10. Wing tip vortex measurements with laser Doppler systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. E., III

    1973-01-01

    The vortex velocity field produced by a rectangular wing in a subsonic wind tunnel was measured using two laser Doppler velocimeter systems. One system made three dimensional mean velocity measurements and the other made one dimensional turbulence measurements. The systems and test procedures are described and comparisons of the measurements are made. The data defined a strong spiral motion in the vortex formation process.

  11. Dead time effects in laser Doppler anemometry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Buchhave, Preben; George, William K.

    2014-01-01

    We present velocity power spectra computed by the so-called direct method from burst-type laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) data, both measured in a turbulent round jet and generated in a computer. Using today’s powerful computers, we have been able to study more properties of the computed spectra...

  12. Coherent Doppler Laser Radar: Technology Development and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating, developing, and applying coherent Doppler laser radar technology for over 30 years. These efforts have included the first wind measurement in 1967, the first airborne flights in 1972, the first airborne wind field mapping in 1981, and the first measurement of hurricane eyewall winds in 1998. A parallel effort at MSFC since 1982 has been the study, modeling and technology development for a space-based global wind measurement system. These endeavors to date have resulted in compact, robust, eyesafe lidars at 2 micron wavelength based on solid-state laser technology; in a factor of 6 volume reduction in near diffraction limited, space-qualifiable telescopes; in sophisticated airborne scanners with full platform motion subtraction; in local oscillator lasers capable of rapid tuning of 25 GHz for removal of relative laser radar to target velocities over a 25 km/s range; in performance prediction theory and simulations that have been validated experimentally; and in extensive field campaign experience. We have also begun efforts to dramatically improve the fundamental photon efficiency of the laser radar, to demonstrate advanced lower mass laser radar telescopes and scanners; to develop laser and laser radar system alignment maintenance technologies; and to greatly improve the electrical efficiency, cooling technique, and robustness of the pulsed laser. This coherent Doppler laser radar technology is suitable for high resolution, high accuracy wind mapping; for aerosol and cloud measurement; for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric and trace gases; for hard target range and velocity measurement; and for hard target vibration spectra measurement. It is also suitable for a number of aircraft operations applications such as clear air turbulence (CAT) detection; dangerous wind shear (microburst) detection; airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip measurement; and fuel savings through headwind minimization. In addition to the airborne and space platforms, a coherent Doppler laser radar system in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) could provide battlefield weather and target identification.

  13. Three-dimensional laser cooling at the Doppler limit

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Rockson; Bouton, Quentin; Fang, Yami; Klafka, Tobias; Audo, Kevin; Aspect, Alain; Westbrook, Christoph I; Clment, David

    2014-01-01

    Many predictions of the theory of Doppler cooling of 2-level atoms, notably the celebrated minimum achievable temperature $T_D=\\hbar \\Gamma/2 k_B$, have never been verified in a three-dimensional geometry. Here, we show that, despite their degenerate level structure, we can use Helium-4 atoms to achieve a situation in which these predictions can be verified. We make measurements of atomic temperatures, magneto-optical trap sizes, and the sensitivity of optical molasses to a power imbalance in the laser beams, finding excellent agreement with the Doppler theory. We show that the special properties of Helium, particularly its small mass and narrow transition linewidth, prevent effective sub-Doppler cooling with red-detuned optical molasses.

  14. Aeroacoustic flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakkottai, Parthasarathy (Inventor); Kwack, Eug Y. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The flowmeter is based on a measurement of phase difference between two points on the circumference of a pipe separated axially by an integral multiple of sound wavelength. Plane sound waves are generated aeroacoustically by a non-protruding ring cavity energized either directly by the flow or by a subsidiary flow of the same medium. The frequency of the aeroacoustic source varies with temperature and therefore the temperature can be obtained. In the case of steam flow, temperature can be measured independently and therefore from the measured frequency (or speed of sound), the quality of wet steam can be measured. The flowmeter is linear in velocity and no calibrations are required.

  15. Catadioptric Optics for laser Doppler velocimeter applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.

    1989-01-01

    In the design of a laser velocimeter system, attention must be given to the performance of the optical elements in their two principal tasks: focusing laser radiation into the probe volume, and collecting the scattered light. For large aperture applications, custom lens design and fabrication costs, long optical path requirements, and chromatic aberration (for two color operation) can be problematic. The adaptation of low cost Schmidt-Cassegrain astronomical telescopes to perform these laser beam manipulation and scattered light collection tasks is examined. A generic telescope design is analyzed using ray tracing and Gaussian beam propagation theory, and a simple modification procedure for converting from infinite to near unity conjugate ratio operation with image quality near the diffraction limit was identified. Modification requirements and performance are predicted for a range of geometries. Finally, a 200-mm-aperture telescope was modified for f/10 operation; performance data for this modified optic for both laser beam focusing and scattered light collection tasks agree well with predictions.

  16. Novel Doppler laser radar for diagnostics in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the development of a novel Doppler laser radar (DOLAR) for remote measurement of flow velocity (0-10 m/s) and film thickness of liquid metal walls, currently being studied for their superior heat handling and self-healing characteristics. Small fluctuations in flow velocity(∼mm/s) and flow thickness (∼50 μm) that may arise during plasma discharges can also be measured. The DOLAR is also designed for non intrusive mapping of features of plasma-facing solid surfaces with very high precision (∼50 μm). It can also measure the motion of structural components of a fusion reactor during plasma discharges and during plasma disruptions. The device utilizes frequency modulation laser radar principles for precision range measurements. Compensation of Doppler frequency shift is used to measure flow velocity. The DOLAR probe head is designed with acousto-optic and piezoelectric devices for operation in the harsh fusion environment

  17. Sub-Doppler modulation spectroscopy of potassium for laser stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Mudarikwa, L; Goldwin, J

    2011-01-01

    We study modulation spectroscopy of the potassium D2 transitions at 766.7 nm. Heterodyne detection of pump-probe spectroscopy yields sub-Doppler frequency discriminants suitable for stabilizing lasers in experiments with cold atoms. Comparisons are made between spectra obtained by direct modulation of the probe beam, and those using modulation transfer from the pump via nonlinear mixing. Finally, suggestions are made for further optimization of the signals.

  18. Sub-Doppler modulation spectroscopy of potassium for laser stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Mudarikwa, L.; Pahwa, K.; Goldwin, J.

    2011-01-01

    We study modulation spectroscopy of the potassium D2 transitions at 766.7 nm. The vapour pressure, controlled by heating a commercial reference cell, is optimized using conventional saturated absorption spectroscopy. Subsequent heterodyne detection yields sub-Doppler frequency discriminants suitable for stabilizing lasers in experiments with cold atoms. Comparisons are made between spectra obtained by direct modulation of the probe beam, and those using modulation transfer f...

  19. Gas flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, T. F.; Wells, F. E.

    1970-01-01

    Mass flowmeter measures rates of flow of all common gases from purges and collected leaks at leak ports. Without dependence on gravity, it measures rates between 5 and 650 cc/min with pressures ranging from 0.001 to 10 to the minus thirteenth torr at temperatures between 70 and 500 degrees K.

  20. Sub-Doppler laser cooling of metastable He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have observed magnetically induced laser cooling (MILC) on the J = 1 ? 2 component of the 23S ? 23P transition at ? = 1.083 ?m in metastable helium (He*). At low magnetic field the measured widths of our atomic velocity distributions are as narrow as 2?k/M corresponding to a temperature ? 3 ?K (1-D Doppler limit ? 26 ?K). At higher fields (?150 mG) the velocity distribution splits into two peaks of sub-Doppler width whose separation is proportional to the Zeeman splitting. Our measurements are consistent with model calculations based on the time evolution of quantum density matrices. Our experiments explore the transition regime between the quantum mechanical and semiclassical models of momentum exchange in atom-light interactions because of the large ratio (0.4) of the recoil velocity ?k/M to the rms of the Doppler-limited velocity distribution ???/3M for this transition. We use a supersonic LN2 cooled nozzle source excited by a dc discharge for He*, and we excite the 23P state with a home-built diode-laser-pumped LNA laser

  1. Particle-fluid interaction corrections for flow measurements with a laser Doppler flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, N. S.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion is given of particle lags in mean flows, acoustic oscillations at single frequencies and in turbulent flows. Some simplified cases lead to exact solutions. For turbulent flows linearization of the equation of motion after assuming the fluid and particle streamlines coincide also leads to a solution. The results show that particle lags are a function of particle size and frequency of oscillation. Additional studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of turbulence when a major portion of the energy is concentrated in small eddies.

  2. Holographic laser Doppler imaging of microvascular blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnain, C; Castel, A; Boucneau, T; Simonutti, M; Ferezou, I; Rancillac, A; Vitalis, T; Sahel, J A; Paques, M; Atlan, M

    2014-12-01

    We report on local superficial blood flow monitoring in biological tissue from laser Doppler holographic imaging. In time-averaging recording conditions, holography acts as a narrowband bandpass filter, which, combined with a frequency-shifted reference beam, permits frequency-selective imaging in the radio frequency range. These Doppler images are acquired with an off-axis Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Microvascular hemodynamic components mapping is performed in the cerebral cortex of the mouse and the eye fundus of the rat with near-infrared laser light without any exogenous marker. These measures are made from a basic inverse-method analysis of local first-order optical fluctuation spectra at low radio frequencies, from 0Hz to 100kHz. Local quadratic velocity is derived from Doppler broadenings induced by fluid flows, with elementary diffusing wave spectroscopy formalism in backscattering configuration. We demonstrate quadratic mean velocity assessment in the 0.1-10mm/s range in vitro and imaging of superficial blood perfusion with a spatial resolution of about 10 micrometers in rodent models of cortical and retinal blood flow. PMID:25606762

  3. Video flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, D.E.; Carter, G.W.; Petrini, R.R.

    1983-08-02

    A video flowmeter is described that is capable of specifying flow nature and pattern and, at the same time, the quantitative value of the rate of volumetric flow. An image of a determinable volumetric region within a fluid containing entrained particles is formed and positioned by a rod optic lens assembly on the raster area of a low-light level television camera. The particles are illuminated by light transmitted through a bundle of glass fibers surrounding the rod optic lens assembly. Only particle images having speeds on the raster area below the raster line scanning speed may be used to form a video picture which is displayed on a video screen. The flowmeter is calibrated so that the locus of positions of origin of the video picture gives a determination of the volumetric flow rate of the fluid. 4 figs.

  4. Video flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, David E. (Livermore, CA); Carter, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); Petrini, Richard R. (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A video flowmeter is described that is capable of specifying flow nature and pattern and, at the same time, the quantitative value of the rate of volumetric flow. An image of a determinable volumetric region within a fluid (10) containing entrained particles (12) is formed and positioned by a rod optic lens assembly (31) on the raster area of a low-light level television camera (20). The particles (12) are illuminated by light transmitted through a bundle of glass fibers (32) surrounding the rod optic lens assembly (31). Only particle images having speeds on the raster area below the raster line scanning speed may be used to form a video picture which is displayed on a video screen (40). The flowmeter is calibrated so that the locus of positions of origin of the video picture gives a determination of the volumetric flow rate of the fluid (10).

  5. VCSEL-based miniature laser-Doppler interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruijmboom, Armand; Schemmann, Marcel; Hellmig, Jochen; Schutte, Jeroen; Moench, Holger; Pankert, Joseph

    2008-02-01

    There are many applications for non-contact measurement of the displacement and velocity of moving objects, especially when achieved at low cost. An optical displacement sensor has been developed that can be compared to expensive laser-interferometry sensors, however at a cost compatible with requirements for consumer products. This miniature Laser-Doppler Interferometer works on all light scattering surfaces. The first large-scale application is in PC-mice. The measurement principle employs so-called "Laser Self Mixing", which occurs when laser light scattered on a surface, within the coherence length, is coupled back into the laser cavity. When the object is moving, the back-scattered light is continuously shifting in phase relative to the laser light at the laser mirror. This results in a periodic perturbation of the feedback into the laser cavity, which causes modulations of the light intensity in the cavity. The frequency of these modulations is proportional the speed of the object. A VCSEL, optimized for this application, is used as light source, a photo-diode in the sensor measures the intensity fluctuations and, finally, an integrated circuit transfers the photo-diode signal into velocity or displacement information. To determine the direction of the movement, a triangle modulation of the laser-current is used, which modulates the laser-temperature and hence the laser frequency. Next to the applications in PC-mice a much wider range of applications as input device in consumer products can be envisaged. For instance menu navigation by finger movement over a sensor in remote controls, mobile phones and lap tops. Furthermore a wide field of applications is envisaged in the manufacturing of industrial equipment, which requires non-contact measurement of the movement of materials. The small form factor of less than 0.2 cubic centimeters allows applications previously considered impossible.

  6. Mucosal blood flow measurements using laser Doppler perfusion monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Arne Lihaug Hoff, Hans Gregersen, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfusion of individual tissues is a basic physiological process that is necessary to sustain oxygenation and nutrition at a cellular level. Ischemia, or the insufficiency of perfusion, is a common mechanism for tissue death or degeneration, and at a lower threshold, a mechanism for the generation of sensory signalling including pain. It is of considerable interest to study perfusion of peripheral abdominal tissues in a variety of circumstances. Microvascular disease of the abdominal organs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders, including peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory bowel disease and chest pain. The basic principle of laser Doppler perfusion monitoring (LDPM is to analyze changes in the spectrum of light reflected from tissues as a response to a beam of monochromatic laser light emitted. It reflects the total local microcirculatory blood perfusion, including perfusion in capillaries, arterioles, venules and shunts. During the last 20-25 years, numerous studies have been performed in different parts of the gastrointestinal (GI tract using LDPM. In recent years we have developed a multi-modal catheter device which includes a laser Doppler probe, with the intent primarily to investigate patients suffering from functional chest pain of presumed oesophageal origin. Preliminary studies show the feasibility of incorporating LDPM into such catheters for performing physiological studies in the GI tract. LDPM has emerged as a research and clinical tool in preference to other methods; but, it is important to be aware of its limitations and account for them when reporting results.

  7. Sub-Doppler laser cooling and magnetic trapping of erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate cooling mechanisms in magneto-optically and magnetically trapped erbium. We find efficient sub-Doppler cooling in our trap, which can persist even in large magnetic fields due to the near degeneracy of two Lande g factors. Furthermore, a continuously loaded magnetic trap is demonstrated where we observe temperatures below 25 ?K. These favorable cooling and trapping properties suggest a number of scientific possibilities for rare-earth-metal atomic physics, including narrow linewidth laser cooling and spectroscopy, unique collision studies, and degenerate bosonic and fermionic gases with long-range magnetic dipole coupling

  8. Sound Power Estimation by Laser Doppler Vibration Measurement Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Revel, G. M.; Rossi, G L

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose simple and quick methods for the determination of the sound power emitted by a vibrating surface, by using non-contact vibration measurement techniques. In order to calculate the acoustic power by vibration data processing, two different approaches are presented. The first is based on the method proposed in the Standard ISO/TR 7849, while the second is based on the superposition theorem. A laser-Doppler scanning vibrometer has been employed for vibration me...

  9. Holographic laser Doppler imaging of pulsatile blood flow

    CERN Document Server

    Bencteux, Jeffrey; Kostas, Thomas; Bayat, Sam; Atlan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We report on wide-field imaging of pulsatile motion induced by blood flow using heterodyne holographic interferometry on the thumb of a healthy volunteer, in real-time. Optical Doppler images were measured with green laser light by a frequency-shifted Mach-Zehnder interferometer in off-axis configuration. The recorded optical signal was linked to local instantaneous out-of-plane motion of the skin at velocities of a few hundreds of microns per second, and compared to blood pulse monitored by plethysmoraphy during an occlusion-reperfusion experiment.

  10. Laser-Doppler Imaging in the Detection of Peripheral Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Illigens, Ben M. W.; Siepmann, Timo; Roofeh, Joe; Gibbons, Christopher H

    2013-01-01

    Small fiber neuropathy is common in a number of systemic diseases and is often challenging to diagnose. Laser-Doppler Imaging (LDI) is a test of small fiber neurovascular function that can quantify the integrity of the vasomotor C-fiber mediated axon-reflex, but no standardized method of analysis exists. We developed a novel LDI analysis technique and tested it in a human model of small fiber neuropathy. Eighteen healthy subjects (age 243 years) underwent LDI testing to assess the axon-media...

  11. Potential for coherent Doppler wind velocity lidar using neodymium lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, T. J.; Byer, R. L.; Zhou, B.

    1984-01-01

    Existing techniques for the frequency stabilization of Nd:YAG lasers operating at 1.06 micron, and the high-gain amplification of radiation at that wavelength, make possible the construction of a coherent Doppler wind velocity lidar using Nd:YAG. Velocity accuracy and range resolution are better at 1.06 micron than at 10.6 microns at the same level of the SNR. Backscatter from the atmosphere at 1.06 micron is greater than that at 10.6 microns by about 2 orders of magnitude, but the quantum-limited noise is higher by 100 also. Near-field attenuation and turbulent effects are more severe at 1.06 micron. In some configurations and environments, the 1.06-micron wavelength may be the better choice, and there may be technological advantages favoring the use of solid-state lasers in satellite systems.

  12. Raman processes in sub-Doppler laser cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have observed a new type of sub-Doppler laser cooling with neither polarization gradients nor magnetic fields. All known sub-Doppler laser cooling methods require one of these two to resdistribute the atomic population among the energy levels. This allows the irreversible processes of optical pumping vels. This allows the irreversible processes of optical pumping (OP) to manipulate the conservative force of light shifts (e.g. resonant exchange between the two beams comprising a standing wave) into a damping force. Our scheme employs stimulated Raman transitions between ground state hyperfine levels of Rb with a bichromatic standing wave, accompanied by a momentum change of ?p = 2?k. OP, with ?p = 1?k, creates a population imbalance allowing repetition of the Raman process. When the detuning of the light from Raman resonance ? is properly chosen, the net momentum exchange damps the atomic motion. Changing ? by only ?/6(1 MHz) replaces cooling by heating. This process separates the velocity selective Raman resonance and OP processes differently from others, and helps clarify the role of these different mechanisms

  13. Magnetostriction measurement in thin films using laser Doppler vibrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the laser Doppler vibrometry based measurement of the magnetostriction in magnetic thin films. Using this method, the strain induced by an AC magnetic field in the polycrystalline cobalt ferrite and nickel ferrite thin films grown on silicon and platinized silicon substrates was measured under a DC magnetic bias. The experimental setup and the derivation of the magnetostriction constant from the experimentally measured deflection values are discussed. The magnetostriction values derived using force and bending moment balances were compared with that derived from an industry standard relationship. In addition, we corroborate our approach by comparing the values derived from bending theory calculations of magnetically induced torque to those from measurements using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). At high DC magnetic field bias, the magnitude of magnetization calculated from the measured magnetostriction was found to match the measured magnetization by VSM. - Highlights: Laser Doppler vibrometry based technique to measure magnetostriction in thin films. Strain induced by an AC magnetic field under a DC magnetic bias. Picometer level deflections in polycrystalline cobalt and nickel ferrite thin films

  14. All semiconductor laser Doppler anemometer at 1.55 μm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene Skov; Pedersen, Christian

    2008-01-01

    We report to our best knowledge the first all semiconductor Laser Doppler Anemometer (LIDAR) for wind speed determination. We will present the design and first experimental results on a focusing coherent cw laser Doppler anemometer for measuring atmospheric wind velocities in the 10 meters to 300...

  15. Laser Doppler vibrometer for efficient structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod K.

    The research effort in this thesis is devoted to develop techniques to accurately and rapidly identify the location, orientation, and magnitude of the defects by using structural health monitoring concepts that use Laser Doppler Vibrometer as a non-contact sensor with multi-point sensing capability. The first research area addresses the formulation and validation of an innovative Damage Measure that is based on the ratios of the strain energy distributions of the damaged and undamaged structure. The innovations include use of a single set of actuator/sensor pair to excite and detect the responses of a structure for low frequency vibrations as well as guided wave propagation studies. A second new capability is the estimation of the Damage Measure without requiring any knowledge of the undamaged baseline structure. This method is made possible because of the development of these new technologies: Spatial Decimation and Wavenumber/Frequency filtering. The third contribution is to develop analytical models for the structural dynamics of damaged structure and seek solutions that use perturbation methods to detect damage in a plate structure. The fourth contribution is the development of a comprehensive damage detection technique over a wide frequency dynamic range. The fifth topic of research involves automation in Structural Health Monitoring based on the comprehensive Damage Measure formulation. Under the control of software the Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer is used to acquire the low frequency vibration mode data for a coarse identification of all the suspect regions of damage using a threshold criterion on the Damage Measure. Each suspect region of damage is further investigated using the high frequency elastic wave propagation to clearly identify the location, orientation, and extent of the damage. The computer control of the Laser Doppler Vibrometer and a quantitative assessment of the damage provide the enabling technologies for the automation proof of concept. Finally the developed techniques of damage detection are successfully demonstrated on practical structures such as a turbine blade in the laboratory and an F-15 vertical tail in field maintenance conditions.

  16. Velocity bias in two component individual realization laser Doppler velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to the typical biasing problems associated with one component Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), two component LDV measurements can suffer from other types of bias. In particular, coincidence bias is of interest. This type of velocity bias results from requiring simultaneous, or nearly simultaneous, measurements of the velocity components. In this study, two velocity bias correction schemes, based on the time between velocity samples, together with three different approaches for constant time-interval sampling of the velocity data have been evaluated. The effects of coincidence seeding rate and coincidence time window on velocity, normal, and Reynold's stress measurements are presented. Measurements with narrow coincidence window settings and/or low coincidence seeding rate resulted in velocity measurements which were larger than the true local average

  17. Cantilever spring constant calibration using laser Doppler vibrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncertainty in cantilever spring constants is a critical issue in atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements. Though numerous methods exist for calibrating cantilever spring constants, the accuracy of these methods can be limited by both the physical models themselves as well as uncertainties in their experimental implementation. Here we report the results from two of the most common calibration methods, the thermal tune method and the Sader method. These were implemented on a standard AFM system as well as using laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). Using LDV eliminates some uncertainties associated with optical lever detection on an AFM. It also offers considerably higher signal to noise deflection measurements. We find that AFM and LDV result in similar uncertainty in the calibrated spring constants, about 5%, using either the thermal tune or Sader methods provided that certain limitations of the methods and instrumentation are observed

  18. Study on vertical bubbly flows using laser Doppler measurements, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge on the flow characteristics of mixed phase flowing media such as gas-liquid, solid-gas and so on became indispensable with the recent progress of nuclear reactors, various fluidized bed plants, air transport plants and others, and various measuring techniques have been developed for the purpose of grasping the characteristics of mixed phase flow microscopically as well as macroscopically. However most of these measuring methods are intended for the measurement of only one item. In order to know the microstructure of mixed phase flow, two or more measurements are required, accordingly the authors proposed the method of measuring two factors in mixed phase flow simultaneously with laser without disturbing the flow. The features of the method are as follows: local flow velocity and void fraction can be measured simultaneously, the velocity measurement is absolute measurement and the calibration is not required, the probe is not inserted in flow so that the flow is not disturbed, high spatial resolution can be obtained by narrowing laser beam, and signal treatment is simple. The principle of the method is the combination of laser Doppler velocimeter and light attenuation method, and the experimental apparatuses and the method for measuring vertical bubbly flow and the experimental results are described. (Kako, I.)

  19. Continuous-wave bistatic laser Doppler wind sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M; Constant, G; Ward, C

    2001-03-20

    A coherent laser radar has been built by use of a master-oscillator power-amplifier arrangement in which the master oscillator is an external-cavity semiconductor laser and the power amplifier is an erbium-doped fiber amplifier with approximately 1-W output at a wavelength of 1.55 microm. The beams are routed within single-mode optical fiber, allowing modular construction of the optical layout with standard components. The system employs separate transmit and receive optics (a bistatic configuration) and has sufficient sensitivity for reliable Doppler wind-speed detection in moderate scattering conditions at short range (to as much as approximately 200 m). The bistatic arrangement leads to a well-defined probe volume formed by the intersection of the transmitted laser beam with the virtual backpropagated local-oscillator beam. This could be advantageous for applications in which the precise localization of wind speed is required (e.g., wind tunnel studies) or in which smoke, low cloud, or solid objects can lead to spurious signals. The confinement of the probe volume also leads to a reduction in the signal power. A theoretical study has been carried out on the reduction in wind signal strength compared with the monostatic arrangement, and the results are compared with experimental observation. PMID:18357142

  20. Doppler diagnostics of laser-ablated biotissues: fundamentals, equipment, and medical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul'yanov, V. A.; Panchenko, V. Ya.; Geinitz, A. V.; Reshetov, I. V.; Varev, G. A.

    2006-09-01

    New method of Doppler diagnostics based on autodyne effect for diagnostics and control of laser-tissue evaporation by radiation of high-frequency pumped waveguide CO II laser is developed. This method is used for creation of feed-back for smart CO II laser surgical system of "Lancet" series. The results of medical testing of the smart laser surgical system are presented.

  1. Laser frequency stabilization using a dispersive line shape induced by Doppler Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Qi, Xianghui; Liu, Shuyong; Yu, Jiachen; Chen, Xuzong

    2015-02-01

    We report a simple and robust Doppler-free spectroscopic technique to stabilize a laser frequency to the atomic transition. By employing Doppler Effect on the atomic beam, we obtained a very stable dispersive signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio and no Doppler-background, which served as an error signal to electronically stabilize a laser frequency without modulation. For validating the performance of this technique, we locked a DFB laser to the (133)Cs D2 line and observed an efficient suppression of the frequency noise and a long-term reduction of the frequency drifts in a laboratory environment. PMID:25836158

  2. Laser Doppler flowmetry evaluation of gingival recovery response after laser treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen; Cnj?u, Silvana; Dodenciu, Dorin; Miron, Mariana I.; Tudor, Anca; B?l?buc, Cosmin

    2013-06-01

    This study was performed in order to evaluate in vivo the applicability of Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) in recording the gingival blood flow and to assess the changes of gingival blood flow following gingival reshaping performed with Er:YAG and 980 nm diode lasers. The LDF evaluation was performed on 20 anterior teeth, which underwent reshaping of gingiva, corresponding to 5 female patients (4 anterior teeth/patient), aged between 20 and 35. One part of the mouth was treated with Er:YAG laser (LP, VLP modes, 140 - 250 mJ, 10 - 20 Hz, using cylindrical sapphire tips) and other part with 980 nm diode laser (CW, 4 W, contact mode and saline solution cooling). The gingival blood flow was monitored using a MoorLab laser Doppler equipment (Moor Instruments Ltd., Axminster, UK) with a straight optical probe, MP3b, 10 mm. The data were processed using statistical analysis software SPSS v16.0.1. The investigation showed an evident decrease in perfusion for both areas in comparison with the baseline values 24 hours after treatment. The microvascular blood flow increased significantly after 7 days in both areas but mostly in diode area (p<0.001). After 14 days for the Er:YAG area the blood perfusion returned to the initial value. The results in diode area remained at a high level after 14 days. Both lasers proved efficiency in the surgical treatment of gingival tissue. Moreover, Laser Doppler Flowmetry is adequate for recording changes in gingival blood flow following periodontal surgery.

  3. CramrRao lower bound of laser Doppler measurements at moving rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Doppler techniques are widely used for measuring both fluid flows and moving solid surfaces. The measurement uncertainty of laser Doppler sensors is fundamentally limited by the uncertainty of the Doppler frequency estimation. Generally, the minimum achievable uncertainty of any unbiased estimator is given by the CramrRao lower bound (CRLB). While the CRLB is well known for laser Doppler burst signals of single tracer particles used in flow research, no analytical expression for the CRLB has been known up to now for scattered light signals of rough solid surfaces where speckle effects occur. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to close this gap and to provide a simple analytical expression for the CRLB for the Doppler frequency estimation from scattered light signals of moving rough solid surfaces for the first time. A comparison with experimental data demonstrates the validity of the derived analytical CRLB formula, which is also proven to be consistent with previous works. The progress for science is that this analytical CRLB formula enables both an easy estimation of the minimum achievable uncertainty of laser Doppler measurements at moving rough surfaces and a direct analysis of the influences of certain system and signal parameters on the measurement uncertainty. This reveals specific measuring features and capabilities of different laser Doppler techniques. In addition, the CRLB is a valuable tool to evaluate the efficiency of applied signal processing techniques

  4. Sub-Doppler Laser Cooling of Thulium Atoms in a Magneto-optical Trap

    OpenAIRE

    Sukachev, D.; Sokolov, A.; Chebakov, K.; Akimov, A.; Kanorsky, S.; Kolachevsky, N.; Sorokin, V

    2010-01-01

    We have experimentally studied sub-Doppler laser cooling in a magneto-optical trap for thulium atoms working at the wavelength of 410.6\\,nm. Without any dedicated molasses period of sub-Doppler cooling, the cloud of $3\\times 10^6$ atoms at the temperature of 25(5)\\,$\\mu$K was observed. The measured temperature is significantly lower than the Doppler limit of 240$\\mu$K for the cooling transition at 410.6\\,nm. High efficiency of the sub-Doppler cooling process is due to a near...

  5. Doppler wind lidar using a MOPA semiconductor laser at stable single-frequency operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    A compact master-oscillator power-amplifier semiconductor laser (MOPA-SL) is a good candidate for a coherent light source (operating at 1550 nm) in a Doppler wind Lidar. The MOPA-SL requires two injection currents: Idfb for the distributed-feedback (DFB) laser section (master oscillator) and Iamp...... currents to the laser. This was done by observing the spectral characteristic of the laser using an optical spectrum at different drive current combinations. When using the laser for a Doppler wind Lidar application, a combination of (Idfb, Iamp) which is close to the center of an identified stable single......-frequency regime is used. The current settings for the laser result in a highly stable Lidar as shown by a 5-day long continuous measurement of the Doppler shift produced by a constantly rotating diffusely reflecting target....

  6. A simplest possible scheme for sub-Doppler laser cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simplest angular momentum schemes that permit sub-Doppler cooling have 4 levels, and one example is an F = 1 ? 0 transition in either a linearly or circularly polarized standing wave with a weak transverse magnetic field. The 28% abundant 87Rb isotope has an F = 1 ? 0 transition that is ideal for studying this case. Magnetically induced laser cooling can reduce atomic KE to below the peaks of the spatially periodic potential seen by the atoms as a result of their light shifts, thus channeling them between the planes of the standing wave. Furthermore, their deBroglie wavelengths become comparable to the channel size so that the motion is quantized in these half-wavelength sized optical traps. This F = 1 ? 0 transition produces only one light-shifted level, and thus only one ground state sublevel that can support bound quantized states. An rf-induced transition that would change the populations of the quantum vibrational states of this potential would be particularly easy to interpret, and would be subject to easily understood Zeeman shifts in a longitudinal field. We are presently studying this problem

  7. Laser Doppler imaging in the detection of peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illigens, Ben M W; Siepmann, Timo; Roofeh, Joseph; Gibbons, Christopher H

    2013-10-01

    Small fiber neuropathy is common in a number of systemic diseases and is often challenging to diagnose. Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) is a test of small fiber neurovascular function that can quantify the integrity of the vasomotor C-fiber mediated axon-reflex, but no standardized method of analysis exists. We developed a novel LDI analysis technique and tested it in a human model of small fiber neuropathy. Eighteen healthy subjects (age 24 3 years) underwent LDI testing to assess the axon-mediated flare area in response to 10% acetylcholine iontophoresis. LDI measurements were taken before and longitudinally after a 48-hour application of 0.1% capsaicin (to cause a transient small fiber neuropathy) on the skin of the thigh; placebo cream was placed on the contralateral thigh as a control. We compared our new LDI image analysis technique to two previously published methods. The new LDI analysis technique was the only method to show a consistent difference in axon-reflex area between capsaicin treated and placebo treated skin on all testing days (pimprovement over existing methods, and may supplement clinical assessment of small fiber neuropathy. PMID:23850386

  8. Laser doppler flowmetry evaluation as a pulpal vitality test; Avaliacao da fluxometria laser doppler como teste de vitalidade pulpar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduardo, Flavia Tavares de Oliveira de Paula

    2004-07-01

    The more frequently used pulp vitality tests (PVTs) are the thermal (cold and heat) and the electrical stimulus. These tests are, however, subjective, depending on the sensitivity threshold of each individual, and usually fail when immature or recently traumatised teeth are tested. The laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) have been suggested as a PVT, by evaluating the pulp measured flow (F). The measured quantity F, used to discriminate healthy and non-vital teeth, is sensitive to factors hardly controlled or predictable, such as the LDFs and probe response differences, and the flow variations among individuals. It was suggested recently a new discriminator, F(%), less sensitive to such factors. The PVTs performances for F (%) and F as discriminators, however, were not known. The present study aimed to evaluate the PVTs' performances using the quantities F(%) and F (dif) as discriminators, both derived from F, and to compare, qualitatively and quantitatively, their performances to that obtained by using F. The quantities F(%) and F(dif) are, respectively, the ratio and the difference of the flow from the interrogated tooth and its healthy homologous, being F(dif) a proposed new discriminator. The obtained confidence intervals (95% of significance) of the areas under ROC curves were from 0,964 to 1,000 for F (%); from 0,959 to 1,000 for F (dif) and; from 0,584 to 0,951 for F; showing that F(%) and F (dif) are more reliable discriminators then F. (author)

  9. Estimation of speed distribution of particles moving in an optically turbid medium using decomposition of a laser-Doppler spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Adam; Zo?ek, Norbert; Wojtkiewicz, Stanis?aw; Maniewski, Roman

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present validation of laser-Doppler spectrum decomposition procedure in estimation of speed distribution of particles. Decomposition method is based on assumption that measured laser-Doppler spectrum can be approximated by linear combination of Doppler shift probability distributions calculated for different speeds of particles and anisotropy of light scattering in the medium. The Doppler shift probability distributions were calculated using Monte-Carlo simulations for Henyey-Greenstein scattering phase function. This decomposition method allows to obtain distribution of speeds of moving particles in the medium, not only average speed as it was possible in laser-Doppler perfusion monitors. Recently we reported that the method was positively verified on spectra generated for different speed distributions using Monte Carlo simulations. In this study we present results of application of the decomposition procedure in analysis of laser-Doppler spectra obtained in physical phantom experiments. A diluted solution of milk was pumped through a tube with different speeds. The dependence of the obtained distributions of speed of moving particles on the speed of flow was observed. Laser-Doppler spectra obtained during in-vivo experiment were also successfully decomposed. A healthy volunteer was investigated and the spectra of laser-Doppler signal during postocclusive hyperemia test were recorded and analyzed. We conclude that the spectrum decomposition procedure can be successfully applied in analysis of the measured laser-Doppler spectra and the amount of information provided by laser-Doppler technique can be significantly increased. PMID:18002896

  10. High accuracy fuel flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    All three flowmeter concepts (vortex, dual turbine, and angular momentum) were subjected to experimental and analytical investigation to determine the potential portotype performance. The three concepts were subjected to a comprehensive rating. Eight parameters of performance were evaluated on a zero-to-ten scale, weighted, and summed. The relative ratings of the vortex, dual turbine, and angular momentum flowmeters are 0.71, 1.00, and 0.95, respectively. The dual turbine flowmeter concept was selected as the primary candidate and the angular momentum flowmeter as the secondary candidate for prototype development and evaluation.

  11. Doppler shift of a laser pulse beam scattered by a rotating cone and cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on laser radar equations, a Doppler shift model of a laser pulse beam scattered by a rotating arbitrary convex target is reported in this paper. The boundary relations between an incident pulse beam and the detected area elements are analyzed by geometric methods. The Doppler shift characteristics of the rotating cone and cylinder are discussed and the difference between the laser pulse beam and the plane wave scattered from the same rotating target is compared accordingly. Numerical simulations show that the Doppler shift is tightly relevant to their dimensions, speeds, and so on. In the same incidence conditions, the pulse beam and plane wave have difference peak values and the same Doppler shift bandwidth. If the waist radius of the pulse beam is larger, the peak value is higher, and the Doppler shifts are proportional to the speed of the rotating target. By virtue of our theoretical model, we probe into the scattered characteristics of the Doppler shifts of a laser pulse beam, which would benefit target identification in national defense. (general)

  12. Laser Doppler holographic microscopy in transmission: application to fish embryo imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Verrier, Nicolas; Gross, Michel

    2014-01-01

    We have extended Laser Doppler holographic microscopy to transmission geometry. The technique is validated with living fish embryos imaged by a modified upright bio-microcope. By varying the frequency of the holographic reference beam, and the combination of frames used to calculate the hologram, multimodal imaging has been performed. Doppler images of the blood vessels for different Doppler shifts, images where the flow direction is coded in RGB colors or movies showing blood cells individual motion have been obtained as well. The ability to select the Fourier space zone that is used to calculate the signal, makes the method quantitative.

  13. Nonintrusive dynamic flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, N. E.; Lynnworth, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    Description of some of the design and performance characteristics of an ultrasonic dynamic flowmeter which combines nonintrusiveness, fast response, high accuracy, and high resolution and is intended for use with cryogenic liquids and water. The flowmeter measures to 1% accuracy the dynamic as well as the steady flow velocity averaged over the pipe area.

  14. Differential oil flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W. T.

    1979-01-01

    Difference in oil flow volume through two mechanical flowmeters is converted to analog signal by simple inexpensive circuit. Circuit can be implemented with only minor changes to conventional oil flowmeters and used to measure fuel consumed by oil fired furnace or water heater.

  15. Atmospheric transmission of CO2 laser radiation with application to laser Doppler systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, S. S. R.

    1975-01-01

    The molecular absorption coefficients of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrous oxide are calculated at the P16, P18, P20, P22, and P24 lines of the CO2 laser for temperatures from 200 to 300 K and for pressures from 100 to 1100 mb. The temperature variation of the continuum absorption coefficient of water vapor is taken into account semi-empirically from Burch's data. The total absorption coefficient from the present calculations falls within + or - 20 percent of the results of McClatchey and Selby. The transmission loss which the CO2 pulsed laser Doppler system experiences was calculated for flight test conditions for the five P-lines. The total transmission loss is approximately 7 percent higher at the P16 line and 10 percent lower at the P24 line compared to the P20 line. Comparison of the CO2 laser with HF and DF laser transmission reveals the P2(8) line at 3.8 micrometers of the DF laser is much better from the transmission point of view for altitudes below 10 km.

  16. Laser-tissue interaction with fs pulses: measurement of the recoil momentum by laser Doppler vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittnacht, Dirk; Sessa, Gaetano; Travaglini, Michele; Foth, Hans-Jochen

    2004-06-01

    In the field of otolaryngology a precise contactless treatment of the bones in the middle ear is eligible. For this reason lasers are investgiated for the use in this field. The main risk during laser surgery in the middle ear (e.g. stapedotomy) is the damage of hair cells in the inner ear due to heat diffusion or high pressure fluctuations. While the temperature problem has been resolved by shortening the pulse durations; the transfer of a recoil momentum due to the ablation process rises as another problem. To measure this momentum, special spring plates were designed as vibration disks for the mounting of the tissue. The probes were exposed to amplified Ti:Sapphire laser pulses with a pulse length of 45 fs and a power density up to 5,6×1013 W/cm2. The beam of a laser Doppler vibrometer was focused on backside of the plate to monitor its motion. The results were compared to a damage threshold of hair cells in the inner ear calculated by a literature value for the Sound Pressure Level (SPL)-Threshold. The results lead to SPL values below the critical value of 160 dB. Measurements with higher time resolution and high speed photography are used to approve these results.

  17. The influence of laser spot size on the micro-Doppler spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dehua; Zhang, Haiyang; Zheng, Zheng; Yang, Hongzhi; Zhao, Changming; Yang, Suhui

    2015-08-01

    Micro-Doppler effect, which is induced by micro motion of target or any structure on the target, is a frequency modulation that generates sidebands about the target's Doppler frequency shift, such as mechanical vibration or rotation. When a target's motions incorporate micro motions, the radar echo signal will contain micro-Doppler characteristics related to these motions. Therefore, the micro-Doppler effect provides a new approach to obtain the dynamic properties of targets, which can be used to accomplish the detection and identification of targets, such as the identification of different types of helicopters. Scattering of the laser spot from a target surface modulates the Doppler signal, causes broadening of the signal spectrum, and, adds uncertainty to the signature analysis. A mathematic model of cone spin, which is a typical micro motion, is built first in this paper. Furthermore, an analyzed equation is deduced to predict the micro-Doppler spectral broadening of acquired medium current signals in situations of different laser spot size. It is found that the beam spot size on the target affects the resulting spectral broadening. Finally, an experiment based on the scaled model is performed to verify the simulation. A narrow-linewidth single frequency fiber laser is employed to detect the cone target at different laser spot size by coherent detection with constant detect distance and laser power. The experimental result shows that the beam spot size on the target affects the resulting spectral broadening caused by speckle, which corresponds to the simulation result. The experimental broadening was consistently greater than the theoretical broadening due to other effects that also contribute to the total broadening.

  18. Blood flow analysis of the head and lower limbs by the laser Doppler blood flowmeter during LDL apheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Itaru; Sato, Takashi; Hirayama, Kouichi; Seki, Masanori; Enami, Terukazu; Kawahara, Hirohisa; Niwayama, Jun; Miyahara, Takaaki; Shibata, Masamichi; Maeda, Nobuki; Kurosawa, Takesi; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Sanaka, Tsutomu

    2007-10-01

    The presence of peripheral arterial disease substantially increases the risk for both morbidity and mortality among end-stage renal disease patients. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis has been also applied for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease to reduce LDL levels, resulting in the improvement of the blood flow to the ischemic limbs. In this study, we investigated the continuous changes of the tissue blood flows in the lower limbs and head during LDL-apheresis treatment by a non-invasive method (the non-invasive continuous monitoring method (NICOMM) system). In this study, the tissue blood flow in both the head and lower limbs showed a significantly enhancement from before to after treatment. The tissue blood flow in the lower limbs showed a significantly larger improvement than that in the head. The short-term effects of LDL apheresis were confirmed by using the NICOMM system; thus, this system will be useful for the determination of the appropriate schedule of LDL apheresis for long-term effectiveness. PMID:17845391

  19. ULTRASONIC FLOWMETERS THAT ARE INSENSITIVE TO SUSPENDED SOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the results of an investigation of the performance of state-of-the-art and standard portable ultrasonic Doppler flowmeters that do not require particles or bubbles in the fluid to make an accurate measurement. oth the standard and new state-of-the-art flowme...

  20. He-Ne laser effects on blood microcirculation. An in vivo study through laser doppler flowmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood microcirculation performs an important function in tissue repair process, as well as in pain control, allowing for greater oxygenation of the tissues and the accelerated expulsion of metabolic products, that may be contributing to pain. Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) is widely used to promote healing, and there is an assumption that it is mechanism of action may be due to an enhancement of blood supply. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), the stated effects caused by radiation emitted by a He-Ne laser (λ=632.8 nm) on blood microcirculation during tissue repair. To this end, 15 male mice were selected and received a liquid nitrogen provoked lesion, above the dorsal region, and blood flow was measured periodically, during 21 days. Due to radiation emission by the LDF equipment, a control group was established to evaluate possible effects caused by this radiation on microcirculation. To evaluate the He-Ne laser effects, a 1.15 J/cm2 dose was utilized, with an intensity of 6 mW/cm2. The results obtained demonstrate flow alterations, provoked by the lesion, and subsequent inflammatory response. There was no statistical difference between the studied groups. As per the analysis of the results there is no immediate effect due the radiation emitted by a He Ne laser on microcirculation, although a percentage increase was observed in day 7 on medium blood flow rate in irradiated specimens. New studies are necessary to validate the use of this wavelength, in order to promote beneficial alterations in blood supply in radiated areas. (author)

  1. Analysis of Signal-to-Noise Ratio of the Laser Doppler Velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars

    1973-01-01

    The signal-to-shot-noise ratio of the photocurrent of a laser Doppler anemometer is calculated as a function of the parameters which describe the system. It is found that the S/N is generally a growing function of receiver area, that few large particles are better than many small ones, and that...

  2. The e-Beam Sustained Laser Technology for Space-based Doppler Wind Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. J.; Holman, W.; Robinson, R. J.; Schwarzenberger, P. M.; Smith, I. M.; Wallace, S.; Harris, M. R.; Willetts, D. V.; Kurzius, S. C.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of GEC Avionics activities relating to the Spaceborne Doppler Wind Lidar. In particular, the results of design studies into the use of an e-beam sustained CO2 laser for spaceborne applications, and experimental work on a test bed system are discussed.

  3. Laser Doppler measurements of turbulent parameters in different multiple-propeller systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudou, C.; Xuereb, C.; Costes, J.; Bertrand, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 31 - Toulouse (France). Inst. du Genie Chimique

    2000-03-01

    Using laser Doppler anemometry measurements in the r-y plane, two different vessels equipped with two downward pumping propeller were studied. In the turbulent flow, the integral flow, the integral scales, the Taylor microscales, and the Kolmogorov microscale were determined. The authors' comparison with the literature shows that this combination of propellers produces larger eddies than a Rushton turbine. (orig.)

  4. Precise micro flow rate measurements by a laser Doppler velocity profile sensor with time division multiplexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the measurement of flow rate inside a microchannel by using a laser Doppler technique. For this application a novel laser Doppler velocity profile sensor has been developed. Instead of parallel fringe systems, two superposed fan-like fringe systems with opposite gradients are employed to determine the velocity distribution inside the microchannel directly. The sensor utilizes the time division multiplexing technique to discriminate both fringe systems. A velocity uncertainty of 0.18% and a spatial resolution of 960 nm are demonstrated in the flow, which is the highest spatially resolved measurement by a laser Doppler technique published to date. Flow rate measurements, in the range of 30 l min?1, with a statistical uncertainty of 5 10?4 are further presented. In comparison to a reference, by precise weighing, the mean deviation between both measurement principles amounts to 1%. With the advantage of high spatial resolution with simultaneous low velocity uncertainty, the laser Doppler velocity profile sensor offers a new tool for microfluidic diagnostics, e.g. in lab-on-a-chip systems or for drug delivery, which requires very small flow rates

  5. Field performance of an all-semiconductor laser coherent Doppler lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We implement and test what, to our knowledge, is the first deployable coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) system based on a compact, inexpensive all-semiconductor laser (SL). To demonstrate the field performance of our SL-CDL remote sensor, we compare a 36 h time series of averaged radial wind speeds...

  6. Experimental data base of turbulent flow in rod bundles using laser doppler velocimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents in detail the hydraulic characteristics measurements in subchannels of rod bundles using one-component LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimeter). In particular, this report presents the figures and tabulations of the resulting data. The detailed explanations about these results are shown in references publicated or presented at the conference. 4 kinds of experimental work were performed so far. (Author)

  7. A laser Doppler system for the remote sensing of boundary layer winds in clear air conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, T. R.; Krause, M. C.; Craven, C. E.; Morrison, L. K.; Thomson, J. A. L.; Cliff, W. C.; Huffaker, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The system discussed uses a laser Doppler radar in combination with a velocity azimuth display mode of scanning to determine the three-dimensional wind field in the atmospheric boundary layer. An attractive feature of this CW monostatic system is that the ambient aerosol provides a 'sufficient' scattering target to permit operation under clear air conditions. Spatial resolution is achieved by focusing.

  8. Differential Laser Doppler based Non-Contact Sensor for Dimensional Inspection with Error Propagation Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ketsaya Vacharanukul; Samir Mekid

    2006-01-01

    To achieve dynamic error compensation in CNC machine tools, a non-contact laser probe capable of dimensional measurement of a workpiece while it is being machined has been developed and presented in this paper. The measurements are automatically fed back to the machine controller for intelligent error compensations. Based on a well resolved laser Doppler technique and real time data acquisition, the probe delivers a very promising dimensional accuracy at few microns over a range of 100 mm. Th...

  9. Laser Doppler vibrometry experiment on a piezo-driven slot synthetic jet in water.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brou?kov, Zuzana; Vt, T.; Trvn?ek, Zden?k

    Paris : E D P SCIENCES, 2015 - (Vt, T.; Dan?ov, P.), s. 71-77 ISSN 2100-014X. - (EPJ Web of Conferences. 92). [Experimental Fluid Mechanics 2014. ?esk Krumlov (CZ), 18.11.2014-21.11.2014] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA14-08888S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : synthetic jet * laser Doppler vibrometry * laser induced fluorescence Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics

  10. Low noise electromagnetic flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, V. J.

    1972-01-01

    Parasitic hum is removed by using an isophase magnetic field created within flowmeter and an enclosure which prevents leakage of flux field. Method prevents contamination of flow conduit and eliminates zero point drift.

  11. Flowmeter for Clear Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. R.; Mcintosh, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Electronic flowmeter measures flow rate of clear or translucent fluids. Instrument produces electrical signal proportional to volume of fluid flowing through it per unit time. Optoelectronic instrument generates electrical signal proportional to fluid-flow rate.

  12. Flux distortion flowmeter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive programme to study the characteristics of flux distortion flowmeters is described. A theoretical model was developed and its validity tested by dry tests in lead and wet tests in gallium and sodium. Some results to date are quoted. The sodium rig described is being used primarily to study flowmeters for sub-assembly outlet measurements on GFR and will enable a wide range of sensors to be investigated. (U.K.)

  13. Significance of the follicular pathway for dermal substance penetration quantified by laser Doppler flowmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The understanding of transdermal substance penetration pathways remains an important field for the development of future topical drugs and cosmetics. Laser Doppler flowmetry is a well-established method for evaluating cutaneous perfusion. In a study on 6 healthy male volunteers, we topically applied the vasoactive substance benzyl nicotinate on two test areas with open and obturated hair follicles and measured changes in the blood flow by Doppler flowmetry. Contrary to occluded follicles, the application onto the test area with open follicles led to a statistically significant perfusion increase within the first 5 minutes, emphasizing the importance of the follicular pathway for epidermal penetration. PMID:26333062

  14. Differential Laser Doppler based Non-Contact Sensor for Dimensional Inspection with Error Propagation Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketsaya Vacharanukul

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available To achieve dynamic error compensation in CNC machine tools, a non-contactlaser probe capable of dimensional measurement of a workpiece while it is being machinedhas been developed and presented in this paper. The measurements are automatically fedback to the machine controller for intelligent error compensations. Based on a well resolvedlaser Doppler technique and real time data acquisition, the probe delivers a very promisingdimensional accuracy at few microns over a range of 100 mm. The developed opticalmeasuring apparatus employs a differential laser Doppler arrangement allowing acquisitionof information from the workpiece surface. In addition, the measurements are traceable tostandards of frequency allowing higher precision.

  15. Laser Doppler microscopy of blood flows in fish embryos at different stages of ontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Natalia B.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Levenko, Borislav A.

    1995-02-01

    Laser Doppler microscopy is an efficient method of in vivo measurements of flow velocities in different biological objects. It is based on the registration of frequency shifts in light quasielastically scattered from particles moving in the flows. To study the embryonic development of the cardiac-vascular system in embryos of warm water fishes, embryos of Macropodus opercularis have been used. Doppler spectra from pulsatile blood flows in selected vessels and their changes in the process of ontogenesis have been registered. The recording of the successive spectra and their computer processing yield the varying dynamics of blood flows. Typical age dependencies of velocity patterns in the embryos are presented.

  16. Application of sub-Doppler DAVLL to laser frequency stabilization in atomic cesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dian-Qiang; Meng, Teng-Fei; Ji, Zhong-Hua; Yuan, Jin-Peng; Zhao, Yan-Ting; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang

    2014-10-20

    We achieve laser frequency stabilization by a simple technique based on sub-Doppler dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) in atomic cesium. The technique that combines saturated-absorption spectroscopy and Zeeman splitting of hyperfine structures allows us to obtain a modulation-free dispersion-like error signal for frequency stabilization. For the error signal, the dependence of peak-to-peak amplitude and the slope at the zero-crossing point on the magnetic field is studied by simulation and experiment. Based on the result, we obtain an available sub-Doppler DAVLL error signal with high sensitivity to the frequency drift by selecting an appropriate strength of the magnetic field. Ultimately, the fluctuation of the locked laser frequency is confined to below 0.5MHz in a long term, exhibiting efficient suppression of frequency noise. PMID:25402788

  17. Accuracy of flowmeters measuring horizontal groundwater flow in an unconsolidated aquifer simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E.R.; Mandell, Wayne A.; Ursic, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Borehole flowmeters that measure horizontal flow velocity and direction of groundwater flow are being increasingly applied to a wide variety of environmental problems. This study was carried out to evaluate the measurement accuracy of several types of flowmeters in an unconsolidated aquifer simulator. Flowmeter response to hydraulic gradient, aquifer properties, and well-screen construction was measured during 2003 and 2005 at the U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The flowmeters tested included a commercially available heat-pulse flowmeter, an acoustic Doppler flowmeter, a scanning colloidal borescope flowmeter, and a fluid-conductivity logging system. Results of the study indicated that at least one flowmeter was capable of measuring borehole flow velocity and direction in most simulated conditions. The mean error in direction measurements ranged from 15.1 degrees to 23.5 degrees and the directional accuracy of all tested flowmeters improved with increasing hydraulic gradient. The range of Darcy velocities examined in this study ranged 4.3 to 155 ft/d. For many plots comparing the simulated and measured Darcy velocity, the squared correlation coefficient (r2) exceeded 0.92. The accuracy of velocity measurements varied with well construction and velocity magnitude. The use of horizontal flowmeters in environmental studies appears promising but applications may require more than one type of flowmeter to span the range of conditions encountered in the field. Interpreting flowmeter data from field settings may be complicated by geologic heterogeneity, preferential flow, vertical flow, constricted screen openings, and nonoptimal screen orientation.

  18. Laser Doppler vibrometry experiment on a piezo-driven slot synthetic jet in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brou?kov, Zuzana; Vt, Tom; Trvn?ek, Zden?k

    2015-05-01

    The present study deals with a slot synthetic jet (SJ) issuing from an actuator into quiescent surroundings and driven by a piezoceramic transducer. The actuator slot width was 0.36 mm, with a drive frequency proposed near the theoretical natural frequency of the actuator. The working fluid was water at room temperature. The present experiments used flow visualization (a laser-induced fluorescence technique) and laser Doppler vibrometry methods. Flow visualization was used to identify SJ formation, to demonstrate its function, and to estimate SJ velocity. Laser Doppler vibrometry was used to quantify diaphragm displacement and refine operating parameters. Phase averaging yielded a spatial and temporal diaphragm deflection during the actuation period. Taking incompressibility and continuity into consideration, the velocity in the actuator slot and the Reynolds number of the SJ were evaluated as 0.21 m/s and 157, respectively. The present results confirmed a SJ actuator function at the resonance frequency of approximately 46 Hz, which corresponds closely with the theoretical evaluation. The laser Doppler vibrometry results corresponded closely with an estimation of SJ velocity by the present flow visualization.

  19. Laser Doppler vibrometry experiment on a piezo-driven slot synthetic jet in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brou?kov Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with a slot synthetic jet (SJ issuing from an actuator into quiescent surroundings and driven by a piezoceramic transducer. The actuator slot width was 0.36 mm, with a drive frequency proposed near the theoretical natural frequency of the actuator. The working fluid was water at room temperature. The present experiments used flow visualization (a laser-induced fluorescence technique and laser Doppler vibrometry methods. Flow visualization was used to identify SJ formation, to demonstrate its function, and to estimate SJ velocity. Laser Doppler vibrometry was used to quantify diaphragm displacement and refine operating parameters. Phase averaging yielded a spatial and temporal diaphragm deflection during the actuation period. Taking incompressibility and continuity into consideration, the velocity in the actuator slot and the Reynolds number of the SJ were evaluated as 0.21 m/s and 157, respectively. The present results confirmed a SJ actuator function at the resonance frequency of approximately 46 Hz, which corresponds closely with the theoretical evaluation. The laser Doppler vibrometry results corresponded closely with an estimation of SJ velocity by the present flow visualization.

  20. A novel method for measurement of dynamic light scattering phase function of particles utilizing laser-Doppler power density spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Wojtkiewicz, Stanislaw; Liebert, Adam; Rix, Herv; Sawosz, Piotr; Maniewski, Roman

    2012-01-01

    We developed a novel method of measurement of the dynamic light scattering phase function of particles utilizing laser Doppler technique. We show the theoretical background, validation carried out on Monte Carlo data and proposition of measurement setup.

  1. 1540-nm single frequency single-mode pulsed all fiber laser for coherent Doppler lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Diao, Weifeng; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Jiqiao; Hou, Xia; Chen, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    A single-mode single frequency eye-safe pulsed all fiber laser based on master oscillator power amplification structure is presented. This laser is composed of a narrow linewidth distributed laser diode seed laser and two-stage cascade amplifiers. 0.8 m longitudinally gradient strained erbium/ytterbium co-doped polarization-maintaining fiber with a core diameter of 10 ?m is used as the gain fiber and two acoustic-optics modulators are adopted to enhance pulse extinction ratio. A peak power of 160 W and a pulse width of 200 ns at 10 kHz repetition rate are achieved with transform-limited linewidth and diffraction-limited beam quality. This laser will be employed in a compact short range coherent Doppler wind lidar.

  2. Accurate flexural spring constant calibration of colloid probe cantilevers using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Richard S; Osborn, William A; Shaw, Gordon A

    2015-06-12

    Calibration of the flexural spring constant for atomic force microscope (AFM) colloid probe cantilevers provides significant challenges. The presence of a large attached spherical added mass complicates many of the more common calibration techniques such as reference cantilever, Sader, and added mass. Even the most promising option, AFM thermal calibration, can encounter difficulties during the optical lever sensitivity measurement due to strong adhesion and friction between the sphere and a surface. This may cause buckling of the end of the cantilever and hysteresis in the approach-retract curves resulting in increased uncertainty in the calibration. Most recently, a laser Doppler vibrometry thermal method has been used to accurately calibrate the normal spring constant of a wide variety of tipped and tipless commercial cantilevers. This paper describes a variant of the technique, scanning laser Doppler vibrometry, optimized for colloid probe cantilevers and capable of spring constant calibration uncertainties near 1%. PMID:25990652

  3. A study of radial-flow turbomachinery blade vibration measurements using Eulerian laser Doppler vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholster, A. J.; Heyns, P. S.

    2014-05-01

    The structural integrity of blades is critical to the health of turbomachinery. Since operational failure of these blades can possibly lead to catastrophic failure of the machine, it is important to have knowledge of blade conditions in an online fashion. Due to several practical implications, it is desired to measure blade vibration with a non-contact technique. The application of laser Doppler vibrometry towards the vibration based condition monitoring of axial-flow turbomachinery blades has been successfully demonstrated in previous work. In this paper the feasibility of using laser Doppler vibrometry to measure radial-flow turbomachinery blade vibrations is investigated with the aid of digital image correlation and strain gauge telemetry.

  4. Model studies of blood flow in basilar artery with 3D laser Doppler anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, S. V.; Sindeev, S. V.; Liepsch, D.; Balasso, A.; Proskurin, S. G.; Potlov, A. Y.

    2015-03-01

    It is proposed an integrated approach to the study of basilar artery blood flow using 3D laser Doppler anemometer for identifying the causes of the formation and development of cerebral aneurysms. Feature of the work is the combined usage of both mathematical modeling and experimental methods. Described the experimental setup and the method of measurement of basilar artery blood flow, carried out in an interdisciplinary laboratory of Hospital Rechts der Isar of Technical University of Munich. The experimental setup used to simulate the blood flow in the basilar artery and to measure blood flow characteristics using 3D laser Doppler anemometer (3D LDA). Described a method of numerical studies carried out in Tambov State Technical University and the Bakoulev Center for Cardiovascular Surgery. Proposed an approach for sharing experimental and numerical methods of research to identify the causes of the basilar artery aneurysms.

  5. Reproducibility of the capsaicin-induced dermal blood flow response as assessed by laser Doppler perfusion imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Schueren, B J; Hoon, J.N. de; Vanmolkot, F H; van Hecken, A; Depre, M; Kane, S.A.; De Lepeleire, I; Sinclair, S R

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subjectCapsaicin rapidly produces local neurogenic inflammation (characterized by oedema and erythema) when locally administered to the human skin by binding to the TRPV1 receptor present on dermal sensory nerve endings.In nonhuman primates, a pharmacodynamic assay has been described and validated using capsaicin-induced dermal vasodilation measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging to assess calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonist activity.Laser Doppler p...

  6. A Space-Frequency Data Compression Method for Spatially Dense Laser Doppler Vibrometer Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Jos Roberto de Frana Arruda; Srgio Augusto Vianna do Rio; Luiz Antonio Silva Bernardes Santos

    1996-01-01

    When spatially dense mobility shapes are measured with scanning laser Doppler vibrometers, it is often impractical to use phase-separation modal parameter estimation methods due to the excessive number of highly coupled modes and to the prohibitive computational cost of processing huge amounts of data. To deal with this problem, a data compression method using Chebychev polynomial approximation in the frequency domain and two-dimensional discrete Fourier series approximation in the spatial do...

  7. Kombineret laser Doppler flowmetri og spectrophotometri som metode til vurdering af mikrocirculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mette Marie Berggreen; Srensen, Hanne Birke; Houlind, Kim Christian

    2012-01-01

    Kombineret laser Doppler flowmetri og spectrophotometri som metode til vurdering af mikrocirculation Berggren, MB, reservelge, Karkirurgisk Afdeling, Kolding, mette.marie.berggren.olsen@slb.regionsyddanmark.dk; Houlind, K, lektor, afdelingslge, Ph.d., Karkirurgisk afdeling, Kolding, kim.christian.houlind@slb.regionsyddanmark.dk; Srensen, HB, lektor, speciallge, Ph.d., Klinisk Institut, rhus Universitetshospital, hanne.Birke@ki.au.dk Foredragsholder: Berggren, MB, reservelge, Karkirurgisk A...

  8. Determining radiated sound power of building structures by means of Laser Doppler vibrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Roozen, Bert; Labelle, Ludovic; Rychtarikova, Monika; Glorieux, Christ

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a methodology that makes use of laser Doppler vibrometry to assess the acoustic insulation performance of a building element. The sound power radated by the surface of the element is numerically determined from the vibrational pattern, offering an alternative for classical microphone measurements. Compared to the latter the proposed analysis is not sensitive to room acoustical effects. This allows the proposed methodology to be used at low frequencies, where the standar...

  9. Suitability of Laser Doppler Velocimetry for the Calibration of Pressure Microphones

    OpenAIRE

    Degroot, Anne,; MacDonald, Robert; Richoux, Olivier; Gazengel, Bruno; Campbell, Murray

    2007-01-01

    The details of a new approach for absolute calibration of microphones, based on the direct measurement of acoustic particle velocity using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), are presented and discussed. The calibration technique is carried out inside a tube in which plane waves propagate and closed by a rigid termination. The method developed proposes to estimate the acoustic pressure with two velocity measurements and a physical model. Minimum theoretical uncertainties on the estimated pressur...

  10. Evaluation of microvascular reactivity with laser Doppler flowmetry in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Babos, Levente; Jrai, Zoltn; Nemcsik, Jnos

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the major causes of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The complex process of accelerated athero- and arteriosclerosis in CKD is associated with this phenomenon, where endothelial dysfunction (ED) is one of the initial steps. Hence, the early diagnosis of ED can potentially lead to early interventions which could result in a better outcome for these patients. Several methodologies have been developed for the diagnosis of ED. Laser Doppler flow...

  11. The photo-electric current in laser-Doppler flowmetry by Monte Carlo simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Binzoni, Tiziano; Leung, Terence S; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations significantly contributed to a better understanding of laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Here it is shown that the data obtained from standard MC simulations can be reinterpreted and used to extract more information such as the photo-electric current (i(t)). This is important because i(t) is the starting point for evaluating any existing or new algorithm to be used in LDF instrumentation. This circumvents the tedious procedure of generating a specific model (often ap...

  12. Damage Identification by Using a Self-Synchronizing Multipoint Laser Doppler Vibrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Chong Yang; Yu Fu; Jianmin Yuan; Min Guo; Keyu Yan; Huan Liu; Hong Miao; Changchun Zhu

    2015-01-01

    The vibration-based damage identification method extracts the damage location and severity information from the change of modal properties, such as natural frequency and mode shape. Its performance and accuracy depends on the measurement precision. Laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) provides a noncontact vibration measurement of high quality, but usually it can only do sampling on a single point. Scanning LDV is normally used to obtain the mode shape with a longer scanning time. In this paper, a ...

  13. Laser Doppler anemometry measurements of steady flow through two bi-leaflet prosthetic heart valves

    OpenAIRE

    Ovandir Bazan; Jayme Pinto Ortiz; Francisco Ubaldo Vieira Junior; Reinaldo Wilson Vieira; Nilson Antunes; Fabio Bittencourt Dutra Tabacow; Eduardo Tavares Costa; Orlando Petrucci Junior

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In vitro hydrodynamic characterization of prosthetic heart valves provides important information regarding their operation, especially if performed by noninvasive techniques of anemometry. Once velocity profiles for each valve are provided, it is possible to compare them in terms of hydrodynamic performance. In this first experimental study using laser doppler anemometry with mechanical valves, the simulations were performed at a steady flow workbench. OBJECTIVE: To compare unid...

  14. Sidetone generator flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Robert J. (Schenectady, NY)

    1986-01-01

    A flowmeter is provided which uses the sidetones generated in a cavity formed in the wall of a flowpipe or the like in response to fluid flowing past the cavity to provide a measure of the flow velocity of that fluid. The dimensions of the cavity are such as to provide a dominant vibratory frequency which is sensed by a pressure sensor. The flowmeter is adapted for use for a range of frequencies in which the Strouhal number is constant and under these conditions the vibratory frequency is directly related to the flow rate. The tone generator cavity and pressure transducer form a unit which is connected in-line in the flowpipe.

  15. Anisotropic sub-Doppler laser cooling in dysprosium magneto-optical traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magneto-optical traps (MOTs) of Er and Dy have recently been shown to exhibit populationwide sub-Doppler cooling due to their near degeneracy of excited- and ground-state Landeg factors. We discuss here an additional, unusual intra-MOT sub-Doppler cooling mechanism that appears when the total Dy MOT cooling laser intensity and magnetic quadrupole gradient increase beyond critical values. Specifically, anisotropically sub-Doppler-cooled cores appear, and their orientation with respect to the quadrupole axis flips at a critical ratio of the MOT laser intensity along the quadrupole axis versus that in the plane of symmetry. This phenomenon can be traced to a loss of the velocity-selective resonance at zero velocity in the cooling force along directions in which the atomic polarization is oriented by the quadrupole field. We present data characterizing this anisotropic laser cooling phenomenon and discuss a qualitative model for its origin based on the extraordinarily large Dy magnetic moment and Dy's near degenerate g factors.

  16. An advanced laser-Doppler velocimeter for full-vector particle position and velocity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced laser-Doppler measurement technique has been developed for fully resolved three-component particle position and velocity vector measurements in turbulent flows. The instrument deemed the 'comprehensive' laser-Doppler velocimeter employs a novel optical arrangement to measure multiple-component sub-measurement-volume-scale seed particle positions simultaneously with the velocity vector measurements of conventional laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV). In the current paper, the effectiveness of the position resolution capabilities is considered, which allows for velocity statistics measurements at multiple locations within the measurement volume. Design estimates for the position vector uncertainties for a particle passing the measurement volume are about 3 m root mean square in any direction, although in situ estimates indicate an uncertainty value closer to 14 m with the possibility of further refinement through optimized alignment. To validate the operation of the instrument, measurements are presented in turbulent boundary layers previously examined with high-resolution conventional LDV. The flat-plate turbulent boundary layer is studied at two Reynolds numbers up to Re? = 7500. Measurements are also presented in a pressure-driven three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer created beside a wing/body junction. These measurements illustrate the effectiveness of the technique for obtaining highly resolved velocity profiles within the measurement volume and give the highest spatial resolution velocity statistics published for Reynolds numbers of the magnitude studied

  17. Fast M-sequence transform for laser-Doppler-based mine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ning; Sabatier, James M.

    1999-07-01

    Low detector signals, acoustic coupling and speckle noise are challenging problems in the laser Doppler-based acoustic-to-seismic detection of land mines. Scanning insonified patches over buried targets with the spatial resolution required in minefield applications demands processing a large quantity of detection data. To achieve an efficient and robust detection, acoustic-to-seismic coupling on the ground is considered as a system under test (SUT), number-theoretical maximum-length sequences (M-sequences) have been applied as the acoustic excitation to the SUT. Exploiting their excellent auto-correlation property and high noise immunity due to high signal energy and noise suppression, a fast algorithm (so-called fast M-sequence transform) is implemented in the cross-correlation procedure to extract the impulse response of the SUT directly from laser Doppler vibrometer signals with a high signal-to-noise ratio. The advantage of directly obtaining impulse responses is also exploited in featuring a time windowing technique to isolate the acoustic coupling into the laser Doppler-based system.

  18. Wind Doppler lidar with 1.5 μm fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact Doppler lidar with monostatic receiving geometry has been developed and tested. Laser source of the lidar is continuous wave fiber laser ELD-1000 with 1.5 μm wavelength and 1 W output. For distances up to 100 m the range of measurable wind velocities is 1.5 – 20 m/s. Results obtained show that performance conditions for the lidar corresponds to the visibility range up to 1 km. Sonic vibrations with small amplitudes (∼ 10 nm) of remote targets with diffuse reflection has been registered by this device at distances up to 60 m

  19. Doppler wind lidar using a MOPA semiconductor laser at stable single-frequency operation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    A compact master-oscillator power-amplifier semiconductor laser (MOPA-SL) is a good candidate for a coherent light source (operating at 1550 nm) in a Doppler wind Lidar. The MOPA-SL requires two injection currents: Idfb for the distributed-feedback (DFB) laser section (master oscillator) and Iamp for the tapered amplifier section. The specified maximum current values are 0.7 A and 4.0 A for Idfb and Iamp. Although the MOPA-SL has been proven capable of producing single-frequency CW output bea...

  20. Measurement of the Doppler power of flowing blood using ultrasound Doppler devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Chou, Hung-Lung; Chen, Pay-Yu

    2015-02-01

    Measurement of the Doppler power of signals backscattered from flowing blood (henceforth referred to as the Doppler power of flowing blood) and the echogenicity of flowing blood have been used widely to assess the degree of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation for more than 20 y. Many studies have used Doppler flowmeters based on an analogue circuit design to obtain the Doppler shifts in the signals backscattered from flowing blood; however, some recent studies have mentioned that the analogue Doppler flowmeter exhibits a frequency-response problem whereby the backscattered energy is lost at higher Doppler shift frequencies. Therefore, the measured Doppler power of flowing blood and evaluations of RBC aggregation obtained using an analogue Doppler device may be inaccurate. To overcome this problem, the present study implemented a field-programmable gate array-based digital pulsed-wave Doppler flowmeter to measure the Doppler power of flowing blood, in the aim of providing more accurate assessments of RBC aggregation. A clinical duplex ultrasound imaging system that can acquire pulsed-wave Doppler spectrograms is now available, but its usefulness for estimating the ultrasound scattering properties of blood is still in doubt. Therefore, the echogenicity and Doppler power of flowing blood under the same flow conditions were measured using a laboratory pulser-receiver system and a clinical ultrasound system, respectively, for comparisons. The experiments were carried out using porcine blood under steady laminar flow with both RBC suspensions and whole blood. The experimental results indicated that a clinical ultrasound system used to measure the Doppler spectrograms is not suitable for quantifying Doppler power. However, the Doppler power measured using a digital Doppler flowmeter can reveal the relationship between backscattering signals and the properties of blood cells because the effects of frequency response are eliminated. The measurements of the Doppler power and echogenicity of flowing blood were compared with those obtained in several previous studies. PMID:25542489

  1. High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasing characteristics were evaluated for distributed-feedback quantum-cascade (QC) lasers operating in a continuous mode at cryogenic temperatures. These tests were performed to determine the QC lasers close-quote suitability for use in high-resolution spectroscopic applications, including Doppler-limited molecular absorption and pressure-limited lidar applications. By use of a rapid-scan technique, direct absorbance measurements of nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3 ) were performed with several QC lasers, operating at either 5.2 or 8.5 ?m . Results include time-averaged linewidths of better than 40MHz and long-term laser frequency reproducibility, even after numerous temperature cycles, of 80MHz or better. Tuning rates of 2.5 cm-1 in 0.6ms can be easily achieved. Noise-equivalent absorbance of 3x10-6 was also obtained without optimizing the optical arrangement. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  2. Sub-Doppler diode laser frequency stabilization with the DAVLL scheme on the D I line of a 87Rb vapor-cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, R.; Breschi, E.; Affolderbach, C.; Bison, G.; Mileti, G.; Herzig, H. P.; Weis, A.

    2007-03-01

    We established an experimental set-up that allows laser stabilization using the Doppler1 and sub-Doppler 2,3 Dichroic Atomic Vapor Laser Locking (DAVLL) and the Saturated Absorption (SA) scheme. In this report we present comparative studies between Doppler and sub-Doppler DAVLL using heterodyne frequency stability measurements with an independently SA stabilized laser. Some major sources of frequency instability are discussed together with ways to improve the stability. Special focus is laid on the sub-Doppler DAVLL stabilization technique where a new approach for getting higher stability is introduced. In our measurements, the 87Rb D I line was used as reference atomic line.

  3. Exciting positronium with a solid-state UV laser: the Doppler-broadened Lyman-? transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, A.; Edwards, D.; Mortensen, T.; Isaac, C. A.; van der Werf, D. P.; Telle, H. H.; Charlton, M.

    2015-09-01

    A tunable, pulsed laser was used to excite the Lyman-? transition (1S-2P) of positronium (Ps). The laser system has a large bandwidth of ? ? =225 GHz at ? =243 nm, providing significant coverage of the Doppler-broadened, single-photon transition. The infra-red fundamental of a Nd:YAG laser was converted to ultraviolet by a series of solid-state, nonlinear processes, centred about an unseeded optical parametric oscillator, from which the bulk of the ultimate bandwidth derives. The Ps atoms were created by bombarding mesoporous silica with positrons, and the Doppler-width of the 1S-2P transition of the resulting ensemble was measured to be ? ? =672+/- 43 GHz (equivalent to T? 300 K). It is envisaged that the UV laser will be incorporated into a two-step process to efficiently form Rydberg states of Ps, with potential applications in synthesis of cold antihydrogen, gravity measurements with antimatter, or for injection of electrons and positrons into a stellarator.

  4. Noninvasive In-vivo Measurements of Microvessels by Reflection-Type Micro Multipoint Laser Doppler Velocimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroki; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Akiguchi, Shunsuke; Hachiga, Tadashi; Ishizuka, Masaru; Shimizu, Tadamichi; Shirakawa, Hiroki; Kuraishi, Yasushi

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a micro multipoint laser Doppler velocimeter (-MLDV) that enables selective collection of Doppler interference photons. In previous report [H. Ishida et al.: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82 (2011) 076104], developed the reflection-type -MLDV, and showed the results of demonstrations performed on transparent artificial flow channels. In this study, we attempted to perform in-vivo experiments using animals. It can measure absolute velocity and generate tomographs of blood vessels courses. The present system can perform noninvasive in-vivo measurements with a detection limit of about 0.5 mm/s and a spatial resolution in the x-y plane of 125 m. It is thus able to image venulae. It was used to image venulae in a mouse ear and a subcutaneous blood vessel in a mouse abdomen at a depth of about 1.0 mm below the skin.

  5. Laser Doppler semiconductor anemometry of vortex flow behind the vane wheel rotor of the water turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meledin, V.; Anikin, Yu.; Bakakin, G.; Glavniy, V.; Dvoinishnikov, S.; Kulikov, D.; Naumov, I.; Okulov, V.; Pavlov, V.; Rakhmanov, V.; Sadbakov, O.; Mostovskiy, N.; Ilyin, S.

    2006-05-01

    For hydrodynamic examinations of the turbid three-phase streams with air bubbles and with a depth more than 500 mm for the first time it is developed 2D Laser Doppler Semiconductor Anemometer LADO5-LMZ. Anemometer signal processor base on > and new procedure of adaptive selection of Doppler frequency. Complex testing of method and measuring tools have been done. Outcomes of full-scale experiments on diagnostic of nonstationary flow behind the vane wheel rotor in draught tube of the Frensis water turbine are presented from optimum regimes of activity to forced. Water discharge which has been calculated from water turbine universal performance model and calculated by measuring axial velocity profiles was compared. It is shown that the maximum aggregate error of definition of the consumption does not exceed 5%.

  6. Monostatic coaxial 1.5 μm laser Doppler velocimeter using a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We present a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) in monostatic coaxial arrangement consisting of off-the-shelf telecom-grade components: a single frequency laser (wavelength λ = 1.5 μm) and a high-finesse scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (sFPI). In contrast to previous 1.5 μm LDV systems based on...... heterodyne detection, our sFPI-LDV has the advantages of having large remote sensing range not limited by laser coherence, high velocity dynamic range not limited by detector bandwidth and inherent sign discrimination of Doppler shift. The more optically efficient coaxial arrangement where transmitter and...

  7. Development of semiconductor laser based Doppler lidars for wind-sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Hu, Qi; Pedersen, Christian

    We summarize the progress we have made in the development of semiconductor laser (SL) based Doppler lidar systems for remote wind speed and direction measurements. The SL emitter used in our wind-sensing lidar is an integrated diode laser with a tapered (semiconductor) amplifier. The laser source...... is low-cost and compact - enhancing the potential of lidar wind sensors for mass production. This paper describes two embodiments of the patented wind lidar technology and presents experimental results that evaluate the wind sensors' performance. Due to compactness, portability and cost......-efficiency, SL based wind sensors have a strong potential in a number of applications such as wind turbine control, wind resource assessment, and micrometeorology (e.g. as alternative to the construction of meteorological towers with anemometers and wind vanes)....

  8. Optical output enhances flowmeter accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpin, E. G.

    1965-01-01

    Magnetic flowmeter with a direct-coupled optical output increases accuracy and operates independently of other system inputs. The design includes simple external adjustment and signal amplitude control.

  9. Flowmeter evaluation for on-orbit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Various flowmetering concepts were flow tested to characterize the relative capabilities and limitations for on-orbit fluid-transfer operations. Performance results and basic operating principles of each flowmetering concept tested are summarized, and basic considerations required to select the best flowmeter(s) for fluid system application are discussed. Concepts tested were clamp-on ultrasonic, area averaging ultrasonic, offset ultrasonic, coriolis mass, vortex shedding, universal venturi tube, turbine, bearingless turbine, turbine/turbine differential-pressure hybrid, dragbody, and dragbody/turbine hybrid flowmeters. Fluid system flowmeter selection considerations discussed are flowmeter performance, fluid operating conditions, systems operating environments, flowmeter packaging, flowmeter maintenance, and flowmeter technology. No one flowmetering concept tested was shown to be best for all on-orbit fluid systems.

  10. Performance analysis of continuous tracking laser Doppler vibrometry applied to rotating structures in coast-down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a performance analysis of the so-called tracking continuous scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (TCSLDV) exploited in coast-down has been performed. This non-contact measurement system is able to scan continuously over a rotating surface during coast-down and to determine vibration operational deflection shapes (ODSs) and natural frequencies in short time, i.e. the temporal extent of the coast-down. The method is based on a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) whose laser beam is driven to scan continuously over the whole rotor surface synchronously with its rotation, so that the LDV output is modulated by the structure's ODSs. This technique has a full-field nature that enables it to measure simultaneously the time and spatial dependence of the vibration in a unique measurement. However, the TCSLDV presents some criticalities in practical applications, especially when applied to rotary transient and fast processes. In fact, if the vibration is transient and decays very fast, then the laser beam could not have had the time to scan the complete structure surface and the modulation of the ODS could be partial. An analytical model reproducing a representative experiment has been developed in order to evaluate the sensitivity of results to testing conditions. The laser beam trajectory in both the fixed and rotating reference systems has been synthesized showing its dependence on experimental parameters as the rotation speed variation during coast-down. It has been demonstrated the decrease in speed induces the deformation of the laser trajectory influencing the LDV output time history, spectrum and consequently the recovered ODS. (paper)

  11. A solid state laser system for Doppler-free spectroscopy of muonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis describes a new high precision measurement of the 1S-2S transition frequency in muonium, carried out at the ISIS facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, using a solid-state laser system. The focus of the thesis is mainly the work carried out on the pulsed part of the laser system. The transition frequency is measured by the Doppler-free spectroscopy. The two-photon 1S-2S transition is detected by observing the positive muon released after subsequent photo-ionisation from the 2S state by a third photon from the same laser field. An accurate frequency standard for the experiment was provided by a Doppler-free transition in molecular iodine. A cw Ti:sapphire laser operating around 732 nm locked to this reference transition provided a stable output for injection seeding the pulsed alexandrite laser. This has been optimised and modified to achieve a stable operation in a single transverse and longitudinal mode. There were stringent requirements on the laser pulse timing relative to an external trigger in order to synchronise the laser pulse with the muon pulse from the ISIS facility. A method of cavity length stabilisation, which reduced the jitter of the laser from approximately 20 ?s to 100ns and allowed us to trigger the laser externally, is described. This was performed in two stages using an intracavity, piezo-mounted, quartz plate and two fast, electro-optic modulators. The frequency chirp of the laser output, measured using a heterodyne technique to 1MHz, was found to be of the order of 80-120 MHz for a 30-40 mJ output. This chirp was shown to be the result of a fast change of the refractive index in the alexandrite rods, and was found to be directly proportional to the population inversion change during the Q-switched pulse. A method of chirp compensation was developed leading to a reduction of the chirp by an order of magnitude i.e. to the level of 5-15 MHz. The alexandrite output was frequency tripled using LBO and BBO crystals with a conversion efficiency in excess of 10 %, yielding UV pulse energies of 3 to 6 mJ. The 1S-2S transition frequency has been measured to be 2,455,528,940.99 (9.75)(3.5) MHz which is in agreement with the theoretical value of 2,455,528,934.61 (3.44) MHz. Measurement of 1S-2S interval in deuterium, performed primarily to study systematic errors, represents the best pulsed measurement to date and is in an agreement with values obtained with cw lasers. (author)

  12. Monostatic coaxial 1.5 ?m laser Doppler velocimeter using a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We present a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) in monostatic coaxial arrangement consisting of off-the-shelf telecom-grade components: a single frequency laser (wavelength ? = 1.5 ?m) and a high-finesse scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (sFPI). In contrast to previous 1.5 ?m LDV systems based on heterodyne detection, our sFPI-LDV has the advantages of having large remote sensing range not limited by laser coherence, high velocity dynamic range not limited by detector bandwidth and inherent sign discrimination of Doppler shift. The more optically efficient coaxial arrangement where transmitter and receiver optics share a common axis reduces the number of components and greatly simplifies the optical alignment. However, the sensitivity to unwanted backreflections is increased. To circumvent this problem, we employ a custom optical circulator design which compared to commercial fiber-optic circulator achieves ~40 dB reduction in strength of unwanted reflections (i.e. leakage) while maintaining high optical efficiency. Experiments with a solid target demonstrate the performance of the sFPI-LDV system with high sensitivity down to pW level at present update rates up to 10 Hz.

  13. Eulerian laser Doppler vibrometry: Online blade damage identification on a multi-blade test rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholster, A. J.; Heyns, P. S.

    2011-01-01

    Laser Doppler vibrometry enables the telemetry-free measurement of online turbomachinery blade vibration. Specifically, the Eulerian or fixed reference frame implementation of laser vibrometry provides a practical solution to the condition monitoring of rotating blades. The short data samples that are characteristic of this measurement approach do however negate the use of traditional frequency domain signal processing techniques. It is therefore necessary to employ techniques such as time domain analysis and non-harmonic Fourier analysis to obtain useful information from the blade vibration signatures. The latter analysis technique allows the calculation of phase angle trends which can be used as indicators of blade health deterioration, as has been shown in previous work for a single-blade rotor. This article presents the results from tests conducted on a five-blade axial-flow test rotor at different rotor speeds and measurement positions. With the aid of artificial neural networks, it is demonstrated that the parameters obtained from non-harmonic Fourier analysis and time domain signal processing on Eulerian laser Doppler vibrometry signals can successfully be used to identify and quantify blade damage from among healthy blades. It is also shown that the natural frequencies of individual blades can be approximated from the Eulerian signatures recorded during rotor run-up and run-down.

  14. New method of laser doppler flowmetry signal processing in pulp vitality evaluation after teeth cosmetic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen; Sarpe, Amalia; Vitez, Bogdan; Draganescu, Gheorghe

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the pulp vitality before and after different tooth bleaching procedures, in order to determine the changes in pulpal microcirculation and whether they are reversible or not. Twelve volunteers were included in this study. For each volunteer, the pulpal blood flow of maxillary teeth was assessed prior to treatment using Laser Doppler Flowmetry. The "in office" bleaching technique was used 6 anterior teeth, with two different gels, a conventional one chemically activated (Group I 3teeth) and another one activated using Nd:YAG laser (Group II-3 teeth). The bleaching agents were applied on counterpart teeth and, after obtaining a esthetic results for each tooth, the pulpal blood flow was assessed using Laser Doppler Flowmetry immediately after treatment and then after one day and one week. All data were collected and statistically analyzed. Immediately after treatment, the assessment showed an increase of pulpal blood flow, for both study groups, but higher in Group I as compared to Group II (p<0.005). The subsequent assessments showed a reduction of the pulpal blood flow with non - significant differences between the study groups (p<0.005).The results suggest that the tooth bleaching procedurere presents a safe treatment method, which does not lead to irreversible damage to the dental pulp, when used correctly.

  15. Automatic flowmeter calibration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, R. V.; Wilson, T. L. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating the accuracy of a flowmeter is described. The system includes a calculator capable of performing mathematical functions responsive to receiving data signals and function command signals. A prover cylinder is provided for measuring the temperature, pressure, and time required for accumulating a predetermined volume of fluid. Along with these signals, signals representing the temperature and pressure of the fluid going into the meter are fed to a plurality of data registers. Under control of a progress controller, the data registers are read out and the information is fed through a data select circuit to the calculator. Command signals are also produced by a function select circuit and are fed to the calculator set indicating the desired function to be performed. The reading is then compared with the reading produced by the flowmeter.

  16. Determination of Capsaicin Induced Increase in Dermal Blood Flow Using Laser Doppler Flowmetry Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar Reddy Khambam; Madireddy Umamaheshwar Rao Naidu; Pingali Usha Rani; Takallapalli Ramesh Kumar Rao

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated laser Doppler flowmetry technique using LDF100C (Biopac systems) by determining blood flow changes following acute application of capsaicin on 12 healthy human subjects. Capsaicin applied locally (topical application) at a dose of 0.075% produced significant increase in mean dermal blood flow from 31.4 3.1 Blood Perfusion Units (BPU) to 115. 7 24.6 Blood Perfusion Units (BPU) after 30 minutes, also there was significant difference in dermal blood flow ch...

  17. Determination of air and hydrofoil pressure coefficient by laser doppler anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risti? Slavica S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some results of experiments performed in water cavitation tunnel are presented. Pressure coefficient (Cp was experimentally determined by Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA measurements. Two models were tested: model of airplane G4 (Super Galeb and hydrofoil of high speed axial pump. These models are not prepared for conventional pressure measurements, so that LDA is applied for Cp determination. Numerical results were obtained using a code for average Navier-Stokes equations solutions. Comparisons between computational and experimental results prove the effectiveness of the LDA. The advantages and disadvantages of LDA application are discussed. Flow visualization was made by air bubbles.

  18. Measurement of velocity distributions in a 5 x 5-rod bundle by Laser-Doppler-anemometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of velocity distributions in a 5x5-rod bundle consisting of original cladding tubes and segments of original PWR spacer grids were performed by Laser-Doppler-Anemometry. the test bundle was installed in a vertical square-section water channel. Two spacer grids with different lateral geometry were selected for the investigaitons. The tests produced detailed information on the velocity distribution in the rod bundle and in the peripheral zones in several axial levels between two spacer grids. The results were used to check and verify the Velasco and Thermohydraulik programs, which are used for thermohydraulic calculations in the PWR core and for the analysis of DNB tests. (orig.)

  19. Acute radiation effects on cutaneous microvasculature: evaluation with a laser Doppler perfusion monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring is a noninvasive technique for measuring blood flow in epidermal microvasculature that makes use of the frequency shift of light reflected from red blood cells. Measurements in patients undergoing radiation therapy show increases in blood flow of ten to 25 times baseline at doses above 50 Gy, and increases are observed with doses as low as 2 Gy. Follow-up measurements show rapid decreases in flow levels after completion of therapy, but levels remain elevated even at 1 year

  20. Acute radiation effects on cutaneous microvasculature: evaluation with a laser Doppler perfusion monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amols, H.I.; Goffman, T.E.; Komaki, R.; Cox, J.D.

    1988-11-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring is a noninvasive technique for measuring blood flow in epidermal microvasculature that makes use of the frequency shift of light reflected from red blood cells. Measurements in patients undergoing radiation therapy show increases in blood flow of ten to 25 times baseline at doses above 50 Gy, and increases are observed with doses as low as 2 Gy. Follow-up measurements show rapid decreases in flow levels after completion of therapy, but levels remain elevated even at 1 year.

  1. Field performance of an all-semiconductor laser coherent Doppler lidar

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We implement and test what, to our knowledge, is the first deployable coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) system based on a compact, inexpensive all-semiconductor laser (SL). To demonstrate the field performance of our SL-CDL remote sensor, we compare a 36 h time series of averaged radial wind speeds measured by our instrument at an 80 m distance to those simultaneously obtained from an industry-standard sonic anemometer (SA). An excellent degree of correlation (R2=0.994 and slope=0.996) is achieved...

  2. Distinguishing Buried Objects in Extremely Shallow Underground by Frequency Response Using Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma Abe,; Tsuneyoshi Sugimoto,

    2010-07-01

    A sound wave vibration using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer are used as a method of exploring and imaging an extremely shallow underground. Flat speakers are used as a vibration source. We propose a method of distinguishing a buried object using a response range of a frequencies corresponding to a vibration velocities. Buried objects (plastic containers, a hollow steel can, an unglazed pot, and a stone) are distinguished using a response range of frequencies. Standardization and brightness imaging are used as methods of discrimination. As a result, it was found that the buried objects show different response ranges of frequencies. From the experimental results, we confirmed the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  3. Multiphase-flowmeter experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Multiphase-flowmeters (MPFM`s) are finding increasing acceptance offshore, where operators are becoming more comfortable with the technology after several years of familiarization. Meters are being used in well testing, well management, and allocation of production. Since the first deliveries of the Framo engineering A/S meter in 1993, significant experience has been gained in both topside and subsea applications of the devices. The paper describes purposes, technology, Framo`s meter, applications, performance verification, and operational problems.

  4. Selecting the right flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomroy, J. [Fisher-Rosemount, Eden Prairie, MN (United States). Rosemount Measurement Div.

    1996-05-01

    The miles of piping found in chemical process and utility areas are visible evidence of the importance of moving fluids safely and efficiently in the ongoing quest to improve unit operations. The measurement and control of fluid flow offers often-unrecognized opportunities for improvement, not just in process control, but in the utilization of total plant assets. Potential benefits include improved quality, throughput and uptime, and reduced costs. Innovations in flowmeter technology, driven by the recent shift from analog to microprocessor-based digital circuitry, have dramatically increased the quantity and value of the data provided by flowmeters. The ability to use this information for control purposes will be further facilitated by the advent of the Fieldbus protocol, which will allow instruments to communicate directly with each other, permitting true decentralized, digital control. This article offers an evaluation process to help you narrow down your options. First, the author identifies the many factors affecting the selection of flowmeters for different types of service, then they review various concepts of flow measurement and many of the factors that influence fluid flow. Several of the most common technologies, including the newest developments, will be discussed along with their advantages and limitations. Finally, they look at how the communication and computing advances taking place in field devices will impact the ability to manage plant assets for the continuous improvement of quality, uptime, throughput, safety and return-on-investment.

  5. Experimental investigation of buried landmine detection using time division multiplexing of multibeam laser Doppler vibrometer channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgett, Richard; Aranchuk, Vyacheslav; Aranchuk, Ina

    2012-06-01

    Producing vibration images of buried landmines using a multi-beam laser Doppler vibrometer (MB-LDV) operating from a stationary platform have been accomplished in the past. Detection from a continuously moving platform can reduce the time of detection compared to stop-and-stare measurement. However, there is a speed limitation, imposed by the required spatial and frequency resolution. NCPA proposed a concept of time division multiplexing (TDM) of laser beams of a MB-LDV to overcome that speed limitation. The system, based on 16-beam MB-LDV, has been built and experimentally tested at an Army test facility. Vibration velocity profiles of buried mines have been obtained at different system speeds. Algorithms for speckle noise reduction in continuously moving MB-LDV signals have been developed and explored. The results of the current data collection, recent past data collection as well as the results of the effectiveness of speckle noise reduction techniques are presented.

  6. IN-PLANE MODAL TESTING OF A FREE ISOTROPIC PLATE USING LASER DOPPLER VIBROMETER MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work an experimental procedure is proposed to obtain the lowest free in-plane vibration modes of an aluminum plate. Responses are measured along two longitudinal directions on the plate surface at selected points by an out-of-plane laser Doppler vibrometer set up to measure in-plane vibrations. Excitation is made at one specific point of the plate edge using a light impact hammer. The plate is supported by silicone spheres to simulate the free edge boundary conditions and ensure a stable stationary position in order to keep the laser focus distance. Numerical finite element simulations are carried out to compute the in-plane modes and frequencies in order to compare them with the corresponding experimental results. The identified experimental modes agree very well with the numerical predictions. The smooth in-plane modes can be used to identify the plate material constitutive model parameters using existing methods proposed elsewhere by the authors.

  7. Laser system for Doppler cooling of ytterbium ion in an optical frequency standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser system for Doppler cooling of ytterbium ion on the 2S1/2 ? 2P1/2 transition in a single-ion optical frequency standard is developed. The second harmonic of a semiconductor laser with a wavelength of 739 nm is used for cooling. The laser frequency is doubled in a nonlinear BiBO crystal embedded in a ring resonator, which also serves as a reference for laser frequency stabilisation. Second-harmonic power of ?100 ?W is generated at a wavelength of 369.5 nm. Diode laser radiation is modulated by an electro-optic modulator at 14.75 GHz to generate a sideband exciting the 2S1/2 (F = 0) ? 2P1/2 (F = 1) hyperfine component of the cooling transition that is not excited by resonant cooling light. The sideband relative intensity of a few percent proved to be sufficient to reduce the ion dwelling time in the 2S1/2 (F = 0) state to less than 10-4 s and increase the cooling efficiency. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  8. Laser system for Doppler cooling of ytterbium ion in an optical frequency standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chepurov, S V; Lugovoy, A A; Kuznetsov, S N [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-30

    A laser system for Doppler cooling of ytterbium ion on the {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} ? {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} transition in a single-ion optical frequency standard is developed. The second harmonic of a semiconductor laser with a wavelength of 739 nm is used for cooling. The laser frequency is doubled in a nonlinear BiBO crystal embedded in a ring resonator, which also serves as a reference for laser frequency stabilisation. Second-harmonic power of ?100 ?W is generated at a wavelength of 369.5 nm. Diode laser radiation is modulated by an electro-optic modulator at 14.75 GHz to generate a sideband exciting the {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} (F = 0) ? {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} (F = 1) hyperfine component of the cooling transition that is not excited by resonant cooling light. The sideband relative intensity of a few percent proved to be sufficient to reduce the ion dwelling time in the {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} (F = 0) state to less than 10{sup -4} s and increase the cooling efficiency. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  9. Laser doppler flow imaging of open lower leg fractures in an animal experimental model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzog L

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Open lower leg fractures are frequently associated with severe soft tissue damage, followed by osteomyelitis. Using an animal experimental model, we investigated the effect of timing of coverage of a tibial fracture with a local muscle flap. METHODS: 80 rabbits had a tibial fracture induced in a standardised fashion, which was stabilised by screw osteosynthesis. After 3 (group A; n=40 and 7 days (group B; n=40, respectively, the tissue defect was covered by a local gastrocnemius flap. In increasing intervals from 1 to 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks, the rabbits from each group were killed and the bone fracture was analysed histomorphologically. Cortical microcirculation was measured by 2-channel laser doppler flowmetry. RESULTS: Muscle flaps after 3 days improved perfusion significantly as compared with 7 days (24 Flux [standard error, 5 Flux] versus 10 Flux [3 Flux]; baseline, 1.4 Flux. Group A animals also displayed a lower rate of necrosis (0 versus 38. The incidence of osteomyelitis was higher in group B than in group A (24% versus 0%. CONCLUSION: Laser doppler flowmetry was proven to be a reliable, minimally invasive means for identifying avital tissue, leading to reduction in the loss of vital bone tissue in experimental settings.

  10. Agent-based station for on-line diagnostics by self-adaptive laser Doppler vibrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, S; Paone, N; Castellini, P

    2013-12-01

    A self-adaptive diagnostic system based on laser vibrometry is proposed for quality control of mechanical defects by vibration testing; it is developed for appliances at the end of an assembly line, but its characteristics are generally suited for testing most types of electromechanical products. It consists of a laser Doppler vibrometer, equipped with scanning mirrors and a camera, which implements self-adaptive bahaviour for optimizing the measurement. The system is conceived as a Quality Control Agent (QCA) and it is part of a Multi Agent System that supervises all the production line. The QCA behaviour is defined so to minimize measurement uncertainty during the on-line tests and to compensate target mis-positioning under guidance of a vision system. Best measurement conditions are reached by maximizing the amplitude of the optical Doppler beat signal (signal quality) and consequently minimize uncertainty. In this paper, the optimization strategy for measurement enhancement achieved by the down-hill algorithm (Nelder-Mead algorithm) and its effect on signal quality improvement is discussed. Tests on a washing machine in controlled operating conditions allow to evaluate the efficacy of the method; significant reduction of noise on vibration velocity spectra is observed. Results from on-line tests are presented, which demonstrate the potential of the system for industrial quality control. PMID:24387408

  11. Laser-Doppler measurements and electrocochleography during ischemia of the guinea pig cochlea: implications for hearing preservation in acoustic neuroma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R A; Bu-Saba, N; Brown, M C

    1993-02-01

    Interruption of cochlear blood flow has been implicated as one of the causes of the sensorineural hearing loss that may occur during acoustic neuroma surgery. With the guinea pig as an animal model for cerebellopontine angle surgery, laser-Doppler measurements were used to estimate the cochlear blood flow changes caused by compression of the eighth nerve complex. With compression, the laser-Doppler measurements decreased abruptly; somewhat later, the electrocochleographic potentials declined. When compression was released, laser-Doppler measurements usually returned immediately, followed later by return of the electrical potentials. Some of these potentials, including the compound action potential of the auditory nerve, often became transiently larger than their precompression values. Interposing bone between the laser-Doppler probe and the otic capsule, so that the total bone thickness approximated the thickness of the human otic capsule, decreased the laser-Doppler measurement, but changes caused by compression were still apparent. Thus, although the human otic capsule is much thicker than the guinea pig capsule, it may still be possible to make laser-Doppler estimates of human cochlear blood flow. Laser-Doppler monitoring during acoustic neuroma surgery may be beneficial, because it could give earlier warning of ischemia than is currently available from electrocochleographic monitoring, thereby enabling earlier corrective action. Electrocochleography complements laser-Doppler measurements by indicating the physiologic state of the cochlea. PMID:8427498

  12. Axial scanning laser Doppler velocimeter using wavelength change without moving mechanism in sensor probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Koichi

    2011-03-28

    A scanning laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) without any moving mechanism in its sensor probe is proposed. In the proposed scanning LDV, the measurement position is axially scanned by change in the wavelength of the light input to the sensor probe, instead of using a moving mechanism in the sensor probe. For this purpose, a tunable laser and diffraction gratings are used, and the sensor probe including the gratings is separated from the main body including the tunable laser. To demonstrate the scanning function based on the proposed concept, an experiment was conducted using optical fibers, a commercial tunable laser and a setup of the sensor probe consisting of bulk optical components. As the experimental result, it is found that the measurement positions estimated from the measured beat frequencies are in good agreement with the theoretical values. The scan ranges over a wavelength range of 30 nm are estimated to be 29.3 mm when the beam angle to the measurement position at the wavelength of 1540 nm is 10° and 20.8 mm when the beam angle is 15°. The result indicates that the scanning function by means of changing the wavelength input to the sensor probe is successfully demonstrated for the first time. The proposed method has the potential for realizing a scanning LDV with a simple, compact and reliable sensor probe. PMID:21451621

  13. Parmetros dopplervelocimtricos na avaliao da perviedade da anastomose portossistmica intra-heptica transjugular (TIPS): estudo prospectivo / Doppler flowmeter parameters for evaluation of transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunts (TIPS) patency: prospective study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Sergio Zafred, Marcelino; Maria Cristina, Chammas; Ilka Regina Souza de, Oliveira; Andr Cosme de, Oliveira; Osvaldo Igncio, Pereira; Francisco Csar, Carnevale; Osmar de Cssio, Saito; Giovanni Guido, Cerri.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar as alteraes hemodinmicas consideradas normais aps a realizao da anastomose portossistmica intra-heptica transjugular (TIPS) e a eficcia dos parmetros sugestivos de estenose do TIPS com o ultra-som Doppler. MATERIAIS E MTODOS: Dezesseis pacientes foram avaliados de maneir [...] a prospectiva, no perodo de dezembro de 2001 a maro de 2003. As avaliaes foram realizadas 24-48 horas aps o TIPS e a seguir em intervalos regulares de 30 dias, trs meses, seis meses e um ano, com ultra-som modo B, Doppler pulsado, Doppler colorido e de amplitude em diferentes pontos da prtese relacionados ao TIPS. A angiografia foi realizada apenas para a confirmao dos resultados e teraputica pertinente. RESULTADOS: At o momento apenas os achados de fluxo contnuo no tero proximal da prtese e o gradiente de velocidade entre dois pontos da prtese apresentaram significncia estatstica para o diagnstico de estenose do TIPS (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the hemodynamic changes considered normal after transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS) placement and the efficacy of TIPS parameters suggestive of stenosis using Doppler sonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients were prospectively evaluated from December [...] , 2001 to March, 2003 after TIPS placement. Evaluations were performed 24 to 48 hours after the procedure and then at intervals of 30 days, three months, six months and one year using B mode, color Doppler, power Doppler and spectral Doppler in different TIPS related sites. Angiography was performed only to confirm Doppler findings and treatment. RESULTS: To date the only statistically significant parameters for diagnosis of TIPS stenosis were continuous flow pattern in the proximal third of TIPS and the velocity gradient between the two sites (p

  14. Qualification Testing of Laser Diode Pump Arrays for a Space-Based 2-micron Coherent Doppler Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The 2-micron thulium and holmium-based lasers being considered as the transmitter source for space-based coherent Doppler lidar require high power laser diode pump arrays operating in a long pulse regime of about 1 msec. Operating laser diode arrays over such long pulses drastically impact their useful lifetime due to the excessive localized heating and substantial pulse-to-pulse thermal cycling of their active regions. This paper describes the long pulse performance of laser diode arrays and their critical thermal characteristics. A viable approach is then offered that allows for determining the optimum operational parameters leading to the maximum attainable lifetime.

  15. Measurement uncertainty and temporal resolution of Doppler global velocimetry using laser frequency modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) measurement technique with a sinusoidal laser frequency modulation is presented for measuring velocity fields in fluid flows. A cesium absorption cell is used for the conversion of the Doppler shift frequency into a change in light intensity, which can be measured by a fiber coupled avalanche photo diode array. Because of a harmonic analysis of the detector element signals, no errors due to detector offset drifts occur and no reference detector array is necessary for measuring the scattered light power. Hence, large errors such as image misalignment errors and beam split errors are eliminated. Furthermore, the measurement system is also capable of achieving high measurement rates up to the modulation frequency (100 kHz) and thus opens new perspectives to multiple point investigations of instationary flows, e.g., for turbulence analysis. A fundamental measurement uncertainty analysis based on the theory of Cramer and Rao is given and validated by experimental results. The current relation between time resolution and measurement uncertainty, as well as further optimization strategies, are discussed

  16. Reactor main steam flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention intends to stabilize the measurement of a flowmeter disposed to a main steam pipe of a pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor. That is, the exit of the nozzle of the main steam pipe in the reactor pressure vessel comprises a gradually restricting portion, a throat portion and a diffusing portion. The position of the pressure detection terminal disposed downstream of the gradually restricting portion is below the pipeline of a flowmeter element, and condensates are stored in a pressure introduction pipeline succeeding to the pressure detection terminal. With such a constitution, when an accident of main steam pipe rupture should occur, the amount of steams jetted from the reactor pressure vessel to the reactor container, that is, the amount of loss of coolants can be reduced. As a result, the reactor container and the reactor building can be made compact and safe. Further, since a straight pipe, which has been necessary in an existent standard venturi type element, is no more necessary, the volume of the reactor container can be reduced. (I.S.)

  17. Soap film gas flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soap film gas flowmeter is described comprising: a flow tube having a hollow body with opposite open ends through which a soap film is propelled and a first closed chamber housing a soap solution. It also includes means for supporting the flow tube in a substantially vertical position with the open bottom end of the flow tube disposed in the first chamber above the soap solution; a second closed chamber into which the open top end of the flow tube extends and gas inlet means for introducing gas into the first chamber at a flow rate to be measured using the flowmeters. A gas exit means is included for discharging the gas introduced into the first chamber through the second chamber. Plus there are means for generating a single soap bubble from the soap solution substantially at the bottom end of the flow tube and a relatively large opening in the flowtube for providing an open passageway for inlet gas to pass through the flowtube when the bottom open end of the flowtube is covered by the soap solution

  18. Soap film gas flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalin, H.S.; Bermudez, J.E.; Fleming, W.T.

    1987-09-08

    A soap film gas flowmeter is described comprising: a flow tube having a hollow body with opposite open ends through which a soap film is propelled and a first closed chamber housing a soap solution. It also includes means for supporting the flow tube in a substantially vertical position with the open bottom end of the flow tube disposed in the first chamber above the soap solution; a second closed chamber into which the open top end of the flow tube extends and gas inlet means for introducing gas into the first chamber at a flow rate to be measured using the flowmeters. A gas exit means is included for discharging the gas introduced into the first chamber through the second chamber. Plus there are means for generating a single soap bubble from the soap solution substantially at the bottom end of the flow tube and a relatively large opening in the flowtube for providing an open passageway for inlet gas to pass through the flowtube when the bottom open end of the flowtube is covered by the soap solution.

  19. Maximum-likelihood estimates of the frequency and other parameters of signals of laser Doppler measuring systems operating in the one-particle-scattering mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximum-likelihood equations are presented for estimates of the Doppler frequency (speed) and other unknown parameters of signals of laser Doppler anemometers and lidars operating in the one-particle-scattering mode. Shot noise was assumed to be the main interfering factor of the problem. The error correlation matrix was calculated and the Rao - Cramer bounds were determined. The results are confirmed by the computer simulation of the Doppler signal and the numerical solution of the maximum-likelihood equations for the Doppler frequency. The obtained estimate is unbiased, and its dispersion coincides with the Rao-Cramer bound. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. He-Ne laser effects on blood microcirculation. An in vivo study through laser doppler flowmetry; Efeito do laser de helio neonio sobre a microcirculacao sanguinea durante a reparacao tecidual. Estudo in vivo por meio de fluxometria laser doppler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Silvia Cristina

    2002-07-01

    Blood microcirculation performs an important function in tissue repair process, as well as in pain control, allowing for greater oxygenation of the tissues and the accelerated expulsion of metabolic products, that may be contributing to pain. Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) is widely used to promote healing, and there is an assumption that it is mechanism of action may be due to an enhancement of blood supply. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), the stated effects caused by radiation emitted by a He-Ne laser ({lambda}=632.8 nm) on blood microcirculation during tissue repair. To this end, 15 male mice were selected and received a liquid nitrogen provoked lesion, above the dorsal region, and blood flow was measured periodically, during 21 days. Due to radiation emission by the LDF equipment, a control group was established to evaluate possible effects caused by this radiation on microcirculation. To evaluate the He-Ne laser effects, a 1.15 J/cm{sup 2} dose was utilized, with an intensity of 6 mW/cm{sup 2}. The results obtained demonstrate flow alterations, provoked by the lesion, and subsequent inflammatory response. There was no statistical difference between the studied groups. As per the analysis of the results there is no immediate effect due the radiation emitted by a He Ne laser on microcirculation, although a percentage increase was observed in day 7 on medium blood flow rate in irradiated specimens. New studies are necessary to validate the use of this wavelength, in order to promote beneficial alterations in blood supply in radiated areas. (author)

  1. Eye-safe diode laser Doppler lidar with a MEMS beam-scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi; Pedersen, Christian; Rodrigo, Peter John

    2016-01-01

    at the probing distance (R = 60 m) of each lineof-sight relevant for meeting eye-safety requirements. The switching time of the MEMS-SM is measured to be in the order of a few milliseconds. Time-shared (0.25 s per line-of-sight) radial wind speed measurements at 50 Hz data rate are experimentally......We present a novel Doppler lidar that employs a cw diode laser operating at 1.5 ?m and a micro-electro-mechanical-system scanning mirror (MEMS-SM). In this work, two functionalities of the lidar system are demonstrated. Firstly, we describe the capability to effectively steer the lidar probe beam...

  2. Droplet sizes and velocities in vaporizing sprays. [using laser Doppler anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, A. J.; Ereaut, P. R.; Ungut, A.

    1983-01-01

    A pulse height laser Doppler anemometer particle sizing technique has been refined to permit simultaneous particle size and velocity measurements in sprays. The improvements include (1) the use of a specially tailored 'top hat' light distribution, to provide unambiguous particle diameter-signal amplitude relations, (2) the use of back scattered light collection, and (3) the utilization of Mie theory to compute the relations between signal amplitude and particle diameter, in the backscatter mode. Twin-fluid atomized kerosene sprays have been investigated using the new technique. In these sprays distributions have been mapped of mean droplet diameters, droplet size distributions, and the local correlations between droplet diameters and velocities. The data show the variation of spray structure with atomizer input parameters, the preferential vaporization of smaller droplets, and the differing trajectories of the large and small droplets.

  3. Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Crua, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a three dimensional laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently f...

  4. Doppler-broadened fiber-laser-based NICE-OHMS - Improved detectability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Florian M; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra; Ma, Weiguang; Lock, Tomas; Axner, Ove

    2007-08-20

    The performance of fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (NICE-OHMS) has been improved by elimination of the technical constraints that limited its first demonstration. Doppler-broadened detection of C(2)H(2) and CO(2) at ~1531 nm is demonstrated using a cavity with a finesse of 4800. Frequency and wavelength modulated detection at absorption and dispersion phase are compared and the optimum mode of detection is discussed. A minimum detectable absorption of 8 x 10-(11) cm(-1), which corresponds to a detection limit of 4.5 ppt (2 ppt.m) for C(2)H(2), was obtained for an acquisition time of 0.7 s by lineshape fitting. The linearity of the pressure dependence of the signal strengths is investigated for both C(2)H(2) and CO(2). PMID:19547439

  5. EURISOL-DS Multi-MW Target: Cavitations detection by the a Laser Doppler Vibrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Cyril Kharoua, Yacine Kadi, Jacques Lettry, Laure Blumenfeld, Karel Samec (CERN)Knud Thomsen, Sergej Dementevjs, Rade Milenkovich (PSI)Anatoli Zik, Erik Platacis (IPUL)

    This technical note summarises the innovative measurement devices used within Task #2 of the European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL-DS) to detect the occurrence of cavitation in liquid metal flowing inside the CGS target mock-up.During the METEX hydraulic experiment carried out at IPUL (Institute of Physics of the University of Latvia), a Laser Doppler Vibrometer was used to characterize the wall vibrations of the beam window at different flow regimes. A series of tests proved the high sensitivity of the LDV to detect the occurrence of cavitation in the liquid metal flowing inside the target. In this context, a dedicated test procedure was developed to establish the validity of using LDV for detecting the onset of cavitation.

  6. Determination of speed limitations in acoustic-to-seismic mine detection using a laser Doppler vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, Timothy V.

    2003-09-01

    Landmine detection research demonstrates that acoustically-induced vibrations into the ground creates a vibrational response originating from landmines which can be differentiated from that of background. Field tests utilizing acoustic technology performed under static conditions has yielded high probabilities of detection coupled with low false alarm rates. Current research has proven acoustic mine detection can be performed on a forward moving platform. The speed limitations have not yet been discovered though. This paper will present the results of a series of field tests in which a laser doppler vibrometer suspended from a moving trolley is passed over buried land mine targets that are excited by an acoustic source. The paper will discuss the experimental protocol, the results and the interpretation of these results. This paper will also discuss our future efforts at acoustic land mine detection.

  7. A novel laser Doppler velocimeter and its integrated navigation system with strapdown inertial navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Nie, Xiaoming; Lin, Jun

    2014-12-01

    In order to suppress the error accumulation effect of inertial navigation system (INS), an idea of building an integrated navigation system using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) together with strapdown inertial navigation (SIN) is proposed. The basic principle of LDV is expounded while a novel LDV with advanced optical structure is designed based on the split and reuse technique, and the process of dead reckoning using an integrated system which consists of LDV and SIN is discussed detailedly. The results of theory and experiment show that: the split and reuse type LDV has great advantages of high accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio, which has greatly enhanced the position accuracy of the navigation system. The position error has been decreased from 1166 m in 2 h with pure SIN to 20 m in 2 h with the integrated system.

  8. Eigenmodes and Vibration Spectra of Ag2Ga Nanoneedles Measured Using Laser Doppler Vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenberger, R.; Biedermann, L.; Tung, R.; Raman, A.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Cohn, R.

    2009-03-01

    Applications for selectively grown Ag2Ga nanoneedles include high-aspect ratio conductive AFM tips, mass sensors, force sensors, and high resonant frequency nano-cantilevers. To help enable these applications, reliable estimates for the elastic modulus of these nanoneedles and the quality factors of their oscillations are of interest. We have used Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) to measure the vibration spectra and eigenmodes of individual Ag2Ga nanoneedles. An advantage of this technique is that the vibration spectra between 0 and 20 MHz can be measured with high frequency resolution, allowing the eigenfrequencies and quality factors of each resonance to be accurately determined. Using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the elastic modulus and spring constant can be calculated from the nanoneedles' eigenfrequencies and the dimensions of the nanoneedles. The techniques developed can be used to measure the vibrational spectra of any suspended nanowire with high frequency resolution.

  9. Doppler Spectrometry for Ultrafast Temporal Mapping of Density Dynamics in Laser-Induced Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present high resolution measurements of the ultrafast temporal dynamics of the critical surface in moderately overdense, hot plasma by using two-color, pump-probe Doppler spectrometry. Our measurements clearly capture the initial inward motion of the plasma inside the critical surface of the pump laser which is followed by outward expansion. The measured instantaneous velocity and acceleration profiles are very well reproduced by a hybrid simulation that uses a 1D electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation for the initial evolution and a hydrodynamics simulation for the later times. The combination of high temporal resolution and dynamic range in our measurements clearly provides quantitative unraveling of the dynamics in this important region, enabling this as a powerful technique to obtain ultrafast snapshots of plasma density and temperature profiles for providing benchmarks for simulations.

  10. Nonmechanical cross-sectional scanning laser Doppler velocimeter with directional discrimination of transverse velocity component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Koichi; Hata, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a nonmechanical cross-sectional scanning laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) with directional discrimination of the transverse velocity component. In the proposed LDV, a combination of changes in wavelength and the port of the fiber array between the main body and probe are used to scan the measurement position on a two-dimensional (2-D) cross-sectional plane that is perpendicular to the direction of flow. Optical frequency shifting using acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) is employed to discriminate the direction of the transverse velocity component. Polarization multiplexing is used to transmit frequency-shifted beams from the main body to the probe. The experimental results reveal that the 2-D scanning function and introduction of directional sensitivity are successfully achieved.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of laser Doppler imaging in burn care in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hop M Jenda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early accurate assessment of burn depth is important to determine the optimal treatment of burns. The method most used to determine burn depth is clinical assessment, which is the least expensive, but not the most accurate. Laser Doppler imaging (LDI is a technique with which a more accurate (>95% estimate of burn depth can be made by measuring the dermal perfusion. The actual effect on therapeutic decisions, clinical outcomes and the costs of the introduction of this device, however, are unknown. Before we decide to implement LDI in Dutch burn care, a study on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of LDI is necessary. Methods/design A multicenter randomised controlled trial will be conducted in the Dutch burn centres: Beverwijk, Groningen and Rotterdam. All patients treated as outpatient or admitted to a burn centre within 5 days post burn, with burns of indeterminate depth (burns not obviously superficial or full thickness and a total body surface area burned of ? 20% are eligible. A total of 200 patients will be included. Burn depth will be diagnosed by both clinical assessment and laser Doppler imaging between 25 days post burn in all patients. Subsequently, patients are randomly divided in two groups: new diagnostic strategy versus current diagnostic strategy. The results of the LDI-scan will only be provided to the treating clinician in the new diagnostic strategy group. The main endpoint is the effect of LDI on wound healing time. In addition we measure: a the effect of LDI on other patient outcomes (quality of life, scar quality, b the effect of LDI on diagnostic and therapeutic decisions, and c the effect of LDI on total (medical and non-medical costs and cost-effectiveness. Discussion This trial will contribute to our current knowledge on the use of LDI in burn care and will provide evidence on its cost-effectiveness. Trial registration NCT01489540

  12. Laser Doppler vibrometry for assessment of arteriosclerosis: A first step towards validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Adriaan; Dirckx, Joris [University of Antwerp, Laboratory of Biomedical Physics, Groenenborgerlaan 171 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-05-27

    It has been shown that in cardiovascular risk management, stiffness of large arteries has a very good predictive value for cardiovascular disease and mortality. This parameter can be estimated from the pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured between the common carotid artery (CCA) in the neck and femoral artery (FA) in the groin. However PWV can also be measured locally in the CCA, using non-invasive methods such as ultrasound (US) or laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). Potential of the latter approach was already explored in previous research, and in this work a first step towards clinical validation is made. 50 hypertension II/III patients aged between 30 and 65 participate in the study. Patients were asked to remain sober for 4 hours prior to the measurements. The trajectory of the CCA in the neck was determined by a trained clinician guided by an US probe. 3 laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) systems were aimed along the CCA. PWV was then calculated from the distance between beams and the time-shift between waveforms. Immediately after LDV measurements, PWV was measured with US. Additionally, carotid-femoral PWV was measured. As a validation, PWV results of the different techniques were compared with each other, and with medical background of the test subjects. Since data acquisition is still ongoing, data from only 20 patients will be discussed. No trends between measurement methods for PWV are apparent. However, a positive trend was detected between PWV as measured with LDV and blood pressure. More data, including additional experiments will be needed to verify this observation.

  13. Laser Doppler vibrometry for assessment of arteriosclerosis: A first step towards validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Adriaan; Dirckx, Joris

    2014-05-01

    It has been shown that in cardiovascular risk management, stiffness of large arteries has a very good predictive value for cardiovascular disease and mortality. This parameter can be estimated from the pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured between the common carotid artery (CCA) in the neck and femoral artery (FA) in the groin. However PWV can also be measured locally in the CCA, using non-invasive methods such as ultrasound (US) or laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). Potential of the latter approach was already explored in previous research, and in this work a first step towards clinical validation is made. 50 hypertension II/III patients aged between 30 and 65 participate in the study. Patients were asked to remain sober for 4 hours prior to the measurements. The trajectory of the CCA in the neck was determined by a trained clinician guided by an US probe. 3 laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) systems were aimed along the CCA. PWV was then calculated from the distance between beams and the time-shift between waveforms. Immediately after LDV measurements, PWV was measured with US. Additionally, carotid-femoral PWV was measured. As a validation, PWV results of the different techniques were compared with each other, and with medical background of the test subjects. Since data acquisition is still ongoing, data from only 20 patients will be discussed. No trends between measurement methods for PWV are apparent. However, a positive trend was detected between PWV as measured with LDV and blood pressure. More data, including additional experiments will be needed to verify this observation.

  14. Combining laser frequency combs and iodine cell calibration techniques for Doppler detection of exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoy, Kerri; Fischer, Debra; Spronck, Julien; DeMille, David

    2010-07-01

    Exoplanets can be detected from a time series of stellar spectra by looking for small, periodic shifts in the absorption features that are consistent with Doppler shifts caused by the presence of an exoplanet, or multiple exoplanets, in the system. While hundreds of large exoplanets have already been discovered with the Doppler technique (also called radial velocity), our goal is to improve the measurement precision so that many Earth-like planets can be detected. The smaller mass and longer period of true Earth analogues require the ability to detect a reflex velocity of ~10 cm/s over long time periods. Currently, typical astronomical spectrographs calibrate using either Iodine absorptive cells or Thorium Argon lamps and achieve ~10 m/s precision, with the most stable spectrographs pushing down to ~2 m/s. High velocity precision is currently achieved at HARPS by controlling the thermal and pressure environment of the spectrograph. These environmental controls increase the cost of the spectrograph, and it is not feasible to simply retrofit existing spectrometers. We propose a fiber-fed high precision spectrograph design that combines the existing ~5000-6000 A Iodine calibration system with a high-precision Laser Frequency Comb (LFC) system from ~6000-7000 A that just meets the redward side of the Iodine lines. The scientific motivation for such a system includes: a 1000 A span in the red is currently achievable with LFC systems, combining the two calibration methods increases the wavelength range by a factor of two, and moving redward decreases the "noise" from starspots. The proposed LFC system design employs a fiber laser, tunable serial Fabry-Perot cavity filters to match the resolution of the LFC system to that of standard astronomical spectrographs, and terminal ultrasonic vibration of the multimode fiber for a stable point spread function.

  15. Case studies of laser Doppler imaging system for clinical diagnosis applications and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, E Y K; Fok, S C; Goh, C T

    2003-01-01

    The laser Doppler perfusion imager (LDPI) is a recent development in the field of laser Doppler flowmetry. It has great potential in many medical applications for the non-invasive diagnosis of problems based on microvascular perfusion. Established applications include assessment of breast skin blood flow, wound healing, skin burn, and systemic sclerosis. This paper aims to enhance the usability of LPDI for diagnostics testing through the examination of two major issues. The first issue deals with the performance of the LDPI technique. Two case studies are used not only to highlight the potential applications of LDPI, but also to illustrate the general procedure/precautions needed for ensuring the consistency and quality of the captured perfusion images. The first case study deals with the perfusion across the proximal interphalangeal joints of patients with osteoarthritis. The results showed that LDPI could provide an objective and specific assessment of hyperaemia over the interphalangeal joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The second case study deals with the blood flow on the stomach region during acupuncture. The results indicated that LDPI could provide an objective and specific assessment of the stimulation level on acupuncture point. The issues discussed in these case studies would be useful for the evolution of other novel LDPI applications and the standardization of the proper clinical procedure for the capturing of the LDP images. The second issue deals with the intelligent management of the LDPI results to facilitate the prescription of treatment based on analysis of similar cases previously encountered. The framework of an intelligent diagnostics assistant is proposed to automate the search and retrieval of relevant past cases based on the LDPI diagnosis. The paper uses skin burn as an example to discuss the considerations and techniques for the implementation of the proposed intelligent diagnostics system. This work constitutes initial efforts to increase the productivity of the doctors in diagnostics testing using LDPI. PMID:12936046

  16. Parmetros dopplervelocimtricos na avaliao da perviedade da anastomose portossistmica intra-heptica transjugular (TIPS: estudo prospectivo Doppler flowmeter parameters for evaluation of transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunts (TIPS patency: prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sergio Zafred Marcelino

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar as alteraes hemodinmicas consideradas normais aps a realizao da anastomose portossistmica intra-heptica transjugular (TIPS e a eficcia dos parmetros sugestivos de estenose do TIPS com o ultra-som Doppler. MATERIAIS E MTODOS: Dezesseis pacientes foram avaliados de maneira prospectiva, no perodo de dezembro de 2001 a maro de 2003. As avaliaes foram realizadas 24-48 horas aps o TIPS e a seguir em intervalos regulares de 30 dias, trs meses, seis meses e um ano, com ultra-som modo B, Doppler pulsado, Doppler colorido e de amplitude em diferentes pontos da prtese relacionados ao TIPS. A angiografia foi realizada apenas para a confirmao dos resultados e teraputica pertinente. RESULTADOS: At o momento apenas os achados de fluxo contnuo no tero proximal da prtese e o gradiente de velocidade entre dois pontos da prtese apresentaram significncia estatstica para o diagnstico de estenose do TIPS (p OBJECTIVE: To assess the hemodynamic changes considered normal after transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS placement and the efficacy of TIPS parameters suggestive of stenosis using Doppler sonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients were prospectively evaluated from December, 2001 to March, 2003 after TIPS placement. Evaluations were performed 24 to 48 hours after the procedure and then at intervals of 30 days, three months, six months and one year using B mode, color Doppler, power Doppler and spectral Doppler in different TIPS related sites. Angiography was performed only to confirm Doppler findings and treatment. RESULTS: To date the only statistically significant parameters for diagnosis of TIPS stenosis were continuous flow pattern in the proximal third of TIPS and the velocity gradient between the two sites (p < 0.001. Different non-statistically significant parameters were also observed. CONCLUSION: Doppler sonography is an efficient tool for the diagnosis of shunt patency and TIPS related complications such as stenosis. However, it is necessary to study a larger number of patients in order to determine a group of parameters that would help in the follow-up of these patients, thus using portal angiography only for indicated treatment.

  17. Ultrasonic flowmeters: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report describes the components and system configuration of the prototype ultrasonic flowmeter and initial flow testing. It is the second in a series of progress reports on the development and testing of ultrasonic flowmetering concepts. The greatest advantage of an ultrasonic flowmeter is that the instrument can be installed on the outside of a pipe with no modifications required. The flow is measured through the pipe walls. However, complex electronic systems are needed for the measurements. The ultrasonic flowmeter features: high resolution limited only by the electronics; fast response since there are no moving parts; measurement over a wide range of flow conditions; portability; and can be used for a range of different pipe sizes. No current alternative method of measuring flow combines all these advantages

  18. Efficient sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an indium atomic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser cooled atomic gases and atomic beams are widely studied samples in experimental research in atomic and optical physics. For the application of ultra cold gases as model systems for e.g. quantum many particle systems, the atomic species is not very important. Thus this field is dominated by alkaline, earthalkaline elements which are easily accessible with conventional laser sources and have convenient closed cooling transition. On the other hand, laser cooled atoms may also be interesting for technological applications, for instance for the creation of novel materials by atomic nanofabrication (ANF). There it will be important to use technologically relevant materials. As an example, using group III atoms of the periodical table in ANF may open a route to generate fully 3D structured composite materials. The minimal requirement in such an ANF experiment is the collimation of an atomic beam which is accessible by one dimensional laser cooling. In this dissertation, I describe transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam. For efficient laser cooling on a cycling transition, I have built a tunable, continuous-wave coherent ultraviolet source at 326 nm based on frequency tripling. For this purpose, two independent high power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers for the generation of the fundamental radiation at ?? = 977 nm have been constructed. I have observed sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam on a cycling transition of In by introducing a polarization gradient in the linear-perpendicular-linear configuration. The transverse velocity spread of a laser-cooled In atomic beam at full width at half maximum was achieved to be 13.53.8 cm/s yielding a full divergence of only 0.48 0.13 mrad. In addition, nonlinear spectroscopy of a 3-level, ?-type level system driven by a pump and a probe beam has been investigated in order to understand the absorption line shapes used as a frequency reference in a previous two-color spectroscopy experiment. For the analysis of this atomic system, I have applied a density matrix theory providing an excellent basis for understanding the observed line shapes. (orig.)

  19. Efficient sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an indium atomic beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Ihn

    2009-07-23

    Laser cooled atomic gases and atomic beams are widely studied samples in experimental research in atomic and optical physics. For the application of ultra cold gases as model systems for e.g. quantum many particle systems, the atomic species is not very important. Thus this field is dominated by alkaline, earthalkaline elements which are easily accessible with conventional laser sources and have convenient closed cooling transition. On the other hand, laser cooled atoms may also be interesting for technological applications, for instance for the creation of novel materials by atomic nanofabrication (ANF). There it will be important to use technologically relevant materials. As an example, using group III atoms of the periodical table in ANF may open a route to generate fully 3D structured composite materials. The minimal requirement in such an ANF experiment is the collimation of an atomic beam which is accessible by one dimensional laser cooling. In this dissertation, I describe transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam. For efficient laser cooling on a cycling transition, I have built a tunable, continuous-wave coherent ultraviolet source at 326 nm based on frequency tripling. For this purpose, two independent high power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers for the generation of the fundamental radiation at {lambda}{sub {omega}} = 977 nm have been constructed. I have observed sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam on a cycling transition of In by introducing a polarization gradient in the linear-perpendicular-linear configuration. The transverse velocity spread of a laser-cooled In atomic beam at full width at half maximum was achieved to be 13.5{+-}3.8 cm/s yielding a full divergence of only 0.48 {+-} 0.13 mrad. In addition, nonlinear spectroscopy of a 3-level, {lambda}-type level system driven by a pump and a probe beam has been investigated in order to understand the absorption line shapes used as a frequency reference in a previous two-color spectroscopy experiment. For the analysis of this atomic system, I have applied a density matrix theory providing an excellent basis for understanding the observed line shapes. (orig.)

  20. Electromagnetic flowmeters in multiphase flows

    OpenAIRE

    Krafft, Rainer

    1993-01-01

    The response of an Electromagnetic Flowmeter to a secondary, nonconducting phase in a continuous conducting phase is investigated. Experiments are carried out on a commercial 2" Foxboro flowmeter with sinusoidal mains field excitation and point electrodes. The main aspects which are looked for are the change in flow signal and transformer signal. A mathematical model is developed to simulate the effect of the nonconducting phase in. the form of single spherical particles. Th...

  1. Sub-Doppler diode laser frequency stabilization with the DAVLL scheme on the D1 line of a 87Rb vapor-cell

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, R.; Breschi, E.; Affolderbach, C.; Bison, G.; Mileti, G.; Herzig, Hans-Peter; Weis, A.

    2007-01-01

    We established an experimental set-up that allows laser stabilization using the Doppler1 and sub-Doppler2,3 Dichroic Atomic Vapor Laser Locking (DAVLL) and the Saturated Absorption (SA) scheme. In this report we present comparative studies between Doppler and sub-Doppler DAVLL using heterodyne frequency stability measurements with an independently SA stabilized laser. Some major sources of frequency instability are discussed together with ways to improve the stability. Special focus is laid o...

  2. High-range-resolution velocity-estimation techniques for coherent Doppler lidars with exponentially shaped laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdev, Ljuan L; Dreischuh, Tanja N; Stoyanov, Dimitar V

    2002-03-20

    On the basis of an analysis of the autocovariance of the complex heterodyne signal, some novel algorithms are derived and investigated for recovering the nonuniform Doppler-velocity coherent-lidar profiles within the lidar resolution interval conditioned by the sensing laser-pulse length. The case of exponentially shaped sensing laser pulses is considered. The algorithm performance and efficiency are studied and illustrated by computer simulations (based on the use of pulse models and real laser pulses), taking into account the influence of additive noise and radial-velocity fluctuations. It is shown that, at some reasonable number of signal realizations used and with appropriate data processing to suppress the noise effects, the Doppler-velocity profiles can be determined with a considerably shorter resolution interval in comparison with that (usually accepted as a lower bound) determined by the pulse length. PMID:11921805

  3. Self-Calibrating Respiratory-Flowmeter Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenskow, Dwayne R.; Orr, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    Dual flowmeters ensure accuracy over full range of human respiratory flow rates. System for measurement of respiratory flow employs two flowmeters; one compensates for deficiencies of other. Combination yields easily calibrated system accurate over wide range of gas flow.

  4. Field performance of an all-semiconductor laser coherent Doppler lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We implement and test what, to our knowledge, is the first deployable coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) system based on a compact, inexpensive all-semiconductor laser (SL). To demonstrate the field performance of our SL-CDL remote sensor, we compare a 36 h time series of averaged radial wind speeds measured by our instrument at an 80 m distance to those simultaneously obtained from an industry-standard sonic anemometer (SA). An excellent degree of correlation (R2=0.994 and slope=0.996) is achieved from a linear regression analysis of the CDL versus SA wind speed data. The lidar system is capable of providing high data availability, ranging from 85% to 100% even under varying outdoor (temperature and humidity) conditions during the test period. We also show the use of our SL-CDL for monitoring the dependence of aerosol backscatter on relative humidity. This work points to the feasibility of a more general class of low-cost, portable remote sensors based on all-SL emitters for applications that require demanding laser stability and coherence.

  5. Vibration Mode Observation of Piezoelectric Disk-type Resonator by High Frequency Laser Doppler Vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Takeshi; Esashi, Masayoshi; Harada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuji

    For future mobile phones based on cognitive radio technology, a compact multi-band RF front-end architecture is strongly required and an integrated multi-band RF filter bank is a key component in it. Contour-mode resonators are receiving increased attention for a multi-band filter solution, because its resonant frequency is mainly determined by its size and shape, which are defined by lithography. However, spurious responses including flexural vibration are also excited due to its thin structure. To improve resonator performance and suppress spurious modes, visual observation with a laser probe system is very effective. In this paper, we have prototyped a mechanically-coupled disk-array filter, which consists of a Si disk and 2 disk-type resonators of higher-order wine-glass mode, and observed its vibration modes using a high-frequency laser-Doppler vibrometer (UHF-120, Polytec, Inc.). As a result, it was confirmed that higher order wine-glass mode vibration included a compound displacement, and that its out-of-plane vibration amplitude was much smaller than other flexural spurious modes. The observed vibration modes were compared with FEM (Finite Element Method) simulation results. In addition, it was also confirmed that the fabrication error, e.g. miss-alignment, induced asymmetric vibration.

  6. Effect of low level laser therapy on revascularization of free gingival graft using ultrasound Doppler flowmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha T. Arunachalam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low level laser therapy (LLLT is widely used during the post-operative period to accelerate the healing process. It promotes beneficial biological action on neovascularization with anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Two systemically healthy patients with Miller?s grade II recession on 33 and 41, respectively, were treated with free gingival graft. After surgery, second patient received LLLT using a 830 nm diode laser, with output power of 0.1 W on the first day half hour following surgery, on the third day, seventh day, and lastly on the ninth day. Both the patients were asked to assess the pain on second, fourth and tenth day using a Numerical Rating Scale and revascularization of the grafted area was assessed using a color Doppler ultrasound imaging on the fourth and the ninth day. Neovascularization was noted in both the patients but the second patient elicited marked increase in vascularity on the fourth as well as the tenth day and drastic reduction in pain on day four, with no change on the tenth day. The results showed that LLLT was an effective adjunctive treatment in promoting reevascularization and pain control during early healing of free gingival graft.

  7. Doppler limited laser spectroscopy on hafnium lines. Pt. I. Hyperfine structure of even-parity levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouazza, S. [Dept. de Physique, Reims (France); Fienhold, M.; Guthoehrlein, G.H.; Behrens, H.O. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Hamburg, Holstenhofweg 85, 22043 Hamburg (Germany); Dembczynski, J. [Politechnika Poznanska, Katedra Fizyki Atomowej, ul. Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    1999-06-01

    For pt.II see ibid., vol.6, p.311-17, 1999. High-resolution Doppler limited hyperfine structure investigations done by laser spectroscopy techniques using laser induced fluorescence and optogalvanic detection are performed in the plasma of a liquid nitrogen cooled hollow cathode discharge in the atomic spectrum of hafnium on selected lines in the red spectral region. Hyperfine structure spectra obtained using an enriched sample of {sup 177}Hf yielded hyperfine structure constants A and B of both transition levels. For the first time, an experimentally derived description of the levels of the 5d{sup 36s} configuration are presented. Combined with previously obtained data, the hyperfine structure of altogether 12 fine structure levels has been analysed by the simultaneous parametrisation of the one- and two-body interactions in the atomic hyperfine structure for the model space (5d + 6s){sup 4}.The radial parameters of the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole interactions are determined for the configurations 5d{sup 2}6s{sup 2}, 5d{sup 36s} and 5d{sup 4} and compared with ab initio calculations. Finally a complete list of the predicted hyperfine structure constants A and B of all levels of the system was generated. (orig.) 36 refs.

  8. Field performance of an all-semiconductor laser coherent Doppler lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2012-06-15

    We implement and test what, to our knowledge, is the first deployable coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) system based on a compact, inexpensive all-semiconductor laser (SL). To demonstrate the field performance of our SL-CDL remote sensor, we compare a 36 h time series of averaged radial wind speeds measured by our instrument at an 80 m distance to those simultaneously obtained from an industry-standard sonic anemometer (SA). An excellent degree of correlation (R2=0.994 and slope=0.996) is achieved from a linear regression analysis of the CDL versus SA wind speed data. The lidar system is capable of providing high data availability, ranging from 85% to 100% even under varying outdoor (temperature and humidity) conditions during the test period. We also show the use of our SL-CDL for monitoring the dependence of aerosol backscatter on relative humidity. This work points to the feasibility of a more general class of low-cost, portable remote sensors based on all-SL emitters for applications that require demanding laser stability and coherence. PMID:22739880

  9. Evaluation of endoscopic laser Doppler flowmetry for measurement of human gastric blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoscopic measurement of gastric blood perfusion by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been evaluated in 28 patients and 15 healthy vounteers. During the recordings it was necessary to keep the probe in light contact with the mucosa to obtain stable curves and to avoid artificial Doppler signals caused by relative movements between the gastric wall and the probe. Gastric distention by air insufflation did not influence the recorded flow level significantly when air insufflation was moderate. The intravenous injection of 0.6 mg atropine did not cause any significant alteration in recorded blood flow, and this drug may be used as premedication before endoscopic blood flow measurements. Recordings with both 4 kHz and 12 kHz bandwidth of the LDF instruments showed a relative constant relationship for different flow levels, the flow values measured with 12 kHz being about twice the corresponding values measured with 4 kHz. With 12 kHz bandwith more of the disturbance signal is recorded, which makes analysis of endoscopic recorded flow curves difficult and inaccurate. It is therefore recommended to use 4 kHz bandwidth during endoscopic measurements in conscious humans. Blood flow measurements from both sides of the gastric wall were consistently of the same order of magnitude (r=0.91), and the endoscopically recorded output signal increased in three of five patients when a reflecting mirror was placed at the serosal side. The results indicate that endoscopic LDF usually represents blood perfusion in all layers of the gastric wall

  10. Application of a laser Doppler vibrometer for air-water to subsurface signature detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Phillip; Roeder, James; Robinson, Dennis; Majumdar, Arun

    2015-05-01

    There is much interest in detecting a target and optical communications from an airborne platform to a platform submerged under water. Accurate detection and communications between underwater and aerial platforms would increase the capabilities of surface, subsurface, and air, manned and unmanned vehicles engaged in oversea and undersea activities. The technique introduced in this paper involves a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) for acousto-optic sensing for detecting acoustic information propagated towards the water surface from a submerged platform inside a 12 gallon water tank. The LDV probes and penetrates the water surface from an aerial platform to detect air-water surface interface vibrations caused by an amplifier to a speaker generating a signal generated from underneath the water surface (varied water depth from 1" to 8"), ranging between 50Hz to 5kHz. As a comparison tool, a hydrophone was used simultaneously inside the water tank for recording the acoustic signature of the signal generated between 50Hz to 5kHz. For a signal generated by a submerged platform, the LDV can detect the signal. The LDV detects the signal via surface perturbations caused by the impinging acoustic pressure field; proving a technique of transmitting/sending information/messages from a submerged platform acoustically to the surface of the water and optically receiving the information/message using the LDV, via the Doppler Effect, allowing the LDV to become a high sensitivity optical-acoustic device. The technique developed has much potential usage in commercial oceanography applications. The present work is focused on the reception of acoustic information from an object located underwater.

  11. Evaluation of algorithms for microperfusion assessment by fast simulations of laser Doppler power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In classical laser Doppler (LD) perfusion measurements, zeroth- and first-order moments of the power spectral density of the LD signal are utilized for the calculation of a signal corresponding to the concentration, speed and flow of red blood cells (RBCs). We have analysed the nonlinearities of the moments in relation to RBC speed distributions, parameters of filters utilized in LD instruments and the signal-to-noise ratio. We have developed a new method for fast simulation of the spectrum of the LD signal. The method is based on a superposition of analytically calculated Doppler shift probability distributions derived for the assumed light scattering phase function. We have validated the method by a comparison of the analytically calculated spectra with results of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. For the semi-infinite, homogeneous medium and the single Doppler scattering regime, the analytical calculation describes LD spectra with the same accuracy as the MC simulation. The method allows for simulating the LD signal in time domain and furthermore analysing the index of perfusion for the assumed wavelength of the light, optical properties of the tissue and concentration of RBCs. Fast simulations of the LD signal in time domain and its frequency spectrum can be utilized in applications where knowledge of the LD photocurrent is required, e.g. in the development of detectors for tissue microperfusion monitoring or in measurements of the LD autocorrelation function for perfusion measurements. The presented fast method for LD spectra calculation can be used as a tool for evaluation of signal processing algorithms used in the LD method and/or for the development of new algorithms of the LD flowmetry and imaging. We analysed LD spectra obtained by analytical calculations using a classical algorithm applied in classical LD perfusion measurements. We observed nonlinearity of the first moment M1 for low and high speeds of particles (v ?1, v > 10 mm s?1). It was also noted that the first moment M1 is less sensitive to the change of the mean RBC speed for flat speed distributions. The low-pass filter frequency f2 implemented in the LD instrument has a significant influence on the first moment of the spectrum. In particular, for a cut-off frequency lower than 10 kHz the M1 value is strongly underestimated.

  12. Laser-Doppler spectrum decomposition applied for the estimation of speed distribution of particles moving in a multiple scattering medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtkiewicz, S; Liebert, A; Zolek, N; Maniewski, R [Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Rix, H [Laboratoire d' Informatique, Signaux et Systemes de Sophia Antipolis (I3S), Sophia Antipolis (France)], E-mail: swojtkiewicz@ibib.waw.pl

    2009-02-07

    Recently, a method for the estimation of speed distribution of particles moving in an optically turbid medium has been proposed. The method allows potentially absolute measurement of speed of the particles and can be applied in laser-Doppler perfusion measurements. However, the decomposition technique was limited to short source-detector separations for which the assumption that one photon is Doppler scattered not more than once is fulfilled. In the present paper we show a generalized decomposition technique in which photons can be scattered more than once. We show the theoretical background for decomposition in such a case. We apply a decomposition method for the analysis of laser-Doppler spectra obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. This analysis allows showing noise limits in which the technique can be effectively applied in analysis of measured spectra. We propose an approximated scattering model based on the assumption that for one photon consecutive Doppler scattering events occur on particles moving with the same speed, and we show that this approximation does not influence significantly the uncertainty of the resulting speed distribution. The proposed decomposition procedure is validated in measurements on a physical flow model. The decomposition procedure is also validated by analysis of spectra measured on a physical phantom using laser-Doppler flow meter (Oxford Optronix, UK). A diluted solution of milk was pumped through a tube fixed in an optically turbid material with speed varying from 0 mm s{sup -1} to 4 mm s{sup -1}. We observed a linear relation between actual speed of milk solution and speed estimated from results of spectra decomposition.

  13. Laser-Doppler spectrum decomposition applied for the estimation of speed distribution of particles moving in a multiple scattering medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtkiewicz, S; Liebert, A; Rix, H; Zo?ek, N; Maniewski, R

    2009-02-01

    Recently, a method for the estimation of speed distribution of particles moving in an optically turbid medium has been proposed. The method allows potentially absolute measurement of speed of the particles and can be applied in laser-Doppler perfusion measurements. However, the decomposition technique was limited to short source-detector separations for which the assumption that one photon is Doppler scattered not more than once is fulfilled. In the present paper we show a generalized decomposition technique in which photons can be scattered more than once. We show the theoretical background for decomposition in such a case. We apply a decomposition method for the analysis of laser-Doppler spectra obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. This analysis allows showing noise limits in which the technique can be effectively applied in analysis of measured spectra. We propose an approximated scattering model based on the assumption that for one photon consecutive Doppler scattering events occur on particles moving with the same speed, and we show that this approximation does not influence significantly the uncertainty of the resulting speed distribution. The proposed decomposition procedure is validated in measurements on a physical flow model. The decomposition procedure is also validated by analysis of spectra measured on a physical phantom using laser-Doppler flow meter (Oxford Optronix, UK). A diluted solution of milk was pumped through a tube fixed in an optically turbid material with speed varying from 0 mm s(-1) to 4 mm s(-1). We observed a linear relation between actual speed of milk solution and speed estimated from results of spectra decomposition. PMID:19131674

  14. Support of gas flowmeter upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugaman, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    A project history review, literature review, and vendor search were conducted to identify a flowmeter that would improve the accuracy of gaseous flow measurements in the White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Calibration Laboratory and the Hydrogen High Flow Facility. Both facilities currently use sonic flow nozzles to measure flowrates. The flow nozzle pressure drops combined with corresponding pressure and temperature measurements have been estimated to produce uncertainties in flowrate measurements of 2 to 5 percent. This study investigated the state of flowmeter technology to make recommendations that would reduce those uncertainties. Most flowmeters measure velocity and volume, therefore mass flow measurement must be calculated based on additional pressures and temperature measurement which contribute to the error. The two exceptions are thermal dispersion meters and Coriolis mass flowmeters. The thermal dispersion meters are accurate to 1 to 5 percent. The Coriolis meters are significantly more accurate, at least for liquids. For gases, there is evidence they may be accurate to within 0.5 percent or better of the flowrate, but there may be limitations due to inappropriate velocity, pressure, Mach number and vibration disturbances. In this report, a comparison of flowmeters is presented. Candidate Coriolis meters and a methodology to qualify the meter with tests both at WSTF and Southwest Research Institute are recommended and outlined.

  15. Laser-Doppler-Velocimetry on the basis of frequency selective absorption: set-up and test of a Doppler Gloval Velocimeter; Laser-Doppler-Velocimetry auf der Basis frequenzselektiver Absorption: Aufbau und Einsatz eines Doppler Global Velocimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehle, I.

    1999-11-01

    A Doppler Global Velocimeter was set up in the frame of a PhD thesis. This velocimeter is optimized to carry out high accuracy, three component, time averaged planar velocity measurements. The anemometer was successfully applied to wind tunnel and test rig flows, and the measurement accuracy was investigated. A volumetric data-set of the flow field inside an industrial combustion chamber was measured. This data field contained about 400.000 vectors. DGV measurements in the intake of a jet engine model were carried out applying a fibre bundle boroskope. The flow structure of the wake of a car model in a wind tunnel was investigated. The measurement accuracy of the DGV-System is {+-}0.5 m/s when operated under ideal conditions. This study can serve as a basis to evaluate the use of DGV for aerodynamic development experiments. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen der Dissertation wurde ein auf hohe Messgenauigkeit optimiertes DGV-Geraet fuer zeitlich gemittelte Drei-Komponenten-Geschwindigkeitsmessungen entwickelt und gebaut, an Laborstroemungen, an Teststaenden und an Windkanaelen erfolgreich eingesetzt und das Potential der Messtechnik, insbesondere im Hinblick auf Messgenauigkeit, untersucht. Im Fall einer industriellen Brennkammer konnte ein Volumen-Datensatz des Stroemungsfeldes erstellt werden, dessen Umfang bei ca. 400.000 Vektoren lag. Es wurden DGV-Messungen mittels eines flexiblen Endoskops auf Basis eines Faserbuendels durchgefuehrt und damit die Stroemung in einem Flugzeugeinlauf vermessen. Es wurden DGV-Messungen im Nachlauf eines PKW-Modells in einem Windkanal durchgefuehrt. Die Messgenauigkeit des erstellten DGV-Systems betraegt unter Idealbedingungen {+-}0,5 m/s. Durch die Arbeit wurde eine Basis zur Beurteilung des Nutzens der DGV-Technik fuer aerodynamische Entwicklungsarbeiten geschaffen. (orig.)

  16. Laser Doppler Velocimetry for Joint Measurements of Acoustic and Mean Flow Velocities : LMS-based Algorithm and CRB Calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Laurent; Richoux, Olivier; Degroot, Anne,; Lionet, Louis

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a least mean square (LMS) algorithm for the joint estimation of acoustic and mean flow velocities from laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements. The usual algorithms used for measuring with LDV purely acoustic velocity or mean flow velocity may not be used when the acoustic field is disturbed by a mean flow component. The LMS-based algorithm allows accurate estimations of both acoustic and mean flow velocities. The Cram\\'er-Rao bound (CRB) of the asso...

  17. Performance of eddy-viscosity turbulence models for predicting swirling pipe-flow: Simulations and laser-Doppler velocimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Daz, Diego del Olmo; Hinz, Denis F.

    2015-01-01

    We use laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV) experiments and Reynolds-averaged Navier--Stokes (RANS) simulations to study the characteristic flow patterns downstream of a standardized clockwise swirl disturbance generator. After quantifying the impact of the mesh size, we evaluate the potential of various eddy-viscosity turbulence models in providing reasonable approximations with respect to the experimental reference. Our results suggest that models from the $k$-$\\epsilon$ family...

  18. Surface Charge Measurement of SonoVue, Definity and Optison: A Comparison of Laser Doppler Electrophoresis and Micro-Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ja'afar, Fairuzeta; Leow, Chee Hau; Garbin, Valeria; Sennoga, Charles A; Tang, Meng-Xing; Seddon, John M

    2015-11-01

    Microbubble (MB) contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is a promising tool for targeted molecular imaging. It is important to determine the MB surface charge accurately as it affects the MB interactions with cell membranes. In this article, we report the surface charge measurement of SonoVue, Definity and Optison. We compare the performance of the widely used laser Doppler electrophoresis with an in-house micro-electrophoresis system. By optically tracking MB electrophoretic velocity in a microchannel, we determined the zeta potentials of MB samples. Using micro-electrophoresis, we obtained zeta potential values for SonoVue, Definity and Optison of -28.3, -4.2 and -9.5 mV, with relative standard deviations of 5%, 48% and 8%, respectively. In comparison, laser Doppler electrophoresis gave -8.7,+0.7 and+15.8 mV with relative standard deviations of 330%, 29,000% and 130%, respectively. We found that the reliability of laser Doppler electrophoresis is compromised by MB buoyancy. Micro-electrophoresis determined zeta potential values with a 10-fold improvement in relative standard deviation. PMID:26318559

  19. Permanent magnet flowmeter having improved output terminal means

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Charles (Darien, IL); Myers, Harry J. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved permanent magnet flowmeter capable of withstanding bending stresses in the direction of induced emf signals. The flowmeter includes a unique terminal arrangement integrally formed with the flowmeter by trepanning opposing wall sections of the flowmeter body. The terminal arrangement provides increased flowmeter sensitivity by increasing the strength of the induced emf signals.

  20. Permanent-magnet flowmeter having improved output-terminal means

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, C.; Myers, H.J.

    1981-10-26

    Disclosed is an improved permanent magnet flowmeter capable of withstanding bending stresses in the direction of induced emf signals. The flowmeter includes a unique terminal arrangement integrally formed with the flowmeter by trepanning opposing wall sections of the flowmeter body. The terminal arrangement provides increased flowmeter sensitivity by increasing the strength of the induced emf signals.

  1. Engine classification using vibrations measured by Laser Doppler Vibrometer on different surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J.; Liu, Chi-Him; Zhu, Zhigang; Vongsy, Karmon; Mendoza-Schrock, Olga

    2015-05-01

    In our previous studies, vehicle surfaces' vibrations caused by operating engines measured by Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) have been effectively exploited in order to classify vehicles of different types, e.g., vans, 2-door sedans, 4-door sedans, trucks, and buses, as well as different types of engines, such as Inline-four engines, V-6 engines, 1-axle diesel engines, and 2-axle diesel engines. The results are achieved by employing methods based on an array of machine learning classifiers such as AdaBoost, random forests, neural network, and support vector machines. To achieve effective classification performance, we seek to find a more reliable approach to pick authentic vibrations of vehicle engines from a trustworthy surface. Compared with vibrations directly taken from the uncooperative vehicle surfaces that are rigidly connected to the engines, these vibrations are much weaker in magnitudes. In this work we conducted a systematic study on different types of objects. We tested different types of engines ranging from electric shavers, electric fans, and coffee machines among different surfaces such as a white board, cement wall, and steel case to investigate the characteristics of the LDV signals of these surfaces, in both the time and spectral domains. Preliminary results in engine classification using several machine learning algorithms point to the right direction on the choice of type of object surfaces to be planted for LDV measurements.

  2. Beam pointing angle optimization and experiments for vehicle laser Doppler velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhe; Hu, Shuling; Zhang, Chunxi; Nie, Yanju; Li, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Beam pointing angle (BPA) is one of the key parameters that affects the operation performance of the laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) system. By considering velocity sensitivity and echo power, for the first time, the optimized BPA of vehicle LDV is analyzed. Assuming mounting error is within 1.0 deg, the reflectivity and roughness are variable for different scenarios, the optimized BPA is obtained in the range from 29 to 43deg. Therefore, velocity sensitivity is in the range of 1.25 to 1.76 MHz/(m/s), and the percentage of normalized echo power at optimized BPA with respect to that at 0deg is greater than 53.49%. Laboratory experiments with a rotating table are done with different BPAs of 10, 35, and 66deg, and the results coincide with the theoretical analysis. Further, vehicle experiment with optimized BPA of 35deg is conducted by comparison with microwave radar (accuracy of 0.5% full scale output). The root-mean-square error of LDV's results is smaller than the Microstar II's, 0.0202 and 0.1495 m/s, corresponding to LDV and Microstar II, respectively, and the mean velocity discrepancy is 0.032 m/s. It is also proven that with the optimized BPA both high velocity sensitivity and acceptable echo power can simultaneously be guaranteed.

  3. Absorption and scattering coefficient dependence of laser-Doppler flowmetry models for large tissue volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binzoni, T [Departement de Neurosciences Fondamentales, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva (Switzerland); Leung, T S [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London (United Kingdom); Ruefenacht, D [Department de Radiologie et Informatique Medicale, University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Delpy, D T [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-21

    Based on quasi-elastic scattering theory (and random walk on a lattice approach), a model of laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been derived which can be applied to measurements in large tissue volumes (e.g. when the interoptode distance is >30 mm). The model holds for a semi-infinite medium and takes into account the transport-corrected scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient of the tissue, and the scattering coefficient of the red blood cells. The model holds for anisotropic scattering and for multiple scattering of the photons by the moving scatterers of finite size. In particular, it has also been possible to take into account the simultaneous presence of both Brownian and pure translational movements. An analytical and simplified version of the model has also been derived and its validity investigated, for the case of measurements in human skeletal muscle tissue. It is shown that at large optode spacing it is possible to use the simplified model, taking into account only a 'mean' light pathlength, to predict the blood flow related parameters. It is also demonstrated that the 'classical' blood volume parameter, derived from LDF instruments, may not represent the actual blood volume variations when the investigated tissue volume is large. The simplified model does not need knowledge of the tissue optical parameters and thus should allow the development of very simple and cost-effective LDF hardware.

  4. Absorption and scattering coefficient dependence of laser-Doppler flowmetry models for large tissue volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzoni, T.; Leung, T. S.; Rfenacht, D.; Delpy, D. T.

    2006-01-01

    Based on quasi-elastic scattering theory (and random walk on a lattice approach), a model of laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been derived which can be applied to measurements in large tissue volumes (e.g. when the interoptode distance is >30 mm). The model holds for a semi-infinite medium and takes into account the transport-corrected scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient of the tissue, and the scattering coefficient of the red blood cells. The model holds for anisotropic scattering and for multiple scattering of the photons by the moving scatterers of finite size. In particular, it has also been possible to take into account the simultaneous presence of both Brownian and pure translational movements. An analytical and simplified version of the model has also been derived and its validity investigated, for the case of measurements in human skeletal muscle tissue. It is shown that at large optode spacing it is possible to use the simplified model, taking into account only a 'mean' light pathlength, to predict the blood flow related parameters. It is also demonstrated that the 'classical' blood volume parameter, derived from LDF instruments, may not represent the actual blood volume variations when the investigated tissue volume is large. The simplified model does not need knowledge of the tissue optical parameters and thus should allow the development of very simple and cost-effective LDF hardware.

  5. Absorption and scattering coefficient dependence of laser-Doppler flowmetry models for large tissue volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on quasi-elastic scattering theory (and random walk on a lattice approach), a model of laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been derived which can be applied to measurements in large tissue volumes (e.g. when the interoptode distance is >30 mm). The model holds for a semi-infinite medium and takes into account the transport-corrected scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient of the tissue, and the scattering coefficient of the red blood cells. The model holds for anisotropic scattering and for multiple scattering of the photons by the moving scatterers of finite size. In particular, it has also been possible to take into account the simultaneous presence of both Brownian and pure translational movements. An analytical and simplified version of the model has also been derived and its validity investigated, for the case of measurements in human skeletal muscle tissue. It is shown that at large optode spacing it is possible to use the simplified model, taking into account only a 'mean' light pathlength, to predict the blood flow related parameters. It is also demonstrated that the 'classical' blood volume parameter, derived from LDF instruments, may not represent the actual blood volume variations when the investigated tissue volume is large. The simplified model does not need knowledge of the tissue optical parameters and thus should allow the development of very simple and cost-effective LDF hardware

  6. [Reactive hyperemia after arterial occlusion: comparison of infrared telethermography and laser Doppler flowmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssler, L; Hendricks, O; Ranft, J; Blank, M

    1995-01-01

    Before, during and after arterial occlusion we measured Laser-Doppler Flux (LDF) and skin temperature using Infrared-Thermographie (IRT) in 40 healthy adults (20 female, 20 male). In the region of the hypothenar eminence of the left hand LDF and skin temperature showed significantly higher values in male compared with female subjects prior to occlusion (p < 0.01 resp. p < 0.05). After arterial occlusion for 120 seconds LDF showed a significant overshoot of 71.3% (+/- 39.5%) above baseline. During this phase of hyperemia skin temperature rose from 33.5 to 34.8 degrees C (p < 0.0001). This reaction was similar in men and in women. Changes in skin temperature were slower and more prolonged compared with the rapid changes of LDF. The absolute temperatures were significantly higher when we used IRT compared with temperatures measured by resistance thermometry. Both methods showed a close correlation (p < 0.0001, r = 0.891). Using the IRT technique a large number of skin temperatures can be measured simultaneously and temperature changes can be detected and visualized by colour thermograms. Postocclusive cutaneous hyperemia induces similar responses in LDF parameters and in skin temperatures. IRT therefore could be used as an additional tool for the assessment of physiological and pathological functions of the cutaneous microcirculation. PMID:7793147

  7. High-Volume Hydrodissection: Assessment of Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Perfusion Using Laser Doppler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanzio, Paolo Maria; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Samcam, Ivan; Lin, Yu-Te; Gorantla, Vijay; Lee, Bernard T; Singhal, Dhruv

    2015-12-01

    High-volume hydrodissection of intramuscular perforators of deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps in Sprague-Dawley rats has previously demonstrated a significant reduction in dissection time while simultaneously increasing the safety of dissection. However, increasing volumes of fluid injected into the closed rectus compartment may have adverse consequences on perfusion to the overlying flap. A prospective experimental animal study was performed to define a safe upper limit of volume injection for high-volume hydrodissection. Eight Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral "DIEP" flap dissections with varying volumes of fluid (1, 3, 6, and 9 mL) injected into the study side. The primary outcome measurement was overlying tissue perfusion, measured using laser Doppler imaging, at 6 separate time points during the flap harvest. Although no significant difference in perfusion was noted between study and control sides despite increasing volumes of injection, a trend toward significant altered perfusion was noted immediately after injection in the 9-mL study group. Six milliliters is defined as the safe upper limit volume of injection into the closed rectus compartment without significantly altering overlying flap perfusion in our Sprague-Dawley rats. Using volumetric analysis, these data translate to 425 mL as the safe upper limit for high-volume hydrodissection for a single average sized human rectus sheath during DIEP flap harvesting. The mechanical and potentially pharmacologic implications of these data in humans remain to be seen. PMID:25003454

  8. Laser Doppler Blood Flow Imaging Using a CMOS Imaging Sensor with On-Chip Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cally Gill

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The first fully integrated 2D CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing for applications in laser Doppler blood flow (LDBF imaging has been designed and tested. To obtain a space efficient design over 64 × 64 pixels means that standard processing electronics used off-chip cannot be implemented. Therefore the analog signal processing at each pixel is a tailored design for LDBF signals with balanced optimization for signal-to-noise ratio and silicon area. This custom made sensor offers key advantages over conventional sensors, viz. the analog signal processing at the pixel level carries out signal normalization; the AC amplification in combination with an anti-aliasing filter allows analog-to-digital conversion with a low number of bits; low resource implementation of the digital processor enables on-chip processing and the data bottleneck that exists between the detector and processing electronics has been overcome. The sensor demonstrates good agreement with simulation at each design stage. The measured optical performance of the sensor is demonstrated using modulated light signals and in vivo blood flow experiments. Images showing blood flow changes with arterial occlusion and an inflammatory response to a histamine skin-prick demonstrate that the sensor array is capable of detecting blood flow signals from tissue.

  9. Quantum treatment of two-stage sub-Doppler laser cooling of magnesium atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Brazhnikov, D V; Taichenachev, A V; Yudin, V I; Bonert, A E; Il'enkov, R Ya; Goncharov, A N

    2015-01-01

    The problem of deep laser cooling of $^{24}$Mg atoms is theoretically studied. We propose two-stage sub-Doppler cooling strategy using electro-dipole transition $3^3P_2$$\\to$$3^3D_3$ ($\\lambda$=383.9 nm). The first stage implies exploiting magneto-optical trap with $\\sigma^+$ and $\\sigma^-$ light beams, while the second one uses a lin$\\perp$lin molasses. We focus on achieving large number of ultracold atoms (T$_{eff}$ < 10 $\\mu$K) in a cold atomic cloud. The calculations have been done out of many widely used approximations and based on quantum treatment with taking full account of recoil effect. Steady-state average kinetic energies and linear momentum distributions of cold atoms are analysed for various light-field intensities and frequency detunings. The results of conducted quantum analysis have revealed noticeable differences from results of semiclassical approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation. At certain conditions the second cooling stage can provide sufficiently lower kinetic energies of atom...

  10. Dynamic Rotor Deformation and Vibration Monitoring Using a Non-Incremental Laser Doppler Distance Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring rotor deformations and vibrations dynamically is an important task for improving the safety and the lifetime as well as the energy efficiency of motors and turbo machines. However, due to the high rotor speed encountered in particular at turbo machines, this requires concurrently a high measurement rate and high accuracy, which can not be fulfilled by most commercially available sensors. To solve this problem, we developed a non-incremental laser Doppler distance sensor (LDDS), which is able to measure simultaneously the in-plane velocity and the out-of-plane position of moving rough solid objects with micrometer precision. In addition, this sensor concurrently offers a high temporal resolution in the microsecond range, because its position uncertainty is in principle independent of the object velocity in contrast to conventional distance sensors, which is a unique feature of the LDDS. Consequently, this novel sensor enables precise and dynamic in-process deformation and vibration measurements on rotating objects, such as turbo machine rotors, even at very high speed. In order to evidence the capability of the LDDS, measurements of rotor deformations (radial expansion), vibrations and wobbling motions are presented at up to 50,000 rpm rotor speed.

  11. Pulse transit times to the capillary bed evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulse transit time (PTT) of a wave over a specified distance along a blood vessel provides a simple non-invasive index that can be used for the evaluation of arterial distensibility. Current methods of measuring the PTT determine the propagation times of pulses only in the larger arteries. We have evaluated the pulse arrival time (PAT) to the capillary bed, through the microcirculation, and have investigated its relationship to the arterial PAT to a fingertip. To do so, we detected cardiac-induced pulse waves in skin microcirculation using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Using the ECG as a reference, PATs to the microcirculation were measured on the four extremities of 108 healthy subjects. Simultaneously, PATs to the radial artery of the left index finger were obtained from blood pressure recordings using a piezoelectric sensor. Both PATs correlate in similar ways with heart rate and age. That to the microcirculation is shown to be sensitive to local changes in skin perfusion induced by cooling. We introduce a measure for the PTT through the microcirculation. We conclude that a combination of LDF and pressure measurements enables simultaneous characterization of the states of the macro and microvasculature. Information about the microcirculation, including an assessment of endothelial function, may be obtained from the responses to perturbations in skin perfusion, such as temperature stress or vasoactive substances

  12. Laser Doppler anemometry measurements of steady flow through two bi-leaflet prosthetic heart valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovandir Bazan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In vitro hydrodynamic characterization of prosthetic heart valves provides important information regarding their operation, especially if performed by noninvasive techniques of anemometry. Once velocity profiles for each valve are provided, it is possible to compare them in terms of hydrodynamic performance. In this first experimental study using laser doppler anemometry with mechanical valves, the simulations were performed at a steady flow workbench. OBJECTIVE: To compare unidimensional velocity profiles at the central plane of two bi-leaflet aortic prosthesis from St. Jude (AGN 21 - 751 and 21 AJ - 501 models exposed to a steady flow regime, on four distinct sections, three downstream and one upstream. METHODS: To provide similar conditions for the flow through each prosthesis by a steady flow workbench (water, flow rate of 17L/min. and, for the same sections and sweeps, to obtain the velocity profiles of each heart valve by unidimensional measurements. RESULTS: It was found that higher velocities correspond to the prosthesis with smaller inner diameter and instabilities of flow are larger as the section of interest is closer to the valve. Regions of recirculation, stagnation of flow, low pressure, and flow peak velocities were also found. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the hydrodynamic aspect and for every section measured, it could be concluded that the prosthesis model AGN 21 - 751 (RegentTM is superior to the 21 AJ - 501 model (Master Series. Based on the results, future studies can choose to focus on specific regions of the these valves.

  13. Eye-safe diode laser Doppler lidar with a MEMS beam-scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi; Pedersen, Christian; Rodrigo, Peter John

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel Doppler lidar that employs a cw diode laser operating at 1.5 ?m and a micro-electro-mechanical-system scanning mirror (MEMS-SM). In this work, two functionalities of the lidar system are demonstrated. Firstly, we describe the capability to effectively steer the lidar probe beam to multiple optical transceivers along separate lines-of-sight. The beam steering functionality is demonstrated using four lines-of-sight - each at an angle of 18 with respect to their symmetry axis. Secondly, we demonstrate the ability to spatially dither the beam focus to reduce the mean irradiance at the probing distance (R = 60 m) of each line-of-sight - relevant for meeting eye-safety requirements. The switching time of the MEMS-SM is measured to be in the order of a few milliseconds. Time-shared (0.25 s per line-of-sight) radial wind speed measurements at 50 Hz data rate are experimentally demonstrated. Spatial dithering of the beam focus is also implemented using a spiral scan trajectory resulting in a 16 dB reduction of beam focus mean irradiance. PMID:26906770

  14. Mlanges ultrafoids de Fermi et refroidissements laser sub-Doppler simultan de fermioniques 6Li et 40K

    OpenAIRE

    Sievers, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Ce travail rend compte de nouvelles techniques dveloppes pour l'tude exprimentale de gaz ultrafroids de lithium et de potassium fermioniques. Les amliorations de notre exprience 6Li-40K y sont dcrites et caractrises. Nous prsentons un laser solide de grande finesse capable d'mettre 5W de puissance 671 nm. Nous utilisons cette source laser dans le contexte d'une nouvelle technique de refroidissement sub-Doppler, reposant sur la transition atomique D1 des atomes alcalins, pour refr...

  15. Ultracold Fermi mixtures and simultaneous sub-Doppler laser cooling of fermionic ^{6}Li and ^{40}K

    OpenAIRE

    Sievers, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Ce travail rend compte de nouvelles techniques dveloppes pour ltude exprimentale de gaz ultrafroids de lithium et de potassium fermioniques. Les amliorations de notre exprience ^{6}Li-^{40}K y sont dcrites et caractrises. Nous prsentons un laser solide de grande finesse capable dmettre 5W de puissance 671 nm. Nous utilisons cette source laser dans le contexte d'une nouvelle technique de refroidissement sub-Doppler, reposant sur la transition atomique D1 des atomes alcalins, pou...

  16. High resolution Doppler lidar based on actively stabilized ring dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CW Doppler lidar has been developed. Heterodyne detection techniques are used for the recording of Doppler shifted collected backscattered signals induced by the motion of remote sources. The system has been tested for remote measurements of Doppler shifts due to rotating objects, aerosols and flowing liquids. Water and gaseous discharge flow rates have been measured remotely for simulation purposes. The system is capable of measuring Doppler shifts as low as 0.25 MHz corresponding to 0.1 m/sec velocities

  17. Laser frequency stabilization and large detuning by Doppler-free dichroic lock technique: Application to atom cooling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V B Tiwari; S R Mishra; H S Rawat; S Singh; S P Ram; S C Mehendale

    2005-09-01

    We present results of a study of frequency stabilization of a diode laser ($\\lambda = 780$ nm) using the Doppler-free dichroic lock (DFDL) technique and its use for laser cooling of atoms. Quantitative measurements of frequency stability were performed and the Allan variance was found to be $6.9 \\times 10^{?11} for an averaging time of 10 s. The frequency-stabilized diode laser was used to obtain the trapping beams for a magneto-optic trap (MOT) for Rb atoms. Using the DFDL technique, the laser frequency could be locked over a wide range and this enabled measurement of detuning dependence of the number and temperature of cold atoms using a relatively simple experimental set-up.

  18. Laser Doppler velocimeter measurements and laser sheet imaging in an annular combustor model. M.S. Thesis, Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwenger, Richard Dale

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in annular combustor model to provide a better understanding of the flowfield. Combustor model configurations consisting of primary jets only, annular jets only, and a combination of annular and primary jets were investigated. The purpose of this research was to provide a better understanding of combustor flows and to provide a data base for comparison with computational models. The first part of this research used a laser Doppler velocimeter to measure mean velocity and statistically calculate root-mean-square velocity in two coordinate directions. From this data, one Reynolds shear stress component and a two-dimensional turbulent kinetic energy term was determined. Major features of the flowfield included recirculating flow, primary and annular jet interaction, and high turbulence. The most pronounced result from this data was the effect the primary jets had on the flowfield. The primary jets were seen to reduce flow asymmetries, create larger recirculation zones, and higher turbulence levels. The second part of this research used a technique called marker nephelometry to provide mean concentration values in the combustor. Results showed the flow to be very turbulent and unsteady. All configurations investigated were highly sensitive to alignment of the primary and annular jets in the model and inlet conditions. Any imbalance between primary jets or misalignment of the annular jets caused severe flow asymmetries.

  19. Autonomous structural health monitoring technique for interplanetary drilling applications using laser Doppler velocimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statham, Shannon M.

    The research work presented in this thesis is devoted to the formulation and field testing of a dynamics-based structural health monitoring system for an interplanetary subsurface exploration drill system. Structural health monitoring is the process of detecting damage or other types of defects in structural and mechanical systems that have the potential to adversely affect the current or future performance of these systems. Interplanetary exploration missions, specifically to Mars, involve operations to search for water and other signs of extant or past life. Such missions require advanced robotic systems that are more susceptible to structural and mechanical failures, which motivates a need for structural health monitoring techniques relevant to interplanetary exploration systems. Strict design requirements for interplanetary exploration missions create unique research problems and challenges compared with structural health monitoring procedures and techniques developed to date. These challenges include implementing sensors and devices that will not interfere with the drilling operation, producing "real-time" diagnostics of the drilling condition, and developing an automation procedure for complete autonomous operations. The first research area involves modal analysis experiments to understand the dynamic characteristics of interplanetary drill structural systems in operation. These experiments also validate the use of Laser Doppler Velocimeter sensors in real-time structural health monitoring and prove the drill motor system adequately excites the drill for dynamic measurements and modal analysis while the drill is in operation. The second research area involves the development of modal analysis procedures for rotating structures using a Chebyshev signal filter to remove harmonic component and other noise from the rotating drill signal. This filter is necessary to accurately analyze the condition of the rotating drill auger tube while in operation. The third research area involves the development of structural dynamic models to represent the drill system under nominal and expected drilling fault conditions. These models are compared with the modal analysis experimental results and provide theoretical means to analyze the drilling operation and predict fault conditions. The fourth research area involves the formulation of a complete autonomous system to collect and perform the dynamic analysis of the drill signal, identify fault-diagnostic results, and relay these results to the drill Executive computer. The formulated system includes the signal filter, trained Neural Networks, and an automation procedure. Trained Neural Networks are implemented to provide a rapid-response method of relating and comparing the current drill signal with the fault-based structural dynamic models developed in this thesis. Lastly, an automation procedure, and the corresponding software, is developed to interface the measurement equipment, signal filter, Neural Networks, and drill Executive computer to provide a complete hands-off operation of the structural health monitoring system. The fifth research area involves field testing and validation of the developed structural health monitoring system through three field campaigns. Two of these field campaigns were completed at a Mars-analog site in the Canadian Arctic. The automated dynamics-based structural health monitoring technique developed in this thesis presents advanced research accomplishments leading to real-time, autonomous structural health monitoring, and it has been successfully demonstrated on an operating dynamic system. Other major contributions of this thesis work include the formulation and demonstration of real-time, autonomous structural health monitoring in rotating structures using Laser Doppler Velocimeter sensors.

  20. Laser Doppler measurement and CFD validation in 3 3 bundle flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Jinbiao, E-mail: xiongjinbiao@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China); Yu, Yang [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China); Yu, Nan; Fu, Xiaoliang [State Nuclear Power Software Development Center, National Energy Key Laboratory of Nuclear Power Software (China); Wang, Hongyan [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China); Cheng, Xu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Yang, Yanhua [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China); State Nuclear Power Software Development Center, National Energy Key Laboratory of Nuclear Power Software (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: Five-beam LDV is operated in the three-beam mode to measure 3 3 bundle flow. Correlation and FFT techniques are applied to analyze the flow structure. Large coherent structure is observed in gaps between different subchannels. The Reynolds stress models predict weak mixing between different subchannels. - Abstract: The five-beam three-component laser Doppler system is operated in the three-beam two-component mode to measure the 3 3 bundle flow with simple grid spacer. Experiment has been conducted at Re = 15,200 and 29,900. According to the experiment result, the root mean square (RMS) of axial velocity fluctuation shows large value in the gap and the near-wall region of the edge sub-channel which is induced by the axial velocity gradient. Significant intensity of lateral velocity fluctuation is observed which indicates the strong lateral mixing in a 3 3 rod bundle. Through the correlation analysis coherent structures have been observed in the gap region. The spectral analysis shows that the LDV measurement complies to the Komogorov spectrum law, f{sup ?5/3}, well. The low-frequency peak spectral density of the axial velocity fluctuation has been observed in the gap region connecting sub-channels with velocity difference. The performance of the SSG model and the baseline Reynolds stress model are investigated based on the experiment result. The models predict higher axial velocity in the interior sub-channel and lower in the edge and corner ones than the experiment result. Large discrepancy between the calculated and measured axial flow velocity is resulted from failure in calculating the strong negative u{sup ?}w{sup ?} in the gap region connecting different sub-channels.

  1. Functionalization and characterization of persistent luminescence nanoparticles by dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler and capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramrez-Garca, Gonzalo; d'Orly, Fanny; Gutirrez-Granados, Silvia; Martnez-Alfaro, Minerva; Mignet, Nathalie; Richard, Cyrille; Varenne, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Zinc gallate nanoparticles doped with chromium (III) (ZnGa1.995O4:Cr0.005) are innovative persistent luminescence materials with particular optical properties allowing their use for in vivo imaging. They can be excited in the tissue transparency window by visible photons and emit light for hours after the end of the excitation. This allows to observe the probe without any time constraints and without autofluorescence signals produced by biological tissues. Modification of the surface of these nanoparticles is essential to be colloidally stable not only for cell targeting applications but also for proper distribution in living organisms. The use of different methods for controlling and characterizing the functionalization process is imperative to better understand the subsequent interactions with biological elements. This work explores for the first time the characterization and optimization of a classic functionalization sequence, starting with hydroxyl groups (ZGO-OH) at the nanoparticle surface, followed by an aminosilane-functionalization intermediate stage (ZGO-NH2) before PEGylation (ZGO-PEG). Dynamic light scattering and laser doppler electrophoresis were used in combination with capillary electrophoresis to characterize the nanoparticle functionalization processes and control their colloidal and chemical stability. The hydrodynamic diameter, zeta potential, electrophoretic mobility, stability over time and aggregation state of persistent luminescence nanoparticles under physiological-based solution conditions have been studied for each functional state. Additionally, a new protocol to improve ZGO-NH2 stability based on a thermal treatment to complete covalent binding of (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane onto the particle surface has been optimized. This thorough control increases our knowledge on these nanoparticles for subsequent toxicological studies and ultimately medical application. PMID:26409685

  2. Effect of captopril on skin blood flow following intradermal bradykinin measured by laser Doppler flowmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Kam Wa, T C; Almond, N E; Cooke, E D; Turner, P

    1989-01-01

    The effect of captopril on skin response to intradermal injection of bradykinin was investigated by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and weal and flare measurements in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over balanced study. Intradermal injections of 1 and 2.5 micrograms of bradykinin and normal saline were made into the forearm skin of six healthy volunteers between 1 and 2 h (t1) and between 3 and 4 h (t2) after either 25 mg captopril or placebo. Skin blood flow outside the induced weal was monitored continuously by LDF for 15 min and the mean LDF values over the last 15 s were used for analysis. Weal and flare sizes were measured at 15 min. On the placebo days, the mean LDF output, weal volume and flare area increased with incremental bradykinin dose. Pre-treatment with captopril significantly increased LDF output following intradermal bradykinin at t1 but not at t2. At both t1 and t2, captopril significantly increased weal volume. There was no significant difference between treatments in flare areas. Skin response following intradermal normal saline, measured by the above parameters, was not affected by captopril. This study showed that captopril potentiated the effects of intradermal bradykinin both with respect to blood flow changes and weal formation. The non-invasive technique of LDF can be used to detect the skin blood flow changes induced by intradermal bradykinin and the potentiation of this effect by captopril. It appears to be a useful and more objective method of quantifying local cutaneous blood flow changes than measurement of flare area. PMID:2532136

  3. Laser Doppler measurement and CFD validation in 3 × 3 bundle flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Five-beam LDV is operated in the three-beam mode to measure 3 × 3 bundle flow. • Correlation and FFT techniques are applied to analyze the flow structure. • Large coherent structure is observed in gaps between different subchannels. • The Reynolds stress models predict weak mixing between different subchannels. - Abstract: The five-beam three-component laser Doppler system is operated in the three-beam two-component mode to measure the 3 × 3 bundle flow with simple grid spacer. Experiment has been conducted at Re = 15,200 and 29,900. According to the experiment result, the root mean square (RMS) of axial velocity fluctuation shows large value in the gap and the near-wall region of the edge sub-channel which is induced by the axial velocity gradient. Significant intensity of lateral velocity fluctuation is observed which indicates the strong lateral mixing in a 3 × 3 rod bundle. Through the correlation analysis coherent structures have been observed in the gap region. The spectral analysis shows that the LDV measurement complies to the Komogorov spectrum law, f−5/3, well. The low-frequency peak spectral density of the axial velocity fluctuation has been observed in the gap region connecting sub-channels with velocity difference. The performance of the SSG model and the baseline Reynolds stress model are investigated based on the experiment result. The models predict higher axial velocity in the interior sub-channel and lower in the edge and corner ones than the experiment result. Large discrepancy between the calculated and measured axial flow velocity is resulted from failure in calculating the strong negative u′w′¯ in the gap region connecting different sub-channels

  4. A laser-lock concept to reach cm/s-precision in Doppler experiments with Fabry-Perot wavelength calibrators

    CERN Document Server

    Reiners, A; Ulbrich, R G

    2014-01-01

    State-of-the-art Doppler experiments require wavelength calibration with precision at the cm/s level. A low-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) can provide a wavelength comb with a very large bandwidth as required for astronomical experiments, but unavoidable spectral drifts are difficult to control. Instead of actively controlling the FPI cavity, we propose to passively stabilize the interferometer and track the time-dependent cavity length drift externally. A dual-finesse cavity allows drift tracking during observation. The drift of the cavity length is monitored in the high-finesse range relative to an external standard: a single narrow transmission peak is locked to an external cavity diode laser and compared to an atomic frequency. Following standard locking schemes, tracking at sub-mm/s precision can be achieved. This is several orders of magnitude better than currently planned high-precision Doppler experiments. It allows freedom for relaxed designs rendering this approach particularly interesting...

  5. Flowmeter engineering, marketing analysis. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohrmann, G.

    1988-01-01

    Part 2 of the article series discusses important features of new flowmeters. Although none of the systems described are officially accepted for high-accuracy calibration liquid volumetry, there are magneto-inductive flowmeters with flow ranges up to 1:333, as well as magneto-inductive flowmeters with high excitation frequencies of 100 or 240 Hz which, if equipped with suitable electronic systems, may be a substitute for conventional counters in fast density processes.

  6. Continuous-scanning laser Doppler vibrometry: Extensions to arbitrary areas, multi-frequency and 3D capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weekes, B.; Ewins, D. [University of Bristol, Queen' s Building, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Acciavatti, F. [Universita' Politecnica Delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche 12, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2014-05-27

    To date, differing implementations of continuous scan laser Doppler vibrometry have been demonstrated by various academic institutions, but since the scan paths were defined using step or sine functions from function generators, the paths were typically limited to 1D line scans or 2D areas such as raster paths or Lissajous trajectories. The excitation was previously often limited to a single frequency due to the specific signal processing performed to convert the scan data into an ODS. In this paper, a configuration of continuous-scan laser Doppler vibrometry is demonstrated which permits scanning of arbitrary areas, with the benefit of allowing multi-frequency/broadband excitation. Various means of generating scan paths to inspect arbitrary areas are discussed and demonstrated. Further, full 3D vibration capture is demonstrated by the addition of a range-finding facility to the described configuration, and iteratively relocating a single scanning laser head. Here, the range-finding facility was provided by a Microsoft Kinect, an inexpensive piece of consumer electronics.

  7. Microsurgical laser Doppler probe for simultaneous intraoperative monitoring of cochlear blood flow and electrocochleography from the round window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiy, Lidet; Telischi, Fred; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Manns, Fabrice; Saettele, Ralph; Morawski, Krzysztof; Ozdamar, Ozcan; Borgos, John; Delgado, Rafael; Miskiel, Edward; Yavuz, Erdem

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this project is the development of a microsurgical laser Doppler (LD) probe that simultaneously monitors blood flow and Electrocochleography (ECochG) from the round window of the ear. The device will prevent neurosensory hearing loss during acoustic neuroma surgery by preventing damage to the internal auditory nerve and to the cochlear blood flow supply. A commercially available 0.5 mm diameter Laser-Doppler velocimetry probe (LaserFlo, Vasamedics) was modified to integrate an ECochG electrode. A tube for suction and irrigation was incorporated into a sheath of the probe shaft, to facilitate cleaning of the round window (RW) and allow drug delivery to the round window membrane. The prototype microprobe was calibrated on a single vessel model and tested in vivo in a rabbit model. Preliminary results indicate that the microprobe was able to measure changes in cochlear blood flow (CBF) and ECochG potentials from the round window of rabbits in vivo. The microprobe is suitable for monitoring cochlear blood flow and auditory cochlear potentials during human surgery.

  8. Testresults KROHNE 8-inch ultrasonic flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, A.H.; Volmer, W.

    1997-07-01

    A new development in the field of ultrasonic liquid flowmeasurements has been achieved with the multichannel liquid ultrasonic flowmeter; the first for use in maintenance-free custody transfer applications. Although ultrasonic flowmeters are used for applications in the oil industry for many years, this new development will have a big impact on custody transfer flow measurement. Not only because of the compactness, but also because of the low investment and operating cost of this flowmeter. This paper describes the system and the method of operation as well as practical experiences and achieved test results of this flowmeter. (author)

  9. A laser-lock concept to reach cm s-1-precision in Doppler experiments with Fabry-Prot wavelength calibrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, A.; Banyal, R. K.; Ulbrich, R. G.

    2014-09-01

    State-of-the-art Doppler experiments require wavelength calibration with precision at the cm s-1 level. A low-finesse Fabry-Prot interferometer (FPI) can provide a wavelength comb with a very large bandwidth as required for astronomical experiments, but unavoidable spectral drifts are difficult to control. Instead of actively controlling the FPI cavity, we propose to passively stabilize the interferometer and track the time-dependent cavity length drift externally using the 87Rb D2 atomic line. A dual-finesse cavity allows drift tracking during observation. In the low-finesse spectral range, the cavity provides a comb transmission spectrum tailored to the astronomical spectrograph. The drift of the cavity length is monitored in the high-finesse range relative to an external standard: a single narrow transmission peak is locked to an external cavity diode laser and compared to an atomic frequency from a Doppler-free transition. Following standard locking schemes, tracking at sub-mm s-1 precision can be achieved. This is several orders of magnitude better than currently planned high-precision Doppler experiments, and it allows freedom for relaxed designs including the use of a single-finesse interferometer under certain conditions. All components for the proposed setup are readily available, rendering this approach particularly interesting for upcoming Doppler experiments. We also show that the large number of interference modes used in an astronomical FPI allows us to unambiguously identify the interference mode of each FPI transmission peak defining its absolute wavelength solution. The accuracy reached in each resonance with the laser concept is then defined by the cavity length that is determined from the one locked peak and by the group velocity dispersion. The latter can vary by several 100 m s-1 over the relevant frequency range and severely limits the accuracy of individual peak locations, although their interference modes are known. A potential way to determine the absolute peak positions is to externally measure the frequency of each individual peak with a laser frequency comb (LFC). Thus, the concept of laser-locked FPIs may be useful for applying the absolute accuracy of an LFC to astronomical spectrographs without the need for an LFC at the observatory.

  10. Evaluation of Influence of Acupuncture and Electro-Acupuncture for Blood Perfusion of Stomach by Laser Doppler Blood Perfusion Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Hui-Min; Wang Shu-You; Li Shun-Yue; Zhang Dong

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to observe effects of acupuncture and electro-acupuncture (EA) on blood perfusion in the stomach, and probe into the application of laser Doppler blood perfusion imaging technique in the study of the effect of acupuncture and moxibustion on the entrails. In the acupuncture group of 20 rats, acupuncture was given at “Zusanli” (ST 36) and in EA group of 18 rats, EA was applied at “Zusanli” (ST 36), with 18 rats without acupuncture used as control group. Changes of...

  11. Effect of clenbuterol on cardiopulmonary parameters and intramuscular blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry in anesthetized ponies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong H.; Clarke, Kathleen W.; Alibhai, Hatim I. K.

    1994-09-01

    The cardiopulmonary affects and the affects on muscular microperfusion of the beta adrenergic agonist, clenbuterol (0.8 mcg/kg intravenously), were investigated in dorsally recumbent anesthetized ponies. Muscle microcirculation was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, utilizing fine optical fiber probes. Other measurements included heart rate, cardiac output, arterial blood pressure, and arterial blood gas tensions. Clenbuterol injection caused a regular, but transitory rise in muscle microcirculation, an increase in heart rate, and cardiac output and a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure. Clenbuterol did appear to prevent the continuing fall in arterial blood oxygen tensions seen in the treatment groups, but had only minimal affects in reversing the hypoxia already present.

  12. Early detection of microcirculatory perfusion changes with a high resolution, real time laser doppler imaging camerafrostbite case study

    OpenAIRE

    Erba, Paolo; Harbi, Pascal; Thacher, Tyler; Pries, Axel; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Raffoul, Wassim

    2011-01-01

    A 41-year-old male presented with severe frostbite that was monitored clinically and with a new laser Doppler imaging (LDI) camera that records arbitrary microcirculatory perfusion units (1256 arbitrary perfusion units (APUs)). LDI monitoring detected perfusion differences in hand and foot not seen visually. On day 45 after injury, LDI showed that while fingers did not experience any significant perfusion change (average of 3125 APUs on day 5), the patients left big toe did (from 1729 A...

  13. Validity of Laser Doppler Flowmetry in Predicting Outcome in Murine Intraluminal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedna, Vishnumurthy Shushrutha; Ansari, Saeed; Shahjouei, Shima; Cai, Peter Y.; Ahmad, Abdullah Shafique; Mocco, J; Qureshi, Adnan I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) can reliably reflect brain perfusion in experimental stroke by monitoring both the degree and the duration of relative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Variation in rCBF was continuously monitored in 68 mice undergoing middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and 25 mice undergoing sham-operation and documented as LDF (%). Transcranial LDF changes in the territory of right middle cerebral artery during MCAO procedure were correlated with corrected infarct volume (CIV) and neurological deficit score (NDS). Methods Ninety-three C57BL/6 mice (Harlan Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN) between 9 and 11 weeks old were randomly selected and assigned to either MCAO for 45 minutes (n = 68) or sham group (n = 25). Ischemia was induced using the transient intraluminal filament model of MCAO based on Koizumis method and transcranial LDF was used to measure CBF during the procedure. Neurological deficits were measured at 2 and 23 hours after MCA reperfusion with NDS and 2% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of carefully dissected brains was performed at 23 hours after reperfusion to determine infarct area. Results After common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO), there was a negative association between LDF drop from base line and NDS at 2 hours (r = ?0.43, P = 0.038) and 23 hours (r = ?0.61, P = 0.003). Also, a negative correlation was noted between MCA reperfusion LDF and NDS at 23 hours (r = ?0.53, P = 0.001). Moreover, post-MCA reperfusion LDF had a positive association with initial CCAO LDF (r = 0.761, P = 0.000) and MCA occlusion LDF (r = 0.31, P = 0.036) in predicting neurological outcome. NDS at 23 hours corresponded well with the infarct volume (r = 0.31, P = 0.005). Conclusions Greater augmentation of rCBF after MCA reperfusion was associated with improved neurological deficit scoring. Interestingly, greater reduction of regional cerebral blood flow after CCAO was also associated with improved neurological outcomes. The favorable neurological outcome is possibly due to interplay of factors such as vascular reserve, collaterals, and autoregulation mechanisms. We propose LDF changes as an additional noninvasive prognosticator of stroke outcome in the setting of experimental brain ischemia. PMID:26301036

  14. Decoding carotid pressure waveforms recorded by laser Doppler vibrometry: Effects of rebreathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaccia, Sara; Sirevaag, Erik J.; Richter, Edward; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.; Scalise, Lorenzo; Rohrbaugh, John W.

    2014-05-01

    The principal goal of this study was to assess the capability of the laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) method for assessing cardiovascular activity. A rebreathing task was used to provoke changes within individuals in cardiac and vascular performance. The rebreathing task is known to produce multiple effects, associated with changes in autonomic drive as well as alterations in blood gases. The rise in CO2 (hypercapnia), in particular, produces changes in the cerebral and systemic circulation. The results from a rebreathing task (involving rebreathing the same air in a rubber bag) are presented for 35 individuals. The LDV pulse was measured from a site overlying the carotid artery. For comparison and validation purposes, several conventional measures of cardiovascular function were also obtained, with an emphasis on the electrocardiogram (ECG), continuous blood pressure (BP) from the radial artery, and measures of myocardial performance using impedance cardiography (ICG). During periods of active rebreathing, ventilation increased. The conventional cardiovascular effects included increased mean arterial BP and systemic vascular resistance, and decreased cardiac stroke volume (SV) and pulse transit time (PTT). These effects were consistent with a pattern of ?-adrenergic stimulation. During the immediate post-rebreathing segments, in contrast, mean BP was largely unaffected but pulse BP increased, as did PTT and SV, whereas systemic vascular resistance decreased-a pattern consistent with ?-adrenergic effects in combination with the direct effects of hypercapnia on the vascular system. Measures of cardiovascular activity derived from the LDV pulse velocity and displacement waveforms revealed patterns of changes that mirrored the results obtained using conventional measures. In particular, the ratio of the maximum early peak in the LDV velocity pulse to the maximum amplitude of the LDV displacement pulse (in an early systolic interval) closely mirrored the conventional SV effects. Additionally, changes in an augmentation ratio (computed as the maximum amplitude of the LDV displacement pulse during systole / amplitude at the end of the incident wave) were very similar to changes in systemic vascular resistance. Heart rates measured from the ECG and LDV were nearly identical. These preliminary results suggest that measures derived using the non-contact LDV technique can provide surrogate measures for those obtained using impedance cardiography.

  15. Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrodynamic turbulence and cavitation are known to play a significant role in high-pressure atomizers, but the small geometries and extreme operating conditions hinder the understanding of the flows characteristics. Diesel internal flow experiments are generally conducted using x-ray techniques or on transparent, and often enlarged, nozzles with different orifice geometries and surface roughness to those found in production injectors. In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a 3D laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160?MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently found in the spectrograms between 6 and 7.5?kHz for all nozzles and injection pressures. Further evidence of a similar spectral peak was obtained from the fuel pressure transducer and a needle lift sensor mounted into the injector body. Evidence of propagation of the nozzle oscillations to the liquid sprays was obtained by recording high-speed videos of the near-nozzle diesel jet, and computing the fast Fourier transform for a number of pixel locations at the interface of the jets. This 67.5?kHz frequency peak is proposed to be the natural frequency for the injectors main internal fuel line. Other spectral peaks were found between 35 and 45?kHz for certain nozzle geometries, suggesting that these particular frequencies may be linked to nozzle dependent cavitation phenomena. (paper)

  16. Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crua, Cyril; Heikal, Morgan R.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrodynamic turbulence and cavitation are known to play a significant role in high-pressure atomizers, but the small geometries and extreme operating conditions hinder the understanding of the flow’s characteristics. Diesel internal flow experiments are generally conducted using x-ray techniques or on transparent, and often enlarged, nozzles with different orifice geometries and surface roughness to those found in production injectors. In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a 3D laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160 MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently found in the spectrograms between 6 and 7.5 kHz for all nozzles and injection pressures. Further evidence of a similar spectral peak was obtained from the fuel pressure transducer and a needle lift sensor mounted into the injector body. Evidence of propagation of the nozzle oscillations to the liquid sprays was obtained by recording high-speed videos of the near-nozzle diesel jet, and computing the fast Fourier transform for a number of pixel locations at the interface of the jets. This 6-7.5 kHz frequency peak is proposed to be the natural frequency for the injector’s main internal fuel line. Other spectral peaks were found between 35 and 45 kHz for certain nozzle geometries, suggesting that these particular frequencies may be linked to nozzle dependent cavitation phenomena.

  17. Electromagnetic flowmeters for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is in four parts. Section 1 explains the theory of the induced-voltage electromagnetic flowmeter and then considers various types which have been used. For the primary circuit of fast reactors both flow-through type and probe type have been proposed, although obtaining magnets which operate satisfactorily at high temperatures has been a problem. In the secondary circuit the high magnetic Reynolds numbers cause the field to be swept out of the magnet gap and this has led to the use of the long saddle-coil flowmeter. In Section 2 flux-distortion flowmeters are described. These have been proposed mainly for monitoring the primary circuit flow and again both flow-through and probe types have been tested. Sections 3 and 4 continue the discussion of the flux-distortion flowmeter by introducing two methods of analysing its performance. The first is a finite difference method which solves the non-linear problem by using a time marching method. It is shown that a linear approximation is adequate for the likely levels of flow encountered in the fast reactor and consequently two linearised solutions are used. The first method is a finite difference one and allows the instantaneous response of a step change in velocity to be observed as well as the effect of bubbles. In Part 4 the second linearized method uses current rings to divide up the conducting material. By considering the interaction of all the rings, it is possible to obtain the current distribution and hence the magnetic field. In conclusion it is suggested that further development would be useful of the devices which are most suited to the liquid metal fast breeder reactor. (author)

  18. A comparison between 133Xenon washout technique and Laser Doppler flowmetry in the measurement of local vasoconstrictor effects on the microcirculation in subcutaneous tissue and skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Blow, J; Lassen, N A

    1987-01-01

    Changes in skin blood flow measured by Laser Doppler flowmetry and changes in subcutaneous blood flow measured by 133Xenon washout technique were compared during activation of the local sympathetic mediated veno-arteriolar vasoconstrictor reflex by lowering the area of investigation below heart...... level. The measurements were performed in tissue with and without sympathetic innervation. In five subjects, who all had been cervically sympathectomized for manual hyperhidrosis, the Laser Doppler and 133Xenon blood flow measurements were performed simultaneously on the sympathetically denervated...... forearm, and on the calf with preserved sympathetic nerve supply. The Laser Doppler method registered a 23% reduction in skin blood flow during lowering of the extremities independently of the sympathetic nerve supply to the skin. The 133Xenon method recorded a 44% decrease in blood flow in innervated and...

  19. Laser Radar Range-Doppler Imaging and Simulation on High-speed Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Hualing; Deng Jiahao; Cai Kerong, E-mail: guohualing@nuc.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory for Mechatronics Engineering and Control, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-02-01

    On the basic of the representation of the principle of Doppler imaging, an echo model of high-speed target illuminated by broadband linear frequency modulated (LFM) signal was established in this paper. For high-speed target, because of its nonlinear echo phase and time-varying Doppler frequency shift, the Doppler spectrum of the target acquired by the traditional Fourier method was ambiguous, and the same in the radar images of the target. Therefore, an adaptive Wigner-Ville time-frequency analysis method was presented in the paper, that is, the local fuzzy function could be obtained by applying the two-dimensional adding Window Fourier Transform to signal's Wigner-Ville distribution, which made the kernel function, not only be adaptive to time, but also to the frequency. Finally, the simulation results show that the method has a good time-frequency concentration, and effectively control the cross-term interference.

  20. Laser Radar Range-Doppler Imaging and Simulation on High-speed Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basic of the representation of the principle of Doppler imaging, an echo model of high-speed target illuminated by broadband linear frequency modulated (LFM) signal was established in this paper. For high-speed target, because of its nonlinear echo phase and time-varying Doppler frequency shift, the Doppler spectrum of the target acquired by the traditional Fourier method was ambiguous, and the same in the radar images of the target. Therefore, an adaptive Wigner-Ville time-frequency analysis method was presented in the paper, that is, the local fuzzy function could be obtained by applying the two-dimensional adding Window Fourier Transform to signal's Wigner-Ville distribution, which made the kernel function, not only be adaptive to time, but also to the frequency. Finally, the simulation results show that the method has a good time-frequency concentration, and effectively control the cross-term interference.

  1. Laser Doppler vibrometry on rotating structures in coast-down: resonance frequencies and operational deflection shape characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martarelli, M.; Castellini, P.; Santolini, C.; Tomasini, E. P.

    2011-11-01

    In rotating machinery, variations of modal parameters with rotation speed may be extremely important in particular for very light and undamped structures, such as helicopter rotors or wind turbines. The natural frequency dependence on rotation speed is conventionally measured by varying the rotor velocity and plotting natural frequencies versus speed in the so-called Campbell diagram. However, this kind of analysis does not give any information about the vibration spatial distribution i.e. the mode shape variation with the rotation speed must be investigated with dedicated procedures. In several cases it is not possible to fully control the rotating speed of the machine and only coast-down tests can be performed. Due to the reduced inertia of rotors, the coast-down process is usually an abrupt transient and therefore an experimental technique, able to determine operational deflection shapes (ODSs) in short time, with high spatial density and accuracy, appears very promising. Moreover coast-down processes are very difficult to control, causing unsteady vibrations. Hence, a very efficient approach for the rotation control and synchronous acquisition must be developed. In this paper a continuous scanning system able to measure ODSs and natural frequencies excited during rotor coast-down is shown. The method is based on a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) whose laser beam is driven to scan continuously over the rotor surface, in order to measure the ODS, and to follow the rotation of the rotor itself even in coast-down. With a single measurement the ODSs can be recovered from the LDV output time history in short time and with huge data saving. This technique has been tested on a laboratory test bench, i.e. a rotating two-blade fan, and compared with a series of non-contact approaches based on LDV: traditional experimental modal analysis (EMA) results obtained under non-rotating conditions by measuring on a sequence of points on the blade surface excited by an impact hammer, continuous scanning LDV measuring the ODS of the structure excited by an impact hammer modulating the laser output, tracking laser Doppler vibrometry (TLDV) operating at different rotation speeds under stationary conditions, tracking continuous scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (TCSLDV) operating at different rotation speeds under stationary conditions. EMA and TLDV have been performed over the same grid of points sufficiently dense to have ODSs with adequate spatial resolution, it requiring long measurement time. The application of different techniques allowed us to completely characterize the tested bladed rotor and to validate the continuous scanning application to transient rotator processes.

  2. Laser Doppler vibrometry on rotating structures in coast-down: resonance frequencies and operational deflection shape characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In rotating machinery, variations of modal parameters with rotation speed may be extremely important in particular for very light and undamped structures, such as helicopter rotors or wind turbines. The natural frequency dependence on rotation speed is conventionally measured by varying the rotor velocity and plotting natural frequencies versus speed in the so-called Campbell diagram. However, this kind of analysis does not give any information about the vibration spatial distribution i.e. the mode shape variation with the rotation speed must be investigated with dedicated procedures. In several cases it is not possible to fully control the rotating speed of the machine and only coast-down tests can be performed. Due to the reduced inertia of rotors, the coast-down process is usually an abrupt transient and therefore an experimental technique, able to determine operational deflection shapes (ODSs) in short time, with high spatial density and accuracy, appears very promising. Moreover coast-down processes are very difficult to control, causing unsteady vibrations. Hence, a very efficient approach for the rotation control and synchronous acquisition must be developed. In this paper a continuous scanning system able to measure ODSs and natural frequencies excited during rotor coast-down is shown. The method is based on a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) whose laser beam is driven to scan continuously over the rotor surface, in order to measure the ODS, and to follow the rotation of the rotor itself even in coast-down. With a single measurement the ODSs can be recovered from the LDV output time history in short time and with huge data saving. This technique has been tested on a laboratory test bench, i.e. a rotating two-blade fan, and compared with a series of non-contact approaches based on LDV: - traditional experimental modal analysis (EMA) results obtained under non-rotating conditions by measuring on a sequence of points on the blade surface excited by an impact hammer,; - continuous scanning LDV measuring the ODS of the structure excited by an impact hammer modulating the laser output,; - tracking laser Doppler vibrometry (TLDV) operating at different rotation speeds under stationary conditions,; - tracking continuous scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (TCSLDV) operating at different rotation speeds under stationary conditions. EMA and TLDV have been performed over the same grid of points sufficiently dense to have ODSs with adequate spatial resolution, it requiring long measurement time. The application of different techniques allowed us to completely characterize the tested bladed rotor and to validate the continuous scanning application to transient rotator processes

  3. Laser Doppler vibrometer: unique use of DOE/Taguchi methodologies in the arena of pyroshock (10 to 100,000 HZ) response spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litz, C. J., Jr.

    1994-09-01

    Discussed is the unique application of design of experiment (DOE) to structure and test a Taguchi L9 (32) factorial experimental matrix (nine tests to study two factors, each factor at three levels), utilizing an HeNe laser Doppler vibrometer and piezocrystal accelerometers to monitor the explosively induced vibrations through the frequency range of 10 to 105 Hz on a flat steel plate (96 X 48 X 0.25 in.). An initial discussion is presented of pyrotechnic shock, or pyroshock, which is a short-duration, high-amplitude, high-frequency transient structural response in aerospace vehicle structures following firing of an ordnance item to separate, sever missile skin, or release a structural member. The development of the shock response spectra (SRS) is detailed. The use of a laser doppler for generating velocity- acceleration-time histories near and at a separation distance from the explosive and the resulting generated shock response spectra plots is detailed together with the laser doppler vibrometer setup as used. The use of DOE/Taguchi as a means of generating performance metrics, prediction equations, and response surface plots is presented as a means to statistically compare and rate the performance of the NeHe laser Doppler vibrometer with respect to two different piezoelectric crystal accelerometers of the contact type mounted directly to the test plate at the frequencies in the 300, 3000, and 10,000 Hz range. Specific constructive conclusions and recommendations are presented on the totally new dimension of understanding the pyroshock phenomenon with respect to the effects and interrelationships of explosive charge weight, location, and the laser Doppler recording system. The use of these valuable statistical tools on other experiments can be cost-effective and provide valuable insight to aid understanding of testing or process control by the engineering community. The superiority of the HeNe laser Doppler vibrometer performance is demonstrated.

  4. A laser locked Fabry-Perot etalon with 3 cm/s stability for wavelength calibration of Doppler spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Christian; Gurevich, Yulia; Stuermer, Julian; Fuehrer, Thorsten; Lamoreaux, Steve; Walther, Thomas; Quirrenbach, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Superior wavelength calibration is a major component in attaining Doppler precision of 10 cm/s and better with high resolution spectrographs. To achieve this goal, current calibration methods like thorium-argon lamps and iodine cells need to be replaced by more precise techniques. The ideal wavelength calibrator has a grid of densely spaced, narrow lines of equal brightness and works over a wide wavelength range. Laser frequency combs have received much attention recently, but they are complex and costly. We present an alternative method that builds on the success of passively stabilized Fabry-Perot etalons: we actively stabilize the etalon to an atomic transition, which provides an absolute frequency reference. We use saturated absorption laser spectroscopy to detect the hyperfine transitions of rubidium at 780 nm, a well-established frequency standard. Then we tune an etalon parameter (for instance, temperature) to keep one etalon peak coincident with the rubidium transition. Our setup is designed to be simple and robust, adaptable to various etalons, and to work in the infrared as well as the visible spectral range. We achieve a locking precision that is equivalent to a Doppler precision of better than 3 cm/s over any reasonable integration time.

  5. Flowmeter determines mix ratio for viscous adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, C. R.

    1967-01-01

    Flowmeter determines mix ratio for continuous flow mixing machine used to produce an adhesive from a high viscosity resin and aliphatic amine hardener pumped through separate lines to a rotary blender. The flowmeter uses strain gages in the two flow paths and monitors their outputs with appropriate instrumentation.

  6. Progress report on LOFT transit time flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments and preliminary theoretical results indicate that transit time flowmeters using thermocouples as sensors are not useful in Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) blowdown experiments. Work is in progress to determine whether transit time flowmeters using other types of sensors might be useful in LOFT

  7. High Accuracy Fuel Flowmeter, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, C.; Rose, L.; Chan, A.; Chin, B.; Gregory, W.

    1983-01-01

    Technology related to aircraft fuel mass - flowmeters was reviewed to determine what flowmeter types could provide 0.25%-of-point accuracy over a 50 to one range in flowrates. Three types were selected and were further analyzed to determine what problem areas prevented them from meeting the high accuracy requirement, and what the further development needs were for each. A dual-turbine volumetric flowmeter with densi-viscometer and microprocessor compensation was selected for its relative simplicity and fast response time. An angular momentum type with a motor-driven, spring-restrained turbine and viscosity shroud was selected for its direct mass-flow output. This concept also employed a turbine for fast response and a microcomputer for accurate viscosity compensation. The third concept employed a vortex precession volumetric flowmeter and was selected for its unobtrusive design. Like the turbine flowmeter, it uses a densi-viscometer and microprocessor for density correction and accurate viscosity compensation.

  8. Comparative study of the performance of semiconductor laser based coherent Doppler lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Coherent Doppler Lidars (CDLs), operating at an eye-safe 1.5-micron wavelength, have found promising applications in the optimization of wind-power production. To meet the wind-energy sector's impending demand for more cost-efficient industrial sensors, we have focused on the development of...

  9. Sub-Doppler Spectra of Infrared Hyperfine Transitions of Nitric Oxide Using a Pulse Modulated Quantum Cascade Laser: Rapid Passage, Free Induction Decay and the AC Stark Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duxbury, Geoffrey; Kelly, James F.; Blake, Thomas A.; Langford, Nigel

    2012-05-07

    Using a low power, rapid (nsec) pulse-modulated quantum cascade (QC) laser, collective coherent effects in the 5 {micro}m spectrum of nitric oxide have been demonstrated by the observation of sub-Doppler hyperfine splitting and also Autler-Townes splitting of Doppler broadened lines. For nitrous oxide, experiments and model calculations have demonstrated that two main effects occur with ulsemodulated (chirped) quantum cascade lasers: free induction decay signals, and signals induced by rapid passage during the laser chirp. In the open shell molecule, NO, in which both {Lambda}-doubling splitting and hyperfine structure occur, laser field-induced coupling between the hyperfine levels of the two {Lambda}-doublet components can induce a large AC Stark effect. This may be observed as sub-Doppler structure, field-induced splittings, or Autler-Townes splitting of a Doppler broadened line. These represent an extension of the types of behaviour observed in the closed shell molecule nitrous oxide, using the same apparatus, when probed with an 8 {micro}m QC laser.

  10. Using ordinal logistic regression to evaluate the performance of laser-Doppler predictions of burn-healing time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pape Sarah A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser-Doppler imaging (LDI of cutaneous blood flow is beginning to be used by burn surgeons to predict the healing time of burn wounds; predicted healing time is used to determine wound treatment as either dressings or surgery. In this paper, we do a statistical analysis of the performance of the technique. Methods We used data from a study carried out by five burn centers: LDI was done once between days 2 to 5 post burn, and healing was assessed at both 14 days and 21 days post burn. Random-effects ordinal logistic regression and other models such as the continuation ratio model were used to model healing-time as a function of the LDI data, and of demographic and wound history variables. Statistical methods were also used to study the false-color palette, which enables the laser-Doppler imager to be used by clinicians as a decision-support tool. Results Overall performance is that diagnoses are over 90% correct. Related questions addressed were what was the best blood flow summary statistic and whether, given the blood flow measurements, demographic and observational variables had any additional predictive power (age, sex, race, % total body surface area burned (%TBSA, site and cause of burn, day of LDI scan, burn center. It was found that mean laser-Doppler flux over a wound area was the best statistic, and that, given the same mean flux, women recover slightly more slowly than men. Further, the likely degradation in predictive performance on moving to a patient group with larger %TBSA than those in the data sample was studied, and shown to be small. Conclusion Modeling healing time is a complex statistical problem, with random effects due to multiple burn areas per individual, and censoring caused by patients missing hospital visits and undergoing surgery. This analysis applies state-of-the art statistical methods such as the bootstrap and permutation tests to a medical problem of topical interest. New medical findings are that age and %TBSA are not important predictors of healing time when the LDI results are known, whereas gender does influence recovery time, even when blood flow is controlled for. The conclusion regarding the palette is that an optimum three-color palette can be chosen 'automatically', but the optimum choice of a 5-color palette cannot be made solely by optimizing the percentage of correct diagnoses.

  11. Low flow vortex shedding flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugaman, Charles J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose was to continue a development project on a no moving parts vortex shedding flowmeter used for flow measurement of hypergols. The project involved the design and construction of a test loop to evaluate the meter for flow of Freon which simulates the hypergol fluids. Results were obtained on the output frequency characteristics of the flow meter as a function of flow rate. A family of flow meters for larger size lines and ranges of flow was sized based on the results of the tested meter.

  12. Injection Seeding a Q-Switched Ho:YAG Laser based on a Self-Organizing Technique for Doppler Wind LIDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Renz, Gnther; Oberbeckmann, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We report on a Q-switched 2.1 m Ho:YAG injection-seeded laser system based on a self-organizing technique for Doppler wind LIDAR of up to 10 W average power with a minimal amount of control components.

  13. Low-Power CMOS Laser Doppler Imaging Using Non-CDS Pixel Readout and 13.6-bit SAR ADC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Denis Guangyin; Law, Man-Kay; Lian, Yong; Bermak, Amine

    2016-02-01

    Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) measures particle flows such as blood perfusion by sensing their Doppler shift. This paper is the first of its kind in analyzing the effect of circuit noise on LDI precision which is distinctively different from conventional imaging. Based on this result, it presents a non-correlated-double-sampling (non-CDS) pixel readout scheme along with a high-resolution successive-approximation-register (SAR) analog-to-digital-converter (ADC) with 13.6b effective resolution (ER). Measurement results from the prototype chip in 0.18 ?m technology confirm the theoretical analysis and show that the two techniques improve LDI sensing precision by 6.9 dB and 4.4 dB (compared to a 10b ADC) respectively without analog pre-amplification. The sensor's ADC occupies 518 ?m84 ?m and is suitable for fast column parallel readout. Its differential non-linearity (DNL), integral non-linearity (INL), and input referred noise are +3.0/-2.8 LSB, +24/-17 LSB, and 110 ?Vrms respectively, leading to a Figure-of-Merit (FoM) of 23 fJ/state which makes it one of the most energy efficient image sensor ADCs and an order of magnitude better than the best reported LDI system using commercial high-speed image sensors. PMID:25532189

  14. Self-mixing detection of backscattered radiation in a single-mode erbium fibre laser for Doppler spectroscopy and velocity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, A K; Konovalov, A N; Ul' yanov, V A [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-28

    We report an experimental study of the self-mixing effect in a single-mode multifrequency erbium fibre laser when radiation backscattered from an external moving object arrives at its cavity. To eliminate resulting chaotic pulsations in the laser, we have proposed a technique for suppressing backscattered radiation through the use of multimode fibre for radiation delivery. The multifrequency operation of the laser has been shown to lead to strong fluctuations of the amplitude of the Doppler signal and a nonmonotonic variation of the amplitude with distance to the scattering object. In spite of these features, the self-mixing signal was detected with a high signal-to-noise ratio (above 10{sup 2}) when the radiation was scattered by a rotating disc, and the Doppler frequency shift, evaluated as the centroid of its spectrum, had high stability (0.15%) and linearity relative to the rotation rate. We conclude that the self-mixing effect in this type of fibre laser can be used for measuring the velocity of scattering objects and in Doppler spectroscopy for monitoring the laser evaporation of materials and biological tissues. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  15. An LDA (Laser-Doppler Anemometry) investigation of three-dimensional normal shock wave boundary-layer interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriss, R. M.; Hingst, W. R.; Strazisar, A. J.; Keith, T. G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Nonintrusive measurements were made of a normal shock wave/boundary layer interaction. Two dimensional measurements were made throughout the interaction region while 3-D measurements were made in the vicinity of the shock wave. The measurements were made in the corner of the test section of a continuous supersonic wind tunnel in which a normal shock wave had been stabilized. Laser Doppler Anemometry, surface pressure measurement and flow visualization techniques were employed for two freestream Mach number test cases: 1.6 and 1.3. The former contained separated flow regions and a system of shock waves. The latter was found to be far less complicated. The results define the flow field structure in detail for each case.

  16. A fast time-domain algorithm for the assessment of tissue blood flow in laser-Doppler flowmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binzoni, Tiziano [Departement des Neurosciences Fondamentales, University of Geneva (Switzerland); Seelamantula, Chandra Sekhar [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Van De Ville, Dimitri, E-mail: tiziano.binzoni@unige.c [Departement de l' Imagerie et des Sciences de l' Information Medicale, University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-07-07

    In this study, we derive a fast, novel time-domain algorithm to compute the nth-order moment of the power spectral density of the photoelectric current as measured in laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). It is well established that in the LDF literature these moments are closely related to fundamental physiological parameters, i.e. concentration of moving erythrocytes and blood flow. In particular, we take advantage of the link between moments in the Fourier domain and fractional derivatives in the temporal domain. Using Parseval's theorem, we establish an exact analytical equivalence between the time-domain expression and the conventional frequency-domain counterpart. Moreover, we demonstrate the appropriateness of estimating the zeroth-, first- and second-order moments using Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, we briefly discuss the feasibility of implementing the proposed algorithm in hardware. (note)

  17. A fast time-domain algorithm for the assessment of tissue blood flow in laser-Doppler flowmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we derive a fast, novel time-domain algorithm to compute the nth-order moment of the power spectral density of the photoelectric current as measured in laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). It is well established that in the LDF literature these moments are closely related to fundamental physiological parameters, i.e. concentration of moving erythrocytes and blood flow. In particular, we take advantage of the link between moments in the Fourier domain and fractional derivatives in the temporal domain. Using Parseval's theorem, we establish an exact analytical equivalence between the time-domain expression and the conventional frequency-domain counterpart. Moreover, we demonstrate the appropriateness of estimating the zeroth-, first- and second-order moments using Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, we briefly discuss the feasibility of implementing the proposed algorithm in hardware. (note)

  18. Performance of eddy-viscosity turbulence models for predicting swirling pipe-flow: Simulations and laser-Doppler velocimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Daz, Diego del Olmo

    2015-01-01

    We use laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV) experiments and Reynolds-averaged Navier--Stokes (RANS) simulations to study the characteristic flow patterns downstream of a standardized clockwise swirl disturbance generator. After quantifying the impact of the mesh size, we evaluate the potential of various eddy-viscosity turbulence models in providing reasonable approximations with respect to the experimental reference. Our results suggest that models from the $k$-$\\epsilon$ family are more accurate in predicting swirling flows than models from the $k$-$\\omega$ family. For sufficiently resolved meshes, the realizable $k$-$\\epsilon$ model provides the most accurate approximation of the velocity magnitudes, although it fails to capture small-scale flow structures which are accurately predicted by the standard $k$-$\\epsilon$ model and the RNG $k$-$\\epsilon$ model. Throughout the article, we highlight practical guidance for the choice of RANS turbulence models for swirling flow.

  19. Investigations of slip in capillary flow by laser-Doppler velocimetry and their relations to melt fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnstedt, Helmut

    2015-04-01

    Flow profiles within a slit capillary are measured by laser-Doppler velocimetry. They allow the direct determination of the slip velocity at the wall. It is demonstrated that the flow profile of the melt of a high density polyethylene (HDPE) already shows slip components at small shear rates. At high shear rates the slip is dominant and a plug flow is found. Furthermore, it is shown that the surface irregularity called "shark skin" is generated at the slit exit by the stretching of surface layers at pronounced elongational rates. These elongational rates are due to the differences between the flow velocities at the wall of the slit and those of the extruded strand. It is shown how "shark skin" may be avoided when the elongational rate is reduced by introducing slip of the melt in the slit using special additives.

  20. Fetal lamb cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen tensions during hypoxia: a comparison of laser Doppler and microsphere measurements of CBF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishai, John M; Blood, Arlin B; Hunter, Christian J; Longo, Lawrence D; Power, Gordon G

    2003-02-01

    This study was undertaken to compare microsphere and laser Doppler flowmetry techniques for the measurement of cerebral blood flow, to assess the effect of probe implantation at the tip of the sensing probe and to measure brain tissue P(O2) (tP(O2)) in response to acute hypoxia. Fetal sheep of ~131 days gestation (n = 8) were chronically instrumented with bilateral laser Doppler probes in the parietal cortices and catheters for injection of fluorescent microspheres. Five days after surgery fetuses were subjected to 1 h periods of baseline control breathing, hypoxia and recovery. Microspheres were injected 10 min prior to and 10, 30, 50 and 120 min after initiation of hypoxia. Microspheres were counted in four 12 mm(3) tissue samples from each hemisphere, the tip of the laser Doppler probe being positioned in the centre of one of the cubes. The cube containing the probe tip was also subdivided into 4 mm(3) pieces of tissue. In response to hypoxia, fetal arterial P(O2) declined from 21 +/- 2 to 12 +/- 1 Torr and brain tissue P(O2) fell from 10 +/- 1 to a nadir of 1 +/- 1 Torr. Each method detected a significant increase in CBF that reached a maximum after 30-45 min, although the increase of flow measured by laser Doppler flowmetry was less than that measured by spheres after 10 and 30 min (P flow at the probe tip or heterogeneity of flow in surrounding volumes of cortical tissue. In summary, laser Doppler flowmetry is a useful measure of continuous relative changes of CBF in the chronically instrumented fetal sheep. Flow compensations in acute hypoxia are not adequate to sustain O(2) delivery, and other compensations, including reduced metabolic rate, are possible. PMID:12563011

  1. Evaluation of late radiation-induced changes of the superficial microcirculation. I. clinical benefit of the cutaneous Doppler laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. - The changes that occur in the tissular microcirculation after therapeutic irradiation (RT) account for some of the late effects of irradiation, especially on the cutaneous level. As a rule, the methods of exploring the superficial microcirculation only measure blood flow indirectly. Only the Doppler laser can provide direct measurements of blood parameters in vivo in man. Methods. -Thirty women who had been irradiated with 45 + 20 Gy of locoregional fractionated adjuvant RT for breast cancer developed local radiation-induced fibrosis six years later (5). The local microcirculation was measured in the resting state and during thermal stimulation at 42 deg. C, using a Periflux cutaneous Doppler laser with p413 probes. Three periods of six minutes each were continuously recorded: period 1 (P1) represented basal resting cutaneous perfusion, with the slope p corresponding to the increase in perfusion when two minutes of thermal stimulation at 42 deg. C began; P2 to plateau perfusion during this stimulation; and P3 to perfusion on the return to equilibrium. Each individual was its own control. Results. - In the women treated by RT, the resting microcirculation in the skin underlying an area of late fibrosis rose by a factor of 2 during P1 (p < 0.001), and the P2/P1 ratio decreased by a factor of 2 (p < 0.001), compared to the control area. After thermal stimulation, there was no change in p, P2 or P3. Conclusion. -Although a hypo-vascularization is frequently found in late sequelae of RT, we observed an increase of the cutaneous microcirculation associated with a maladjustment of the endothelial response to a thermal stimulation. These observations seem to reflect the presence of dilated new capillaries of the telangiectatic type, which are macroscopically undetectable. (authors)

  2. Time-resolved and doppler-reduced laser spectroscopy on atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative lifetimes have been studied in neutral boron, carbon, silicon and strontium, in singly ionized gadolinium and tantalum and in molecular carbon monoxide and C2. The time-resolved techniques were based either on pulsed lasers or pulse-modulated CW lasers. Several techniques have been utilized for the production of free atoms and ions such as evaporation into an atomic beam, sputtering in hollow cathodes and laser-produced plasmas. Hyperfine interactions in boron, copper and strontium have been examined using quantum beat spectroscopy, saturation spectroscopy and collimated atomic beam spectroscopy. Measurement techniques based on effusive hollow cathodes as well as laser produced plasmas in atomic physics have been developed. Investigations on laser produced plasmas using two colour beam deflection tomography for determination of electron densities have been performed. Finally, new possibilities for view-time-expansion in light-in-flight holography using mode-locked CW lasers have been demonstrated. (au)

  3. Single- and two-mode theory for coupled lasers with Doppler-broadened gain media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelonek, Mark P.; Roh, Won B.

    1990-02-01

    Existing coupled-laser theories have been extended to analyze the case of two coupled lasers supporting two modes in each cavity. A set of eight coupled equations describing the amplitudes and phases of the two modes oscillating in each cavity has been solved numerically to evaluate the operating characteristics of the coupled-laser system. Locking ranges were computed for both single- and two-mode coupled-laser systems, and it was found that the presence of the additional mode reduces the locking range of the two-mode system to approximately one half that of the single-mode coupled lasers. A number of other oddities in behavior have been found, including a mutually reinforced hole-burning minimum in intensity and a phase-dependent shift of the laser frequency from the bare-cavity frequency.

  4. Measurements of ultrasonic waves by means of laser Doppler velocimeter and an experimental study of elastic wave propagation in inhomogeneous media; Laser doppler sokudokei ni yoru choonpa keisoku to ganseki wo mochiita fukinshitsu baishitsu no hado denpa model jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizawa, O.; Sato, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Lei, X. [Dia Consultants Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    In the study of seismic wave propagation, a model experimenting technique has been developed using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) as the sensor. This technique, not dependent on conventional piezoelectric devices, only irradiates the specimen with laser to measure the velocity amplitude on the target surface, eliminating the need for close contact between the specimen and sensor. In the experiment, elastic penetration waves with their noise levels approximately 0.05mm/s were observed upon application of vibration of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 5}Hz. The specimen was stainless steel or rock, and waveforms caught by the LDV and piezoelectric device were compared. As the result, it was found that the LDV is a powerful tool for effectively explaining elastic wave propagation in inhomogeneous media. The piezoelectric device fails to reproduce accurately the waves to follow the initial one while the LDV detect the velocity amplitude on the specimen surface in a wide frequency range encouraging the discussion over the quantification of observed waveforms. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Self-mixing detection of backscattered radiation in a single-mode erbium fibre laser for Doppler spectroscopy and velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, A. K.; Konovalov, A. N.; Ul'yanov, V. A.

    2014-04-01

    We report an experimental study of the self-mixing effect in a single-mode multifrequency erbium fibre laser when radiation backscattered from an external moving object arrives at its cavity. To eliminate resulting chaotic pulsations in the laser, we have proposed a technique for suppressing backscattered radiation through the use of multimode fibre for radiation delivery. The multifrequency operation of the laser has been shown to lead to strong fluctuations of the amplitude of the Doppler signal and a nonmonotonic variation of the amplitude with distance to the scattering object. In spite of these features, the self-mixing signal was detected with a high signal-to-noise ratio (above 102) when the radiation was scattered by a rotating disc, and the Doppler frequency shift, evaluated as the centroid of its spectrum, had high stability (0.15%) and linearity relative to the rotation rate. We conclude that the self-mixing effect in this type of fibre laser can be used for measuring the velocity of scattering objects and in Doppler spectroscopy for monitoring the laser evaporation of materials and biological tissues.

  6. Flowmeter for pressure-driven chromatography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-01-01

    A flowmeter for accurately measuring the flowrate of fluids in high pressure chromatography systems. The flowmeter is a porous bed of a material, the porous bed having a porosity in the range of about 0.1 to 0.6 and a pore size in the range of about 50 nm to 1 .mu.m, disposed between a high pressure pumping means and a chromatography column. The flowmeter is provided with pressure measuring means at both the inlet and outlet of the porous bed for measuring the pressure drop through the porous bed. This flowmeter system provides not only the ability to measure accurately flowrates in the range of .mu.L/min to nL/min but also to provide a signal that can be used for a servo loop or feedback control system for high pressure pumping systems.

  7. Flowmeter for pressure-driven chromatography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A flowmeter for accurately measuring the flowrate of fluids in high pressure chromatography systems. The flowmeter is a porous bed of a material, the porous bed having a porosity in the range of about 0.1 to 0.6 and a pore size in the range of about 50 nm to 1 .mu.m, disposed between a high pressure pumping means and a chromatography column. The flowmeter is provided with pressure measuring means at both the inlet and outlet of the porous bed for measuring the pressure drop through the porous bed. This flowmeter system provides not only the ability to measure accurately flowrates in the range of .mu.L/min to nL/min but also to provide a signal that can be used for a servo loop or feedback control system for high pressure pumping systems.

  8. Simple helium flowmeter for dilution refrigerators

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, T O

    1972-01-01

    This flowmeter measures the molar flow rate of /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He gas, independently of pressure or isotopic composition. The principle is based on the constant C/sub p/. A calibration is needed for high accuracy.

  9. Electromechanical flowmeter accurately monitors fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, D. J.

    1965-01-01

    Electromechanical flowmeter remotely and accurately monitors the flow rate and total volume of a transparent liquid discharged from a dispensing system. A dual dispensing tube system provides a relative reference level which permits compensation for temperature variations.

  10. Application of the electromagnetic borehole flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S.C.; Julian, H.E.; Pearson, H.S.; Molz, F.J.; Boman, G.K.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the operation and application of the TVA prototype EM borehole flowmeters, including theory, design, calibration, basic field applications, data analysis, and potential effects of various well construction and development procedures on data. The majority of these results are also applicable to the commercial version of this meter and other vertical component borehole flowmeters, including heat pulse and impeller tools. Several case studies illustrating specific uses of these tools are also discussed.

  11. Design of a Geothermal Downhole Magnetic Flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, Dave A.; Normann, Randy A.

    2015-06-15

    This paper covers the development of a 300C geothermal solid-state magnetic flowmeter (or magmeter) to support in situ monitoring of future EGS (enhanced geothermal system) production wells. Existing flowmeters are simple mechanical spinner sensors. These mechanical sensors fail within as little as 10 hrs, while a solid-state magmeter has the potential for months/years of operation. The design and testing of a magnetic flow sensor for use with existing high-temperature electronics is presented.

  12. Differential doppler heterodyning technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars

    1971-01-01

    Measuring velocity without disturbing the moving object is possible by use of the laser doppler heterodyning technique. Theoretical considerations on the doppler shift show that the antenna property of the photodetector can solve an apparent conflict between two different ways of calculating the...... detected doppler frequency. It is found that the doppler frequency for this particular setup is independent of the direction of detection. Investigations of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) show that the maximum SNR-considering the optical setup-is obtained by measuring the frequency difference between two...... doppler-shifted beams rather than by measuring the shift of a single beam by comparing it with a reference beam. Measurements seem to be in agreement with the theoretical consideration...

  13. Investigations of unsteady flow in the draft tube of the pump- turbine model using laser Doppler anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznacheev, A.; Kuznetsov, I.

    2014-03-01

    The measurements and video observation of unsteady flow in the draft tube cone of the pump-turbine model were conducted in the Laboratory of Water Turbines, property of OJSC "Power machines" - "LMZ". The prototype head was about 250 m. The experiments were performed for the turbine mode of operation. Measurements were taken for the unit speed value n11 corresponding to rated head in the generating mode of operation, for a wide range of guide vanes openings at loads ranging from partial to maximum value. The researches of the velocity field in function of the Thoma number were carried out in some operating conditions. The mean values and RMS deviations of the velocity components were the results of laser measurements. The curves of the intensity of the vortex versus the guide vane opening and the Thoma number were plotted. The energy velocity spectra were presented for the points at which the most pronounced frequency precession of the helical axial vortex was observed. Video recording and laser Doppler anemometry were made in the operating conditions of the developed cavitation. Based on the results of video observations and energy spectra obtained via LDA, vortex frequencies were determined i.e. the frequencies of the vortex precession under the runner in the draft tube cone.

  14. Acute Effects of Vascular Modifying Agents in Solid Tumors Assessed by Noninvasive Laser Doppler Flowmetry and Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kragh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of noninvasive laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS to detect acute effects of different vascular-modifying agents on perfusion and blood volume in tumors was evaluated. C3H mouse mammary carcinomas (?200 mm3 in the rear foot of CDF1 mice were treated with flavone acetic acid (FAA, 150 mg/kg, 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4acetic acid (DMXAA, 20 mg/kg, combretastatin A-4 disodium phosphate (CAMP, 250 mg/kg, hydralazine (HDZ, 5 mg/kg, or nicotinamide (NTA, 500 mg/kg. Tumor perfusion before and after treatment was evaluated by noninvasive LDF, using a 41C heated custombuilt LDF probe with four integrated laser/receiver units, and tumor blood volume was estimated by MRS, using light guide coupled reflectance measurements at 80010 nm. FAA, DMXAA, CAMP, and HDZ significantly decreased tumor perfusion by 50%, 47%, 73%, and 78%, respectively. In addition, FAA, DMXAA, and HDZ significantly reduced the blood volume within the tumor, indicating that these compounds to some degree shunted blood from the tumor to adjacent tissue, HDZ being most potent. CAMP caused no change in the tumor blood volume, indicating that the mechanism of action of CAMP was vascular shut down with the blood pool trapped in the tumor. NTA caused no change in either tumor perfusion or tumor blood volume. We conclude that noninvasive LDF and MRS can determine acute effects of vascular modifying agents on tumor perfusion and blood volume.

  15. Sub-Doppler temperature measurements of laser-cooled atoms using optical nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a method for measuring the average temperature of a cloud of cold 85Rb atoms in a magneto-optical trap using an optical nanofibre. A periodic spatial variation is applied to the magnetic fields generated by the trapping coils and this causes the trap centre to oscillate, which, in turn, causes the cloud of cold atoms to oscillate. The optical nanofibre is used to collect the fluorescence emitted by the cold atoms, and the frequency response between the motion of the centre of the oscillating trap and the cloud of atoms is determined. This allows us to make measurements of cloud temperature both above and below the Doppler limit, thereby paving the way for nanofibres to be integrated with ultracold atoms for hybrid quantum devices

  16. Flow mechanism in no-sidewall fluidic gas flowmeter; Sokuheki no nai ryutai shindo gata gas meta no nagare kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, N. [Celendy Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Nishigaki, M. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan); Nakajima, T. [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-04-30

    Flow in no-sidewall fluidic gas flowmeter was investigated by LDV (laser Doppler velocity) measurement to visualize the flow. Flow vector and vorticity were calculated at 5 flow rates based on the ensemble-averaged mean velocities at 624 points in the gas meter, and the flow rate change of the flow pattern was investigated. The essential flow pattern of oscillatory flow was almost the same regardless of flow rate. Periodical vortex shedding was observed at Re{>=}285 in the wake behind the target, and no vortex development was observed at Re=171. The relationship between frequency dependency on flow rate and the flow rate change of the flow pattern was also investigated. The Strouhal number (St) was its maximum at approximately Re=300, and it was suggested that the vortex development in the wake behind the target causes increase of St in the low flow rate side. The change of St in the range between Re of 300 and 800 was successfully explained by velocity distribution variation in the nozzle. 10 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Decomposition of a laser-Doppler spectrum for estimation of speed distribution of particles moving in an optically turbid medium: Monte Carlo validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebert, A; Zolek, N; Maniewski, R [Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-11-21

    A method for measurement of distribution of speed of particles moving in an optically turbid medium is presented. The technique is based on decomposition of the laser-Doppler spectrum. The theoretical background is shown together with the results of Monte Carlo simulations, which were performed to validate the proposed method. The laser-Doppler spectra were obtained by Monte Carlo simulations for assumed uniform and Gaussian speed distributions of particles moving in the turbid medium. The Doppler shift probability distributions were calculated by Monte Carlo simulations for several anisotropy factors of the medium, assuming the Hanyey-Greenstein phase function. The results of the spectra decomposition show that the calculated speed distribution of moving particles match well the distribution assumed for Monte Carlo simulations. This result was obtained for the spectra simulated in optical conditions, in which the photon is scattered with the Doppler shift not more than once during its travel between the source and detector. Influence of multiple scattering of the photon is analysed and a perspective of spectrum decomposition under such conditions is considered. Potential applications and limitations of the method are discussed.

  18. Decomposition of a laser-Doppler spectrum for estimation of speed distribution of particles moving in an optically turbid medium: Monte Carlo validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, A; Zo?ek, N; Maniewski, R

    2006-11-21

    A method for measurement of distribution of speed of particles moving in an optically turbid medium is presented. The technique is based on decomposition of the laser-Doppler spectrum. The theoretical background is shown together with the results of Monte Carlo simulations, which were performed to validate the proposed method. The laser-Doppler spectra were obtained by Monte Carlo simulations for assumed uniform and Gaussian speed distributions of particles moving in the turbid medium. The Doppler shift probability distributions were calculated by Monte Carlo simulations for several anisotropy factors of the medium, assuming the Hanyey-Greenstein phase function. The results of the spectra decomposition show that the calculated speed distribution of moving particles match well the distribution assumed for Monte Carlo simulations. This result was obtained for the spectra simulated in optical conditions, in which the photon is scattered with the Doppler shift not more than once during its travel between the source and detector. Influence of multiple scattering of the photon is analysed and a perspective of spectrum decomposition under such conditions is considered. Potential applications and limitations of the method are discussed. PMID:17068362

  19. Design of magneto electromagnetic flowmeter for liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of theory of electromagnetic field, this paper introduces a fundamental equation for electromagnetic flowmeter and a calculating equation of electrode electromotive forces. The parameters of the magnetic circuit system of magneto electromagnetic flowmeter are calculated. Two magneto electromagnetic flowmeters for liquid sodium have been developed. Their electromotive force signal is large enough and pretty linear with flow of liquid sodium. This magneto electromagnetic flowmeter can completely meet the requirements of practical use

  20. Shigeo Satomura: 60years of Doppler ultrasound in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Ioan M; Popescu, Bogdan A

    2015-01-01

    This year we celebrate 60years since Shigeo Satomura published the first measurements of the Doppler shift of ultrasonic signals from a beating heart. He demonstrated that Doppler signals can be retrieved from heart movements when insonated with 3MHz ultrasonic waves. Later, togheter with Ziro Kaneko, he constructed the first Doppler flowmeter to measure the blood flow velocities in peripheral and extracranial brain-supplying vessels using ultrasounds. They proved that ultrasonic Doppler signals from arteries and veins can be recorded from the surface of the skin and pioneered transcutaneous flow analysis in systole and diastole in both normal and diseased blood vessels. These were the first medical applications of Doppler sonography and impressive technologic innovations have been continuing ever since. Over time, Doppler techniques became a key player in diagnostic ultrasound for hemodynamic assessment, replacing cardiac catheterization in many clinical settings. PMID:26699126

  1. 21 CFR 868.2300 - Bourdon gauge flowmeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bourdon gauge flowmeter. 868.2300 Section 868.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices 868.2300 Bourdon gauge flowmeter. (a) Identification. A bourdon gauge flowmeter is a...

  2. 21 CFR 868.2350 - Gas calibration flowmeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas calibration flowmeter. 868.2350 Section 868.2350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices 868.2350 Gas calibration flowmeter. (a) Identification. A gas calibration flowmeter is...

  3. Study for hardware application of airborne laser doppler system for severe storms measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Specifications are discussed for the overall system configuration, the processor, the scanner, the CO2 laser, and data analysis methods required to measure velocity flow fields associated with severe storms. Modifications to the clear air turbulence (CAT) system and its capability for two dimensional measuring are examined.

  4. Physical model experiment for wave field measurements by means of laser Doppler vibrometer. Measurement of three components; Laser Doppler shindokei ni yoru butsuri model jikken. Hado sanseibun no kenshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizawa, O.; Sato, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Lei, X. [DIA Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    In this experiment, a beam incident from an oblique direction is reflected by a spherical lens toward the direction of incidence. When the surface of a matter is vibrated by elastic waves, the spherical lens comes into a translation motion that accompanies the vibration. It follows accordingly that the vibration on the surface of the matter may be detected by sensing the spherical lens travelling speed. Three components of the vibration may be determined if beams are focused at one spot from three directions. Detection of the S-wave component by LDV (laser Doppler vibrometer) discloses the complicated wave field in a heterogeneous material, and this physical model experiment may be utilized in various fields of study. For instance, information about problems that may surface in the field work may be collected beforehand in a physical model experiment for developing an S-wave-aided probing method. For the study of seismic wave propagation in a complicated three-dimensional ground structure, a numerical model is not enough, and a physical model experiment will be an effective method to fulfill the purpose. In the monitoring of cracks in a rock, again, not only elastic wave velocity but also waveform information collected from a physical model experiment should be fully utilized. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  5. The blood flow to the femoral head/neck junction during resurfacing arthroplasty: a comparison of two approaches using Laser Doppler flowmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekera, H W; Costa, M L; Foguet, P; Krikler, S J; Prakash, U; Griffin, D R

    2008-04-01

    We used Laser Doppler flowmetry to measure the effect on the blood flow to the femoral head/neck junction of two surgical approaches during resurfacing arthroplasty. We studied 24 hips undergoing resurfacing arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. Of these, 12 had a posterior approach and 12 a trochanteric flip approach. A Laser probe was placed under radiological control in the superolateral part of the femoral head/neck junction. The Doppler flux was measured at stages of the operation and compared with the initial flux. In both groups the main fall in blood flow occurred during the initial exposure and capsulotomy of the hip joint. There was a greater reduction in blood flow with the posterior (40%) than with the trochanteric flip approach (11%). PMID:18378916

  6. Investigation of a laser Doppler velocimeter system to measure the flow field of a large scale V/STOL aircraft in ground effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalay, A. D.; Brashears, M. R.; Jordan, A. J.; Shrider, K. R.; Vought, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the flow field around a 70 percent scale V/STOL aircraft model in ground effect is described. The velocity measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter at an outdoor test pad. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and results of the velocity surveys are discussed. The distribution of vertical velocity in the fan jet and fountain, the radial velocity in the wall jet and the horizontal velocity along the aircraft underside are presented for different engine rpms and aircraft heights above ground. The study shows that it is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to measure the flow field generated by a large scale V/STOL aircraft operating in ground effect.

  7. Investigation of a laser Doppler velocimeter system to measure the flow field around a large scale V/STOL aircraft in ground effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalay, A. D.; Brashears, M. R.; Jordan, A. J.; Shrider, K. R.; Vought, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    The flow field measured around a hovering 70 percent scale vertical takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft model is described. The velocity measurements were conducted with a ground based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation and experimental tests of the velocity surveys are discussed. The distribution of vertical velocity in the fan jet and fountain; the radial velocity in the wall jet and the horizontal velocity along the aircraft underside are presented for different engine rpms and aircraft height above ground. Results show that it is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to measure the flow field generated by a large scale V/STOL aircraft operating in ground effect.

  8. Simultaneous broadband laser ranging and photonic Doppler velocimetry for dynamic compression experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Lone, B. M., E-mail: lalonebm@nv.doe.gov; Marshall, B. R.; Miller, E. K.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Special Technologies Laboratory, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States); Veeser, L. R. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    A diagnostic was developed to simultaneously measure both the distance and velocity of rapidly moving surfaces in dynamic compression experiments, specifically non-planar experiments where integrating the velocity in one direction does not always give the material position accurately. The diagnostic is constructed mainly from fiber-optic telecommunications components. The distance measurement is based on a technique described by Xia and Zhang [Opt. Express 18, 4118 (2010)], which determines the target distance every 20 ns and is independent of the target speed. We have extended the full range of the diagnostic to several centimeters to allow its use in dynamic experiments, and we multiplexed it with a photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) system so that distance and velocity histories can be measured simultaneously using one fiber-optic probe. The diagnostic was demonstrated on a spinning square cylinder to show how integrating a PDV record can give an incorrect surface position and how the ranging diagnostic described here obtains it directly. The diagnostic was also tested on an explosive experiment where copper fragments and surface ejecta were identified in both the distance and velocity signals. We show how the distance measurements complement the velocity data. Potential applications are discussed.

  9. Simultaneous broadband laser ranging and photonic Doppler velocimetry for dynamic compression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnostic was developed to simultaneously measure both the distance and velocity of rapidly moving surfaces in dynamic compression experiments, specifically non-planar experiments where integrating the velocity in one direction does not always give the material position accurately. The diagnostic is constructed mainly from fiber-optic telecommunications components. The distance measurement is based on a technique described by Xia and Zhang [Opt. Express 18, 4118 (2010)], which determines the target distance every 20 ns and is independent of the target speed. We have extended the full range of the diagnostic to several centimeters to allow its use in dynamic experiments, and we multiplexed it with a photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) system so that distance and velocity histories can be measured simultaneously using one fiber-optic probe. The diagnostic was demonstrated on a spinning square cylinder to show how integrating a PDV record can give an incorrect surface position and how the ranging diagnostic described here obtains it directly. The diagnostic was also tested on an explosive experiment where copper fragments and surface ejecta were identified in both the distance and velocity signals. We show how the distance measurements complement the velocity data. Potential applications are discussed

  10. Reduced Arteriovenous Shunting Capacity After Local Heating and Redistribution of Baseline Skin Blood Flow in Type 2 Diabetes Assessed With Velocity-Resolved Quantitative Laser Doppler Flowmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Ingemar; Larsson, Marcus; Nystrm, Fredrik; Lnne, Toste; Johan stgren, Carl; Strmberg, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-To compare the microcirculatory velocity distribution in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic control subjects at baseline and after local heating. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-The skin blood flow response to local heating (44 degrees C for 20 mm) was assessed in 28 diabetic patients and 29 control subjects using a new velocity-resolved quantitative laser Doppler flowmetry technique (qLDF). The qLDF estimates erythrocyte (RBC) perfusion (velocity X concentration), in a physiologi...

  11. Optic nerve head blood flow using a laser Doppler velocimeter and haemorheology in primary open angle glaucoma and normal pressure glaucoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamard, P; Hamard, H; Dufaux, J.; Quesnot, S

    1994-01-01

    Optic disc blood flow velocity was measured in healthy patients, those with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), and patients with normal pressure glaucoma (NPG). The velocity of the red blood cells (RBCs) in the capillaries of the optic nerve head (ONH) has been measured with a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV), and blood viscosity has been evaluated notably by determining the aggregability of the RBCs with an erythroaggregameter. Our results in POAG patients and NPG patients showed that their ...

  12. Use of the Laser-Doppler-Anemometry for the measurement of velocity distributions at the intake of a longitudinal flow heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Laser-Doppler-Anemometry (LDA) is an optical technic to measure flow velocities. In this report the principles of this method as well as the LDA-system components are described. Especially the signal-processing and the special conditions of use are discussed. The measurement of a two-dimensional velocity distribution at the intake of a longitudinal flow heat exchanger is shown in this investigation. (orig.)

  13. Circular test structure for the determination of piezoelectric constants of ScxAl1?xN thin films applying Laser Doppler Vibrometry and FEM simulations?

    OpenAIRE

    Mayrhofer, P.M.; Euchner, H.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric scandium aluminium nitride (ScxAl1?xN) via sputter deposition.Precise determination of piezoelectric constants (d33, d31) for thin films.Laser Doppler Vibrometry compared to finite element simulations (FEM) using COMSOL.Optimized circular electrode design (Bull's eye) with two-port excitation method.Elastic constants of ScxAl1?xN via density functional theory.

  14. A near infrared laser frequency comb for high precision Doppler planet surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bally J.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the most exciting area of astronomical research today is the study of exoplanets and exoplanetary systems, engaging the imagination not just of the astronomical community, but of the general population. Astronomical instrumentation has matured to the level where it is possible to detect terrestrial planets orbiting distant stars via radial velocity (RV measurements, with the most stable visible light spectrographs reporting RV results the order of 1?m/s. This, however, is an order of magnitude away from the precision needed to detect an Earth analog orbiting a star such as our sun, the Holy Grail of these efforts. By performing these observations in near infrared (NIR there is the potential to simplify the search for distant terrestrial planets by studying cooler, less massive, much more numerous class M stars, with a tighter habitable zone and correspondingly larger RV signal. This NIR advantage is undone by the lack of a suitable high precision, high stability wavelength standard, limiting NIR RV measurements to tens or hundreds of m/s [1, 2]. With the improved spectroscopic precision provided by a laser frequency comb based wavelength reference producing a set of bright, densely and uniformly spaced lines, it will be possible to achieve up to two orders of magnitude improvement in RV precision, limited only by the precision and sensitivity of existing spectrographs, enabling the observation of Earth analogs through RV measurements. We discuss the laser frequency comb as an astronomical wavelength reference, and describe progress towards a near infrared laser frequency comb at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and at the University of Colorado where we are operating a laser frequency comb suitable for use with a high resolution H band astronomical spectrograph.

  15. Calibrating airborne measurements of airspeed, pressure and temperature using a Doppler laser air-motion sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, W A; S. M. Spuler; M. Spowart; Lenschow, D. H.; R. B. Friesen

    2014-01-01

    A new laser air-motion sensor measures the true airspeed with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.1 m s?1 and so reduces uncertainty in the measured component of the relative wind along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft to about the same level. The calculated pressure expected from that airspeed at the inlet of a pitot tube then provides a basis for calibrating the measurements of dynamic and static pressure, reducing standard uncertainty in thos...

  16. Calibrating airborne measurements of airspeed, pressure and temperature using a Doppler laser air-motion sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, W A; S. M. Spuler; M. Spowart; Lenschow, D. H.; R. B. Friesen

    2014-01-01

    A new laser air-motion sensor measures the true airspeed with an uncertainty of less than 0.1 m s?1 (standard error) and so reduces uncertainty in the measured component of the relative wind along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft to about the same level. The calculated pressure expected from that airspeed at the inlet of a pitot tube then provides a basis for calibrating the measurements of dynamic and static pressure, reducing standard-error unce...

  17. Time dependent Doppler shifts in high-order harmonic generation in intense laser interactions with solid density plasma and frequency chirped pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, E. C.; Zhang, P.; He, Z.-H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States); Dollar, F. [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Krushelnick, K.; Thomas, A. G. R., E-mail: agrt@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States); Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    High order harmonic generation from solid targets is a compelling route to generating intense attosecond or even zeptosecond pulses. However, the effects of ion motion on the generation of harmonics have only recently started to be considered. Here, we study the effects of ion motion in harmonics production at ultrahigh laser intensities interacting with solid density plasma. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we find that there is an optimum density for harmonic production that depends on laser intensity, which scales linearly with a{sub 0} with no ion motion but with a reduced scaling if ion motion is included. We derive a scaling for this optimum density with ion motion and also find that the background ion motion induces Doppler red-shifts in the harmonic structures of the reflected pulse. The temporal structure of the Doppler shifts is correlated to the envelope of the incident laser pulse. We demonstrate that by introducing a frequency chirp in the incident pulse we are able to eliminate these Doppler shifts almost completely.

  18. Gingival blood flow under total combs by functional pressure evaluated with laser-Doppler flowmetry, a non-invasive method of blood flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingival blood flow under total-combs by functional pressure evaluated with Laser-Doppler Flowmetry, a non-invasive method of blood flow measurement. Microcirculation of gum's capillary system can be measured non-invasive by Laser-Doppler-Flowmetry (LDF). Circulation, defined by the number of floating erythrocytes per unit of time, is measured by a fibro-optical Laser-Doppler-Flowmetry. The task was to examine, if there is any change of gum's circulation during strain and relief. Circulation on defined measurepoints, divided on the four quadrants, was determined among maximal strain and subsequent relief, on one probationer (complete denture bearer). Before every measure session systemic pressure was taken. LDF-value was taken on top of jaw-comb, in doing so, to get reproducible result and a satisfying fixation of the probe, there was made an artificial limb of the upper and lower comb. In the upper comb a dynamometer-box, which determined minimal and maximal comb pressure, was integrated. The received results of the LDF-measurement, expressed as perfusion units (PU) were lower under applied pressure than by pressure points more distant. Hyperemia, resulting during relief, seemed the more intense, the less perfusion was before. This new, non-invasive kind of circulation measurement seems to be quite predestined to be used for gingival diagnostic under artificial limb in the future. (author)

  19. Time dependent Doppler shifts in high-order harmonic generation in intense laser interactions with solid density plasma and frequency chirped pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High order harmonic generation from solid targets is a compelling route to generating intense attosecond or even zeptosecond pulses. However, the effects of ion motion on the generation of harmonics have only recently started to be considered. Here, we study the effects of ion motion in harmonics production at ultrahigh laser intensities interacting with solid density plasma. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we find that there is an optimum density for harmonic production that depends on laser intensity, which scales linearly with a0 with no ion motion but with a reduced scaling if ion motion is included. We derive a scaling for this optimum density with ion motion and also find that the background ion motion induces Doppler red-shifts in the harmonic structures of the reflected pulse. The temporal structure of the Doppler shifts is correlated to the envelope of the incident laser pulse. We demonstrate that by introducing a frequency chirp in the incident pulse we are able to eliminate these Doppler shifts almost completely

  20. Studies of blood flow in human nasal mucosa with /sup133/Xe washout technique and laser doppler flowmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques were applied for studies of the influence of environmental temperature on the human nasal mucosa, for studies of mediators in nasal allergy and for studies of the sympathetic neurogenic control of blood flow in the nasal mucosa. The results show that the two techniques are complementary to one another. The /sup133/Xe washout technique is useful for semiquantitative estimations of blood flow in the deeper parts of the mucosa, while the laser doppler technique is especially suited for continuous recordings of relative blood flow changes in the superficial part of the mucosa. Vascular changes may take part in body temperature regulation changes may take part in body temperature regulation as well as in conditioning of respiratory air. The results support the theories that changes in nasal mucosal blood flow are related to body temperature control, while conditioning of inspiratory air may be more dependent on mucosal blood content. The observed dissociation between changes in the resistance and the capacitance vessels also illustrates that these vascular segments are regulated in different ways. The present results indicate that leukotriene D/sub4/ might contribute to an increased blood flow in the nasal mucosa and to blockage of the nasal airway in the acute allergic reaction. Vasomotion is demonstrated to be present in the nasal mucosa, and it appears to be partly dependent on sympathetic neurogenic activity. The development of the present techniques, means that vascular changes involved in normal nasal function and in nasal disease may be evaluated by a new approach. (author)

  1. Repeatability, Reproducibility and Standardisation of a Laser Doppler Imaging Technique for the Evaluation of Normal Mouse Hindlimb Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Brunetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preclinical perfusion studies are useful for the improvement of diagnosis and therapy in dermatologic, cardiovascular and rheumatic human diseases. The Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging (LDPI technique has been used to evaluate superficial alterations of the skin microcirculation in surgically induced murine hindlimb ischemia. We assessed the reproducibility and the accuracy of LDPI acquisitions and identified several critical factors that could affect LDPI measurements in mice. Methods. Twenty mice were analysed. Statistical standardisation and a repeatability and reproducibility analysis were performed on mouse perfusion signals with respect to differences in body temperature, the presence or absence of hair, the type of anaesthesia used for LDPI measurements and the position of the mouse body. Results. We found excellent correlations among measurements made by the same operator (i.e., repeatability under the same experimental conditions and by two different operators (i.e., reproducibility. A Bland-Altman analysis showed the absence of bias in repeatability (p = 0.29 or reproducibility (p = 0.89. The limits of agreement for repeatability were –0.357 and –0.033, and for reproducibility, they were –0.270 and 0.238. Significant differences in perfusion values were observed in different experimental groups. Conclusions. Different experimental conditions must be considered as a starting point for the evaluation of new drugs and strategic therapies.

  2. Multifractal analysis of heart rate variability and laser Doppler flowmetry fluctuations:comparison of results from different numerical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humeau, Anne; Buard, Benjamin; Chapeau-Blondeau, Francois; Rousseau, David [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Systemes Automatises (LISA), Universite d' Angers, 62 avenue Notre Dame du Lac, 49000 Angers (France); Mahe, Guillaume; Abraham, Pierre, E-mail: anne.humeau@univ-angers.f [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, UMR CNRS 6214-INSERM 771, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers cedex 01 (France)

    2010-10-21

    To contribute to the understanding of the complex dynamics in the cardiovascular system (CVS), the central CVS has previously been analyzed through multifractal analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) signals that were shown to bring useful contributions. Similar approaches for the peripheral CVS through the analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals are comparatively very recent. In this direction, we propose here a study of the peripheral CVS through a multifractal analysis of LDF fluctuations, together with a comparison of the results with those obtained on HRV fluctuations simultaneously recorded. To perform these investigations concerning the biophysics of the CVS, first we have to address the problem of selecting a suitable methodology for multifractal analysis, allowing us to extract meaningful interpretations on biophysical signals. For this purpose, we test four existing methodologies of multifractal analysis. We also present a comparison of their applicability and interpretability when implemented on both simulated multifractal signals of reference and on experimental signals from the CVS. One essential outcome of the study is that the multifractal properties observed from both the LDF fluctuations (peripheral CVS) and the HRV fluctuations (central CVS) appear very close and similar over the studied range of scales relevant to physiology.

  3. Multifractal analysis of central (electrocardiography) and peripheral (laser Doppler flowmetry) cardiovascular time series from healthy human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the cardiovascular system (CVS) activity is important for several purposes, including better understanding of heart physiology, diagnosis and forecast of cardiac events. The central CVS, through the study of heart rate variability (HRV), has been shown to exhibit multifractal properties, possibly evolving with physiologic or pathologic states of the organism. An additional viewpoint on the CVS is provided at the peripheral level by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), which enables local blood perfusion monitoring. We report here for the first time a multifractal analysis of LDF signals through the computation of their multifractal spectra. The method for estimation of the multifractal spectra, based on the box method, is first described and tested on a priori known synthetic multifractal signals, before application to LDF data. Moreover, simultaneous recordings of both central HRV and peripheral LDF signals, and corresponding multifractal analyses, are performed to confront their properties. With the scales chosen on the partition functions to compute Renyi exponents, LDF signals appear to have broader multifractal spectra compared to HRV. Various conditions for LDF acquisitions are tested showing larger multifractal spectra for signals recorded on fingers than on forearms. The results uncover complex interactions at central and peripheral CVS levels

  4. Laser Echosclerotherapy of varicose veins with haemodynamic echo-doppler evaluation : some rationale and short-term outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettorello, Gianfranco; Marini, Leonardo

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: The aim is to verify short-term results in Endovenous Laser Treatment (EVLT) performed in haemodynamic way in patients belonging to C2, C3 classes and type I, II, III venous shunts, according respectively with CEAP and Teupitz classification. Methods: Minor changes of technique were applied to EVLT in order to provide haemodynamic conditions. Treatment efficacy, anatomical failure, complications, recurrence rate and clinical improvements were analyzed. 105 limbs were treated from November 2004 to November 2007. Clinical and Echo-Colour-Doppler (ECD) follow up was performed two weeks, one, two and three years after the surgery. Results: in 79 inferior limbs follow-up was concluded and this are the final data: a) no Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) was detected; b) a notable reduction of recurrence if compared with groin recurrence rate in traditional stripping; e) satisfactory cosmetic results and short recovery were found in all the patients. Conclusions: In selected patients haemodynamic-guided EVLT is equally safe and efficient than standard. Clinical and aesthetical outcomes are durable without statistical differences on the plan of disease progression and complications. The recurrence rate is lower in EVLT haemodynamic-guided surgery than in conventional stripping. Long-term outcomes should be investigated. We need studies camparison among the three different kind of surgery performed in haemodynamic way

  5. Complex assessment of regional hemodynamics with tetrapolar rheography and laser Doppler fluometry in patients with low back pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Shemetov

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess hemodynamic disturbances in pts with low back pain syndrome (LBPS. Material and methods. 57 pts with LBPS were examined (12 female and 45 male aged 18 to 53 years (mean age 36,7 years. Spine osteochondritis was diagnosed in most of them. 34 had subacute and 23 - chronic LBPS course. In 32 pts peripheral hemodinamic indices were examined with tetrapolar rheo- vasography by ARM-RhEO" apparatus. In 25 pts total local blood flow was assessed in pain points with laser-Doppler fluometry (LDF-2 apparatus. 35 healthy individuals of comparable age and sex were included in control group. Results. 77% of pts showed small vessels tone decrease most prominent in pts with subacute LBPS course. Arterial wall elasticity diminution was revealed in 63% of cases, significant reduction of blood filling level - in 82%, venous flow-out obstacle - in 87%. There was a connection between degree of local blood flow increase in back pain points and (PI score: 0,19 V in pts with PI>60 u and 0,13 V in pts with PK40 u (in control group - 0,08 V, p<0,05 what shows perifocal edema in most painful points. Conclusion. Revealed regional hemodynamic and microcirculation disturbances can objectively confirm participation of hemodynamic disturbances in pain syndrome genesis and serve as a basis for perfection of LBPS treatment methods.

  6. Laser doppler velocimeter system for subsonic jet mixer nozzle testing at the NASA Lewis Aeroacoustic Propulsion Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podboy, Gary G.; Bridges, James E.; Saiyed, Naseem H.; Krupar, Martin J.

    1995-01-01

    A laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) system developed for the Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory (APL) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is described. This system was developed to acquire detailed flow field data which could be used to quantify the effectiveness of internal exhaust gas mixers (IEGM's) and to verify and calibrate computational codes. The LDV was used as an orthogonal, three component system to measure the flow field downstream of the exit of a series of IEGM's and a reference axisymmetric splitter configuration. The LDV system was also used as a one component system to measure the internal axial flow within the nozzle tailpipe downstream of the mixers. These IEGM's were designed for low-bypass ratio turbofan engines. The data were obtained at a simulated low flight speed, high-power operating condition. The optical, seeding, and data acquisition systems of the LDV are described in detail. Sample flow field measurements are provided to illustrate the capabilities of the system at the time of this test, which represented the first use of LDV at the APL. A discussion of planned improvements to the LDV is also included.

  7. Non-invasive laser Doppler perfusion measurements of large tissue volumes and human skeletal muscle blood RMS velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study proposes the implementation of an algorithm allowing one to derive absolute blood root-mean-square (RMS) velocity values from laser Doppler perfusion meter (LDP) data. The algorithm is based on the quasi-elastic light scattering theory and holds for multiple scattering. While standard LDP measurements are normally applicable to a small region of interest (?1 mm2), the present method allows the analysis of both small and large tissue volumes with small and large interoptode spacings (e.g., 1.5 cm). The applicability and the limits of the method are demonstrated with measurements on human skeletal muscle using a custom-built near-infrared LDP meter. Human brachioradialis muscle RMS velocity values of 9.99 0.01 and 5.58 0.03 mm s-1 at 1.5 cm and of 5.18 0.01 and 2.54 0.09 mm s-1 at 2 cm were found when the arm was (a) at rest and (b) occluded, respectively. At very large optode spacings or very high moving particle densities, the theory developed here would need to be amended to take into account second-order effects

  8. Non-invasive laser Doppler perfusion measurements of large tissue volumes and human skeletal muscle blood RMS velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binzoni, T [Departments of Radiology and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva (Switzerland); Leung, T S [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London (United Kingdom); Boggett, D [Moor Instruments Ltd, Millwey Axminster, Devon (United Kingdom); Delpy, D [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-07

    This study proposes the implementation of an algorithm allowing one to derive absolute blood root-mean-square (RMS) velocity values from laser Doppler perfusion meter (LDP) data. The algorithm is based on the quasi-elastic light scattering theory and holds for multiple scattering. While standard LDP measurements are normally applicable to a small region of interest ({approx}1 mm{sup 2}), the present method allows the analysis of both small and large tissue volumes with small and large interoptode spacings (e.g., 1.5 cm). The applicability and the limits of the method are demonstrated with measurements on human skeletal muscle using a custom-built near-infrared LDP meter. Human brachioradialis muscle RMS velocity values of 9.99 {+-} 0.01 and 5.58 {+-} 0.03 mm s{sup -1} at 1.5 cm and of 5.18 {+-} 0.01 and 2.54 {+-} 0.09 mm s{sup -1} at 2 cm were found when the arm was (a) at rest and (b) occluded, respectively. At very large optode spacings or very high moving particle densities, the theory developed here would need to be amended to take into account second-order effects.

  9. A primary standard for the volume flow rate of natural gas under high pressure based on laser Doppler velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickan, B.; Strunck, V.

    2014-10-01

    In December 2003, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) started the development of an optical-based primary flow rate standard for application in natural gas under high pressures (up to 5.5 MPa). The concept underlying this technology will be presented in this paper. The technical approach is based on the application of a conventional laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) as well as on a new LDV-based boundary layer sensor. Both technologies are used to determine the characteristic values of the core flow and the boundary layer in a nozzle flow in a separated approach. Because of the high relevance to the demonstration of traceability and to the evaluation of the uncertainty, the related data processing (especially for the boundary layer) is explained in detail. Finally, after summarizing the uncertainty budget for the optical-based primary standard, we will demonstrate the approval of the new primary standard by means of a comparison with the established conventional traceability of PTB for high-pressure natural gas.

  10. Multifractal analysis of heart rate variability and laser Doppler flowmetry fluctuations:comparison of results from different numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To contribute to the understanding of the complex dynamics in the cardiovascular system (CVS), the central CVS has previously been analyzed through multifractal analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) signals that were shown to bring useful contributions. Similar approaches for the peripheral CVS through the analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals are comparatively very recent. In this direction, we propose here a study of the peripheral CVS through a multifractal analysis of LDF fluctuations, together with a comparison of the results with those obtained on HRV fluctuations simultaneously recorded. To perform these investigations concerning the biophysics of the CVS, first we have to address the problem of selecting a suitable methodology for multifractal analysis, allowing us to extract meaningful interpretations on biophysical signals. For this purpose, we test four existing methodologies of multifractal analysis. We also present a comparison of their applicability and interpretability when implemented on both simulated multifractal signals of reference and on experimental signals from the CVS. One essential outcome of the study is that the multifractal properties observed from both the LDF fluctuations (peripheral CVS) and the HRV fluctuations (central CVS) appear very close and similar over the studied range of scales relevant to physiology.

  11. Application of laser Doppler velocimetry to measurement of the velocity field close to regularly arrayed rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mansen

    Most pollution releases in urban areas occur at or near ground level and therefore well within the building canopy. In order to study the dispersion of these emissions, it is necessary to know the wind velocity profile inside the canopy of large groups of buildings or obstacles. An ultra-low-speed small wind tunnel was set up to investigate the velocity field close to regularly arrayed rough surfaces. The wind tunnel speed ranged from zero to about 4 m/s. The wind tunnel experiments investigated the velocity profiles obtained for two kinds of roughness arrays: billboard obstacles ( lambdaf = 0.0494), and cube obstacles (lambda f = 0.4444). The velocities were measured with a Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). The logarithmic law was used to predict the friction velocity (u*), roughness length (z0) and displacement height (d) of the roughness arrays. The results were found to be consistent with previous water tunnel experimental results. The finite element model (FEM3A) was used to simulate the flow around the roughness arrays, and the simulation results were consistent with the experimental data for the billboard arrays. The present experiments established the use of LDV as a measurement technique for wind tunnel canopy flows and provided a useful database for CFD modelers.

  12. Heterodyne laser Doppler distance sensor with phase coding measuring stationary as well as laterally and axially moving objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both in production engineering and process control, multidirectional displacements, deformations and vibrations of moving or rotating components have to be measured dynamically, contactlessly and with high precision. Optical sensors would be predestined for this task, but their measurement rate is often fundamentally limited. Furthermore, almost all conventional sensors measure only one measurand, i.e. either out-of-plane or in-plane distance or velocity. To solve this problem, we present a novel phase coded heterodyne laser Doppler distance sensor (PH-LDDS), which is able to determine out-of-plane (axial) position and in-plane (lateral) velocity of rough solid-state objects simultaneously and independently with a single sensor. Due to the applied heterodyne technique, stationary or purely axially moving objects can also be measured. In addition, it is shown theoretically as well as experimentally that this sensor offers concurrently high temporal resolution and high position resolution since its position uncertainty is in principle independent of the lateral object velocity in contrast to conventional distance sensors. This is a unique feature of the PH-LDDS enabling precise and dynamic position and shape measurements also of fast moving objects. With an optimized sensor setup, an average position resolution of 240 nm was obtained

  13. Calibrating airborne measurements of airspeed, pressure and temperature using a Doppler laser air-motion sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Cooper

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A new laser air-motion sensor measures the true airspeed with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.1 m s?1 and so reduces uncertainty in the measured component of the relative wind along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft to about the same level. The calculated pressure expected from that airspeed at the inlet of a pitot tube then provides a basis for calibrating the measurements of dynamic and static pressure, reducing standard uncertainty in those measurements to less than 0.3 hPa and the precision applicable to steady flight conditions to about 0.1 hPa. These improved measurements of pressure, combined with high-resolution measurements of geometric altitude from the global positioning system, then indicate (via integrations of the hydrostatic equation during climbs and descents that the offset and uncertainty in temperature measurement for one research aircraft are +0.3 0.3 C. For airspeed, pressure and temperature, these are significant reductions in uncertainty vs. those obtained from calibrations using standard techniques. Finally, it is shown that although the initial calibration of the measured static and dynamic pressures requires a measured temperature, once calibrated these measured pressures and the measurement of airspeed from the new laser air-motion sensor provide a measurement of temperature that does not depend on any other temperature sensor.

  14. Calibrating airborne measurements of airspeed, pressure and temperature using a Doppler laser air-motion sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Cooper

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new laser air-motion sensor measures the true airspeed with an uncertainty of less than 0.1 m s?1 (standard error and so reduces uncertainty in the measured component of the relative wind along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft to about the same level. The calculated pressure expected from that airspeed at the inlet of a pitot tube then provides a basis for calibrating the measurements of dynamic and static pressure, reducing standard-error uncertainty in those measurements to less than 0.3 hPa and the precision applicable to steady flight conditions to about 0.1 hPa. These improved measurements of pressure, combined with high-resolution measurements of geometric altitude from the Global Positioning System, then indicate (via integrations of the hydrostatic equation during climbs and descents that the offset and uncertainty in temperature measurement for one research aircraft are +0.3 0.3 C. For airspeed, pressure and temperature these are significant reductions in uncertainty vs. those obtained from calibrations using standard techniques. Finally, it is shown that the new laser air-motion sensor, combined with parametrized fits to correction factors for the measured dynamic and ambient pressure, provides a measurement of temperature that is independent of any other temperature sensor.

  15. Development and Application of an Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Won Ho; Jeong, Hee Don [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Gug [Uiduk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    This paper describes the development and the field application of the ultrasonic gas flowmeter for accurate measurement of the volumetric flow rate of gases in a harsh environmental conditions in iron and steel making company. This ultrasonic flowmeter is especially suited for measuring LDG, COG, BFG gases produced in iron and steel making process. This is a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. We have developed the transmitting and receiving algorithm of ultrasonic wave and the ultrasonic signal processing algorithm to develope a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. We have evaluated the performance of ultrasonic flowmeter by the calibration system with Venturi type standard flowmeter. We has confirmed its reliability by extensive field tests for a year in POSCO, iron and steel making company. Now we have developed the commercial model of ultrasonic flowmeter and applied to the POSCO gas line

  16. Doppler Lidar (DL) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, RK

    2012-02-13

    The Doppler lidar (DL) is an active remote sensing instrument that provides range- and time-resolved measurements of radial velocity and attenuated backscatter. The principle of operation is similar to radar in that pulses of energy are transmitted into the atmosphere; the energy scattered back to the transceiver is collected and measured as a time-resolved signal. From the time delay between each outgoing transmitted pulse and the backscattered signal, the distance to the scatterer is inferred. The radial or line-of-sight velocity of the scatterers is determined from the Doppler frequency shift of the backscattered radiation. The DL uses a heterodyne detection technique in which the return signal is mixed with a reference laser beam (i.e., local oscillator) of known frequency. An onboard signal processing computer then determines the Doppler frequency shift from the spectra of the heterodyne signal. The energy content of the Doppler spectra can also be used to determine attenuated backscatter.

  17. High accuracy fuel flowmeter. Phase 2C and 3: The mass flowrate calibration of high accuracy fuel flowmeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, D. William

    1992-01-01

    A facility for the precise calibration of mass fuel flowmeters and turbine flowmeters located at AMETEK Aerospace Products Inc., Wilmington, Massachusetts is described. This facility is referred to as the Test and Calibration System (TACS). It is believed to be the most accurate test facility available for the calibration of jet engine fuel density measurement. The product of the volumetric flow rate measurement and the density measurement, results in a true mass flow rate determination. A dual-turbine flowmeter was designed during this program. The dual-turbine flowmeter was calibrated on the TACS to show the characteristics of this type of flowmeter. An angular momentum flowmeter was also calibrated on the TACS to demonstrate the accuracy of a true mass flowmeter having a 'state-of-the-art' design accuracy.

  18. Doppler limited laser spectroscopy on hafnium lines. Pt. II. Hyperfine structure of odd-parity levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouazza, S. [Dept. de Physique, Reims (France); Behrens, H.O.; Fienhold, M.; Guthoehrlein, G.H. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Hamburg, Holstenhofweg 85, 22043 Hamburg (Germany); Dembczynski, J. [Politechnika Poznanska, Katedra Fizyki Atomowej, ul. Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    1999-06-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.6, p.303-10, 1999. The hyperfine structure of selected odd-parity levels of the configurations 5d6s {sup 26p} and 5d {sup 26s6p} of {sup 177}Hf I was studied in 10 lines lying in the red spectral region. Hyperfine spectra were obtained by the method of laser induced fluorescence in the plasma of a liquid nitrogen cooled hollow cathode discharge. The observed hyperfine structure constants A and B, together with results from earlier studies were analyzed by means of a parametric method. The interpretation has been carried out based on a refined multiconfigurational fine structure calculation including the main Rydberg series configurations mutually interacting. The set of fine structure parameters as well as the leading eigenvector percentages of levels relevant for this paper are given. The following single electron HFS parameters were deduced for {sup 177}Hf: a{sup 01}{sub 5d} = 98.8(0.8)MHz, a{sup 01}{sub 6p}=204.6 (6.4)MHz,b{sup 02}{sub 5d}=4129 (133)MHz, b{sup 02}{sub 6p}=7847(266)MHz for the lowest configuration. (orig.) 21 refs.

  19. A solid state laser system for Doppler-free spectroscopy of muonium

    CERN Document Server

    Bakule, P

    1998-01-01

    to 1MHz, was found to be of the order of 80-120 MHz for a 30-40 mJ output. This chirp was shown to be the result of a fast change of the refractive index in the alexandrite rods, and was found to be directly proportional to the population inversion change during the Q-switched pulse. A method of chirp compensation was developed leading to a reduction of the chirp by an order of magnitude i.e. to the level of 5-15 MHz. The alexandrite output was frequency tripled using LBO and BBO crystals with a conversion efficiency in excess of 10 %, yielding UV pulse energies of 3 to 6 mJ. The 1S-2S transition frequency has been measured to be 2,455,528,940.99 (9.75)(3.5) MHz which is in agreement with the theoretical value of 2,455,528,934.61 (3.44) MHz. Measurement of 1S-2S interval in deuterium, performed primarily to study systematic errors, represents the best pulsed measurement to date and is in an agreement with values obtained with cw lasers. The thesis describes a new high precision measurement of the 1S-2S transi...

  20. Nailfold capillaroscopy and blood flow laser-doppler analysis of the microvascular damage in systemic sclerosis: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pizzorni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Systemic sclerosis (SSc is characterized by altered microvascular structure and function. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC is the tool to evaluate capillary morphological structure and laser-Doppler Blood flowmetry (LDF can be used to estimate cutaneous blood flow of microvessels. The aim of this study was to investigate possible relationships between capillary morphology and blood flow in SSc. Methods: 27 SSc patients and 12 healthy subjects were enrolled. SSc microvascular involvement, as evaluated by NVC, was classified in three different patterns (“Early”, “Active”, “Late”. LDF analysis was performed at the II, III, IV, V hand fingers in both hands and both at cutaneous temperature and at 36°C. Statistical evaluation was carried out by non-parametric procedures. Results: Blood flow was found significantly lower in SSc patients when compared with healthy subjects (p<0.05. The heating of the probe to 36°C induced a significant increase in peripheral blood flow in all subjects compared to baseline (p <0.05, however, the amount of variation was significantly lower in patients with SSc, compared with healthy controls (p <0.05. The SSc patients with NVC “Late” pattern, showed lower values of peripheral blood flow than patients with NVC “Active” or “Early” patterns (p<0.05. Moreover, a negative correlation between the tissue perfusion score and the progression of the SSc microangiopathy was observed, as well as between the tissue perfusion and the duration of the Raynaud’s phenomenon (p <0.03. Conclusions: LDF can be employed to evaluate blood perfusion in the microvascular circulation in SSc patients. The blood flow changes observed with the LDF seem to correlate with the severity of microvascular damage in SSc as detected by NVC.

  1. Laser-Doppler microvascular measurements in the peri-implant areas of different osseointegrated bone conductor implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarabin, Jnos; Bere, Zsfia; Hartmann, Petra; Tth, Ferenc; Kiss, Jzsef Gza; Rov, Lszl

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of hydroxyapatite coating of newly designed osseointegrated fixtures' abutments on the postoperative complication rates. The integrity of peri-implant microcirculation was used as a marker to compare tissue viability after different surgical techniques. Laser-Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) measures alone, and coupled with heat provocation tests were applied to test the different microcircular patterns. Measures for 17 consecutively implanted patients (8 women, 9 men, ages ranged from 18 to 77years) were recruited; seven with soft tissue reduction (STR); and 10 with soft tissue preservation (STP).Thirteen non-operated retro-auricular areas were examined as naive controls. In isotherm conditions the baseline blood flow remained stable in all groups. The naive control patients demonstrated significant changes of blood flux in the intact skin. The non-implanted yet previously operated contralateral sides of the patients demonstrated marginally lower (p=0.09) blood flux index. The STR sides however, showed significantly lower (average 217%) provoked blood flux compared to controls (p<0.001). At the STP sides a maladaptation could be observed (average 316%) compared to the contralateral sides (p=0.53). STP sides demonstrated a significantly better blood flow improvement compared to the STR sides (p=0.02). These results suggest a favorable postoperative condition of vascular microcirculation after STP, than after STR surgery. The possibly faster wound healing and lower potential complication rate may widen the inclusion criteria and maybe beneficial for the patient compliance with a better quality-of-life. PMID:25502915

  2. Experimental analysis of turbulent flow in a rectangular duct with arrays of blocks by using laser-doppler velocimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study of developing flow in a rectangular duct with arrays of blocks was carried out at the Reynolds number of 3.26x104 by using a Laser-Doppler velocimeter. The total amount of ten blocks are staggered each other and upstream tangent with rectangular cross section are set to obtain fully developed turbulent flow. The test section duct with blocks was placed at distance of 40.5 times hydraulic diameter from the duct inlet. Three components of mean velocity and the five components of the six Reynolds stresses were measured at nine different locations to clarify the development of turbulent structure. The measurement has been performed in the flow region between number 7 and number 8 blocks. As a result of this experimental study, it was pointed out as a characteristic feature that the two peaks of stream-wise velocity were generated in the central and wall side regions respectively. The measurements of secondary flow vectors suggest that this phenomenon is caused by transforming lower velocity fluid to upward of block from leading edge of block and the large values of secondary flow, which reach maximum percentage of 50% for mean bulk velocity, are produced at leading edge and wake region of block. Adding to this, separated and reattached flows are observed in wake region of blocks and the distributions of three normal stresses indicate a strong intensity near the reattachment region. The distributions of Reynolds shear stress show the opposite sign region, which is owing to streamwise velocity distorted by secondary flow. (author)

  3. Effects of antipsoriatic treatment on cutaneous blood flow in psoriasis measured by 133Xe washout method and laser Doppler velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 8 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, the cutaneous blood flow (CBF) was measured simultaneously in both involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin before (i.e., on the first day of hospitalization) and on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 28th days of treatment with tar. The 133Xe washout method was used after epicutaneous labeling and compared to the laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) technique. Control experiments were performed in 10 normal individuals. Before treatment the mean CBF in involved psoriatic skin was 62.6 +/- 18.7 SD ml X (100 g X min)-1, which is significantly higher than CBF of uninvolved skin in psoriatic patients, 9.5 +/- 4.0 SD ml X (100 g X min)-1, (p less than 0.01) and is 13.6 times higher than CBF in the normal individuals (p less than 0.01). Fifty hours following onset of treatment (i.e., after only 2 applications of tar), mean CBF of the involved psoriatic skin had decreased significantly to 35.0 +/- 13.9 SD ml X (100 g X min)-1, (p less than 0.01), which was not statistically different from the CBF on the 7th day. During the following weeks, the CBF in involved psoriatic skin decreased at a more moderate rate than that observed during the first week and was 15.0 +/- 6.1 SD ml X (100 g X min)-1 on the 28th day. This value is not significantly different from the CBF of uninvolved skin in these patients. At the end of treatment, the CBF of the uninvolved skin had decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) in all the patients to values similar to those observed in the skin of normal individuals. A parallel decline was observed in a clinical psoriatic score index; however, it is not known whether the observed decrease in CBF was preceded or succeeded by the clinical improvement

  4. Acoustic velocity measurement by means of Laser Doppler Velocimetry: Development of an Extended Kalman Filter and validation in free-field measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duff, Alain; Plantier, Guy; Valière, Jean C.; Gazengel, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    A signal processing technique, based on the use of an Extended Kalman Filter, has been developed to measure sound fields by means of Laser Doppler Velocimetry in weak flow. This method allows for the parametric estimation of both the acoustic particle and flow velocity for a forced sine-wave excitation where the acoustic frequency is known. The measurements are performed from the in-phase and the quadrature components of the Doppler downshifted signal thanks to an analog quadrature demodulation technique. Then, the estimated performance is illustrated by means of Monte-Carlo simulations obtained from synthesized signals and compared with asymptotic and analytical forms for the Cramer-Rao Bounds. Results allow the validity domain of the method to be defined and show the availability for free-field measurements in a large range. Finally, an application based on real data obtained in free field is presented.

  5. Response analysis of electromagnetic flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endou, A. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan). Tsuruga Advanced Reactor Engineering Center

    1996-06-01

    In liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), electromagnetic flowmeters (EMFs) have been extensively used to measure the coolant flow rate. Because the coolant flow rate is one of the most important parameters, a high accuracy and a fast response are required for the flow rate measurement. However, it was thought that the response might become slower when the pipe diameter of the EMF was increased. Therefore, a quantitative evaluation of the response was needed. To evaluate the response time of EMFs, an equation of the transient response was derived based on the realistic approximation that the EMF pipe is made of nonconductive material. The response is expressed as a function of the reciprocal of the square of the pipe radius a and of the length L of the external magnetic field along the pipe axis. However, when the aspect ratio L/2a is larger than two, the length of the external magnetic field has an almost insignificant effect on the response, and the response time increases with increasing a{sup 2}. The transient response can be calculated with an uncertainty of less than a few percent. A first-order approximation of the derived equation is given by the first lag term with the time constant of {mu}{sigma}a{sup 2}/3.83{sup 2} with permeability {mu} and conductivity {sigma} of the coolant. Even though the EMF has a diameter as large as 30 in., the response time is 45 ms and sufficiently fast compared with other sensors used in LMFBRs.

  6. Reducing Fatigue in a Rotary Flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G.

    1987-01-01

    Redesign of vanes straightening flow of liquid in rotary flowmeter increase fatigue lives of vanes and rotor. Purpose of vanes to eliminate turbulence so proportionality between flow and rotor speed constant. Nonuniform but symmetrical, new spacing of straightener vanes prevents flow wake from strongly interacting with rotor blades. At same time, vanes ensure accurate flow-rate measurement.

  7. BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. Basic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. These basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. The paper describes the ...

  8. Random numbers free analytical implementation of Monte Carlo for laser-Doppler flowmetry at large interoptode spacing: application to human bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzoni, Tiziano; Martelli, Fabrizio

    2015-03-20

    Classical Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) often necessitate too long computation times and specialized hardware. This is particularly true for LDF at large interoptode spacing with low absorption coefficients and large anisotropic factors representing real biological tissues. For this reason, a random numbers free "analytical" implementation of the classical MC (MCan) is proposed. The MCan approach allows to obtain noise exempt LDF spectra in a short time and with a simple personal laptop. The proposed MCan holds for a diffusive regime of light propagation and it is practically implemented for a semi-infinite geometry. Its validity is demonstrated by comparisons with the classical MC. PMID:25968528

  9. Low flow vortex shedding flowmeter for hypergolics/all media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinh, Ngo

    1990-01-01

    A family of vortex shedding flowmeters for flow measurement of hypergols that requires a long term operation without removal from system lines was further developed. A family of vortex shedding flowmeters without moving parts was designed. The test loop to evaluate the meters for the Freon flow, which simulates the hypergolic fluids, was modified and reconstructed. Preliminary results were obtained on the output frequency characteristics of an 1/2 inch flowmeter as a function of the flow rate.

  10. Documentation and Instructions for Running Two Python Scripts that Aid in Setting up 3D Measurements using the Polytec 3D Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohe, Daniel Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently purchased a Polytec 3D Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer for vibration measurement. This device has proven to be a very nice tool for making vibration measurements, and has a number of advantages over traditional sensors such as accelerometers. The non-contact nature of the laser vibrometer means there is no mass loading due to measuring the response. Additionally, the laser scanning heads can position the laser spot much more quickly and accurately than placing an accelerometer or performing a roving hammer impact. The disadvantage of the system is that a significant amount of time must be invested to align the lasers with each other and the part so that the laser spots can be accurately positioned. The Polytec software includes a number of nice tools to aid in this procedure; however, certain portions are still tedious. Luckily, the Polytec software is readily extensible by programming macros for the system, so tedious portions of the procedure can be made easier by automating the process. The Polytec Software includes a WinWrap (similar to Visual Basic) editor and interface to run macros written in that programming language. The author, however, is much more proficient in Python, and the latter also has a much larger set of libraries that can be used to create very complex macros, while taking advantage of Python’s inherent readability and maintainability.

  11. Development of an Electromagnetic Flowmeter with Dual Frequency Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinjia Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A design of electromagnetic flowmeter with time division dual frequency excitation is proposed. The new design keeps the advantages of zero-point stability of the conventional electromagnetic flowmeter.The immunity to low frequency noise is enhanced, and the dynamic response to the fast change of flow velocity is improved. A prototype flowmeter was made based on the proposed design. The experiment result shows that the prototype flowmeter can measure water flow in a wide velocity range with satisfactory accuracy.

  12. Contactless Electromagnetic Phase-Shift Flowmeter for Liquid Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Priede, J?nis; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2010-01-01

    We present a concept and test results of an induction flowmeter for liquid metals. The flow rate is determined by applying a weak AC magnetic field to a liquid metal flow and measuring the flow-induced phase disturbance in the external electromagnetic field. The phase disturbance is found to be more robust than that of the amplitude used in conventional AC flowmeters. The basic characteristics of this type of flowmeter are analysed using simple theoretical models where the flow is approximated by a solid body motion. Design of such a flowmeter is presented and its test results reported.

  13. Contactless electromagnetic phase-shift flowmeter for liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priede, J?nis; Buchenau, Dominique; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2011-05-01

    We present a concept and test results of an eddy-current flowmeter for liquid metals. The flow rate is determined by applying a weak ac magnetic field to a liquid metal flow and measuring the flow-induced phase disturbance in the external electromagnetic field. The phase disturbance is found to be more robust than that of the amplitude used in conventional eddy-current flowmeters. The basic characteristics of this type of flowmeter are analysed using simple theoretical models, where the flow is approximated by a solid body motion. Design of such a flowmeter is presented and its test results are reported.

  14. The NASA High Accuracy Fuel Flowmeter (HAFF) Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobart, H. F.

    1983-01-01

    The high accuracy fuel flowmeter development program is described. A flightworthy meter that measures mass flowrate of aircraft fuels to within + or - 0.25% of reading over a 50:1 range of flow is developed. A study of measurement techniques to achieve this goal yielded three candidates: (1) a dual turbine flowmeter with density and viscosity compensation; (2) an angular momentum flowmeter with a motor-driven, spring-restrained turbine and viscosity shroud; and (3) a vortex precission flowmeter with density and viscosity compensation. An experimental study of each technique was completed and the first two candidates were selected for prototype development.

  15. A study of air-coupled ultrasonic flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non-contact flowmeter employing air-coupled ultrasonic is developed in this study. Flow rate of feed water and cooling water for the condenser are monitored to control the thermal output of the nuclear reactor. Ultrasonic flowmeter has an advantage in its accuracy compared with differential pressure flowmeter and venturi flowmeter. However, the performance of sensors decreases in high-temperature conditions such as nuclear power plants and thermal power plants, and measuring accuracy declines because a sensor lose a piezoelectricity over its Curie point. (author)

  16. Vibrational spectra of nanowires measured using laser doppler vibrometry and STM studies of epitaxial graphene : an LDRD fellowship report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, Laura Butler

    2009-09-01

    A few of the many applications for nanowires are high-aspect ratio conductive atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever tips, force and mass sensors, and high-frequency resonators. Reliable estimates for the elastic modulus of nanowires and the quality factor of their oscillations are of interest to help enable these applications. Furthermore, a real-time, non-destructive technique to measure the vibrational spectra of nanowires will help enable sensor applications based on nanowires and the use of nanowires as AFM cantilevers (rather than as tips for AFM cantilevers). Laser Doppler vibrometry is used to measure the vibration spectra of individual cantilevered nanowires, specifically multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and silver gallium nanoneedles. Since the entire vibration spectrum is measured with high frequency resolution (100 Hz for a 10 MHz frequency scan), the resonant frequencies and quality factors of the nanowires are accurately determined. Using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the elastic modulus and spring constant can be calculated from the resonance frequencies of the oscillation spectrum and the dimensions of the nanowires, which are obtained from parallel SEM studies. Because the diameters of the nanowires studied are smaller than the wavelength of the vibrometer's laser, Mie scattering is used to estimate the lower diameter limit for nanowires whose vibration can be measured in this way. The techniques developed in this thesis can be used to measure the vibrational spectra of any suspended nanowire with high frequency resolution Two different nanowires were measured - MWNTs and Ag{sub 2}Ga nanoneedles. Measurements of the thermal vibration spectra of MWNTs under ambient conditions showed that the elastic modulus, E, of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) MWNTs is 37 {+-} 26 GPa, well within the range of E previously reported for CVD-grown MWNTs. Since the Ag{sub 2}Ga nanoneedles have a greater optical scattering efficiency than MWNTs, their vibration spectra was more extensively studied. The thermal vibration spectra of Ag{sub 2}Ga nanoneedles was measured under both ambient and low-vacuum conditions. The operational deflection shapes of the vibrating Ag{sub 2}Ga nanoneedles was also measured, allowing confirmation of the eigenmodes of vibration. The modulus of the crystalline nanoneedles was 84.3 {+-} 1.0 GPa. Gas damping is the dominate mechanism of energy loss for nanowires oscillating under ambient conditions. The measured quality factors, Q, of oscillation are in line with theoretical predictions of air damping in the free molecular gas damping regime. In the free molecular regime, Q{sub gas} is linearly proportional to the density and diameter of the nanowire and inversely proportional to the air pressure. Since the density of the Ag{sub 2}Ga nanoneedles is three times that of the MWNTs, the Ag{sub 2}Ga nanoneedles have greater Q at atmospheric pressures. Our initial measurements of Q for Ag{sub 2}Ga nanoneedles in low-vacuum (10 Torr) suggest that the intrinsic Q of these nanoneedles may be on the order of 1000. The epitaxial carbon that grows after heating (000{bar 1}) silicon carbide (SiC) to high temperatures (1450-1600) in vacuum was also studied. At these high temperatures, the surface Si atoms sublime and the remaining C atoms reconstruct to form graphene. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to characterize the quality of the few-layer graphene (FLG) surface. The XPS studies were useful in confirming the graphitic composition and measuring the thickness of the FLG samples. STM studies revealed a wide variety of nanometer-scale features that include sharp carbon-rich ridges, moire superlattices, one-dimensional line defects, and grain boundaries. By imaging these features with atomic scale resolution, considerable insight into the growth mechanisms of FLG on the carbon-face of SiC is obtained.

  17. Theory of the Lorentz force flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thess, Andre [Fakultaet fuer Maschinenbau, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Votyakov, Evgeny [Fakultaet fuer Maschinenbau, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Knaepen, Bernard [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Campus Plaine-CP231 Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Zikanov, Oleg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan-Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48128-1491 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    A Lorentz force flowmeter is a device for the contactless measurement of flow rates in electrically conducting fluids. It is based on the measurement of a force on a magnet system that acts upon the flow. We formulate the theory of the Lorentz force flowmeter which connects the measured force to the unknown flow rate. We first apply the theory to three specific cases, namely (i) pipe flow exposed to a longitudinal magnetic field (ii) pipe flow under the influence of a transverse magnetic field and (iii) interaction of a localized distribution of magnetic material with a uniformly moving sheet of metal. These examples provide the key scaling laws of the method and illustrate how the force depends on the shape of the velocity profile and the presence of turbulent fluctuations in the flow. Moreover, we formulate the general kinematic theory which holds for arbitrary distributions of magnetic material or electric currents and for any velocity distribution and which provides a rational framework for the prediction of the sensitivity of Lorentz force flowmeters in laboratory experiments and in industrial practice.

  18. 21 CFR 870.2100 - Cardiovascular blood flowmeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiovascular blood flowmeter. 870.2100 Section 870.2100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices 870.2100 Cardiovascular blood flowmeter. (a) Identification....

  19. 21 CFR 868.2320 - Uncompensated thorpe tube flowmeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uncompensated thorpe tube flowmeter. 868.2320 Section 868.2320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices 868.2320 Uncompensated thorpe tube flowmeter. (a) Identification....

  20. 21 CFR 868.2340 - Compensated thorpe tube flowmeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensated thorpe tube flowmeter. 868.2340 Section 868.2340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices 868.2340 Compensated thorpe tube flowmeter. (a) Identification. A...

  1. FIELD TESTING OF PROTOTYPE ACOUSTIC EMISSION SEWER FLOWMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation concerns verifying the operating principles of the acoustic emission flowmeter (U.S. Patent 3,958,458) in the natural environment of three different storm sewer field sites in Nassau County, New York. The flowmeter is a novel, passive, nonintrusive method that ...

  2. A theoretical model for determining turbine flowmeter sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. L.

    1967-01-01

    Analytical model of turbine-type flowmeter guides in the selection of valid extrapolation of available calibration data. An expression for flowmeter performance is developed to include the effects of fluid friction, bearing drag, and magnetic drag upon helical rotor design.

  3. Microfluidic flowmeter based on micro "hot-wire" sandwiched Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Yan, Guofeng; Zhang, Liang; He, Sailing

    2015-04-01

    We present a compact microfluidic flowmeter based on Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). The FPI was composed by a pair of fiber Bragg grating reflectors and a micro Co(2+)-doped optical fiber cavity, acting as a "hot-wire" sensor. Microfluidic channels made from commercial silica capillaries were integrated with the FPIs on a chip to realize flow-rate sensing system. By utilizing a tunable pump laser with wavelength of 1480 nm, the proposed flowmeter was experimentally demonstrated. The flow rate of the liquid sample is determined by the induced resonance wavelength shift of the FPI. The effect of the pump power, microfluidic channel scale and temperature on the performance of our flowmeter was investigated. The dynamic response was also measured under different flow-rate conditions. The experimental results achieve a sensitivity of 70 pm/(?L/s), a dynamic range up to 1.1 ?L/s and response time in the level of seconds, with a spatial resolution ~200 ?m. Such good performance renders the sensor a promising supplementary component in microfluidic biochemical sensing system. Furthermore, simulation modal was built up to analyze the heat distribution of the "hot-wire" cavity and optimize the FPI structure as well. PMID:25968776

  4. Laser Doppler anemometry measurements of steady flow through two bi-leaflet prosthetic heart valves / Velocimetria laser de escoamento permanente atravs de duas prteses cardacas de duplo folheto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ovandir, Bazan; Jayme Pinto, Ortiz; Francisco Ubaldo, Vieira Junior; Reinaldo Wilson, Vieira; Nilson, Antunes; Fabio Bittencourt Dutra, Tabacow; Eduardo Tavares, Costa; Orlando, Petrucci Junior.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: A caracterizao hidrodinmica in vitro de prteses de vlvulas cardacas fornece informaes importantes quanto ao seu funcionamento, sobretudo se realizada por meio de mtodos no-invasivos de anemometria. Uma vez obtidos os perfis de velocidade para cada vlvula, possvel compar-la [...] s quanto ao seu desempenho hidrodinmico. Neste primeiro estudo experimental de anemometria laser com vlvulas mecnicas, as simulaes foram realizadas em bancada de testes para escoamento permanente. OBJETIVO: Comparar perfis de velocidade unidimensional no plano central de duas prteses articas de duplo folheto St. Jude (modelos AGN 21 - 751 e 21 AJ - 501) submetidas a um regime de fluxo permanente, para quatro sees distintas, trs jusante e uma montante. MTODOS: Proporcionar condies de similaridade para o escoamento atravs de cada prtese, por meio de bancada hidrodinmica para escoamento permanente (gua, vazo de 17 L/min.) e, por meio de anemometria laser unidimensional, obter os perfis de velocidades para as mesmas sees e varreduras. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que as maiores velocidades correspondem prtese de dimetro interno menor e que as instabilidades do fluxo so maiores medida que a seo de interesse encontra-se mais prxima da vlvula. Tambm foram verificadas as regies de recirculao, de estagnao do fluxo e de baixa presso, alm dos picos de velocidade para o escoamento em questo. CONCLUSES: Sob o aspecto hidrodinmico e para todas as sees de interesse, foi possvel concluir a preferncia da vlvula de modelo AGN 21 - 751 (RegentTM) sobre a 21 AJ - 501 (Master Series). Os resultados obtidos permitiram escolher, para os prximos trabalhos, um foco de estudo mais especfico para regies concretas dessas prteses. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: In vitro hydrodynamic characterization of prosthetic heart valves provides important information regarding their operation, especially if performed by noninvasive techniques of anemometry. Once velocity profiles for each valve are provided, it is possible to compare them in terms of hy [...] drodynamic performance. In this first experimental study using laser doppler anemometry with mechanical valves, the simulations were performed at a steady flow workbench. OBJECTIVE: To compare unidimensional velocity profiles at the central plane of two bi-leaflet aortic prosthesis from St. Jude (AGN 21 - 751 and 21 AJ - 501 models) exposed to a steady flow regime, on four distinct sections, three downstream and one upstream. METHODS: To provide similar conditions for the flow through each prosthesis by a steady flow workbench (water, flow rate of 17L/min.) and, for the same sections and sweeps, to obtain the velocity profiles of each heart valve by unidimensional measurements. RESULTS: It was found that higher velocities correspond to the prosthesis with smaller inner diameter and instabilities of flow are larger as the section of interest is closer to the valve. Regions of recirculation, stagnation of flow, low pressure, and flow peak velocities were also found. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the hydrodynamic aspect and for every section measured, it could be concluded that the prosthesis model AGN 21 - 751 (RegentTM) is superior to the 21 AJ - 501 model (Master Series). Based on the results, future studies can choose to focus on specific regions of the these valves.

  5. The influence of wellbore inflow on electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemo, Tom; Barrash, Warren; Reboulet, Edward C; Johnson, Timothy C; Leven, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a combined field, laboratory, and numerical study of electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements acquired without the use of a packer or skirt to block bypass flow around the flowmeter. The most significant finding is that inflow through the wellbore screen changes the ratio of flow through the flowmeter to wellbore flow. Experiments reveal up to a factor of two differences in this ratio for conditions with and without inflow through the wellbore screen. Standard practice is to assume the ratio is constant. A numerical model has been developed to simulate the effect of inflow on the flowmeter. The model is formulated using momentum conservation within the borehole and around the flowmeter. The model is embedded in the MODFLOW-2000 ground water flow code. PMID:19341370

  6. Slug flow measurement using a current-sensing electromagnetic flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yeh Chan; Oh, Byung Do; Kim, Moo Hwan [Pohang Univ. of Science and Tech., Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jae Eun [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of two-phase slug flow, a current-sensing electromagnetic flowmeter with 240Hz triangular AC excitation was designed and manufactured. Theory of a current-sensing electromagnetic flowmeter with high temporal resolution was also developed. A flow pattern coefficient and a localization parameter were introduced for developing two-phase flow. The signals and noise from the flowmeter were obtained, and analyzed in comparison with the observations with a high speed CCD camera. The uncertainty of the flowmeter under singlephase flow was {+-}2.24% in real-time. For two-phase slug flow, electromagnetic flowmeter provided real-time simultaneous measurements of the mean film velocity around Taylor bubble and the relative location and the length of the bubble.

  7. The influence of wellbore inflow on electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemo, T.; Barrash, W.; Reboulet, E.C.; Johnson, T.C.; Leven, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a combined field, laboratory, and numerical study of electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements acquired without the use of a packer or skirt to block bypass flow around the flowmeter. The most significant finding is that inflow through the wellbore screen changes the ratio of flow through the flowmeter to wellbore flow. Experiments reveal up to a factor of two differences in this ratio for conditions with and without inflow through the wellbore screen. Standard practice is to assume the ratio is constant. A numerical model has been developed to simulate the effect of inflow on the flowmeter. The model is formulated using momentum conservation within the borehole and around the flowmeter. The model is embedded in the MODFLOW-2000 ground water flow code. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  8. Sub-Doppler laser cooling of fermionic 40K atoms in three-dimensional gray optical molasses

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, Diogo Rio; Kretzschmar, Norman; Wu, Saijun; Salomon, C; Chevy, Frdric

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate sub-Doppler cooling of 40K on the D_1 atomic transition. Using a gray molasses scheme, we efficiently cool a compressed cloud of 6.5x10^8 atoms from ~ 4\\mK to 20uK in 8 ms. After transfer in a quadrupole magnetic trap, we measure a phase space density of ~10^-5. This technique offers a promising route for fast evaporation of fermionic 40K.

  9. Between the Probe and the Pump : An experimental study on cardiac performance analysis based on Echocardiography, tissue and laser Doppler

    OpenAIRE

    Hbbert, Laila

    2010-01-01

    Echocardiography is an ultrasound-based bedside, non-invasive and easily available cardiac diagnostic technique visualising the hearts morphology and function. Quantification of cardiac wall motion can be measured with the tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) modality which provides in humans a high diagnostic capacity to differentiate healthy from diseased myocardium with reduced function. Heart failure, as a consequence of, for example, myocardial or ischaemic heart disease, demands both bedside a...

  10. Izmerenie vektora skorosti lazernym dopplerovskim anemometrom (LDA s volokonno-opticheskimi traktami[Measurement of the velocity vector of the laser Doppler anemometer (LDA with fiber-optic tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Khotyaintsev

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems encountered in the development of laser Doppler velocity vector meter optical fiber paths. The scheme of the meter, including three-dimensional velocity meter made by differential circuit. Describes the experimental setup and the results of the experiment by measuring the two projections of the velocity vector.

  11. Simultaneous sub-Doppler laser cooling of fermionic $^6$Li and $^{40}$K on the D$_1$ line: Theory and Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sievers, Franz; Kretzschmar, Norman; Fernandes, Diogo Rio; Suchet, Daniel; Rabinovic, Michael; Parker, Colin V; Khaykovich, Lev; Salomon, Christophe; Chevy, Frdric

    2014-01-01

    We report on simultaneous sub-Doppler laser cooling of fermionic $^6$Li and $^{40}$K using the D$_1$ optical transitions. We compare experimental results to a numerical simulation of the cooling process applying a semi-classical Monte Carlo wavefunction method. The simulation takes into account the three dimensional optical molasses setup and the dipole interaction between atoms and the bichromatic light field driving the D$_1$ transitions. We discuss the physical mechanisms at play, we identify the important role of coherences between the ground state hyperfine levels and compare D$_1$ and D$_2$ sub-Doppler cooling. In 5 ms, the D$_1$ molasses phase largely reduces the temperature for both $^6$Li and $^{40}$K at the same time, with a final temperature of 44 $\\mu$K and 11 $\\mu$K, respectively. For both species this leads to a phase-space density close to $10^{-4}$. These conditions are well suited to directly load an optical or magnetic trap for efficient evaporative cooling to quantum degeneracy.

  12. Experimental study of a three-dimensional, shear-driven, turbulent boundary layer using a three-dimensional laser Doppler velocimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, D. M.; Hebbar, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data have been obtained in a three-dimensional, shear-driven, turbulent boundary layer subjected to sudden transverse strain. Measurements made with a newly developed, three-dimensional laser Doppler velocimeter include all components of mean flow, turbulent Reynolds stresses, and triple-product correlations. Eddy viscosities, production, convection, turbulent diffusion, and dissipation (balance of kinetic energy equation) are extracted from the data. It was shown experimentally that eddy viscosity is strongly direction-dependent (not a scalar), indicating a need for full Reynolds stress modeling. Turbulence models for eddy viscosity, stress diffusion, pressure rate-of-strain, and anisotropy of Reynolds stresses are tested using the data. Calculations using a Reynolds stress equation model are compared with the data.

  13. Circular test structure for the determination of piezoelectric constants of ScxAl1?xN thin films applying Laser Doppler Vibrometry and FEM simulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, P.M.; Euchner, H.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric scandium aluminium nitride (ScxAl1?xN) thin films offer a large potential for the application in micro electromechanical systems, as advantageous properties of pure AlN thin films are maintained, but combined with an increased piezoelectric actuation and sensing potential. ScxAl1?xN thin films with x=27% have been prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering to find optimized deposition parameters to maximize the piezoelectric constants d33 and d31. For the accurate and simultaneous measurement of these constants Laser Doppler Vibrometry has been applied and compared to finite element (FEM) simulations. The electrode design has been optimized to rotational symmetric structures enabling a 180 phase shifted excitation, so that a straight-forward comparison of experimental displacement curves with those obtained from FEM is feasible. PMID:26109748

  14. Development of a wet gas flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreussi, P.; Ciandri, P.; Faluomi, V. [TRA Sistemi, Pisa (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    A new multiphase flowmeter, particularly suited for wet gas metering, has been developed. The meter working principle is the isokinetic sampling of the gas-liquid mixture, followed by separation and individual metering of the gas and the liquid phase. The liquid flowrate is derived from the value of the sampled liquid flowrate. The gas flowrate is measured with a multiphase nozzle. Preliminary tests have shown that both the gas and the liquid flowrates can be determined with an error less than 5%. The meter can be autocalibrated and allows the water-cut to be measured with any prescribed precision. (author)

  15. Laser Doppler flowmetry for bone blood flow measurement: correlation with microsphere estimates and evaluation of the effect of intracapsular pressure on femoral head blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) was used to measure bone blood flow in the rabbit femoral condyles. To correlate the LDF output signal blood cell flux to in vivo blood flow, simultaneous measurements using LDF and 85Sr-labeled microspheres were made in an adult rabbit model. There was no correlation between the two methods for blood flow in the femoral condyles and the correlation between the two methods for blood flow in the femoral head does not achieve statistical significance. An LDF signal of 0.4 V was approximately equal to a microsphere measured flow rate of 0.4 ml blood/g bone/min. The strength of the correlation in the latter case may have been affected by (a) large arteriovenous shunts, (b) inadequate mixing of the microspheres with a left ventricular injection, and (c) insufficient numbers of microspheres present in the bone samples. When LDF was used to evaluate the effect of elevated intracapsular pressure on femoral head blood flow in skeletally mature rabbits, femoral head subchondral bone blood flow declined with increasing intracapsular pressure from a baseline value of 0.343 +/- 0.036 to a value of 0.127 +/- 0.27 at 120 cm of water pressure. The decline in femoral head blood flow was statistically significant at pressures of 40 cm of water or higher (p less than 0.001), and evaluation of sections of the proximal femora made from preterminal disulphine blue injections confirmed these findings. Intracapsular tamponade has an adverse effect on femoral head blood flow beginning well below central venous pressure and should be considered in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic and nontraumatic necrosis of the femoral head. Laser Doppler flowmetry was easy to use and appears to be a reproducible technique for evaluating femoral head blood flow, offering distinct advantages over the microsphere technique for measuring bone blood flow

  16. Accuracy of Medical Oxygen Flowmeters: A Multicentric Field Study

    OpenAIRE

    Frdric Duprez; Maria Barile; Thierry Bonus; Grgory Cuvelier; Sandra Ollieuz; Shahram Mashayekhi; Alexandre Legrand

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of 476 oxygen flowmeters was investigated using a thermal mass flowmeter in eight hospitals in France and Belgium. Different oxygen flow rates (2 to 15 l/min) were evaluated at the patients bed. When the sample was considered as a whole, the accuracy of delivered flow was acceptable but precision was poor. The variability of the delivered flow between devices was greater when a low flow rate was required. Compensated-pressure oxygen flowmeters for these low rates were more accur...

  17. Electromagnetic flowmeter for liquid-metal fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electromagnetic flowmeter for liquid metal in fuel assemblies is considered. The device represents a magnetic system with alternating polarity. A number of poles is selected to be equal to the number of fuel elements adjoining the rod in which the flowmeter is installed. Using such flowmeter allows measuring the flowrate through each cell of fuel assemblies. Such device enables measuring the flow rate in a pipe in case of nonaxial-symmetric velocity profile. An analytical expression is given for potential distribution in the round pipe for the said device

  18. A computerized calibration system in a flowmeter factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design of a new Computer-Aided Test (CAT) system for calibrating magnetic flowmeters. The system consists of a 16-bit ''line computer'', ''line controllers'', peripherals, and flow-test facilities with master magnetic flowmeters. The system receives order information from the main office, calibrates flowmeters according to the order specifications, and provides calibration data as well as quality assurance (QA) information. An ''intelligent'' microcomputer-based converter was used to improve flow calibration accuracy and increase production efficiency. Test data showing calibration system accuracy are also presented

  19. A Mathematical Model of the Thermo-Anemometric Flowmeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Korobiichuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A thermo-anemometric flowmeter design and the principles of its work are presented in the article. A mathematical model of the temperature field in a stream of biofuel is proposed. This model allows one to determine the fuel consumption with high accuracy. Numerical modeling of the heater heat balance in the fuel flow of a thermo-anemometric flowmeter is conducted and the results are analyzed. Methods for increasing the measurement speed and accuracy of a thermo-anemometric flowmeter are proposed.

  20. A Mathematical Model of the Thermo-Anemometric Flowmeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobiichuk, Igor; Bezvesilna, Olena; Ilchenko, Andri?; Shadura, Valentina; Nowicki, Micha?; Szewczyk, Roman

    2015-01-01

    A thermo-anemometric flowmeter design and the principles of its work are presented in the article. A mathematical model of the temperature field in a stream of biofuel is proposed. This model allows one to determine the fuel consumption with high accuracy. Numerical modeling of the heater heat balance in the fuel flow of a thermo-anemometric flowmeter is conducted and the results are analyzed. Methods for increasing the measurement speed and accuracy of a thermo-anemometric flowmeter are proposed. PMID:26378535

  1. Development of small size Coriolis Mass Flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ki Won [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Jueng Keun [Hitrol Co., Ltd., Paju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    A Coriolis Mass Flowmeter(CMF), which has U-Shaped unique measuring tube was developed for direct mass flow measurement. In order to convert the time difference between two measuring tubes motion into mass flowrate and flow quantity, a signal processing circuit, as a part of CMF, was also developed. The CMF was designed as the 15mm nominal diameter of pipe connection and the 8 mm stainless steel(sus 316) pipe was used for measuring tube. To maximize the flow signal(time difference) from the measuring tubes, the natural frequency of measuring tube was adjusted as 220 Hz, which is same as the frequency of exciter. The maximum displacement at the end of the measuring tube was measured as 0.05 mm, and the maximum time difference between two measuring tubes was observed as 20 {mu}s, which was proper for discrimination and measuring range of CMF. The developed CMF was tested against the gravimetric flowmeter calibrator in the range of 3 kg/min and 30 kg/min. The results showed that the CMF has good linearity and repeatability in the tested flow range. Large size of CMF base on the current study experience will be developed.

  2. A New Approach to Laminar Flowmeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Deibe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available After studying the performance and characteristics of actual laminar flowmeters a new disposition for this type of sensors is proposed in such a way that the measurement errors introduced by the intrinsic nature of the device can be minimized. The preliminary study shows that the developing entry region introduces non-linearity effects in all these devices. These effects bring about not only errors, but also a change in the slope of the linear calibration respect of the Poiseuille relation. After a subsequent analysis on how these non-linearity errors can be reduced, a new disposition of this type of flowmeters is introduced. This device makes used of flow elements having pressure taps at three locations along its length and connected to three isolated chambers. In this way, the static pressure can be measured at three locations and contributed to by the pressure taps at the level of each chamber. Thus the linearization error is reduced with an additional advantage of producing a reduced pressure drop.

  3. Doppler-free intermodulated fluorescence spectroscopy of $^4He$ $2^3P-3^{1,3}D$ transitions at 588 nm with a one-watt compact laser system

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Pei-Ling; Feng, Yan; Wang, Li-Bang; Shy, Jow-Tsong

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated Doppler-free intermodulated fluorescence spectroscopy of helium $2^3P-3^{1,3}D$ transitions in an rf discharged sealed-off cell using a compact laser system at 588 nm. An external cavity diode laser at 1176 nm was constructed to seed a Raman fiber amplifier. Laser power of more than one watt at 588 nm was produced by frequency doubling of the fiber amplifier output using a MgO:PPLN crystal. A doubling efficiency of 23 % was achieved. The power-dependent spectra of the $2^3P-3^3D$ transitions were investigated. Furthermore, the Doppler-free spectrum of the spin-forbidden $2^3P-3^1D$ transitions was observed for the first time. Our results are crucial towards precision test of QED atomic calculations, especially for improving the determination of the helium $3^1D-3^3D$ separation.

  4. Applicability estimation of flowmeter logging for detecting hydraulic pass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of the hydraulic pass governing hydrogeological structure contributes significantly to the siting HLW repository. Flowmeter logging can detect hydraulic passes by measuring vertical flow velocity of groundwater in the borehole. We reviewed application of this logging in situ. The hydraulic pass was detected with combination of ambient flow logging, with pumping and/or injecting induced flow logging. This application showed that the flowmeter logging detected hydraulic passes conveniently and accurately compared with other hydraulic tests. Hydraulic conductivity by using flowmeter logging was assessed above 10-6m/sec and within one order from comparison with injection packer tests. We suggest that appropriate application of the flowmeter logging for the siting is conducted before hydraulic tests because test sections and monitoring sections are decided rationally for procurement of quantitative hydraulic data. (author)

  5. A Study of Orifice Flowmeter with Low Loses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sun; Lee, Jun Hee; Yoon, Yong Kwan [Daejoo Total System Providing Co., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heuy Dong [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    An orifice flowmeter is an efficient device for measuring flow rate utilizing velocity and pressure variation across the orifice plate. The orifice flowmeter is widely used in industry on account of its simple geometry, little maintenance, and advantage of a moderate production cost of installation. However there has been a frequent error caused by a large pressure drop and turbulent flow in orifice downstream. The present study analyzes a efficiency and performance of an orifice flowmeter by changing the diffuser design of outlet pipe so that the orifice flowmeter with losses system can induce a decrease pressure loss and uniform flow effectively adopting a diffuser. The two dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved using a fully implicit finite volume scheme. Sizes of the diffuser inlet diameter are changed, and enlargement angle, area ratio and total pressure losses are analyzed to find out the best design parameters.

  6. Applicability estimation of flowmeter logging for detecting hydraulic pass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakawa, Kimio; Tanaka, Yasuji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab.

    1997-03-01

    Estimation of the hydraulic pass governing hydrogeological structure contributes significantly to the siting HLW repository. Flowmeter logging can detect hydraulic passes by measuring vertical flow velocity of groundwater in the borehole. We reviewed application of this logging in situ. The hydraulic pass was detected with combination of ambient flow logging, with pumping and/or injecting induced flow logging. This application showed that the flowmeter logging detected hydraulic passes conveniently and accurately compared with other hydraulic tests. Hydraulic conductivity by using flowmeter logging was assessed above 10{sup -6}m/sec and within one order from comparison with injection packer tests. We suggest that appropriate application of the flowmeter logging for the siting is conducted before hydraulic tests because test sections and monitoring sections are decided rationally for procurement of quantitative hydraulic data. (author)

  7. Development of the Vortex Mass Flowmeter with Wall Pressure Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyong; Sun, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    Mass flow measurement is essential to the understanding and control of processes concerning fluid flow. The availability of reliable mass flowmeters, however, is far inadequate to meet the demand. In this paper we developed a practical vortex mass flowmeter with wall pressure measurement. The meter coefficient of mass flow rate was acquired through experiments with air at Reynolds numbers from 1.3103 to 9.8103. Here we show that the meter coefficient of mass flow rate is nearly constant at Reynolds numbers greater than 5.5103. To further extend the lower limit, a correction factor related to the Reynolds number was introduced into the vortex mass flowmeter. The results show that the relative errors of the vortex mass flowmeter developed are basically within 5%. This device can satisfy a diversity of requirements of mass flow measurement in engineering fields.

  8. Ball bearing used in design of rugged flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkin, H. L.

    1965-01-01

    A volumetric flowmeter which has a small magnet imbedded in the outer perimeter of the turbine wheel or in the bearing permits measurement of liquid flow rates in the presence of wide ranges and violent surges.

  9. Accuracy of Medical Oxygen Flowmeters: A Multicentric Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frdric Duprez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of 476 oxygen flowmeters was investigated using a thermal mass flowmeter in eight hospitals in France and Belgium. Different oxygen flow rates (2 to 15 l/min were evaluated at the patients bed. When the sample was considered as a whole, the accuracy of delivered flow was acceptable but precision was poor. The variability of the delivered flow between devices was greater when a low flow rate was required. Compensated-pressure oxygen flowmeters for these low rates were more accurate than their non-compensated counterparts. This study emphasizes the need to individually adapt the oxygen flow rate each time a patient has to move from one flowmeter to another.

  10. Skew photonic Doppler velocimetry to investigate the expansion of a cloud of droplets created by micro-spalling of laser shock-melted metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic fragmentation in the liquid state after shock-induced melting, usually referred to as micro-spallation, is an issue of great interest for both basic and applied sciences. Recent efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the resulting ejecta, which consist in a cloud of fine molten droplets. Major difficulties arise from the loss of free surface reflectivity at shock breakout and from the wide distribution of particle velocities within this cloud. We present laser shock experiments on tin and aluminium, to pressures ranging from about 70 to 160 GPa, with complementary diagnostics including a photonic Doppler velocimeter set at a small tilt angle from the normal to the free surface, which enables probing the whole cloud of ejecta. The records are roughly consistent with a one-dimensional theoretical description accounting for laser shock loading, wave propagation, phase transformations, and fragmentation. The main discrepancies between measured and calculated velocity profiles are discussed in terms of edge effects evidenced by transverse shadowgraphy.

  11. Measurement of isotope shifts in Sm I by using sub-doppler optogalvanic spectra with a single-frequency semiconductor master-oscillator power-amplifier laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution optogalvanic spectroscopy near 670 nm was performed on atomic samarium generated in a hollow cathode discharge. For this experiment, a master-oscillator power-amplifier semiconductor diode laser source with a nominal output power of 500 mW was constructed. The isotope shifts were measured in sub-Doppler atomic spectra for two transitions: one at 667.151 nm (4f6 6s27F6 - 4f6 6s6p 9F7) and the other at 672.588 nm (4f6 6s2 7Fo - 4f6 6s6p 9F1). We showed that the field shifts estimated from the King plots contributed mainly to the observed isotope shifts for both transitions. Changes in the mean-square nuclear charge radii were derived from the field shifts, The output characteristics of a semiconductor power-amplifier with a laterally tapered gain region and seeded by a grating-tuned external-cavity diode laser are also reported

  12. Design and analysis of flow rectifier of gas turbine flowmeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhi-Fei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional computational model for a gas turbine flowmeter is proposed, and the finite volume based SIMPLEC method and k-? turbulence model are used to obtain the detailed information of flow field in turbine flowmeter, such as velocity and pressure distribution. Comparison between numerical results and experimental data reveals a good agreement. A rectifier with little pressure loss is optimally designed and validated numerically and experimentally.

  13. Unsteady Phenomena During Operation of the SSME Fuel Flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Bogdan; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a part of the analysis carried in support of the SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) Fuel Flowmeter redesign, addressing an intensely researched phenomenon known as "shifting" of the flowmeter constant value. It consists of a sudden change in the flowmeter indication, which occurs simultaneously with the onset of an oscillatory variation of the rotor speed. The change in the flowmeter indications does not correspond to a real change in the volumetric flow through the device. Several causes have been investigated in detail, in the past, without conclusive evidence towards a cause of this phenomenon. The present analysis addresses the flow physics through the flowmeter by assembling results from 3-D CFD (computational fluid dynamics) calculations, airfoil C(sub D)/C(sub L) performance curves and mass moment of inertia characteristics of the rotor into a synergistic calculation which simulates the unsteady regime of the flowmeter operation. The results show that the 4-bladed rotor interacts with the periodic flow pattern created behind the flow straightener upstream in a manner that generates a steady, periodic fluctuation in the rotor's speed. The amplitude of this fluctuation is significantly smaller than the 0.5% of mean speed threshold which constitutes a flight operational limit. When manufacturing errors occur, however, the fluctuations are amplified and can generate a significant apparent change in the flowmeter indication. Two types of possible fabrication errors-which can occur even for parts fabricated within the accepted tolerances for the blade airfoil-are presented, together with their effect on the flowmeter operation.

  14. Electromagnetic flowmeters and level indicators for sodium loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electromagnetic flowmeter without an iron core for the sodium loop was designed, manufactured and tested. The basic technical parameters of two flowmeters are given for pipes having 40 and 100 mm in diameter and for temperatures up to 600 degC. A contactless level indicator was developed and tested for measuring the sodium level. The description and main parameters of the contactless level indicator are also given. (F.M.)

  15. Doppler principle - inspiration of modern physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Doppler principle not only represents a useful experimental method of velocity measurement in many fields of science and technology, it is deeply embedded in the foundations of modern relativistic and quantum physics. The discovery of the anomalous Doppler effect exactly 50 years ago and the development of microwave electronics, laser techniques and plasma physics made possible new extensive applications and a deeper understanding of the Doppler principle; this is true especially in the case of supersonic and supraluminous motions. Also, the Einstein quantum theory of radiation has been modified by including new types of quantum transitions closely related to the Doppler effect. (author) 12 refs

  16. Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explains the method of removing the Doppler shift by using two overlapping laser beams in opposite directions. The Doppler shift of the frequency of one beam is cancelled out by that of the other. In spectroscopy this means that the resolution is governed by the natural spectrum line width (MHz) instead of the Doppler width (GHz). The method is used to study spectrum details within the Doppler width: the fine and hyperfine structure, Zeeman effect, Stark effect, isotope shift and effects of interatomic collisions. Some experiments with sodium vapour are described. The method can be extended to n-photon spectroscopy, with n beams at different frequencies. (J.S.)

  17. Status of the Recent Magnetic Flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to get the economic benefits and safety of a process facility, 4 major variables - temperature, pressure, level and - should be measured correctly and precisely. The function and performance of recent measuring instruments for the above variables have become sophisticated according to the development of mechanical materials, electronic materials, electronic components such as microprocessors etc. As thermal power of NPP is calculated from the measurement of feedwater temperature and feedwater flowrate, the precise measurement of them could prevent the overpower accident in advance and minimize the power loss. The thermal power margin of US NPP has been guided at 2% by US NRC and NPP electric companies can increase yhe thermal power more than 1% with the use of more advanced instrumentation through the revision of 10 CFR 50 app. k. This report describes general flow measurement technology and the state-of-the art for magnetic flowmeters

  18. Self-mixing laser Doppler vibrometry with high optical sensitivity application to real-time sound reproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Ko, J Y

    2003-01-01

    Nanometre vibration measurement of an audio speaker and a highly sensitive sound reproduction experiment have been successfully demonstrated by a self-aligned optical feedback vibrometry technique using the self-mixing modulation effect in a laser-diode-pumped microchip solid-state laser. By applying nanometre vibrations to the speaker, which produced nearly inaudible music below 20 dB (200 mu Pa) sound pressure level, we could reproduce clear sound in real time by the use of a simple frequency modulated wave demodulation circuit with a -120 dB light-intensity feedback ratio.

  19. Self-mixing laser Doppler vibrometry with high optical sensitivity: application to real-time sound reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanometre vibration measurement of an audio speaker and a highly sensitive sound reproduction experiment have been successfully demonstrated by a self-aligned optical feedback vibrometry technique using the self-mixing modulation effect in a laser-diode-pumped microchip solid-state laser. By applying nanometre vibrations to the speaker, which produced nearly inaudible music below 20 dB (200 ?Pa) sound pressure level, we could reproduce clear sound in real time by the use of a simple frequency modulated wave demodulation circuit with a -120 dB light-intensity feedback ratio

  20. DESIGN AND CALIBRATION OF A CAPILLARY FLOWMETER SET FOR MEASUREMENT OF GAS FLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menderes LEVENT

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, design and calibration of a capillary flowmeter set was represented. The capillary flowmeters will be used for measurements of small gas flows having laminar flow regime. The gases (such as, nitrogen, argon, methane, hydrogen and carbon-dioxide supplied from high pressure gas bottles and passed through capillary flowmeters (1 to 3 at various times. Each capillary flowmeter was made of glass and calibrated with one or two gases. Outlet of the capillary flowmeters were connected to the needle valves which have been used for regulating gas flowrates of the capillary flowmeters. Gases individually passed to a bubble flowmeter, and residence time of gases are recorded by using a stop watch. Then, from collected experimental results actual gas flowrates through the capillary flowmeters are calculated by using Hagen-Poiseuille equation.

  1. Local measurements in two-phase flow using a double-sensor conductivity probes and laser doppler anemometry in a vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An upward isothermal co-current air-water flow in a vertical pipe (50.2 mm inner diameter) has been experimental investigated. Local measurements of void fraction, interfacial area concentration (IAC), and interfacial velocity and Sauter mean diameter were measured using a double sensor conductivity probe. Liquid velocity and turbulence intensity were measured using laser Doppler anemometry. Different air-water flow configurations was investigated for a liquid flow rate ranged from 0.29 m/s to 2 m/s and a void fraction up to 15%. For each two-phase flow configuration 15 radial position and three axial positions was measured by the conductivity probe methodology, and several radial profiles was measured with LDA at different axial positions. Two theoretical calibration factors have been defined to relate the mean measurable parameter to the interfacial area concentrations obtained and the measured bubbles, including the missed bubbles. Those factors include the effects of bubble motions, and probe spacing. These calibration factors were obtained through new analytical and numerical method, using a Monte Carlo approach. (author)

  2. Study of time reversibility/irreversibility of cardiovascular data: theoretical results and application to laser Doppler flowmetry and heart rate variability signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Mah, Guillaume; Chapeau-Blondeau, Franois; Rousseau, David; Abraham, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Time irreversibility can be qualitatively defined as the degree of a signal for temporal asymmetry. Recently, a time irreversibility characterization method based on entropies of positive and negative increments has been proposed for experimental signals and applied to heart rate variability (HRV) data (central cardiovascular system (CVS)). The results led to interesting information as a time asymmetry index was found different for young subjects and elderly people or heart disease patients. Nevertheless, similar analyses have not yet been conducted on laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals (peripheral CVS). We first propose to further investigate the above-mentioned characterization method. Then, LDF signals, LDF signals reduced to samples acquired during ECG R peaks (LDF_RECG signals) and HRV recorded simultaneously in healthy subjects are processed. Entropies of positive and negative increments for LDF signals show a nonmonotonic pattern: oscillationsmore or less pronounced, depending on subjectsare found with a period matching the one of cardiac activity. However, such oscillations are not found with LDF_RECG nor with HRV. Moreover, the asymmetry index for LDF is markedly different from the ones of LDF_RECG and HRV. The cardiac activity may therefore play a dominant role in the time irreversibility properties of LDF signals.

  3. Simultaneous assessment of blood flow in UVB-inflamed human skin by laser Doppler flowmetry and the 133-xenon cashout technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The purpose of the study was to compare skin bloood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and the 133-Xenon washout technique in UVB-inflamed human skin. Six healthy subjects participated in the study. Forearm skin blood flow was measured prior to irradiation and then 8, 24, 48 and 72 h the...... exposure to twice the minimal erythema dose of UVB. Baseline blood flow as measured by the 133-Xenon washout metod was 5,2(range 3,0 to 10,4) ml/100g/min and LDF flux was 3,1 (range 2,7 to 5,7) arbitrary units. Following irradiation, maximum blood flow increase as evaluated by the 133-Xenonwashout was 10...... showed comparable time courses in al subjects. A significant correlation between the two methods was found, Spearman's rho = 0,54, p = 0,006. The relative LDF blood flow increase was 4,2-fold (95% confidence interval 2,7 to 5,0) greater than the increase measured by the 133-Xenon washout method. These...

  4. Time-frequency analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in response to a progressive pressure applied locally on anaesthetized healthy rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humeau, Anne [Groupe ISAIP-ESAIP, 18 rue du 8 mai 1945, BP 80022, 49180 Saint Barthelemy d' Anjou Cedex (France); Koitka, Audrey [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Abraham, Pierre [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Saumet, Jean-Louis [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); L' Huillier, Jean-Pierre [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Arts et Metiers (ENSAM), Laboratoire Procedes-Materiaux-Instrumentation (LPMI), 2 boulevard du Ronceray, BP 3525, 49035 Angers Cedex (France)

    2004-03-07

    The laser Doppler flowmetry technique has recently been used to report a significant transient increase of the cutaneous blood flow signal, in response to a local non-noxious pressure applied progressively on the skin of both healthy humans and rats. This phenomenon is not entirely understood yet. In the present work, a time-frequency analysis is applied to signals recorded on anaesthetized healthy rats, at rest and during a cutaneous pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV). The comparison, at rest and during PIV, of the scalogram relative energies and scalogram relative amplitudes in five bands, corresponding to five characteristic frequencies, shows an increased contribution for the endothelial related metabolic activity in PIV signals, till 400 s after the beginning of the progressive pressure application. The other subsystems (heart, respiration, myogenic and neurogenic activities) contribute relatively less during PIV than at rest. The differences are statistically significant for all the relative activities in the interval 0-200 s following the beginning of the pressure. These results and others obtained on patients, such as diabetics, could increase the understanding of some cutaneous pathologies involved in various neurological diseases and in the pathophysiology of decubitus ulcers.

  5. Time frequency analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in response to a progressive pressure applied locally on anaesthetized healthy rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau, Anne; Kotka, Audrey; Abraham, Pierre; Saumet, Jean-Louis; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre

    2004-03-01

    The laser Doppler flowmetry technique has recently been used to report a significant transient increase of the cutaneous blood flow signal, in response to a local non-noxious pressure applied progressively on the skin of both healthy humans and rats. This phenomenon is not entirely understood yet. In the present work, a time-frequency analysis is applied to signals recorded on anaesthetized healthy rats, at rest and during a cutaneous pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV). The comparison, at rest and during PIV, of the scalogram relative energies and scalogram relative amplitudes in five bands, corresponding to five characteristic frequencies, shows an increased contribution for the endothelial related metabolic activity in PIV signals, till 400 s after the beginning of the progressive pressure application. The other subsystems (heart, respiration, myogenic and neurogenic activities) contribute relatively less during PIV than at rest. The differences are statistically significant for all the relative activities in the interval 0-200 s following the beginning of the pressure. These results and others obtained on patients, such as diabetics, could increase the understanding of some cutaneous pathologies involved in various neurological diseases and in the pathophysiology of decubitus ulcers.

  6. Dynamic characteristics of laser Doppler flowmetry signals obtained in response to a local and progressive pressure applied on diabetic and healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau, Anne; Koitka, Audrey; Abraham, Pierre; Saumet, Jean-Louis; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre

    2004-09-01

    In the biomedical field, the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) technique is a non-invasive method to monitor skin perfusion. On the skin of healthy humans, LDF signals present a significant transient increase in response to a local and progressive pressure application. This vasodilatory reflex response may have important implications for cutaneous pathologies involved in various neurological diseases and in the pathophysiology of decubitus ulcers. The present work analyses the dynamic characteristics of these signals on young type 1 diabetic patients, and on healthy age-matched subjects. To obtain accurate dynamic characteristic values, a de-noising wavelet-based algorithm is first applied to LDF signals. All the de-noised signals are then normalised to the same value. The blood flow peak and the time to reach this peak are then calculated on each computed signal. The results show that a large vasodilation is present on signals of healthy subjects. The mean peak occurs at a pressure of 3.2 kPa approximately. However, a vasodilation of limited amplitude appears on type 1 diabetic patients. The maximum value is visualised, on the average, when the pressure is 1.1 kPa. The inability for diabetic patients to increase largely their cutaneous blood flow may bring explanations to foot ulcers.

  7. Some experiments in swirling flows: Detailed velocity measurements of a vortex breakdown using a laser Doppler anemometer. Ph.D. Thesis - Cornell Univ. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faler, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of spiraling flows in a slightly diverging, circular duct are reported. Seven types of flow disturbances were observed. In addition to the spiral and axisymmetric vortex breakdowns and the double helix mode, four other forms were identified and are reported. The type and axial location of the disturbance depended on the Reynolds and circulation numbers of the flow. Detailed velocity measurements were made by using a laser Doppler anemometer. Measurements made far upstream of any disturbance showed that the introduction of swirl resulted in the formation of a high axial velocity jet centered around the vortex center. A mapping of the velocity field of a so-called axisymmetric breakdown, formed at a Reynolds number of 2560, revealed that the recirculation zone is a two-celled structure, with four stagnation points on the vortex axis marking the axial extremes of the concentric cells. The dominant feature of the flow inside the bubble was the strong, periodic velocity fluctuations. Existing theoretical models do not predict the two-celled structure and the temporal velocity fluctuations that were observed.

  8. Spectral components of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application: scalogram analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant transient increase in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals is observed in response to a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application in healthy subjects. This reflex may be impaired in diabetic patients. The work presents a signal processing providing the clarification of this phenomenon. Scalogram analyses of LDF signals recorded at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application are performed on healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects. Three frequency bands, corresponding to myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities, are studied. The results show that, at rest, the scalogram energy of each frequency band is significantly lower for diabetic patients than for healthy subjects, but the scalogram relative energies do not show any statistical difference between the two groups. Moreover, the neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities are significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in healthy and diabetic subjects. However, the relative contribution of the endothelial related metabolic activity is significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in the interval 200-400 s following the beginning of the pressure application, but only for healthy subjects. These results may improve knowledge on cutaneous microvascular responses to injuries or local pressures initiating diabetic complications

  9. Study of time reversibility/irreversibility of cardiovascular data: theoretical results and application to laser Doppler flowmetry and heart rate variability signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time irreversibility can be qualitatively defined as the degree of a signal for temporal asymmetry. Recently, a time irreversibility characterization method based on entropies of positive and negative increments has been proposed for experimental signals and applied to heart rate variability (HRV) data (central cardiovascular system (CVS)). The results led to interesting information as a time asymmetry index was found different for young subjects and elderly people or heart disease patients. Nevertheless, similar analyses have not yet been conducted on laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals (peripheral CVS). We first propose to further investigate the above-mentioned characterization method. Then, LDF signals, LDF signals reduced to samples acquired during ECG R peaks (LDFRECG signals) and HRV recorded simultaneously in healthy subjects are processed. Entropies of positive and negative increments for LDF signals show a nonmonotonic pattern: oscillationsmore or less pronounced, depending on subjectsare found with a period matching the one of cardiac activity. However, such oscillations are not found with LDFRECG nor with HRV. Moreover, the asymmetry index for LDF is markedly different from the ones of LDFRECG and HRV. The cardiac activity may therefore play a dominant role in the time irreversibility properties of LDF signals. (paper)

  10. Pitot-tube flowmeter for quantification of airflow during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkness, J P; Verma, M; McGinley, B M; Erlacher, M; Schwartz, A R; Smith, P L; Wheatley, J R; Patil, S P; Amis, T C; Schneider, H

    2011-02-01

    The gold-standard pneumotachograph is not routinely used to quantify airflow during overnight polysomnography due to the size, weight, bulkiness and discomfort of the equipment that must be worn. To overcome these deficiencies that have precluded the use of a pneumotachograph in routine sleep studies, our group developed a lightweight, low dead space 'pitot flowmeter' (based on pitot-tube principle) for use during sleep. We aimed to examine the characteristics and validate the flowmeter for quantifying airflow and detecting hypopneas during polysomnography by performing a head-to-head comparison with a pneumotachograph. Four experimental paradigms were utilized to determine the technical performance characteristics and the clinical usefulness of the pitot flowmeter in a head-to-head comparison with a pneumotachograph. In each study (1-4), the pitot flowmeter was connected in series with a pneumotachograph under either static flow (flow generator inline or on a face model) or dynamic flow (subject breathing via a polyester face model or on a nasal mask) conditions. The technical characteristics of the pitot flowmeter showed that, (1) the airflow resistance ranged from 0.065 0.002 to 0.279 0.004 cm H(2)O L(-1) s(-1) over the airflow rates of 10 to 50 L min(-1). (2) On the polyester face model there was a linear relationship between airflow as measured by the pitot flowmeter output voltage and the calibrated pneumotachograph signal a (?(1) = 1.08 V L(-1) s(-1); ?(0) = 2.45 V). The clinically relevant performance characteristics (hypopnea detection) showed that (3) when the pitot flowmeter was connected via a mask to the human face model, both the sensitivity and specificity for detecting a 50% decrease in peak-to-peak airflow amplitude was 99.2%. When tested in sleeping human subjects, (4) the pitot flowmeter signal displayed 94.5% sensitivity and 91.5% specificity for the detection of 50% peak-to-peak reductions in pneumotachograph-measured airflow. Our data validate the pitot flowmeter for quantification of airflow and detecting breathing reduction during polysomnographic sleep studies. We speculate that quantifying airflow during sleep can differentiate phenotypic traits related to sleep disordered breathing. PMID:21178245

  11. Observation of sub-Doppler absorption in the /Lambda-type three-level Doppler-broadened cesium system

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Junmin; Wang, Yanhua; Yan, Shubin; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Tiancai

    2003-01-01

    Thanks to the atomic coherence in coupling laser driven atomic system, sub-Doppler absorption has been observed in Doppler-broadened cesium vapor cell via the /Lambda-type three-level scheme. The linewidth of the sub-Doppler absorption peak become narrower while the frequency detuning of coupling laser increases. The results are in agreement with the theoretical prediction by G. Vemuri et al.[PRA,Vol.53(1996) p.2842].

  12. Integrated microfluidic flowmeter based on a micro-FBG inscribed in Co?-doped optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengyong; Tse, Ming-Leung Vincent; Zhang, A Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2014-10-15

    A novel microfluidic flowmeter integrated with microfiber Bragg grating (FBG) is presented. Two glass capillaries and a short length of high-light-absorption Co?-doped optical fiber were stacked inside a larger outer capillary tube. The stack was then drawn into a tapered device. Two microchannels with the diameter of ~50???m were formed inside the capillaries for flowing of microfluidics. An FBG was inscribed in the tapered Co?-doped fiber with waist diameter of ~70???m, and acts as a flow-rate sensor. A pump laser with wavelength of 1480 nm was utilized to locally heat the FBG, rendering the FBG as miniature "hot-wire" flowmeter. The flow rate of the liquid in the microchannels is determined by the induced wavelength shift of the FBG. The experimental results achieve a minimum detectable change of ~16??nL/s in flow rate, which is very promising in the use as part of biochips. PMID:25361108

  13. A study on the uncertainty estimation of flowmeter calibrator with two master flowmeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ki Won; Choi, Jong Oh; Lee, Woan Kyu [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-10-01

    Comparing to the gravimetric and volumetric method, the flowmeter calibration based on the master meter method is relatively economical and convenient, especially for high flowrate. The uncertainty of flow quantity and flowrate using the master meter method was evaluated according to the GUM (Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement). In order to apply for the wider flow range, two master meters (electromagnetic flow meter) were employed as reference flowmeters. The uncertainty of the master meter was obtained by combining the statistical variation of the repeated measurements and the variation of fluid density and pipe material due to temperature and pressure changes were scrutinized. For a practical application, the uncertainty of calibrator, whose measuring capacity of 1000 m{sup 3}/h obtained by employing two 500 m{sup 3}/h electromagnetic flow meters, was evaluated. The uncertainty budget shows the quantitative contribution of each uncertainty component to the overall uncertainty of the calibrator. As a result, it was found that the dominant uncertainties were from the master meter, which was evaluated statistically, and from the process of least squares fitting. On the contrary, the uncertainties arising from the variation of the fluid density and the pipe volume due to the temperature and pressure were negligible.

  14. Measurement of two-component flow using ultrasonic flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel application of existing ultrasonic flowmeter technology is described. This application was motivated by the need to make nonintrusive measurements of two-component flow in support of reactor safety research at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Two types of ultrasonic flowmeters were used during the test program in 1989. Both types were posttest calibrated in the summer of 1990 in a large gas/water flow facility at Wyle Laboratory in Norco, California. Both flowmeter types were found to measure total volumetric flow over a portion of their ranges accurately. When combined with void fraction measured by a three-beam gamma densitometer system it was possible to determine the individual gas and water flows

  15. Proof of principle of a nuclear turbine flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potentiality of a new type of flowmeter, intended to measure the coolant flow rate through a fuel assembly of a nuclear reactor, was investigated. This new type of flowmeter, the nuclear turbine flowmeter, has the advantage that no extra signal wires are needed; the signal can be read by a neutron detector positioned in its vicinity. The influence of a rotating test turbine (installed in a setup at the Hoger Onderwijs Reactor in Delft, The Netherlands) on the signals of several neutron detectors was analyzed. From the results, it appeared that the rotation frequency of the test turbine could easily be detected by all neutron detectors used. The influence of the rotating test turbine on the signals of detectors positioned nearby is strong compared with the background noise level found for in-core neutron detectors in boiling water reactors

  16. Experimental study of a vortex-shedding flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinh, Ngo D.; Howard, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype of a vortex-shedding flowmeter with no moving parts is investigated for the loading of hypergolic fuels into the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Eliminating moving parts is intended to reduce the need for servicing the meter, and the vortex shedder is compared to the turbine flowmeter presently in use. A flow test loop is designed and employed to conduct experimental investigations in which the output characteristics are examined. The relationship between vortex frequency and flow rate is almost linear, as is the relationship between vortex shedding frequency and the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. The results are consistent with calculations and suggest that the flowmeter is a possible replacement for measuring the loading of hypergols into the Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  17. Experimental calibration of electromagnetic flowmeters for Pb17Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The building of Pb17Li experimental loops made us to develop a flowmeter for the eutectic alloy. The electromagnetic flowmeter type has been chosen due to the experience gained in sodium activities. One should have a reliable 'flexible' calibration system in order to assure the initial calibration of the flowmeters and the possibility of following checking, made necessary by the changing of the electric conductivity of the duct after use. In the wide operating range of flowrate (940/260 cm3/s) and temperature (350/500deg C) it has been shown that the calibration method is affected by ?2% total error. A semi-theoretical calibration procedure has been followed as well. Results turned out to be very close to the experimental ones (maximum difference is about 7%). (orig.)

  18. A high-pressure bi-directional cycloid rotor flowmeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Ding, Fan; Ding, Chuan; Man, Zaipeng

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of the flow rate of various liquids and gases is critical in industrial automation. Rotary positive displacement meters (rotary PD meters) are highly accurate flowmeters that are widely employed in engineering applications, especially in custody transfer operations and hydraulic control systems. This paper presents a high pressure rotary PD meter containing a pair of internal cycloid rotors. It has the advantages of concise structure, low pressure loss, high accuracy and low noise. The curve of the internal rotor is designed as an equidistant curtate epicycloid curve with the external rotor curve as its conjugate. The calculation method used to determine the displacement of the cycloid rotor flowmeter is discussed. A prototype was fabricated, and experiments were performed to confirm measurements over a flow range of 1-100 L/min with relative errors of less than 0.5%. The pressure loss through the flowmeter was about 3 bar at a flow rate of 100 L/min. PMID:25196162

  19. Study on the development of ultrasonic gas flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Won Ho [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Gug [Uiduk Univ., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Kyu Hong [POSCON, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Ultrasonic flowmeters have more advantages than the conventional method using pressure-difference. In these reasons, many advanced nations are already selling the commercial model. In RIST, we have been developed ultrasonic gas flow meter for the localization since a project was been contracted with POSCO in 1997. This paper describes a new ultrasonic gas flowmeter. This ultrasonic gas flowmeter is developed for accurate measurement of gases in a harsh environmental conditions. It is especially suited for measuring LDG, COG, BFG gases produced in iron and steel making process. In this study, we had developed the commercial model about the first tested model and applied a completed system to the POSCO gas line. Its performance has already well been proven by extensive field tests for several months in POSCO, iron and steel making company.

  20. Permanent magnet flowmeter probes, sensors for instrumentation of LMFBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is the development of a simple sensor for the measurement of velocity and mass flow of liquid metal in test rigs and in LMFBR's. For this purpose permanent magnet flowmeter probes have been developed. The probes have a good long-time temperature stability and they are not influenced on irradiation by fast neutrons. They also operate highly independent of the magnetic strength on the basis of transit time measurement methods. Up to now the flowmeter probes have been already tested and worked in many test rigs and reactor applications such as: Mol 7C, VIC, TOP, CABRI. Presently two probes serve as fuel element flowmeter in the KNK II reactor. Finally the performance of double magnet miniature probes (2 mm O.D.) are presented

  1. Measurement of transitional flow in pipes using ultrasonic flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of an ultrasonic flowmeter depends on the ratio k of average profile velocity of pipe and average velocity of an ultrasonic propagation path. But there is no appropriate method of calculating k for transition flow. In this paper, the velocity field of the transition flow in a pipe is measured by particle image velocimetry. On this basis, the k of U-shaped and V-shaped ultrasonic flowmeter is obtained when Reynolds number is between 2000 and 20?000. It is shown that the k is constant when the Reynolds number is in the range of 20002400 and 540020?000, and the k decreases with the increasing of Re when the Reynolds number is 24005400. The results of study can be used to improve the measurement accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters when flow is transition flow and can provide help for the study of pipe flow. (paper)

  2. Measurement of transitional flow in pipes using ultrasonic flowmeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng-Gang, Liu; Guang-Sheng, Du; Zhu-Feng, Shao; Qian-Ran, He; Chun-Li, Zhou, E-mail: lzhenggang@sdu.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Qian-Fo-shan campus, Shandong University, Jinan City 250061, Shandong Province (China)

    2014-10-01

    The accuracy of an ultrasonic flowmeter depends on the ratio k of average profile velocity of pipe and average velocity of an ultrasonic propagation path. But there is no appropriate method of calculating k for transition flow. In this paper, the velocity field of the transition flow in a pipe is measured by particle image velocimetry. On this basis, the k of U-shaped and V-shaped ultrasonic flowmeter is obtained when Reynolds number is between 2000 and 20?000. It is shown that the k is constant when the Reynolds number is in the range of 20002400 and 540020?000, and the k decreases with the increasing of Re when the Reynolds number is 24005400. The results of study can be used to improve the measurement accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters when flow is transition flow and can provide help for the study of pipe flow. (paper)

  3. Measurement of transitional flow in pipes using ultrasonic flowmeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng-Gang, Liu; Guang-Sheng, Du; Zhu-Feng, Shao; Qian-Ran, He; Chun-Li, Zhou

    2014-10-01

    The accuracy of an ultrasonic flowmeter depends on the ratio k of average profile velocity of pipe and average velocity of an ultrasonic propagation path. But there is no appropriate method of calculating k for transition flow. In this paper, the velocity field of the transition flow in a pipe is measured by particle image velocimetry. On this basis, the k of U-shaped and V-shaped ultrasonic flowmeter is obtained when Reynolds number is between 2000 and 20?000. It is shown that the k is constant when the Reynolds number is in the range of 2000-2400 and 5400-20?000, and the k decreases with the increasing of Re when the Reynolds number is 2400-5400. The results of study can be used to improve the measurement accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters when flow is transition flow and can provide help for the study of pipe flow.

  4. Numerical calibration of a Lorentz force flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Kolesnikov, Yurii; Thess, Andr

    2012-04-01

    Numerical simulation of complex-shaped devices for contactless electromagnetic flow measurement in metallurgy is a challenge for computational magnetohydrodynamics. We report a series of numerical simulations which demonstrate for the first time that it is possible to predict the calibration constant of a generic Lorentz force flowmeter (LFF) with an uncertainty close to the requirements of real-life industrial applications. Our simulations involve both magnetostatic computations of a complex-shaped magnet system and magnetohydrodynamic computations of the flow of a liquid metal in a nozzle under the influence of a predominantly transverse magnetic field. In order to assess the role of turbulence, the simulations have been performed both for laminar and for turbulent flows using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations in the latter case. In addition to the numerical simulations we have measured the calibration constant of the considered LFF using room-temperature liquid metal instead of liquid aluminum. A comparison between the numerically predicted and the measured values of the calibration constant shows that they differ by only 3.4%. This result suggests that numerical calibration of a LFF may become an economic alternative to expensive full-scale experimental calibration.

  5. Improve flowmeter accuracy in cramped quarters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryson, J. [Bechtel Savannah River, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Getting accurate pipeline flow measurements with an orifice meter requires that the flow be streamlined and stable upstream of the orifice. A long, straight section of pipe usually provides the required stability. However, in many cases, a complex piping configuration or cramped site conditions make such long, straight piping runs more of a luxury than the norm. Straightening devices such as honeycombs and vanes inserted upstream of the orifice can reduce the length of straight pipe required. But they provide only marginal improvements in measurement accuracy, and may still require significant straight pipe. A new flow-conditioning device developed by Cheng Fluid Systems, Inc. (Sunnyvale, Calif.) solves this problem. Combining rotation vanes with a 90-deg elbow, the Cheng Rotational Vane (CRV) produces stable flow immediately downstream of the elbow. A complex gas piping system at Bechtel Savannah River, Inc.`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF; Aiken, S.C.) contains several 90-deg, long-radius elbows. Located in a high-radiation zone, the pipe carries offgas from a glass melter. During operation, impulse lines transmit the pressure drop signal outside the radiation area, where a microprocessor converts it to a 4- to 20-mA signal. That signal is then sent to a remote monitoring and control system. With the new Cheng elbow vanes in place, the orifice flowmeter has performed to design capacity. And, to date, the system has shown no random fluctuations and no lack of repeatability.

  6. Magnetic flowmeter for electrically conductive liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skladzien, Stanley B. (Elmhurst, IL); Raue, Donald J. (Naperville, IL)

    1982-01-01

    A magnetic flowmeter includes first and second tube sections each having ls of non-magnetic material. The first tube is suitably connected to a process for passing a flow of an electrically conductive fluid to be measured. The second tube is established as a reference containing a still medium and is maintained at the same temperature as the first tube. A rotatable magnet assembly is disposed between the two tubes with at least two magnets attached to radially extending arms from a central shaft. Each magnet includes an air gap suitably sized to pass astraddle the diameter along a portion of the length of each of the two tubes. The magnets are provided in matched pairs spaced 180.degree. apart such that signals will be simultaneously generated in signal leads attached to each of the two tubes. By comparing the signals from the two tubes and varying the rotating speed of the magnet assembly until the signals are equal, or attain a maximum, the flow velocity of the fluid within the first tube can be determined. Through temperature monitoring and appropriate heaters, the two tubes are maintained at the same temperature.

  7. Numerical calibration of a Lorentz force flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulation of complex-shaped devices for contactless electromagnetic flow measurement in metallurgy is a challenge for computational magnetohydrodynamics. We report a series of numerical simulations which demonstrate for the first time that it is possible to predict the calibration constant of a generic Lorentz force flowmeter (LFF) with an uncertainty close to the requirements of real-life industrial applications. Our simulations involve both magnetostatic computations of a complex-shaped magnet system and magnetohydrodynamic computations of the flow of a liquid metal in a nozzle under the influence of a predominantly transverse magnetic field. In order to assess the role of turbulence, the simulations have been performed both for laminar and for turbulent flows using Reynolds-averaged NavierStokes equations in the latter case. In addition to the numerical simulations we have measured the calibration constant of the considered LFF using room-temperature liquid metal instead of liquid aluminum. A comparison between the numerically predicted and the measured values of the calibration constant shows that they differ by only 3.4%. This result suggests that numerical calibration of a LFF may become an economic alternative to expensive full-scale experimental calibration. (paper)

  8. Study on the development and the application of ultrasonic gas flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Won Ho; Jeong, Hee Don [Mechanical and Electrical Research Tem, RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Gug [Dept. of Computer Engineering, Uiduk University, Kyungju (Korea, Republic of); Jhang, Kyung Young [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-15

    This paper describes tile development and the field application of the ultrasonic gas flowmeter for accurate measurement of the volumetric flow rate of gases in a harsh environmental conditions in iron and steel making company. This ultrasonic flowmeter is especially suited for measuring LDG, COG, BFG gases produced in iron and steel making process. This is a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. In this study, we have developed the signal processing algorithm for the transmitting and receiving method of ultrasonic wave and the ultrasonic signal processing to develop a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. We have evaluated the performance of ultrasonic flowmeter by the calibration system with Venturi type standard flowmeter. We has confirmed its reliability by extensive field tests for a year in POSCO, iron and steel making company. Now We have developed the commercial model of ultrasonic flowmeter and applied to the POSCO gas line.

  9. Study on the development and the application of ultrasonic gas flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes tile development and the field application of the ultrasonic gas flowmeter for accurate measurement of the volumetric flow rate of gases in a harsh environmental conditions in iron and steel making company. This ultrasonic flowmeter is especially suited for measuring LDG, COG, BFG gases produced in iron and steel making process. This is a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. In this study, we have developed the signal processing algorithm for the transmitting and receiving method of ultrasonic wave and the ultrasonic signal processing to develop a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. We have evaluated the performance of ultrasonic flowmeter by the calibration system with Venturi type standard flowmeter. We has confirmed its reliability by extensive field tests for a year in POSCO, iron and steel making company. Now We have developed the commercial model of ultrasonic flowmeter and applied to the POSCO gas line.

  10. Borehole flowmeter applications in irregular and large-diameter boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Frederick L.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution flowmeter measurements such as those obtained with heat-pulse and electromagnetic flowmeters are often analyzed to produce in situ permeability profiles of heterogeneous aquifers. However, the borehole environment exerts a strong influence on the accuracy of flow log data and its interpretation. As many as five different types of corrections need to be applied to many flow-log data sets: (1) Adjustments to differentiate between very low-flow and no-flow environments; (2) normalization to account for changes in the magnitude of the flow regime attributed to changes in pumping rate or relaxation of drawdown when measurements are made during water-level recovery; (3) multiplication by a constant factor to account for leakage around the flowmeter measurement section related to ineffective sealing of the annulus by packers or flexible-disk diverters; (4) correction of continuous flow logs collected while trolling by adjusting the zero-point and scale of the log to match a few stationary flow data points; and (5) suppression of the effects of diameter variations on trolled flow logs by collecting data with an under-fit diverter and developing calibration curves representing bypass factor as a function of local borehole diameter. Specific examples of these corrections applied to heat-pulse and electromagnetic flowmeter data sets are given for logs obtained in open boreholes in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary bedrock, and in screened boreholes in unconsolidated sediments. Scatter in flow measurements related to the efficiency of diverter operation in the field act to effectively limit the permeability detection capability of both heat-pulse and electromagnetic flowmeters to about two orders of magnitude regardless of the dynamic range and accuracy of either flowmeter as demonstrated in smooth-walled calibration tubes.

  11. Simple single phase and homogeneous multiphase bidirectional flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, E. J. M.; Smerek, P. L.

    1981-06-01

    The flowmeter described is based upon the bending of a slender spring steel beam in a fluid stream. The pressure exerted on the beam is determined by attaching strain gauges to the beam. The direction of flow can be determined by the sign of the bridge current when inbalance occurs, singe the gauges will change from the tension to the compression mode. The flowmeter may be used with corrosive and hot fluids since coated beams may be used, and for increased sensitivity silicon strain gauges with temperature compensation can be used, and the system may then be used for determining gas flow rates.

  12. Modelling of flow in pipes and ultrasonic flowmeter bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Richard; Cibera, Vaclav; Syka, Tomas

    2014-03-01

    The contribution gives a summary of the flow modelling in flow parts of ultrasonic flowmeters using CFD system ANSYS/FLUENT. The article describes the basic techniques used to create CFD models of flow parts flow and selected results of the flow fields. The first part of the article summarizes the results of velocity profiles in smooth pipes for various turbulent models and used relations. The second part describes selected results of the numerical modelling of flow in the flow parts of the ultrasonic flowmeters and their partially comparison with experimental results.

  13. Modelling of flow in pipes and ultrasonic flowmeter bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matas Richard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The contribution gives a summary of the flow modelling in flow parts of ultrasonic flowmeters using CFD system ANSYS/FLUENT. The article describes the basic techniques used to create CFD models of flow parts flow and selected results of the flow fields. The first part of the article summarizes the results of velocity profiles in smooth pipes for various turbulent models and used relations. The second part describes selected results of the numerical modelling of flow in the flow parts of the ultrasonic flowmeters and their partially comparison with experimental results.

  14. An ultrasonic flowmeter for measuring dynamic liquid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpini, T. D.; Monteith, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    A novel oscillating pipe system was developed to provide dynamic calibration wherein small sinusoidal signals with amplitudes of 0.5 to 10% of the steady-state flow were added to the steady-state flow by oscillating the flowmeter relative to the fixed pipes in the flow system. Excellent agreement was obtained between the dynamic velocities derived from an accelerometer mounted on the oscillating pipe system and those sensed by the flowmeter at frequencies of 7, 19, and 30 Hz. Also described were the signal processing techniques used to retrieve the small sinusoidal signals which were obscured by the fluid turbulence.

  15. Effects of prolonged surface pressure on the skin blood flowmotions in anaesthetized rats-an assessment by spectral analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zengyong [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tam, Eric W C [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Kwan, Maggie P C [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Mak, Arthur F T [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lo, Samuel C L [Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Leung, Mason C P [Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-05-21

    The objective of this study is to assess the effect of prolonged surface compression on the skin blood flowmotion in rats using spectral analysis based on wavelets transform of the periodic oscillations of the cutaneous laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signal. An external pressure of 13.3 kPa (100 mmHg) was applied to the trochanter area and the distal lateral tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats via two specifically designed pneumatic indentors. The loading duration was 6 hours/day for 4 consecutive days. Five frequency intervals were identified (0.01-0.04 Hz, 0.04-0.15 Hz, 0.15-0.4 Hz, 0.4-2 Hz and 2-5 Hz) corresponding to endothelial related metabolic, neurogenic, myogenic, respiratory and cardiac origins. The absolute amplitude of oscillations of each particular frequency interval and the normalized amplitude were calculated for quantitative assessments. The results showed that (1) tissue compression following the above schedule induced significant decrease in the normalized amplitude in the frequency interval of 0.01-0.04 Hz both in the trochanter area (p < 0.001) and tibialis area (p = 0.023) (2) prolonged compression induced significant increase in the absolute amplitude (p = 0.004 for the trochanter area and p = 0.017 for the tibialis area) but significant decrease in the normalized amplitude (p = 0.023 for the trochanter area and p = 0.026 for the tibialis area) in the frequency interval of 0.15-0.4 Hz, and (3) at the tibialis area, the flowmotion amplitude (frequency interval 0.15-0.4 Hz) measured prior to the daily tissue compression schedule was found to be significantly higher on day 4 than the measurements obtained on day 1. However, this finding was not observed at the trochanter area. Our results suggested that prolonged compression might induce endothelial damage and affect the endothelial related metabolic activities.

  16. Effects of prolonged surface pressure on the skin blood flowmotions in anaesthetized rats-an assessment by spectral analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to assess the effect of prolonged surface compression on the skin blood flowmotion in rats using spectral analysis based on wavelets transform of the periodic oscillations of the cutaneous laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signal. An external pressure of 13.3 kPa (100 mmHg) was applied to the trochanter area and the distal lateral tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats via two specifically designed pneumatic indentors. The loading duration was 6 hours/day for 4 consecutive days. Five frequency intervals were identified (0.01-0.04 Hz, 0.04-0.15 Hz, 0.15-0.4 Hz, 0.4-2 Hz and 2-5 Hz) corresponding to endothelial related metabolic, neurogenic, myogenic, respiratory and cardiac origins. The absolute amplitude of oscillations of each particular frequency interval and the normalized amplitude were calculated for quantitative assessments. The results showed that (1) tissue compression following the above schedule induced significant decrease in the normalized amplitude in the frequency interval of 0.01-0.04 Hz both in the trochanter area (p < 0.001) and tibialis area (p = 0.023) (2) prolonged compression induced significant increase in the absolute amplitude (p = 0.004 for the trochanter area and p = 0.017 for the tibialis area) but significant decrease in the normalized amplitude (p = 0.023 for the trochanter area and p = 0.026 for the tibialis area) in the frequency interval of 0.15-0.4 Hz, and (3) at the tibialis area, the flowmotion amplitude (frequency interval 0.15-0.4 Hz) measured prior to the daily tissue compression schedule was found to be significantly higher on day 4 than the measurements obtained on day 1. However, this finding was not observed at the trochanter area. Our results suggested that prolonged compression might induce endothelial damage and affect the endothelial related metabolic activities

  17. Circadian periodicity of cerebral blood flow revealed by laser-Doppler flowmetry in awake rats: relation to blood pressure and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauschkuhn, C A; Witte, K; Gorbey, S; Lemmer, B; Schilling, L

    2005-10-01

    Cardiovascular parameters such as arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate display pronounced circadian variation. The present study was performed to detect whether there is a circadian periodicity in the regulation of cerebral perfusion. Normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR, approximately 15 wk old) and hypertensive (mREN2)27 transgenic rats (TGR, approximately 12 wk old) were instrumented in the abdominal aorta with a blood pressure sensor coupled to a telemetry system for continuous recording of ABP, heart rate, and locomotor activity. After 5-12 days, a laser-Doppler flow (LDF) probe was attached to the skull by means of a guiding device to measure changes in brain cortical blood flow (CBF). After the animals recovered from anesthesia, measurements were taken for 3-4 days. The time series were analyzed with respect to the midline estimating statistic of rhythm (i.e., mean value of a periodic event after fit to a cosine function), amplitude, and acrophase (i.e., phase angle that corresponds to the peak of a given period) of the 24-h period. The LDF signal displayed a significant circadian rhythm, with the peak occurring at around midnight in SDR and TGR, despite inverse periodicity of ABP in TGR. This finding suggests independence of LDF periodicity from ABP regulation. Furthermore, the acrophase of the LDF was consistently found before the acrophase of the activity. From the present data, it is concluded that there is a circadian periodicity in the regulation of cerebral perfusion that is independent of circadian changes in ABP and probably is also independent of locomotor activity. The presence of a circadian periodicity in CBF may have implications for the occurrence of diurnal alterations in cerebrovascular events in humans. PMID:15894567

  18. Re-Normalization Method of Doppler Lidar Signal for Error Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we presented a re-normalization method for the fluctuations of Doppler signals from the various noises mainly due to the frequency locking error for a Doppler lidar system. For the Doppler lidar system, we used an injection-seeded pulsed Nd:YAG laser as the transmitter and an iodine filter as the Doppler frequency discriminator. For the Doppler frequency shift measurement, the transmission ratio using the injection-seeded laser is locked to stabilize the frequency. If the frequency locking system is not perfect, the Doppler signal has some error due to the frequency locking error. The re-normalization process of the Doppler signals was performed to reduce this error using an additional laser beam to an Iodine cell. We confirmed that the renormalized Doppler signal shows the stable experimental data much more than that of the averaged Doppler signal using our calibration method, the reduced standard deviation was 4.838 Χ 10-3

  19. Re-Normalization Method of Doppler Lidar Signal for Error Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Nakgyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Park, Seungkyu; Kim, Donglyul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dukhyeon [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, we presented a re-normalization method for the fluctuations of Doppler signals from the various noises mainly due to the frequency locking error for a Doppler lidar system. For the Doppler lidar system, we used an injection-seeded pulsed Nd:YAG laser as the transmitter and an iodine filter as the Doppler frequency discriminator. For the Doppler frequency shift measurement, the transmission ratio using the injection-seeded laser is locked to stabilize the frequency. If the frequency locking system is not perfect, the Doppler signal has some error due to the frequency locking error. The re-normalization process of the Doppler signals was performed to reduce this error using an additional laser beam to an Iodine cell. We confirmed that the renormalized Doppler signal shows the stable experimental data much more than that of the averaged Doppler signal using our calibration method, the reduced standard deviation was 4.838 ? 10{sup -3}.

  20. True mass flowmeter - a mass flowmeter for nonsteady-state two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measuring device for measuring the mass flow of nonsteady-state two-phase flows has been developed based on the principle of rotating flow machines. Two versions of the device (true mass flowmeter (TMFM) 2.5 with a measuring range of 2.5 kg/s, and TMFM 50 with a measuring range of 50 kg/s) were used to study the measuring accuracy and the field use of the system. While the measurement errors of TMFM 2.5 are within + or - 2.2% of the maximum flow, it is possible with the TMFM 50 to reduce the measuring error to + or - 1.5% (quality x 1%). This implies that the accuracy in measuring two-phase mass flow is practically identical with that obtained in single-phase flow by familiar standard measuring techniques

  1. A thermal peripheral blood flowmeter with contact force compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a thermal peripheral blood flowmeter where a force sensor is integrated to compensate the blood flow measurement. Since blood flow is highly sensitive to the contact force between the sensor and skin, previous blood flowmeters needed to be fixed on the skin with a constant contact force. We integrate a force sensor with a thermal blood flowmeter to measure both blood flow and contact force simultaneously for force-compensated blood flow measurement. The blood flowmeter presented here is composed of a resistance temperature detector and a piezoresistive force sensor and was fabricated by surface and bulk micromachining techniques. In the experimental measurement, the blood flow linearly decreased with the contact force at the rate of 31.7% N–1. By using the measured compensation coefficient, the device showed a constant blood flow with the maximum difference of 6.4% over the contact force variation of 1–3 N, and otherwise showed the maximum difference of 75.0%. The present device is suitable for applications with portable biomedical instrumentation or air-conditioning systems for the estimation of human thermoregulation status. (paper)

  2. Self monitoring flowmeter with diversity; Selbstueberwachender Durchflusssensor mit diversitaerer Redundanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R.; Nuber, M.; Werthschuetzky, R. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer EMK

    2005-04-01

    A self monitoring fluid flowmeter with diversity is presented. The sensor uses the differential pressure and the vortex flow measuring method. Both measurands are taken by only one pressure sensor in order to reduce the number of additional components. The self monitoring algorithm is based on the different characteristics of the two measuring methods. (orig.)

  3. Flowmeter measures flow rates of high temperature fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, A.

    1966-01-01

    Flowmeter in which flow rate is determined by measuring the position and thus the displacement of an internal float acted upon by the flowing fluid determines the flow rates of various liquid metals at elevated temperatures. Viscous forces cause the float to move from its mounted position, affording several means for measuring this motion and the flow rate.

  4. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS OF A GROUND-WATER FLOWMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ground-water flowmeter system, model 30L, manufactured by K-V Associates, Inc., Falmouth, Massachusetts was tested under controlled laboratory conditions. The influence of slotted pipe schedule, slot orientation, backfill materials, endcap bags, isolated regions of high hydra...

  5. A thermal peripheral blood flowmeter with contact force compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Kyoung; Youn, Sechan; Cho, Young-Ho

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a thermal peripheral blood flowmeter where a force sensor is integrated to compensate the blood flow measurement. Since blood flow is highly sensitive to the contact force between the sensor and skin, previous blood flowmeters needed to be fixed on the skin with a constant contact force. We integrate a force sensor with a thermal blood flowmeter to measure both blood flow and contact force simultaneously for force-compensated blood flow measurement. The blood flowmeter presented here is composed of a resistance temperature detector and a piezoresistive force sensor and was fabricated by surface and bulk micromachining techniques. In the experimental measurement, the blood flow linearly decreased with the contact force at the rate of 31.7% N-1. By using the measured compensation coefficient, the device showed a constant blood flow with the maximum difference of 6.4% over the contact force variation of 1-3 N, and otherwise showed the maximum difference of 75.0%. The present device is suitable for applications with portable biomedical instrumentation or air-conditioning systems for the estimation of human thermoregulation status.

  6. Improved strain-wire flowmeter has fast response time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, R. C.; Dunbar, W. R.

    1965-01-01

    Strain-sensitive resistance wires in a Wheatstone bridge arrangement form the sensing element of a flowmeter. The change in resistance of the wires is measured as a function of stream velocity. Thus the electrical output is a measure of both rapidly varying and steady fluid-flow rates.

  7. Circuit automatically calibrates flowmeter against liquid-level gage reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    Turbine-type flowmeter uses the flow of liquid from a tank with reed-type liquid level switches as a calibration reference. A circuit to generate a reliable gate signal consists of an input and switch identification stage, monostable and bistable multivibrators, and a signal inverter and pulse output stage.

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to understand the origin of contaminant plumes and infer their future migration, one requires a knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution. n many aquifers, the borehole flowmeter offers the most direct technique available for developing a log of hydraulic ...

  9. Effects of alpha-trinositol on peripheral circulation in diabetic patients with critical limb ischaemia. A pilot study using laser Doppler fluxmetry, transcutaneous oxygen tension measurements and dynamic capillaroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, L; Apelqvist, J; Edvinsson, L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether alpha-trinositol may have an effect on the microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus and critical ischaemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients with previously known diabetes mellitus and with critical limb ischaemia were given alpha-trinositol during a 24...... start of the administration. There were no detectable changes in blood pressure or heart rate. Laser Doppler flux increased from 41% to 57.5% and tcPO2 changed from 116 to 91 s in "half time recovery" after occlusion. Capillary blood flow showed an increase in resting velocity from 0.1 to 0.5 mm/s at 24...

  10. Calibration of a miniature permanent magnet flowmeter probe for velocity and temperature measurement in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the calibration of a miniature permanent magnet flowmeter probe, the working principle of which is based on the induction law, a measuring specification is given which allows to determine reproducibly the sensitivity of the flowmeter probe and the zero offsets of the temperature compensated voltages. The flowmeter probe has an outer diameter of 2.5 mm and is equipped with three-wire-thermocouples (Alumel/Chromel/stainless steel). The K- and S-values which are characteristic of the flowmeter probe are determined and discussed. (orig.)

  11. A study on applicability of ultrasonic flowmeter for feedwater flow measurements using measurement uncertainty analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S. S.; Sohn, S. H.; Lee, B. J.; Sohn, J. J.; Jang, W. H.; Seo, J. T. [KOPEC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, E. H.; Lee, J. S. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The measurement uncertainties of an ultrasonic flowmeter and current venturi meter were analyzed to evaluate an applicability of ultrasonic flowmeter on measuring main feedwater flow rate in a nuclear power plant. The measurement uncertainty of a reactor power was also analyzed using the measurement uncertainties of flow meters. The ultrasonic flowmeter was installed on a feedwater pipe line of a typical 1000 MWe Korean Standardized Nuclear Power Plant and the collected data were used in the analyses. The results have indicated that the measurement uncertainty of reactor power on using the ultrasonic flowmeter are sufficiently enhanced within the uncertainty range assumed in the safety analysis.

  12. On measurement of the flow rate of liquid metals poorly wetting flowmeter walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is discussed of measuring the flow rate of liquid metals with an electromagnetic tubular-electrode flowmeter. Aimed at determining conditions under which the effect of the contact resistance between the liquid and flowmeter walls on the measurements would be negligible, there is considered an equivalent electric scheme of the flowmeter. A proper choice of dimensions and material of the electrodes is analytically shown to ensure the needed insensitivity of the flowmeter to the contact resistance. Experimental tests reaffirmed the validity of the conclusions

  13. In-plant calibration of magnetic flowmeters in the pulp and paper industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of magnetic flowmeters for pulp flow measurements were calibrated by means of the tracer velocity method during working conditions. Some of the meters were calibrated regularly during a period of more than 2 yr. The deviations between tracer measurements and flowmeter readings varied from -20% to + 30%. Some possible sources of error are discussed. The results clearly show the necessity of in-plant calibrations of magnetic flowmeters when accurate flow values are needed, which is usually the case when expensive flowmeters like the magnetic ones are used. (author)

  14. In-sodium test of ultra-sonic flowmeter for fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developments on the ultra-sonic flowmeters, which are used widely in the water loop, have been carried out for the application on the sodium loop in fast breeder reactor. This is because of that ultra-sonic flowmeters have several characteristics needed to the large pipe sodium flowmeter, i.e. good linearity, lightweight, leak tight, low cost etc.. After fundamental improvement about the settling method of transducer to high temperature duct and about measurement circuit were developed, in-water tests were conducted and effectiveness of such improvements were confirmed. So 12 B and 24 B ultra-sonic flowmeters were made after additions of several improvements to high temperature problems, and tested in the sodium loop, and it is confirmed that the ultra-sonic flowmeters have superior characteristics as the sodium flowmeters. In the sodium temperature (200 ? 400 deg C) and flow rate (0 ? 6 m/s), linearity and repeatability were within 1 %. And effect of upper flow straight pipe length to the ultra-sonic flowmeter output was smaller than in water loop tests. This paper describes mainly the above results of sodium flow tests which showed that ultra-sonic flowmeters are useful as the sodium flowmeter. (author)

  15. Cryogenic Clamp-on Ultrasonic Flowmeters using Single Crystal Piezoelectric Transducers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Clamp-on ultrasound cryogenic flowmeters using single crystal piezoelectric transducers are proposed to enable reliable, accurate cryogenic instrumentation needs in...

  16. Developing a flowmeter for streams with high solids content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. K.; Wilson, J. H.

    1984-07-01

    A type of flowmeter, based on a piping arrangement similar to a Wheatstone bridge, was tested to measure the flow rate of the feed to the Kerr-McGee critical solvent deashing (CSD) unit of the solvent refined coal pilot plant in Wilsonville, Alabama. To simulate the non-Newtonian behavior of the CSD feed stream, mineral oil and a mixture of a polymer, carboxymethyl cellulose, and water were used in the tests. It is shown that there is a direct relationship between the flow rate and the ratio of the pressure drops across the parallel legs of the flowmeter and across a line connecting the center of the parallel legs. A mathematical model, developed previously to predict the dynamics of the flow measuring system, was tested, and the predicted results matched the measured values fairly well.

  17. Flowmetering of natural gas pipelines by tracer gas pulse injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the tracer gas pulse injection method for flowmetering of natural gas pipelines. The principle of the measurement consists of detecting the passage of the pulse at two locations along the pipeline, from which the time of passage is calculated. The measurement accuracy depends on how the pulse form evolves due to turbulent diffusion and convective distortion in the pipe, as well as due to the influence of bends. We discuss these factors to evaluate the applicability of the method to pipelines of kilometer distances. We also perform a three-dimensional numerical analysis to understand the spatial pulse dispersion, and numerical analysis shows that the influence of pipe bends was not significant. Both experimental and theoretical results indicate the existence of axial diffusion coefficients, even in pipelines with bends. These results enable us to predict the evolution of the pulse concentration profile. Finally, we demonstrate acceptable precision for practical flowmetering applications in actual utility pipelines

  18. The development of an ultrasonic flowmeter for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrasonic flowmeter has been developed for monitoring the flow of high-temperature, high-pressure water in the supply pipes of pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). The revolutionary detection method works by measuring the difference in speed of an ultrasonic signal traveling upstream and downstream in the water flow. By using a relatively long ultrasonic wave-guide, it is possible to separate the ultrasonic elements from the high-temperature pipes, permitting the use of a low-temperature PZT element to achieve a higher conversion efficiency. In addition, a new method has been developed to compensate for changes in the speed of sound due to temperature fluctuations, resulting in excellent output linearity. The stability of the new flowmeter is also extremely high, and field testing has demonstrated its usefulness for PWRs. (author)

  19. Experimental Research of Crosscorrelation-Based Virtual Dynamic Flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, W L [Heavy Machinery Fluid Power Transmission and Control Key Laboratory, Yanshan University, 438 West Hebei Avenue, Qinhuangdao 066004, Hebei (China); Sun, H M [Beijing Polytechnic of Second Light Industry, 9 Liangshuihe One Street, Yizhuang Economics and Technology Development Zone 100176, Beijing (China); Niu, H F [Heavy Machinery Fluid Power Transmission and Control Key Laboratory, Yanshan University, 438 West Hebei Avenue, Qinhuangdao 066004, Hebei (China); Gao, M [BeiJing Beizhong Steam Turbine Generator Co Ltd, Wujiacun Street, Shijingshan District 100040, Beijing (China)

    2006-10-15

    An innovated method for measuring dynamic flow is put forward, and a virtual dynamic flowmeter is established. Basing on the principle of pressure pulse containing the flow information, for the dynamic laminar flow, by means of collecting the pressure signals at two points at interval of L and processing them with crosscorrelation calculation, then the transit time is gained, consequently the average flow rate can be got. This calculation is prosecuted repeatedly according to a certain time step length, thus the average flow rates in each time slice can be acquired. If the step length is decreased to zero, the piecewise average flow rate is approximate to the instant dynamic flow. In order to calibrate the virtual dynamic flowmeter, the unloaded servo cylinder was used for the contrasting experiment. The accuracy and validity of this approach has been proved.

  20. Single-magnet rotary flowmeter for liquid metals

    CERN Document Server

    Priede, J?nis; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2010-01-01

    We present the theory of single-magnet flowmeter for liquid metals and compare it with experimental results. The flowmeter consists of a freely rotating permanent magnet, which is magnetized perpendicularly to the axle it is mounted on. When such a magnet is placed close to a tube carrying liquid metal flow, it rotates so that the driving torque due to the eddy currents induced by the flow is balanced by the braking torque induced by the rotation itself. The equilibrium rotation rate depends directly on the flow rate but not on the electrical conductivity of the metal or the magnet strength. We obtain simple analytical solutions for the force and torque on slowly moving and rotating magnets due to eddy currents in a layer of infinite horizontal extent. The predicted equilibrium rotation rate for a dipole agrees well with the magnet rotation rate measured at a stainless steel duct with a liquid sodium flow.

  1. Christian Doppler and the Doppler effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toman, Kurt

    1984-04-01

    A summary is given of Doppler's life and career. He was born 180 years ago on November 29, 1803, in Salzburg, Austria. He died on March 17, 1853 in Venice. The effect bearing his name was first announced in a presentation before the Royal Bohemian Society of the Sciences in Prague on May 25, 1842. Doppler considered his work a generalization of the aberration theorem as discovered by Bradley. With it came the inference that the perception of physical phenomena can change with the state of motion of the observer. Acceptance of the principle was not without controversy. In 1852, the mathematician Petzval claimed that no useful scientific deductions can be made from Doppler's elementary equations. In 1860, Ernst Mach resolved the misunderstanding that clouded this controversy. The Doppler effect is alive and well. Its role in radio science and related disciplines is enumerated.

  2. Rotor Re-Design for the SSME Fuel Flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Bogdan

    1999-01-01

    The present report describes the process of redesigning a new rotor for the SSME Fuel Flowmeter. The new design addresses the specific requirement of a lower rotor speed which would allow the SSME operation at 1 15% rated power level without reaching a blade excitation by the wakes behind the hexagonal flow straightener upstream at frequencies close to the blade natural frequency. A series of calculations combining fleet flowmeters test data, airfoil fluid dynamics and CFD simulations of flow patterns behind the flowmeter's hexagonal straightener has led to a blade twist design alpha = alpha (radius) targeting a kf constant of 0.8256. The kf constant relates the fuel volume flow to the flowmeter rotor speed, for this particular value 17685 GPM at 3650 RPM. Based on this angle distribution, two actual blade designs were developed. A first design using the same blade airfoil as the original design targeted the new kf value only. A second design using a variable blade chord length and airfoil relative thickness targeted simultaneously the new kf value and an optimum blade design destined to provide smooth and stable operation and a significant increase in the blade natural frequency associated with the first bending mode, such that a comfortable margin could be obtained at 115% RPL. The second design is a result of a concurrent engineering process, during which several iterations were made in order to achieve a targeted blade natural frequency associated with the first bending mode of 1300 Hz. Water flow tests preliminary results indicate a kf value of 0.8179 for the f-irst design, which is within 1% of the target value. The second design rotor shows a natural frequency associated with the first bending mode of 1308 Hz, and a water-flow calibration constant of kf 0.8169.

  3. Arm locking with Doppler estimation errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the University of Florida we developed the University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator (UFLIS) in order to study LISA interferometry with hardware in the loop at a system level. One of the proposed laser frequency stabilization techniques in LISA is arm locking. Arm locking uses an adequately filtered linear combination of the LISA arm signals as a frequency reference. We will report about experiments in which we demonstrated arm locking using UFLIS. During these experiments we also discovered a problem associated with the Doppler shift of the return beam. The initial arm locking publications assumed that this Doppler shift can perfectly be subtracted inside the phasemeter or adds an insignificant offset to the sensor signal. However, the remaining Doppler knowledge error will cause a constant change in the laser frequency if unaccounted for. Several ways to circumvent this problem have been identified. We performed detailed simulations and started preliminary experiments to verify the performance of the proposed new controller designs.

  4. Doppler weather radar; Doppler kisho radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, H.; Sato, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Conventional weather radar transmits high-frequency pulses from the transmitter, and only observes the intensity of echoes reflected back from raindrops. Due to recent technological advancements in signal processing, data processing, and other fields, the capability to detect echo velocity, or Doppler velocity, based on this raindrop movement has been achieved. Processing of this Doppler velocity has enabled the system to provide more sophisticated weather information on downbursts, three-dimensional wind direction and velocity, and other weather phenomena. (author)

  5. Flowmetering of drainage wells in Kuwait City, Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, F.L.; Senay, Y.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Szekely, F.

    2000-01-01

    A heat-pulse flowmeter was used in six drainage wells in Kuwait City for flow profiling under both ambient and pumping conditions. The data collected were used in: (a) estimating the cross-flow among the screened intervals under ambient conditions; (b) estimating the relative transmissivity adjacent to the individual screen zones; and (c) determination of the hydraulic heads at the far boundaries of the large-scale aquifer zones. These inferences were cross-checked against known hydrogeology of the aquifer-aquitard system in the study area, and the calibration results of numerical flow modeling. The major conclusions derived from the flow measurements were: (a) the presence of natural downward cross-flow under ambient condition supported the hypothesis that the upper part of the Kuwait Group aquifer in the study area was divided into a series of permeable units (aquifers), separated by confining or semi-confining beds (aquitards); (b) the head differences between the different screened zones, derived through modeling of the flowmeter data of the wells, provided additional confirmation for the division of the upper part of the Kuwait Group aquifer into compartments in the study area; (c) flowmeter data indicated that the second and third aquifers were contributing most of the water to the well bores, compared with the uppermost (first) and the lowermost (fourth) aquifers; and (d) inflow to the wells during pumping was associated with discrete sub-intervals in the screened zones, controlled by local aquifer heterogeneity, and possibly clogging of screens and gravel pack.

  6. Heat-pulse flowmeter for a liquid breeder blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid metals Li, Pb-17Li and Sn-20Li are candidate liquid breeders in fusion reactors. The development of a flowmeter that can be applied to high-temperature liquid metals is an important issue. A heat-pulse flowmeter is proposed in the present study. Its basic performance was investigated by means of a loop experiment with Pb-17Li and a numerical simulation. The temperature distribution in flowing Pb-17Li was obtained by local transient heating of the outer surface of a loop tube. The temperature distribution gradually changed and resembled the movement of a hot spot, which had a higher temperature than its surroundings. This hot spot moved along the flow and passed through the tips of the thermocouples. The change in temperature distribution with the movement of the hot spot was monitored by three thermocouples exposed to the Pb-17Li flow. The results of the loop experiments were numerically simulated by assuming a certain flow rate, and the temperature profile obtained in the loop experiment was in agreement with the simulation results. The time taken by the hot spot to pass through the tips of the thermocouples was measured and simulated, and the correlation between this time and the average flow velocity was evaluated. The results indicated the average flow velocity can be obtained using the heat-pulse flowmeter proposed in this study. (author)

  7. Borehole flowmeter application in fluvial sediments: Methodology, results, and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, G.K. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Molz, F.J.; Boone, K.D. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Systems Engineering

    1997-05-01

    In many situations, inadequate design or performance of ground-water remediation systems is the result of underestimation of aquifer hydraulic heterogeneity, and in particular, the vertical variation of hydraulic conductivity which plays an important role in contaminant migration. Described herein are applications of the electromagnetic (EM) borehole flowmeter to fluvial sediments in Louisiana and South Carolina. The direction of natural vertical flow in the test aquifers was defined easily, and short pumping tests enabled the calculation of hydraulic conductivity profiles for each test well. The results correlated well with other information obtained independently, including natural gamma logs, driller`s logs and a hydraulic conductivity profile based on grain size analysis. Large variations in hydraulic conductivity over short vertical and horizontal distances were documented. Tests in gravel-packed wells suggested that flowmeters produce misleading data for a variety of reasons in such situations. Among other things, an annulus of high permeability around a well screen allows flow to bypass the meter, and the phenomenon is amplified by high pumping rates. The resulting error is displayed as an erroneous high permeability zone at the top of the well screen. This observation deserves further study. In its present form the EM flowmeter is awkward to handle on a routine basis. However, none of the present design flaws preclude its effective use.

  8. A High-Pressure Bi-Directional Cycloid Rotor Flowmeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the flow rate of various liquids and gases is critical in industrial automation. Rotary positive displacement meters (rotary PD meters are highly accurate flowmeters that are widely employed in engineering applications, especially in custody transfer operations and hydraulic control systems. This paper presents a high pressure rotary PD meter containing a pair of internal cycloid rotors. It has the advantages of concise structure, low pressure loss, high accuracy and low noise. The curve of the internal rotor is designed as an equidistant curtate epicycloid curve with the external rotor curve as its conjugate. The calculation method used to determine the displacement of the cycloid rotor flowmeter is discussed. A prototype was fabricated, and experiments were performed to confirm measurements over a flow range of 1100 L/min with relative errors of less than 0.5%. The pressure loss through the flowmeter was about 3 bar at a flow rate of 100 L/min.

  9. A newly developed borehole flowmeter technology for heterogeneous aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive borehole flowmeter tests were performed at 37 fully-screened wells on a one-hectare test site to characterize the three-dimensional hydraulic conductivity field of an alluvial aquifer with a ?lnK of 4.7. During the site investigations, several major advancements with respect to borehole flowmeter technology were developed. The milestones included: (1) the development of a field-durable electromagnetic borehole flowmeter with a lower detection limit of 0.1 l/min; (2) the realization of the importance of the pumping rate with respect to the calculated value for the depth-averaged hydraulic conductivity; and (3) an evaluation of alternative methods for calculating the depth-averaged hydraulic conductivity. The predicted three-dimensional hydraulic conductivity field was compared to the results of 10 small-scale (3 to 7 m) tracer tests, information about the depositional history of the aquifer, and the results of three large-scale aquifer tests. The hydraulic conductivity data predict the major features of the tracer breakthrough curves, maps the outline of a former river meander in an aerial photograph, and leads to a geometric mean consistent with the average hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. (Author) (14 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.)

  10. A vortex-shedding flowmeter based on IPMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Giovanna; Graziani, Salvatore; Pollicino, Antonino; Strazzeri, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Ionic polymermetal composites (IPMCs) are electroactive polymers that can be used both as sensors and actuators. They have been demonstrated for many potential applications, in wet and underwater environments. Applications in fields such as biomimetics, robotics, and aerospace, just to mention a few, have been proposed. In this paper, the sensing nature of IPMCs is used to develop a flowmeter based on the vortex shedding phenomenon. The system is described, and a model is proposed and verified. A setup has been realized, and data have been acquired for many working conditions. The performance of the sensing system has been investigated by using acquired experimental data. Water flux velocities in the range [0.38, 2.83] m s?1 have been investigated. This working range is comparable with ranges claimed for established technologies. Results show the suitability of the proposed system to work as a flowmeter. The proposed transducer is suitable for envisaged post-silicon applications, where the use of IPMCs gives the opportunity to realize a new generating polymeric flowmeter. This has potential applications in fields where properties of IPMCs such as low cost, usability, and disposability are relevant.

  11. [Principles of Doppler sonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenderka, K-V; Delorme, S

    2015-07-01

    The techniques of medical Doppler are spectral Doppler (contiuous-wave (CW) and pulse-wave (PW) Doppler) and color flow imaging (Color Doppler and Power Doppler). All are based on the fact that the frequency of an echo from a moving reflecting particle will be altered by a characteristic frequency shift determined by its velocity in relation to the source/detector. The CW Doppler will only detect flow within a pre-defined depth and will not be guided by an image, whereas the PW Doppler is carried out with B-mode guidance (Duplex doppler). The so derived curves permit to assess the temporal distribution of flow velocities and directions and flow disturbances as well. In the case of color flow imaging, a part of the interrogated tissue section is mapped for Doppler signals and then color-coded, resulting in a dynamic color map of flow, where the colors encode characteristic flow parameters (e. g. mean flow velocity plus direction). This article describes the technical and physical basics of medical Doppler techniques. PMID:26187613

  12. Doppler-free spectroscopy in driven three-level systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rapol, U D; Rapol, Umakant D.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate two techniques for studying the features of three-level systems driven by two lasers (called control and probe), when the transitions are Doppler broadened as in room-temperature vapor. For $\\Lambda$-type systems, the probe laser is split to produce a counter-propagating pump beam that saturates the transition for the zero-velocity atoms. Probe transmission then shows Doppler-free peaks, which can even have sub-natural linewidth. For V-type systems, the transmission of the control beam is detected as the probe laser is scanned. The signal shows Doppler-free peaks when the probe laser is resonant with transitions for the zero-velocity group. Both techniques greatly simplify the study of three-level systems since theoretical predictions can be directly compared without complications from Doppler broadening and the presence of multiple hyperfine levels in the spectrum.

  13. Coupled Lagrangian and Eulerian simulation of bubbly flows in vertical pipes: validation with experimental data using multi-sensor conductivity probes and laser doppler anemometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the dynamics of multiphase systems is an issue of particular interest in the field of Computer Fluid Dynamics (CFD) applied to Nuclear Reactor Safety. A better knowledge of the forces that act on the bubbles moving in a continuous turbulent random fluid field is of importance for a complete description of the bubble's motion and to obtain for instance the radial and axial void fraction distribution inside the reactor channels. Experiments specifically designed to understand the forces that act on the bubbles are a tool necessary to validate the models implemented inside the CFD codes. With this goal in mind, an upward isothermal co-current air-water flow in a vertical pipe (52 mm inner diameter) has been experimental investigated. Local measurements of void fraction, interfacial area concentration (IAC), interfacial velocity and Sauter mean diameter were measured using a four sensor conductivity probe. Liquid velocity and turbulence intensity were also measured using Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA). Different air-water flow configurations were investigated for a liquid flow rate ranged from 0.491 m/s to 3 m/s and a void fraction up to 25 pc. For each two-phase flow configuration twenty five radial position and three axial locations were measured by the conductivity probe methodology, and several radial profiles were also measured with LDA at different axial positions. Numerical simulations of these experiments for bubbly flow conditions were performed by coupling a Lagrangian code that tracks the 3D motion of the individual bubbles in cylindrical coordinates (r, ?, Z) inside the fluid field under the action of the following forces: buoyancy, drag, lift, and wall lubrication. Also we incorporate a 3D stochastic differential equation model to account for the random motion of the individual bubbles in the turbulent velocity field of the carrier liquid. This type of models denoted as continuous random walk models are used to predict the turbulent diffusion of the bubbles in the fluctuating velocity field of the carrier fluid. Also we have considered the deformation that suffers the bubbles when they touch the walls of the pipe and are compressed until they rebound. The velocity and turbulence fields of the liquid phase were computed by solving the time dependent mass, energy, and momentum conservation equations in its Reynolds Averaged Transport Equation form (RANS). The turbulent kinetic energy k, and the dissipation rate ? transport equations were simultaneously solved by using the k, epsilon model or the renormalized group model (RNG) model in a (r,z) grid by the finite volume method using the SIMPLER algorithm. Both Lagrangian and Eulerian calculations were performed in parallel because when integrating the 3D stochastic differential equations that take into account the motion of the bubbles in the fluid field we must consider the effect of the turbulence on the bubble's motion. To do this we must know the turbulence field that feels the bubble at each position along the path trajectory. Good predictions were obtained for the bubbles trajectories and the void fraction distribution in the channels when we consider that the lift radial force depends on the bubble's size and the bubbles are distorted, expressing this deformation in terms of the Eoetvos number. (authors)

  14. Spectroscopic observation of the rotational Doppler effect

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro, S.; Tabosa, J. W. R.; Failache, H.; Lezama, A.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the first spectroscopic observation of the rotational Doppler shift associated with light beams carrying orbital angular momentum. The effect is evidenced as the broadening of a Hanle/EIT coherence resonance on Rb vapor when the two incident Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams have opposite topological charges. The observations closely agree with theoretical predictions.

  15. Doppler-free magnetic optical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud-Cotton, S.; Kaftandjian, V.P.; Talin, B

    1980-01-01

    The theory of Doppler-free magnetic optical activity associated with a single absorption line is presented. The transmission of tunable laser light, linearly polarized, through a dilute gaseous medium along a steady magnetic field is studied in the presence of a second counterpropagating saturating laser. The third order non linear susceptibility is calculated for a two-level system exhibiting a normal Zeeman effect, with arbitrary J values.

  16. The character of swirl in turbulent pipe flow with reference to its effect on flowmeters

    OpenAIRE

    Halsey, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the character of in turbulent pipe flow has been carried out and some implications for the use of flowmeters considered. An extensive survey of Industrial users of flowmeters has been made, involving the participation of over 70 companies, which provides information about current industrial practice, attitudes and understanding. Axisymmetric perturbations of fully developed turbulent pipe ...

  17. Calibration of PM flowmeters in sodium by the noise cross correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noise cross correlation technique is considered as a potential method for calibrating large size sodium flowmeters on test stands and also in-situ during reactor operation and work has been initiated at the Reactor Engineering Laboratory to develop this technique. This paper describes the experiments carried out to calibrate flowmeters of 36 mm pipe size by this technique and the results obtained. (author)

  18. Design and development of drag-disc flowmeter for measurement of transient two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been carried out to test the suitability of drag-disc flowmeter for measuring two-phase flow. Calibration tests carried out under single-phase and two-phase flow conditions have confirmed the suitability of the drag-disc flowmeter. The experimental work and the results obtained are presented and discussed in the paper. (author). 3 refs., 6 figs

  19. High Resolution Doppler Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This Grant supported the development of an incoherent lidar system to measure winds and aerosols in the lower atmosphere. During this period the following activities occurred: (1) an active feedback system was developed to improve the laser frequency stability; (2) a detailed forward model of the instrument was developed to take into account many subtle effects, such as detector non-linearity; (3) a non-linear least squares inversion method was developed to recover the Doppler shift and aerosol backscatter without requiring assumptions about the molecular component of the signal; (4) a study was done of the effects of systematic errors due to multiple etalon misalignment. It was discovered that even for small offsets and high aerosol loadings, the wind determination can be biased by as much as 1 m/s. The forward model and inversion process were modified to account for this effect; and (5) the lidar measurements were validated using rawinsonde balloon measurements. The measurements were found to be in agreement within 1-2 m/s.

  20. A study on error characteristics of large size electromagnetic flowmeter in the range of low velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Keun [Korea Water Resources Corp., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Ho [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    The large size electromagnetic flowmeter was tested to investigate the variation of its error characteristics in the range of low velocity under 0.6 m/s using flowmeter calibration system. For the two case of valve opening rate 100 % and 50 %, these tests were undertaken three times each for twelve velocity condition from 0.05 {sup m}/s to 0.6 {sup m}/s with increment of 0.05 {sup m}/s. It is shown that error characteristic of electromagnetic flowmeter was stabilized within {+-}0.4 % of rate both higher than 0.25 {sup m}/s of velocity condition and 50 % of valve opening position. But, measurement deviation of flowmeter for {phi}400 mm and {phi}600 mm was out of expected deviation range. It is necessary to correction with calibration. In conclusion, error characteristic of electromagnetic flowmeter wasn't changed proportion to its size.